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Sample records for understanding abnormal pap

  1. Women's understanding of the term 'Pap smear'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David L; Hostetter, Sarah Smith; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin; Malnar, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    To assess the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among women across the entire adult lifespan after recent changes to the guidelines on cervical cancer screening. Women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic at a large safety net teaching hospital in a Midwestern city were provided one of two versions of a confidential and anonymous survey to complete. The difference between the two versions was the way the primary research question was worded. There were 174 participants ranging in age from 15 to 69 (mean = 33.9) years. Of the 73 women who completed version A of the survey, 74 % were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear.' Women who could identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear' were on average older than those who could not (mean = 36.9 vs. 28.7 years; p = 0.012). Of the 94 patients completing survey version B, 67 % could not differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. There was no association between age and ability to differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. The majority of women cannot distinguish a Pap smear from a pelvic exam. The unexpected finding of less understanding among younger women prompts a need for further research and invites discussion of whether more cervical cancer prevention education, with more emphasis on HPV vaccines in recent years, has neglected the importance of Pap smears-which is beginning to show up in knowledge of younger women. Both these findings suggest a need for increased patient education during female preventive health clinic visits.

  2. Women's experiences of abnormal Pap smear results - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, Marie; Swahnberg, Katarina; Lindell, Gunnel; Oscarsson, Marie

    2017-06-01

    To describe women's experiences of abnormal Pap smear result. Ten women were recruited from a women's health clinic. Qualitative interviews based on six open-ended questions were conducted, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by content analysis. The women believed that their abnormal Pap smear result was indicative of having cancer. This created anxiety in the women, which resulted in the need for emotional support and information. Testing positive with human papillomavirus (HPV) also meant consequences for the relatives as well as concerns about the sexually transmitted nature of the virus. Finally, the women had a need to be treated with respect by the healthcare professionals in order to reduce feelings of being abused. In general, women have a low level of awareness of HPV and its relation to abnormal Pap smear results. Women who receive abnormal Pap smear results need oral information, based on the individual women's situation, and delivered at the time the women receive the test result. It is also essential that a good emotional contact be established between the women and the healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved abnormal Pap smear triage using cervical cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Jeffrey L; Dye, Timothy; Grace, Chelestes; Hiraoka, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The current system of Pap smear screening and management of abnormal cytology has resulted in a marked reduction in invasive cervical cancer. Many women, however, are not found to have significant precursor lesions. This is due to the poor specificity of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) triage. More specific cervical cancer biomarkers may be more effective triage tools than hr-HPV. We evaluated whether a dual stain for p16 and Ki-67 might improve the triage of abnormal Pap smears. p16/Ki-67 immunostaining was performed on additional slides prepared from 515 women with abnormal Pap smears (301 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS], 169 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [LSIL], 29 atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade lesion [ASC-H], 16 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL]). High-risk HPV typing was performed on all cases. Immunostaining and hr-HPV were compared in relation to their diagnostic accuracy for the detection of biopsy-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3. A cost analysis comparing hr-HPV versus immunostaining as the initial triage tool used for abnormal Pap smears was also performed. High-risk HPV was positive in 127 (42.2%) ASCUS, 129 (76.3%) LSIL, 20 (69.0%) ASC-H, and 15 (93.8%) HSIL. p16/Ki-67 was positive in 54 (17.9%) ASCUS, 73 (43.2%) LSIL, 19 (65.5%) ASC-H, and 15 (93.8%) HSIL. For detection of CIN 2/3, sensitivity/specificity of hr-HPV and p16/Ki-67 was 89.29%/14.94% and 96.43%/60.92%, respectively. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was statistically significantly higher for p16/Ki-67 compared with hr-HPV. Compared to HPV, immunostain triage could have generated approximately $46,000 savings in the study population. The triage of abnormal Pap smears by p16/Ki-67 immunostaining shows comparable sensitivity, improved specificity, and significantly improved diagnostic performance when compared to hr-HPV. Immunostaining is of value in triaging LSIL and ASC-H Pap smears in addition

  4. Abnormal pap tests among women living in a Hispanic migrant farmworker community: A narrative of health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Thompson, Erika L; Proctor, Sara; Wells, Kristen J; Daley, Ellen M

    2016-08-01

    This study explored narrative responses following abnormal Pap tests among Hispanic migrant farmworkers ( N = 18; ages 22-50 years) via in-depth interviews in Florida. Qualitative analyses utilized health literacy domains (obtain/process/understand/communicate) as a conceptual framework. Participants described how they (1) obtained information about getting a Pap test, (2) processed positive and negative reactions following results, (3) understood results and recommended health-promoting behaviors, and (4) communicated and received social support. Women had disparate reactions and understanding following an abnormal Pap result. Health literacy was a meaningful conceptual framework to understand assets and gaps among women receiving an abnormal Pap test result. Future interventions should incorporate health literacy domains and facilitate patient-provider communications and social support to assist women in decision-making and health-promoting behaviors, ultimately decreasing cancer disparities.

  5. Study of 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam; Allameh, Taj-Alsadat

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal Pap smear consists of premalignant or malignant cervical lesions. Many of premalignant cervical lesions will never progress to invasive malignancy, or even may regress over the time. Thus, there is always a risk of overtreatment of patients with an abnormal Pap smear. A long-term follow-up of these patients can reveal final events associated with each subtype of abnormal Pap smear, and, therefore, help us to prevent unnecessary interventions. The aim of our study was to present 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear. A total of 334 consecutive women aged more than 16 who were referred with an abnormal Pap smear were entered into the study. Patients were followed with biannual Pap smear and annual colposcopy and biopsy for 2 years. At baseline, the majority of patients with abnormal Pap smear were normal on colposcopy and biopsy (68% and 86%, respectively). Six months after first abnormal Pap smear majority of patients in each group showed a significant regress to normal or less invasive lesion (P Pap smear, whereas 313 (94%) had at least one stage improvement. Only nine (3%) patients had deteriorated Pap smear after 6 months. All 308 patients who underwent colposcopy and biopsy had normal Pap smear 24 months after the first abnormal Pap smear. Pap smear is associated with a high rate of false-positive results. In addition, the majority of low-grade cervical lesions can spontaneously regress. A long-term follow-up of a patient with abnormal Pap smear can help us to avoid needless interventions.

  6. Age distribution of abnormal pap smear in a secondary hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age distribution of abnormal pap smear in a secondary hospital in south-west Nigeria. ... Objective: To determine the age distribution pattern of abnormal Paps smear in women in our environment in order to have a basis for the points of entry and exit for cervical cancer screening protocol. Materials and Method: In this ...

  7. Pap smear screening, pap smear abnormalities and psychosocial risk factors among women in a residential alcohol and drug rehabilitation facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccio, Jacqui; Brown, Margaret; Comino, Elizabeth; Friesen, Emma

    2015-12-01

    To compare rates of late- screening, abnormal Pap smears and prevalence of psychosocial factors for cervical cancer between women in the community and women attending a residential drug and alcohol facility. Women with drug and alcohol addiction experience higher rates of abnormal Pap smears, late- or under- screening and psychosocial risk factors including domestic violence and sexual assault. A descriptive cross-sectional study of women attending publically funded women's health clinics in the community or in a live-in residential drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility. The study was approved in May 2012. Data were collected between October 2012-December 2013 using standardized women's health questionnaires, domestic violence screening tools and Pap smear tests. Women attending the rehabilitation facility had higher rates of abnormal Pap smears (16·7% vs. 1·6%) and self-reported history of abnormal Pap smears (44·4% vs. 20·6%). They also reported higher rates of smoking (72·2% vs. 29·2%), experience of sexual assault (44·1% vs. 16·9%), experience of domestic violence (65·7% vs. 10·9%) and other psychosocial risk factors, than women living in the general community. Unexpectedly, women in the rehabilitation facility reported similar levels of late screening as women in the community (52·8% vs. 55·4%). Women with drug and alcohol addiction have significantly higher incidence of risk factors for cervical cancer and abnormal Pap smears. Provision of opportunistic cervical cancer screening during residential treatment appears to reduce incidence of late-screening. Roles of Women's Health Nurses in providing services to vulnerable women should be explored further. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Psychosocial Correlates of Ever Having a Pap Test and Abnormal Pap Results in a Sample of Rural Appalachian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Kristen P; Crosby, Richard A; Vanderpool, Robin C

    2018-03-01

    Despite known prevention and screening efforts, there are higher invasive cervical cancer rates in Appalachia than in other areas of the United States and higher mortality rates in the Appalachian region of Kentucky compared to Appalachian regions of other states. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association of psychosocial factors relevant to cervical cancer and the outcome of ever having a Pap test in a rural sample of women. The secondary purpose was to determine whether any of the same psychosocial factors were also associated with ever having an abnormal Pap test result among women with a self-reported history of having one or more Pap tests in their lifetime. Data were collected in fall of 2013 from 393 women in 8 economically distressed counties of rural Appalachian Kentucky. Women completed an interviewer-administered survey assessing sociodemographic and health information as well as beliefs about cervical cancer. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that low income and greater perceived local fatalism were significant predictors of never having a Pap test. Lack of personal control over prevention, and peer and family influences were significant predictors of ever having an abnormal Pap test result. Educational efforts targeted in rural Appalachia would be supported by encouraging the benefits of early and consistent screening, altering the established norms of community fatalism and lack of personal control over prevention, and creating targeted messages through public campaigns that convince rural Appalachian women that cervical cancer is highly preventable and screenable. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  9. Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Banik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ≥ 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ≥ 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

  10. Patient-provider communication with HIV-positive women about abnormal Pap test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfall, Lisa T; Bynum, Shalanda A; Friedman, Daniela B; Brandt, Heather M; Richter, Donna L; Glover, Saundra H; Hébert, James R

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine communication between women living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLH) and health care providers (HCPs) regarding abnormal Pap tests. During the period of March 2011 through April 2012, 145 WLH were recruited from Ryan White funded clinics and community-based AIDS service organizations located in the southeastern United States. WLH who had an abnormal Pap test (69%, n = 100/145) were asked if their HCP shared and explained information about abnormal Pap tests. The authors performed chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression analyses using Stata I/C 13. HCPs shared information about abnormal Pap tests with 60% of participants, and explained the information they shared to 78% of those. Health literate participants were more than three times as likely to have read the information received about abnormal Pap tests (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-10.23), and almost five times as likely to have understood the cancer information they read (aOR = 4.70, 95% CI 1.55-14.24). Knowing other women who had had an abnormal Pap test was not significantly associated with cancer information seeking or processing after controlling for confounding factors. The present findings underscore the need to increase WLH's health literacy as an intermediate step to improving patient-provider communication among WLH. Lay sources of cancer information for WLH warrant further study.

  11. Abnormal Vaginal Pap Test After Hysterectomy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stephanie; Yu, Xiaoying; Schmeler, Kathleen; Levison, Judy

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormal vaginal cytology and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) and vaginal cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women with no history of abnormal cytologic screening who had a hysterectomy for conditions other than cervical dysplasia and cancer; and to explore the risk factors associated with VAIN and vaginal cancer. A retrospective cohort study was performed identifying 238 women between January 2000 to January 2015 with a history of HIV, previous hysterectomy, and no previous abnormal Pap tests. Medical records from patients with both HIV and history of hysterectomy were reviewed from Thomas Street Health Center and Northwest Community Health Center. Among 238 women, 164(69%) had normal Pap test results, 12(5%) had results showing atypical cells of undermined significance and human papillomavirus-positive, 55(23.1%) had results showing low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and 7(2.9%) had results showing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. No demographic risk factor was associated with abnormal Pap test after hysterectomy. Median follow-up time for the Pap test was 16 years. Of those who underwent vaginal biopsies for an abnormal Pap test, 15(28%) were normal, 23(43%) were VAIN1, 9(16%) were VAIN2, and 7(13%) were VAIN3. No patients had invasive vaginal cancer. Over 30% of HIV-infected women who had no pre-hysterectomy history of an abnormal Pap test had abnormal vaginal Pap tests. Among those who had vaginal biopsies, 29% had VAIN2 or VAIN3, suggesting that Pap tests post-hysterectomy in the HIV population may be indicated.

  12. Abnormal Vaginal Pap Test Results After Hysterectomy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stephanie; Yu, Xiaoying; Schmeler, Kathleen; Levison, Judy

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormal vaginal cytology and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) and vaginal cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women with no history of abnormal cytologic screening who had a hysterectomy for conditions other than cervical dysplasia and cancer and to explore the risk factors associated with VAIN and vaginal cancer. A retrospective cohort study was performed identifying 238 women between January 2000 and January 2015 with a history of HIV, previous hysterectomy, and no previous abnormal Pap test results. Medical records from patients with both HIV and a history of hysterectomy were reviewed from Thomas Street Health Center and Northwest Community Health Center. Among 238 women, 164 (69%) had normal Pap test results, 12 (5%) had results showing atypical cells of undermined significance and human papillomavirus-positive, 55 (23.1%) had results showing low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and seven (2.9%) had results showing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. No demographic risk factor was associated with abnormal Pap test results after hysterectomy. Median follow-up time for the Pap test was 16 years. Of those who underwent vaginal biopsies for abnormal Pap test results, 15 (28%) had normal results, 23 (43%) had VAIN 1, nine (16%) had VAIN 2, and seven (13%) had VAIN 3. No patients had invasive vaginal cancer. More than 30% of HIV-infected women who had no prehysterectomy history of abnormal Pap test results had abnormal vaginal Pap test results. Among those who had vaginal biopsies, 29% had VAIN 2 or 3, suggesting that Pap testing posthysterectomy in the HIV population may be indicated.

  13. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eyd, Ghaith J.; Shaik, Rizwana B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total) had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region. PMID:23275844

  14. Dietary exposure to brominated flame retardants and abnormal Pap test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Denise J; Terrell, Metrecia L; Aguocha, Nnenna N; Small, Chanley M; Cameron, Lorraine L; Marcus, Michele

    2011-09-01

    This study examined a possible association of dietary exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), a brominated flame retardant, and self-reported abnormal Pap test results and cervical dysplasia as a precursor to cervical cancer. Women in Michigan who ingested contaminated poultry, beef, and dairy products in the early 1970s were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Michigan. Serum PBB and serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured. Reproductive history and health information, including Pap test results, were self-reported by participants. Of the women, 23% (223 of 956) reported an abnormal Pap test. In unadjusted analyses, self-reporting an abnormal Pap test was associated with younger age, current smoking (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-2.17), and longer duration of lifetime use of oral contraceptives (≥10 years; HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.21-3.06). When adjusting for PCB exposure, age at the interview, and smoking history, there was a slightly elevated risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women compared to women with nondetectable PBB concentrations (PBB≥13 μg/L, HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.74-2.06); however, the CI was imprecise. When breastfeeding duration after the initial PBB measurement was taken into account, there was a reduced risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women who breastfed for ≥12 months (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.06-3.03; referent group: women with nondetectable PBB concentrations who did not breastfeed). It remains important to evaluate the potential reproductive health consequences of this class of chemicals as well as other potential predictors of abnormal Pap tests.

  15. Cervical cancer: developments in screening and evaluation of the abnormal Pap smear.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, J M

    1998-01-01

    Of the more than 50 million Pap smears performed annually in the United States, about 5% of them are abnormal. Although the need for treatment of high-grade lesions is clear, the appropriate management of low-grade lesions remains controversial. New methods of screening for cervical cancer have become available, including testing for the human papilloma virus and improved methods of administering and evaluating the Pap smear. This review addresses new developments in cervical cancer screening...

  16. Frequency and patterns of abnormal Pap smears in Sudanese women with infertility: What are the perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed O Almobarak

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Epithelial cell abnormalities are significantly higher in women with infertility as compared with fertile women. Importantly, inflammatory smears were reported two times more than in the controls. We recommend pap smear as a routine practice for all women assessed for infertility problems. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of human papilloma virus infections in infertile women with abnormal cervical cytology.

  17. Age and Pattern of Pap Smear Abnormalities: Implications for Cervical Cancer Control in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinfolarin, Adepiti Clement; Olusegun, Ajenifuja Kayode; Omoladun, Okunola; Omoniyi-Esan, G O; Onwundiegu, Uche

    2017-01-01

    To characterize the age and pattern of Pap smear abnormalities in a major teaching hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. This is a review of medical records of patients that came for cervical cancer screening. The Pap smear results of women between May 2013 and April 2015 were retrieved. A total of 2048 Pap smear results were retrieved during the study period and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. A total of 252 (12.3%) samples were excluded from the analysis. The mean age of the women was 45.77 ± 9.9 years and the mode was 50 years. Normal Pap smear result was reported in 728 (40.6%) women. Only 20 women has had more than one more than one Pap smear done. The most common abnormality was inflammatory smear result as this was reported in 613 (29.9%) women. Atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) were reported in 117 (5.7%), 209 (10.2%), and 111 (5.4%) women, respectively. Atypical glandular cell and squamous cell carcinoma were reported in 12 (6.0%) and 3 (1.0%), respectively. There is a high incidence of abnormal Pap smear in this environment and women start cervical cancer screening late in their reproductive life, past the age at which cervical premalignant lesions peak. This may be a contributing factor to the high burden of cervical cancer in developing countries.

  18. Cervical Cancer Prevention Knowledge and Abnormal Pap Test Experiences Among Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfall, Lisa T; Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M; Friedman, Daniela B; Bond, Sharon M; Lazenby, Gweneth B; Richter, Donna L; Glover, Saundra H; Hébert, James R

    2015-06-01

    Cervical cancer prevention knowledge deficits persist among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) despite increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/cancer. We examined associations between WLHA's cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test history. We recruited 145 urban and rural WLHA from Ryan White-funded clinics and AIDS service organizations located in the southeastern USA between March 2011 and April 2012. For this analysis, women who reported a history of cervical cancer (n = 3) or had a complete hysterectomy (n = 14) and observations with missing data (n = 22) were excluded. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests. Our sample included 106 predominantly non-Hispanic Black (92%) WLHA. Mean age was 46.3 ± 10.9 years. Half (50%) had ≤ high school education. One third (37%) had low health literacy. The majority (83 %) had a Pap test Pap test every year, once two tests are normal. Many (68%) have had an abnormal Pap test. Abnormal Pap test follow-up care knowledge varied. While 86% knew follow-up care could include a repeat Pap test, only 56% knew this could also include an HPV test. Significantly, more women who had an abnormal Pap test knew follow-up care could include a biopsy (p = 0.001). For WLHA to make informed/shared decisions about their cervical health, they need to be knowledgeable about cervical cancer care options across the cancer control continuum. Providing WLHA with prevention knowledge beyond screening recommendations seems warranted given their increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/neoplasia.

  19. Age and pattern of Pap smear abnormalities: Implications for cervical cancer control in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepiti Clement Akinfolarin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize the age and pattern of Pap smear abnormalities in a major teaching hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. Design: This is a review of medical records of patients that came for cervical cancer screening. Materials and Methods: The Pap smear results of women between May 2013 and April 2015 were retrieved. A total of 2048 Pap smear results were retrieved during the study period and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20. A total of 252 (12.3% samples were excluded from the analysis. Results: The mean age of the women was 45.77 ± 9.9 years and the mode was 50 years. Normal Pap smear result was reported in 728 (40.6% women. Only 20 women has had more than one more than one Pap smear done. The most common abnormality was inflammatory smear result as this was reported in 613 (29.9% women. Atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL were reported in 117 (5.7%, 209 (10.2%, and 111 (5.4% women, respectively. Atypical glandular cell and squamous cell carcinoma were reported in 12 (6.0% and 3 (1.0%, respectively. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of abnormal Pap smear in this environment and women start cervical cancer screening late in their reproductive life, past the age at which cervical premalignant lesions peak. This may be a contributing factor to the high burden of cervical cancer in developing countries.

  20. Follow-up of Women With Negative Pap Test Results and Abnormal Clinical Signs or Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocque, Rebecca; Austin, R Marshall

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal signs or symptoms recorded on Papanicolaou (Pap) test requisitions may reflect disease not detected with Pap testing. Since 2009, these cases have been reviewed in our laboratory by a second cytotechnologist and a cytopathologist. The objective of this study was to document follow-up findings on these patients. A search for Pap test results of "Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, abnormal clinical signs or symptoms" was performed for cases from January 1, 2009, to October 10, 2013. Clinical information and follow-up findings were documented. 1,104 cases were identified. Signs and symptoms were abnormal bleeding 897 (81%), polyps 83 (8%), pelvic mass 54 (5%), visible cervical lesions 48 (4%), vaginal lesions 17 (2%) and endometrial masses 6 (0.5%). Six hundred sixty-seven (60%) had follow-up results, including 517 with histopathologic diagnoses. Two-hundred thirty-three (45%) had nonspecific benign diagnoses, 216 (42%) had benign tumor-like conditions, 28 (4%) had insufficient specimens, 16 (3%) had precancerous diagnoses and 23 (4%) had malignancies. Endometrial malignancy was identified in 14 (61%), ovarian in 6 (26%), and miscellaneous in 3 (13%). No cervical cancers were identified. We report follow-up findings from patients with abnormal clinical signs or symptoms, negative Pap test results, and follow-up recommendations highlighting reported abnormal signs or symptoms. Abnormal clinical signs and symptoms should routinely be considered in assessment and management of patients with negative cervical screening test results. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Abnormal pap smear and cervical cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kathleen Y

    2012-09-01

    Pregnancy represents a unique opportunity to screen reproductive age women for cervical cancer and abnormal cervical cytology is relatively common in this population. In the absence of large, prospective clinical trials investigating the optimal management strategies for cervical dysplasia in pregnant women, consensus guidelines established by the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology is available with considerations to this special patient population. Modalities for evaluation and management algorithms are reviewed and summarized from largely case series of pregnant women with cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer.

  2. Modeling the impact of quadrivalent HPV vaccination on the incidence of Pap test abnormalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Flagg, Elaine W; Koutsky, Laura; Hsu, Katherine; Unger, Elizabeth R; Shlay, Judith C; Kerndt, Peter; Ghanem, Khalil G; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Hagensee, Michael; Weinstock, Hillard; Datta, S Deblina

    2013-06-24

    We present data on Pap test results and HPV prevalence from the HPV Sentinel Surveillance project, a multiyear surveillance project enrolling women from a diverse set of 26 clinics throughout the US from 2003 to 2005. We use mathematical modeling to illustrate the potential timing and magnitude of decreases in Pap test abnormalities in sexually transmitted disease (STD), family planning, and primary care clinics in the US as a result of HPV vaccination. The probability of an abnormal Pap result was based on three factors: (1) infection with HPV 16/18, or both; (2) infection with high-risk HPV types other than HPV 16/18; and (3) infection with HPV 6/11, or both. We estimated the relative reduction in the probability of an abnormal Pap result over the first 25 years of a female-only, quadrivalent HPV vaccination program, compared to a scenario of no HPV vaccination in which the probability of abnormal Pap results was assumed constant. The probability of an abnormal Pap result ranged from 7.0% for the lowest risk group (those without any high-risk HPV types and without HPV 6/11) to 45.2% for the highest risk group (those with HPV 16/18 and at least one other high-risk HPV type). Estimated reductions in abnormal Pap results among women in the 21- to 29-year age group were 0.8%, 10.2%, and 11.3% in years 5, 15, and 25 of the vaccine program respectively, in the lower vaccine coverage scenario, and 7.4%, 21.4%, and 22.2%, respectively, in the higher coverage scenario. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination will have a discernable impact on the probability of Pap abnormalities, but the timing and magnitude of the reduction will depend substantially on vaccine coverage and the degree of cross-protection against high risk HPV types other than HPV 16/18. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Barriers to follow-up of an abnormal Pap smear in Latina women referred for colposcopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percac-Lima, Sanja; Aldrich, Leslie S; Gamba, Gloria B; Bearse, Adriana M; Atlas, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    Lower rates of follow-up after an abnormal Pap smear in racial and ethnic minorities may contribute to the higher incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer seen in these groups. To identify patient-perceived barriers to follow-up after an abnormal Pap smear result among Latina women. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND APPROACH: Qualitative, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were conducted with patients from an academic hospital-affiliated urban community health center. Three groups of women were interviewed: new colposcopy clinic patients, patients who had previous colposcopies and patients enrolled in the health center's patient navigator program. Open-ended questions explored their knowledge, beliefs and experiences with colposcopy. Content analysis of transcripts was performed using established qualitative techinques. Of 40 Latina women recruited, 75% spoke only Spanish. The average age was 31.5 (range 18-55). Personal and system barriers identified were categorized into four themes: (1) anxiety/fear of procedure and diagnosis; (2) scheduling/availability of appointments interfering with work and/or child care; (3) inadequate communication about appointments, including lack of explanation regarding diagnosis, procedure and results; and (4) pain. New patients more commonly reported problems with scheduling and communication. Follow-up patients were more concerned about pain, and navigated women most often reported fear of results but had fewer concerns about inadequate communication. Anxiety/fear was the most common personal barrier, while difficulty scheduling appointments and inadequate communication were the major systems barriers identified in these Latina women. Interventions to lower these barriers to colposcopy among Latina women may increase adherence to follow-up of abnormal Pap smears.

  4. Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou test; Pap smear; Cervical cancer screening - Pap test; Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - Pap; CIN - Pap; Precancerous changes of the cervix - Pap; Cervical cancer - Pap; Squamous intraepithelial lesion - Pap; LSIL - Pap; HSIL - Pap; ...

  5. A Comparison of 3 Ways of Conventional Pap Smear, Liquid-Based Cytology and Colposcopy vs Cervical Biopsy for Early Diagnosis of Premalignant Lesions or Cervical Cancer in Women with Abnormal Conventional Pap Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Peighmbari, Fateme; Karimi, Neda; Rohi, Mitra; Chiti, Zohre

    2013-12-01

    The most cost effective method of prevention and detection of cervical cancer is the Pap smear. In abnormal Pap smear, colposcopy, endocervical curettage and biopsy will be done. Gold standard method in detecting cervical lesion is biopsy. Now in two ways conventional Pap smear and liquid base are routine diagnostic technique in Iran and given easily and cost-effectiveness of this method in the detection of cervical lesions to determine the sensitivity the objective of this study was compare three methods of Pap smear and colposcopy in detection of any lesion to gold standard biopsy in the positive ASC cases who referred to gynecologic Oncology Clinic of shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Science. This study is a descriptive analytic in 2009-2010 years on 150 cases of patients with Atypical Squamose Cell (ASC) results in previous pap smear ,conventional pap smear, liquid based pap smear, colposcopy and cervical biopsy had been done for all patient and finally data were analyzed with chi-square statistical test on spss ver 16 saftware. Average age of patients in this study was, 42 ± 9.9 year and reason for referring patients in 35.4% of cases was due to follow-up of abnormal results of previous Pap smear, in 30% bleeding, 12% Pain and 2.6% percent of cases was checking-up. In final results of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy any of the methods conventional and liquid based Pap smear and colposcopy were compared with cervical biopsy as a gold standard. The conventional Pap smear method had a sensitivity 51%, specificity 66.6%, PPV 96%, NPV was 8% and accuracy was 92%, about the liquid base Pap smear method, sensitivity was 55.3%, specificity was 77.7%, PPV was 97.5%, NPV was 10% and accuracy was 56/6%. About the colposcopy, sensitivity was70/9 % specificity 44/4%, PPV was 95.2%, NPV was 8/8% and accuracy was 69.3%. The relationship between sensitivity results of conventional Pap smear and

  6. Pap smear: understanding of rural women about the purpose and access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igho Leonardo do Nascimento Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: todescribe the understanding of rural women about the purpose and access to Pap smear. Methods:qualitative study conducted with 15 women. Data collection was carried out through a semi-structured interview script, by adopting content analysis. Results: the study found that women had insufficient understanding about the reason to perform the examination, both in the matter of prevention and regarding diagnosis of cervical cancer. Women have also demonstrated difficulties to perform the examination by the difficult access to the cytological examination and by the little frequency of the Family Health Strategy team in going the rural communities evaluated. Conclusion: the understanding of the purpose of Pap smear is insufficient and access is inappropriate. This condition is a risk to the onset of cervical cancer in rural women.

  7. Associations of an abnormal Pap test result with attitudes and beliefs relevant to cervical cancer: a study of rural Appalachian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Vanderpool, Robin; Jones, Cissi

    2016-07-01

    To compare women who recall being informed of an abnormal Pap to those not having this experience relative to attitudes and beliefs pertaining to screening for cervical cancer. Four hundred women were recruited from eight rural Appalachian counties, in 2013 and 2014. Women completed a paper-and-pencil survey after providing written informed consent. Bivariate associations and age-adjusted associations were calculated between the self-reported experience of being told of an abnormal Pap test result and eight attitudes/beliefs relative to the prevention of cervical cancer. Data analyses were performed in 2014. The mean age was 40.2 years (range 30-64 years). Eighteen women chose not to answer the question asking about ever having an abnormal Pap test result, leaving n = 382. Of the 382 women who did answer, 122 (30.6 %) indicated having an abnormal Pap test result and the remaining 260 (65.2 %) indicated never having this experience. With the exception of one item assessing knowledge that HPV is the cause of cervical cancer, between-group differences in attitudes, beliefs, and intent to have a Pap test the next time one is due were not observed. Although we hypothesized that women ever having an abnormal Pap test may have actively sought to learn more about cervical cancer and its prevention, findings suggest that this is not the case. Informing women of an abnormal result could be coupled with a high-intensity counseling designed to improve attitudes and beliefs relative to women's role in protecting themselves from cervical cancer.

  8. Comparison of bloody pap smear fixation by Carnoy’s and fixator spray in samples from women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshavarz Najmeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal uterine bleeding is a serious problem among women of late reproductive age. Cervical cancer is one of the reasons of AUB and Pap smear is the best way to diagnose it. Blood has negative effects on Pap smear especially in AUB with great blood. One of the effective solutions for lysing RBC is Carnoy’s. This study aims to compare two methods of fixation in bloody Pap smear by Carnoy’s and normal spray in samples from women with AUB. This study was done on 204 bloody Pap smear from 102 women with AUB that referred to Zeinabieh and Faghihi hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from2012-2013. After observing uterine bleeding in each subject, two samples were provided using usual Pap smear method; one of the slides was fixed by normal spray and the other slide fixed by Carnoy’s solution for20 minutes. After staining (Papanicolaou method, two pathologists performed a double-blind trial to analyze them. Data analysis was done using SPSS. 82 samples did not have cell adequacy. Squamous cells in Carnoy’s-fixed slides were more than spray-fixed ones (p=0.024. The decrease in the number of RBC on slides and the increase in the clarity of slides in Carnoy’s-fixed samples were more than sprayfixed slides (p=0.001, while identifying inflammatory cells(p=0.832 and microbial factors (p=1 in both methods showed no significant difference. Carnoy’s solution can be used as an effective fixative in bloody Pap smear from women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

  9. Psychological impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsonego, Joseph; Cortes, Javier; da Silva, Daniel Pereira; Jorge, Anna Francisca; Klein, Patrick

    2011-05-25

    Extensive information on cervical cancer is currently available. Its effectiveness in reducing anxiety in women receiving abnormal Pap tests is not clear. We investigated current practices of communicating abnormal Pap results to evaluate women's reactions and determine the sources of information they use subsequently. A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed in 1475 women in France, Spain and Portugal who had received an abnormal Pap smear result in the 12 months prior to completing the questionnaire. Questions covered methods of communication of the result, emotional reactions, support received (from the physician and entourage), and information sources, using pre-specified check box options and rating scales. Data were analyzed by country. Pap test results were mostly communicated by phone to Spanish women (76%), while physician letters were common in France (59%) and Portugal (36%). Frequent reactions were anxiety, panic and stress, which were less common in Spanish women than their French and Portuguese counterparts. After discussing with their physician, half of the participants were worried, despite rating highly the psychological support received. Over 90% of women in each country discussed their results with family or friends. Partners provided a high level of support. Overall, the abnormal diagnosis and consequences had a low to medium impact on daily, professional and family life and their relationships with their partner. Impact was higher in Spanish women than the French or Portuguese. Information on the diagnosis and its treatment was rated average, and nearly 80% of participants wanted more information, notably French women. Preferred sources were the physician and the Internet. Women expressed a strong wish for more information about cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, and that their physician play a major role in its provision and in support. There was a heavy reliance on the close entourage and the Internet for

  10. Cervical screening program and the psychological impact of an abnormal Pap smear: a self-assessment questionnaire study of 590 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangarajah, Fabinshy; Einzmann, Thomas; Bergauer, Florian; Patzke, Jan; Schmidt-Petruschkat, Silke; Theune, Monika; Engel, Katja; Puppe, Julian; Richters, Lisa; Mallmann, Peter; Kirn, Verena

    2016-02-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is today the fourth most common cancer of women in western civilization. Screening programs have led to a continuously decrease. Nevertheless, both screening and a positive test result are known to be associated with a negative psychological impact. Screening programs in European countries differ and thus psychological impact might as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological impact of women with an abnormal Pap smear in a German cohort. Between July 2013 and May 2014, a self-assessment questionnaire was distributed to 595 patients that were referred to a special clinic for cervical dysplasia for further evaluation of an abnormal Pap smear. Patients were recruited in five different centers. Most patients (45.9 %) were informed about the test result via phone call by their doctor. 68.8 % of the patients felt anxious and 26.3 % even felt panic. After having talked to their physician, 51.4 % of our cohort still felt worried and only 24.4 % felt reassured. Concerning disease management, 48.4 % underwent a control Pap smear in 6 months. The preferred information source was the physician (63.9 %). Compared to the results in other European countries, our study cohort showed differences concerning age distribution, patients living in a partnership, number of children and especially disease management. Cancer screening itself and abnormal test results have an impact on patient's feelings. To reduce the psychological impact, patients need to be better informed about the risks and benefits of cancer screening programs and in case of cervical cancer screening about the meaning of an abnormal test result. Our results underline the importance of a trustful physician-patient relationship in that matter.

  11. High risk human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 infection in the cervical lesions of women with epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A cytohistomorphologic association in Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Urmila; Ahamad, M Shahab Uddin; Bhattacharjee, Pradip; Adhikary, Arun Kumar; Rahman, Zillur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the extent of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) type 16/18 infection in the cervical tissue of women with epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear and to establish an association between hrHPV type 16/18 infection and cytohistomorphology. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 1699 patients who went through Pap smear examination. Prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality was calculated. Forty eight of these women underwent routine histopathology and 47 were evaluated for human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16/18 by polymerase chain reaction assay. Total 139 women revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Histopathology showed simple inflammation to malignancy. HPV type 16/18 infection was detected in 40.42% (19/47) of the patients. Individually type 16 and 18 were positive in 7 (14.9%) cases each and dual infection with type 16 and 18 were seen in 5 (10.6%) cases. While cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1) and cervical cancer screening strategies.

  12. Psychosocial burden differences between women of reproductive age and menopausal age due to abnormal Pap smear: A pilot study of the East Coast of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir Ahmad Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Psychosocial burden due to abnormal Pap smear results in terms of mental stress, overwhelming beliefs, and feelings of guilt and worry of HPV infection and possibility of cervical cancer were noted more in reproductive age groups as compared to the menopausal age group. Health-care providers should be aware of these psychosocial effects whereby they can refer such patients to a gynecologic oncologist for proper counseling at the proper time so that the negative impact due to this psychosocial burden can be prevented.

  13. Psychological impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Anna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive information on cervical cancer is currently available. Its effectiveness in reducing anxiety in women receiving abnormal Pap tests is not clear. We investigated current practices of communicating abnormal Pap results to evaluate women's reactions and determine the sources of information they use subsequently. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed in 1475 women in France, Spain and Portugal who had received an abnormal Pap smear result in the 12 months prior to completing the questionnaire. Questions covered methods of communication of the result, emotional reactions, support received (from the physician and entourage, and information sources, using pre-specified check box options and rating scales. Data were analyzed by country. Results Pap test results were mostly communicated by phone to Spanish women (76%, while physician letters were common in France (59% and Portugal (36%. Frequent reactions were anxiety, panic and stress, which were less common in Spanish women than their French and Portuguese counterparts. After discussing with their physician, half of the participants were worried, despite rating highly the psychological support received. Over 90% of women in each country discussed their results with family or friends. Partners provided a high level of support. Overall, the abnormal diagnosis and consequences had a low to medium impact on daily, professional and family life and their relationships with their partner. Impact was higher in Spanish women than the French or Portuguese. Information on the diagnosis and its treatment was rated average, and nearly 80% of participants wanted more information, notably French women. Preferred sources were the physician and the Internet. Conclusions Women expressed a strong wish for more information about cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, and that their physician play a major role in its provision and in support. There was a

  14. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and abnormal pap smears in female sex workers compared to the general population in Antwerp, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vorsters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs are a well-known high-risk group for Human Papillomavirus (HPV infections, few tailored intervention programmes for HPV have been established worldwide. The lack of reliable data on the prevalence of HPV and related cervical lesions hampers the establishment of evidence-based intervention programmes. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV infections and abnormal pap smears in FSWs compared to a control group in Antwerp, Belgium. Methods HPV genotyping and cytology data were analysed from routine Pap smear tests that were collected from both FSWs and the general population (1334 samples for each group between June 2006 and June 2010. Within the laboratory database, all FSWs were matched 1:1 for age and testing date to determine the ORs of hrHPV genotypes, DNA and cytology outcome. Results The prevalence of hrHPV DNA in FSWs was 41.7 % compared to 19.8 % in the age-matched controls with an overall OR of 2.8 (95 % CI: 2.3–3.4. Significant differences were observed in all age groups, and the most significant differences were observed in the cohort under 21 years of age (prevalence of 64.4 % in FSWs versus 14.8 % in controls; OR 10.3 (95 % CI: 5.0–21.2. Significantly more cervical lesions were observed in FSWs, particularly in the 17- to 21-year old age group (OR for LSIL or HSIL: 10.3 (95 % CI: 3.2–33.8. In both groups, HPV 16 was the most prevalent at 12.1 and 6.6 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. HPV 18 was the 8th and 7th most frequent genotype at 5.0 and 2.5 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. Conclusions FSWs have a significantly higher prevalence of hrHPV and more abnormal Pap smears than does the general population in Antwerp, Belgium. The hrHPV prevalence in FSWs is similar to that reported in the literature. The need for tailored intervention programmes should be investigated further.

  15. Analysis of patterns of patient compliance after an abnormal Pap smear result: the influence of demographic characteristics on patient compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Christine; Zhou, Ming K; Khamis, Harry J; Amesse, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine population characteristics that correlate to suboptimal follow-up after an abnormal cervical cytology result. Nonpregnant women, ages 21 to 65 years, with newly diagnosed abnormal cervical cytology result between January 2009 and January 2012 at an urban clinic were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective chart review. Cervical cytology data and demographic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, employment, marital and smoking status, health insurance and number of pregnancies were abstracted from electronic medical record. A log-linear model was used to determine which factors influenced patient compliance. Of the total of 206 women, 78 (37.9%) had optimal follow-up and 128 (62.1%) had suboptimal follow-up. The 3 variables that were statistically significant in influencing patient follow-up after adjusted analyses included severity of cytology result (p = .0013), ethnicity (p = .02), and employment status (p = .0159). The risk ratio for optimal follow-up for those with severe cytology result was 1.81; for the non-whites, 1.77; and for the employed, 1.53. Ethnicity, severity of cervical cytology result, and employment status play an important role in patient follow-up after an abnormal cervical cytology result. Detecting trends in our patient population that influence adherence to follow-up will help health care providers formulate strategies that target this problem.

  16. Pap Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... smears as a way to monitor her health. Women in their 20s with normal Pap smear results ...

  17. Limited Understanding of Pap Smear Testing among Women, a Barrier to Cervical Cancer Screening in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Hammadi, Fatima Ahmed; Al-Tahri, Fatema; Al-Ali, Asma; Nair, Satish C; Abdulrahman, Mahera

    2017-12-29

    Global data indicate that cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Important factors that affect interventions for early diagnosis of cervical cancer include social beliefs and values and poor knowledge. These may contribute to women’s participation in screening for cervical cancer and have a significant impact on decisions to take preventive action. The present study was conducted with 599 women in the UAE between September 2016 and March 2017. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and perceived barriers. Knowledge about the Pap smear test was limited, and awareness that they should undergo the Pap smear test every three years even with an initial negative/normal Pap smear result was abysmal. In spite of the positive attitude of the women towards the Pap smear test, almost 80% of the women surveyed had no knowledge of precancerous lesions. Having higher income (21/29, 72%, p=0.027) and more miscarriages were associated with better practice of Pap smears (19/26, 73%, p=0.010). Knowledge levels were significantly higher (66.3±22.2,) that values for attitude (60.5±20.9, p= 0.03, 95% CI {0.22-11.3}, Chi-square 4.38) and practice (53.7 24.1, p= 0.001, 95% CI {6.9-18.1}, Chi-square 19.7). A well-designed health education programme on cervical cancer and benefits of screening should increase the awareness among women in UAE. One point to stress is that better communication with health professionals and improvement of access to health care services should increase the rate of cervical cancer screening. Creative Commons Attribution License

  18. Anxiety and borderline PAP smear results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, Ida J.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Huveneers, Hans; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Low-grade abnormalities after cervical cancer screening, i.e. borderline (Pap 2) or mildly (Pap 3a1) dyskaryotic (BMD) smear results, are found in considerable numbers of women annually We compared quality of life and anxiety in women with BMD and a reference group of screening participants

  19. High-grade cervical abnormalities and cervical cancer in women following a negative Pap smear with and without an endocervical component: a cohort study with 10 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Farhana; English, Dallas R; Simpson, Julie A; Canfell, Karen; Gertig, Dorota M; Saville, Marion

    2014-09-01

    The proportion of Pap smears containing an endocervical component (ECC) has been declining in Australia. Given that ECC negative (ECC-) smears may be associated with reduced sensitivity, we undertook a retrospective cohort study to estimate rates of histologically confirmed high-grade cervical abnormality (HGA) and cancer in women with negative Pap smears with and without an ECC. Women 18-69 years with at least two Pap smears between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010 with the first smear in that period (index smear) showing no abnormality were eligible. Follow-up ended at date of the first abnormal smear, date of histological diagnosis, date of hysterectomy, date of death, or 31 December 2010, whichever came first. ECC status was treated as a time varying exposure. Follow-up was split at each smear after the index smear. Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR) by ECC status. The incidence rate of histologically confirmed HGA was significantly lower following ECC- smears than after ECC+ smears (adjusted IRR: 0.69, 95%Confidence Interval (CI) 0.62-0.77), particularly at older ages (interaction between ECC status and age, p = 0.001). In contrast, the overall rate of invasive cancer was not significantly different after ECC- than after ECC+ smears (IRR: 1.27, 95%CI 0.90-1.77). In conclusion, women had a lower rate of confirmed HGA and no significant increase in the rate of invasive cervical cancer following ECC- smears. This study does not support differential (accelerated) follow-up in women with a negative smear without an endocervical component. © 2014 UICC.

  20. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lesion? • What are the different types of abnormal Pap test results? • What testing is needed after an abnormal ... that could lead to cancer. Screening includes the Pap test and, for some women, testing for a virus ...

  1. papA gene of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Nolan, Lisa K

    2011-12-01

    P fimbrial adhesins may be associated with the virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). However, most APECs are unable to express P fimbriae even when they are grown under conditions that favor P fimbrial expression. This failure can be explained by the complete absence of the pap operon or the presence of an incomplete pap operon in Pap-negative APEC strains. In the present study, we analyzed the pap operon, specifically the papA gene that encodes the major fimbrial shaft, to better understand the pap gene cluster at the genetic level. First, by PCR, we examined a collection of 500 APEC strains for the presence of 11 genes comprising the pap operon. Except for papA, all the other genes of the operon were present in 38% to 41.2% of APEC, whereas the papA was present only in 10.4% of the APEC tested. Using multiplex PCR to probe for allelic variants of papA, we sought to determine if the low prevalence of papA among APEC was related to genetic heterogeneity of the gene itself. It was determined that the papA of APEC always belongs to the F11 allelic variant. Finally, we sequenced the 'papA region' from two papA-negative strains, both of which contain all the other genes of the pap operon. Interestingly, both strains had an 11,104-bp contig interruptingpapA at the 281-bp position. This contig harbored a streptomycin resistance gene and a classic Tn10 transposon containing the genes that confer tetracycline resistance. However, we noted that the papA gene of every papA-negative APEC strain was not interrupted by an 11,104-bp contig. It is likely that transposons bearing antibiotic resistance genes have inserted within pap gene cluster of some APEC strains, and such genetic events may have been selected for by antibiotic use.

  2. Sepsis: Multiple Abnormalities, Heterogeneous Responses, and Evolving Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Kendra N.; Osuchowski, Marcin F.; Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J.; Kurosawa, Shinichiro; Stepien, David; Valentine, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis represents the host's systemic inflammatory response to a severe infection. It causes substantial human morbidity resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Despite decades of intense research, the basic mechanisms still remain elusive. In either experimental animal models of sepsis or human patients, there are substantial physiological changes, many of which may result in subsequent organ injury. Variations in age, gender, and medical comorbidities including diabetes and renal failure create additional complexity that influence the outcomes in septic patients. Specific system-based alterations, such as the coagulopathy observed in sepsis, offer both potential insight and possible therapeutic targets. Intracellular stress induces changes in the endoplasmic reticulum yielding misfolded proteins that contribute to the underlying pathophysiological changes. With these multiple changes it is difficult to precisely classify an individual's response in sepsis as proinflammatory or immunosuppressed. This heterogeneity also may explain why most therapeutic interventions have not improved survival. Given the complexity of sepsis, biomarkers and mathematical models offer potential guidance once they have been carefully validated. This review discusses each of these important factors to provide a framework for understanding the complex and current challenges of managing the septic patient. Clinical trial failures and the therapeutic interventions that have proven successful are also discussed. PMID:23899564

  3. Prevalence and predictors of Pap smear cervical epithelial cell abnormality among HIV-positive and negative women attending gynecological examination in cervical cancer screening center at Debre Markos referral hospital, East Gojjam, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getinet, Melkamu; Gelaw, Baye; Sisay, Abinet; Mahmoud, Eiman A; Assefa, Abate

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death among women in developing countries. Cervical cancer is preceded by cervical surface epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA) which can be detected by Pap smear test. Simultaneous human papillomavirus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases cervical cancer. Data on the prevalence and predictors of ECA among women in Ethiopia is limited. Hence, we aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of ECA among women. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV+ and HIV- women attending gynecological examination in cervical cancer screening center at the Debre Markos referral hospital. The study subjects were stratified by HIV status and systematic random sampling method was used to recruit study participants. Cervical smears were collected for Pap smear examination. Logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the possible risk factors of cervical ECA. A total of 197 HIV+ and 194 HIV- women were enrolled in the study. The overall prevalence of cervical ECA was 14.1 % of which the prevalence of atypical squamous cells undetermined significance (ASCUS), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL), high grade SIL, squamous cell carcinoma and ASC, cannot exclude high grade SIL (ASCH) were 5.1, 3.8, 4.1 and 1.0 %, 0.0 % respectively. Significantly higher prevalence of ECA (17.8 %) was observed among HIV+ women (COR 1.9, 95 % CI: 1.1 - 3.4, p = 0.036) as compared to HIV-women (10.3 %). Multiple sexual partnership (AOR 3.2, 95 % CI: 1.1 - 10.0, p = 0.04), early ages of first sexual contact (Cervical ECA is a major problem among HIV-infected women. Lower CD4+ T-cell counts of below 350 cells/μl, HIV infection, multiple sexual partnership, early age at first sexual contact, parity greater than three and long term OCP use were significant predictors of prevalence of ECA. Strengthening screening program in HIV+ women should be considered.

  4. A Case-Conference Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, Jose M.; Zinser, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we describe an in-class case-conference exercise designed to enhance the teaching of paradigms in abnormal psychology courses. The primary pedagogical goals are to increase awareness of how paradigms are applied in real-life settings; better distinguish between paradigms; and recognize how paradigms influence understanding of…

  5. How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exercise at Every AgeTics and Tourette SyndromeRead Article >>Tics and Tourette Syndrome Visit our interactive symptom checker ... Devices Over-the-counter Products Procedures & Devices Prescription Medicines Health Tools Dictionary Symptom Checker BMI Calculator myhealthfinder ...

  6. Does knowledge influence pap test screening among young African-American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Guillaume, Daphnee A; Brandt, Heather M; Fletcher, Faith E

    2014-09-01

    Pap test screening among African-American women has substantially increased. However, African-American women continue to bear the burden of cervical cancer as compared to White women. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of Pap test knowledge on cervical screening history among young African-American women. Between January and April 2009, 320 women from historically black colleges and universities located in the southeastern United States who met study inclusion criteria completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire to assess their awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer prevention and control. Seventy-six percent of women reported ever having a Pap test, 54 % reported having a Pap test less than 1 year ago, and 25 % reported ever having an abnormal Pap test result. The overall mean score on the six-point Pap test knowledge scale was 4.46 ± 1.02. Women who reported having an abnormal Pap test (4.96 ± 0.82) had significantly higher Pap test knowledge compared to those never having an abnormal result (4.49 ± 1.04), p Pap test knowledge among all women, including those with no prior abnormal Pap test history, are critical to cervical cancer prevention and control over the life course. Such efforts should include creating information that is relevant to the population and enables informed decision making about cervical health.

  7. Variability Study between Pap Smear, Colposcopy and Cervical Histopathology Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, S.; Bari, A.; Hayat, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement/variability between colposcopic findings, Pap smear cytology and histopathological diagnosis in gynaecology patients. Methods: The cross-sectional cohort study was conducted from October 2010 to September 2011 at the Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, and comprised women who presented to the out-patient department with various gynaecological complaints. Colposcopy was performed in all women with unhealthy cervix during gynaecological examination, abnormal Pap smear report, recurrent vaginal discharge and postcoital bleeding. Pap smear was performed before colposcopy if not done earlier. Colposcopic findings were recorded on a specially-designed proforma. Biopsies from abnormal areas were taken and sent for histopathology. Colposcopic findings were compared with histopathology and Pap smear reports The agreement between the methods was evaluated by using Kappa coefficient and chi square test at a significance level of 5 percent. Results: The mean age of the 143 women was 44 8.5 years (range: 25-72 years). Colposcopic findings were normal in 66(46 percent) women, while 77(54 percent) had abnormal findings and among the latter, 62(80.5 percent) had abnormal histopathology, indicating strong agreement (K=0.65; p<0.001). Pap smear report was abnormal in 48(33.5 percent) cases and among them histopathology was abnormal in 28(58 percent). In the remaining 95(66.4 percent) patients with normal Pap smear, histopathology was abnormal in 44((46 percent), indicating weak agreement between Pap smear and histopathological diagnosis (K=0.10; p=0.08). Conclusion: There was a strong agreement between colposcopic findings and histopathological diagnosis. However, agreement between cytological findings and colposcopic findings and cytology and histopathological diagnosis remained weak. (author)

  8. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, Alan E. [Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229-3039, Cincinnati (United States)

    2004-03-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the effects common to normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' was proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the nonphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Abnormalities at acrophyseal sites are analogous to those at the physeal growth plates and their metaphyses. For example, changes relating to the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) are often important to the demonstration of such similarities. Lead lines were an early example of the concept of analogy from abnormality due to physeal and to acrophyseal disturbance. The ZPC is a key factor in understanding patterns of rickets and its healing. Examples (including hypothyroidism, scurvy and other osteoporosis, Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle. (orig.)

  9. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, Alan E.

    2004-01-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the effects common to normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' was proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the nonphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Abnormalities at acrophyseal sites are analogous to those at the physeal growth plates and their metaphyses. For example, changes relating to the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) are often important to the demonstration of such similarities. Lead lines were an early example of the concept of analogy from abnormality due to physeal and to acrophyseal disturbance. The ZPC is a key factor in understanding patterns of rickets and its healing. Examples (including hypothyroidism, scurvy and other osteoporosis, Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle. (orig.)

  10. Knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and screening among Malaysian women who have never had a Pap smear: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P; Wong, Y L; Low, W Y; Khoo, E M; Shuib, R

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers in women worldwide. Despite the existence of effective screening using Pap smear, the uptake of screening is poor. A qualitative study was undertaken using face-to-face in-depth interviews to investigate knowledge, attitudes and beliefs on cervical cancer screening of Malaysian women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Malaysian women aged 21-56 years and who have never had a Pap smear test, with the aim to explore their knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and its screening. A lack of knowledge on cervical cancer and the Pap smear test was found among the respondents. Many women did not have a clear understanding of the meaning of an abnormal cervical smear and the need for the early detection of cervical cancer. Many believe the purpose of the Pap smear test is to detect existing cervical cancer, leading to the belief that Pap smear screening is not required because the respondents had no symptoms. Despite considerable awareness of a link between cervical cancer and sexual activity, as well as the role of a sexually-transmitted infection, none of the respondents had heard of the human papillomavirus. The findings highlight the importance of emphasising accurate information about cervical cancer and the purpose of Pap smear screening when designing interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening for Malaysian women.

  11. Pap and HPV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing has largely replaced conventional Pap tests. One advantage of liquid-based testing is that the same ... National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact ...

  12. Prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities, determine the correlation between CD4+ cell count and abnormal Pap smear, determine the correlation between WHO-HIV staging and abnormal pap smear among HIV infected women attending HIV clinic at Rwanda Military Hospital. Design: ...

  13. Comparison of Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women in Chiang Rai province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritpetcharat, Onanong; Wutichouy, Wiwat; Sirijaichingkul, Suchat; Kritpetcharat, Panutas

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an important woman's health problems worldwide, especially in low socio-economic countries. The aim of this study was to compare the Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women who live in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. Screening was conducted for 1,100 Akha women and 1,100 urban women who came to have the Pap smear at Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital and 1 private cytology laboratory from January to June 2008. The demographic characteristics and factors related to abnormal Pap smears of these women were gathered using closed model questionnaires. Abnormal Rap smears were defined according to the Bethesda 2001 system. The results showed that the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 12.2% in Akha women and 4.5% in urban women. The highest prevalence of Pap abnormalities was found in the 41-50 years age group in both populations (4.5% in Akha and 1.7% in urban women). In both populations, abnormal Pap smears were found in education level. In conclusion, cervical cancer control by education and early detection by Pap smear screening is necessary for hill tribe women. More Pap smear screening service units should be set to improve the coverage for the risk group women who got married in young age, especial in ethnic groups.

  14. Cervical pap smear- A prospective study in a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pudasaini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women worldwide and most common gynaecological cancer in developing countries. Papanicolaou smear is a simple and cost effective screening test for cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate and interpret the cervical pap smear cytology in a tertiary hospital. The interpretation and reporting of the pap smear is based on 2001Bethesda system.Materials and methods: This is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary hospital, Nepal Medical College over a period of two and a half years (January 2013 to June 2015. All cervical pap smears received in the department of Pathology in the study period were included.Results: A total of 4160 cervical pap smears were reported in the study period. Majority of the cases were Negative for Intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (87.9%. Bacterial vaginosis, atrophy and reactive cellular changes associated with inflammation were seen in 5.3%, 2.4% and 1.5% cases respectively.   Epithelial cell abnormalities (0.5% include Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and High grade intraepithelial lesion. 88% of Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was seen in reproductive age group (20-45 years.Conclusion: Cervical cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in the developing countries. Pap smear is the simple and cost effective screening tool to detect pre invasive cervical epithelial lesions.

  15. Cytomorphology of unusual primary tumors in the Pap test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalbuss, Walid E; Pantanowitz, Liron; Monaco, Sara E

    2013-08-30

    Rare entities in the Pap test, which include neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions, pose challenges due to the infrequent occurrence of many of these entities in the daily practice of cytology. Furthermore, these conditions give rise to important diagnostic pitfalls to be aware of in the Pap test. For example, cases with adenoma malignum (AM) have been called benign. Recognition of these conditions can help correctly interpret Pap tests as abnormal and thereby ensure that patients get appropriately diagnosed. In this paper, we illustrate and discuss selected uncommon primary neoplastic lesions of the cervix and the vagina that may be seen in Pap test, with a focus on cytomorphology, differential diagnosis and the role of possible ancillary studies. These cases include high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cells with small cell morphology; small cell carcinoma; large neuroendocrine carcinoma; glassy cell carcinoma; AM; malignant mixed Müllerian tumor; clear cell carcinoma and primary malignant melanoma. Recognition of these rare variants/neoplasms is important so that involved Pap tests are not diagnosed as benign and that patients with these conditions get additional follow-up.

  16. Young Singaporean women's knowledge of cervical cancer and pap smear screening: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Juanna; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Mackey, Sandra

    2013-12-01

    To assess the knowledge of young female Singaporeans regarding cervical cancer and pap smear, the intention to participate in pap smear and whether there is any relationship between knowledge and intention to participate in pap smear screening. While cervical cancer has poor prognosis in the later stages, pap smear is effective in identifying precancerous lesions, which are more treatable. Pap smear screening is available to women in Singapore, but its uptake is opportunistic. Research has shown that knowledge about pap smear and cervical cancer is important determinant of screening behaviour in Singaporean women. Cross-sectional descriptive correlational design was used. Three hundred and ninety-three young Singaporean undergraduates, aged 18-25 years, were recruited via convenience sampling from a local university over a four-month period. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Majority of the participants knew the term 'pap smear' and its function. However, knowledge of the risk factors for cervical cancer was lacking among the young women. Knowledge of pap smear and cervical cancer had a weak correlation with the intention to go for the future uptake of pap smear. Educational efforts among younger Singaporean women on the knowledge of pap smear and risk factors for cervical cancer are needed. Improving knowledge will enable them to understand the importance of reducing exposure to risk factors and regular pap smear screening. All health professionals working with young Asian women should be prepared to educate and counsel young women to participate in pap smear screening according to current guidelines. In particular, knowledge of the age to attend the first pap smear and the recommended frequency for screening need to be targeted for health education. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Why the Pap test? Awareness and use of the Pap test among women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Nikki A; Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Saraiya, Mona; Gelb, Cynthia A; Polonec, Lindsey

    2011-04-01

    To inform campaign development by assessing awareness, previous receipt, and knowledge of the purpose of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing among women aged ≥ 18 years and to identify differences in awareness, receipt, and knowledge by demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed from the 2008 HealthStyles survey, an annual mail survey conducted in the United States covering trends in health-related behavior. Women were asked questions on awareness, past use, and knowledge of the purpose of the Pap test and other gynecologic tests and procedures; 2991 women participated. Although 96.7% of the women had heard of and 93.0% reported having received a Pap test, these proportions were lower among those who were 18-34 years old and among those who had lower levels of education and income. Over 80% knew the Pap test was used to screen for cervical cancer, but 63.3% believed it also was used to screen for vaginal cancer (44.9%), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) other than human papillomavirus (HPV) (41.7%), ovarian cancer (40.6%), and other cancers and infections. General familiarity and past receipt of the Pap test were high, but misconceptions about its purpose were prevalent. It is important that women understand what a routine Pap test is and is not capable of detecting so that signs and symptoms of gynecologic conditions other than cervical cancer may be recognized and addressed appropriately.

  18. Recent advances in understanding synaptic abnormalities in Rett syndrome [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Johnston

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is an extremely disabling X-linked nervous system disorder that mainly affects girls in early childhood and causes autism-like behavior, severe intellectual disability, seizures, sleep disturbances, autonomic instability, and other disorders due to mutations in the MeCP2 (methyl CpG-binding protein 2 transcription factor. The disorder targets synapses and synaptic plasticity and has been shown to disrupt the balance between glutamate excitatory synapses and GABAergic inhibitory synapses. In fact, it can be argued that Rett syndrome is primarily a disorder of synaptic plasticity and that agents that can correct this imbalance may have beneficial effects on brain development. This review briefly summarizes the link between disrupted synaptic plasticity mechanisms and Rett syndrome and early clinical trials that aim to target these abnormalities to improve the outcome for these severely disabled children.

  19. Personal influencing factors associated with pap smear testing and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Kelly; Pohl, Joanne; Low, Lisa Kane

    2008-02-01

    Pap smear is a screening test that detects abnormal cells before they advance to cancer. Unfortunately, not all women obtain routine screening. The method used was a qualitative study exploring personal influences regarding Pap smears. Face-to-face interviews with 7 low-income African American women who do and do not obtain Pap smears (between 21 and 37 years of age) were conducted at a health department about their social influence, previous health care experience, and cognitive appraisal regarding Pap smears and cervical cancer. Women were found to be socially influenced by their family and their physician. Previous health care experience with the Pap and pelvic was perceived as negative. Cognitively, Pap smears were believed to test for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and the women also felt that if one took good care of oneself it reduced the risk for cervical cancer. It was concluded that exploring beliefs associated with Pap smears and perceptions of vulnerability to cervical cancer and giving correct information and counseling may increase Pap smear screening in women.

  20. Perceptions and concerns of women undergoing Pap smear examination in a tertiary care hospital of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Kishore, J; Tiwari, A

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the major causes of deaths due to cancer among women in India. Pap smear is one of the best methods to detect early changes in cervix. However, there is lack of data on awareness level of women about Pap smear and various risk factors for cervical cancer. To study the awareness about various risk factors for cervical cancer, health-seeking behavior and hygienic practices among women and to assess the distress experienced by these women before the Pap smear examination. This cross-sectional study was carried out on women coming for a Pap smear examination in a tertiary teaching hospital in New Delhi. A pretested interview schedule was used to get information after obtaining their informed consent. Fifty-seven percent stated that they did not consult a doctor when they noticed the symptoms the first time. Sixty-one percent did not know what a cervical cancer is and a same percentage of women did not know what a Pap smear examination was. Older age group, Muslim and literate women had higher number of abnormal Pap smear results. Women who reported being stressed in their lives had higher number of abnormal smears as compared to women who claimed to lead a stress free life. Poor hygienic practices among these women from urban areas were also associated with abnormal Pap smear results. The study concluded that factors such as poor awareness, shyness, poor hygiene, and old age could be responsible for abnormal Pap smears and this needs special attention in cancer prevention activities of the government.

  1. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative pap smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rebolj (Matejka); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); F.J. van Kemenade (Folkert); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); R. Boer (Rob); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The

  2. Pap Smear: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most treatable. Other names for a Pap smear: Pap test, cervical cytology, Papanicolaou test, Pap smear test, vaginal ... org/cancer/cervical-cancer/prevention-and-early-detection/pap-test.html Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. ...

  3. Potential effects of updated pap test screening guidelines and adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroilhet, Lisa; Van Hanegem, Lennie; Bernstein, Marilyn; Feldman, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    To review cases of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) at our institution to examine how updated guidelines affect the timing of diagnosis. We identified patients with AIS diagnosed between 1998 and 2010 using the International Classification of Diseases, 9 Revision, Clinical Modification, code 233.1. Diagnosis was confirmed by pathology review. We abstracted demographic data, dysplasia history, and modalities utilized for diagnosis and treatment. We identified 242 patients who met selection criteria. Two hundred eight (86%) had Pap test abnormalities at presentation. One hundred thirty-seven out of 208 (66%) patients with abnormal Pap test results had a squamous, rather than glandular, abnormality. The mean time from abnormal Pap test to diagnosis of AIS was 29 months in patients older than 30 years and was 21 months in patients 30 years or younger. In patients younger than 21 years, 16 out of 17 had abnormal screening Pap test results showing squamous lesions. Their subsequent treatment for squamous dysplasia ultimately led to the diagnosis of AIS. : Updated screening guidelines may prevent the expeditious diagnosis of AIS in females younger than 21 years and those aged 21-29 years, many of whom had normal Pap test results within 3 years of diagnosis. II.

  4. Pap Test Reporting Rates for Conventional Smear and Liquid-Based Cervical Cytology from the Largest Academic Women's Hospital in China: Analysis of 1,248,785 Pap Test Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiang; Austin, R Marshall; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Lihong; Xiao, Jianan; Wang, Li; Zhou, Xianrong; Zhao, Chengquan

    2015-01-01

    The Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University (OGHFU) in Shanghai is the largest academic women's hospital in China. Between 2009 and 2014, the use of liquid-based cytology (LBC) significantly increased while gradually adopting the Bethesda System (TBS), and in 2012 local regulations mandated that pathologists replace technicians to sign out Pap tests. A retrospective OGHFU database search documented all Pap test reports between 2009 and 2014 by specimen type, either LBC or conventional Pap smears (CPS), and final reporting category. A total of 1,224,785 Pap reports were analyzed to document variations in Pap test reporting during a period of major change in cervical screening in China. LBC gradually replaced CPS, which declined from over 65% of Pap tests in 2010 to 6.4% in 2014. Of 514,811 Pap reports using the traditional class system, class I (negative) reports accounted for 98.3% of results. With the introduction of TBS reporting, pathologist reviews and substantial replacement of CPS by LBC, the laboratory abnormal Pap test rate increased significantly to almost 5%. Changes in cervical cytology reporting between 2009 and 2014 in China's largest academic women's hospital reflected both increased use of LBC and the introduction of pathologist TBS reporting. Abnormality rates increased significantly and fell within CAP benchmark ranges. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Factors Infuencing Women in Pap Smear Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, K. E.; Alam, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Objective: Pap smear has proven can decrease death caused by cervical cancer. However, in Indonesia, only few woman who already did pap smear. The aim of this study was to investigate women’s knowledge about pap smear cervical cancer, and to investigate factors influence women to do pap smear test. Methods: Quantitative data colected through questionairre towards 31 women who did pap smear and 55 women who did not do pap smear. Questionairre was made using Health Belief model as a guideline to examine percieved susceptibility, perceived serioussnes, perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Chi square and multiple logistic regresion were used to investigate difference in knowledge and what the most factor that influence women to take pap smear test. Results: There’s significance knowledge difference betweeen women who did and did not do pap smear. But furthermore, by using Multiple Logistic Regression test, appearantly knowledge was not a strong predictor factor for women to take pap smear test (koefisiensi β = -0,164) Conclusion: Perceived barriers were factors that affected pap smear uptake in women in Indonesia. Few respondents get the wrong informations about pap smear, cevical cancer and its symptoms

  6. The utilization of Pap test services of women: a nationwide study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fang H; Wang, Hsiu H

    2011-01-01

    Papanicolaou test (Pap test) is the most effective screening tool to prevent cervical cancer. In Taiwan, the National Health Insurance offers women older than 30 years free Pap test; however, the screening rate is merely 52.6%. The purposes of this study were to understand the status quo of Taiwanese women undertaking Pap test and to investigate relevant factors affecting women having Pap tests by applying Andersen's health-service utilization model. This study adopted data from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2004 to 2008, in which 241,843 women having Pap tests were analyzed. The following groups have a higher odds ratio of participating in Pap tests: indigenous women, low-income women, elderly women, women who visit obstetrics and gynecology departments more frequently, less urbanized women, women with less access to medical resources, women with severe diseases, disabled women, women with chronic illnesses, women with cancer, women with gynecological diseases, women with acute diseases who have longer length of hospital stay, and women with chronic diseases who have shorter length of hospital stay. This study provides the status quo and influential factors of women undergoing Pap tests. The results can assist medical personnel to offer appropriate information and intervention and can be a reference for making relevant health policies to raise the screening rates of Pap tests.

  7. Perception and opinion of medical students about Pap smear test: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2010-01-01

    the objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of medical students regarding the Pap smear test. Focus group discussion was held with twenty three medical students. The students were divided into three focus groups; two groups of female participants consisting of 9 and 8 students; respectively. The third group consisted of 6 male students. Questions regarding Pap smear testing included barriers that prevented women from taking the test, gender preference for the physician to conduct the cervical screening test, willingness to suggest Pap smear test to the family or friends. The data obtained were classified into various categories and analyzed manually. Most of the study participants mentioned that the main barriers for women to not perform Pap smear test is lack of awareness 16 (70%), followed by shyness 12 (52%) and the cost of the test 12 (52%). Most agreed that the gender of the physician will affect the women decision to do Pap smear test. All mentioned that the advantage of a regular Pap smear test is to detect the abnormality at the early stage of cervical cancer. Some of the participants 9 (39%) mentioned that the disadvantages are expense, possible injury in the vagina due to the test procedures 8 (35%), associated infection 7(30.4%) and pain 7(30.4%) . The majority, 20 (87%) mentioned that the most effective prevention methods for cervical cancer are having sex only after getting married with the spouse only, HPV vaccination 15 (65%) and Pap smear 14 (61%). The main barriers for women to not perform Pap smear test is lack of awareness, shyness and the cost of the test. Gender of the physician will affect the women decision to do Pap smear test.

  8. [Pap Smear after 65 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderle, I; Le Baccon, F-A; Pinsard, M; Joueidi, Y; Lavoué, V; Levêque, J; Nyangoh Timoh, K

    2017-09-01

    The French recommendations (in favor of stopping cervical cancer screening by cervico-uterine smear from 65 years of age) are logical in the context of organized screening; however, it is not yet generalized in France. The proportion of invasive cervical cancer in the oldest patients is high and these cancers are more evolved and have a more pejorative prognosis. The prevalent infection with high-risk HPV virus remains important in elderly patients: if the HPV infection does not appear to be more risky in the elderly, HPV-induced lesions appear to be more evolving. Unfortunately, pap smear coverage rates are low in the most advanced age groups. Patients without adequate follow-up are exposed to invasive cancer after age 65: all studies insist on the protective effect of two or more normal pap smears between 50 and 65 years that would allow to stop screening. Recent publications in Europe insist, however, on the value of continuing screening beyond the age of 65 in populations that live longer. For the clinician, in France, patients who could benefit from systematic FCU after age 65 could be those: (1) who request it, (2) who have an HPV history, (3) who have not had more than 3 consecutive normal pap smears or (4) who have an associated pathogenic condition. The place of the HPV test deserves to be considered: because of its very high negative predictive value, it could be performed as an exit test or as an alternative test to the pap smear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Periodic abstinence from Pap (PAP) smear study: women's perceptions of Pap smear screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mindy; French, Linda; Barry, Henry C

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes, beliefs, and perceived barriers to risk-based cervical cancer screening through focus group interviews of patients. We conducted 8 focus group interviews of women using semistructured interviews. The investigators independently reviewed the focus group transcripts and identified the overall themes and themes unique to each question using an immersion and crystallization approach. Women are in agreement that cervical cancer screening is important and that women should get Pap smears regularly as an important way of protecting their health. They are not open to the idea of reducing the frequency of Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, however, because they perceive annual screening to be successful in reducing cervical cancer mortality. Additionally, they have concerns about test accuracy. Women are distrustful of the rationale for reducing the frequency of Pap smears. Women's previous bad experiences have reinforced their need for self-advocacy. Women are reluctant to engage in risk-based cervical cancer screening. In this environment, risk-based cervical cancer screening recommendations are likely to be met with resistance.

  10. PP064. Total vascular resistances in early pregnancy: A key to understand abnormal cardiovascular adaptation associated with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Damiano; Scala, Roberta Licia; Tiralongo, Grazia Maria; Pisani, Ilaria; Gagliardi, Giulia; Novelli, Gian Paolo; Vasapollo, Barbara; Valensise, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    From early pregnancy, maternal hemodynamic profile begins to change. The absence of these changes leads to increased risk of complication during the gestation. Aim of this study is to understand in early pregnancy the behaviour of total vascular resistances (TVR) as a sign of maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy. A cross section study was conducted. We followed 160 healthy women with singleton pregnancy during the first trimester of gestation. We evaluated cardiac output (CO) and TVR at 7, 9 and 11 weeks of gestation. We obtained the following haemodynamic measurements with the USCOM system, a non invasive method: heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), CO and TVR. 160 healthy pregnant women were selected, 8 patients, were excluded for a bad signal. Absolute values of the haemodynamic measures are shown in Fig. 1. 41 patients underwent spontaneous embryonic demise. This last group of patients showed in 54% (group A) TVR values within the normal limits (TVR1200) and CO values below the normal adaptation to pregnancy. Table 1 shows hemodynamic measures for the group A and group B; we found differences in term of CO, TVR and PAS between the two groups. Elevated TVR might indicate an abnormal vascular adaptation already in first weeks of pregnancy. Moreover, in women who undergo to abortion, elevated TVR could be use to distinguish genetic or environmental causes of miscarriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A qualitative study exploring factors associated with Pap test use among North Korean refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Soohyun; Chung, Yoonkyung

    2017-10-01

    Lack of medical care in North Korea and vulnerability to human trafficking during their migration increase risks of cervical cancer among North Korean refugees. To better understand factors influencing Pap test use, we conducted a qualitative study of eight North Korean refugees in South Korea. Individual barriers were limited knowledge, lack of perceived need for preventive services, and concerns about costs. Environmental facilitators included having female providers, receiving family support, and free screenings. Refugees' health outlook, including viewing cancers as fatal diseases, hindered seeking Pap tests. Multi-faceted approaches to address individual and environmental factors in promoting Pap tests are warranted.

  12. Implementasi Algoritma PSO Dan Teknik Bagging Untuk Klasifikasi Sel Pap Smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Arifin

    2017-09-01

      Abstract Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in worldwide. In Indonesia cervical cancer and breast cancer is a cancer disease with most patients. The cause of cervical cancer is HPV virus (Human Papilloma Virus types 16 and 18. Pap Smear test is one of the prevention of cervical cancer early. On Pap Smear examination the cells will be observed under a microscope to distinguish normal and abnormal cells, on this examination Pathologists sometimes find it difficult to observe cells because of the almost identical cell shape, and examination are time-consuming and sometimes faulty. The purpose of this research is to propose a classification model for Pap Smear to facilitate Pathologists. The method is used a combination of Particle Swarm Optimization for selection feature and Bagging technique to overcome an unbalanced of classes. From the combination of the two methods, we tested the classification method of Decision Tree, Naïve Bayes and K-NN to find out the comparison of each classification method.  The result of this research indicate that the incorporation of Particle Swarm Optimization method and Bagging Technique proved effective for classification of Pap Smear cells, it is viewed from the accuracy shown results. Classification with K-NN method gives the best accuracy for normal and abnormal cell classification of 95,05%, while classification method with best accuracy for classification 7 class is Decision Tree with 64,24%.   Keywords: Cervical Cancer, Pap Smear and Classification.

  13. Comparing the results of Pap smear and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourasad-Shahrak, Shakiba; Salehi-Pourmehr, Hanieh; Mostafa-Garebaghi, Parvin; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Malakouti, Jamileh; Haghsay, Monireh

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most second common cancer among Iranian women. This study was carried out to compare the results of Pap smear method and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in Tabriz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Alzahra Therapeutic-Educational Centre, Tabriz, Iran in 2013 on 1000 women. First, Pap smear was done for all women, and then the cervix exposed with 5% acetic acid by cotton swab for 30 seconds and observed under adequate light. At the end, women with abnormal results in Pap smear or DVI method were referred to colposcopy and biopsy. Test's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), LR+, LR- and confidence interval (CI) were determined (P Pap smear or DVI test. Twelve women had abnormal Pap smear (nine women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, ASCUS, three women with dysplasia, atypical endocervical, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, LSIL results) and 14 women had positive DVI (four women with human papillomavirus, HPV or koilocyte,) and one women with abnormality in both method had carcinoma in biopsy that referred to oncologist. In this study the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for DVI were 71.4%, 50%, 35.7%, and 81.8% respectively in comparison with 14.3%, 50%, 10%, and 60% for Pap smear. As the DVI method has higher sensitivity and positive predictive value than Pap smear, it could be used as a useful method beside the Pap smear.

  14. Correlation of Cervical Pap Smear with Biopsy in the Lesion of Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, R; Makaju, R; Sharma, S; Bhandari, S; Shrestha, S; Bastakoti, R

    Background Cervical cancer can be controlled to a greater extent by screening to improve morbidity and mortality. Pap smear is important screening method, which has proven to be highly effective in reducing the number of cases and the mortality from cervical carcinoma. Any abnormality detected in pap smear has to be confirmed with cervical biopsy, which remains the reference investigation. Objective To find the changes of cervical cytology by pap smear, to classify cervical lesions into malignant and benign groups on cytological and histopathological basis and to correlate the changes observed in cervical cytology with cervical biopsy. Method This is a prospective cross sectional study done in between July 2014 and July 2015 in Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital. During the period, all the samples requested for pap smear were studied. The cases who had undergone both pap smear and cervical biopsy were compared. Clinical data were obtained from requisition submitted along with the cytology and tissue specimens received in the department. Result During the study period, total 1922 pap smears were performed and out of them 75 patients were advised to do cervical biopsy. On cytology, out of total 1922 number of cases, 67.90% were normal, 27.90% were inflammatory smears, 3.80% were unsatisfactory (inadequate) and 0.40% were high grade intraepithelial lesions. Highest numbers of patients screened for pap smear ranged from 31 to 40 years. On histopathology, 78.70% had chronic cervicitis, 8% had normal findings, 1.30% had moderate and 6.70% had severe squamous intraepithelial lesions. The frank malignancy was found in 5.30%. The mean age ± SD for carcinoma was 52.75±6.29. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value of pap smear were 77.80%, 100%, 100% and 97% respectively considering cervical biopsy as the gold standard Conclusion This study revealed a good correlation of cervical cytology with cervical biopsy

  15. Persistent inflammation on Pap smear: Does it warrant evaluation?

    OpenAIRE

    K Bhutia; M Puri; N Gami; K Aggarwal; S S Trivedi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the low sensitivity of Pap smear, premalignant lesions of the cervix can be missed in women with inflammatory Pap smears. However, it is not practically possible to subject all women with inflammatory Pap smear to colposcopy. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate whether women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear need further evaluation with colposcopy. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and twenty women were screened at a tertiary level hospital with Pap...

  16. Decision making about Pap test use among Korean immigrant women: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Soohyun; Gallo, Joseph J; Nolan, Marie T; Han, Hae-Ra

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how individuals make decisions about Pap tests concerning their personal values helps health-care providers offer tailored approaches to guide patients' decision making. Yet research has largely ignored decision making about Pap tests among immigrant women who experience increased risk of cervical cancer. To explore decision making about Pap tests among Korean immigrant women. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using 32 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Korean immigrant women residing in a north-eastern metropolitan area. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive coding. Although most women with positive decisions made their own decisions, some women deferred to their providers, and others made decisions in collaboration with their providers and significant others. While women making positive decisions tended to consider both barriers to and facilitators of having Pap tests, women making negative decisions predominantly discussed the barriers to having Pap tests, such as modesty and differences between the South Korean and US health-care systems. The women's reflections on their decisions differed regarding their Pap test decisions. Women's desired roles in the decision-making process and reflection on their decision outcome appeared to vary, although most participants with positive decisions made their own decisions and were satisfied with their decisions. Future research should conduct longitudinal, quantitative studies to test our findings regarding decision-making processes and outcomes about Pap tests. The findings should be incorporated into cervical cancer screening practices to fulfil the unmet needs of immigrant women in patient-provider communication and to facilitate women's decision making about Pap tests. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test: psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Gulten; Akyuz, Aygul; Açikel, Cengiz Han

    2011-02-01

    This study is a report of the development and psychometric testing of the Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test. While the Champion Health Belief Model scales have been tested extensively for breast cancer and screening for this, evaluation of these scales in explaining the beliefs of women with regard to cervical cancer and the Pap Smear Test has only received limited attention. This methodological research was carried out in Turkey in 2007. The data were collected with 237 randomly selected women who met the criteria for inclusion and agreed to participate in this study. The Champion Health Belief Model scales were translated into Turkish, adapted for cervical cancer, validated by professional experts, translated back into English and pilot-tested. Factor analysis yielded five factors: Pap smear benefits and health motivation, Pap smear barriers, seriousness, susceptibility and health motivation. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients for the five subscales ranged from 0·62 to 0·86, and test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0·79 to 0·87 for the subscales. The Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test was found to be a valid and reliable tool in assessing the women's health beliefs. Understanding the beliefs of women in respect of cervical cancer and the Pap Smear Test will help healthcare professionals to develop more effective cervical cancer screening programmes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Toward a complex system understanding of bipolar disorder: A chaotic model of abnormal circadian activity rhythms in euthymic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaeghi, Fatemeh; Hashemi Golpayegani, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Sajad; Murray, Greg

    2016-08-01

    In the absence of a comprehensive neural model to explain the underlying mechanisms of disturbed circadian function in bipolar disorder, mathematical modeling is a helpful tool. Here, circadian activity as a response to exogenous daily cycles is proposed to be the product of interactions between neuronal networks in cortical (cognitive processing) and subcortical (pacemaker) areas of the brain. To investigate the dynamical aspects of the link between disturbed circadian activity rhythms and abnormalities of neurotransmitter functioning in frontal areas of the brain, we developed a novel mathematical model of a chaotic system which represents fluctuations in circadian activity in bipolar disorder as changes in the model's parameters. A novel map-based chaotic system was developed to capture disturbances in circadian activity across the two extreme mood states of bipolar disorder. The model uses chaos theory to characterize interplay between neurotransmitter functions and rhythm generation; it aims to illuminate key activity phenomenology in bipolar disorder, including prolonged sleep intervals, decreased total activity and attenuated amplitude of the diurnal activity rhythm. To test our new cortical-circadian mathematical model of bipolar disorder, we utilized previously collected locomotor activity data recorded from normal subjects and bipolar patients by wrist-worn actigraphs. All control parameters in the proposed model have an important role in replicating the different aspects of circadian activity rhythm generation in the brain. The model can successfully replicate deviations in sleep/wake time intervals corresponding to manic and depressive episodes of bipolar disorder, in which one of the excitatory or inhibitory pathways is abnormally dominant. Although neuroimaging research has strongly implicated a reciprocal interaction between cortical and subcortical regions as pathogenic in bipolar disorder, this is the first model to mathematically represent this

  19. Prevalence and predicting factors for anxiety in thai women with abnormal cervical cytology undergoing colposcopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerachotechueantaveechai, Tanut; Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Wongpakaran, Nahathai

    2015-01-01

    To compare prevalence of anxiety in women with abnormal cervical cytology (Pap) undergoing colposcopy to that of women attending the outpatient clinic for check-up and to examine predicting factors. In this cross-sectional analytical study, 100 women with abnormal cervical cytology (abnormal Pap group) and 100 women who attended our outpatient clinic for check-up (control group) were recruited from June 2013 to January 2014. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was employed to determine anxiety in the participants with the score of ≥ 11 suggestive of clinically significant anxiety. The prevalence of anxiety and the mean HADS scores for anxiety were compared between the groups. For those with abnormal Pap, association between clinical factors and anxiety was assessed. A p-value of abnormal Pap group and 50.0 years in the control group (p=0.01). The proportion of participants who had more than one sexual partner was higher in the abnormal Pap group, 39.2% vs. 24.7% (p=0.03) and the prevalence of anxiety was significantly higher 14/100 (14.0%) vs. 3/100 (3.0%) (p abnormal Pap group, 6.6 vs. 4.8 (P abnormal Pap group, no definite association between clinical factors and anxiety was demonstrated. The prevalence of anxiety in women with abnormal Pap awaiting colposcopy was significantly higher than that of normal controls. Special attention including thorough counselling, with use of information leaflets and psychological support, should be directed to these women.

  20. HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozalp, Sabit Sinan; Us, Tercan; Arslan, Emine; Oge, Tufan; Kaşifoğlu, Nilgün

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey. A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Twenty six of 615 patients (4%) were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6%) 4 AGUS (0.6%), 2 CIN I (0.3%) results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41) underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis). HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

  1. Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-26

    Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of abnormal Papanicolaou smear in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Kamal, Mehak; Bamuhair, Samira S; Omair, Aamir A; Bamefleh, Hana S

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and characteristics of abnormal pap smear in the central region of Saudi Arabia. In this retrospective case control study conducted in the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Histopathology at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, all pap smears screened for Saudi women between 2008 and 2011 were reviewed. Approximately 5000 pap smears are screened annually at King Abdulaziz Medical City utilizing the Bethesda III System (2001). All abnormal smears patients' data were collected and compared to the data of randomly selected 200 normal smears' patients. Abnormal pap smear prevalence was found to be 4.3% (841/19,650 Saudi patients were found with atypical epithelial cells abnormalities). Its prevalence in the years 2008 was 5.7%, 2009 was 4.9%, 2010 was 4.2%, and 2011 was 2.5%. Abnormal smear patients have lower parity (p=0.001), and were less likely to use intra-uterine devices (p=0.03) compared with normal smear patients. Presence of abnormal cervical appearance was associated with increased epithelial cell abnormalities (p=0.045). The only positive history that has characterized patients with epithelial cell abnormalities was their previous history of abnormal pap smear (p=0.001). Squamous cell abnormalities were identified in 91% of the patients (767/841), and glandular cell abnormalities were identified in 9% of the patients (74/841). Prevalence of abnormal pap smears in central Saudi Arabia is relatively low, while advanced glandular abnormalities prevalence was observed to be high. 

  3. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert

    2008-01-01

    The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands...... developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per...

  4. KLASIFIKASI INTI SEL PAP SMEAR BERDASARKAN ANALISIS TEKSTUR MENGGUNAKAN CORRELATION-BASED FEATURE SELECTION BERBASIS ALGORITMA C4.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Arifin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Pap Smear is an early examination to diagnose whether there’s indication cervical cancer or not, the process of observations were done by observing pap smear cell under the microscope. There’s so many research has been done to differentiate between normal and abnormal cell. In this research presents a classification of pap smear cell based on texture analysis. This research is using the Harlev image which amounts to 280 images, 140 images are used as training data and 140 images other are used as testing. On the texture analysis used Gray level Co-occurance Matrix (GLCM method with 5 parameters that is correlation, energy, homogeneity and entropy added by counting the value of brightness. For choose which the best attribute used correlation-based feature selection method and than used C45 algorithm for produce classification rule. The result accuracy of the classification normal and abnormal used decision tree C45 is 96,43% and errors in predicting is 3,57%. Keywords : Classification, Pap Smear cell image, texture analysis, Correlation-based feature selection, C45 algorithm. Abstrak - Pap Smear merupakan pemeriksaan dini untuk mendiagnosa apakah ada indikasi kanker serviks atau tidak, proses pengamatan dilakukan dengan mengamati sel pap smear dibawah mikroskop. Banyak penelitian yang telah dilakukan untuk membedakan antara sel normal dan abnormal. Dalam penelitian ini menyajikan klasifikasi inti sel pap smear berdasarkan analisis tektur. Citra yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah citra Harlev yang berjumlah 280 citra, 140 citra digunakan sebagai data training dan 140 citra lain digunakan sebagai testing. Pada analisis tekstur mengunakan metode Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM menggunakan 5 parameter yaitu korelasi, energi, homogenitas dan entropi ditambah dengan menghitung nilai brightness. Untuk memilih mana atribut terbaik digunakan metode correlation-based feature selection lalu digunakan algoritma C45 untuk

  5. Randomized controlled trial of human papillomavirus testing versus Pap cytology in the primary screening for cervical cancer precursors: design, methods and preliminary accrual results of the Canadian cervical cancer screening trial (CCCaST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Duarte-Franco, Eliane; Coutlée, François; Rodrigues, Isabel; Walter, Stephen D; Ratnam, Sam; Franco, Eduardo L

    2006-08-01

    Since infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) has been considered a necessary cause of cervical cancer, tests for oncogenic HPV types have been proposed as adjuncts or replacements to Pap cytology. We designed the Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial (CCCaST) to compare the relative efficacy of HPV DNA testing and Pap cytology in primary screening for cervical cancer and its high-grade precursors. CCCaST randomized women aged 30-69 years in Montreal (Quebec) and in St. John's (Newfoundland) to 1 of 2 screening groups: focus on Pap (conventional) or focus on HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2). Women in both arms received both tests, but were randomized as to their order, the first test being the index test. Women with an abnormal Pap test or a positive HPV test underwent colposcopy and biopsy, as did a random sample of women with a negative index test. CCCaST enrolled 9,667 women between October 2002 and October 2004. At enrolment, 2.8% had an abnormal Pap test, 6.1% had a positive HPV test and 1.1% were abnormal in both tests. ASC-US was the most frequent cytological abnormality, representing 64% of abnormal Pap results. The frequency of abnormal Pap and HPV results decreased with increasing age and the proportion of HPV-positive results increased with the severity of Pap abnormality. Efficacy analysis will determine if the extra referrals with HPV DNA testing will translate into a relevant increase in high-grade cervical cancer precursor detection. Because of its design, CCCaST will provide sound evidence for formulating cervical cancer screening strategies. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Trends in Pap Test Practices and Results: An 11-Year Review of the Annual ACHA Pap Test and STI Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman-Mueller, Heather P.; Oswalt, Sara B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a trend analysis of Pap test practices, Pap test results and related women's services and guidelines of college health centers. Participants: College health centers who participated in the annual ACHA Pap Test and STI (sexually transmitted infection) Survey years 2004-2014 (n ranged from 127 to 181 depending on year).…

  7. Modifying and Pilot Testing the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ackerson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a report on modifications and pilot testing of a measurement tool to predict Pap testing based on the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. Women have been found to avoid routine cervical cancer screening (CCS due to personal influencing factors. For this study, the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire (PSBQ was modified by adding items and evaluated through content validity index (CVI = .89 and cognitive interviews (think-aloud protocol, resulting in a 31-item instrument with four subscales (Benefits, Barriers, Vulnerability, Experiences. Pilot testing the modified PSBQ was conducted at a local agency. Fifty-three women completed and returned the PSBQ, which had good internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of .81 (Benefits α = .51; Barriers α = .85; Vulnerability α = .78; Experiences α = .87. Test–retest reliability of the 31-item PSBQ was also good (.878. Univariate logistic regression indicated that the only significant predictor of seeking/avoiding routine screening by women’s background characteristics was social influence (p = .04. Subscales found to be significant predictors in Pap testing were Barriers (p = .003 and Gynecological Exam Experiences (p = .04. The refined 31-item PSBQ has good psychometric data supporting its use in predicting CCS. However, this research should be replicated in a larger sample enabling further validity and reliability testing of the PSBQ. Understanding women’s attitudes toward CCS will help health care providers, who deal with gynecological health, develop more effective screening programs and interventions facilitating better experiences for women contributing to an increase in routine screening.

  8. Pap smear follow-up of possible role of mucopurulent exudate as a prognosticator of a negative pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, U K; Fairfax, M R; Ayers, M

    1999-07-01

    Our objective was to study a cohort of women by various means to detect sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to correlate the presence of mucopurulent exudate (PEX) on Papanicolaou (Pap) smears with pregnancy outcome. Bacteriologic cultures taken from swabs for chlamydia and gonorrhea were correlated with Gen-Probe results. Smears were examined for trichomonas, yeast, HPV, obscuring mucopurulent exudate, and squamous intraepithelial abnormalities. There was no positive correlation between STD and negative pregnancy outcome. Mucopurulent exudate on Pap smears was very high in this population. Continuing study of this population of women is needed to see if larger cohorts will demonstrate any positive correlations between PEX and pregnancy outcome. Placing women with obscuring mucopurulent exudate in a "high-risk" category for complications may prevent adverse side effects to the birth product. The Pap smear works as well as the Gram stain for detection of bacterial vaginosis and cervicitis. Eliminating the Gram stain from routine pelvic exam results in cost savings.

  9. The degree of agreement between HPV testing, pap smear and colposcopy in cervical dysplasia diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinte-Popescu, Alina; Costăchescu, G

    2012-01-01

    The current study analyzed the degree of agreement between HPV testing, Pap smear, and colposcopic directed cervical biopsies. The study was performed on a group of 332 patients diagnosed and treated for cervical dysplasia at Cuza-Vodă Obstetrics-Gynecology Clinic Hospital and Suceava County Hospital between 2006 and 2011. 190 patients (57.23%) were positive for HPV, 56 (35%) were positive for two HPV types and 42 (22.10%) for three or more HPV types. High grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) accounted for 88 (26.5%), low grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) for 92 (27.71%), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) for 69 (20.78%) and squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 5 (1.5%) of referral Pap smears. Colposcopic directed cervical biopsies reported no pathological abnormality (negative) in 64 (19.28%), HSIL in 105 (31.62%), LSIL in 83 (25%) and other lesions in 80 (24.1%) women. Exact degree of agreement between Pap smear and cervical biopsy was fair (k = 0.5) when analyzing for high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion. The high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 66 and 68 and the low-risk HPV types 11, 54, 83, and 61 were the most frequently detected HPV types. The current study showed the fair agreement between Pap smear and colposcopic biopsy. Incorporation of HPV testing into the present Pap screening program has the potential to make screening for cervical cancer more effective, and a necessary prelude to assessing this is determining the prevalence of the high-risk types.

  10. Frequency of Adequate Endometrial Biopsy in Evaluation of Postmenopausal Women With Benign Endometrial Cells on Pap Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Jeffrey W; Alston, Meredith J; Mazzoni, Sara E; Stickrath, Elaine

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency that endometrial biopsies (EMBs) performed on postmenopausal (PMP) women with benign endometrial cells (BECs) on Pap test are adequate for assessing malignancy or hyperplasia. This is a case series including all PMP women older than 55 years at a single academic institution between January 2008 and September 2015 with a Pap test result including BEC. Patients were identified via an internal cytology database. Patient data, the ability to obtain an EMB, and the result of the EMB were collected. An adequate EMB was defined as the presence of glands and stroma sufficient to assess for endometrial hyperplasia and/or malignancy. Descriptive statistics were performed, and then univariable and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations of patient factors and adequacy of EMB. One hundred sixteen women met inclusion criteria. One hundred seven had an EMB scheduled (92%) and of those 91 EMBs were obtained (85%). Of the obtained biopsies, 63 were inadequate to rule out the diagnosis of hyperplasia and/or malignancy (69%). Of these, 19 patients underwent pelvic ultrasound (30%), 12 followed up with repeat Pap test (19%), and 4 underwent dilation and curettage (6%). Of the adequate biopsies, 5 had a diagnosis of hyperplasia (18%) and 5 with malignancy (18%). In PMP women with BEC on Pap test, adequate EMB was only obtained in 31% of patients. Most patients without an adequate biopsy had no further workup of their abnormal Pap test.

  11. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  12. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School ... Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic material inherited from one generation ...

  13. The value of Pap test in women with endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Petrić; Vekoslav Lilić; Radomir Živadinović; Predrag Vukomanović; Olivera Dunjić; Radmila Ignjatović; Goran Lilić

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Endometrial cancer is the second most common gynecological tumor. There is still no recommended screening method for endometrial cancer. The application of transvaginal sonography, hysteroscopy and Pap test may prove useful in screening for this disease. Atypical glandular cells represent an important finding in Pap tests and they are related to histopathological verification of the endometrium. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of the Pap test in assessing th...

  14. [Health technology assessment report: Computer-assisted Pap test for cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Palma, Paolo; Moresco, Luca; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    HEALTH PROBLEM: Cervical cancer is a disease which is highly preventable by means of Pap test screening for the precancerous lesions, which can be easily treated. Furthermore, in the near future, control of the disease will be enhanced by the vaccination which prevents the infection of those human papillomavirus types that cause the vast majority of cervical cancers. The effectiveness of screening in drastically reducing cervical cancer incidence has been clearly demonstrated. The epidemiology of cervical cancer in industrialised countries is now determined mostly by the Pap test coverage of the female population and by the ability of health systems to assure appropriate follow up after an abnormal Pap test. Today there are two fully automated systems for computer-assisted Pap test: the BD FocalPoint and the Hologic Imager. Recently, the Hologic Integrated Imager, a semi-automated system, was launched. The two fully automated systems are composed of a central scanner, where the machine examines the cytologic slide, and of one or more review stations, where the cytologists analyze the slides previously centrally scanned. The softwares used by the two systems identify the fields of interest so that the cytologists can look only at those points, automatically pointed out by the review station. Furthermore, the FocalPoint system classifies the slides according to their level of risk of containing signs of relevant lesions. Those in the upper classes--about one fifth of the slides--are labelled as « further review », while those in the lower level of risk, i.e. slides that have such a low level of risk that they can be considered as negative with no human review, are labelled as « no further review ». The aim of computer-assisted Pap test is to reduce the time of slide examination and to increase productivity. Furthermore, the number of errors due to lack of attention may decrease. Both the systems can be applied to liquidbased cytology, while only the BD Focal

  15. Bacillary haemoglobinuria diagnosis by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, F A; Belak, K; Rivera, E; Robles, C A; Feinstein, R E

    1992-10-01

    A peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique was used to diagnose bacillary haemoglobinuria in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues of cattle. The PAP method revealed Clostridium haemolyticum in the zone of liver necrosis characteristic of the disease and also in culture smears of this microorganism, but C. novyi type B, C. chauvoei, C. septicum and C. perfringens types B and C remained unstained by the PAP reaction. The PAP technique performed provides a specific, simple and rapid method to diagnose bacillary haemoglobinuria.

  16. Timely reminder interventions to improve annual Papanicolaou (Pap) smear rates among HIV-infected women in an outpatient center of southern Nevada: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Vimala; Moonie, Sheniz; Patel, Dina; Hunt, Aaron T; Richardson, Jan; Di John, David; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2017-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend annual Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women for cervical cancer screening. Rates for such screening in Nevada are below the national rate. Our cohort includes 485 eligible HIV-infected adult women from an outpatient center in Southern Nevada of which only 12 women had obtained a Pap smear in the past year. An intervention was conducted from June 2015 to September 2015, in which reminders to schedule a Pap smear were sent to the remaining cohort of 473 women via sequential text messaging, followed by phone call attempts. Of all subjects, 94% contacted by text messages and 41% contacted by phone calls were successfully reached. There was an increase in the rate of completed Pap smears from 2.5% (12/485) at baseline to 11.8% (56/473) after interventions (p < 0.0001) in a period of three months. Out of the 68 Pap smear results, 20 (29.4%) were abnormal. Our intervention, utilizing methods of communication such as text messaging and phone calls, markedly increased the rate of completed Pap smear screening in our population.

  17. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS with positive airway pressure (PAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Campo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to treat any disease, an adequate multidisciplinary management and involving the patient in the long term are necessary, since not treating patients implies an enormous burden for the health system and the society. Currently, different treatments for patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS can be found, being PAP (positive airway pressure the most frequently chosen after ruling out anatomical abnormalities susceptible to surgery. Indications for PAP therapy include patients with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI ≥15 events/hour or ≥5 and ≤14 events/hour and complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness, cognitive impairment and affective disorder or insomnia, documented arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, or cerebrovascular event history. It is important to remember that AHI should be based on polysomnographic recording of sleep ≥2 hours. There are different modalities of treatment with PAP and intervention should be sought to improve adherence to the device, which is the main limiting factor for achieving efficacy in the treatment. The impact of OSAHS treatment has been investigated, but most of the reported studies are observational.

  18. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear and the Factors Influencing the Pap test Screening among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtarian, Hossein; Mirzabeigi, Elaheh; Mahmoodi, Elham; Khezeli, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    Although the Pap smear is known as one of the effective methods to detect the cervical cancer, a large group of women are reluctant to do the test because of various reasons. Therefore, we carried out this study to determine the level of knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear and the factors influencing the Pap test screening among women. In this cross-sectional study, 355 women referred to the health centers of Gilan-e gharb city were randomly recruited in 2015. The participants asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire including five parts (questions about: demographic factors, knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear, Pap smear performance, barriers and facilitators related to Pap smear and the sources of information). Data were analyzed through SPSS version 19, using descriptive statistics, Independent T-test, and logistic regression. The mean age of the participants was 34.08±7.81 years. Almost 50.4% of the subjects had a history of Pap smear test. Pap test performance was significantly higher in those who had higher knowledge (PPap smear and age was the most important predictors of the Pap test performance (PPap smear test were inadequate knowledge and the recommendations received from family, friends and healthcare professionals (44.3% and 40.2%, respectively). Knowledge about Pap smear and cervical cancer was important in predicting Pap test doing. In addition, inadequate knowledge was introduced as the most important barrier to screening test from the perspective of women. Therefore, we suggest that health education and health promotion studies as interdisciplinary and targeted interventions should be implemented to improve the women's knowledge.

  20. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Maso, Luigino; Franceschi, Silvia; Lise, Mauro; De' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Polesel, Jerry; Ghinelli, Florio; Falcini, Fabio; Finarelli, Alba C

    2010-06-21

    The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy). All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year). The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age or =45 years), lower education level (OR = 1.3), first HIV-positive test in the last 2 years (OR = 1.4), and CD4 count Pap-smear in the last year were found in women born in Central-Eastern Europe (OR = 1.8) and Africa (OR = 1.3). No difference in history of Pap-smear emerged by mode of HIV-acquisition or AIDS status.Three hundred five (34%) women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58%) referred for treatment, 97% complied. In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is

  1. Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Soldan, Valerie A; Lee, Frank H; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K; Garnett, Geoff P; Garcia, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

  2. Decision Making for Pap Testing among Pacific Islander Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Sablan-Santos, Lola; DeGuzman Lacsamana, Jasmine; Quitugua, Lourdes; Park Tanjasiri, Sora

    2016-01-01

    This study employed a Multi-Attribute Utility (MAU) model to examine the Pap test decision-making process among Pacific Islanders (PI) residing in Southern California. A total of 585 PI women were recruited through social networks from Samoan and Tongan churches, and Chamorro family clans. A questionnaire assessed Pap test knowledge, beliefs and…

  3. Detection of in situ and invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma on ThinPrep Pap Test: Morphologic analysis of false negative cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chaump

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to calculate the sensitivity and false negative (FN rate of ThinPrep Pap Test (TPPT and carefully analyze missed cases for educational purposes. Materials and Methods: Patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma in-situ (AIS or invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma (EAC over a 17-year-period (1998-2015 were identified. The TPPT immediately preceding the histological diagnosis of AIS/ECA was designated as index Pap (IP. Paps up to 122 months before histologic diagnosis of AIS/ECA were considered for this study. All available negative and unsatisfactory TPPT were re-reviewed. Results: There were 78 patients with histologically-proven AIS (56 or ECA (22 with 184 TPPTs, and 95 of these TPPTs were abnormal. Of the abnormal cases, 55.7% TPPTs were diagnosed as endocervical cell abnormality (atypical endocervical cells/AIS/ECA. Notably, 44.2% of abnormal TPPTs were diagnosed as squamous cell abnormality (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Including the diagnoses of squamous cell abnormality, the sensitivity of index TPPT for histologically-confirmed AIS/ECA was 88%. Eighty-eight of 184 TPPT, including 10 IP, were negative = 87, or unsatisfactory = 1. Forty-two of these slides were available for re-review. Upon review, 21 TPPT (50% were confirmed negative and 21 TPPT (50% were reclassified as abnormal = 20, or unsatisfactory = 1. Of the FN cases, the main difficulty in correct diagnosis was the presence of few diagnostic cell clusters which had less "feathering," and consisted of smaller, rounder cells in small and tighter clusters, with nuclear overlap. In particular, nuclear overlap in three-dimensional groups precluded the accurate diagnosis. Rare FN cases showed squamous cell abnormality on re-review, and rare cases showed obscuring blood or inflammation. Conclusion: A significant proportion of AIS

  4. Detection of in situ and invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma on ThinPrep Pap Test: Morphologic analysis of false negative cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaump, Michael; Pirog, Edyta C; Panico, Vinicius J A; D Meritens, Alexandre Buckley; Holcomb, Kevin; Hoda, Rana

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to calculate the sensitivity and false negative (FN) rate of ThinPrep Pap Test (TPPT) and carefully analyze missed cases for educational purposes. Patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma in-situ (AIS) or invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma (EAC) over a 17-year-period (1998-2015) were identified. The TPPT immediately preceding the histological diagnosis of AIS/ECA was designated as index Pap (IP). Paps up to 122 months before histologic diagnosis of AIS/ECA were considered for this study. All available negative and unsatisfactory TPPT were re-reviewed. There were 78 patients with histologically-proven AIS (56) or ECA (22) with 184 TPPTs, and 95 of these TPPTs were abnormal. Of the abnormal cases, 55.7% TPPTs were diagnosed as endocervical cell abnormality (atypical endocervical cells/AIS/ECA). Notably, 44.2% of abnormal TPPTs were diagnosed as squamous cell abnormality (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). Including the diagnoses of squamous cell abnormality, the sensitivity of index TPPT for histologically-confirmed AIS/ECA was 88%. Eighty-eight of 184 TPPT, including 10 IP, were negative = 87, or unsatisfactory = 1. Forty-two of these slides were available for re-review. Upon review, 21 TPPT (50%) were confirmed negative and 21 TPPT (50%) were reclassified as abnormal = 20, or unsatisfactory = 1. Of the FN cases, the main difficulty in correct diagnosis was the presence of few diagnostic cell clusters which had less feathering, and consisted of smaller, rounder cells in small and tighter clusters, with nuclear overlap. In particular, nuclear overlap in three-dimensional groups precluded the accurate diagnosis. Rare FN cases showed squamous cell abnormality on re-review, and rare cases showed obscuring blood or inflammation. A significant proportion of AIS/EAC is discovered after Pap showing squamous cell abnormality. FN

  5. Accuracy of Screening Tools for Pap Smears in General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Harding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Data extraction tools (DETs are increasingly being used for research and audit of general practice, despite their limitations. Objective This study explores the accuracy of Pap smear rates obtained with a DET compared to that of the Pap smear rate obtained with a manual file audit. Method A widely available DET was used to establish the rate of Pap smears in a large multi-general practice (multi-GP in regional New South Wales followed by a manual audit of patient files. The main outcome measure was identification of possible discrepancies between the rates established. Results The DET used significantly underestimated the level of cervical screening compared to the manual audit. In some instances, the patient file contained phone/specialist record of Pap smear conducted elsewhere, which accounted for the failure of the DET to detect some smears. Those patients who had Pap smears whose pathology codes differed between time intervals, i.e. from different pathology providers or from within the same provider but using a different code, were less likely to have had their most recent Pap smear detected by the DET (p < 0.001. Conclusion Data obtained from DETs should be used with caution as they may not accurately reflect the rate of Pap smears from electronic medical records. How this fits in DETs are increasingly being used for research and audit of general practice. This study explores the accuracy of Pap smear rates obtained with a DET compared to that of the Pap smear rate obtained with a manual file audit The DET tested significantly underestimated the level of cervical screening compared to manual screening. Data obtained from DETs should be used with caution as they may not accurately reflect the rate of Pap smears from electronic medical records

  6. Self-sampling for cervical screening: could it overcome some of the barriers to the Pap test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Robyn; Scalzo, Katherine; Sultana, Farhana

    2014-12-01

    To determine which groups of women would be most likely to take part in self-sampling for cervical screening, and what they perceive as the key barriers and benefits to self-sampling. A random sample of 3000 women aged 18-69 in Victoria, Australia, were asked questions about "taking their own Pap test" in a telephone survey about cervical screening; 2526 answered the questions about self-sampling. The terminology "Pap test" was used in questions, due to the very low understanding of HPV and its link to cervical cancer. One-third of women (34.0%) indicated they would prefer to self-sample, 57.2% would not and 8.7% were unsure. Preference for self-sampling was significantly stronger among women who had not had a Pap test for more than three years (64.8%, p Pap test, and could potentially reach some women who are not participating appropriately in cervical screening. Key barriers to participation could be addressed by providing information about the test being for HPV, and being easier to do properly than a Pap test. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-01-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT 50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. - Highlights: • Biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs in an aerobic soil was investigated.

  8. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a mental disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  9. Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-05-01

    Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of nursing interventions to increase pap smear test screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Gulten; Akyuz, Aygul; Yenen, Mufit Cemal

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a three-stage nursing intervention to increase Turkish women's participation in Pap smear testing. Knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening and barriers to Pap smears also were explored. In a quasi-experimental study in a target population of 2,500 women, 237 completed pre-test measures to inform the intervention, and an educational brochure was distributed to all 2,500. As a result, 510 women (20.4%) accepted free Pap smears. Of the remaining 1,990 women, 417 were randomly selected for telephone interviews, 302 participated, and 158 of these (52.3%) participated in free Pap smear testing. Of the 144 who did not have Pap smears after participating in telephone interviews, 54 were then interviewed face-to-face, and 20 (37.0%) decided to accept free Pap smears. A total of 668 women had accepted free Pap smears by the end of the intervention period. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Pemphigus vulgaris of the cervix: diagnostic difficulties associated with the Pap test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz de Paula Alves Coelho, Karina; Stall, Jaqueline; Henrique Condeixa de França, Paulo; Cristina de Carvalho Tavares, Lara; Stefanello Bublitz, Giuliano; Loos, Beliza; Carvalho Costa, Luciana; Fronza Júnior, Hercílio

    2015-08-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare mucocutaneous disease caused by the abnormal production of antibodies against epithelial cell surface glycoproteins, resulting in loss of cell adhesion and intraepithelial blister formation. Cervical involvement in PV has been poorly reported, and there is little information regarding the criteria about consequential cytological changes identified in a Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smear (Pap smear). Here, we report a case of PV manifesting in the cervix as well as the difficulty associated with the cytomorphological identification and interpretation of acantholytic cells. This case involved a 40-year-old patient with no history of Pap test abnormalities and no prior diagnosis of PV. In the cytological assessment, cells were identified both in isolation and in clusters that exhibited round nuclei of increased volume, inconspicuous nucleoli, and perinuclear halos. The patient underwent a cervical biopsy that revealed vesiculobullous lesions and morphological pattern consistent with PV. A skin biopsy confirmed this diagnosis. We concluded that knowledge of PV cytomorphology is important because difficulties associated with the identification and interpretation of acantholytic cells might be responsible for false positive diagnoses of cervical neoplasia. However, a suspected diagnosis of PV is possible if the cytological findings are carefully correlated with the clinical data. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Five-year risks of CIN 3+ and cervical cancer among women who test Pap-negative but are HPV-positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Raine-Bennett, Tina; Gage, Julia C; Kinney, Walter K

    2013-04-01

    Current US guidelines for cotesting recommend that the large numbers of women who test Pap-negative, but human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive, return in 1 year, and those who remain HPV-positive or have low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or worse Pap results be referred for colposcopy. However, the performance of these guidelines in routine clinical practice has not been evaluated. We estimated cumulative 5-year risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN 3+) among 32,374 women aged 30 to 64 years with HPV-positive/Pap-negative cotest results at Kaiser Permanente Northern California during 2003 to 2010. The 5-year CIN 3+ risk after an HPV-positive/Pap-negative cotest result, which was found in 3.6% of women, was 4.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.2%-4.8%). The 5-year cancer risk was 0.34% (95% CI = 0.26%-0.45%), and half of the cases were adenocarcinoma. Overall, 48% of the women remained HPV-positive on return (median = 418 days after baseline), a percentage that varied little over ages 30 to 64 years. At the return after a baseline HPV-positive/Pap-negative result, almost every repeat cotest result predicted greater subsequent 5-year CIN 3+ risk than the same cotest result had at baseline (HPV-positive/LSIL, 9.2% vs 6.1%, p = .01; HPV-positive/atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US], 7.9% vs 6.8%, p = .2; HPV-positive/Pap-negative, 7.4% vs 4.5%, p Pap-negative, 0.93% vs 0.08%, p testing HPV-positive/Pap-negative had a subsequent CIN 3+ risk consistent with risk thresholds for a 1-year return. However, on returning in approximately 1 year, about one-half of women will be referred for colposcopy because of continued HPV positivity or Pap abnormality. Clinicians should keep in mind that cotest results at the return after a baseline HPV-positive/Pap-negative finding are riskier than the same baseline cotest results in the general population, supporting intensified clinical management at return testing.

  13. Knowledge About Cervical Cancer Risk Factors and Practices of Pap Testing Among Turkish Immigrant Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal Toraman, Aynur; Yildirim, Nilufer

    2017-09-19

    The objective of this study was to examine knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors and practices of Pap testing among female Turkish immigrants in the state of Florida in the United States of America (USA). This descriptive study was conducted between April and September 2012. The study sampling was consist of 156 Turkish women living in the state of Florida. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among the population of Turkish immigrant women. On the survey form comprised of a total of 37 questions and three sections there are questions pertaining to the socio-demographic characteristics of the individuals, their knowledge on the cervical cancer risk factors and their approach to getting Pap smear tests. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 16.0) was used to compute frequency and descriptive statistics related to demographic data. The average age of the women is 35.67 ± 10.0. More than half of women (66%) women reported cervical cancer screening at least one. Over two-thirds knew that having abnormal vaginal bleeding (85.8%) and vaginal infections (78.2%), having sexual activity with a man who has had multiple sexual partners (61.5%), and having multiple sexual partners (61.5%) increase the risk of cervical cancer. The result of the multivariate regression analysis have determined that the age of immigrant women (OR 11.3, 95 % CI 5.1-25.2, p:0.000) and the number of children ( OR 3.4, 95 % CI 1.7-6.9, p:0.000) are factors that impact pap smear testing behavior. Our study findings confirm low levels of Pap testing and show important knowledge deficits about cervical cancer risk factors and the importance of Pap testing among Turkish immigrant women. It is recommended that the immigrant women be educated about cervical cancer by means of organizing conferences in their own language and preparing informative materials.

  14. Type-specific HPV and Pap test results among low-income, underserved women: providing insights into management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Mona; Benard, Vicki B; Greek, April A; Steinau, Martin; Patel, Sonya; Massad, L Stewart; Sawaya, George F; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2014-10-01

    The primary cervical cancer screening strategy for women over age 30 is high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing combined with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing (cotesting) every 5 years. This combination strategy is a preventive service that is required by the Affordable Care Act to be covered with no cost-sharing by most health insurance plans. The cotesting recommendation was made based entirely on prospective data from an insured population that may have a lower proportion of women with HPV positive and Pap negative results (ie, discordant results). The discordant group represents a very difficult group to manage. If the frequency of discordant results among underserved women is higher, health care providers may perceive the cotesting strategy to be a less favorable screening strategy than traditional Pap testing every 3 years. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Cervical Cancer Study was conducted at 15 clinics in 6 federally qualified health centers across Illinois. Providers at these clinics were given the option of cotesting for routine cervical cancer screening. Type-specific HPV detection was performed on residual extracts using linear array. Pap test results were abnormal in 6.0% and HPV was positive in 7.2% of the underserved women screened in this study (mean age, 45.1 years). HPV prevalence decreased with age, from 10.3% among 30- to 39-year-olds to 4.5% among 50- to 60-year-olds. About 5% of the women had a combination of a positive HPV test and normal Pap test results; HPV 16/18 was identified in 14% of discordant women. The rate of discordant results among underserved women was similar to those reported throughout the US in a variety of populations. Typing for HPV 16/18 appears to assist in the management in a small proportion of women with discordant results. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear and the Factors Influencing the Pap test Screening among Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ashtarian, Hossein; Mirzabeigi, Elaheh; Mahmoodi, Elham; Khezeli, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Although the Pap smear is known as one of the effective methods to detect the cervical cancer, a large group of women are reluctant to do the test because of various reasons. Therefore, we carried out this study to determine the level of knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear and the factors influencing the Pap test screening among women. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 355 women referred to the health centers of Gilan-e gharb city were randomly recruited i...

  16. Bacteriological quality of retail pap prepared from maizeand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These included Acetobacter, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, E. coli, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, Neisseriae, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. The isolated genera that contaminated 24 pap samples prepared from guinea corn and their percentage ...

  17. [Future of gynecological exfoliative cytology specimen, the Pap test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Pekka; Timonen, Tuomo

    2014-01-01

    Screenings of cervical cancer in Finland by using the Pap test have decreased the incidence of the disease by approx. 80%. Automation-assisted cytology and liquid-based Pap test have improved the technical quality of cytological examination. The HPV test allows the prevention of more cancers and its negative predictive value is crucially better than that of the Pap test. Its problem is the modest specificity in young age groups. When the HPV-vaccinated age groups reach the screening age, the HPV test should be adopted as the first-line screening test in all age groups. The Pap test will continue to have an important role as a further investigation and diagnostic specimen.

  18. Knowledge, attitude and practice of Pap smear among Omani women

    OpenAIRE

    Nasar Yousuf Alwahaibi; Nasra Mohammed Alramadhani; Atheer Mohammed Alzaabi; Waad Abdullah Alsalami

    2017-01-01

    Background: Absence or low uptake of Pap smear is probably the main barrier for high incidence of cervical cancer. Aim: To assess the knowledge, practice, attitude, main barriers and motivating factors of Pap smear among Omani women. Methods: Cross-secal survey in a tertiary referral hospital. The participants were divided into three groups: the patients who attended Outpatient Gynecology Department in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, the female staff from SQUH, College of Medi...

  19. Decision making for Pap testing among Pacific Islander women

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Jie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Sablan-Santos, Lola; DeGuzman Lacsamana, Jasmine; Quitugua, Lourdes; Park Tanjasiri, Sora

    2016-01-01

    This study employed a Multi-Attribute Utility (MAU) model to examine the Pap test decision-making process among Pacific Islanders (PI) residing in Southern California. A total of 585 PI women were recruited through social networks from Samoan and Tongan churches, and Chamorro family clans. A questionnaire assessed Pap test knowledge, beliefs and past behaviour. The three MAU parameters of subjective value, subjective probability and momentary salience were measured for eight anticipated conse...

  20. Declining prevalence of cytological squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix among women living with well-controlled HIV - Most women living with HIV do not need annual PAP smear screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Inka; Kivelä, Pia; Haukka, Jari; Sutinen, Jussi; Heikinheimo, Oskari

    2017-11-01

    Cervical screening by means of annual Papanicolaou (PAP) smears has been recommended for all women living with HIV. We analysed the results of our annual PAP smear screening program to identify low-risk subgroups for less rigorous screening. The study comprised 369 women followed at the Helsinki University Hospital 2002-2013, with a total of 2033 PAP smear results. We analyzed the temporal changes in PAP smear findings. Logistic regression analysis for binominal dependent variables was used for assessing risk factors for ever having cytological squamous intraepithelial lesions (hereafter referred as SIL) using generalized estimating equations taking into account multiple observations of each patient. Most women had well-controlled HIV, especially towards the end of the study. PAP smear results improved substantially. At the time of each individual's last PAP smear, 90.0% of the findings displayed normal results. Conversely, the rate of SIL decreased from 16.8% to 4.6% from 2002 to 2013. In multivariate analysis the risk of SIL was significantly lower in women with consecutive normal PAP smear findings during the first two years of follow up [odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.45, p 500 cells/μL (OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.05-0.26, p < 0.001). Widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and systematic cervical screening has reduced the rate of abnormal PAP smears. It seems feasible to identify low-risk women by combining HIV-related information and PAP smear results. Screening low-risk women living with HIV at three-year intervals similar to HIV-negative women appears justified. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. The value of visual inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening program in low resource settings - A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Nguyen Vu Quoc; Tam, Le Minh; Tram, Ngo Viet Quynh; Thuan, Dang Cong; Vinh, Truong Quang; Thanh, Cao Ngoc; Chuang, Linus

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to determine the diagnostic values of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Pap smear in a cervical cancer screening program at a community level in Vietnam. A cross-sectional analysis was obtained, including 1034 women of reproductive age from Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam from 09/2012 to 09/2013. Samples were taken from cervixes for Pap smear testing, followed by visual inspection with acetic acid. Subjects with abnormal VIA and/or positive cytology results were invited for colposcopy and biopsy. Histologic confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) served as gold standards for diagnostic values analysis. Abnormal VIA results were recorded in 87 cases (7.7%). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of VIA for CIN2+ were 88.8%, 43.8%, 63.4%, 51.2% and 83.3%, respectively. Diagnostic values of Pap smear were 58.0%, 85.2%, 69.9%, 83.3% and 61.3% for its sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV, respectively. VIA yielded high sensitivity but its accuracy is still limited in pre-cancerous lesions during cervical cancer screening. The Pap smear has acceptable sensitivity and specificity, but its false-negative rate is still high. We recommend a combination of different tests to increase the efficiency of screening in our community.

  2. A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimiene J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The

  3. Cytological Features Associated with Ureaplasma Urealyticum in Pap Cervical Smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okodo, Mitsuaki; Kawamura, Jumpei; Okayama, Kaori; Kawai, Kenji; Fukui, Tadasi; Shiina, Natsuko; Caniz, Timothy; Yabusaki, Hiromi; Fujii, Masahiko

    2017-08-27

    Purpose: Ureaplasma urealyticum is associated with several obstetric complications and increases the importance of risk management in pregnant women. Furthermore, U. urealyticum has been identified as a cofactor that interacts with human papillomavirus infection in cervical cancer onset. The aim of this study was to assess specific cytological features of U. urealyticum infection in Pap smears to determine whether additional microbiological testing should be performed for pregnant women with a high possibility of U. urealyticum infection. Methods: Liquid-based cytology specimens (LBC) from cervical swabs of a total of 55 women, including 33 pregnant women who were negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) on Pap testing and with U. urealyticum diagnosed without any other infectious microbes and 22 U. urealyticum-negative controls, were used in this study. We evaluated the localization of U. urealyticum by immunofluorescence, cytological features of secondary changes in squamous cells caused by inflammation, and the specimen background in Pap smears. Results: Based on analysis of Pap smears, a significant relationship was observed between U. urealyticum infection and cannonballs (p Pap smears of U. urealyticum infected samples, which have hardly been understood thus far, were assessed. The cytological features included cannonballs and predominance of coccoid bacteria. Our results might help in determining whether additional microbiological testing should be performed for pregnant women with a high possibility of U. urealyticum infection. Creative Commons Attribution License

  4. Implementation of a real-time reference and calibration grid platform for improved screening - mapping in Pap test slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiambas, Evangelos; Riziotis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening based on the Papanicolaou (Pap) test is a widely applied but not always efficient practice for detecting Human Papillomavirus (HPV) mediated lesions, partially due to a non-systematic and inadequate screening process. Our aim was to introduce an inexpensive easy-to-use direct screening platform for improved detection of abnormal cells indicative of underlying cervical neoplasia as well as persisting HPV infection. By employing a novel, efficient technique of laser-based micromachining, we achieved the fabrication of spatial grids on commercially available coverslips allowing visual segmentation of the slide for efficient screening. Abnormal and formerly diagnosed as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) Pap test slides (n = 200) were analyzed by conventional and grid-based screening. Grid-based microscopy led to a more reliable diagnosis compared to the conventional by identifying an increased number of abnormal cells (P = 0.001). It decreased borderline ASCUS, AGC diagnosis, increasing LSIL, HSIL and in situ AdenoCa detection rates closely related with biopsy (P = 0.015; kappa = 0.978). Concerning the set of NILM diagnoses in rapid re-screening, the method upgraded six cases (n = 6) to LSIL (P = 0.001). The proposed technical solution offers a calibration and orientation visual aid during the on-site screening process providing significant advantages compared to expensive digital imaging techniques. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Impact of pap test compliance and cervical cancer screening intervals on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G; Waller, Jennifer; Dickinson, Ashley; McCracken, Courtney; Goebel, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of Pap test compliance and cervical cancer screening intervals on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination acceptance. A convenience sample of 499 women 21 to 65 years old completed a 37-question survey in Augusta and Savannah, GA. The survey assessed their knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine. The questionnaire also determined their Pap test compliance and how longer Pap test intervals would influence their willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. Differences between categorical variables and knowledge scores were examined using χ test and unequal-variance t tests, respectively. Pap test-noncompliant women were more likely to get the HPV vaccine if they only needed a Pap test every 10 years compared with Pap test-compliant women (27.6% vs 14.6%, p = .02). A greater number (83.5%) of Pap test-noncompliant women preferred the HPV vaccine plus every 10-year Pap test option compared with Pap test-compliant women (31.3%, p Pap testing. Women are receptive to getting the HPV vaccine in exchange for longer cervical cancer screening intervals. Moreover, Pap test-noncompliant women are more likely to get the HPV vaccine if Pap testing was needed less frequently. Increasing the Pap testing interval may be an excellent method to improving HPV vaccine acceptance in women at highest risk for cervical cancer.

  6. Using Natural Language Processing to Extract Abnormal Results From Cancer Screening Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carlton R; Farrag, Ashraf; Ashkin, Evan

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies show that follow-up of abnormal cancer screening results, such as mammography and Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, is frequently not performed in a timely manner. A contributing factor is that abnormal results may go unrecognized because they are buried in free-text documents in electronic medical records (EMRs), and, as a result, patients are lost to follow-up. By identifying abnormal results from free-text reports in EMRs and generating alerts to clinicians, natural language processing (NLP) technology has the potential for improving patient care. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the performance of NLP software for extracting abnormal results from free-text mammography and Pap smear reports stored in an EMR. A sample of 421 and 500 free-text mammography and Pap reports, respectively, were manually reviewed by a physician, and the results were categorized for each report. We tested the performance of NLP to extract results from the reports. The 2 assessments (criterion standard versus NLP) were compared to determine the precision, recall, and accuracy of NLP. When NLP was compared with manual review for mammography reports, the results were as follows: precision, 98% (96%-99%); recall, 100% (98%-100%); and accuracy, 98% (96%-99%). For Pap smear reports, the precision, recall, and accuracy of NLP were all 100%. Our study developed NLP models that accurately extract abnormal results from mammography and Pap smear reports. Plans include using NLP technology to generate real-time alerts and reminders for providers to facilitate timely follow-up of abnormal results.

  7. Cervical cancer and pap smear awareness and utilization of pap smear test among Federal civil servants in North Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A; Ibeh, Joy N; Osoba, Tolulope

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n = 388) aged 18-65 years in a Nigerian Federal establishment. Participants were randomly approached and instructed to complete validated questionnaires. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, t-tests and logistic regression analysis to determine if there was an association between variables and identify any predictors of awareness and utilization of the Pap test. Cervical cancer and Pap smear test awareness was 50.9% and 38.6% respectively, with the media as the major source of information. Pap smear test utilization rate was 10.2%, with routine antenatal care (ANC) as the major reason for getting screened. Personal barriers to screening include the lack of awareness, and belief that cervical cancer is not preventable. Opportunistic screening, mass media campaigns and ANC education were suggested as ways of improving awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services.

  8. Knowledge and Awareness Among Iranian Women Regarding the Pap Smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Dadkhah

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Screening is a necessity for country health systems. In undeveloped countries that have no screening programs, cervical carcinoma is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity. Although cervical cancer is preventable it is poorly controlled in some countries. The main cause of it is unawareness of people from cervical cancer and screening methods. Methods:The target population consisted of a consecutive sample of 1002 female patients, 15-45 years old, visiting the city health care centers in Tehran for any reason between January 2006 and January 2007. We used a self-administered,written, anonymous, multiple choice questionnaire that was developed by the study authors. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.05.Results: The mean of age was 31.23 ± 4.3 years. Five-hundred and twentytwo cases (52.1% had knowledge about Pap smear test. Only 230 cases (44.1%knew the correct time of the first Pap smear that should be done in women.And 408 cases (77.9% knew Pap smear can detect cancer of the cervix. 364 cases (71.9% had heard about cervical cancer,314 cases (59.9% had heard something about symptoms of cervical cancer. Conclusion: It is obvious that in Iran (and especially in Tehran, Pap smear awareness (52.1% is statistically similar to other developing countries, and only 45.9% had had at least one Pap smear test till the time of the interview. Thus, there is a need for an awareness campaign to increase the uptake of Pap smear testing.

  9. What do women think about abnormal smear test results? A qualitative interview study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Schijf, C.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study is a report of Dutch women's views on abnormal cervical smear test results and the consequences thereof. Twenty-seven women with recent PAP III in their history were interviewed in the context of this qualitative study. GPs often do not inform patients beforehand about the ways

  10. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: konishi@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: togawa@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: kawahara@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: s-matsumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: kiyama@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  11. CKI isoforms α and ε regulate Star–PAP target messages by controlling Star–PAP poly(A) polymerase activity and phosphoinositide stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laishram, Rakesh S.; Barlow, Christy A.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Star–PAP is a non-canonical, nuclear poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that is regulated by the lipid signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PI4,5P2), and is required for the expression of a select set of mRNAs. It was previously reported that a PI4,5P2 sensitive CKI isoform, CKIα associates with and phosphorylates Star–PAP in its catalytic domain. Here, we show that the oxidative stress-induced by tBHQ treatment stimulates the CKI mediated phosphorylation of Star–PAP, which is critical for both its polyadenylation activity and stimulation by PI4,5P2. CKI activity was required for the expression and efficient 3′-end processing of its target mRNAs in vivo as well as the polyadenylation activity of Star–PAP in vitro. Specific CKI activity inhibitors (IC261 and CKI7) block in vivo Star–PAP activity, but the knockdown of CKIα did not equivalently inhibit the expression of Star–PAP targets. We show that in addition to CKIα, Star–PAP associates with another CKI isoform, CKIε in the Star–PAP complex that phosphorylates Star–PAP and complements the loss of CKIα. Knockdown of both CKI isoforms (α and ε) resulted in the loss of expression and the 3′-end processing of Star–PAP targets similar to the CKI activity inhibitors. Our results demonstrate that CKI isoforms α and ε modulate Star–PAP activity and regulates Star–PAP target messages. PMID:21729869

  12. Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Awareness and Utilization of Pap Smear Test among Federal Civil Servants in North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hyacinth, Hyacinth I.; Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A.; Ibeh, Joy N.; Osoba, Tolulope

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n = 388) aged 18-65 y...

  13. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  14. [Is the PAP smear era coming to an end?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Spaczyński, Marek

    2015-12-01

    After the discovery of the role human papilloma virus (HPV) plays in the development of cervical cancer we are witnesses to a change in the conception and interpretation of cervical cancer prevention processes. Primary prevention gained a new tool in the form of HPV vaccines. Secondary prevention, i.e. detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN), acquired a new diagnostic method--the HPV test. Studies were initiated in order to determine the usefulness of HPV tests in cervical cancer prevention and screening. They revealed that the DNA HPV test used in screening has higher sensitivity in CIN detection than PAP smear and that HPV-negative patients are better and longer protected against developing cervical cancer in comparison to women with normal PAP smear results. HPV tests also possess a predictive value, which detects women more susceptible to developing cervical cancer in the future. PAP smear does not have a predictive value. Instead, it only detects a presence or an absence of neoplasia at that particular time. These results clearly indicate that the era of classic PAP smear is indeed coming to an end, replaced by a new primary CIN screening tool--HPV test. The entire cervical cancer screening system must therefore be redefined and reorganized.

  15. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas; Dounias, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis in...

  16. Diagnostic Impacts of Serum CA-125 Levels, Pap Smear Evaluation, and Endometrial Sampling in Women with Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Nilufer; Selcuk, İlker; Ozdal, Bulent; Meydanli, Mehmet M; Gungor, Tayfun

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial clear cell carcinoma (ECCC) is a rare variant of endometrial cancer with an unfavorable prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships, if any, between preoperative serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) levels, the last Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, the results of endometrial biopsy and tumor histology, and disease-stage according to permanent histopathology. The data of 26 women with ECCC were collected from their medical records to compare demographics, preoperative serum CA-125 levels, Pap test results, histological diagnosis of the endometrial biopsy, and tumor histology, as well as the disease stage according to permanent histopathology. The mean age at diagnosis was 64.0 years. There were 17 (65.3%) women with pure ECCC and 8 (30.7%) women with a mixed histology. Stage III-IV disease was diagnosed in 12 (46.2%) women and occurred more frequently in pure ECCC (n = 11, 91.7%). CA-125 values were significantly higher in advanced stage disease. Cytological evaluation indicated the presence of 71.4% (10/14) cytological abnormalities in pure ECCC. The overall sensitivity of endometrial sampling for the detection of malignancy was 92.3% (24/26), whereas the accurate diagnosis of ECCC was only 34.7% (8/23) with the Pipelle sampler. Pap test abnormalities are frequent in ECCC. Although it is less accurate in the diagnosis of ECCC than in the detection of malignancy, endometrial sampling is still the main procedure for the diagnosis of ECCC. Higher preoperative CA-125 concentrations imply the presence of advanced stage ECCC. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  17. Pap smear screening in women under 30 in the Norwegian Coordinated Cervical Cancer Screening Program, with a comparison of immediate biopsy vs Pap smear triage of moderate dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Jan F; Nygård, Mari; Skare, Gry Baadstrand; Thoresen, Steiner Osterbø

    2006-01-01

    Top provide population based estimates of Pap smear screening results among women under 30 and to compare the outcomes of 2 triage options for women under 30 with a moderate dysplastic Pap smear: immediate biopsy vs. Pap smear follow-up. All Pap smears, histologically verified cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN) 2/3 and invasive cervical cancer in 1999-2002 from women in Norway under 30 in 2000-2002 were analyzed. Due to different triage recommendations in different laboratories, 836 women under 30 with a moderately dysplastic Pap smear were recommended for immediate biopsy, while 109 were recommended for a Pap smear within 6 months. Risk estimates for triage outcome were estimated by multinominal logistic regression. The prevalence of squamous intraepithelial lesion was highest around 20 years. The first moderate dysplasia was diagnosed at age 16, as was CIN 2/3. Of the women with Pap smear triage, one third were diagnosed with a CIN 2+ lesion, one third had a normal outcome, while the last third were in uncertain state 12 months later. Among those recommended for immediate biopsy, nearly 70% were diagnosed with a CIN 2+, thus having odds of 4.2 (95% CI 2.5-7.1) higher than did women with Pap smear triage of being diagnosed with CIN2+ 12 months later. The choice of triage has a profound impact on the proportion of young women diagnosed with CIN 2+ after a moderately dysplastic Pap smear.

  18. Prevalence, risk factors, and pregnancy outcomes of cervical cell abnormalities in the puerperium in a hyperendemic HIV setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maise, Hopolang C; Moodley, Dhayendre; Sebitloane, Motshedisi; Maman, Suzanne; Sartorius, Benn

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the impact of cervical cell abnormalities detected in the puerperium in association with HIV-1 infection on pregnancy outcomes. The present study was a secondary data analysis of pregnancy outcomes, Pap smear results, HIV results, and participant demography from a behavioral intervention randomized controlled trial of 1480 pregnant women aged 18 years or more conducted at a periurban primary health clinic in South Africa during 2008-2010. The Pap smear was performed 14 weeks after delivery. In total, 564 (38.1%) women were HIV-1-positive and 78 (8.0%) of 973 women with a categorized Pap smear result tested positive for cervical cell abnormalities; 42 (4.2%) women had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSILs) and 7 (0.7%) had high-grade lesions (HGSILs). In an adjusted analysis, HIV infection was significantly more common among women with LGSILs (28/42 [66.7%]) or HGSILs (6/7 [85.7%]) when compared with the other Pap smear categories (P<0.001). The rates of premature birth, low birth weight, and non-live births were similar among HIV-infected and -uninfected women with abnormal cervical cytology. Pregnant women with HIV were more likely to be diagnosed with higher grades of squamous cell abnormalities than those without HIV. There was no association between squamous cell abnormalities/HIV comorbidity and adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  19. Cytomorphology of unusual infectious entities in the Pap test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid E Khalbuss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rare entities in the Pap test, including neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions, pose challenges due to their infrequent occurrence in the daily practice of cytology. Furthermore, these conditions give rise to important diagnostic pitfalls. Infections such as tuberculosis cervicitis may be erroneously diagnosed as carcinoma, whereas others, such as schistosomiasis, are associated with squamous cell carcinoma. These cases include granuloma inguinale (donovanosis, tuberculosis, coccidioidomycosis, schistosomiasis, taeniasis, and molluscum contagiosum diagnosed in Pap tests. Granuloma inguinale shows histiocytes that contain intracytoplasmic bacteria (Donovan bodies. Tuberculosis is characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with Langhans-multinucleated giant cells. Coccidioidomycosis may show large intact or ruptured fungal spherules associated with endospores. Schistosoma haematobium is diagnosed by finding characteristic ova with a terminal spine. Molluscum contagiosum is characterized by the appearance of squamous cells with molluscum bodies. This article reviews the cytomorphology of selected rare infections and focuses on their cytomorphology, differential diagnosis, and role of ancillary diagnostic studies.

  20. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ...

  1. Loaded hip thrust-based PAP protocol effects on acceleration and sprint performance of handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Padulo, Johnny; Seitz, Laurent D

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two barbell hip thrust-based (BHT) post-activation potentiation (PAP) protocols on subsequent sprint performance. Using a crossover design, eighteen handball athletes performed maximal 15-m sprints before and 15s, 4min and 8min after two experimental protocols consisting of BHT loaded with either 50% or 85% 1RM (50PAP and 85PAP, respectively), in order to profile the transient PAP effects. The resulting sprint performances were significantly impaired at 15s only after the 85PAP protocol, which induced likely and very likely greater decreases compared to the 50PAP. At 4min and 8min, significant improvements and very likely beneficial effects were observed in the 10m and 15m performances following both protocols. Significant differences were found when comparing the two PAPs over time; the results suggested very likely greater performance improvements in 10m following the 85PAP after 4min and 8min, and possible greater performance improvements in 15m after 4min. Positive correlations between BHT 1RMs values and the greatest individual PAP responses on sprint performance were found. This investigation showed that both moderate and intensive BHT exercises can induce a PAP response, but the effects may differ according to the recovery following the potentiating stimulus and the individual`s strength level.

  2. Association of knowledge, attitude and demographic variables with cervical Pap smear practice in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranabhat, Sabin; Tiwari, Mamta; Dhungana, Govinda; Shrestha, Reshmi

    2014-01-01

    Coverage of cervical pap smear test in Nepal is below general global values. One of the reasons may be that cervical cancer prevention policy of Nepal has 'Visual Inspection of Cervix with Acetic Acid' as the only screening tool. The focus of present study was to find out association of demographic factors, knowledge and attitude regarding cervical Pap smear test with its practice by women in Nepal. This cross sectional analytical observational study was conducted between February 1, 2013 and April 30, 2013. Participants were interviewed with the help of a structured questionnaire. Chi square and multivariate logistic regression tests were used to detect associations of variables with pap smear practice. Chi square test showed that practice was significantly associated with knowledge about pap smear test and cervical cancer, having favourable attitude towards the test, urban residency and 36-50 years age-group. Pap smear utilization was not associated with age-at-marriage, parity and age-at-first-child-birth. Multivariate logistic regression showed favorable attitude towards pap smear test as the only variable which significantly influenced pap smear practice (p=0.006, OR: 2.4). Pap smear coverage has been found to be 15.7% which is lower than global average and that for developing countries. Health education programs which are effective not only in increasing knowledge about cervical cancer and pap smear test but also effective in positively changing attitude towards the test should be organized to increase pap smear coverage.

  3. Adolescents' intention and self-efficacy to follow Pap testing recommendations after receiving the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lisa M; Dirksing, Kelsie N; Ding, Lili; Morrow, Charlene D; Widdice, Lea A; Kahn, Jessica A

    2016-06-02

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are recommended in the US for girls and women 11-26 y of age. Because these vaccines do not prevent all cervical cancers, Papanicolaou (Pap) screening is still recommended after vaccination. Young women who have been vaccinated may perceive themselves at lower risk for HPV infection and cervical cancer, which could lead to lower intention and self-efficacy to follow cervical cancer screening guidelines, and subsequent nonadherence to Pap testing. The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) after vaccination and other factors are associated with adolescents' intention and self-efficacy to get Pap testing after HPV vaccination. Women 13-21 y of age (N = 339) receiving their first HPV vaccine dose completed a survey. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between perceived risk of HPV and intention/self-efficacy to get a Pap test while adjusting for other factors. Approximately half of participants reported high intention and half reported high self-efficacy to get a Pap test. Factors significantly associated with high intention were Pap testing history and knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccines; factors significantly associated with high self-efficacy included insurance plan, Pap testing history, communication with clinician about needing a Pap test after vaccination, lifetime number of male sexual partners, and recent smoking. In conclusion, educating adolescents about HPV/HPV vaccines and the need for Pap testing may increase self-efficacy/intention to get a Pap test after vaccination.

  4. The pap-smear test experience of women in Turkey: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabaci, Zeynep; Ozsoy, Suheyla

    2012-01-01

    The study was planned with the purpose of examining the attitude of women who have pap-smear test for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer, factors affecting their decisions and their feelings and experiences during this period. A phenomenological method was used. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 using standard and purposive samplings from 17 women. A detailed interview with women were held in their houses and recorded. The data collection tool consisted of two parts, one of which is information form with 17 questions identifying sociodemographic and cervical cancer risk factors of women and the second part is made up of semi-structured interview form with 15 alternative questions taking literature and the pap-smear test into consideration. Collected data were put into a written document. Content analysis was held by loading the documents into NVIVO 8 Statistical Programme. The study comprised themes such as cervical risk factor, decision of taking pap-smear test, taking pap-smear test, knowledge about pap-smear test, relieving factors during pap-smear test, obstructive factors during pap-smear test, gynecological examination and feelings of women during and after pap-smear test while waiting for the results. As women perceive gynaecological examinations differently from other examinations, they have different feelings in each process of the Pap smear test. Medical staff should advise women more clearly on the nature and advantages of the Pap-smear test.

  5. Changes in cervical cancer screening behavior for women attending Pap Test Week clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliquin, V; Decker, K; Altman, Ad; Lotocki, R

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to determine factors associated with inadequate cervical cancer screening and changes in cervical cancer screening behavior. Data were acquired using the CervixCheck Manitoba registry and an ancillary database of demographic information collected from clinic attendees. The study included 1124 women. Of these, 53% (n = 598) were under-screened (no Pap test in the previous 2 years) prior to accessing the clinics. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.03), no doctor (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), and living in Canada Pap Test Week clinics. Thirty-seven percent (n = 223) of under-screened women demonstrated improved screening status subsequent to the 2006 Pap Test Week (had a subsequent Papanicolaou [Pap] test performed within 2 years) and these women were more likely to live in an urban setting (P = 0.003), be younger (P Pap test result in 2006 (P Pap test performed at a Pap Test Week clinic compared to having a Pap test performed elsewhere (37% versus 60%, P Pap Test Week clinics whose screening status might be most modifiable.

  6. Misinterpretation Rates of High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion in the College of American Pathologists Gynecologic PAP Education and PAP Proficiency Test Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengquan; Crothers, Barbara A; Ghofrani, Mohiedean; Li, Zaibo; Souers, Rhona J; Hussain, Mujtaba; Fan, Fang; Ocal, Idris Tolgay; Davey, Diane D

    2016-08-23

    Context .- Misinterpretation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) is an important problem in daily practice and in the College of American Pathologists (CAP) PAP Proficiency Test (PAP-PT). Objective .- To investigate factors related to misinterpretation of HSIL through responses in a proficiency test versus an educational environment. Design .- We retrospectively evaluated 28 000 responses in the PAP Education Program (PAP-Edu) and 59 140 responses in PAP-PT from 1147 field-validated HSIL slides from 2007 to 2014. The related factors, such as program types, preparation types, participant types, and program years, were evaluated. Results .- Overall, 4.0% (2379 of 59 140) of responses for HSIL slides from PAP-PT were misinterpreted as either low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or negative, significantly more than those from PAP-Edu (3.2%; 898 of 28 000). However, the false-negative rate (misinterpreted as negative) was 0.9% (519 of 59 140) for PAP-PT, lower than that for PAP-Edu (1.0%; 266 of 28 000). The misinterpretation rates in PAP-PT trended down with time. Misinterpretation rates did not vary significantly by preparation methods. The misinterpretation rate for HSIL in the pathologists' responses was lower than that in cytotechnologists' in PAP-PT. More HSIL was misinterpreted as LSIL than as benign in both programs. Cytotechnologists interpreted HSIL as LSIL twice as much as pathologists. The most common false-negative misinterpretations were negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy and reparative change. Conclusions .- The higher LSIL misinterpretation rate by cytotechnologists may be related to the differences in reporting responsibilities and proficiency test grading criteria. The trend of gradually decreasing misinterpretation rates of a reference diagnosis of HSIL in the PAP-PT program may be related to higher test-taking confidence and better preparation through educational programs. The fact that

  7. Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: challenges for survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raggi Patrizio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population (age 25–64. From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned. Methods From the target population, 940 women were sampled, and responded to a telephone interview about Pap-test utilisation. The answers were compared with the screening program registry; comparing the dates of Pap-tests reported by both sources. Sensitivity analyses were performed for coverage over a 36-month period, according to various assumptions regarding non respondents. Results The response rate was 68%. The coverage over 36 months was 86.4% if we assume that non respondents had the same coverage as respondents, 66% if we assume they were not covered at all, and 74.6% if we adjust for screening compliance in the non respondents. The sensitivity and specificity of the question, "have you ever had a Pap test with the screening programme" were 84.5% and 82.2% respectively. The test dates reported in the interview tended to be more recent than those reported in the registry, but 68% were within 12 months of each other. Conclusion Surveys are useful tools to understand the effectiveness of a screening programme and women's self-report was sufficiently reliable in our setting, but the coverage estimates were strongly influenced by the assumptions we made regarding non respondents.

  8. Introducing PAP: a plasma apprentice program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1986-04-01

    Although current capabilities of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence are not adequate to do all the types of thinking a physicist does in solving physics problems, much of what the human theorist does can be effectively imitated by a computer. This paper describes an early stage of implementation of an apprentice program for aiding plasma theorists in developing plasma physics theory, by performing some of those tasks which the theorist normally must do, but which are now amenable to machine imitation. The apprentice has a ''knowledge base'' containing its understanding of plasma theory, which can be accessed by the human user for pedagogic purposes, as well as by the apprentice itself, and some ability to do the kinds of qualitative or heuristic reasoning necessary to the human theorist in solving problems. These facilities enable the apprentice itself to do plasma calculations, informing the user of the progress of the calculation, and prompting him when a decision is needed which the apprentice is not equipped to handle. Some extensions planned for the future are discussed

  9. Introducing PAP: a plasma apprentice program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1986-04-01

    Although current capabilities of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence are not adequate to do all the types of thinking a physicist does in solving physics problems, much of what the human theorist does can be effectively imitated by a computer. This paper describes an early stage of implementation of an apprentice program for aiding plasma theorists in developing plasma physics theory, by performing some of those tasks which the theorist normally must do, but which are now amenable to machine imitation. The apprentice has a ''knowledge base'' containing its understanding of plasma theory, which can be accessed by the human user for pedagogic purposes, as well as by the apprentice itself, and some ability to do the kinds of qualitative or heuristic reasoning necessary to the human theorist in solving problems. These facilities enable the apprentice itself to do plasma calculations, informing the user of the progress of the calculation, and prompting him when a decision is needed which the apprentice is not equipped to handle. Some extensions planned for the future are discussed.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis for Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus DNA testing and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Kan; Hung, Hui-Fang; Duffy, Stephen; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2011-12-01

    As the effectiveness of cytology-based screening programme for cervical cancer in mortality reduction has reached a plateau, various preventive strategies have been considered, including intensive Pap smear screening and the supplemental use of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test or HPV vaccination. Cost and effectiveness of these various preventive strategies are therefore of great concern for health policy makers. We intended to assess whether the combination of HPV DNA testing or HPV vaccination with Pap smear screening programme or the sole annual Pap smear screening is more effective and cost-effective in prevention of cervical cancer than the existing triennial Pap smear screening programme. A Markov decision model was constructed to compare total costs and effectiveness between different preventive strategies (including annual Pap smear, HPV DNA testing or HPV vaccination together with Pap smear screening programme) as opposed to the triennial Pap smear screening alone (the comparator). Probabilistic cost-effectiveness (C-E) analysis was adopted to plot a series of simulated incremental C-E ratios scattered over C-E plane and also to yield the acceptability curve for different comparisons of strategies. The threshold of vaccine cost and the influence of attendance rate were also investigated. Compared with triennial Pap smear screening programme, most of preventive strategies cost more but gain additional life years (quadrant I of C-E plane) except HPV DNA testing with Pap smear every 5 years dominated by triennial Pap smear screening programme. The most cost-effective strategy was annual Pap smear (incremental C-E ratio = $31 698), followed by HPV DNA testing with Pap smear every 3 years ($36 627), and vaccination programme with triennial Pap smear screening ($44 688) with the corresponding cost-effective probabilities by the acceptability curve being 65.52%, 52.08% and 35.84% given the threshold of $40 000 of willingness to pay. Vaccination combined with

  11. Comparison of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and the Pap Smear for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Parul; Srivastava, Pritika; Srivastava, Anand

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) in the early detection of cervical cancer and compare it with the Pap smear. This was a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 3 months. A total of 316 patients who attended the Gynecology Outpatient Department of Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and gave their informed consent were included. VIA was found positive in 38 patients (12.6%). Pap smear was positive in 31 patients (10.3%). Twenty-eight patients had a positive VIA and a positive Pap smear, 3 had a negative VIA and a positive Pap smear, 10 had a positive VIA and a negative Pap smear, and 34 had a negative VIA and a negative Pap smear. The sensitivity of VIA and the Pap smear was found to be nearly equal, 93.3 and 93.8%, respectively. The Pap smear was found to be more specific than VIA, i.e., 72.9 versus 60%. In terms of test accuracy, the Pap smear was found to have greater test accuracy, i.e., 77.3 versus 66.7% for VIA. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea adhere poorly to positive airway pressure (PAP, but PAP users show improved attention and school performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean W Beebe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is associated with medical and neurobehavioral morbidity across the lifespan. Positive airway pressure (PAP treatment has demonstrated efficacy in treating OSA and has been shown to improve daytime functioning in adults, but treatment adherence can be problematic. There are nearly no published studies examining functional outcomes such as academic functioning in adolescents treated with PAP. This study was conducted as an initial step towards determining whether PAP treatment improves daytime functioning among adolescents with OSA.Self-reported academic grades, self- and parent-reported academic quality of life, and objectively-measured attention were assessed before and after PAP was clinically initiated in a sample of 13 obese adolescents with OSA, as well as 15 untreated obese Controls without OSA. Based on adherence data, the treated group was divided into PAP Users (n = 6 and Non-Adherent participants (n = 7.Though demographically similar, the three groups significantly differed in how their academic performance and attention scores changed from baseline to follow-up. Non-Adherent participants showed worsening functioning over time, while PAP Users showed stable or improved functioning, similar to controls.Although many adolescents prescribed PAP for OSA are non-adherent to the treatment, those who adhere to treatment can display improved attention and academic functioning.

  13. Adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea adhere poorly to positive airway pressure (PAP), but PAP users show improved attention and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Dean W; Byars, Kelly C

    2011-03-17

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is associated with medical and neurobehavioral morbidity across the lifespan. Positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment has demonstrated efficacy in treating OSA and has been shown to improve daytime functioning in adults, but treatment adherence can be problematic. There are nearly no published studies examining functional outcomes such as academic functioning in adolescents treated with PAP. This study was conducted as an initial step towards determining whether PAP treatment improves daytime functioning among adolescents with OSA. Self-reported academic grades, self- and parent-reported academic quality of life, and objectively-measured attention were assessed before and after PAP was clinically initiated in a sample of 13 obese adolescents with OSA, as well as 15 untreated obese Controls without OSA. Based on adherence data, the treated group was divided into PAP Users (n = 6) and Non-Adherent participants (n = 7). Though demographically similar, the three groups significantly differed in how their academic performance and attention scores changed from baseline to follow-up. Non-Adherent participants showed worsening functioning over time, while PAP Users showed stable or improved functioning, similar to controls. Although many adolescents prescribed PAP for OSA are non-adherent to the treatment, those who adhere to treatment can display improved attention and academic functioning.

  14. Overexpression of the PAP1 transcription factor reveals a complex regulation of flavonoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in Nicotiana tabacum plants attacked by Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunami, Tomoko; Nishihara, Masahiro; Galis, Ivan; Alamgir, Kabir Md; Hojo, Yuko; Fujita, Kohei; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nemoto, Keichiro; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments and associated flavonoids have demonstrated antioxidant properties and benefits for human health. Consequently, current plant bioengineers have focused on how to modify flavonoid metabolism in plants. Most of that research, however, does not consider the role of natural biotic stresses (e.g., herbivore attack). To understand the influence of herbivore attack on the metabolic engineering of flavonoids, we examined tobacco plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis PAP1 gene (encoding an MYB transcription factor), which accumulated anthocyanin pigments and other flavonoids/phenylpropanoids. In comparison to wild-type and control plants, transgenic plants exhibited greater resistance to Spodoptera litura. Moreover, herbivory suppressed the PAP1-induced increase of transcripts of flavonoid/phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes (e.g., F3H) and the subsequent accumulation of these genes' metabolites, despite the unaltered PAP1 mRNA levels after herbivory. The instances of down-regulation were independent of the signaling pathways mediated by defense-related jasmonates but were relevant to the levels of PAP1-induced and herbivory-suppressed transcription factors, An1a and An1b. Although initially F3H transcripts were suppressed by herbivory, after the S. litura feeding was interrupted, F3H transcripts increased. We hypothesize that in transgenic plants responding to herbivory, there is a complex mechanism regulating enriched flavonoid/phenylpropanoid compounds, via biotic stress signals.

  15. Overexpression of the PAP1 transcription factor reveals a complex regulation of flavonoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in Nicotiana tabacum plants attacked by Spodoptera litura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Mitsunami

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin pigments and associated flavonoids have demonstrated antioxidant properties and benefits for human health. Consequently, current plant bioengineers have focused on how to modify flavonoid metabolism in plants. Most of that research, however, does not consider the role of natural biotic stresses (e.g., herbivore attack. To understand the influence of herbivore attack on the metabolic engineering of flavonoids, we examined tobacco plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis PAP1 gene (encoding an MYB transcription factor, which accumulated anthocyanin pigments and other flavonoids/phenylpropanoids. In comparison to wild-type and control plants, transgenic plants exhibited greater resistance to Spodoptera litura. Moreover, herbivory suppressed the PAP1-induced increase of transcripts of flavonoid/phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes (e.g., F3H and the subsequent accumulation of these genes' metabolites, despite the unaltered PAP1 mRNA levels after herbivory. The instances of down-regulation were independent of the signaling pathways mediated by defense-related jasmonates but were relevant to the levels of PAP1-induced and herbivory-suppressed transcription factors, An1a and An1b. Although initially F3H transcripts were suppressed by herbivory, after the S. litura feeding was interrupted, F3H transcripts increased. We hypothesize that in transgenic plants responding to herbivory, there is a complex mechanism regulating enriched flavonoid/phenylpropanoid compounds, via biotic stress signals.

  16. Is there a language divide in pap test use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Ninez A; Chawla, Neetu; Babey, Susan H; Gatchell, Melissa S; Etzioni, David A; Spencer, Benjamin A; Brown, E Richard; Breen, Nancy

    2006-11-01

    We sought to determine whether primary language use, measured by language of interview, is associated with disparities in cervical cancer screening. We undertook a secondary data analysis of a pooled sample of the 2001 and 2003 California Health Interview Surveys. The surveys were conducted in English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, Korean, and Vietnamese. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 3-year Pap test use among women ages 18 to 64, with no reported cervical cancer diagnosis or hysterectomy (n = 38,931). In addition to language of interview, other factors studied included race/ethnicity, marital status, income, educational attainment, years lived in the United States, insurance status, usual source of care, smoking status, area of residence, and self-rated health status. We fit weighted multivariate logit models predicting 3-year Pap test use as a function of language of interview, adjusting for the effects of specified covariates. Compared with the referent English interview group, women who interviewed in Spanish were 1.65 times more likely to receive a Pap test in the past 3 years. In contrast, we observed a significantly reduced risk of screening among women who interviewed in Vietnamese (odds ratio [OR] 0.67; confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.93), Cantonese (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.30-0.66), Mandarin (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.33-0.72), and Korean (OR 0.62; 0.40-0.98). Improved language access could reduce cancer screening disparities, especially in the Asian immigrant community.

  17. Comparative Analysis of PvPAP Gene Family and Their Functions in Response to Phosphorus Deficiency in Common Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Sun, Lili; Yao, Zhufang; Liao, Hong; Tian, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play a vital role in adaptive strategies of plants to phosphorus (P) deficiency. However, their functions in relation to P efficiency are fragmentary in common bean. Principal Findings Five PvPAPs were isolated and sequenced in common bean. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PvPAPs could be classified into two groups, including a small group with low molecular mass, and a large group with high molecular mass. Among them, PvPAP3, PvPAP4 and PvPAP5 belong to the small group, while the other two belong to the large group. Transient expression of 35S:PvPAPs-GFP on onion epidermal cells verified the variations of subcellular localization among PvPAPs, suggesting functional diversities of PvPAPs in common bean. Quantitative PCR results showed that most PvPAPs were up-regulated by phosphate (Pi) starvation. Among them, the expression of the small group PvPAPs responded more to Pi starvation, especially in the roots of G19833, the P-efficient genotype. However, only overexpressing PvPAP1 and PvPAP3 could result in significantly increased utilization of extracellular dNTPs in the transgenic bean hairy roots. Furthermore, overexpressing PvPAP3 in Arabidopsis enhanced both plant growth and total P content when dNTPs were supplied as the sole external P source. Conclusions The results suggest that PvPAPs in bean varied in protein structure, response to P deficiency and subcellular localization. Among them, both PvPAP1 and PvPAP3 might function as utilization of extracellular dNTPs. PMID:22662274

  18. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Pap Smear Uptake Among Young Women in the United States: Role of Provider and Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjian; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2017-10-01

    It has been reported that Pap smear use is higher among U.S. women who received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine than unvaccinated women. This study assessed the role of provider and patient in the difference of Pap smear use by vaccination status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5416 young women (21-30 years of age) with detailed information on Pap smear use and HPV vaccination status from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2013-2015. Vaccinated women received at least one dose of HPV vaccine. Main outcomes included Pap smear in the past year, provider's recommendation for Pap smear, and patient-initiated Pap smear. The prevalence of Pap smear in the past year was much higher among vaccinated women than unvaccinated women (67.5% vs. 52.8%, p Pap testing (60.8% vs. 50.8%, p Pap testing after receiving a provider's recommendation (75.1% vs. 67.9%, p = 0.004), and to initiate Pap testing themselves (57.7% vs. 38.2%, p Pap smear recommendation and uptake vanished. Unvaccinated women who have not visited an OB/GYN in the past year are less likely to receive a recommendation for Pap testing from their providers or to initiate Pap testing themselves without a provider's recommendation. They should be encouraged to visit an OB/GYN provider for cervical cancer screening.

  19. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. Aims: To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Setting and Design: Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Materials and Methods: Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Results: Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032 and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2. Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ2 = 1.5; P = 0.2. Conclusions: Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  20. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  1. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  2. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. ACOG. ...

  3. Inequalities in Pap smear screening for cervical cancer in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mesa, Jeovany; Werutsky, Gustavo; Campani, Raquel Barth; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Barrios, Carlos Henrique

    2013-10-01

    To examine the risk factors associated with never being screened for cervical cancer (CC) in Brazil. Using the National Household Sample Survey 2008 (PNAD), we analyzed data from 102,108 Brazilian women ages 25-64years. The patients were analyzed as having been or never having been screened with a Pap smear (Yes/No). Age-adjusted prevalence of never-screening was analyzed using a Chi-squared test. Crude and adjusted models using Poisson regression were performed. The prevalence of never-screened women for CC was 12.9%, 11.5% and 22.2% in Brazil in general, urban and rural areas, respectively. The Brazilian region with the highest prevalence of never-screening was the North (17.4%, 14.7% and 27.3% in general, urban and rural areas, respectively). The factors associated with a higher risk for never being screened were the following: poverty, younger age, lower educational level, non-white skin color, a greater number of children, no supplemental health insurance and not having visited a doctor in the past 12months. Socioeconomic and demographic conditions lead to inequalities in access to Pap smear screening in Brazil. Public health policy addressing these risk groups is necessary. © 2013.

  4. Divergent coverage, frequency and costs of organised and opportunistic Pap testing in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Heini; Nieminen, Pekka; Kilpi, Terhi; Auranen, Kari; Leino, Tuija; Vänskä, Simopekka; Tiihonen, Petri; Lehtinen, Matti; Anttila, Ahti

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the overall coverage, frequency and costs of Pap testing by screening modality and health care provider in Finland. Information about Pap testing in the Finnish female population of 2.7 million was obtained from nationwide population-based registry data. Among women aged 25-69 years, 87% had had a Pap test taken within or outside the organised programme at least once during the last 5 years and half of those screened in the organised programme had also had at least one Pap test taken outside the programme. Of the annual average of 530,000 Pap tests taken, 84% were taken for screening purposes and 16% as follow-up. Forty percent of the 446,000 annual screening tests were taken in the organised programme, 55% as opportunistic tests in public primary or student health care or by private providers and 5% in public secondary health care. One-fifth of all opportunistic screening Pap tests were taken from women aged cost of all screening Pap tests was €22.4 million, of which 71% incurred in opportunistic screening. Of the 84,000 annual follow-up Pap tests and their €8.3 million total costs, ∼60% incurred in organised screening or in secondary health care. © 2013 UICC.

  5. [Cloning and sequencing of the papA gene from uropathogenic Escherichia coli 4030 strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinggang; Zhang, Jingping; Zhao, Chuncheng; Zhu, Jianguo

    2008-09-01

    Cloning and sequencing of the papA gene from uropathogenic Escherichia coli 4030 strain to investigate the differences of the sequences of the papA of UPEC4030 strain and the ones of related genes, in order to make whether or not it was a new genotype. Cloning and sequencing methods were used to analyze the sequence of the papA of UPEC4030 strain in comparison with related sequences. The sequence analysis of papA revealed a 722 bp gene and encode 192 amino acid polypeptide. The overall homology of the papA genes between UPEC4030 and the standard strains of ten F types were 36.11%-77.95% and 22.20%-78.34% at nucleotide and deduced amino acid levels. The homology between the sequence of the reverse primers and the corresponding sequence of UPEC4030 papA was 10%-66.67%. The results confirmed that UPEC4030 strain contained a novel papA variant. UPEC4030 strain could contain an unknown papA variant or the novel genotype. The pathogenic mechanism and epidemiology related need to be further studied.

  6. Iodamoeba butschlii in an anal pap test confirmed by iodine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N; Pritt, Bobbi S; Schreiner, Andrew M

    2014-09-01

    We report the finding of Iodamoeba butschlii amebic cysts on a liquid-based anal Pap smear from an HIV-positive male. Iodine staining of the smear confirmed the diagnosis. It is important to distinguish I. butschlii from pathogenic ameobae and other organisms seen on anal Pap smears. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Factors associated with receiving Pap tests among married immigrant women of Vietnamese origin in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fang-Hsin; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Lin, Miao-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors associated with Pap testing among married immigrant women of Vietnamese origin residing in Taiwan, including demographics, knowledge of cervical cancer, knowledge of Pap tests, fatalism, attitudes toward cervical cancer, and barriers to receiving Pap tests. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. Data were collected from July 2012 to January 2013. Participants were recruited through snowball sampling in two communities in Southern Taiwan. A total of 451 married immigrant women of Vietnamese origin aged 30 years and over were invited to participate in the study and 427 participated. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Participants with no children were significantly less likely to have received a Pap test (odds ratio = 0.278, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.135-0.569); each additional point of knowledge about Pap tests increased the likelihood of having a Pap test by 19% (odds ratio = 1.190, 95% CI = 1.093-1.297), and each additional point in barriers to receiving Pap tests decreased the chances of having received a Pap test (odds ratio = 0.714, 95% CI = 0.637-0.800). The results can provide governments with a reference for developing policies for cervical cancer prevention among married immigrant Vietnamese women.

  8. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Pap smear test, a woman 18 years of age or older must have reported having at least one Pap smear test in her life. Furthermore, she should have had one within the last three years by the time of interview.

  9. How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., and the decline is largely due to Pap testing and follow-up. Screening recommendations have changed. In this podcast, Meg Watson discusses Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

  10. Utility of p16 Immunohistochemistry in Evaluating Negative Cervical Biopsies Following High-risk Pap Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Alana F; Kwok, Shirley; Folkins, Ann K; Kong, Christina S

    2018-01-01

    The Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Standardization Project for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated lesions specifically recommends the use of p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as an adjunct to morphologic assessment of cervical biopsies interpreted as negative or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) from patients with prior high-risk Pap test results (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL], atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL, atypical glandular cells [AGC], or HPV16 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US]). The impetus for this recommendation is to increase detection of missed high-grade disease. However, the quality of evidence supporting this recommendation was lower than that for the other LAST recommendations addressing improved consistency in the diagnosis of HSIL with the use of p16. A database search spanning 10 years identified 341 cases (encompassing 736 discrete biopsy specimens) interpreted as negative for dysplasia from 330 patients with a prior high-risk Pap result (atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL, HSIL, atypical glandular cells, not otherwise specified [AGC-NOS], atypical endocervical cells--NOS [AEC-NOS], and AEC-favor neoplastic). p16 IHC was performed and detected missed abnormalities in 11/341 (3.2%) cases. The abnormalities corresponded to missed foci of HSIL (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2) (n=1), SIL-indeterminate grade (n=7), atypical squamous metaplasia (n=2), and LSIL [CIN1]) (n=1). Subsequent histologic follow-up identified HSIL or greater in 6/8 (75%) p16 cases versus 20/79 (25.3%) p16 cases (P=0.0079). p16 IHC performed on biopsies interpreted as negative from patients with prior high-risk Pap test results increased the detection rate of missed SIL. A p16 result also significantly increased the likelihood of HSIL on subsequent biopsy. Although further studies are required to determine what percentage of missed HSIL justifies the additional cost

  11. Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase Pap Test Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon S. Chen, Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Women’s Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test.

  12. Suppression of the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidin in Arabidopsis by a chimeric PAP1 repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kyoko; Tanaka, Hideo; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2004-11-01

    Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that are specific to higher plants. PAP1, a member of the family of MYB domain transcription factors in Arabidopsis, is a positive regulator of the biosynthesis of anthocyanin. We show here that a chimeric PAP1 repressor, in which the EAR-motif repression domain from SUPERMAN was fused to PAP1, suppressed the expression of four flavonoid biosynthetic genes, namely CHS, DFR, LDOX, and BAN, in siliques, and inhibited the accumulation of proanthocyanidin, even in the presence of an endogenous positive regulator, such as TT2. This suppression resulted in the formation of light yellow seeds in 35S::PAP1SRDX transgenic plants. Our results indicate that PAP1 has the potential ability to regulate the biosynthesis not only of anthocyanin but also of proanthocyanidin. Our gene silencing system, using chimeric repressors, appears to be a useful tool for the manipulation of the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in plants.

  13. Molecular dynamics studies of the P pilus rod subunit PapA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitagliano, Luigi; Ruggiero, Alessia; Pedone, Carlo; Berisio, Rita

    2009-03-01

    Adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to host tissues is mediated by pili, which extend from the outer cell membrane of the bacterium. Here we report molecular dynamics (MD) characterizations of the major constituent of P pili from the uropathogenic E. coli, PapA, in unliganded state and in complex with the G1 strand of the chaperone PapD. To mimic the PapA response to the gradual dissociation of the PapD G1 strand and to evaluate the role of PapA chaperone recognition sites, we also carried out MD simulations of complexes of PapA with fragments of PapD G1 strand, that leave either the P4 or both P3 and P4 sites unoccupied. Data on the unbound form of PapA indicate that, upon release of the chaperone, PapA evolves toward compact states that are likely not prone to subunit-subunit association. In line with recent experimental reports, this finding implies that chaperone release and subunit-subunit association must be concerted. Our data also indicated that the gradual unbinding of the chaperone from the PapA groove has increasingly strong structural consequences. Indeed, the release of the chaperone from the site P4, which is closest to the initiation site (P5), does not have dramatic effects on the domain structure, whereas its release from both the P4 and the adjacent P3 sites induces a quick structural transition toward a collapsed state, where the subunit groove is obstructed.

  14. Nuclear Phosphatidylinositol-Phosphate Type I Kinase α-Coupled Star-PAP Polyadenylation Regulates Cell Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A P, Sudheesh; Laishram, Rakesh S

    2018-03-01

    Star-PAP, a nuclear phosphatidylinositol (PI) signal-regulated poly(A) polymerase (PAP), couples with type I PI phosphate kinase α (PIPKIα) and controls gene expression. We show that Star-PAP and PIPKIα together regulate 3'-end processing and expression of pre-mRNAs encoding key anti-invasive factors ( KISS1R , CDH1 , NME1 , CDH13 , FEZ1 , and WIF1 ) in breast cancer. Consistently, the endogenous Star-PAP level is negatively correlated with the cellular invasiveness of breast cancer cells. While silencing Star-PAP or PIPKIα increases cellular invasiveness in low-invasiveness MCF7 cells, Star-PAP overexpression decreases invasiveness in highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells in a cellular Star-PAP level-dependent manner. However, expression of the PIPKIα-noninteracting Star-PAP mutant or the phosphodeficient Star-PAP (S6A mutant) has no effect on cellular invasiveness. These results strongly indicate that PIPKIα interaction and Star-PAP S6 phosphorylation are required for Star-PAP-mediated regulation of cancer cell invasion and give specificity to target anti-invasive gene expression. Our study establishes Star-PAP-PIPKIα-mediated 3'-end processing as a key anti-invasive mechanism in breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 A.P. and Laishram.

  15. Risk of cervical abnormalities in women with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harminder; Demers, Alain A; Nugent, Zoann; Mahmud, Salaheddin M; Kliewer, Erich V; Bernstein, Charles N

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated the risk of cervical abnormalities in women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a population-based, nested, case-control study. Cases with abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears or cervical biopsies were matched with up to 3 controls (normal Pap smears) by year of birth, year of first health care coverage, and number of Pap smears in the preceding 5 years. A diagnosis of IBD before the index date was identified from the University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database. Exposures to immunosuppressant drugs and corticosteroids were determined from the provincial drug prescription database. Analyses were adjusted for socioeconomic status and exposure to oral contraceptives and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. 19,692 women with cervical cytologic and/or histologic abnormalities were matched with 57,898 controls with normal Pap smears. There was no association between cervical abnormalities and ulcerative colitis (odds ratio [OR], 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-1.38). The increase in risk in women with Crohn's disease was limited to those exposed to 10 or more prescriptions of oral contraceptives (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.08-2.54). The combined exposure to corticosteroids and immunosuppressants was associated with increased risk of cervical abnormalities (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09-1.81). There was no interaction between the effect of IBD and corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants. These findings do not support an association between IBD itself and the risk of developing cervical abnormalities. An increased risk in patients given a combination of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants should be considered in managing women with IBD.

  16. Paediatric ED BiPAP continuous quality improvement programme with patient analysis: 2005-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramo, Thomas; Williams, Abby; Mushtaq, Samaiya; Meredith, Mark; Sepaule, Rawle; Crossman, Kristen; Burney Jones, Cheryl; Godbold, Suzanne; Hu, Zhuopei; Nick, Todd

    2017-01-16

    In paediatric moderate-to-severe asthmatics, there is significant bronchospasm, airway obstruction, air trapping causing severe hyperinflation with more positive intraplural pressure preventing passive air movement. These effects cause an increased respiratory rate (RR), less airflow and shortened inspiratory breath time. In certain asthmatics, aerosols are ineffective due to their inadequate ventilation. Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) in acute paediatric asthmatics can be an effective treatment. BiPAP works by unloading fatigued inspiratory muscles, a direct bronchodilation effect, offsetting intrinsic PEEP and recruiting collapsed alveoli that reduces the patient's work of breathing and achieves their total lung capacity quicker. Unfortunately, paediatric emergency department (PED) BiPAP is underused and quality analysis is non-existent. A PED BiPAP Continuous Quality Improvement Program (CQIP) from 2005 to 2013 was evaluated using descriptive analytics for the primary outcomes of usage, safety, BiPAP settings, therapeutics and patient disposition. PED BiPAP CQIP descriptive analytics. Academic PED. 1157 patients. A PED BiPAP CQIP from 2005 to 2013 for the usage, safety, BiPAP settings, therapeutic response parameters and patient disposition was evaluated using descriptive analytics. Safety, usage, compliance, therapeutic response parameters, BiPAP settings and patient disposition. 1157 patients had excellent compliance without complications. Only 6 (0.5%) BiPAP patients were intubated. BiPAP median settings: IPAP 18 (16,20) cm H 2 O range 12-28; EPAP 8 cmH 2 O (8,8) range 6-10; inspiratory-to-expiratory time (I:E) ratio 1.75 (1.5,1.75). Pediatric Asthma Severity score and RR decreased (pimproved therapeutics times, very low intubations and decreased PICU admissions. CQIP analysis demonstrated that using a higher IPAP, low EPAP with longer I:E optimises the patient's BiPAP settings and showed a significant improvement in PAS, RR and tidal volume. BiPAP

  17. The Escherichia coli P and Type 1 Pilus Assembly Chaperones PapD and FimC Are Monomeric in Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowar, Samema; Hu, Olivia J.; Werneburg, Glenn T.; Thanassi, David G.; Li, Huilin; Christie, P. J.

    2016-06-27

    adhere to the urinary tract and establish infection. Studying pilus assembly is important for understanding mechanisms of protein secretion, as well as for identifying points for therapeutic intervention. Pilus biogenesis is a multistep process. This work investigates the oligomeric state of the pilus chaperone in the periplasm, which is important for understanding early assembly events. Our work unambiguously demonstrates that both PapD and FimC chaperones are monomeric in solution. We further demonstrate that the solution behavior of the FimH and PapGII adhesins differ, which may be related to functional differences between the two pilus systems.

  18. Spatio-temporal changes in the distribution of phytopigments and phytoplanktonic groups at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe-Wright, Denise; Boswell, Stephen; Kim, Young-Nam; Kemp, Alan

    2010-08-01

    We have made a comprehensive study of pigment distributions and microscopically determined phytoplankton abundances within the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) location in the North Atlantic to better understand phytoplankton variability, and make some suggestions regarding the composition of the material falling to the sea bed and its impacts on benthic organisms such as Amperima rosea. The area has been the focus of many studies of ocean fluxes and benthic communities over recent years, but little attention has been given to the spatio-temporal variability in the surface waters. Dawn casts over a 12-day period at the PAP mooring site (48.83°N 16.5°W) revealed the presence of only one species, the diatom Actinocyclus exiguus, at bloom concentrations for just 5 days. Smaller populations of other diatoms and the dinoflagellates Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium were also present at this time. Following this 5-day interval, a mixed population of small-sized dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes, prasinophytes, chrysophytes and cyanobacteria occurred. It is clear from concomitant CTD/bottle surveys that rapid changes in phytoplankton community structure at a fixed time series position do not necessarily reflect a degradation or manifestation of one particular species but rather represent the movement of eddies and other water masses within very short timescales. These cause substantial variability in the species class and size fraction that may explain the variability in carbon export that has been seen at the PAP site. We also make some suggestions on the variable composition of the material falling to the seabed and its impact on benthic organisms such as Amperima rosea.

  19. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  20. Use of and attitudes and knowledge about pap smears among women in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hammasi, Khadija; Samir, Ola; Kettaneh, Soania; Al-Fadli, Athari; Thalib, Lukman

    2009-11-01

    To estimate the lifetime prevalence of Pap smear among women in Kuwait and to assess their knowledge about and attitude toward Pap smears. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sampling method. We interviewed 299 women attending polyclinics in Kuwait using a self-administered questionnaire. Factors related to history of having a Pap smear, knowledge level, and willingness to participate in a screening program were evaluated. The lifetime prevalence of Pap smear was found to be 37% (95% CI 33-43). Forty-four percent of women in our study had a Pap smear only once in their lives. History of having at least one Pap smear was significantly related to such factors as age, total family income, marital status, history of cervical infection, and knowledge. The level of knowledge about cervical cancer varied among the participants. Forty-six percent of women were uncertain about the symptoms of cervical cancer. About half the women recognized cervical infection, smoking, and having multiple sexual partners as risk factors for cervical cancer; however, only 10% recognized early sexual intercourse as a risk factor. Willingness to participate in a future screening program varied significantly according to educational level, employment status, and total family income. Although cervical cancer incidence and mortality are relatively low in Kuwait, they may be underreported in the absence of a screening program. Moreover, lifetime prevalence of having a Pap smear was found to be considerably lower in Kuwait compared with developed countries.

  1. Influencing Factors of Intention to Receive Pap Tests in Vietnamese Women who Immigrated to Taiwan for Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fang-Hsin; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Yang, Yung-Mei; Huang, Joh-Jong; Tsai, Hsiu-Min

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the factors associated with the intention to receive a Pap test among married immigrant women of Vietnamese origin living in Taiwan. This was a cross-sectional community-based study. We enrolled 281 women aged 30 years and over in the study, from July 2013 to January 2014. The participants' characteristics, cervical cancer knowledge, Pap test knowledge, attitudes toward cervical cancer, barriers to receiving a Pap test, fatalism, and intention to receive a Pap test, were measured using self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the variables associated with participants' intentions to receive a Pap test. Vietnamese women with low scores on the measures of cervical cancer knowledge and perceived barriers to receiving a Pap test were more willing to receive the test, as were those with high scores on the measures of Pap test knowledge and fatalism. Women who received a Pap test in the previous year were more willing to receive a Pap test within the next 3 years. Preventive healthcare for immigrant women should be a focus of nurses. The development of culturally appropriate health education and strategies should enhance their knowledge of Pap tests and reduce perceived barriers to Pap test participation. This study's results can be a reference for nurses who work with immigrant women. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. An autoregulatory feedback loop involving PAP1 and TAS4 in response to sugars in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing-Jun; Mittal, Amandeep; Jia, Fan; Rock, Christopher D

    2012-09-01

    miR828 in Arabidopsis triggers the cleavage of Trans-Acting SiRNA Gene 4 (TAS4) transcripts and production of small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs). One siRNA, TAS4-siRNA81(-), targets a set of MYB transcription factors including PAP1, PAP2, and MYB113 which regulate the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, miR828 also targets MYB113, suggesting a close relationship between these MYBs, miR828, and TAS4, but their evolutionary origins are unknown. We found that PAP1, PAP2, and TAS4 expression is induced specifically by exogenous treatment with sucrose and glucose in seedlings. The induction is attenuated in abscisic acid (ABA) pathway mutants, especially in abi3-1 and abi5-1 for PAP1 or PAP2, while no such effect is observed for TAS4. PAP1 is under regulation by TAS4, demonstrated by the accumulation of PAP1 transcripts and anthocyanin in ta-siRNA biogenesis pathway mutants. TAS4-siR81(-) expression is induced by physiological concentrations of Suc and Glc and in pap1-D, an activation-tagged line, indicating a feedback regulatory loop exists between PAP1 and TAS4. Bioinformatic analysis revealed MIR828 homologues in dicots and gymnosperms, but only in one basal monocot, whereas TAS4 is only found in dicots. Consistent with this observation, PAP1, PAP2, and MYB113 dicot paralogs show peptide and nucleotide footprints for the TAS4-siR81(-) binding site, providing evidence for purifying selection in contrast to monocots. Extended sequence similarities between MIR828, MYBs, and TAS4 support an inverted duplication model for the evolution of MIR828 from an ancestral gymnosperm MYB gene and subsequent formation of TAS4 by duplication of the miR828* arm. We obtained evidence by modified 5'-RACE for a MYB mRNA cleavage product guided by miR828 in Pinus resinosa. Taken together, our results suggest that regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by TAS4 and miR828 in higher plants is evolutionarily significant and consistent with the evolution of TAS4 since the dicot

  3. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  4. Automated detection and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization spots depicted in digital microscopic images of Pap-smear specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology has been widely recognized as a promising molecular and biomedical optical imaging tool to screen and diagnose cervical cancer. However, manual FISH analysis is time-consuming and may introduce large inter-reader variability. In this study, a computerized scheme is developed and tested. It automatically detects and analyzes FISH spots depicted on microscopic fluorescence images. The scheme includes two stages: (1) a feature-based classification rule to detect useful interphase cells, and (2) a knowledge-based expert classifier to identify splitting FISH spots and improve the accuracy of counting independent FISH spots. The scheme then classifies detected analyzable cells as normal or abnormal. In this study, 150 FISH images were acquired from Pap-smear specimens and examined by both an experienced cytogeneticist and the scheme. The results showed that (1) the agreement between the cytogeneticist and the scheme was 96.9% in classifying between analyzable and unanalyzable cells (Kappa=0.917), and (2) agreements in detecting normal and abnormal cells based on FISH spots were 90.5% and 95.8% with Kappa=0.867. This study demonstrated the feasibility of automated FISH analysis, which may potentially improve detection efficiency and produce more accurate and consistent results than manual FISH analysis.

  5. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  6. Why Do Chilean Women Choose to Have or Not Have Pap Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, María-Teresa; Araya, Alejandra; Jaque, Maria-Fernanda

    To describe the perceptions of Chilean women about why women choose to have or not have Pap test screening. Qualitative research using content analysis according to Krippendorf. Four urban health clinics in Santiago, Chile. Fifty-seven Chilean women. Audiotaped focus groups. Six themes emerged: Reasons that make it difficult for women to schedule appointments, Characteristics of health professionals that make it difficult to have a Pap test, Characteristics of the test that are barriers to having a Pap test, The relationship of the test with cancer, Family context, and Each woman's personal characteristics. Primary health care providers play an important role in promoting adherence to cervical cancer screening. Nurses should proactively address women's perceptions and knowledge about screening and openly and uniformly discuss the importance and benefits of Pap test screening. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Light and the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA control the protein stability of the MYB transcription factors PAP1 and PAP2 involved in anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Schrader, Andrea; Kokkelink, Leonie; Falke, Christian; Welter, Bastian; Iniesto, Elisa; Rubio, Vicente; Uhrig, Joachim F; Hülskamp, Martin; Hoecker, Ute

    2013-05-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments that accumulate only in light-grown and not in dark-grown Arabidopsis plants. Repression of anthocyanin accumulation in darkness requires the CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1/SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (COP1/SPA) ubiquitin ligase, as cop1 and spa mutants produce anthocyanins also in the dark. Here, we show that COP1 and SPA proteins interact with the myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factors PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP)1 and PAP2, two members of a small protein family that is required for anthocyanin accumulation and for the expression of structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. The increased anthocyanin levels in cop1 mutants requires the PAP1 gene family, indicating that COP1 functions upstream of the PAP1 gene family. PAP1 and PAP2 proteins are degraded in the dark and this degradation is dependent on the proteasome and on COP1. Hence, the light requirement for anthocyanin biosynthesis results, at least in part, from the light-mediated stabilization of PAP1 and PAP2. Consistent with this conclusion, moderate overexpression of PAP1 leads to an increase in anthocyanin levels only in the light and not in darkness. Here we show that SPA genes are also required for reducing PAP1 and PAP2 transcript levels in dark-grown seedlings. Taken together, these results indicate that the COP1/SPA complex affects PAP1 and PAP2 both transcriptionally and post-translationally. Thus, our findings have identified mechanisms via which the COP1/SPA complex controls anthocyanin levels in Arabidopsis that may be useful for applications in biotechnology directed towards increasing anthocyanin content in plants. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Trends in Pap Testing Over Time for Women With and Without Chronic Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Kurtz, Stephen G; Rao, Sowmya R

    2016-02-01

    Data from 20 years ago--shortly after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act--showed that women with significant mobility disability had 40% lower Pap test rates than other women. To examine whether disability disparities in Pap test rates have diminished over time, this study analyzed National Health Interview Survey responses from selected years between 1998 and 2010 from women aged 21-65 years without histories of cervical cancer or hysterectomy. Seven chronic disability types were identified using self-reported functional impairments or participation limitations. Self-reported Pap testing within the previous 3 years was studied. Bivariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables were conducted in 2014. Rates of all chronic disability types increased over time. Pap test rates remained relatively constant over time for all women, holding around 84%-87%. Bivariable analyses found statistically significantly lower rates of Pap testing for women with disability compared with nondisabled women. Multivariable analyses failed to find consistent evidence of lower Pap test rates among women across disability types compared with nondisabled women. In 2010, the AOR for reporting Pap testing for women noting the most severe movement difficulty compared with nondisabled women was 0.35 (95% CI=0.15, 0.79). However, the AOR for this disability type varied over time. Little has changed over time in Pap test rates for all women. Women with certain disabilities continue to experience disparities compared with nondisabled women in receipt of this important screening test. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant abnormality diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Akira.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention diagnose an abnormal event occurred in a large-scaled plant, such as a nuclear power plant. The device comprises the following four functions. (1) Abnormality candidates are estimated based on an intelligence base storing characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and physical amounts of the plant components, and detected abnormality and measured values. Among the candidates, one which coincidents with the measured value such as an actual process amount is judged as a first cause. (2) In addition, a real time plant behavior is estimated based on parameters determining a plant operation mode. The candidate for the abnormality cause is estimated by the comparison between the result of the estimation and the measured value such as a process amount. (3) Characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and the physical amount of the plant components are structured stepwise thereby identifying the first abnormality cause. (4) Inactuated or failed portions of the components for restoring the abnormality to normal state are identified based on the intelligence base simultaneously with the estimation for the first abnormality cause. (I.S.)

  10. PULSATILE ARTERIAL PRESSURE (PAP AND VASCULAR REMODELLING INDICES: SEARCH OF EARLY SYMPTOMS OF CARDIOVASCULAR PATHOLOGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kozhevnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the standards of pulsatile arterial pressure (PAP in healthy children and the possibility to use PAP as an indicator of the condition of vessels in children with increased body mass index (BMI. Methods: The results of non-invasive arteriography in children aged 3–17 years with normal (apparently healthy children, n =291 and increased BMI (n =211 are presented. A group of children with normal BMI was formed by dispensary examinations in schools and kindergartens. Children with increased BMI (secondary nature of overweight and obesity are excluded were observed as outpatients. The PAP analysis was carried out in regard to age, sex, height, and BMI. The interaction of PAP with other hemodynamics and vascular remodelling indices was investigated. Results: PAP percentile tables in healthy children by age and growth groups are obtained. PAP above the 90th percentile is diagnosed in 7.2% of apparently healthy children, in 7.7% of overweight and in 22.4% of obese children. The dependence of the PAP rate on age, height and BMI is shown. The connection of high PAP in overweight children with signs of the vascular wall remodelling is established. Conclusion: The presented percentile tables of PAP rates in healthy children with normal BMI can be used to detect increased PAP in children at risk of cardiovascular disease developing.

  11. Knowledge and attitude of women attending Subharti Medical College towards Pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prateek, Shashi; Gupta, Smriti; Gupta, Akanksha; Choudhary, Sonam; Prakash, Diksha; Nain, Geetika

    2018-03-19

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of women towards the Pap smear. It was carried out on the women coming to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at our University, with the help of a pre-formed questionnaire. We found that only 33% of the women were aware of the Pap smear, and of these hardly (10%) had the correct information. Sixty-five percent of the women said that they would have gotten the Pap smear done, if they had known about it earlier. Unless this knowledge amongst women is improved and their attitude is changed, the indices of cervical cancer cannot be improved. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? A Pap smear is used as a screening test to detect not only early stages of cervical cancer but also the precancerous conditions. A Pap smear is done every three years for routine screening, or every five years along with an HPV DNA test. What do the results of this study add? Despite the efforts from the medical fraternity and governments, the number of women undergoing this test in Uttar Pradesh is very minimal. This study analysed the knowledge and attitude of women towards the Pap smear. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? The results have brought into light the many factors hindering an effective cervical cancer screening in India. Further actions need to be directed in the direction to address these issues.

  12. Factors Related to Regular Undergoing Pap-smear Test: Application of Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Farzad; Emdadi, Shohreh

    2011-11-04

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the world and the most common cancer in developing countries. Pap smear is and effective tool that can prevent death due to cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to doing regular Pap-smear test based on the theory of planned behavior. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Hamadan County, the west of Iran, during 2009, a total of 400 women's aged 20 to 70 years old, were ran-domly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire including the expanded theory of planned behavior components. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. Almost 63.8% of the participants had already done Pap-smear test at least once. About 28.3% of volunteers had followed a regular Pap-smear pro-gram. There was a significant correlation (PPap-smear test. In addition, there was a significant correlation (PPap-smear test. The best predictor for regular Pap-smear testing was subjective norms with odds ratio estimate of 1.14 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.23]. Based on our findings, subjective norms may be one of the most effective factors among women for doing regular Pap-smear test.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test among women in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Carla Lorenna Ferreira de; Costa, Marla da Paschoa; Nunes, Felipe Moreira; Freitas, Roberto Wagner Junior Freire de; Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros de; Fernandes, José Veríssimo; Rego, Juciane Vaz; Barreto, Humberto Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou (Pap) test has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical cancer. However, both the national and international literature shows that Pap testing has not reached the level of coverage desired. The objective of this study was to assess women's knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test and to investigate whether there are any associations between these three factors and the women's sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Floriano, Piauí. The study was conducted among 493 women between November 2009 and December 2010. A questionnaire with precoded questions was sed, and the responses were analyzed in terms of appropriateness in relation to the Pap test. The degrees of adequacy of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test were 36.7%, 67.2% and 69.6%, respectively. Among the main barriers against testing, absence of symptoms and a sense of embarrassment were the most notable. Women who visit doctors periodically had the most appropriate practices regarding the Pap test, but their knowledge of the procedure was poor. This suggests that these women were not receiving adequate information about the benefits of periodic testing.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test among women in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lorenna Ferreira de Albuquerque

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Papanicolaou (Pap test has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical cancer. However, both the national and international literature shows that Pap testing has not reached the level of coverage desired. The objective of this study was to assess women's knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test and to investigate whether there are any associations between these three factors and the women's sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Floriano, Piauí. METHODS : The study was conducted among 493 women between November 2009 and December 2010. A questionnaire with precoded questions was sed, and the responses were analyzed in terms of appropriateness in relation to the Pap test. RESULTS : The degrees of adequacy of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test were 36.7%, 67.2% and 69.6%, respectively. Among the main barriers against testing, absence of symptoms and a sense of embarrassment were the most notable. CONCLUSIONS: Women who visit doctors periodically had the most appropriate practices regarding the Pap test, but their knowledge of the procedure was poor. This suggests that these women were not receiving adequate information about the benefits of periodic testing.

  15. PENYULUHAN METODE PAP SMEAR TERHADAP TINGKAT PENGETAHUAN DAN SIKAP WANITA TUNA SUSILA DALAM PENDETEKSIAN KANKER SERVIKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismi Wulandari AS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effectiveness Of Pap smear Test’s Counseling Regarding To The Level Of Knowledge And Behaviour In Prostitution Worker For Detection Of Cervical Cancer In Bintang Mas Kubu Raya 2014. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectivity of counseling toward knowledge and behavior. in prostitution worker about pap smear and cervical cancer. This research was quasi-experimental with one group pretest-postest design. There are 38 respondents. McNemar test showed there are significant. improvement of knowledge (p<0.05, and significance behavior change (p<0.05 in all respondents before and after counseling. Keyword : knowledge, behaviour, cervical cancer, pap smear Abstrak : Penyuluhan Metode Pap smear Terhadap Tingkat Pengetahuan Dan Sikap Wanita Tuna Susila Dalam Pendeteksian Kanker Serviks. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk melihat efektivitas terhadap pengetahuan dan sikap melalui penyuluhan mengenai pap smear kepada para wanita tuna susila. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah quasi eksperimental dengan rancangan one group pretest-postest design. Besar sampel berjumlah 38 orang. Hasil menunjukkan uji McNemar menunjukkan terdapat signifikansi yang bermakna untuk pengetahuan (p < 0,05 dan signifikansi untuk perubahan sikap (p<0.05 pada responden sebelum dan setelah penyuluhan. Kata kunci : pengetahuan, sikap, kanker serviks, pap smear

  16. Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyeb, R.; Khawaja, N.P.; Malik, N.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

  17. Nutritional Composition of Five Varieties of Pap Commonly Consumed in Maroua (Far-North, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponka Roger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition of five varieties of pap (cereal product commonly consumed in Maroua, city of the Far-North Region of Cameroon. The proximate composition (moisture, ash, protein, lipid, and crude fibre was determined by standard AOAC methods. Minerals (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and phosphorus was determined colorimetrically. Amino acid composition was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. All the pap varieties had a very high carbohydrate content (79.47-85.29 g/100 g dry matter. Appreciable levels of phosphorus and potassium were recorded in all the pap varieties (137.5-231.0 mg/100 g dry matter and 198.20-322.22 mg/100 g dry matter, respectively. Consumption of each pap (100 g by children 1-2 year old would meet 9.86-17.46% and 0.08-19.51% of their daily recommended intake respectively for protein and minerals. Leucine and glutamic acid were the most abundant essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids respectively in the pap. Essential amino acids in most of the pap samples met the recommended children requirement of the FAO/WHO/UNU for 1-2 year old children except methionine+cysteine and lysine.

  18. Awareness of Pap testing and factors associated with intent to undergo Pap testing by level of sexual experience in unmarried university students in Korea: results from an online survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Young and unmarried women have not been a target group for cervical cancer prevention in Korea. No previous studies have investigated the awareness of Pap testing, the intention to undergo Pap testing, or the factors associated with that intention, in this group of women. This information would be useful for an expansion in the focus of primary cervical cancer prevention. This study aimed to compare the awareness of Pap testing between groups of unmarried university students in Korea, and to investigate the factors associated with the intention to undergo Pap testing, by level of sexual experience. Methods A total of 475 unmarried university students who had never undergone a Pap test completed a web-based survey. Differences in awareness of the importance of the Pap test, confidence in Pap testing, intention to undergo the test, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, stigma, and shame by level of sexual experience were analysed using independent t-tests. Associations between measurement variables and intention to undergo Pap testing were analysed using correlation analysis. Variables yielding significant associations (p Pap testing. Results Most participants perceived that the need for regular Pap testing was less important (score, 77.76) than other methods of cervical cancer prevention. They were not confident that is was an effective method of cervical cancer prevention for themselves (score, 59.56). There were differences in confidence in Pap testing and in the factors associated with intention to undergo Pap testing between sexually experienced and sexually inexperienced students. Regardless of level of sexual experience, the subjective norm was the most important predictor of intention to undergo Pap testing. Conclusions There was a low level of Pap screening awareness among the students. The factors associated with intention to undergo Pap testing differed by level of sexual experience. Social influence was an important factor that

  19. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  20. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  1. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  2. Awareness of Pap testing and factors associated with intent to undergo Pap testing by level of sexual experience in unmarried university students in Korea: results from an online survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hae Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Young and unmarried women have not been a target group for cervical cancer prevention in Korea. No previous studies have investigated the awareness of Pap testing, the intention to undergo Pap testing, or the factors associated with that intention, in this group of women. This information would be useful for an expansion in the focus of primary cervical cancer prevention. This study aimed to compare the awareness of Pap testing between groups of unmarried university students in Kor...

  3. The utilization and barriers of Pap smear among women with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hu, Jung; Lin, Jin-Ding; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2016-04-12

    Many evidences illustrate that the Pap smear screening successfully reduces if the cervical cancer could be detected and treated sufficiently early. People with disability were higher comorbidity prevalence, and less likely to use preventive health care and health promotion activities. There were also to demonstrate that people with visual impairment has less access to appropriate healthcare services and is less likely to receive screening examinations. In Taiwan, there was no study to explore utilization of Pap smear, associated factors and use barriers about Pap smear screening test among women with visual impairment. The purpose is to explore the utilization and barriers of using Pap smear for women with visual impairment in Taiwan. To identify the barriers of women with visual from process of receiving Pap smear screening test. The cross-sectional study was conducted and the totally 316 participators were selected by stratified proportional and random sampling from 15 to 64 year old women with visual impairment who lived in Taipei County during December 2009 to January 2010. The data was been collected by phone interview and the interviewers were well trained before interview. The mean age was 47.1 years old and the highest percentage of disabled severity was mile (40.2 %). Totally, 66.5 % of participators were ever using Pap smear and 38.9 % used it during pass 1 year. Their first time to accept Pap smear was 38.8 year old. There was near 50 % of them not to be explained by professionals before accepting the Pap smear. For non-using cases, the top two percentage of barriers were "feel still younger" (22.3 %), the second was "there's no sexual experience" (21.4 %). We found the gynecology experiences was key factor for women with visual impairment to use Pap smear, especially the experiences was during 1 year (OR = 4). Associated factors and barriers to receive Pap smear screening test for women with visual impairment can be addressed through interventions

  4. Screening Cervical Cancer by the Pap Test – Relevance of Age Ranges Recommended by the Brazilian Programme for Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Diogo Do Nascimento; Tomáz, Adriana Cunha Vargas; Gravena, Angela Andréia Franca; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes

    2017-09-27

    Objective: To evaluate screening by the Papanicolaou smear (Pap) and the frequency of cervical abnormalities in the age range recommended by the Brazilian programme for prevention and control of cervical cancer (CC) in the years 2012 and 2013 in a high prevalence city. Methods: This retrospective study covered results of Pap examinations performed on women aged ≥12 years residing in urban areas of the city of Maringá, Paraná in Brazil. The examinations were performed in the years 2012 and 2013 for the System of Public Health (SPH) which maintains a city database. The age ranges were grouped as recommended into 64 years. Results: A total 40,866 women were screened, 19,606 in 2012 and 21,260 in 2013. The Pap exams performed for the age range 25-64 years accounted for 80.7% of the total in 2012 and 80.3% in 2013 (p=0.13), while those for tests performed in the >64 years age group in 2013 (8.46%) than in 2012 (7.52%) (ptest results, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) as the most prevalent finding (2.12%) in 2012, while in 2013 it was LSIL (1.56%) (p<0.001 for both). Women with ASC-US showed a lower mean age than did those with other lesions in both years. Conclusions: This study detected a significant expansion of women screened for CC in age ranges not recommended by the Brazilian government. Creative Commons Attribution License

  5. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  6. Pap smear in the prevention of HPV-related anal cancer: preliminary results of the study in a male population at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Luigi; Tiradritti, Luana; Lorenzoni, Elisa; Zuccati, Giuliano; Matucci, Marzia; Butera, Daniela; Foxi, Prassede; Confortini, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and anal cytology, considering a population of HIV-positive and negative men who have sex with men (MSM), at high risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), in order to ascertain which of the methods examined is the best screening strategy for the prevention of anal cancer. In the period 06/2013-07/2014 at the "MTS Centre" of the University of Florence, 87 male patients, homo/bi-sexual, of which 46 HIV-negative and 41 HIV-positive, were recruited for anal Pap smear and HPV testing. All patients with an "abnormal" cytological result underwent anoscopy with possible biopsy. HPV testing was positive in 73 patients (83.6%). Cytology was negative in 50 patients (57.5%), inconclusive in 14 patients (16.1%), abnormal in 23 patients (26.4%): 14 ASC-US (19.2%), 4 ASC-H (5.5%), 5 L-SIL (6.8%), 0 H-SIL. Anoscopy with biopsy led to diagnosis of AIN I in 10 cases, of which 6 ASC-US+ and 4L-SIL+, AIN II in only 1 case, LS-IL+. Anal HPV testing, when used in primary screening, lead to a high number of "false positives", given the too high prevalence of HPV infection in MSM, the highest risk population targeted for screening. So we propose a screening program with anal cytology which has a high sensitivity for detection of AIN while is a poor predictor of the severity of these lesions; therefore, all patients with abnormal anal Pap smear should undergo anoscopy with biopsy.

  7. Additional collection devices used in conjunction with the SurePath Liquid-Based Pap Test broom device do not enhance diagnostic utility

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    O'Connor Jason C

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that use of an EC brush device in combination with the Rovers Cervex-Brush (SurePath broom offered no significant improvement in EC recovery. Here we determine if use of additional collection devices enhance the diagnostic utility of the SurePath Pap for gynecologic cytology. Methods After informed consent, 37 women ages 18–56 receiving their routine cervical examinations were randomized into four experimental groups. Each group was first sampled with the SurePath broom then immediately re-sampled with an additional collection device or devices. Group 1: Rover endocervix brush (n = 8. Group 2: Medscand CytoBrush Plus GT (n = 7. Group 3: Rover spatula + endocervix brush (n = 11. Group 4: Medscand spatula + CytoBrush Plus GT (n = 11. Results Examination of SurePath broom-collected cytology yielded the following abnormal diagnoses: atypia (n = 2, LSIL (n = 5 and HSIL (n = 3. Comparison of these diagnoses to those obtained from paired samples using the additional collection devices showed that use of a second and or third device yielded no additional abnormal diagnoses. Importantly, use of additional devices did not improve upon the abnormal cell recovery of the SurePath broom and in 4/10 cases under-predicted or did not detect the SurePath broom-collected lesion as confirmed by cervical biopsy. Finally, in 36/37 cases, the SurePath broom successfully recovered ECs. Use of additional devices, in Group 3, augmented EC recovery to 37/37. Conclusions Use of additional collection devices in conjunction with the SurePath broom did not enhance diagnostic utility of the SurePath Pap. A potential but not significant improvement in EC recovery might be seen with the use of three devices.

  8. Factors contributing to high ThinPrep® Pap test unsatisfactory rates in an academic medical center laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Suzanne M

    2014-05-01

    Specimen adequacy is a key component in the cytologic evaluation of cervical Pap tests. At our institution, yearly unsatisfactory rates continue to be high, placing our laboratory in the 95th percentile for CAP benchmark data for unsatisfactory Pap test rates. Using the 2001 Bethesda System criteria, unsatisfactory Pap test rates were calculated over a ten year period (January 2002 to December 2011) and contributing factors were analyzed. Of the 124,457 ThinPrep Pap tests performed, 4,163 (3.3%) were unsatisfactory for evaluation, the majority (90%) due to too few squamous epithelial cells. Peri/postmenopausal women and those who had received radiation/chemotherapy had the highest unsatisfactory rates; 55% and 25%, respectively. Higher unsatisfactory Pap test rates are related to the patient population served. Defined, reproducible adequacy criteria need to be defined for Pap tests from patients in certain clinical conditions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Reliability and factor analysis of general health questionnaire 12 in malay version among women with abnormal pap smear results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiana Mansor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12 is widely used to detect minor psychiatric and potential nonpsychiatric disorders, and has been translated into many languages and validated for a variety of populations. GHQ- 12 has been used for medical students, in health sciences, and other disciplines in order to study the impact on general health of current disease. GHQ-12 was introduced by Goldberg in the year 1978, whereby validity and reliability was assessed in a number of studies in Malaysia

  10. Relationships between Self-Efficacy and Pap Smear Screening in Iranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdfar, Zahra; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Majlesi, Freshteh; Rahimi, Abbas; Shams, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Gohar

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer among women worldwide. Pap smear screening has resulted in deceasing incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries but low uptake of Pap smear screening among women in developing countries is still a public health challenge. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between self-efficacy and timely uptake of Pap smear among Iranian women. A total of 580 married women referred to primary health care centers covered administratively by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran were administered a questionnaire by trained staff. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The mean age for participants was 33.1±8.8 years. There was a significant association between self-efficacy and Pap smear screening (Pcorrelation between duration of marriage and husband's education with Pap smear uptake (Pself-efficacy (OR = 15.3 for intermediate and OR=7.4 for good level), duration of marriage (OR = 5.7 for 5-14 years and OR=10.4 for more than 15), age (OR =2.7 for 27-34 years and OR=7.4 for more than 35 years) and husband education level (OR=2.3 for more than 12 years of education). In multivariate analysis, significant associations persisted between Pap smear uptake and self-efficacy (OR = 23.8; 95% CI: 8.7, 65.5), duration of marriage (OR = 5.9; 95% CI: 2.8, 12.2), age (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 12.9) and husband's education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 2.0, 10.3). Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer and improve their self-efficacy and perceptions of the Pap smear screening in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  11. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana red pap1-D cells metabolically programmed by auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Shi, Ming-Zhu; Xie, De-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Red pap1-D cells of Arabidopsis thaliana have been cloned from production of anthocyanin pigmentation 1-Dominant (pap1-D) plants. The red cells are metabolically programmed to produce high levels of anthocyanins by a WD40-bHLH-MYB complex that is composed of the TTG1, TT8/GL3 and PAP1 transcription factors. Here, we report that indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in these red cells. Seven concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, 2.2, 9, 18 and 27 μM) were tested for the three auxins. IAA and 2,4-D at 2.2-27 μM reduced anthocyanin levels. NAA at 0-0.2 μM or above 9 μM also decreased anthocyanin levels, but from 0.4 to 9 μM, it increased them. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis identified seven cyanin molecules that were produced in red pap1-D cells, and their levels were affected by auxins. The expression levels of ten genes, including six transcription factors (TTG1, EGL3, MYBL2, TT8, GL3 and PAP1) and four pathway genes (PAL1, CHS, DFR and ANS) involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were analyzed upon various auxin treatments. The resulting data showed that 2,4-D, NAA and IAA control anthocyanin biosynthesis by regulating the expression of TT8, GL3 and PAP1 as well as genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, such as DFR and ANS. In addition, the expression of MYBL2, PAL1 and CHS in red pap1-D and wild-type cells differentially respond to the three auxins. Our data demonstrate that the three auxins regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in metabolically programmed red cells via altering the expression of transcription factor genes and pathway genes.

  12. National assessment of HPV and Pap tests: Changes in cervical cancer screening, National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Benard, Vicki; King, Jessica; Crawford, Anatasha; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-07-01

    Major organizations recommend cytology screening (Pap test) every 3years for women aged 21-65; women aged 30 to 65 have the option of adding the HPV test (co-test) every 5years. We examined national percentages of cervical cancer screening, and we examined use of co-testing as an option for screening. We used 2015 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data to examine recent cervical cancer screening (Pap test within 3years among women aged 21-65 without a hysterectomy; N=10,596) and co-testing (N=9,125). We also conducted a multivariable analysis to determine odds of having had a Pap test or co-test by demographic variables. To evaluate changes in screening over time, we examined Pap testing during the years 2000, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2013 and 2015. Analysis completed in Atlanta, GA during 2016. Overall, 81.1% of eligible women reported having a Pap test within 3years; percentages declined over time among all age groups. An estimated 14 million women aged 21-65 had not been screened within the past 3years. Recent immigrants to the United States, women without insurance, and women without a usual source of healthcare had lower odds of being up to date with screening. About 1/3 of women up to date on Pap testing reported having a co-test with their most recent Pap test. Declines in screening among women aged 21-65 are cause for concern. More research is needed on co-testing practices. Provider and patient education efforts may be needed to clarify recommended use of HPV tests. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Importance of a 5′ Stem-Loop for Longevity of papA mRNA in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Bricker, Angela L.; Belasco, Joel G.

    1999-01-01

    High-level expression of the major pilus subunit (PapA) of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli results in part from the unusually long lifetime of the mRNA that encodes this protein. Here we report that the longevity of papA mRNA derives in large measure from the protection afforded by its 5′ untranslated region. This papA RNA segment can prolong the lifetime of an otherwise short-lived mRNA to which it is fused. In vivo alkylation studies indicate that, in its natural milieu, the papA ...

  14. Persistent disparities in pap test use: assessments and predictions for Asian women in the U.S., 1982-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzy-Chyi; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Ward, Andrew

    2010-08-01

    Disparities in cancer screening among U.S. women are well documented. However, little is known about Pap test use by Asian women living in the U.S. Data for women, ages 18 and older, living in the U.S. were obtained from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) files from 1982 to 2005. Outcomes were ever having a Pap test and having a Pap test within the preceding 3 years. Pap test prevalence trends were estimated by race and ethnicity and for Asian subgroups. Fractional logit models were used to predict Pap test use in 2010. Although the rate of having a Pap test within the preceding 3 years increased slightly from 1982 to 2005 for all U.S. women, Asian women continue to have the lowest rate. Pap test use also varied within Asian subpopulations living in the U.S. None of the races and ethnicities are predicted to reach the Pap test targets of Healthy People 2010. To reduce or eliminate continuing disparities in Pap test use requires targeted policy interventions.

  15. Agroecologia: Potencializando os papéis das mulheres rurais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana da Silva Andersson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa se e como a agroecologia potencializa os papéis das mulheres rurais, em sua maioria agricultoras, dos municípios de Arroio do Padre e São Lourenço do Sul (RS. Através da realização de entrevistas em profundidade e da observação participante, o artigo analisa as percepções dessas mulheres a respeito das realidades por elas vivenciadas tanto no âmbito produtivo (lavoura como reprodutivo (doméstico. É importante destacar que, em Arroio do Padre, há um processo incipiente de “agroecologização”, ou seja, as unidades familiares encontram-se nos níveis iniciais da transição agroecológica. Já em São Lourenço do Sul, observou-se que essas mulheres atuam na agroecologia há mais de 40 anos. Estas distintas trajetórias conferem percepções de mundo diferenciadas entre os dois contextos sociais. Enquanto para as interlocutoras de Arroio do Padre a agroecologia pouco interfere em suas escolhas dentro e fora de casa, já para as entrevistadas de São Lourenço do Sul é essencial no repensar das relações estabelecidas no lar e no seu entorno, especialmente nos assuntos que tangem aos mercados e a sua valorização enquanto “agricultora”.

  16. Diagnosing pre-invasive cervical lesions – experience with pap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    58.1%), vaginal discharge (20.3%), postcoital bleeding (12.0%) and postmenopausal bleeding 43 (7.6%). Of the total smears reported, epithelial abnormalities seen include low grade SIL 30 (5.3%) and high grade SIL 9 (1.6%) respectively.

  17. "It Can Promote an Existential Crisis": Factors Influencing Pap Test Acceptability and Utilization Among Transmasculine Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Agénor, Madina; Bernstein, Ida M; McDowell, Michal; Alizaga, Natalie M; Reisner, Sari L; Pardee, Dana J; Potter, Jennifer

    2017-12-01

    Transmasculine (i.e., female-to-male transgender) individuals have lower rates of cervical cancer screening than nontransgender women and often report negative experiences with the Pap test. Deciding to undergo screening and the test experience itself are characterized by the following processes: negotiating identity as the patient, provider, and insurance company wrestle with the degree of (in)congruence between a patient's masculine gender identity and their conception of the Pap test as feminine; bargaining for health as a Pap test may be required to obtain medical transition services or avoid undesired health outcomes; withstanding acute challenges during the Pap test to body, identity, and privacy; or reframing challenges as affirmation. The degree of distress triggered by the Pap test varied from "routine" to traumatic. Participants affirmed that a trusted, trans-competent health care provider could significantly reduce barriers to regular and satisfactory cervical cancer screening. Data are from 32 in-depth interviews conducted in Boston, Massachusetts, with transmasculine individuals; a modified grounded theory approach informed the analysis.

  18. Beliefs about cervical cancer and Pap test: a new Chilean questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Maria-Teresa; Hall, Rosemary

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to examine women's beliefs about cervical cancer and the Pap test in Chilean women. The questionnaire, developed following the guidelines by Robert de Vellis, is based on the Health Belief Model. The content validity index was 0.93 upon review by 10 Chilean experts. A cross-sectional design was implemented to validate the questionnaire. The sample included 333 women recruited from a women's healthcare center in Santiago, Chile. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate validity and coefficient α to evaluate reliability. After six models were computed, the questionnaire was reduced from 53 to 28 items. The new questionnaire, CPC-28 (in Spanish, Creencias, Papanicolaou, Cancer -28), includes six domains: the barriers domain to take a Pap test, the cues to action domain, the severity domain, the need to have a Pap test domain, the susceptibility to cervical cancer domain, and the benefit domain. The unexpected salient factor "need to have a Pap test" was found as part of the susceptibility domain proposed in the initial questionnaire. This finding is an important topic for future research. The CPC-28 questionnaire explained 49% of the total variance, and the reliability was .735. It was concluded that the CPC-28 questionnaire will have important implications on research, education, and administration across disciplines. Nursing curricula and healthcare providers must stress the importance and reinforce the importance of prevention of cervical cancer and regular Pap test screenings. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Effects of State Cervical Cancer Insurance Mandates on Pap Test Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P; Carpenter, Christopher S

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of state insurance mandates requiring insurance plans to cover Pap tests, the standard screening for cervical cancer that is recommended for nearly all adult women. Individual-level data on 600,000 women age 19-64 from the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Twenty-four states adopted state mandates requiring private insurers in the state to cover Pap tests from 1988 to 2000. We performed a difference-in-differences analysis comparing within-state changes in Pap test rates before and after adoption of a mandate, controlling for the associated changes in other states that did not adopt a mandate. Difference-in-differences estimates indicated that the Pap test mandates significantly increased past 2-year cervical cancer screenings by 1.3 percentage points, with larger effects for Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. These effects are plausibly concentrated among insured women. Mandating more generous insurance coverage for even inexpensive, routine services with already high utilization rates such as Pap tests can significantly further increase utilization. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Metastatic urinary tract cancers in pap test: Cytomorphologic findings and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Derek B; Olson, Matthew T; Maleki, Zahra; Ali, Syed Z

    2016-12-01

    Although the cervical Pap test was devised for the detection of primary cervical neoplasia, it can provide additional diagnostic information, and in some cases, be diagnostic for noncervical processes. The diagnosis of metastatic extrauterine cervical cancers on the Pap test is extremely rare; and in most cases, it is the result of an ovarian or fallopian tube primary. Further, urinary tract cancers, including renal and urinary primaries are exceedingly rare. To our knowledge, six surgical cases of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have been described. We report the first case of metastatic clear cell RCC detected on the cervical Pap test. Additionally, to our knowledge, we report the second case of metastatic high-grade urothelial carcinoma detected on the cervical Pap test. Both patients had a history of malignancy, which underscore the importance of broadening the differential diagnosis to rule out cytomorphologic features consistent with a patient's primary diagnosis when interpreting the cervical Pap test. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:1078-1081. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...

  2. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism. Farida El-Baz a. , Mohamed Saad Zaghloul a. , Ezzat El Sobky a. ,. Reham M Elhossiny a,. *, Heba Salah a. , Neveen Ezy Abdelaziz b a Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt b Children with Special ...

  4. Prevalence of High-Risk HPV Types and Abnormal Cervical Cytology in American Indian/Alaska Native Women, 2003–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, Grace A.; Datta, S. Deblina; Mickiewicz, Theresa; Koutsky, Laura A.; Ghanem, Khalil; Hagensee, Michael; Kerndt, Peter; Hsu, Katherine; Weinstock, Hillard; Shlay, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We described prevalence estimates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), HPV types 16 and 18, and abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Methods A total of 9,706 women presenting for cervical screening in a sentinel network of 26 clinics (sexually transmitted disease, family planning, and primary care) received Pap smears and HR-HPV type-specific testing. We compared characteristics of 291 women self-identified as AI/AN with other racial/ethnic minority groups. Results In our population, AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women had similar age- and clinic-adjusted prevalences of HR-HPV (29.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 23.9, 34.3 for AI/AN women vs. 25.8%, 95% CI 24.4, 27.2 for NHW women), HPV 16 and 18 (6.7%, 95% CI 3.9, 9.6 for AI/AN women vs. 8.8%, 95% CI 7.9, 9.7 for NHW women), and abnormal Pap smear test results (16%, 95% CI 11.7, 20.3 for AI/AN women vs. 14.9%, 95% CI 13.7, 16.0 for NHW women). AI/AN women had a higher prevalence of HR-HPV than Hispanic women, and a similar prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 as compared with Hispanic and African American women. Conclusions We could not demonstrate differences in the prevalence of HR-HPV, HPV 16 and 18, or abnormal Pap smear test results between AI/AN and NHW women. This finding should improve confidence in the benefit of HPV vaccine and Pap smear screening in the AI/AN population as an effective strategy to reduce rates of cervical cancer. PMID:21553660

  5. Prevalence of high-risk HPV types and abnormal cervical cytology in American Indian/Alaska Native women, 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, Grace A; Datta, S Deblina; Mickiewicz, Theresa; Koutsky, Laura A; Ghanem, Khalil; Hagensee, Michael; Kerndt, Peter; Hsu, Katherine; Weinstock, Hillard; Shlay, Judith C

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES; We described prevalence estimates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), HPV types 16 and 18, and abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races/ethnicities. A total of 9,706 women presenting for cervical screening in a sentinel network of 26 clinics (sexually transmitted disease, family planning, and primary care) received Pap smears and HR-HPV type-specific testing. We compared characteristics of 291 women self-identified as AI/AN with other racial/ethnic minority groups. In our population, AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women had similar age- and clinic-adjusted prevalences of HR-HPV (29.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 23.9, 34.3 for AI/AN women vs. 25.8%, 95% CI 24.4, 27.2 for NHW women), HPV 16 and 18 (6.7%, 95% CI 3.9, 9.6 for AI/AN women vs. 8.8%, 95% CI 7.9, 9.7 for NHW women), and abnormal Pap smear test results (16%, 95% CI 11.7, 20.3 for AI/AN women vs. 14.9%, 95% CI 13.7, 16.0 for NHW women). AI/AN women had a higher prevalence of HR-HPV than Hispanic women, and a similar prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 as compared with Hispanic and African American women. We could not demonstrate differences in the prevalence of HR-HPV, HPV 16 and 18, or abnormal Pap smear test results between AI/AN and NHW women. This finding should improve confidence in the benefit of HPV vaccine and Pap smear screening in the AI/AN population as an effective strategy to reduce rates of cervical cancer.

  6. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bhar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  7. Environmental regulation of leaf colour in red 35S:PAP1 Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Daryl D; Cao, Mingshu; Lin-Wang, Kui; Cooney, Janine M; Jensen, Dwayne J; Austin, Paul T; Hunt, Martin B; Norling, Cara; Hellens, Roger P; Schaffer, Robert J; Allan, Andrew C

    2009-01-01

    * High-temperature, low-light (HTLL) treatment of 35S:PAP1 Arabidopsis thaliana over-expressing the PAP1 (Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1) gene results in reversible reduction of red colouration, suggesting the action of additional anthocyanin regulators. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) and Affimetrix-based microarrays were used to measure changes in anthocyanin, flavonoids, and gene expression in response to HTLL. * HTLL treatment of control and 35S:PAP1 A. thaliana resulted in a reversible reduction in the concentrations of major anthocyanins despite ongoing over-expression of the PAP1 MYB transcription factor. Twenty-one anthocyanins including eight cis-coumaryl esters were identified by LCMS. The concentrations of nine anthocyanins were reduced and those of three were increased, consistent with a sequential process of anthocyanin degradation. Analysis of gene expression showed down-regulation of flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis and of transport-related genes within 24 h of HTLL treatment. No catabolic genes up-regulated by HTLL were found. * Reductions in the concentrations of anthocyanins and down-regulation of the genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis were achieved by environmental manipulation, despite ongoing over-expression of PAP1. Quantitative PCR showed reduced expression of three genes (TT8, TTG1 and EGL3) of the PAP1 transcriptional complex, and increased expression of the potential transcriptional repressors AtMYB3, AtMYB6 and AtMYBL2 coincided with HTLL-induced down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. * HTLL treatment offers a model system with which to explore anthocyanin catabolism and to discover novel genes involved in the environmental control of anthocyanins.

  8. Comparison of Pap Smear and Colposcopy in Screening for Cervical Cancer in Patients with Secondary Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Zanbagh, Leila; Shafii, Alireza; Taghipour-Zahir, Shokouh; Teimoori, Soraya; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria

    2015-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. The sensitivity of conventional Pap smear in detecting cervical lesions before cervical cancer is 51%, which means the false negative value is 49%. The aim of this study was to compare two methods for screening for cervical cancer in patients with secondary immunodeficiency, i.e., the conventional Pap smear and colposcopy. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 101 immunodeficient patients who were referred to the Gynecologic Clinic at Shahid Sadughi Hospital in Yazd from March 2011 to August 2012. All patients underwent the Pap test, a colposcopy, and a cervical biopsy, with the latter being considered as the gold-standard test. The most frequency of immunodeficiency was noted among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (53.3%), and this was followed by patients who were undergoing chemotherapy (30.7%), patients with lupus erythematosus (12.9%), and patients with AIDS (3%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the Pap smear were 18.2, 98.5, 85.5, 71.3, and 72.2%, respectively. The respective values for colposcopy were 66.7, 98.94, 80, 97.9, and 97%, respectively. In this study the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values of colposcopy were higher than those for the Pap smear in detecting high-grade, cervical, pre-malignant lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: CIN ≥ 2). Therefore, an annual colposcopy is advised for secondary immunodeficient patients instead of a Pap smear.

  9. Perception and use of Pap smear screening among rural and urban women in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Mihaela; Popovici, Razvan; Pristavu, Anda; Grigore, Ana Maria; Matei, Mioara; Gafitanu, Dumitru

    2017-12-01

    In 2012 the National Screening Program for all women between 25 and 64 years of age was launched in Romania. Public awareness is an important factor in the success of a screening program. For this reason, we intended to assess the perception and the level of awareness of Romanian women regarding the Pap test in the prevention of cervical cancer. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 454 women from rural and urban areas. For our study, we used a questionnaire covering general characteristics, awareness, knowledge and practices regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear. 431 participants (95%) had heard of cervical cancer and Pap smear but only 71.8% knew the exact role of it. Bivariate analysis showed that knowledge about the importance of the Pap smear, early detection and treatment of early-stage cervical cancer was reduced among women with low socio-economic status, mainly living in rural area. The most frequent reasons for avoiding Pap smear screening were: lack of money, embarrassment or fear of gynaecological consultation and pain, the feeling that they don't need it, misconceptions about cervical cancer, fatalistic attitude, perceived low susceptibility to cervical cancer. Because the uptake and the success of cervical cancer screening are determined by women's knowledge and awareness of Pap smear, it is critical to improve these perceptions in the near future especially in rural area characterized by a low socio-economic status. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of visual inspection with acetic acid, Pap smear, or high-risk human papillomavirus testing in women living with HIV/AIDS for posttreatment cervical cancer screening: same tests, different priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenge Orang'o, Elkanah; Liu, Tao; Christoffersen-Deb, Astrid; Itsura, Peter; Oguda, John; Washington, Sierra; Chumba, David; Pisharodi, Latha; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Rositch, Anne F

    2017-01-14

    Few studies have addressed optimal follow-up for HIV-infected women after cervical treatment. This study aimed to compare performance of three available tests to detect posttreatment cervical disease in HIV-infected women in Kenya. This is a prospective cohort study. At least 6 months following cryotherapy, 517 HIV-infected women were evaluated concurrently with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), papanicolaou (Pap) smear, and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing. Women positive by any test (≥low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion for Pap) were scheduled for colposcopy and biopsy. Among 248 with histological confirmation [and 174 assumed to be truly negative for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2+ after testing negative by all three tests], the ability of each test alone, or in combination, to detect CIN2+ was calculated to determine their utility in posttreatment follow-up. The median age of women was 35 years, 68% were WHO stage 1-2, with a median CD4 cell count of 410 cells/μl, and 87% were on combination antiretroviral therapy. At a median of 6.3 months posttreatment, 64% had an abnormal screen by VIA, Pap, and/or HR-HPV. Among women with histological confirmation, 72 (30%) had persistent/recurrent CIN2+. As single tests, Pap correctly classified the most cases (83%) and had the highest specificity [91% (88 and 95%); sensitivity 44% (35 and 53%)], whereas HR-HPV had the highest sensitivity [85% (75 and 96%); specificity 54% (49 and 58%)]. VIA was not sensitive [27% (18 and 36%)] for the detection of posttreatment CIN2+ [specificity 82% (79 and 86%)]. With the goal to minimize the number of false negatives (e.g. not miss CIN2+ posttreatment) in this population that is high-risk due to both prior cervical disease and HIV infection, HR-HPV-based algorithms are recommended.

  11. Awareness and practice of cervical cancer and Pap smear testing in a teaching hospital in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Ghaoomi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is known to be preventable because of long period of pre-invasive stage, availability of screening tools, and effective treatments for early invasive cervical lesions. Screening is main measures to prevent the disease and Pap smear is a screening strategy for cervical cancer. Current paper aimed to evaluate levels of awareness and practice regarding Pap smear screening among women aged between 20 to 65 years in Tehran (Iran. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study conducted in Tehran City of Iran in 2015 at Firoozgar Hospital. The research population included all married, widowed and divorced women aged 20-65 years. Data analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation and Student’s t-tests in SPSS, ver. 23 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: Among 90 individuals who have fill questionnaire completely, 66.6% subjects had Pap smear tests. 40% of the individuals aged between 30 to 39 and the education level is distributed equally between Intermediate, Diploma and graduate and only 3 percent of them, continue their education to higher level. There was a significant relationship between the awareness of Pap smear and educational level (of both wives and husbands. The people who have graduate degree, have the best awareness. Working women revealed higher level of awareness about Pap smear. Shame and fear of taking the cancer were the most common reasons which lead to avoidance in doing the test by the women, while the most encouraging factors for performing the test were the information mostly provided by physicians and after that, the information provided by friends. Conclusion: The awareness of Pap smear test which was measured by weighting different questions in the questionnaire by experts, prove that the women aged above 39, have an average level of awareness of Pap smear test. Due to high prevalence of cervical cancer and prolonged pre invasive course, role of Pap smear for early diagnosis necessitate the use

  12. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The alg......In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier...

  13. CNS activity of Pokeweed Anti-viral Protein (PAP in mice infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibbles Heather E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the anti-viral spectrum of PAP by examining its effects on the survival of mice challenged with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Methods We examined the therapeutic effect of PAP in CBA mice inoculated with intracerebral injections of the WE54 strain of LCMV at a 1000 PFU dose level that is lethal to 100% of mice within 7–9 days. Mice were treated either with vehicle or PAP administered intraperitoneally 24 hours prior to, 1 hour prior to and 24 hours, 48 hours 72 hours and 96 hours after virus inoculation. Results PAP exhibits significant in vivo anti- LCMV activity in mice challenged intracerebrally with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of LCMV. At non-toxic dose levels, PAP significantly prolonged survival in the absence of the majority of disease-associated symptoms. The median survival time of PAP-treated mice was >21 days as opposed to 7 days median survival for the control (p = 0.0069. Conclusion Our results presented herein provide unprecedented experimental evidence that PAP exhibits antiviral activity in the CNS of LCMV-infected mice.

  14. Influencing Factors of Intention to Receive Pap Tests in Vietnamese Women who Immigrated to Taiwan for Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsin Lee, PhD, RN

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Preventive healthcare for immigrant women should be a focus of nurses. The development of culturally appropriate health education and strategies should enhance their knowledge of Pap tests and reduce perceived barriers to Pap test participation. This study's results can be a reference for nurses who work with immigrant women.

  15. The characteristics and relevant factors of Pap smear test use for women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Suh-May; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-06-02

    This study examines the Pap smear usage conditions and relevant influential factors for 18,204 women aged 30 years and above with intellectual disabilities, using nationwide data from 2008. The research method of this study is secondary data analysis. The data was obtained from three nationwide databases from 2006 to 2008. This study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the use and rate of Pap smear testing by women with intellectual disabilities. Chi-square test was used to assess the correlation between Pap smear test usage and several variables. Logistic regression analysis was employed to explore the factors that influence Pap smear test usage. The results show that 4.83% (n =880) of women with intellectual disabilities underwent Pap smear tests. Pap smear test usage rates exhibit a declining trend with increases in age. Factors that significantly influence Pap smear test use include age, urbanization level of resident area, monthly salary, aboriginal status, marital status, existence of DM, severity of disability. The women with intellectual disabilities had a low use rate of Pap smear test, which is significantly less than the 28.8% usage rate for the general population of women aged 30 years and above.

  16. Star-PAP Control of BIK Expression and Apoptosis Is Regulated by Nuclear PIPKIα and PKCδ Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weimin; Laishram, Rakesh S.; Ji, Zhe; Barlow, Christy A.; Tian, Bin; Anderson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY BIK protein is an initiator of mitochondrial apoptosis and BIK expression is induced by pro-apoptotic signals including DNA damage. Here we demonstrate that 3′-end processing and expression of BIK mRNA are controlled by the nuclear PI4,5P2-regulated poly(A) polymerase Star-PAP downstream of DNA damage. Nuclear PKCδ is a key mediator of apoptosis and DNA damage stimulates PKCδ association with the Star-PAP complex where PKCδ is required for Star-PAP-dependent BIK expression. PKCδ binds the PI4,5P2-generating enzyme PIPKIα, which is essential for PKCδ interaction with the Star-PAP complex and PKCδ activity is directly stimulated by PI4,5P2. Features in the BIK 3′-UTR uniquely define Star-PAP specificity and may block canonical PAP activity toward BIK mRNA. This reveals a nuclear phosphoinositide signaling nexus where PIPKIα, PI4,5P2 and PKCδ regulate Star-PAP control of BIK expression and induction of apoptosis. This pathway is distinct from the Star-PAP-mediated oxidative stress pathway indicating signal-specific regulation of mRNA 3′-end processing. PMID:22244330

  17. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  18. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  19. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop! | Gordon | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Head of Undergraduate Education in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, I have a particular interest in the competencies needed to perform primary care gynaecological procedures, one of which is the Pap smear. I was approached by a group of keen volunteer ...

  20. Pap screening as preventive tool against cervical cancer: a report of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of cervical cancer in the developed countries has significantly reduced as a result of well-organized and coordinated Pap screening program, which is aimed at detection of pre-invasive lesions that are then promptly treated. We report a 45-year old woman whose immediate elder sister had breast carcinoma, ...

  1. Pap Tests Every Three Years: Cost-Effective in the Long Run?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amschler, Denise Hope

    1983-01-01

    The American Cancer Society's guidelines, recommending that having Pap tests at three-year intervals is safe for many women, are questioned. Dangers to women with a high risk of cervical cancer, problems with faulty test results, and other gynecological problems that may be detected during pelvic examinations are discussed. (PP)

  2. Having a Pap smear, quality of life before and after cervical screening: a questionnaire study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, I. J.; van Ballegooijen, M.; Wauben, B.; Looman, C. W. N.; Habbema, J. D. F.; Essink-Bot, M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Korfage I, van Ballegooijen M, Wauben B, Looman C, Habbema J, Essink-Bot M. Having a Pap smear, quality of life before and after cervical screening: a questionnaire study. BJOG 2012;119:936944. Objective To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impact of

  3. The role of Pap test screening against cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggiolaro, A; Unim, B; Semyonov, L; Miccoli, S; Maffongelli, E; La Torre, G

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this article is to quantify the role of Pap test in cervical cancer prevention, updating the pool of available studies included in a previous meta-analysis. Potential sources of meta-analysis heterogeneity were investigated as second aim. Further evidence of cost-effectiveness has been provided about age and best time interval to perform Pap test screening. The articles' search was conducted using four medical electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, ISI Web, and Scopus. Papers published until the 30th November 2013 were included. The research on Google Scholar was limited to the first 10 pages of web for each study design. A systematic review/meta-analysis was performed according to PRISMA Statement. New-Castle-Ottawa Scale and Jadad have been adopted for articles quality assessment. From 4143 screened articles, 34 met eligibility criteria and 30 case-control studies were included in meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was carried out using StatsDirect2.8.0. Heterogeneity was investigated with qualitative and quantitative approaches in sensitivity-analysis. Despite a great heterogeneity (Cochran Q=504.466, df=29, pPap test has been identified (OR=0.33; 95%CI=0.268-0.408, P Pap test against cervical cancer has been confirmed especially among women <40 years. Annual screening still remains the most cost-effective preventive strategy.

  4. Expression Pattern of Class B Gene PAP3 in Flower Development of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Class B gene APETALA3 (AP3 plays a key role in the development of petals and stamens. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of PAP3 gene (genbank accession number: HM104635 in the buds of cytoplasmic male sterility line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C at four developmental stages and analyzed the possible association between Class B genes and cytoplasmic male sterility of pepper. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR as well as RNA in situ hybridization showed increased expression of PAP3 at late phase of anther development and its higher expression in restorer line compared with sterility line indicating PAP3’s role at late developmental stage of anther and suppressed expression in sterility line. RNA in situ hybridization showed Class B gene features: high abundance in stamen and petal; lower expression in pistil; no expression in sepal. Results of transient expression in onion epidermal cells also showed PAP3 localized in the nucleus, which is consistent with the expression pattern of transcription factors of MADS-box gene family.

  5. How Often to Get a Pap Test (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-10

    Cervical cancer has declined in the U.S., however every year over 12,000 women are diagnosed and 4,000 die. This podcast discusses the importance of Pap testing.  Created: 1/10/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/10/2013.

  6. Utilization of pap smear in the prevention of cervical cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Cervical carcinoma is a preventable disease, yet it remains the leading genital tract malignancy among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: To assess awareness, knowledge and utilization of Pap smear as a screening modality for cancer of the cervix among female health workers at Federal Teaching ...

  7. PapG Gene cloning, Escherichia coli uropathogen and examination of its subsequence diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Hamidiyeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available infections are one of the most prevalent human infections. Despite different antigens and toxins of interfering bacteria in infection, one of the important agents in the infections arising from Escherichia coli and the other gram negative bacteria is bacterial binding to host cell surface, so inhibiting the bacterial binding is an appropriate strategy to inhibit the infection. Whereas PapG protein acts as adhesion, it can be an appropriate candidate for developingvaccine. Material and Methods: A Genomic DNA of Escherichia coli bacterium extracted from clinical strain containing PapGII gene. Upon designing primer for PapGII gene, the PCR reaction was applied. The product of PCR was cloned in pBluescript (SK- plasmid. Using Clustal W and MEGA4 software, the gained subsequence was alignmented with the gene subsequence existing in gene bank and its gene diversity was studied. Results: Based on was down alignment, N terminal on the protein surface and DNA are protected. Conclusion: N terminal domain of PapG gene is a conserved sequence among clinical straines? And it could be used for designing a vaccine against urinary tract infection.

  8. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  9. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussion. Regardless of varying diagnostic classification, abnormal glucose tolerance is a well-documented risk factor. 16 Abnormalities in. Because ofthe small number offemale MI survivors, the effect of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance on lipid levels was studied in the male patients only. There was no significant.

  10. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Pap Smear as a Screening Test for Cervical Cancer among Saudi Population in Riyadh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khudairi, Hassan; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alomar, Osama; Salem, Hany

    2017-01-17

    To explore the public awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of Saudi women towards Pap smear as a screening test for cervical cancer. A descriptive cross-sectional study took place in four major secondary and tertiary healthcare hospitals located in the capital city Riyadh between January 2016 and June 2016. A self-administered, coded, close-ended survey was randomly distributed to 1000 non-single women attending the obstetrics/gynecology outpatient clinics or inpatient wards. Five hundred and seven women participated in the survey (overall response rate: 50.7%). The vast majority of respondents aged between 20-40 years (88%) and were married (94.1%), Saudi citizens (96.5%), university educated (45.6%) and housewives (64.5%). A total of 234 women (46.2%) did not hear whatsoever about Pap smear previously. Only 273 women (53.9%) heard about it, mostly during their hospital visits for obstetric/gynecologic purposes (57.1%). A sum of 381 women (75.2%) did not do a single Pap smear previously. A sum of 383 women (75.5%) reported that their physicians never advised them to do Pap smear. Regarding knowledge of Pap smear, 415 women (82%) did not know when to start doing Pap smear, 471 women (92.9%) did not know how frequently they should do Pap smear and 476 women (93.9%) did not know when to stop doing Pap smear. Moreover, 456 women (89.9%) did not know the difference between Pap smear and high vaginal swap. A total of 429 women (84.6%) never requested their physician to do Pap smear. Almost all women (95.3%) expressed an interest in knowing more information about the Pap smear screening test. The awareness and knowledge of Pap smear as a screening test for cervical cancer among Saudi population living in Riyadh is unsatisfactory. There is an urgent necessity to educate and foster awareness concerning cervical cancer and its screening through Pap smear.

  11. Spatial structure of oligopeptide PAP(248-261), the N-terminal fragment of the HIV enhancer prostatic acid phosphatase peptide PAP(248-286), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, Dmitriy S.; Filippov, Andrei V.; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Karataeva, Farida Kh.; Klochkov, Vladimir V.

    2014-07-01

    Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is an enzyme that facilitates infection of cells by HIV. Its peptide fragment PAP(248-286) forms amyloid fibrils known as SEVI, which enhance attachment of the virus by viral adhesion to the host cell prior to receptor-specific binding via reducing the electrostatic repulsion between the membranes of the virus and the target cell. The secondary structure of PAP(248-286) in aqueous and SDS solutions can be divided into an N-terminal disordered region, an α-helical central part and an α/310-helical C-terminal region (Nanga et al., 2009). In this work, we used NMR spectroscopy to study the spatial structure of the isolated N-terminal fragment of PAP(248-286), PAP(248-261) (GIHKQKEKSRLQGG), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions. Formation of a PAP(248-261)-SDS complex was confirmed by chemical shift alterations in the 1H NMR spectra of the peptide, as well as by the signs and values of Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE). In addition, the PAP(248-261) peptide does not form any specified secondary structure in either aqueous or SDS solutions.

  12. Pap test use and cervical cancer incidence in First Nations women living in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kathleen M; Demers, Alain A; Kliewer, Erich V; Biswanger, Natalie; Musto, Grace; Elias, Brenda; Griffith, Jane; Turner, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This study examined Papanicolaou (Pap) test utilization, Pap test results, and cervical cancer incidence among First Nations (FN) women living in Manitoba, Canada taking into account age group, time period, and area of residence. Six population-based data sources were linked at an individual level. Negative binomial regression was used to compare Pap test utilization and results between FN and all other Manitoba (AOM) women. Poisson regression was used to compare cervical cancer incidence. Among women younger than 25 years, FN were more likely than AOM women to have had a Pap test [rate ratio (RR) = 1.37, 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.22-1.53, 18-19 year olds; RR = 1.17, 95% CI, 1.05-1.31, 20-24 year olds]. There was no difference in Pap test use for women 25 to 29 or 30 to 39 years. FN 40 years and older were less likely to have a Pap test than AOM women (RR = 0.84, 95% CI, 0.75-0.93, 40-49 years old; RR = 0.71, 95% CI, 0.63-0.79, 50-59 years old; RR = 0.59, 95% CI, 0.52-0.66, 60-69 years old). FN were more likely than AOM women to have a high (RR = 1.88, 95% CI, 1.65-2.13) or low-grade Pap test result (RR = 1.60, 95% CI, 1.48-1.73). The invasive cervical cancer incidence rate was double for FN women 25 to 39 years of age (21.9 per 100,000, FN; 10.2 per 100,000, AOM, P = 0.006) and 40 to 69 years of age (24.3 per 100,000, FN; 12.3 per 100,000, AOM, P = 0.007). In conclusion, cervical cancer screening among FN women over 40 years of age must be increased to address the higher cervical cancer incidence. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  14. Increasing Adherence to Follow-up of Breast Abnormalities in Low-Income Korean American Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    support and adherence behavior among women with abnormal pap smears . J Cancer Educ 11:164-73, 1996. Crump SR, Shipp MP, McCray GG, Morris SJ, Okoli JA...Based on a review of the breast and cervical cancer literature, strategies to increase adherence to diagnostic follow-up include educational...9(2): 140-148, 2008. Del Mar CB, Wright RG. Notifying Women of the Results of their Cervical Smear Tests by Mail: Does it Result in a Decreased

  15. Factors associated with Mexican women's familiarity with the purpose of the Pap test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera Aguilar, P; Lazcano Ponce, E C; de Ruíz, P A; Ramírez Sánchez, T; Cantoral Uriza, L; Hernández Avila, M

    1996-12-01

    Use of health services is usually associated with a variety of factors, including the socioeconomic characteristics of the users, their familiarity with the usefulness of the services provided, and the acceptability and accessibility of those services. To study the factors associated with women's familiarity with the Pap test, a population-based study was carried out in Mexico City and two rural areas in the state of Oaxaca by means of household interviews. The sample consisted of 4208 women 15 to 49 years of age. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were done using unconditional logistic regression; the independent variables were access to social security health services, age, education, housing quality, and place of residence (urban or rural); the dependent variable was the interview subject's familiarity with the purpose of the Pap test. The results were expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. It was found that 41.5% of the women surveyed did not know the purpose of the Pap test, and that within this latter group, 97% had never had one. Factors found to be associated with not knowing the test's purpose were lack of access to the social security health services (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5-2.3); illiteracy (OR = 36.1; 95% CI: 17.9-72.7); and low socioeconomic level (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 2.3-3.7). Also, rural dwellers had less familiarity with the Pap test than urban dwellers (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4-0.7). These results highlight the need to develop strategies for making the benefits of the Pap test known, bearing in mind the socioeconomic and cultural diversity of the populations involved.

  16. A new approach in the diagnosis of upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS): PAP method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köktürk, Oğuz; Baha, Ayşe; Kanbay, Asiye

    2015-01-01

    Upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) is characterized by repeated number of arousals at night, and excessive daytime sleepiness or somnolence (EDS). It is often missed in classical polysomnographic diagnostic approaches and misdiagnosed as simple snoring or idiopathic hypersomnia, thereby is often left untreated. We propose that positive airway pressure (PAP), which has shown to be effective against UARS, can be used as a diagnostic tool as well. The study designed to test whether patients with high titration pressures can be diagnosed for UARS, and whether this pressure can be used as the treatment pressure in UARS. This study is a retrospective cohort study. The patients with the following selection criteria: apnea hypopnea index (AHI) 20, excessive daytime sleepiness or somnolence (EDS) without nocturnal oxygen desaturation levels were included to the study. After diagnostic polysomnography (PSG), PAP titrarion was applied to diagnose and treatment. Fourteen (%46.7) of the patients were male, 16 (%53.3) were female, with a mean age of 46.4 ± 9.9 and mean body mass index (BMI) of 26 ± 3.3. The patiens had a mean Epworth sleepiness scale 15.3 ± 3.9, mean AHI: 2.3 ± 1.4 and average RERA: 26.1 ± 4.9. The mean CPAP titration pressure was 7.1 ± 1.1 cmH2O. In the light of current findings, during PAP titration patients required high pressures is the evidence of increased upper airway resistance in UARS. Using the from therapy to diagnosis protocol, the PAP protocol determines the individual therapeutic pressures needed by patients. Following up the clinical outcomes of these patients under the PAP treatment, and including a larger cohort will contribute greatly to treating this syndrome, defined as one of the "unresolved problems in years".

  17. Temas das Brincadeiras de Papéis na Educação Infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Marcolino

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é discutir os temas da brincadeira de papéis sociais na Educação Infantil, revelados por meio de análise conduzida com base nos estudos da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural. Para Elkonin, na idade pré-escolar a brincadeira atinge o auge de seu desenvolvimento, e se caracteriza pela criação de uma situação imaginária, pela presença de regras e de papéis sociais. Foram observadas situações de brincadeira de crianças de quatro anos e meio a cinco anos e meio em 11 escolas da rede municipal de uma cidade de médio porte do interior paulista. A partir do registro das observações, foram identificadas 27 cenas de brincadeira de papéis. A análise dos dados colhidos confirma a tese de Elkonin de que o desenvolvimento da brincadeira de papéis relaciona-se com o que a criança conhece de sua realidade, e indica a necessidade do estabelecimento de certas condições para que esse desenvolvimento ocorra na Educação Infantil. Nesse sentido, discute-se a necessidade de uma mediação do professor calcada na compreensão da riqueza de implicações que a brincadeira de papéis tem para a formação da pessoa.

  18. Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Rositch

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit.Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%. Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%, very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%. Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82% and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%. Nearly all women (94% reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost.These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening.

  19. Knowledge and Acceptability of Pap Smears, Self-Sampling and HPV Vaccination among Adult Women in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rositch, Anne F.; Gatuguta, Ann; Choi, Robert Y.; Guthrie, Brandon L.; Mackelprang, Romel D.; Bosire, Rose; Manyara, Lucy; Kiarie, James N.; Smith, Jennifer S.; Farquhar, Carey

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Our study aimed to assess adult women’s knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies. Methods Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit. Results Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years) had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%). Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%), very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%). Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82%) and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%). Nearly all women (94%) reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost. Conclusions These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening. PMID:22808257

  20. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative study between Pap smear and visual inspection using acetic acid as a method of cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, S A; Rashid, M H; Nessa, A; Aziz, M A; Zakaria, S M; Roy, J S

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study was done for the comparison of visual inspection using acetic acid (VIA) and Pap smear as a method of cervical cancer screening. This study was also done to determine the proportion of women screened positive with VIA and proportion of women screened positive with Pap smear. Another aim was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of VIA and Pap smear. A total of 300 women attended to the outpatient gynecologic clinic and cervical cancer screening programme at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) were included. On VIA, 23 out of 300 women screened had aceto-white lesions. On Pap smear, 14 out of the 300 women had ASCUS or worse lesions. Of the 300 enrolled women, 11 were positive on both VIA and cytology; 12 were positive on VIA only; and 3 were positive on cytology only. Those women (n=26) who showed positive test result with either VIA or Pap smear or both tests were further subjected to colposcopy directed biopsy. Histology was taken as gold standard to compare the performance of VIA and cytology (Pap's smear). Histological diagnosis of CIN/cancer was made in 18 Positive cases out of the total 26 patients who underwent biopsy. Pap smear picked up 10 out of the 18 biopsy-proven cases whereas VIA could identify 17 out of the 18 CIN/carcinoma cervices. VIA was more sensitive (94.44%) than pap smear (55.55%), which was statistically significant. However, the specificity of VIA was slightly lower (97.87%) than that of cytology (98.58%). The PPV of VIA was 73.91% versus 71.42 % for Pap smear.

  2. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

  3. Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahat Gucuk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

  4. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Ditsapelo M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit) regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%). Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%). Major barriers to screening included what was described as “laziness” for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57%) and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%). Conclusion There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. PMID:24179380

  5. Drastic anthocyanin increase in response to PAP1 overexpression in fls1 knockout mutant confers enhanced osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Je; Jeong, Chan Young; Kwon, Jaeyoung; Van Kien, Vu; Lee, Dongho; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung

    2016-11-01

    KEY MESSAGE : pap1 - D/fls1ko double mutant plants that produce substantial amounts of anthocyanin show tolerance to abiotic stress. Anthocyanins are flavonoids that are abundant in various plants and have beneficial effects on both plants and humans. Many genes in flavonoid biosynthetic pathways have been identified, including those in the MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex. The MYB gene Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 (PAP1) plays a particularly important role in anthocyanin accumulation. PAP1 expression in many plant systems strongly increases anthocyanin levels, resulting in a dark purple color in many plant organs. In this study, we generated double mutant plants that harbor fls1ko in the pap1-D background (i.e., pap1-D/fls1ko plants), to examine whether anthocyanins can be further enhanced by blocking flavonol biosynthesis under PAP1 overexpression. We also wanted to examine whether the increased anthocyanin levels contribute to defense against osmotic stresses. The pap1-D/fls1ko mutants accumulated higher anthocyanin levels than pap1-D plants in both control and sucrose-treated conditions. However, flavonoid biosynthesis genes were slightly down-regulated in the pap1-D/fls1ko seedlings as compared to their expression in pap1-D seedlings. We also report the performance of pap1-D/fls1ko seedlings in response to plant osmotic stresses.

  6. Frequency and organization of papA homologous DNA sequences among uropathogenic digalactoside-binding Escherichia coli strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Denich, K; Craiu, A; Rugo, H; Muralidhar, G; O'Hanley, P

    1991-01-01

    The frequency of selected papA DNA sequences among 89 digalactoside-binding, uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains was evaluated with 12 different synthetic 15-base probes corresponding to papA genes from four digalactoside-binding piliated recombinant strains (HU849, 201B, and 200A). The papA probes encode amino acids which are common at the carboxy terminus of all strains, adjacent to the proximal portion of the intramolecular disulfide loop of strain 210B, or predicted to constitute the t...

  7. Three-year risk of high-grade CIN for women aged 30 years or older who undergo baseline Pap cytology and HPV co-screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Khanna, Abha; Wang, Jianping; Dawlett, Marilyn A; Kologinczak, Teresa L; Lyons, Genevieve R; Bassett, Roland L; Sneige, Nour; Gong, Yun; Bevers, Therese B

    2017-08-01

    Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA cotesting for women aged ≥30 years are recommended for the prevention of cervical cancer. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of this cotesting for predicting the risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) during a 3-year follow-up period. A retrospective database search identified women aged ≥30 years who had baseline HPV and Pap cytology cotesting results in 2007 or 2008 and for whom 3-year follow-up results were available. The cumulative 3-year risks of developing CIN-3 were calculated. The 3-year follow-up data after baseline Pap/HPV cotesting were available for 1986 women (mean age, 53 years). Of the 1668 women who had a baseline Pap-negative (Pap-)/HPV- cotesting result, 1561 (93.6%) had a follow-up Pap cytology result that was negative for intraepithelial lesions or malignancy. Of the 1530 women who had follow-up Pap/HPV cotesting, 1504 (98.3%) had a Pap-/HPV- result. The 3-year cumulative risk of developing CIN-3 was found to be highest for women with a baseline Pap-positive (Pap+)/HPV+ cotesting result (12.5%); the risk of CIN-3 was lower in those with a Pap-/HPV+ result (1.5%; P = .0032) or a Pap-/HPV- result (0.06%; PPap cytology and HPV cotesting are valuable for stratifying CIN-3 risk. Pap cytology and HPV co-screening at a 3-year screening interval appears to carry a low risk of CIN-3 for women who have a baseline Pap-/HPV- cotesting result. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:644-51. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Quantifying bedside-derived imaging of microcirculatory abnormalities in septic patients: a prospective validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, E. Christiaan; Mathura, Keshen R.; van der Voort, Peter H. J.; Spronk, Peter E.; Ince, Can

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The introduction of orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging in clinical research has elucidated new perspectives on the role of microcirculatory flow abnormalities in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Essential to the process of understanding and reproducing these abnormalities is the

  9. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  10. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  11. Cellphone based mobile colposcope for the evaluation of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Bruce S.; Kass, Alex J.; Waalen, Jill; Levitz, David

    2015-03-01

    Objective: Compare an inexpensive cell-phone based Mobile Colposcope, with a standard colposcope in the evaluation of women with abnormal Pap smear screening. Methodology: The study was a prospective, parallel noninferiority trial. Thirty women underwent colposcopy for the evaluation of an abnormal Pap smear. After application of acetic acid, images of the cervix were obtained with both a standard colposcope and the Mobile Colposcope. An additional set of images using both devices were obtained using the red-free (green filter) mode. Eight experienced gynecologists then evaluated 100 paired images (plain and green filter) from two different sites in random order using a web based assessment program. After reviewing each set of paired images, the expert would make an assessment of: 1) normal (no biopsy/ random biopsy), or 2) abnormal. For abnormal images, the expert then electronically marked the site(s) on the image where a biopsy was recommended. In image analysis, the cervical image was divided into 12 radial sectors and the marked sites for biopsy on the matched pairs were compared. Matched pairs that were considered normal, or those where biopsy site recommendations were within +/- 30° were considered equivalent; unmatched biopsy sites were considered non-equivalent. Results were compared using Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Ranks Test. Expert assessment of Mobile Colposcope images compared with assessment by standard colposcope is currently onging. Conclusions: if the Mobile Colposcope demonstrates non-inferiority to imaging obtained with a standard colposcope and due to its low cost, it has the potential help improve cervical cancer screening in low resource settings.

  12. Can visual inspection with acetic acid be used as an alternative to Pap smear in screening cervical cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hend S. Saleh

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: VIA a good screening, simple test, has low cost and high sensitivity in comparison to Pap smear. So, it can be used as alternative screening modality for cervical cancer in low resource locations.

  13. Low uptake of Pap smear testing among medical clinic attendees in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan C; Arunakiri, Komakal; Wickramasinghe, Sumudu I; Sumanasekera, Rukshala D N; Jayasinghe, Saroj; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-06-01

    The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear test is a safe and effective screening test for pre-invasive cervical cancer. The test is offered free of charge through well-woman clinics in Sri Lanka, but previous studies have shown poor awareness and uptake. We used an interviewer administered validated questionnaire to conduct a cross sectional survey among ever-married women between the ages of 25 and 65 years attending a medical clinic at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka. We obtained data on socio-demographic characteristics, awareness/knowledge and uptake status of Pap smear testing. A total of 188/280 eligible women were interviewed (67.1%). Participant ages ranged from 29-65 years. Awareness about Pap smear testing was found in 111 (59.0%) women of whom 41 (36.9%) did not know that the Pap smear was used to detect pre-cancerous lesions. Only 34 (18.1%) subjects had ever had a Pap smear taken. Univariate associations related to Pap smear uptake were: prior awareness of the test (pcervical carcinoma (pPap smear testing was poor. Pap smear uptake was very low, and did not parallel prior knowledge, although knowledge did influence uptake. Parity and contact with patients with cervical cancer correlated with uptake. There is an urgent need to increase uptake through a multi-pronged campaign. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The characteristics and relevant factors of Pap smear test use for women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Suh-May; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the Pap smear usage conditions and relevant influential factors for 18,204 women aged 30 years and above with intellectual disabilities, using nationwide data from 2008. Methods The research method of this study is secondary data analysis. The data was obtained from three nationwide databases from 2006 to 2008. This study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the use and rate of Pap smear testing by women with intellectual disabilities. Chi-square test was ...

  15. Too much of a good thing? Physician practices and patient willingness for less frequent pap test screening intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Helen I; Tiro, Jasmin A; Yabroff, K Robin; Haggstrom, David A; Coughlin, Steven S

    2010-03-01

    Recent guidelines recommend longer Pap test intervals. However, physicians and patients may not be adopting these recommendations. Identify (1) physician and practice characteristics associated with recommending a less frequent interval, and (2) characteristics associated with women's willingness to adhere to a 3-year interval. We used 2 national surveys: (1) a 2006/2007 National Survey of Primary Care Physicians for physician cervical cancer screening practices (N = 1114), and (2) the 2005 Health Information Trends Survey for women's acceptance of longer Pap intervals (N = 2206). MEASURES AND METHODS: Physician recommendation regarding Pap intervals was measured using a clinical vignette involving a 35-year-old with no new sexual partners and 3 consecutive negative Pap tests; associations with independent variables were evaluated with logistic regression. In parallel models, we evaluated women's willingness to follow a 3-year Pap test interval. A minority of physicians (32%) have adopted-but more than half of women are willing to adopt-3-year Pap test intervals. In adjusted models, physician factors associated with less frequent screening were: serving a higher proportion of Medicaid patients, white, non-Hispanic race, fewer years since medical school graduation, and US Preventive Services Task Force being very influential in physician clinical practice. Women were more willing to follow a 3-year interval if they were older, but less willing if they had personal or family experiences with cancer or followed an annual Pap test schedule. Many women are accepting of a 3-year interval for Pap tests, although most primary care physicians continue to recommend shorter intervals.

  16. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    Pap smears. In all but two studies testing other situations, women more often expressed a preference for active follow-up than for observation; however, women appeared to be somewhat more willing to accept observation if reassured of the low risk of cervical cancer. Conclusions Even for low......Please cite this paper as: Frederiksen M, Lynge E, Rebolj M. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03130.x. Background If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace...... cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management...

  17. A Construção dos Papéis Parentais em Casais Homoafetivos Adotantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Moraes Rosa

    Full Text Available Resumo Este estudo teve por objetivo compreender como se dá a construção do papel parental em casais homoafetivos adotantes, considerando o contexto singular da adoção e suas implicações psicológicas, sociais e legais. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e exploratório, do qual participaram dois adultos que se encontravam em união homoafetiva e que adotaram legalmente uma criança. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas, com roteiro que abordava questões direcionadoras à investigação do desejo de ter filhos, os trâmites legais da adoção e a transição para a parentalidade. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática, balizada pela compreensão da questão de pesquisa: a assunção do papel parental. Emergiram os seguintes temas: tomando a decisão de adotar; tecendo narrativas da adoção; aprendendo a exercer os papéis parentais; organizando a rotina doméstica. Os resultados apontam para uma definição mais igualitária de papéis parentais na família homoafetiva. A construção desses papéis, ainda que sofra influência cultural, é uma elaboração criativa da díade conjugal e da família que se constitui. Ficou evidenciado que os papéis parentais tendem a ser incorporados e exercidos de formas peculiares nas famílias homoafetivas constituídas pela via da adoção.

  18. Knowledge of cervical cancer and Pap smear among Uyghur women from Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulizi, Guzhalinuer; Abulimiti, Tangnuer; Li, Hua; Abuduxikuer, Guzhalinuer; Mijiti, Patiman; Zhang, Su-Qin; Maimaiti, Ayinuer; Tuergan, Muyasier; Simayi, Ayiguli; Maimaiti, Miherinisha

    2018-01-17

    Cervical cancer is a significant public health issue in Xinjiang China. In order to provide scientific basis for cervical cancer intervention in Xinjiang, women's knowledge of cervical cancer was investigated in this study. Besides, relations between Uyghur women's awareness and their age, educational background, yearly household were evaluated. Questionnaire survey was conducted to 7100 Uyghur women from Karkax Hotan and Payzivat Kashgar during 2008 and 2009. Women aged 21 to 70 years, had sexual activity, no history of cervical lesion or cervical cancer were considered to be eligible to the study. Information include participants' socio-demographic background, personal data, awareness about Pap smear, about cervical cancer and HPV, sources of information acquisition was investigated. 65.1% of the 7100 respondents with primary education level, and 95.0% participants were farmers. Only 7.4% had undertaken Pap smears before, not aware of the importance of the test (97.4% of 7100) was the main reason for not performing Pap smears. 29.3% of total participants had heard about cervical cancer, and only 0.14% (10 out of 7100) had heard about HPV. Top three route of knowledge acquire were television advertises (39.1%), neighbors (21.0%) and health care providers (15.0%). Women younger than 40 years, with higher educational levels and higher income had better awareness of cervical cancer and more willing to accept regular Pap smears. Uyghur women in Xinjiang had poor knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV infection. Low awareness of women was associated with less household income and lower educational levels. TV shows and education from health care providers may increase women's participation in cervical cancer control and prevention.

  19. Knowledge, opinions and attitudes of Italian mothers towards HPV vaccination and Pap test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; De Vito, Elisabetta; Ficarra, Maria Giovanna; Firenze, Alberto; Gregorio, Pasquale; Miccoli, Silvia; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Unim, Brigid; De Belvis, Giulio; Boccia, Antonio; Saulle, Rosella; Semyonov, Leda; Ferrara, Maria; Langiano, Elisa; Capizzi, Silvio; Nardella, Rosaria; Marsala, Maria Grazia Laura; Bonanno, Valentina; Ferrara, Clara; Guidi, Enrica; Bergamini, Mauro; Lupi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the knowledge and attitudes of Italian mothers - whose daughters had been vaccinated in 2012 - towards primary (anti-HPV vaccination) and secondary (Pap test screening) cervical cancer prevention, as well as sources of information and mother-daughter communication on health issues. The survey - part of a multicenter study carried out in 4 Italian cities (Ferrara, Rome, Cassino and Palermo) - was conducted through self-administered questionnaires. The first univariate analysis evaluated differences between mothers of under-18s and over-18s relative to knowledge and attitudes on HPV vaccination and Pap test. The second univariate analysis evaluated differences between the 2 groups of mothers and possible geographical variations regarding the sources of information on HPV and Pap test. The sample proved knowledgeable about the correlation between HPV and cervical cancer (>85%) but less aware of other HPV-related diseases. HPV vaccination should be administered before first sexual intercourse according to mothers of over-18s, and to 14- to 17-year-olds according to mothers of under-18s. Up to 88% of mothers of under-18s and 80% of mothers of over-18s declared that the vaccine should be given free of charge. More mothers of under-18s consulted a general practitioner (GP) or gynecologist before deciding to vaccinate their daughters. Mothers of under-18s received information on HPV vaccination mainly from GPs and gynecologists, while mothers of over-18s were informed through TV and books/journals. Over 80% of the sample declared satisfaction with the information received from their gynecologist during the Pap test. The findings provide useful information for the development of effective public health interventions that may help improve acceptance of HPV vaccination among mothers.

  20. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Sudanese Women Regarding the Pap Smear Test and Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almobarak, Ahmed O; Elbadawi, Ayman A; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Elhoweris, Mohammed H; Ahmed, Mohammed H

    2016-01-01

    Despite the established role of the Pap smear test (PST) in prevention and early detection of cervical cancer, it is still rarely practiced in Sudan. Many challenges hinder the establishment of an effective cervical cancer screening program, including socio-cultural factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of Sudanese women with regard to the Pap smear test and cervical cancer. A total of 500 married women aged 14 to 58 years were recruited from obstetric clinics, hospitals and universities in Khartoum in 2014. Data were collected using a standardized, pretested questionnaire that inquired socio-demographic characteristics and their KAP about cervical cancer and the PST. More than 52% of participating women were above 30 years of age, and the majority (78.8%) were university degree holders. A total of 486 (97.2 %) of participants were resident in urban areas of Khartoum State. However about 48% of the respondents had never heard about PST, and only 15.8% of the participants had undergone a Pap smear test previously; 46.6% (233/500) knew that the human papilloma virus (HPV) was the causative agent, but only 39.2% (196/500) had heard about HPV vaccination, and only 11.4% (57/500) had received the vaccine. However 68% of the respondents agreed to do Pap smear if properly informed about the test and 75.4% of the respondents agreed to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. Despite a high educational level, less than half of our participants had accurate knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and cervical cancer screening. Health education about cervical cancer, HPV and sexually transmitted infections and the role of PST in cervical cancer prevention are crucial when designing interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening for Sudanese women.

  1. Cervical cancer screening attitudes and beliefs of Malaysian women who have never had a pap smear: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P; Wong, Y L; Low, W Y; Khoo, E M; Shuib, R

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward cervical cancer and participation in early detection and screening services are well known to be profoundly affected by cultural beliefs and norms. This study explored the attitudes and sociocultural beliefs on cervical cancer screening among Malaysian women. In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Malaysian women, ages 21 to 56 years, who have never had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Respondents generally showed a lack of knowledge about cervical cancer screening using Pap smear, and the need for early detection for cervical cancer. Many believed the Pap smear was a diagnostic test for cervical cancer, and since they had no symptoms, they did not go for Pap screening. Other main reasons for not doing the screening included lack of awareness of Pap smear indications and benefits, perceived low susceptibility to cervical cancer, and embarrassment. Other reasons for not being screened were related to fear of pain, misconceptions about cervical cancer, fatalistic attitude, and undervaluation of own health needs versus those of the family. Women need to be educated about the benefits of cervical cancer screening. Health education, counseling, outreach programs, and community-based interventions are needed to improve the uptake of Pap smear in Malaysia.

  2. Pap screening clinics with native women in Skidegate, Haida Gwaii. Need for innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calam, B; Norgrove, L; Brown, D; Wilson, M A

    1999-02-01

    First Nations women in British Columbia, especially elders, are underscreened for cancer of the cervix compared with the general population and are much more likely to die of the disease than other women. To develop a pilot program, in consultation with community representatives, to address the Pap screening needs of First Nations women 40 years and older on a rural reserve. Identification of key links to the population; consultation with the community to design an outreach process; identification of underscreened women; implementation of community Pap screening clinics; evaluation of the pilot program. We developed a Pap screening outreach program that marked a departure from the usual screening approach in the community. First Nations community health representatives were key links for the process that involved family physicians and office staff at a local clinic on a rural reserve. Participation rate for the pilot program was 48%, resulting in an increase of 15% over the previously recorded screening rate for this population. More screening clinics of this type and evaluation for sustainability are proposed.

  3. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.

  4. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  5. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  6. The occupational roles of women with anorexia nervosa Los papeles ocupacionales de mujeres con anorexia nervosa Os papéis ocupacionais de mulheres com anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria Quiles-Cestari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to understand how occupational roles of individuals with anorexia nervosa are configured. The sample was composed of a control group and 11 adult women with anorexia nervosa being cared for by the Eating Disorders Care Group in a hospital in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data were collected and the Role Checklist was applied. The results revealed a significant loss of roles for women with anorexia nervosa in relation to the performance of the roles worker, friend, and amateur/hobbyist, supporting the idea that psychosocial harm may arise from this eating disorder. The evaluation of occupational roles in the treatment of eating disorders is an important strategy for planning Occupational Therapy activities and supporting the creation of healthier spaces to enable individuals to resume occupational roles, and acquire independence and autonomy.El objetivo es entender como figuran los papeles ocupacionales de las personas con anorexia nervosa. La casuística fue compuesta por 11 personas diagnosticadas en tratamiento en el Grupo de Asistencia en Trastornos Alimentares de un Hospital de Ribeirão Preto-Brasil y un grupo control. Se recogieron variables sociodemográficas, antropométricas y por la “Lista de Identificación de Papeles Ocupacionales”. Los resultados muestran hubo cambio, con pérdida de papeles debido a la anorexia nerviosa, con pérdida de los papeles de trabajador, voluntario, amigo y pasatiempo amador, corroborando los perjuicios psicosociales derivados de este trastorno. La evaluación de los papeles ocupacionales en el tratamiento de los trastornos alimentares es una estrategia importante para la planificación de la terapia ocupacional por la concesión de subvenciones para crear ambientes más saludables, donde las posibilidades de crear el rescate de los papeles ocupacionales, la independencia y autonomía.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi compreender como se

  7. Kadın doktorların Pap smear testi konusunda bilgi tutum ve davranışlarının belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Işık, Oğuz; Çelik, Mustafa; Keten, Hamit; Dalgacı, Ahmet; Yıldırım, Fatiş

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Pap smear test is a cytological screening test based on collecting and examining shedded cervical cells. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female physicians in Pap smear test. Material and Methods: In the present study, a total of 197 female physicians who worked in Kahramanmaras province were included. After obtaining informed consents, questionnaire was applied to participants. Knowledge level of participants in Pap smear test were ev...

  8. Interactive surface in the PapD chaperone cleft is conserved in pilus chaperone superfamily and essential in subunit recognition and assembly.

    OpenAIRE

    Slonim, L N; Pinkner, J S; Brändén, C I; Hultgren, S J

    1992-01-01

    The assembly of adhesive pili in Gram-negative bacteria is modulated by specialized periplasmic chaperone systems. PapD is the prototype member of the superfamily of periplasmic pilus chaperones. Previously, the alignment of chaperone sequences superimposed on the three dimensional structure of PapD revealed the presence of invariant, conserved and variable amino acids. Representative residues that protruded into the PapD cleft were targeted for site directed mutagenesis to investigate the pi...

  9. Menstrual abnormalities during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitins, I Z

    1981-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the events and hormonal changes which accompany puberty can be successfully utilized to diagnose adolescent menstrual disorders. Knowledge regarding the maturational events within the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and the expected times at which positive feedback leading to ovulation occurs is helpful in the design of optimal therapeutic regimens. It should be emphasized that the immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is extremely sensitive to low doses of estrogen and suppression may hinder maturation to normal cyclic activity. Therefore, forms of therapy other than oral contraceptives should be sought and prescribed for adolescents with menstrual disorders.

  10. The agreement between cervical abnormalities identified by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives and design. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is causally associated with cervical cancer. Using the Digene Hybrid Capture2 high-risk HPV test (HC2), we investigated the prevalence of high-risk HPV in cervical specimens, and compared results with those of Papanicolaou (Pap) smears taken concurrently. Subjects ...

  11. Predictors of persistent cytologic abnormalities after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Soweto, South Africa: a cohort study in a HIV high prevalence population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre James A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the presence of both HIV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, the risk of cancer development despite treatment may be greater. We investigated clinical predictors of persistent cytological abnormalities in women who had had a large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ. Methods Women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL, less severe abnormalities which persisted and any abnormality in women who are HIV-infected, were referred to the colposcopy clinic. HIV infection was ascertained by self-report. A LLETZ was performed on all patients with HSIL or higher on Papanicolaou (Pap smear or colposcopy, LSIL or higher in patients who are HIV-infected, where the colposcopy is inadequate, and when there was a discrepancy between colposcopy and cytology by one or more grades. Women with abnormal follow-up smears were compared to those with normal smears. We examined the association between abnormal follow-up smears and demographic and clinical predictors using logistic regression Results The median time between LLETZ and first follow-up Pap smear was rather short at 122 days. Persistent cytological abnormalities occurred in 49% of our patients after LLETZ. Predictors of persistence included the presence of disease at both margins and HIV infection. Among the latter, disease at the excision margins and CD4+ cell count were important predictors. In these women, disease at the endocervical margin, both margins, and disease only at the ectocervical margin were associated with increased odds of persistent abnormalities on follow-up cervical smear. Conclusion We showed extremely high risk of cytological abnormality at follow-up after treatment more so in patients with incomplete excision and in the presence of immunocompromise. It remains uncertain whether recurrent CIN is a surrogate marker for invasive cervical cancer.

  12. Does Cytological Laboratory Holds the Responsibility for the Low Sensitivity of the PAP Test in Detecting Endometrial Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicić, Valerija; Matić, Tereza Solocki; Martinek, Vjenceslav; Tomasković, Igor; Ramljak, Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer but there is no economically justified screening method. Although we can detect endometrial cells in the sample using PAP test, many studies show low sensitivity and positive predictive value of PAP test for the diagnosis of endometrial cancer. The goal of this research was to determine significance of PAP test for the diagnostics of endometrial carcinoma. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed with statistical parameters. VCE (vaginal, cervical, endocervical) smears of patients with histologically proven endometrial carcinoma were re-examined in order to determine the proportion of false negative results for endometrial cancer cells in the VCE samples. Study group consisted of all consecutive patients with PAP test performed at the Department of Clinical Cytology of the University Hospital Center Osijek from 2002 until the end of 2014. There was one inclusion criteria: subsequent hysterectomy or curettage within the six month after the PAP test, regardless of histological finding. From a total of 263 patients with previous PAP test and histologically proven endometrial cancer, endometrial cancer was cytologicaly diagnosed in 24.7% (including suspicious and positive findings), while 66.2% patients had normal cytological findings. The diagnostic value of PAP test in detection of endometrial cancer was statistically revealed with 25% sensitivity and 99% specificity. To determine false negative rate VCE samples were reviewed for patients with histologically proven endometrial cancer and negative VCE findings. There were a total of five negative results. In one case revision did not changed the original negative diagnosis, but benign endometrial cells, a lot of blood and inadequate cytohormonal status were found. In three out of four reviewed samples there were missed cells of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Review of remaining VCE sample upgraded the diagnosis from negative to suspicious for endometrial cancer

  13. Comparative study between pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid (via) in screening of CIN and early cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Ashish Kumar; Nath, Jyan Dip; Deka, Harajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common among women globally. In most cases of Assam, Ca Cervix is detected late due to lack of effective screening programme. To screen the patient at Gynaecology OPD at the age 18-60 yrs by doing pap smear, VIA (Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid) and to detect sensitivity and specificity for detecting CIN and early Ca Cervix. It is a cross sectional study of 300 women (18- 60 yrs) who fulfill selection criteria. The pap smear and VIA are done in these cases. In positive cases, cervical biopsy and histopathological studies are done, The sensitivity and specificity of each test are determined and compared. The positive result detected from cytology are 22, VIA was positive in 52 cases. The histology of 19 cases are suggestive of CIN and Ca Cervix. The findings were compared with other studies and evaluated. The most common finding in per speculum examination is cervical erosion. The sensitivity of VIA is 89% (versus pap smear-52%) the specificity of VIA is 87% (versus pap smear-95%). The accuracy VIA is 87% compared to pap smear-93%. The lack of effective and implementable screening programme lead to reporting of advanced cases of Ca Cervix. If detected at CIN or early Ca cervix stage, effective treatment can be provided with encouraging results. Therefore effective & implementable Ca Cervix screening need to be provided in our country.

  14. Evaluation of a worksite cervical screening initiative to increase Pap smear uptake in Malaysia: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fauziah; O'Rorke, Michael; Murray, Liam; Su, Tin Tin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29-4.62). Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1.

  15. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. Results. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value < 0.05 with the worksite screening initiative doubling the Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29–4.62. Conclusion. Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1.

  16. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rorke, Michael; Murray, Liam; Su, Tin Tin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. Results. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value < 0.05) with the worksite screening initiative doubling the Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29–4.62). Conclusion. Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1. PMID:24073411

  17. False-positive Papanicolaou (PAP) test rates in the College of American Pathologists PAP education and PAP proficiency test programs: evaluation of false-positive responses of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or cancer to a negative reference diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Barbara A; Booth, Christine Noga; Darragh, Teresa Marie; Zhao, Chengquan; Souers, Rhona J; Thomas, Nicole; Moriarty, Ann T

    2014-05-01

    In cytology proficiency testing (PT), participants fail for incorrectly interpreting a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or cancer (HSIL+) Papanicolaou test result as negative. This penalty may lead to a false-positive interpretation of negative slides as HSIL+ to avoid failure. To investigate factors related to false-positive responses in a PT versus an educational environment. We analyzed 420,079 responses from 9414 validated negative reference slides in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Gynecologic Cytopathology (PAP Education) and compared them with responses from the Gynecologic Cytology Proficiency Testing Program for the percentage of false-positive (HSIL+) interpretations in each of 7 negative subcategories. We evaluated the influence of preparation type (ThinPrep, SurePath, and conventional Papanicolaou test), participant type (pathologist or cytotechnologist), and program time interval (preproficiency test or PT) on a false-positive response. Reference diagnosis and participant type, but not preparation type, were statistically correlated to false-positive responses. The interaction between program time interval and participant type was also significant. Pathologists had higher rates of false-positive results on preproficiency test (1.2% [800 of 68,690]) than they did on PT (0.8% [993 of 129,857]). Cytotechnologists had no differences between program time intervals (preproficiency, 0.9% [515 of 63,281] versus PT, 1.0 [1231 of 121,621]; P = .91). Negative subcategories frequently mistaken for HSIL+ were reparative changes (4.7% [427 of 9069]), atrophic vaginitis (1.8% [18 of 987]), and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (1.2% [2143 of 178,651]), but during PT, false-positive rates were significantly increased only for the negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy and herpes simplex virus (P Testing Program than they did in PAP Education, but participants were more likely to report a

  18. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of abnormal cervical cytology among HIV-infected Thai women: a 5.5-year retrospective cohort study

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    Thamkhantho Manopchai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common AIDS-related malignancies in Thailand. To prevent cervical cancer, The US Public Health Service and The Infectious Disease Society of America have recommended that all HIV-infected women should obtain 2 Pap smears 6 months apart after the initial HIV diagnosis and, if results of both are normal, should undergo annual cytological screening. However, there has been no evidence in supporting whether this guideline is appropriate in all settings - especially in areas where HIV-infected women are living in resource-constrained condition. Methods To determine the appropriate interval of Pap smear screenings for HIV-infected Thai women and risk factors for subsequent abnormal cervical cytology, we assessed the prevalence, cumulative incidence and associated factors of cervical cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance or higher grades, ASCUS+ among this group of patients. Results The prevalence of ASCUS+ was 15.4% at the first visit, and the cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ gradually increased to 37% in the first 3.5 years of follow-up appointments (first 7 times, and tended to plateau in the last 2 years. For multivariate correlation analysis, women with a CD4 count P = 0.043. There were no associations of subsequent ASCUS+ with age, pregnancy, contraceptive method, highly active anti-retroviral treatment, assumed duration of infection, or the CD4 count nadir level. Conclusion There are high prevalence and cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ in HIV-infected Thai women. With a high lost-to-follow-up rate, an appropriate interval of Pap smear screening cannot be concluded from the present study. Nevertheless, the HIV-infected Thai women may require more than two normal semi-annual Pap smears before shifting to routinely annual cytologic screening.

  19. Cervical cytological abnormalities and human papilloma virus infection in women infected with HIV in Southern India.

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    Thunga, Suchitra; Andrews, Anusmitha; Ramapuram, John; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Kini, Hema; Unnikrishnan, B; Adhikari, Prabha; Singh, Prakhar; Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Bhat, Samatha; Kadam, Anagha; Shetty, Avinash K

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between CD4 count, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-infected women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 104 HIV-infected women attending an antiretroviral therapy clinic. They underwent Pap smear and cervical HPV DNA testing. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 57.7%. HPV 16 was the commonest genotype found (38.5%); HPV 16 and 18 put together contributed to 73.3% of HPV infection; 27.5% of HIV-infected women had squamous cell abnormalities. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was less likely among women with CD4 count > 500/mm 3 (12%) and in those without opportunistic infections (17.8%). The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was higher in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or greater lesions (85.7%) as compared to women with normal cytology (52.1%). The high prevalence of HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women warrants the need for regular Pap smear screening in these women and routine HPV vaccination for adolescents to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in India. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Pap, Mammography, and Clinical Breast Examination Screening Among Women with Disabilities: A Systematic Review

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    Andresen, Elena M.; Peterson-Besse, Jana J.; Krahn, Gloria L.; Walsh, Emily S.; Horner-Johnson, Willi; Iezzoni, Lisa I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has found some disparities between U.S. women with and without disabilities in receiving clinical preventive services. Substantial differences may also exist within the population of women with disabilities. The current study examined published research on Pap smears, mammography, and clinical breast examinations across disability severity levels among women with disabilities. Methods: Informed by an expert panel, we followed guidelines for systematic literature reviews and searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Cinahl databases. We also reviewed in-depth four disability- or preventive service-relevant journals. Two reviewers independently extracted data from all selected articles. Findings Five of 74 reviewed publications of met all our inclusion criteria and all five reported data on Pap smears, mammography, and clinical breast examination. Articles classified disability severity groups by functional and/or activity levels. Associations between disability severity and Pap smear use were inconsistent across the publications. Mammography screening fell as disability level increased according to three of the five studies. Results demonstrated modestly lower screening, but also were inconsistent for clinical breast examinations across studies. Conclusion Evidence is inconsistent concerning disparities in these important cancer screening services with increasing disability levels. Published studies used differing methods and definitions, adding to concerns about the evidence for screening disparities rising along with increasing disability. More focused research is required to determine whether significant disparities exist in cancer screening among women with differing disability levels. This information is essential for national and local public health and health care organizations to target interventions to improve care for women with disabilities. PMID:23816150

  1. Awareness of Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Testing Among Omani Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Alwahaibi; Waad, Alsalami; Atheer, Alzaabi; Nasra, Alramadhani

    2016-11-01

    Background: In developed countries, awareness of cervical cancer screening is well documented. In contrast, in Oman as a developing country, public responses regarding cervical screening are unclear. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about cervical cancer and Papanicolau (Pap) smear testing and to establish any correlations between knowledge and demographic factors among Omani women. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, participants were divided into three groups: patients who attended the Outpatient Gynecology Department in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, female staff from SQUH, College of Medicine and College of Nursing at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) and graduating female students at SQU. Data collection was through interview-based and online self-administered questionnaires. Cumulative scoring was used for data analysis. Results: There were 204 outpatients, 133 staff and 157 students. Outpatients (79.4%), staff (97.7%) and students (75.2%) had heard of cervical cancer. Nevertheless, their specific knowledge, regarding signs and symptoms, risk factors and Pap smear, was low at 38.7%, 35.3% and 7.6% among outpatients, staff and students, respectively. Some 39.9% of the married outpatients had adequate overall knowledge as compared to none of the single women. Educational level was found to be significantly associated with outpatient knowledge with the highest awareness levels among postgraduates and medical university graduates (61.5%). Conclusion: Specific knowledge of cervical cancer, its risk factors and cervical Pap smear is generally poor among Omani women. This lack of knowledge may be one of the contributing factors for the high incidence of cervical cancer in Oman relative to that in developed countries. Creative Commons Attribution License

  2. N-BiPAP treatment in infants with respiratory distress syndrome: A population study.

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    Solevåg, Anne Lee; Kann, Inger Cathrine

    2015-10-01

    Since November 1st 2008, our Norwegian neonatal intensive care unit has used nasal biphasic positive airway pressure (n-BiPAP) instead of invasive mechanical ventilation as first-line treatment after nasal continuous positive airway pressure (n-CPAP) failure in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). To assess utility of a national patient register to compare outcomes of infants in our unit before and after November 1st 2008 as well as to hospitals that did not utilize n-BiPAP during the observation period. A retrospective study, using a national patient register and a difference-in-difference (DID) statistical approach, adjusting for confounders. Infants with RDS admitted to hospital 2002-2010. We compared our unit before and after November 1st 2008 and to other hospitals with regards to morbidity, mortality, and number of hospital days (NHD). Infants with RDS in our unit had a significantly lower risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (odds ratio (OR) 0.59, p<0.05), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (OR 0.57, p<0.05), and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (OR 0.37, p<0.001); as well as the combined outcome of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), ROP, IVH, and/or BPD (OR 0.53, p<0.05) after November 1st 2008 and compared to other hospitals. PVL, NEC, and mortality did not change. NHD was reduced by 8. Increasing use of n-BiPAP was associated with reduced morbidity and NHD in infants with RDS. Using a patient register and DID analyses may be a health economic and ethically sound way of generating hypotheses and knowledge about disease and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  4. Use of Chinese Medicine Reduces the Development of Cervical Cancer from Pap Smear-Diagnosed Cervical Dysplasia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-Ling; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Su, Shan-Yu; Morisky, Donald E

    2017-01-01

    The Pap test diagnosed cervical dysplasia, which could recover to normal or progress to cervical cancer (CC), is an early stage of cell abnormality before CC. This case-control study analyzed the differences in the risk to develop CC between Chinese medicine (CM) users and nonusers among women who had ever been diagnosed as having cervical dysplasia. A total of 750 CC patients with a cervical dysplasia history were collected between 1998 and 2011 from National Health Insurance Research Database, and controls were women with cervical dysplasia history but did not develop CC. Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for developing CC was assessed using multivariable logistic regression after adjusting for age, urbanization of residence, and occupation. The proportion of using CM among CC patients was lower than that among CC nonpatients, with an aOR of 0.8. By analyzing the relationship between CC development and the frequency of CM usage, the trend test revealed a significant decreasing trend for developing CC among high-frequency CM users. Moreover, the most frequently used single herb high-frequency was Rheum palmatum (Da-Huang). The usage of CM might be an effective complementary method to prevent uterine cervix from progressing to CC after cervical dysplasia has occurred.

  5. [Is there a benefit to continue pap smear screening for cervical cancer after 65 years of age? A retrospective study on 53,644 women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Raphaël; Lemay, Anne-Lise; Guy, Xavier; Giraud, Céline; Mathevet, Patrice; Flori, Marie

    2012-04-01

    One third of cervical cancers are discovered after age 65. French guidelines allow women to cease having cervical pap smears at age 65, providing they have had a minimum of two consecutive negative smears. To study the frequency of pathological smears in the group of women aged over 65 with a normal and sufficient cytological follow-up, according to the guidelines. To analyze the smear results and the former follow-up of this population to determine whether there is an interest to continue the smear screening after age 65. This is a retrospective multicenter study based on collecting data from three pathology laboratories of the region Rhone-Alpes. We study a population of women 65 and older with smears that have been made between 2004 and 2008. Precancerous lesions and cervical cancer can be discovered after age 65 despite an adequate former follow-up. The rate of these women for having a pathological smear is 14,2‰, including 1,2‰ with cytological abnormalities in favour of cancer. These results show that there is interest to continue the smear tests after age 65 at least, while considering medical and financial issues of a reasonable screening strategy.

  6. Diagnostic sensitivity for invasive cervical carcinoma of high risk HPV tests performed on SurePath™ liquid-based pap specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nance KV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Keith V NanceDepartment of Cytology, Rex Hospital, Raleigh, and Department of Pathology, The University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USARecently I communicated with the Editor regarding Drs Naryshkin and Austins’ article entitled "Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical carcinoma screening."1,2 As noted previously, this article is based on a single case report of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix diagnosed in a patient who had abnormal Pap results but had negative Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2(Qiagen NV, Hilden, Germany high risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV testing from SurePath™ (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA samples. The authors concluded that such testing should not be done using this collection medium. Interestingly, they also mentioned a 10% false negative rate for similar testing performed on FDA-approved Preservcyt® media on three of 31 invasive cervical carcinoma patients at Dr Austin’s own laboratory.View original paper by Naryshkin and Austin

  7. HPV, Cervical Cancer and Pap Test Related Knowledge Among a Sample of Female Dental Students in India.

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    Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, B Srikanth; Karunakar, P; Deshpande, Kopparesh

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer (CC) and the Pap test among female dental students of Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hyderabad, India. A self-administered questionnaire covering demographic details, knowledge relating to human papilloma virus (HPV) (8 items), cervical cancer (4 items) and the Pap smear (6 items) was employed. Responses were coded as "True, False and Don't Know". Mean and standard deviation (SD) for correct answers and levels of knowledge were determined. Based on the year of study, significant differences in knowledge of HPV were noted for questions on symptoms (p=0.01); transmission from asymptomatic partners (p=0.002); treatment with antibiotics (p=0.002); start of sexual activity (p=0.004); and recommended age for HPV vaccination (p=0.01). For knowledge regarding CC, significance was observed for the age group being affected (p=0.008) and symptoms of the disease in early stages (p=0.001). Indications for Pap smear tests like symptoms' of vaginal discharge (p=0.002), marital status (p=0.01) and women with children (p=0.02) had significant difference based on the year of study. Based on religion, transmission of HPV via pregnancy, HPV related diseases except CC and preventive measures except condom use and oral contraceptives showed significant differences. However, significant variation with religion was observed only for two preventive measures of CC (Pap test; p=0.004) and HPV vaccination (p=0.003). Likewise, only the frequency of Pap test showed a significant difference for religion (p=0.001). This study emphasizes the lack of awareness with regard to HPV, CC and screening with pap smear even among health professionals. Hence, regular health campaigns are essential to reduce the disease burden.

  8. Star-PAP controls HPV E6 regulation of p53 and sensitizes cells to VP-16.

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    Li, W; Anderson, R A

    2014-02-13

    Cervical cancer is the most common genital malignancy and the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV type 16, 18 and 31, and so on) are major agents for its cause. A key switch for the onset of cervical cancers by HPVs is the cellular degradation of the tumor-suppressor p53 that is mediated by the HPV-generated E6 protein. E6 forms a complex with the E3 ubiquitin-ligase E6-associated protein (E6AP) leading to p53 degradation. The components that control E6 expression and the mechanisms for regulation of the expression in host cells remain undefined. Here we show that the nuclear noncanonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) speckle targeted PIPKIα regulated PAP (Star-PAP) controls E6 mRNA polyadenylation and expression and modulates wild-type p53 levels as well as cell cycle profile in high-risk HPV-positive cells. In the absence of Star-PAP, treatment of cells with the chemotherapeutic drug VP-16 dramatically reduced E6 and increased p53 levels. This diminished both cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth required for cancer progression, indicating a synergism between VP-16 treatment and the loss of Star-PAP. This identifies Star-PAP as a potential drug target for the treatment of HPV-positive cancer cells. These data provide a mechanistic basis for increasing the sensitivity and efficiency of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancers that have low levels of wild-type p53.

  9. Application of the Perceptual Factors, Enabling and Reinforcing Model on Pap Smaear Screening in Iranian Northern Woman

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    Abolhassan Naghibi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women in the world. Cervical cancer is no symptoms and can be treated if diagnosed in the first stage of the disease. The aim of this study was to survey the affecting factors of the Pap smears test on perceptual factors, enabling and reinforcing (PEN-3 model constructs in women. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample size was 416 married women with random sampling. The questionnaire had 50 questions based on PEN-3 model structures. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and logistic regression method in software SPSS 20. Results: The mean age of women was 32.70 ± 21.00 years. The knowledge of risk factors and screening methods for cervical cancer was 37.2. About 40% of women had a history of Pap smears. The most important of perception factors were effective, family history of the disease, encourage people to Pap smear, and fear of detecting of cervical cancer. The most important enabling factors were the presence of expert health personnel to provide training and Pap smear test (50.3%, lack of time and too busy to do Pap smear test (23.2%. The reinforcing factors were the media advice (41.3%, doctor’s advice (32.5% and neglect and forgetfulness (36.2%. Conclusion: This study has shown the Pap smear screening behavior affected by personal factors, family, cultural and economic. Application of PEN-3 can effective in planning and designing intervention programs for cervical cancer screening.

  10. Atypical endometrial cells and atypical glandular cells favor endometrial origin in Papanicolaou cervicovaginal tests: Correlation with histologic follow-up and abnormal clinical presentations

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    Longwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2001 Bethesda system recommends further classifying atypical glandular cells (AGCs as either endocervical or endometrial origin. Numerous studies have investigated the clinical significance of AGC. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinically significant lesions among women with liquid-based Papanicolaou cervicovaginal (Pap interpretations of atypical endometrial cells (AEMs or AGC favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM. More importantly, we correlated patients of AEM or AGC-EM with their clinical presentations to determine if AEM/AGC-EM combined with abnormal vaginal bleeding is associated with a higher incidence of significant endometrial pathology. All liquid-based Pap tests with an interpretation of AEM and AGC-EM from July, 2004 through June, 2009 were retrieved from the database. Women with an interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, AGC, favor endocervical origin or AGC, favor neoplastic were not included in the study. The most severe subsequent histologic diagnoses were recorded for each patient. During this 5-year period, we accessioned 332,470 Pap tests of which 169 (0.05% were interpreted as either AEM or AGC-EM. Of the 169 patients, 133 had histologic follow-up within the health care system. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 71 years old (mean 49.7. On follow-up histology, 27 (20.3% had neoplastic/preneoplastic uterine lesions. Among them, 20 patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (18 endometrial, 1 endocervical, and 1 metastatic colorectal, 3 with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 4 with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All patients with significant endometrial pathology, except one, were over 40 years old, and 22 of 25 patients reported abnormal vaginal bleeding at the time of endometrial biopsy or curettage. This study represents a large series of women with liquid-based Pap test interpretations of AEM and AGC-EM with clinical follow-up. Significant preneoplastic or neoplastic endometrial

  11. Amplification of specific chromosomal regions assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization on Pap smears to be added as screening tool for identifying women at risk of progressing to cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upendram, Pavani; Sahni, Shubhi; Mohiuddin, Khaliq; Poornima, Subhadra; Gourishankar, Bhanumathy; Kumar Vattam, Kiran; Boddala, Pavani; Jayashankar, E; Mohiuddin, Shakera; Kamineni, Vasundhara; Mohan, Vasavi; Houldsworth, Jane; Hasan, Qurratulain

    2017-10-01

    Cervical carcinoma is a frequent malignancy in developing countries despite being a preventable disease. For the first time, four screening tests were used simultaneously for identifying women with a risk of developing cervical cancer, to help clinicians and policy makers to implement the best strategy for reducing the burden of this disease. Women visiting a hospital in India were enrolled after institutional ethics clearance and informed consent. Visual inspection using acetic acid and Pap smear tests were performed on 2683 women, and 104 had abnormal cytology: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (n = 29), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (n = 41), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (n = 17), and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 17). These and 96 samples, with normal cytology, were subjected to high-risk human papilloma virus testing and fluorescent in situ hybridization evaluation. Women with abnormal cytology were followed for 5 years and evaluated with colposcopy-guided biopsy. Three accepted methods of screening and one novel fluorescent in situ hybridization assay were carried out in 200 cases. Cutoffs for fluorescent in situ hybridization were established. The screening methods had 88%-96% negative predictive value, while positive predictive value was low (20%) for visual inspection using acetic acid, 47% for fluorescent in situ hybridization, 56% for high-risk human papilloma virus, and 73% for combined high-risk human papilloma virus and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Combined high-risk human papilloma virus and fluorescent in situ hybridization had 94% sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value, suggesting that simultaneous screening with these two tests is appropriate for identifying women progressing to cervical cancer and not visual inspection using acetic acid, which has low positive predictive value and Pap cytology which requires to be repeated. Policy makers and clinicians can assess

  12. Genital involvement in pemphigus vulgaris (PV): correlation with clinical and cervicovaginal Pap smear findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavala, Mukaddes; Topaloğlu Demir, Filiz; Zindanci, Ilkin; Can, Burce; Turkoğlu, Zafer; Zemheri, Ebru; Cam, Osman Halit; Teksen, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of genital involvement in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) has not been clearly defined. We sought to evaluate the frequency of cervical, vaginal, and vulvar involvement in PV and to determine their association with genital symptoms, clinical involvement, and cytological status. The current study's sample included 34 female patients with PV. Gynecologic and ear, nose, and throat examinations and indirect immunofluorescence analyses were performed, and Pap smears were collected. Genital involvement was observed in 44.1% of patients. It was significantly associated with disease severity and clinical involvement. Pharyngeal involvement was observed in 61.8% of patients and was the second-most frequently involved mucosal region. Genital involvement was significantly associated with nasal mucosa involvement. Cervicovaginal Pap smears showed acantholytic cells of PV in 35.3% of patients. The sample size is small. Genital involvement in PV is not rare. Genital mucosa is the most affected mucosal region after oral and pharyngeal mucosa. Furthermore, genital involvement is significantly associated with nasal involvement and genital symptoms. The need for complete gynecologic evaluations of patients with PV, nasal involvement, and genital symptoms is emphasized. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health technology assessment of computer-assisted pap test screening in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Palma, Paolo; Moresco, Luca; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    To assess the introduction of computer-assisted Pap test screening in cervical cancer screening. Various scenarios are considered: conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) slides, fully automatic instrumentation (Becton Dickinson FocalPoint™ Slide Profiler and Hologic ThinPrep® Imaging System), and semiautomatic scanner (Hologic Integrated Imager I-Squared). A working group was formed that included researchers from the largest centers already using instrumentation. A questionnaire on laboratory management and on social/ethical issues and annual workload was proposed. Prices for the technology were obtained directly from the producers; costs were calculated from observed and literature data. The scope of the report and final draft were submitted to a consulting committee of stakeholders. The break-even point was found to be 49,000 cases/year, if conventional slides were used, while it was near the theoretical maximum capacity, 70,000 cases/year, with LBC slides. Efficiency increased with the volume of slides. Screening time decreased by two thirds for conventional slides and by less than half for LBC slides. Acceptance of the instrumentation by the users was good. Computer-assisted screening may increase productivity even if in most situations it will mean additional costs. Furthermore, primary screening with human papillomavirus tests will drastically reduce the need for Pap test reading. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Circular shape constrained fuzzy clustering (CiscFC) for nucleus segmentation in Pap smear images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ratna; Bajger, Mariusz; Lee, Gobert

    2017-06-01

    Accurate detection and segmentation of cell nucleus is the precursor step towards computer aided analysis of Pap smear images. This is a challenging and complex task due to degree of overlap, inconsistent staining and poor contrast. In this paper, a novel nucleus segmentation method is proposed by incorporating a circular shape function in fuzzy clustering. The proposed method was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively using the Overlapping Cervical Cytology Image Segmentation Challenge - ISBI 2014 challenge dataset comprised of 945 overlapping Pap smear images. It achieved superior performance in terms of Dice similarity coefficient of 0.938, pixel-based recall 0.939 and object based precision 0.968. The results were compared with the standard fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering, ISBI 2014 challenge submissions and recent state-of-the-art methods. The outcome shows that the new approach can produce more accurate nucleus boundaries while keeping high level of precision and recall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Accurate Cervical Cell Segmentation from Overlapping Clumps in Pap Smear Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youyi; Tan, Ee-Leng; Jiang, Xudong; Cheng, Jie-Zhi; Ni, Dong; Chen, Siping; Lei, Baiying; Wang, Tianfu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of cervical cells in Pap smear images is an important step in automatic pre-cancer identification in the uterine cervix. One of the major segmentation challenges is overlapping of cytoplasm, which has not been well-addressed in previous studies. To tackle the overlapping issue, this paper proposes a learning-based method with robust shape priors to segment individual cell in Pap smear images to support automatic monitoring of changes in cells, which is a vital prerequisite of early detection of cervical cancer. We define this splitting problem as a discrete labeling task for multiple cells with a suitable cost function. The labeling results are then fed into our dynamic multi-template deformation model for further boundary refinement. Multi-scale deep convolutional networks are adopted to learn the diverse cell appearance features. We also incorporated high-level shape information to guide segmentation where cell boundary might be weak or lost due to cell overlapping. An evaluation carried out using two different datasets demonstrates the superiority of our proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods in terms of segmentation accuracy.

  16. Gravidez do primeiro filho: papéis sexuais, ajustamento conjugal e emocional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Evangelho Hernandez

    Full Text Available Esta investigação examinou as relações entre papéis sexuais, ajustamento conjugal e emocional de mulheres no período de gravidez da transição para a parentalidade. Participaram 135 mulheres recrutadas na rede pública de saúde (SUS. As gestantes estavam esperando os seus primeiros filhos e coabitavam com seus parceiros, independentemente de serem formalmente casadas. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Bem Sex-Role Inventory (Bem, 1974, a Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976 e a Escala Fatorial de Neuroticismo (Hutz & Nunes, 2001. A coleta foi individual e, em geral, os instrumentos foram preenchidos na presença do entrevistador. Um número pequeno de questionários foi respondido no domicílio dos sujeitos e, posteriormente, devolvido aos pesquisadores. Os resultados mostraram relações significativas entre Papéis Sexuais e Ajustamento Conjugal. Os dados são discutidos à luz da Teoria de Esquema de Gênero e do conhecimento produzido na linha de pesquisa da transição para a parentalidade.

  17. Simulation of bright-field microscopy images depicting pap-smear specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Patrik; Brun, Anders; Bengtsson, Ewert

    2015-03-01

    As digital imaging is becoming a fundamental part of medical and biomedical research, the demand for computer-based evaluation using advanced image analysis is becoming an integral part of many research projects. A common problem when developing new image analysis algorithms is the need of large datasets with ground truth on which the algorithms can be tested and optimized. Generating such datasets is often tedious and introduces subjectivity and interindividual and intraindividual variations. An alternative to manually created ground-truth data is to generate synthetic images where the ground truth is known. The challenge then is to make the images sufficiently similar to the real ones to be useful in algorithm development. One of the first and most widely studied medical image analysis tasks is to automate screening for cervical cancer through Pap-smear analysis. As part of an effort to develop a new generation cervical cancer screening system, we have developed a framework for the creation of realistic synthetic bright-field microscopy images that can be used for algorithm development and benchmarking. The resulting framework has been assessed through a visual evaluation by experts with extensive experience of Pap-smear images. The results show that images produced using our described methods are realistic enough to be mistaken for real microscopy images. The developed simulation framework is very flexible and can be modified to mimic many other types of bright-field microscopy images. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC.

  18. Barriers to Pap Smear Test for the Second Time in Women Referring to Health Care Centers in the South of Tehran: A Qualitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Laleh; Dehdari, Tahereh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2017-10-01

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a regular screening program. Many studies have reported a large number of barriers that women had for the first time, but this study decided to find other barriers for the second time pap smear. In this qualitative research, data were gathered through in-depth interviews and expressed through conventional content analysis in the form of constant comparison. The participants were 15 women with family profile at 30 health care centers who lived in the south of Tehran and had done Pap smear for one time but didn't do it for the second time. Three main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: negative experiences of the first Pap test were as follows: results of the first time test, readiness for performing the test, getting the test itself, and the site of the first Pap test. Personal barriers to getting the second Pap test were: inattention to time, physical barriers to the second Pap test, and inhibitory beliefs. Perceived social barriers to getting the second Pap test with two sub-themes included social supports and abstract norms. This study provided other barriers about Pap smear including lack of the spouse's support, the role of health care providers and physicians in screening program for early diagnosis in women.

  19. The pancreas responds to remote damage and systemic stress by secretion of the pancreatic secretory proteins PSP/regI and PAP/regIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Theresia; Palmiere, Cristian; Pazhepurackel, Clinsyjos; Schiesser, Marc; Bimmler, Daniel; Schlegel, Andrea; Süss, Ursula; Steiner, Sabrina; Mancina, Leandro; Seleznik, Gitta; Graf, Rolf

    2017-05-02

    In patients with infection and sepsis serum levels of Pancreatic Stone protein/regenerating protein I (PSP) are highly elevated. The origin of PSP during these conditions is presumably the pancreas, however, an intestinal origin cannot be excluded. Similarly, pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) was identified in the pancreas. These proteins were also localized in intestinal organs. Here we aim to elucidate the bio-distribution of PSP and PAP in animal models of sepsis and in healthy humans. PSP and PAP responded to remote lesions in rats although the pancreatic response was much more pronounced than the intestinal. Tissue distribution of PSP demonstrated a 100-fold higher content in the pancreas compared to any other organ while PAP was most abundant in the small intestine. Both proteins responded to CLP or sham operation in the pancreas. PSP also increased in the intestine during CLP. The distribution of PSP and PAP in human tissue mirrored the distribution in the murine models. Distribution of PSP and PAP was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Rats and mice underwent midline laparotomies followed by mobilization of tissue and incision of the pancreatic duct or duodenum. Standard cecum-ligation-puncture (CLP) procedures or sham laparotomies were performed. Human tissue extracts were analyzed for PSP and PAP. The pancreas reacts to remote lesions and septic insults in mice and rats with increased PSP synthesis, while PAP is selectively responsive to septic events. Furthermore, our results suggest that serum PSP in septic patients is predominantly derived through an acute phase response of the pancreas.

  20. Enhancement of Chlorogenic Acid Production in Hairy Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by Over-Expression of An Arabidopsis thaliana Transcription Factor AtPAP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Anh Tuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1 using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA.

  1. Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarper, Nazan; Akansel, Guer; Aydogan, Metin; Gedikbasi, Demet; Babaoglu, Kadir; Goekalp, Ayse Sevim

    2002-01-01

    Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

  2. Central nervous system and cervical spine abnormalities in Apert syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breik, Omar; Mahindu, Antony; Moore, Mark H; Molloy, Cindy J; Santoreneos, Stephen; David, David J

    2016-05-01

    Apert syndrome characterized by acrocephalosyndactyly is a rare autosomal dominant congenital malformation with a prevalence of 1/65,000 births. With an extensive range of phenotypic and developmental manifestations, its management requires a multidisciplinary approach. A variety of craniofacial, central nervous system (CNS), and cervical spine abnormalities have been reported in these patients. This study aimed to determine the incidence of these CNS abnormalities in our case series. Retrospective review of Australian Craniofacial Unit (ACFU) database for Apert patients was performed. Data collected that included demographics, place of origin, age at presentation, imaging performed, and images were reviewed and recorded. Where available, developmental data was also recorded. Ninety-four patients seen and managed at the ACFU had their CNS and cervical spine abnormalities documented. The main CNS abnormalities were prominent convolutional markings (67 %), ventriculomegaly (48 %), crowded foramen magnum (36 %), deficient septum pellucidum (13 %), and corpus callosum agenesis in 11 %. Major C-spine findings were present in 50.8 % of patients and included fusion of posterior elements of C5/C6 (50 %) and C3/4 (27 %). Multilevel fusion was seen in 20 %. Other abnormalities were C1 spina bifida occulta (7 %) and atlanto-axial subluxation (7 %). Multiple CNS and cervical spine (c-spine) abnormalities are common in Apert syndrome. The significance of these abnormalities remains largely unknown. Further research is needed to better understand the impact of these findings on growth, development, and treatment outcomes.

  3. Intervention to improve follow-up for abnormal Papanicolaou tests: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Dawson, Lauren; Grady, James J; Breitkopf, Daniel M; Nelson-Becker, Carolyn; Snyder, Russell R

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a theory-based, culturally targeted intervention on adherence to follow-up among low-income and minority women who experience an abnormal Pap test. 5,049 women were enrolled and underwent Pap testing. Of these, 378 had an abnormal result and 341 (90%) were randomized to one of three groups to receive their results: Intervention (I): culturally targeted behavioral and normative beliefs + knowledge/skills + salience + environmental constraints/barriers counseling; Active Control (AC): nontargeted behavioral and normative beliefs + knowledge/skills + salience + environmental constraints/barriers counseling; or Standard Care Only (SCO). The primary outcome was attendance at the initial follow-up appointment. Secondary outcomes included delay in care, completion of care at 18 months, state anxiety (STAI Y-6), depressive symptoms (CES-D), and distress (CDDQ). Anxiety was assessed at enrollment, notification of results, and 7-14 days later with the CDDQ and CES-D. 299 women were included in intent-to-treat analyses. Adherence rates were 60% (I), 54% (AC), and 58% (SCO), p = .73. Completion rates were 39% (I) and 35% in the AC and SCO groups, p = .77. Delay in care (in days) was (M ± SD): 58 ± 75 (I), 69 ± 72 (AC), and 54 ± 75 (SCO), p = .75. Adherence was associated with higher anxiety at notification, p < .01 and delay < 90 days (vs. 90+) was associated with greater perceived personal responsibility, p < .05. Women not completing their care (vs. those who did) had higher CES-D scores at enrollment, p < .05. A theory-based, culturally targeted message was not more effective than a nontargeted message or standard care in improving behavior.

  4. Remnants of occipital vertebrae: proatlas segmentation abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Arnold H; Fenoy, Kathleen A

    2009-05-01

    Developmental remnants around the foramen magnum, or proatlas segmentation abnormalities, have been recorded in postmortem studies but very rarely in a clinical setting. Because of their rarity, the pathological anatomy has been misunderstood, and treatment has been fraught with failures. The objectives of this prospective study were to understand the correlative anatomy, pathology, and embryology and to recognize the clinical presentation and gain insights on the treatment and management. Our craniovertebral junction (CVJ) database started in 1977 and comprises 5200 cases. This prospective study has retrieval capabilities. Neurodiagnostic studies changed with the evolution of imaging. Seventy-two patients were recognized as having symptomatic proatlas segmentation abnormalities. Ventral bony masses from the clivus or medial occipital condyle occurred in 66% (44/72), lateral or anterolateral compressive masses in 37% (27 of 72 patients), and dorsal bony compression in 17% (12 of 72 patients). Hindbrain herniation was associated in 33%. The age at presentation was 3 to 23 years. Motor symptoms occurred in 72% (52 of 72 patients); palsies in Cranial Nerves IX, X, and XII in 33% (24 of 72 patients); and vertebrobasilar symptoms in 25% (18 of 72 patients). Trauma precipitated symptoms in 55% (40 of 72 patients). The best definition of the abnormality was demonstrated by 3-dimensional computed tomography combined with magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment was aimed at decompression of the pathology and stabilization. Remnants of the occipital vertebrae around the foramen magnum were recognized in 72 of 5200 CVJ cases (7.2%). Magnetic resonance imaging with 3-dimensional computed tomography of the CVJ provides the best definition and understanding of the lesions. Brainstem myelopathy and lower cranial nerve deficits are common clinical presentations in the first and second decades of life. Treatment is aimed at decompression of the pathology and CVJ stabilization.

  5. History of high-risk HPV and Pap test results in a large cohort of patients with invasive cervical carcinoma: experience from the largest women's hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiang; Griffith, Christopher C; Zhou, Xiangrong; Wang, Zhiheng; Yan, Yabin; Li, Zaibo; Zhao, Chengquan

    2015-07-01

    Current cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend screening with a Papanicolaou (Pap) test or by cotesting (Pap and human papillomavirus [HPV]). Given the importance of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection in the development of cervical cancer, some studies are now suggesting the use of primary hrHPV testing as a possible screening modality. To gain further insight into the role of both Pap testing and hrHPV testing, the authors examined prior screening results in a population of Chinese patients with invasive cervical carcinoma. Cases with a histologic diagnosis of invasive cervical carcinoma were retrieved from the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University from January 2011 to October 2014. Prior hrHPV testing and Pap test results within 3 years before the cancer diagnosis were recorded. Of 3714 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma, over a 46-month period, 525 had prior hrHPV testing using Hybrid Capture 2 within 3 years and 238 patients had Pap cytology testing within 1 year before the histological diagnosis. Within the 1-year period before diagnosis, the overall hrHPV-negative rate was 15.5% (74 of 477 patients) and the Pap-negative rate was also 15.5% (37 of 238 patients). Only 9 of 231 patients with both hrHPV testing and Pap testing (3.9%) had a double-negative result. Compared with squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma has significantly higher rates of prior negative results with both hrHPV and Pap cytology. The results of the current study demonstrated prior results of hrHPV testing and Pap cytology in a population of women in China who had not undergone intensive prior screening. Both hrHPV testing and Pap cytology were found to have similar negative rates in this population and, not surprisingly, there were fewer women who had negative testing results using both testing modalities. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  6. Papanicolaou tests with coexisting squamous and glandular abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Li Yan; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W; Bruening, Amanda E; Weber Noffsinger, Dana K; Booth, Christine N

    2014-08-01

    Papanicolaou (Pap) test interpretations of atypical glandular cells are associated with subsequent detection of squamous and, less often, glandular malignancies. A Pap test with a combined interpretation of squamous and glandular atypia indicates concern for either 2 distinct lesions (both squamous and glandular) or involvement of cervical squamous and glandular epithelium by a single pathologic process. Dual interpretations can potentially guide patient management. This retrospective study describes an institutional experience with Pap test dual reporting of squamous and glandular atypia and patient follow-up in these cases. Following institutional review board approval, a search of the anatomic pathology database for Pap tests with both atypical squamous and atypical glandular interpretations from January 2005 to December 2010 was performed. Other recorded data included: prior history, age, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, and most severe follow-up histologic diagnosis. Of 361,953 Pap tests interpreted in the laboratory during this period, a total of 230 (0.06%) patients with dual interpretation Pap tests and follow-up were identified. Follow-up pathology results on these patients were predominantly squamous lesions (51.7%). Glandular lesions only were detected in 14 cases (6.1%). Nine (3.9%) patients had both squamous and glandular pathology. Over a 6-year period, dual Pap test interpretations with both squamous and glandular atypia were more often associated with squamous than glandular lesions. Dual interpretations did identify coexisting squamous and glandular lesions. However, the number of cases was small. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  7. Triorchidism: A Rare Genitourinary Abnormality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During early adulthood it will be carried out by palpation, ultrasonography, semen analysis, serum testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone levels and during late adulthood follow up will be done by ultrasonography for malignancy every 2 years. CONCLUSION. Polyorchidism is a rare genitourinary abnormality and its.

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  9. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  10. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  11. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Fernandez

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  12. Women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear and human papillomavirus and its relation to screening in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Melisa; Arrossi, Silvina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smears, and human papilloma virus in relation to their cervical cancer screening behavior. This hospital-based study was conducted with a sample of 200 women: 100 women screened in the last three years and 100 non-screened women who attended a hospital located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, between September 2008 and February 2009. Women at the hospital were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relation of women's knowledge about Pap smears to screening behavior, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Of the women who had been screened, 49% compared to 73% of those not screened had inadequate knowledge about Pap smears (P = 0.001), and 47% of screened and 30% of non-screened women reported that they had ever heard about human papilloma virus (P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, having adequate knowledge about Pap smears (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.4-4.8) having health insurance (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-6.4) and being married (odds ratio: 1.8 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-3.4) were the factors related to being screened in the previous three years. Knowledge was related to screening. Comprehensive educational approaches may enhance screening for cervical cancer prevention.

  13. Awareness of cervical cancer and Pap smear among nursing staff at a rural tertiary care hospital in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S M; Bagde, M N; Bagde, N D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in developing countries and one in five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India. The aim of this study is to determine the awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear among nurses working in a tertiary care institute. Study Setting and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care institute. Nurses working at our institute excluding those who have worked or working in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department were provided with a pre-designed questionnaire testing their knowledge about cervical cancer. Approximately, 86% were aware about cancer cervix and 69% were aware of a pre-cancerous stage. 42.3% were not aware of any risk factor and 27.6% were not aware of any symptom of cancer cervix. 86.2% were aware about Pap smear, but only 58.6% were aware that facilities of Pap smear were available at our hospital. Knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of Pap smear as screening test was inadequate in nursing staff. Awareness programs about cervical cancer and screening are needed to increase awareness for this preventable condition. There is a need to arrange reorientation programs to sensitize nurses and establish cytology clinics to offer facilities for easily accessible and affordable screening.

  14. A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grum, Daniel; Boom, Johannes van den; Neumann, Daniel; Matena, Anja; Link, Nina M.; Mueller, Jonathan W.

    2010-01-01

    3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

  15. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M.; Rodriguez, V.F.

    2011-01-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We

  16. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Maria E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  17. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify t...... other previously applied intelligent approaches....

  18. Women's Behaviors Toward Mammogram and Pap Test: Opportunities to Increase Cervical Cancer Screening Participation Rates among Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavasoli, Simon M; Kane, Eli; Chiarelli, Anna M; Kupets, Rachel

    Screening rates for cervical cancer remain moderate among women over 50 years of age. Because cervical and breast screening interventions can be linked, evaluating screening factors relating to both is important. This study evaluates factors associated with breast and cervical screening participation in women aged 52 to 69. A cross-sectional study was used to describe characteristics associated with screening behaviors of 1,173,456 eligible women in Ontario, Canada. Overdue for screening was defined as more than 2.5 years from last mammogram or more than 3.5 years from last Pap test. Factors that might influence uptake of mammogram or Pap test were included as covariates in a multivariable multinomial logistic regression model. Overall, 52.4% of eligible women were up-to-date for both, 21.3% were overdue for both, 14.4% were overdue for Pap test but were up-to-date with mammogram, and 11.9% were overdue for mammogram but were up-to-date with Pap test. There was an opposite effect of age on likelihood of being overdue for Pap test only versus mammogram only. Women aged 67 to 69 compared with those 52 to 54 were more likely to be overdue for Pap test only (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-2.4) and less likely to be overdue for mammogram only (adjusted odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.6). A greater proportion of women rostered to a female physician versus a male physician were up-to-date for both (63.7% vs. 51.5%). Comparing screening patterns may provide physician- and patient-directed strategies to increase cervical screening participation by recruiting women who are overdue for Pap test but undergoing breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of Trichomonas vaginalis and cytological abnormalities of the cervix in low risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Depuydt, Christophe E; Bogers, John-Paul; Vereecken, Annie J

    2013-01-01

    Is Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) an inducing factor for the development of (pre-)cancerous lesions of the cervix? Cross sectional study. Screening healthy Belgian women with low infection risk. 63,251 consecutive liquid based cervical samples. Real time quantitative PCR for presence of TV, 18 HPV types and Pap smear analysis of cytologic abnormalities. Association of TV and HPV with cervix dysplasia. The overall prevalence of TV DNA was 0.37%, of low risk HPV 2%, of high risk HPV 13.2%, and 8.8 % had cytological abnormalities. Both LR-HPV and HR-HPV were significantly associated with all cytological abnormalities. Presence of TV was associated with LR- and HR-HPV, ASC-US and HSIL, but not with other abnormalities. All women with TV and HSIL also had HR-HPV, while the latter was present in only 59% of women with TV and ASC-US. Amongst HPV negative women, TV was found in 1.3% of women with ASC-US, but only in 0.03% of women with normal cytology (OR 4.2, CL95% 2.1-8.6). In HR-HPV positive women, presence of TV increased the likelihood of cytological abnormalities somewhat (P=0.05), mainly due to an increase in ASC-US and LSIL, but not HSIL. We conclude that TV infection is associated with both LR and HR-HPV infection of the cervix, as well as with ASC-US and HSIL. TV is a concomitant STI, but is not thought to be a co-factor in the causation of HSIL and cervical cancer. However, TV may cause false positive diagnoses of ASC-US.

  20. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation: the benefits of the BiPAP system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teba, L; Marks, P; Benzo, R

    1996-01-01

    Many of the complications with endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation can be avoided with the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). This technique has been especially successful in treating patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). NIMV improves gas exchange, avoids complications caused by endotracheal intubation, and allows patients to talk and take medications orally. This article reviews our experiences treating 27 patients with ARF with a BiPAP (bi-level positive airway pressure) ventilator. This is a portable unit which allows for selection of different modes of ventilation and adjustment of inspiratory and expiratory pressures. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation should be considered in patients presenting with ARF who are hemodynamically stable and in whom spontaneous breathing is preserved.

  1. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  2. Delayed diagnoses of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer after negative evaluation for atypical glandular cell pap smear: does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdini, Anthony F; Augart, Carolyn L; Olivieri, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    At initial evaluation, 1 in 6 women with atypical glandular cells (AGCs) on Pap smear has cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cancer. Years later, a greater-than-expected incidence of "significant delayed diagnoses" has been reported in women who had negative initial evaluation results. This study aimed to test the premise that AGC represents a lesser future risk for CIN 2/CIN 3/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and cancer after negative evaluation results in a population diagnosed at a young age (Pap smears (1997-2010); 213 were diagnosed with AGC, and 117 met inclusion criteria. Completed evaluation was consistent with American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guidelines without finding CIN 2/CIN 3/CIS or cancer. Follow-up lasted for longer than 1 year. Categorical data were evaluated with χ. During the follow-up period that averaged for 85.3 months, the cohort had 4.5 mean Pap smears and reported 46 cytological diagnoses of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 3 diagnoses of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 10 repeated diagnoses of AGCs. Two CIN 2/CIN 3/CIS lesions, 1 cervical cancer, and 1 endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia were confirmed on biopsy. Average age of patients at index Pap smear was 34.2 years (range = 15-64 years). Compared with a published report where the average age at index Pap smear was 41.5 years, our cohort developed a total of 4.3% significant delayed diagnoses versus 10.8% (significant difference, p = .046). During a 7-year follow-up, this cohort of 117 women with AGC and negative initial evaluation findings developed fewer significant delayed diagnoses than expected when compared with an older reported group and had no new extragynecological cancers. Age seems to be a risk factor for delayed diagnoses in patients with AGC.

  3. Biotransformation of 6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (6:2 PAPs): Effects of degradative bacteria and co-substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew; Kim, Myung Hee; Liu, Ellen J; Wang, Ning; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2016-12-15

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), a group of fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH)-based surfactants commonly used in water- and grease-proof food contact paper, have been suggested as a direct source of human exposure to health-concerned perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). This study investigated factors affecting biotranformation of 6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (6:2 PAPs) by three known FTOH-degrading Pseudomonas strains (Pseudomonas butanovora, P. oleovorans, and P. fluorescens DSM 8341) under different co-substrate conditions and compared to that by activated sludge samples. The three pure strains transformed 6:2 PAPs into eight different per- and poly-fluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and/or PFCA precursors. P. fluorescens DSM 8341 produced 5:2 sFTOH [CF 3 (CF 2 ) 4 CH(OH)CH 3 ] and P. oleovorans produced 5:2 ketone [CF 3 (CF 2 ) 4 C(O)CH 3 ] as the primary transformation product, respectively, with citrate having a minimal impact on the transformation. P. butanovora with lactate produced more diverse transformation products than those by any two strains. Activated sludge was more efficient at transforming 6:2 PAPs and produced more transformation products including PFHpA [CF 3 (CF 2 ) 5 COOH] and PFPeA [CF 3 (CF 2 ) 3 COOH], with 5:2 sFTOH as the most abundant product on day 30. The abundance of the alkane hydroxylase (alkB) gene related to alkane oxidation, the changes of total microbial population as well as their community structure in activated sludge during 6:2 PAPs biotransformation were also investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cervical Precancer Risk in HIV-Infected Women Who Test Positive for Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Despite a Normal Pap Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Marla J; Burk, Robert D; Massad, L Stewart; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Hessol, Nancy A; Castle, Philip E; Anastos, Kathryn; Xie, Xianhong; Minkoff, Howard; Xue, Xiaonan; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Flowers, Lisa; Levine, Alexandra M; Colie, Christine; Rahangdale, Lisa; Fischl, Margaret A; Palefsky, Joel M; Strickler, Howard D

    2015-11-15

    Determining cervical precancer risk among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women who despite a normal Pap test are positive for oncogenic human papillomavirus (oncHPV) types is important for setting screening practices. A total of 2791 HIV-infected and 975 HIV-uninfected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study were followed semiannually with Pap tests and colposcopy. Cumulative risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater (CIN-2+; threshold used for CIN treatment) and grade 3 or greater (CIN-3+; threshold to set screening practices) were measured in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women with normal Pap tests, stratified by baseline HPV results, and also in HIV-infected women with a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL; benchmark indication for colposcopy). At baseline, 1021 HIV-infected and 518 HIV-uninfected women had normal Pap tests, of whom 154 (15%) and 27 (5%), respectively, tested oncHPV positive. The 5-year CIN-2+ cumulative risk in the HIV-infected oncHPV-positive women was 22% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9%-34%), 12% (95% CI, 0%-22%), and 14% (95% CI, 2%-25%) among those with CD4 counts Pap result who test HPV16 positive have high precancer risk (similar to those with LSIL), possibly warranting immediate colposcopy. Repeat screening in 1 year may be appropriate if non-16 oncHPV is detected. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Evaluation of a low-cost liquid-based Pap test in rural El Salvador: a split-sample study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Cremer, Miriam; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Felix, Juan C

    2014-04-01

    We sought to test the diagnostic efficacy of a low-cost, liquid-based cervical cytology that could be implemented in low-resource settings. A prospective, split-sample Pap study was performed in 595 women attending a cervical cancer screening clinic in rural El Salvador. Collected cervical samples were used to make a conventional Pap (cell sample directly to glass slide), whereas residual material was used to make the liquid-based sample using the ClearPrep method. Selected samples were tested from the residual sample of the liquid-based collection for the presence of high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Of 595 patients, 570 were interpreted with the same diagnosis between the 2 methods (95.8% agreement). There were comparable numbers of unsatisfactory cases; however, ClearPrep significantly increased detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and decreased the diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. ClearPrep identified an equivalent number of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cases as the conventional Pap. High-risk human papillomavirus was identified in all cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cancer as well as in 78% of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions out of the residual fluid of the ClearPrep vials. The low-cost ClearPrep Pap test demonstrated equivalent detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions when compared with the conventional Pap smear and demonstrated the potential for ancillary molecular testing. The test seems a viable option for implementation in low-resource settings.

  6. Endometrial cells on Pap tests: ideal reporting is more complex than just finding the right age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gabor; Haddad, Maha; Cormier, Karen

    2017-07-01

    The age for reporting normal endometrial cells (EMCs) on Pap tests was changed to ≥ 45 years in the latest Bethesda update (2014). This recommendation is solely based on age with no consensus on optimal reporting guidelines. Pap tests with EMCs for women ≥40 years were retrieved from our Laboratory Information System (LIS). Patient age, last menstrual period (LMP) and available follow-up histology were recorded. Follow-up diagnoses were categorized as: no significant pathology, benign, hyperplasia ± atypia, or malignant. The Fisher's exact test was used to assess the association between categorical variables, p test) was considered significant. Of the 352 cases with EMCs, 155 had surgical follow-up. They showed no malignancy in the 89 women between 40-49 years, compared with five malignancies in the 66 women 50+ years (p = .016). The number of cases with significant pathology (hyperplasia and malignant) was 4 (40-49 years) vs. 11 (50+ years) (p = 0.029). The LMP was inconsistently provided (57%) and women identified as postmenopausal on requisition comprised all the malignancies and half the hyperplasias. Combined effort by pathologists and clinicians necessitates determining the best standardized clinicopathologic guidelines to report EMCs and appropriate follow-up. Increasing the required age to ≥50 years would provide more optimal patient management; however, there are other considerations beyond age. Reporting EMCs in postmenopausal women is a reasonable alternative requiring consistent and accurate recording of LMP. Improving provided information for pathologists, determining reporting requirements for EMCs and standardizing clinical follow-up should be a multidisciplinary effort. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:587-591. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO SEE THE UTILITY OF MODIFIED ULTRAFAST PAPANICOLAOU (MUFP STAIN OVER STANDARD PAP STAIN IN ROUTINE FNA SMEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Khajuria

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pap stain is an excellent method to review the cytological specimen; however, it is time consuming and costly. Various modifications have been developed in Pap stain of which latest is Modified Ultrafast Pap (MUFP stain which is hybrid of the technique by Romanowsky and conventional Pap stain to reduce the staining time to 90 seconds. AIM Aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and applicability of MUFP stain in fine needle aspiration smears of various organs. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study was carried out in the cytopathology laboratory of GMC, Jammu for a period of 6 months from December 2015 to May 2016. A total no of 200 specimens were collected. The samples included 80 lymph node aspiration samples, 40 thyroid FNA samples, 50 breast FNA samples, 25 soft tissue aspirations and 5 salivary gland aspirations. Two smears were kept for fixation in 95% ethanol for staining with standard Pap stain and 2 were air dried for MUFP staining. RESULTS A correct diagnosis was achieved in all the cases. Background was similar in both staining methods. However, well-preserved cell morphology, crisp nuclear outline, good overall staining were well seen with MUFP method when compared with the standard Pap method. CONCLUSION The findings of this study support the use of MUFP method in cytology laboratory over standard Pap method.

  8. [Investigation of human papillomavirus prevalence in women in Eskişehir, Turkey by Pap smear, hybrid capture 2 test and consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction and typing with pyrosequencing method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ferhat Gürkan; Us, Tercan; Kaşifoğlu, Nilgün; Özalp, Sabit Sinan; Akgün, Yurdanur; Öge, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    samples were positive by HC2 test, 40 (26.3%) were positive by Pap smear, and 53 (34.9%) were positive by consensus RT-PCR. All of the 32 samples that were positive by HC2 were also positive by RT-PCR, however 21 samples that were positive by RT-PCR were negative by HC2 test. Among 40 samples that were positive (abnormal) by Pap smear, HPV-DNA was positive in nine (22.5%) by RT-PCR and in five (12.5%) by HC2 test, but HPV-DNA was not detected in 31 (77.5%) samples by both of the tests. Genotyping of the strains could be performed in 44 samples, and the most common type detected was HPV type 16 (n=15, 34.1%), followed by type 90 (n=11, 25%) and type 18 (n= 4, 9.1%). In our study, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Pap smear method were estimated as 16.1%, 96%, 10.6% and 97.5%, respectively, based on the HC2 results which was approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, a significant degree of concordance was detected between HC2 and concensus RT-PCR methods (Cohen's kappa: 0.665). In conclusion, regarding the insufficient number of cytopathologists in our country and according to the recommendations of American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) and FDA, it was once again demonstrated that, the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods in addition to the Pap smear for effective screening of CC are needed.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus DNA testing and Pap smear for cervical cancer screening in a publicly financed health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, I H-I; Tang, C-H; You, S-L; Liao, C-H; Chu, T-Y; Chen, C-J; Chen, C-A; Pwu, R-F

    2010-12-07

    to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of different strategies for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing combined with Pap smear for cervical cancer screening in Taiwan. this study adopts a perspective of Department of Health in cost-effectiveness analysis to compare a no-screening strategy with nine different screening strategies. These strategies comprise three screening tools (Pap smear alone, HPV DNA testing followed by Pap smear triage, and HPV DNA testing combined with Pap smear), and three screening intervals (annually, every 3 years, and every 5 years). Outcomes are life expectancy, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), lifetime costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSAs) were conducted to assess parameter uncertainty. when three times gross domestic product per capita is used as the decision threshold, all nine screening strategies were cost-effective compared with the no-screening strategy. Compared with the current screening strategy (an annual Pap smear), HPV DNA testing followed by Pap smear triage every 5 years and every 3 years were cost-effective. Results of PSA also indicated that a HPV DNA testing followed by Pap smear triage every 5 or every 3 years achieved the highest expected net benefits. possible economic advantages are associated with extending the cervical cancer screening interval from one Pap smear annually to HPV DNA testing followed by Pap smear triage every 5 years with an ICER $1 247 000 per QALY gained, especially in a country with a publicly financed health-care system. 2010 Cancer Resaerch UK.

  10. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortés, Juan Camilo

    2012-01-01

    The primary manifestations of Parkinson’s disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limb’s position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor symptoms as motor control abnormalities means to identify how the disease disrupts normal control processes. In the case of Parkinson’s disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained by a disruption of the control processes that determine normal movement speed. Two long-term benefits of understanding the motor control basis of motor symptoms include the future design of neural prostheses to replace the function of damaged basal ganglia circuits, and the rational design of rehabilitation strategies. This type of understanding, however, remains limited, partly because of limitations in our knowledge of normal motor control. In this article, we review the concept of motor control and describe a few motor symptoms that illustrate the challenges in understanding such symptoms as motor control abnormalities. PMID:22675667

  11. Abnormal compression wood in Pinus taeda : a review of current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abnormal compression wood in P. taeda stands was first discovered in the early 1980s. Since then several research projects and surveys have been carried out in order to develop a better understanding of the problem and to try to find a solution. Currently a large proportion of the sawmill intake of logs in the Mpumalanga ...

  12. Transforming Coverage of Primary Prevention in Abnormal Psychology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that a comprehensive understanding of abnormal psychology requires coverage of recent advances in primary prevention. Describes a conceptual scheme and recommends resources and teaching methods for instructors. Asserts that clinical and community psychology are conceptually distinct but complementary fields. (CFR)

  13. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodulfo Garcia, Maikel; Tornes Perez, Victor Manuel; Castellanos Tardo, Juan Ramon

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  14. Glial abnormalities in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this article we review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders, and we discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. The goal is not to carry out a comprehensive review but to selectively discuss existing evidence in support of an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders.

  15. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    0.01 0.12 81 A.A. 51 M 0 ɘ.01 0.09 Schizophrenia 85a W.G. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.21 Proteins & Ketones in Urine b 0 ɘ.01 0.11 86a W.H. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.15 b 0...AD-AS 90 TOTTS GAP MEDICAL RESEARCH LABS INC BANGOR PA F/G 6/5 ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS, U) 1982 R L BEECH, M E FELVER, M R...LAKSCHMANAN NOOBIN 70 C 0233 UNJCLASSIFIED NL I ,I/ ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS Richard L . Veech, Michael E. Felver, M.R. Lakschmanan, Stewart

  16. Computed tomography abnormalities in hanging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, F.; Floris, R.

    1987-01-01

    The CT pattern of bilateral and symmetrical round low density areas in the globi pallidi has been observed in a young man who attempted suicide by hanging. These CT abnormalities are similar to those described in other conditions such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, cyanide and methanol poisoning, hypoglycaemia, drowning and acute global central nervous system hypoperfusion.The findings appear to be correlated with acute cerebral hypoxia. (orig.)

  17. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glia...

  18. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  19. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  20. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  1. At the intersection of sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, and cervical cancer screening: assessing Pap test use disparities by sex of sexual partners among black, Latina, and white U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Krieger, Nancy; Austin, S Bryn; Haneuse, Sebastien; Gottlieb, Barbara R

    2014-09-01

    Understanding how various dimensions of social inequality shape the health of individuals and populations poses a key challenge for public health. Guided by ecosocial theory and intersectionality, we used data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, a national probability sample, to investigate how one dimension of sexual orientation, sex of sexual partners, and race/ethnicity jointly influence Pap test use among black, Latina and white U.S. women aged 21-44 years (N = 8840). We tested for an interaction between sex of sexual partners and race/ethnicity (p = 0.015) and estimated multivariable logistic regression models for each racial/ethnic group, adjusting for socio-demographic factors. The adjusted odds of Pap test use for women with only female sexual partners in the past year were significantly lower than for women with only male sexual partners in the past year among white women (odds ratio [OR] = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12,0.52) and may be lower among black women (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.07,1.52); no difference was apparent among Latina women (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 0.31,7.73). Further, the adjusted odds of Pap test use for women with no sexual partners in the past year were significantly lower than for women with only male sexual partners in the past year among white (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.22,0.41) and black (OR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.15,0.37) women and marginally lower among Latina women (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.38,1.03). Adding health care indicators to the models completely explained Pap test use disparities for women with only female vs. only male sexual partners among white women and for women with no vs. only male sexual partners among Latina women. Ecosocial theory and intersectionality can be used in tandem to conceptually and operationally elucidate previously unanalyzed health disparities by multiple dimensions of social inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Conhecimento, atitude e prática do exame de Papanicolaou em mulheres com câncer de colo uterino Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the Pap smear among women with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Michelina Fernandes Brenna

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de colo uterino apresenta alta mortalidade no Brasil, apesar dos programas para rastreamento. O objetivo deste estudo, de corte transversal, foi analisar conhecimento, atitude e prática do exame de Papanicolaou e entender a não adesão das mulheres a este exame. Foram entrevistadas 138 mulheres: noventa com neoplasia intra-epitelial de alto grau e 48 com câncer invasivo de colo uterino. As mulheres com câncer invasivo tiveram prática mais inadequada do exame. No entanto, independente do diagnóstico, mais de 80% delas referiram desmotivação/vergonha, 60% relataram que os médicos não examinavam e, cerca de 50% apontaram o tempo de espera para a consulta e a demora no agendamento como dificuldades para serem atendidas. Em geral, a prática do exame dependeu da iniciativa do médico e a periodicidade da coleta foi determinada pela procura de consulta devido a sintomas. As mulheres com 56 anos ou mais mostraram maior inadequação no conhecimento, na atitude e na prática. No entanto, aquelas com maior escolaridade conheciam melhor o exame. A maior idade e a menor escolaridade podem estar associados a não adesão das mulheres ao exame, porém as dificuldades sociais e econômicas para conseguir atendimento em saúde precisam ser consideradas para aumentar a prática do exame.Despite screening programs, Brazil has a high cervical cancer mortality rate. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the Pap smear and to understand why women fail to submit to this screening test. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 138 women: 90 with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and 48 with invasive cervical cancer. Inadequate practices were more frequent among women with invasive cancer. In terms of difficulties in obtaining medical care, more than 80% of women reported lack of motivation, 60% reported that physicians failed to conduct a complete physical examination

  3. Biochemical characterization of the triticale TsPAP1, a new type of plant prolyl aminopeptidase, and its impact on proline content and flowering time in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta; Grabowska, Agnieszka; Branicki, Tomasz; Michniewska, Beata

    2017-07-01

    Proline aminopeptidase (PAP, EC 3.4.11.5) is the only enzyme that effectively releases proline from the N-termini of peptides. The amino acid sequence of the PAP from Triticosecale, TsPAP1, comprises conserved regions, characteristic of the monomeric forms of PAP found in bacteria but not yet identified in plants. Therefore, we aimed to obtain and biochemically characterize the TsPAP1 protein. The recombinant TsPAP1 protein was received through heterologous expression of the TsPAP1 coding sequence in a bacterial expression system and purified with affinity chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography and SDS electrophoresis revealed that TsPAP1 is a monomer with a molecular mass of 37.5 kDa. TsPAP1 prefers substrates with proline at the N-terminus but is also capable of hydrolyzing β-naphthylamides of hydroxyproline and alanine. Among the peptides tested, the most preferred were di- and tripeptides, especially those with glycine in the Y position. The use of diagnostic inhibitors indicated that TsPAP1 is a serine peptidase; however, further characterization revealed that the SH residues are also important for maintaining its activity. To examine the role of TsPAP1 under physiological conditions, we developed transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TsPAP1. Compared with wild-type plants, the transgenic lines accumulated more proline, flowered an average of 3.5 days earlier, and developed more siliques than did untransformed controls. Our paper is the first to describe the biochemical properties of a novel monomeric plant PAP and contributes to the functional characterization of PAP proteins in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Awareness and knowledge regarding of cervical cancer, Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus infection in Gabonese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoumou, Samira Zoa; Mabika, Barthelemy Mabika; Mbiguino, Angelique Ndjoyi; Mouallif, Mustapha; Khattabi, Abdelkim; Ennaji, My Mustapha

    2015-04-19

    Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality in women in Gabon. The age-standardized incidence of cervical cancer is 19.9 per 100 000 women and the mortality rate is 8.4 per 100 000. Various international studies have identified the lack of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer as barriers to use preventive methods. This article assesses the awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear testing and its use and HPV among women living in Libreville, Gabon. This study was conducted in October 2014 in Libreville. A total of 452 women aged 16 years and above were recruited from different town locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the effect of demographic characteristics on the level of knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear testing and HPV. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were used to identify the strength of association. Associations were considered statistically significant at p cervical cancer and only 27.9% (126/452) had heard of Pap smear test. Of these 126 women, only 65.1% (82/126) had done cervical cancer screening and 68.3% (56/82) on the suggestion of a doctor. The most common reason for not undergoing Pap smear testing was neglect (50%, 22/44) followed by lack of financial resources (13.6%, 6/44), fear of discovering a serious disease (13.6%, 6/44) and deeming it unimportant (13.6%, 6/44). Only 8% (40/452) of the participants had heard about HPV and their knowledge of HPV was fair. There is a very poor level of knowledge about cervical cancer among Gabonese women. This study demonstrates a very low level of knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear testing and HPV in a sample of Gabonese women. There is a critical need for Gabonese women to be informed about cervical cancer and the Pap smear test to improve the use of this preventive method. The implication of health staff and Gabonese media should be included as a centerpiece in the effort to inform the population in

  5. CBPR-Informed Recruitment and Retention Adaptations in a Randomized Study of Pap Testing Among Pacific Islanders in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Weiss, Jie W; Santos, Lola; Flores, Peter; Flores, Preciosa; Lacsamana, Jasmine DeGuzman; Paige, Ciara; Mouttapa, Michele; Quitugua, Lourdes; Taito, Peniamina; May, Vanessa Tui; Tupua, Marina; Vaikona, Elenoa; Vaivao, Dorothy; Vunileva, Isileli

    2015-01-01

    Pacific Islanders (PIs) experience high cervical cancer rates in the United States. Stage of diagnosis is also later for PIs than non-Hispanic Whites. The Pap test is severely underutilized among PIs: only 71% of Asian American and Pacific Islander women age 25 years or older received a Pap test within the last 3 years (U.S. average, 82%). Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasingly seen as an essential approach in designing and conducting culturally relevant and appropriate studies that reduce cancer incidence and other health disparities among minority and other medically underserved populations. The purpose of this article is to describe the lessons learned thus far regarding the identification, recruitment, and retention of PI community organizations and members into a CBPR-informed, randomized, community trial promoting Pap testing. This 5-year study used CBPR to develop and test the efficacy of a social support intervention for Chamorro, Samoan, and Tongan women to increase Pap testing in southern California. Eligible women were between the ages of 21 and 65, and married or in a long-term relationship with a man for at least 5 years. Women and their husbands or significant others received a 2-hour, culturally tailored workshop that include a group activity, information on Pap testing, a video, and corresponding materials. Comparison participants received a brochure about Pap testing. Three waves of data are collected from all participants: pretest (before workshop or brochure), posttest 1 (immediately after workshop or brochure), and posttest 2 (6 months follow-up). Of the 76 organizations approached to participate in the study, 67 (88.2%) eventually agreed to participate. Thus far, 473 women and 419 men completed the study pretest, post-test, education, and 6-month follow-up. Only 242 women and 204 men of the eligible participants have completed the follow-up survey (63.5% of women and 60.5% of men retained after 6 months). The main

  6. Abnormal thermography in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, I; Madrid-Navarro, C J; Salazar-López, E; Pérez-Navarro, M J; Sáez-Zea, C; Gómez-Milán, E; Mínguez-Castellanos, A; Escamilla-Sevilla, F

    2015-08-01

    An autonomic denervation and abnormal vasomotor reflex in the skin have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) and might be evaluable using thermography with cold stress test. A cross-sectional pilot study was undertaken in 35 adults: 15 patients with PD and abnormal [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy and 20 healthy controls. Baseline thermography of both hands was obtained before immersing one in cold water (3 ± 1 °C) for 2 min. Continuous thermography was performed in: non-immersed hand (right or with lesser motor involvement) during immersion of the contralateral hand and for 6 min afterward; and contralateral immersed hand for 6 min post-immersion. The region of interest was the dorsal skin of the third finger, distal phalanx. PD patients showed a lower mean baseline hand temperature (p = 0.037) and greater thermal difference between dorsum of wrist and third finger (p = 0.036) and between hands (p = 0.0001) versus controls, regardless of the motor laterality. Both tests evidenced an adequate capacity to differentiate between groups: in the non-immersed hand, the PD patients did not show the normal cooling pattern or final thermal overshoot observed in controls (F = 5.29; p = 0.001), and there was an AUC of 0.897 (95%CI 0.796-0.998) for this cooling; in the immersed hand, thermal recovery at 6 min post-immersion was lesser in patients (29 ± 17% vs. 55 ± 28%, p = 0.002), with an AUC of 0.810 (95%CI 0.662-0.958). PD patients reveal abnormal skin thermal responses in thermography with cold stress test, suggesting cutaneous autonomic dysfunction. This simple technique may be useful to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human telomerase RNA gene (TERC) gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 in cervicovaginal liquid-based pap preparations: a fluorescence in situ hybridization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, W; Ou, M; Chen, J; Yu, J; Zhang, Y; Lan, H; Huang, H; Dai, Y

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study investigated human telomerase RNA gene (TERC) gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 in cervicovaginal liquid-based pap preparations in Guilin, China, and assessed the relationship between FISH findings and clinical diagnoses. METHODS. Slides prepared from 63 liquid-based preparations with cytologic diagnoses of negative for squamous intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM n = 9), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, n = 18), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, n = 14), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, n = 9), and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA, n = 13) were analyzed for TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 using a commercially available two-color FISH probe. The results of the cytologic analysis and those of concurrent or subsequent biopsies, when available, were compared with the FISH findings. The Mann-Whitney test was used to assess associations between FISH findings and diagnoses. RESULTS. TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 were significantly associated with the cytologic diagnosis (p? 0.001). Patients with HSIL or SCCA cytology diagnoses had a significantly higher percentage of cells with TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 than did patients with NILM, ASCUS or LSIL cytologic diagnoses. Those abnormal cases with CIN1 histological diagnosis had a significantly lower percentage of cells with TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 than did patients with a CIN2, CIN3 and SCCA histological diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS. TERC gain and polysomy of chromosome 3 may be important associated genetic events in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma. FISH is a potential tool for the diagnoses of uterine cervix disease.

  8. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate rapidly remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107, and SEM2(49-107 seminal amyloid fibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Castellano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Semen harbors amyloid fibrils formed by proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120 and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2 that potently enhance HIV infectivity. Amyloid but not soluble forms of these peptides enhance HIV infection. Thus, agents that remodel these amyloid fibrils could prevent HIV transmission. Here, we confirm that the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, slowly remodels fibrils formed by PAP248-286 termed SEVI (semen derived enhancer of viral infection and also exerts a direct anti-viral effect. We elucidate for the first time that EGCG remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107, and SEM2(49-107 fibrils more rapidly than SEVI fibrils. We establish EGCG as the first small molecule that can remodel all four classes of seminal amyloid. The combined anti-amyloid and anti-viral properties of EGCG could have utility in preventing HIV transmission.

  9. Effects of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory and implementation intentions on first and second pap test practice in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdari, Tahereh; Hassani, Laleh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Abedini, Mehrandokht

    2014-01-01

    Few Iranian women take the Papanicolaou test despite its important role in preventing cervical cancer. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory (PMT) variables and implementation intentions in the first and second Pap test practice among Iranian women. In this quasi-randomized controlled trial, 200 women who were referred to 30 primary health care clinics in Tehran were randomly selected. PMT variables and Pap test practice were measured at baseline and again after 3 and 15 months. The 4-week educational intervention program was conducted for the intervention group. Following the intervention, the mean scores of self-efficacy, perceived vulnerability, and behavior intention variables were significantly higher in the intervention group when compared to the control group (pPap test compared to the controls. The PMT and implementation intentions provide a suitable theory-based framework for developing educational interventions regarding Pap test practice in Iran.

  10. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Sanchez, R.; Murray, W.T.; Silbiger, M.L.; Ogden, J.; Cochran, C.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  11. A feasibility study to identify proteins in the residual Pap test fluid of women with normal cytology by mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Kristin Lm; Afiuni-Zadeh, Somaieh; Geller, Melissa A; Hickey, Kayla; Griffin, Timothy J; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Skubitz, Amy Pn

    2014-01-01

    The proteomic analysis of body fluids is a growing technology for the identification of protein biomarkers of disease. Given that Papanicolaou tests (Pap tests) are routinely performed on over 30 million women annually in the U.S. to screen for cervical cancer, we examined the residual Pap test fluid as a source of protein for analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). In the liquid-based Pap test, cervical cells are collected from the ectocervix and placed into an alcohol-based fixative prior to staining and pathologic examination. We hypothesized that proteins shed by cells of the female genital tract can be detected in the Pap test fixative by MS-based proteomic techniques. We examined the feasibility of using residual fluid from discarded Pap tests with cytologically "normal" results to optimize sample preparation for MS analysis. The protein composition of the cell-free Pap test fluid was determined by silver staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate -polyacrylamide gels, and the abundance of serum proteins was examined by Western immunoblot using an antibody against human serum albumin. Both pooled and individual samples were trypsin digested and analyzed by two-dimensional MS/MS. Proteins were identified by searching against the Human Uniprot database, and characterized for localization, function and relative abundance. The average volume of the residual Pap test fluid was 1.5 ml and the average protein concentration was 0.14 mg/ml. By Western immunoblot we showed that the amount of albumin in each sample was significantly reduced compared to normal serum. By MS/MS, we identified 714 unique proteins in pooled Pap test samples and an average of 431 proteins in individual samples. About 40% of the proteins identified were extracellular or localized to the plasma membrane. Almost 20% of the proteins identified were involved in immunity and defense, characteristic of the healthy cervical-vaginal proteome. By merging the protein sets from the individual and pooled Pap test

  12. Perception of cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who have never had a pap smear: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Sumiko; Maezawa, Masaji

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who had never had a Pap smear. Four focus-group discussions, each with 15 female university students, took place in November and December 2009. Discussions were recorded and transcripts were analyzed to extract attitudes of young women towards cervical cancer screening. The four themes that emerged were: i) a low sense of reality about cervical cancer; ii) a lack of knowledge about both cervical cancer and Pap smears; iii) a lack of motivation to get screened, and iv) a reluctance to visit the gynecologist. Participants who were interested in undergoing screening for cervical cancer cited the influence of conversations with friends and family, a diagnosis of cancer within their family, and relevant information from the media. The results indicate the importance of getting young women more interested in cervical cancer screening and overcoming their tendency to avoid visiting a gynecologist.

  13. Predicting Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination and Pap Smear Screening Intentions Among Young Singaporean Women Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangeline I. Chirayil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB to analyze the role of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control as predictors of intentions to obtain Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccinations or a Papanicolaou (Pap smear in a sample of young Singaporean women. A further aim was to evaluate knowledge of cervical cancer and preventive measures as a possible additional predictor of intentions. A purpose-designed TPB and knowledge questionnaire was completed by 206 women aged 18 to 26 years living in Singapore. Descriptive analyses and structural equation modeling revealed subjective norm as the best predictor, while perceived behavioral control had moderate predictive power. Attitude and knowledge were not significant predictors of intentions. The findings suggest the importance of focusing on subjective norms, rather than factual knowledge, in educational and awareness campaigns that encourage HPV vaccination and Pap smear screening in Singapore.

  14. Factors associated with Pap smear screening among French women visiting a general practitioner in the Rhône-Alpes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussaid, N; Lutringer-Magnin, D; Barone, G; Haesebaert, J; Lasset, C

    2013-10-01

    To help prevent cervical cancer, three yearly opportunistic Pap smear screening is recommended in France for women aged 25-65 years. Pap smear screening coverage varies with age and socioeconomic level. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify factors associated with a low uptake of Pap smear screening among women with no limited access to healthcare. We analyzed data from women aged 25-65 living in the Rhône-Alpes region who completed a self-administered questionnaire given to them by general practitioners between June and August 2008. The questionnaire covered knowledge about cervical cancer and its prevention as well as the women's history of Pap smear screening and other health-related behaviors. The relationship between low uptake of Pap smear screening--defined as not having had the test within the past 3 years--and a range of possible contributing factors was investigated using logistic regression. Of 1186 women with an intact uterus who completed the questionnaire, 89.1% said they had had a Pap smear within the past 3 years. On multivariate analysis, the 10.9% who had not were significantly more likely to live alone (1.76 [1.13-2.74]), to have no children (2.17 [1.31-3.62]), to have never used contraception (5.35 [2.98-9.62]), to have less knowledge about Pap smear screening (3.40 [1.55-7.49]), and to be unvaccinated against hepatitis B (0.55 [0.35-0.87]). Despite high overall compliance with Pap smear screening recommendations among women who consulted general practitioners, several factors were significantly associated with a low uptake of the service. Considering these factors may help to refine messages aimed at cervical cancer prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Progression and regression of cervical pap test lesions in an urban AIDS clinic in the combined antiretroviral therapy era: a longitudinal, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Sarah M; Tadros, Talaat; Herring-Bailey, Gina; Birdsong, George; Mosunjac, Marina; Flowers, Lisa; Nguyen, Minh Ly

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women during the late antiretroviral era. Risk factors as well as outcomes after treatment of cancerous or precancerous lesions were examined. This is a longitudinal retrospective review of cervical Pap tests performed on HIV-infected women with an intact cervix between 2004 and 2011. Subjects needed over two Pap tests for at least 2 years of follow-up. Progression was defined as those who developed a squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL), atypical glandular cells (AGC), had low-grade SIL (LSIL) followed by atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H) or high-grade SIL (HSIL), or cancer. Regression was defined as an initial SIL with two or more subsequent normal Pap tests. Persistence was defined as having an SIL without progression or regression. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing started in 2006 on atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Pap tests. AGC at enrollment were excluded from progression analysis. Of 1,445 screened, 383 patients had over two Pap tests for a 2-year period. Of those, 309 had an intact cervix. The median age was 40 years and CD4+ cell count was 277 cells/mL. Four had AGC at enrollment. A quarter had persistently normal Pap tests, 64 (31%) regressed, and 50 (24%) progressed. Four developed cancer. The only risk factor associated with progression was CD4 count. In those with treated lesions, 24 (59%) had negative Pap tests at the end of follow-up. More studies are needed to evaluate follow-up strategies of LSIL patients, potentially combined with HPV testing. Guidelines for HIV-seropositive women who are in care, have improved CD4, and have persistently negative Pap tests could likely lengthen the follow-up interval.

  16. Abnormal visuomotor processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân E. Robson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtle disturbances of visual and motor function are known features of schizophrenia and can greatly impact quality of life; however, few studies investigate these abnormalities using simple visuomotor stimuli. In healthy people, electrophysiological data show that beta band oscillations in sensorimotor cortex decrease during movement execution (event-related beta desynchronisation (ERBD, then increase above baseline for a short time after the movement (post-movement beta rebound (PMBR; whilst in visual cortex, gamma oscillations are increased throughout stimulus presentation. In this study, we used a self-paced visuomotor paradigm and magnetoencephalography (MEG to contrast these responses in patients with schizophrenia and control volunteers. We found significant reductions in the peak-to-peak change in amplitude from ERBD to PMBR in schizophrenia compared with controls. This effect was strongest in patients who made fewer movements, whereas beta was not modulated by movement in controls. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of visual gamma between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that clear abnormalities in basic sensorimotor processing in schizophrenia can be observed using a very simple MEG paradigm.

  17. Operator training for the abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Training of nuclear power plant control room operators, on actions to be taken for an abnormal event, has classically been limited to discussion, on-shift and/or during requalification training classes, of symptoms, logical thought processes, systems analysis, and operator experience. The prerequisites for these discussions are a common technical vocabulary, and a minimum basic comprehension of nuclear power plant fundamentals, plant component theory of operation, system configuration, system control philosophy and operating procedures. Nuclear power plant control room operators are not the only personnel who are or should be involved in these discussions. The shift supervisors, operations management, and auxiliary equipment operators require continuing training in abnormal operations, as well. More in-depth training is necessary for shift supervisors and control room operators. The availability of vendor simulators has improved the effectiveness of training efforts for these individuals to some extent by displaying typical situations and plant performance characteristics and by providing a degree of ''hands on'' experience. The evolution of in-depth training with these simulators is reviewed

  18. Encouraging Vietnamese-American women to obtain Pap tests through lay health worker outreach and media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tram K; McPhee, Stephen J; Mock, Jeremiah; Wong, Ching; Doan, Hiep T; Nguyen, Thoa; Lai, Ky Q; Ha-Iaconis, Tuyet; Luong, Thien-Nhien

    2003-07-01

    Five times more Vietnamese-American women develop cervical cancer than white women. Few studies have examined whether community-based participatory research can effectively address Asian immigrants' health problems. This article reports the preliminary evaluation of 1 such project. A coalition of 11 organizations in Santa Clara County, California worked with university researchers to design and simultaneously implement a media education (ME) campaign and a lay health worker outreach (LHWO) program to increase Vietnamese-American women's cervical cancer awareness, knowledge, and screening. Two agencies each recruited 10 lay health workers (LHWs), who, in turn, each recruited 20 women who were then randomized into 2 groups: 10 to LHWO+ME (n = 200) and 10 to ME alone (n = 200). LHWs organized meetings with women to increase their knowledge and to motivate them to obtain Pap tests. Participants completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. At post-intervention, significantly more LHWO+ME women understood that human papillomavirus and smoking cause cervical cancer. The number of women who had obtained a Pap test increased significantly among women in both LHWO+ME and ME groups, but substantially more in the LHWO+ME group. Significantly more LHWO+ME women said they intended to have a Pap test. Media education campaigns can increase Vietnamese women's awareness of the importance of Pap tests, but lay health workers are more effective at encouraging women to actually obtain the tests. Lay health workers are effective because they use their cultural knowledge and social networks to create change. Researchers, community members, and community-based organizations can share expert knowledge and skills, and build one another's capacities.

  19. The Impact of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Guideline Changes in Pap Tests on Annual Chlamydia Test Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Huppert, Jill; Patel, Chirag G; Tao, Guoyu

    2017-10-01

    To assess impact of the 2009 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Pap guideline changes on chlamydia testing rates among sexually active young women. The study included sexually active women aged 15-25 years enrolled in commercial health plans from 2005 to 2014. We identified sexually active women by diagnosis, procedure, and drug codes in inpatient, outpatient, and drug claims databases. We identified Pap tests and chlamydia tests among sexually active adolescents (15-20 years) and young adults (21-25 years) over time. Using piecewise regression models, we compared the change in chlamydia testing rates before and after 2009 ACOG guidelines. From 2005 to 2014, chlamydia testing rates in sexually active women increased from 23% to 37% among adolescents and from 24% to 43% among young adults. Although the overall increase in chlamydia testing was positive, the annual rate of change in chlamydia testing (slope) decreased significantly after the 2009 ACOG guideline change from 1.9% before to 1.0% after for adolescents (p test rates are increasing among sexually active women aged 15-25 years from 2005 to 2014, the slower growth in chlamydia testing rate after 2009 may relate to the change in the Pap testing guidelines. Our finding that more than half of sexually active women aged 15-25 years did not have chlamydia testing and that the rate of increased chlamydia testing slowed after 2009 suggests that interventions to improve chlamydia testing apart from combining with Pap testing are still needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A Peptide Derived from the HIV-1 gp120 Coreceptor-Binding Region Promotes Formation of PAP248-286 Amyloid Fibrils to Enhance HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinquan Chen

    Full Text Available Semen is a major vehicle for HIV transmission. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP fragments, such as PAP248-286, in human semen can form amyloid fibrils to enhance HIV infection. Other endogenous or exogenous factors present during sexual intercourse have also been reported to promote the formation of seminal amyloid fibrils.Here, we demonstrated that a synthetic 15-residue peptide derived from the HIV-1 gp120 coreceptor-binding region, designated enhancing peptide 2 (EP2, can rapidly self-assemble into nanofibers. These EP2-derivated nanofibers promptly accelerated the formation of semen amyloid fibrils by PAP248-286, as shown by Thioflavin T (ThT and Congo red assays. The amyloid fibrils presented similar morphology, assessed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM, in the presence or absence of EP2. Circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy revealed that EP2 accelerates PAP248-286 amyloid fibril formation by promoting the structural transition of PAP248-286 from a random coil into a cross-β-sheet. Newly formed semen amyloid fibrils effectively enhanced HIV-1 infection in TZM-bl cells and U87 cells by promoting the binding of HIV-1 virions to target cells.Nanofibers composed of EP2 promote the formation of PAP248-286 amyloid fibrils and enhance HIV-1 infection.

  1. The relationship between four health-related quality of life indicators and use of mammography and Pap test screening in US women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Pranav K.; Gentry, William M.; Kibert, Jeffery L.; Lee, Erica Y.; Jordan, Whitney; Bottorff, Michael B.; Huang, I-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Limited evidence is available to explain the role of four components of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) on breast and cervical cancer screening. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between four HRQoL aspects and use of mammography and Pap test screening in US women. Methods Data were obtained from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The outcome variables were receiving mammogram Pap test test the role of four HRQoL aspects (general health status, physical HRQoL, mental HRQoL, and activity limitation) on the two screening variables, after adjusting for covariates. Statistical analysis accounted for the complex sampling design of the BRFSS and the a priori alpha error was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results Among respondents, approximately 74% and 78% of the women received mammography and Pap test, respectively. Three HRQoL aspects (general health status, physical HRQoL, and activity limitation) were significantly associated with mammography use (all p-valuesPap test (p-values≤0.05). All significant relationships demonstrated higher cancer screening rates among individuals with better HRQoL. Conclusions HRQoL is an important factor associated with use of mammography and Pap test. Future studies should explore the mechanisms associated with an individual's HRQoL and use HRQoL assessment as an avenue to influence adherence to use of mammography and Pap tests. PMID:25804316

  2. The relationship between four health-related quality-of-life indicators and use of mammography and Pap test screening in US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Pranav K; Gentry, William M; Kibert, Jeffery L; Lee, Erica Y; Jordan, Whitney; Bottorff, Michael B; Huang, I-Chan

    2015-09-01

    Limited evidence is available to explain the role of four components of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) on breast and cervical cancer screening. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between four HRQoL aspects and use of mammography and Pap test screening in US women. Data were obtained from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The outcome variables were receiving mammogram Pap test test the role of four HRQoL aspects (general health status, physical HRQoL, mental HRQoL, and activity limitation) on the two screening variables, after adjusting for covariates. Statistical analysis accounted for the complex sampling design of the BRFSS, and the a priori alpha error was set at p ≤ 0.05. Among respondents, approximately 74 and 78 % of the women received mammography and Pap test, respectively. Three HRQoL aspects (general health status, physical HRQoL, and activity limitation) were significantly associated with mammography use (all p values Pap test (p values ≤ 0.05). All significant relationships demonstrated higher cancer screening rates among individuals with better HRQoL. HRQoL is an important factor associated with use of mammography and Pap test. Future studies should explore the mechanisms associated with an individual's HRQoL and use HRQoL assessment as an avenue to influence adherence to use of mammography and Pap tests.

  3. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl β-Diol Lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touchette, Megan H.; Bommineni, Gopal R.; Delle Bovi, Richard J.; Gadbery, John; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Metz, Thomas O.; Martin, Dwight W.; Sampson, Nicole S.; Miller, W. T.; Tonge, Peter J.; Seeliger, Jessica C.

    2015-09-08

    Although classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkyl beta-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids know as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. We here show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl beta-diol substrate analogues. Applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinase PknB modifies PapA5 on three Thr residues, including two (T196, T198) located on an unresolved loop. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and suggest possible mechanisms by which DIM biosynthesis may be regulated by the post-translational modification of PapA5.

  4. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Cunha, Denise de Fátima Fernandes; Coelho, Cássia Fernandes; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Sawada, Namie Okino

    2014-01-01

    Objective to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. Method a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, between September 2010 and February 2011. Results the majority of the women studied were young (≤35 years), had low levels of education (≤7 years of study), and commenced sexual activity early (≤20 years), with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001); early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047); and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029). Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer. PMID:25029050

  5. Papéis, comportamentos, atividades e relações entre membros da família baiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pedreira Rabinovich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou comparar os dados sobre papéis, comportamentos, atividades e relações entre os membros da família obtidos por Georgas, Berry, Vijver, Kagitçibasi e Poortinga (2006, com dados da família baiana. Para tanto, 170 universitários baianos responderam questionário com questões fechadas enfocando papéis, comportamentos, atividades e relações entre os seguintes membros da família: pai, mãe, avô, avó, tio/tia, menino e menina de 10 anos, moça e rapaz de 20 anos. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Em conformidade com o estudo de referência, a mãe é a figura central nas famílias baianas e o pai compartilha o poder financeiro com ela, porém, as atividades domésticas de limpar, cozinhar e lavar ficam mais a cargo dos membros femininos. As avós sucedem aos pais na importância nos papéis familiares e há mais uma interdependência emocional do que econômica/funcional com relação à criança.

  6. Modified PAP method to detect heteroresistance to vancomycin among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt at developing, establishing, validating and comparing the modified PAP method for detection of hetero-vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-VRSA with the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (using the BSAC standardized disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin using standard E-test methodology and the Hiramatsu′s screening method. A total of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus obtained from various clinical specimens, along with the Mu 3 and Mu 50 strains as controls, were studied. No VRSA isolates were obtained. However, four of the test strains were positive by the Hiramatsu′s screening method, of which only one isolate could be confirmed by the modified PAP analysis method. This isolate was a coloniser from the drain fluid of a liver transplant recipient. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the overall efficiency of the Hiramatsu′s screening method with the modified PAP analysis as the gold standard were found to be 100, 93.8, 25 and 94%, respectively. It is very essential for clinical laboratories to screen for h-VRSA, given the increasing use of glycopeptide antibiotics in therapy and the potential for failed therapy in patients infected with these strains.

  7. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test.METHOD: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, between September 2010 and February 2011.RESULTS: the majority of the women studied were young (≤35 years, had low levels of education (≤7 years of study, and commenced sexual activity early (≤20 years, with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001; early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047; and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029. Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

  8. The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education through Telegram Instant Messaging Services on Pap smear performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademolhosseini, Farzaneh; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim

    2017-08-27

    Background: Pap smear is an effective screening method for early detection of cervical cancer. This study aimed to investigate the effect of education based on Health Belief Model (HBM) through Telegram instant messaging services on the Pap smear test. Material and methods: This research was a quasi-experimental study which was performed on 106 eligible women (48 participants in the intervention group and 47 participants in the control group). The patients in both groups completed the written consent form and questionnaires at the beginning of the study. In intervention group, the educational content based on HBM was regularly sent via Telegram during one month. After education and three months later, both groups completed questionnaires. Then, the data was analyzed with using SPSS version 22. Results: The findings showed that the two groups at first were similar in demographic characteristics. In the intervention group, the mean difference of the scores before and immediate post training on the knowledge and all of the constructs were significant (Pbelief and behavior regarding Pap smear test. Creative Commons Attribution License

  9. The Effect of Education on Women's Practice Based on the Health Belief Model About Pap Smear Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi

    2012-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in Iran. The single most effective tool in reducing death due to cervical cancer is the use of pap smear as a screening tool. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of education based on Health Belief Model about giving pap smear in women. This quasi-experimental study was performed on 70 women who referred to two health center in Kouhdasht (Lorestan- Iran). The samples were randomly divided in two groups (35 in intervention group and 35 in control group). The data were collected by a validated and reliable questionnaire. Interventions were run based on Health Belief Model during three sessions only for intervention group. Each educational session was for 45-60 min. The independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze data. A two-tailed P value lower than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. According to results, the mean scores of knowledge were significantly different between two groups after intervention (P model variables (perceived susceptibility and severity, perceived benefits, and barriers) had no significant difference in the two groups before intervention, but after intervention had significant difference between the two groups (P health education programs based on health belief model can promote the practice of women regarding to pap smear tests.

  10. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality...... measurement based on the difference between the normal space and local space. Specifically, we provide a reasonable normal bases through repeated K spectral clustering. Then for each testing feature we first use temporal neighbors to form a local space. An abnormal event is found if any abnormal feature...

  11. The health beliefs of mothers about preventing cervical cancer and their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Won Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mothers have a primary role in the prevention of cervical cancer in Korea. This study aimed to determine the awareness and health beliefs of mothers about preventing cervical cancer in their daughters, their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters, and the factors influencing this intention. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was employed, and the study enrolled mothers (n = 1,581 of pubescent girls aged 13 to 18 years who were living nationwide in Korea. The six health-beliefs variables related to preventing cervical cancer in their daughters, awareness of the importance of cervical cancer prevention methods, and the intention to recommend the Pap test to daughters were investigated. The impacts of these health beliefs of the mothers and the sociodemographic factors influencing their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Almost one-quarter (23.7 % of the mothers had talked about the Pap test, 69.2 % were intending to recommend the Pap test to their daughters, and 38.5 % considered that the Pap test could be necessary if their daughters became sexually active. The significant health beliefs influencing the intention to recommend the Pap test were the perceived barriers [odds ratio (OR = 1.47, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI = 1.03–2.11] and benefits (OR = 2.25, 95 % CI = 1.55–3.25. The significant sociodemographic factors of mothers were their education (OR = 1.52, 95 % CI = 1.08–2.13, their experience of talking about the Pap test with their daughters (OR = 2.11, 95 % CI = 1.23–3.64, their regularity of undergoing the Pap test themselves (OR = 1.98, 95 % CI = 1.30–3.03, and their age when they first underwent the Pap test (OR = 1.60, 95 % CI = 1.43–0.82. Conclusions The mothers perceived HPV vaccination as the most important of the five methods

  12. The health beliefs of mothers about preventing cervical cancer and their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Won

    2016-05-03

    Mothers have a primary role in the prevention of cervical cancer in Korea. This study aimed to determine the awareness and health beliefs of mothers about preventing cervical cancer in their daughters, their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters, and the factors influencing this intention. A cross-sectional survey design was employed, and the study enrolled mothers (n = 1,581) of pubescent girls aged 13 to 18 years who were living nationwide in Korea. The six health-beliefs variables related to preventing cervical cancer in their daughters, awareness of the importance of cervical cancer prevention methods, and the intention to recommend the Pap test to daughters were investigated. The impacts of these health beliefs of the mothers and the sociodemographic factors influencing their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Almost one-quarter (23.7 %) of the mothers had talked about the Pap test, 69.2 % were intending to recommend the Pap test to their daughters, and 38.5 % considered that the Pap test could be necessary if their daughters became sexually active. The significant health beliefs influencing the intention to recommend the Pap test were the perceived barriers [odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) = 1.03-2.11] and benefits (OR = 2.25, 95 % CI = 1.55-3.25). The significant sociodemographic factors of mothers were their education (OR = 1.52, 95 % CI = 1.08-2.13), their experience of talking about the Pap test with their daughters (OR = 2.11, 95 % CI = 1.23-3.64), their regularity of undergoing the Pap test themselves (OR = 1.98, 95 % CI = 1.30-3.03), and their age when they first underwent the Pap test (OR = 1.60, 95 % CI = 1.43-0.82). The mothers perceived HPV vaccination as the most important of the five methods for preventing cervical cancer in their daughters. Mothers perceived the

  13. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  14. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in healthy women with cytologically negative pap smear in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaei Akbar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the causal factors in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology of this infection is an important step towards developing strategies for prevention. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus Types 16 and 18 in cervical samples from 402 healthy women with normal Pap smears by testing with type-specific primers in the polymerase chain reaction. Participants were seen at two gynecological clinics affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Result: The prevalence of positive HPV findings was 5.5%; high-risk HPV human papillomavirus Type 16 prevalence was 2% and no patient harbored HPV-18. The prevalence of HPV was 4.5% in younger age group and gradually increased to 20% in the 4 th decade. Conclusion: The prevalence of high-risk HPV was highest in the youngest women and gradually decreased with age. Overall, the prevalence of HPV in our population is low.

  15. Effect of an antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cervical cancer screening programme: a population-based prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Mari; Daltveit, Anne-Kjersti; Thoresen, Steinar Ø; Nygård, Jan F

    2007-01-01

    Background Almost one-third of Norwegian women aged 25–69 years invited to have a Pap smear do not attend during the recommended period, and thus constitute a population with high-risk of cervical cancer (CC). Since the incidence of precancerous lesions of the cervix peak with occurrence of pregnancies within the same decade in women aged 25 to 35 years of age, antepartum care presents an opportunity to offer a Pap smear thereby increasing the coverage of the programme. The study objective was to describe the effect of the antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cytological CC screening programme. Methods Among 2 175 762 women resident in Norway in 31.12.1996, all women who gave birth in 1996–7 were identified from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Attendance to the cervical cancer screening was assessed by linkage to the Cytology Registry separately for the pregnant and non-pregnant women cohorts. The results were stratified by age, history of previous Pap smear and history of invitation to the CC screening programme. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative probabilities of having a Pap smear adjusted for age, screening history, and time since invitation, for pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively. Results 69% of the pregnant women had a Pap smear during one year of follow-up since beginning of the pregnancy with the majority taken during the antepartum period. Irrespectively of age or history of having a Pap smear, pregnant women were 4.3 times more likely to have a Pap smear during follow-up compared to non-pregnant women. 63.2% of the pregnant women had a smear as response to the invitation letter compared to 28.7% of the non-pregnant women, OR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.4). As an indication of "over-screening", 5397 pregnant women (57.8%) with a smear shortly before the start of follow-up also had a new Papsmear, compared to 83 023 (32.3%) in non-pregnant. Conclusion Pap smear screening during pregnancy increases the coverage of the

  16. Effect of an antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cervical cancer screening programme: a population-based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoresen Steinar Ø

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost one-third of Norwegian women aged 25–69 years invited to have a Pap smear do not attend during the recommended period, and thus constitute a population with high-risk of cervical cancer (CC. Since the incidence of precancerous lesions of the cervix peak with occurrence of pregnancies within the same decade in women aged 25 to 35 years of age, antepartum care presents an opportunity to offer a Pap smear thereby increasing the coverage of the programme. The study objective was to describe the effect of the antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cytological CC screening programme. Methods Among 2 175 762 women resident in Norway in 31.12.1996, all women who gave birth in 1996–7 were identified from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Attendance to the cervical cancer screening was assessed by linkage to the Cytology Registry separately for the pregnant and non-pregnant women cohorts. The results were stratified by age, history of previous Pap smear and history of invitation to the CC screening programme. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative probabilities of having a Pap smear adjusted for age, screening history, and time since invitation, for pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively. Results 69% of the pregnant women had a Pap smear during one year of follow-up since beginning of the pregnancy with the majority taken during the antepartum period. Irrespectively of age or history of having a Pap smear, pregnant women were 4.3 times more likely to have a Pap smear during follow-up compared to non-pregnant women. 63.2% of the pregnant women had a smear as response to the invitation letter compared to 28.7% of the non-pregnant women, OR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.4. As an indication of "over-screening", 5397 pregnant women (57.8% with a smear shortly before the start of follow-up also had a new Papsmear, compared to 83 023 (32.3% in non-pregnant. Conclusion Pap smear screening during pregnancy

  17. Cardiovascular effects of microgravity: evolution of understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, H. D.

    1998-01-01

    The understanding of cardiovascular effects of spaceflight has evolved throughout the course of the American manned spaceflight program. Originally descriptive in nature, the present understanding is based on empiric measurements of vascular volume, cardiac output, vascular reflexes, and peripheral and central autonomic control. More detailed understanding of cardiovascular effects has allowed us to separate those symptoms from symptoms caused by musculoskeletal or neurovestibular abnormalities.

  18. HPV infection, cervical abnormalities, and cancer in HIV-infected women in Mumbai, India: 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaakidis, Petros; Pimple, Sharmila; Varghese, Bhanumati; Khan, Samsuddin; Mansoor, Homa; Ladomirska, Joanna; Sharma, Neelakumari; Silva, Esdras Da; Metcalf, Carol; Caluwaerts, Severine; Alders, Petra; Ntzani, Evangelia E; Reid, Tony

    2013-01-01

    HIV-infected women are at a higher risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer than women in the general population, partly due to a high prevalence of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The aim of the study was to assess the burden of HPV infection, cervical abnormalities, and cervical cancer among a cohort of HIV-infected women as part of a routine screening in an urban overpopulated slum setting in Mumbai, India. From May 2010 to October 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières and Tata Memorial Hospital Mumbai offered routine annual Pap smears and HPV DNA testing of women attending an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic and a 12-month follow-up. Women with abnormal test results were offered cervical biopsy and treatment, including treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ninety-five women were screened. Median age was 38 years (IQR: 33-41); median nadir CD4-count 143 cells/μL (IQR: 79-270); and median time on ART 23 months (IQR:10-41). HPV DNA was detected in 30/94 women (32%), and 18/94 (19%) showed either low-grade or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL/HSIL) on Pap smear. Overall, >50% had cervical inflammatory reactions including STIs. Of the 43 women with a cervical biopsy, eight (8.4%) had CIN-1, five (5.3%) CIN-2, and two (2.1%) carcinoma in situ. All but one had HPV DNA detected (risk ratio: 11, 95% confidence interval: 3.3-34). By October 2011, 56 women had completed the 12-month follow-up and had been rescreened. No new cases of HPV infection/LSIL/HSIL were detected. The high prevalence of HPV infection, STIs, and cervical lesions among women attending an ART clinic demonstrates a need for routine screening. Simple, one-stop screening strategies are needed. The optimal screening interval, especially when resources are limited, needs to be determined.

  19. Impact of {Os(pap)2} in fine-tuning the binding modes and non-innocent potential of deprotonated 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prabir; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2016-03-28

    The reaction of ctc-Os(II)(pap)2Cl2 (pap = 2-phenylazopyridine, ctc = cis-trans-cis with respect to chlorides and pyridine/azo nitrogens of pap, respectively) and ambidentate 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-diol (H2L) leads to the simultaneous formation of isomeric [Os(II)(pap)2(HL(-))](+) ((2+)/(3+)), seven-membered chelate containing Os(II)(pap)2(L(2-)) (4) and diastereomeric [{Os(II)(pap)2}2(μ-L(2-))](2+) (5a(2+) (meso, ΔΛ)/5b(2+) (rac, ΔΔ/ΛΛ)). The reaction of 2,2'-biphenol (H2L') and ctc-Os(II)(pap)2Cl2 yields Os(II)(pap)2(L'(2-)) (6), an analogue of 4. The identities of the newly designed complexes have been established by different analytical, spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction techniques. (1)H-NMR spectra of the complexes and single crystal X-ray structures of selective derivatives [2]ClO4, [3]ClO4, [5a](ClO4)2, and 6 establish the retention of the tc-configuration of the precursor {Os(pap)2}. In isomeric 2(+) and 3(+), monodeprotonated HL(-) is linked to the {Os(II)(pap)2} fragment through N,N and N,O(-) donors, resulting in nearly planar five- and six-membered chelates with O-HO(-) and O-HN hydrogen bonds at its back face, respectively. The O(-),O(-) donating L'(2-) extends a severely twisted seven-membered chelate with the {Os(pap)2} unit in 6. The N,O(-)/O(-),N donors of deprotonated L(2-) bridge the two {Os(II)(pap)2} units in a symmetric fashion in 5a(2+), forming two moderately twisted six-membered chelates. Though the deprotonation of the O-HN hydrogen bond in (+) by another unit of {Os(II)(pap)2} generates a diastereomeric mixture of 5a(2+) and 5b(2+), attempts to deprotonate the relatively stronger O-H···O(-) hydrogen bond in 2(+) have failed. The isomeric 2(+)/3(+), seven-membered chelate containing 4/6 and diastereomeric 5a(2+)/5b(2+) exhibit distinctive (1)H-NMR and absorption spectra as well as electrochemical responses. The pap (N[double bond, length as m-dash]N) based two successive reductions and the participation of HL(-), L(2-), L'(2-) in

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the pap smear as a screening procedure among nurses in a tertiary hospital in north eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeveeranna, Chamaraja; Mohan, Surekha Sadhana; Singh, Laiphrakpam Ranjit; Singh, Naorem Nabakishore

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. Industrialized countries have dramatically reduced the incidence of mortality from cervical carcinoma in the last 50 years through aggressive screening programs utilizing pelvic examinations and Papanicolaou (Pap) smears but it still remains a major problem in the developing world. This study was performed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of Pap smear as a screening procedure among nurses in a tertiary hospital in north eastern India. This cross sectional study was carried out with a questionnaire survey covering the socio demographic factors, knowledge, attitude and practices about Pap smear screening among 224 nurses in Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur, India during December 2011. Two hundred and twenty one participants (98.6%) had heard about cervical carcinoma but 18.3% lacked adequate knowledge regarding risk factors. Knowledge about the Pap smear was adequate in 88.8% of the respondents. Out of these, only 11.6% had Pap smear at least once previously. The most common reasons for non-participation in screening were lack of any symptoms (58.4%), lack of counselling (42.8%), physician does not request (29.9%) and fear of vaginal examination (20.5%). Although knowledge of Pap smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer is high, practice is still low. The nurses who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. If we can improve the practice of Pap smear screening in such experts, they should be able to readily provide appropriate and accurate information and motivate the general population to join screening programs.

  1. The frequency of having pap-smear tests among women between 15-64 years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevil, S.; Kevser, O.; Aleattin, U.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. Methods: The study comprised women who presented to the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Polyclinic of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2012. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test , and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who k new of the Pap smear test . Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The age of 601 subjects ranged between 15 and 64 years, with a mean of 31.09+-10.49 years. Of the total, 115 (19.1%) had taken a Pap smear test before and 293 (48.8%) knew of the test. The proportion of the women who had had a Pap smear test was higher among those who were over 30 years of age (n=73; 63.47%), had post-high school educational degrees (n=68; 59.13%), had moderate familial income status (n=74; 64.34%), were married (n=109; 94.78%), had first sexual experience after 25 years of age(n=42; 36.52%), and were not using a contraceptive method (n=97; 84.34%) (p<0.05 for each). Besides, more women with previous knowledge of the test had taken the test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The subjects did not have sufficient information on Pap smear and the frequency of having a test was low. Raising awareness would prove beneficial. (author)

  2. Secretion of biologically active pancreatitis-associated protein I (PAP) by genetically modified dairy Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 in the prevention of intestinal mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rodrigo D; Breyner, Natalia; Menezes-Garcia, Zelia; Rodrigues, Nubia M; Lemos, Luisa; Maioli, Tatiane U; da Gloria Souza, Danielle; Carmona, Denise; de Faria, Ana M C; Langella, Philippe; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Azevedo, Vasco; de Azevedo, Marcela S

    2017-02-13

    Mucositis is one of the most relevant gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions in humans, generated by the use of chemotherapy drugs, such as 5-fluoracil (5-FU). 5-FU-induced mucositis affects 80% of patients undergoing oncological treatment causing mucosal gut dysfunctions and great discomfort. As current therapy drugs presents limitations in alleviating mucositis symptoms, alternative strategies are being pursued. Recent studies have shown that the antimicrobial pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) has a protective role in intestinal inflammatory processes. Indeed, it was demonstrated that a recombinant strain of Lactococcus lactis expressing human PAP (LL-PAP) could prevent and improve murine DNBS-induced colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes severe inflammation of the colon. Hence, in this study we sought to evaluate the protective effects of LL-PAP on 5-FU-induced experimental mucositis in BALB/c mice as a novel approach to treat the disease. Our results show that non-recombinant L. lactis NZ9000 have antagonistic activity, in vitro, against the enteroinvasive gastrointestinal pathogen L. monocytogenes and confirmed PAP inhibitory effect against Opportunistic E. faecalis. Moreover, L. lactis was able to prevent histological damage, reduce neutrophil and eosinophil infiltration and secretory Immunoglobulin-A in mice injected with 5-FU. Recombinant lactococci carrying antimicrobial PAP did not improve those markers of inflammation, although its expression was associated with villous architecture preservation and increased secretory granules density inside Paneth cells in response to 5-FU inflammation. We have demonstrated for the first time that L. lactis NZ9000 by itself, is able to prevent 5-FU-induced intestinal inflammation in BALB/c mice. Moreover, PAP delivered by recombinant L. lactis strain showed additional protective effects in mice epithelium, revealing to be a promising strategy to treat intestinal mucositis.

  3. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  4. Knowledge of cervical cancer, attitude and husband’s support of Pap smear among multiparous women which have Pap’s smear examination in Aviati clinic Padang Bulan Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyawati, L.; Anggraini, D. R.; Fitrie, A. A.; Anggreini, R. N.

    2018-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a serious health problem and stated as the second cause of death of woman worldwide. Several studies have noted a higher incidence of cervical cancer with increasing parity. Early detection with Pap smear is proven to reduce mortality of patients. Knowledge, attitude and husband’s support contributed to theled womanto follow Pap smear examination. This study explores the knowledge of cervical cancer, attitude and husband’ s support of Pap smearin multiparous women that have Pap smear examination. This research is a quantitative study with cross sectional approach recruited 50 respondents as multiparous women that have Pap smear examination inAviati Clinic, Padang Bulan, Medan. The data were collected by self-reports using structured objectives by questionnaires. The result of this study showed that 66% respondents have high knowledge of cervical cancer and 76% respondents have ahigh attitude of Pap smear, but they almost have low husband’s support of Pap smear including information support (62%), emotional support (46%) and real support (50%). This study has revealed that multiparous women that had Pap smear examination generally had high knowledge about cervical cancer and positive attitude about Pap smear, even most of them had low husband’s support.

  5. Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Orto V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

  6. [Sexual risk behaviours and PAP testing in university women vaccinated against human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Feito, Ana; Antón-Fernández, Raquel; Paz-Zulueta, María

    2017-08-31

    To estimate the association between the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and sexual risk behaviour, as well as the participation in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP). Cross-sectional study. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Law, and School of Economics and Business (University of Oviedo). Female university students. Information was collected about contraceptive methods, sexual behaviours, HPV knowledge, and participation in the CCSP. Furthermore, proportions and odds ratio (OR) were estimated with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Approximately two-thirds (67.7%) of the sample was vaccinated against HPV, and 216 women (65.3%) were sexually active. Barrier contraceptive methods were used by 67.6% during their current intimate relationships, being less frequent in non-vaccinated women (54.9% vs. 75.4% in vaccinated female students) (P=.002). The risk of having at least one sexual risk behaviour was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.29 (95%CI: 1.29-4.07). In addition, the probability of having a PAP test within the CCSP was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.18 (95%CI: 1.07-4.47). The prevalence of sexual risk behaviours in non-vaccinated women is elevated, and it is related to the lack of use of barrier contraceptive methods. The vaccination against HPV could affect sexual behaviours and the participation in the CCSP. Therefore, the information received by young people about contraceptive methods, sexually transmitted diseases, and cancer prevention should be reinforced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  8. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common Trombophilic Mutations in Cases with Recurrent Miscarriage. Ahmet Karatas, Recep Eroz, Mustafa Albayrak, Tulay Ozlu, Bulent Cakmak, Fatih Keskin ...

  10. IMPLEMENTASI HASIL PAP SMEARS PADA PENGEMBANGAN SURVEILANS TERPADU INFEKSI MENULAR SEKSUAL DI JAWA TIMUR (ANALISIS UNTUK MENGEMBANGKAN SURVEILANS-RESPONS IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjiartini Widjiartini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The implementation analysis of Pap Smears result to the integrated Surveillance development of sexual infection in order to respond the IMS and HIV/AIDS cases which increased especially among the housewife and its aim to the implementation Pap Smears result. Results: The Analysis result: 1. Based on the Pap Smears analysis result when its managed properly might be benefited the information not merely detected service cancer which is tend to increase but its also detected fungal infection and 5 types of IMS data: Haemavilus Vaginalis (HV, Gonococoes (Cocen, Trichomonas Vaginalis (TV, Herpes and Virus Papiloma Humanus (HPV which is Cocen and TV tend to increase every years. This data might be used for Surveillance Respond of Pap Smears intended to the productive housewife who is representing susceptible age group against sexual infection and HIV/AIDS. 2. The integrated Surveillance activity of HIV and sexual infection along with eight steps of respond Pap Smears, the structure is matching up with Surveillance of WHO respond and the system and mechanism base on decision of Minister of Health number 1116/2003 to instruct the formation of Surveillance technical implementation and the formation Surveillance technical implementation and the formation Surveillance networking among those units. 3. Developing the integrated Surveillance of sexual infection and HIV/AIDS through the uphold unit Pap Smears is required the determination of basis function, the Surveillance uphold unit, the Respond Surveillance uphold and function, formulation of Protap and Instruction, Training, Monitoring and Evaluation Surveillance System, Communication, Procurement of Coordination and Resources. Exceptional the above mentioned it is necessary pay attention as well as Surveillance structure and quality. Suggestion: 1. Improving the Surveillance Respond System by improving the users of culture information and data for making a decision the unit of Pap Smears

  11. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan: a comparative study of visual inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2012-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests. A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009-2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant. Methods of screening used were VIA and conventional Pap smear, followed by colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of the positive results of both screening tests. The tests identified altogether 119 (12.7%) positive women. VIA detected significantly more positive women than Pap smear (7.6% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004), with an overlap between the two screening tests in 19% of positive results. There was no significant difference between VIA and Pap smear findings and sociodemographic and reproductive factors among screened women. Use of colposcopy and biopsy for positive women confirmed that 88/119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap smear respectively (P = 0.001). VIA had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Pap smear (60.2% versus 47.7%) and (41.9% versus 83.8%) respectively. The combination of VIA/Pap has better sensitivity and specificity than each independent test (82.6% and 92.2%). The findings of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is

  12. Evaluation of diagnostic value of AgNOR and PAP in early detection of dysplastic changes in leukoplakia and lichen planus - a preliminary case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dhanya S; Ali, I M; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of oral cancer has been the most effective approach to reduce morbidity and mortality of cancer patients. If a lesion is clinically considered suspicious, an easily practicable, non-invasive, painless, safe, and accurate screening method for detection of the dysplastic changes is necessary. In an attempt to procure this, a study was conducted with the aim of determining the diagnostic accuracy of rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP) and silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR) in brush biopsies of potentially malignant lesions for early detection of oral cancer. Brush biopsies taken from 25 cases of leukoplakia and lichen planus each were stained with rapid PAP and silver nitrate stains. Histopathological correlation was performed and further compared with rapid PAP and AgNOR for its diagnostic validity. Statistically significant increase in the mean AgNOR count was seen from normal epithelium to lichen planus to that of leukoplakia. When compared with rapid PAP, a linear correlation was seen in AgNOR counts and stages of dysplasia in leukoplakia which was also found to be statistically significant. Diagnostic accuracy for AgNOR in leukoplakia was found to be 84%, lichen planus 73%, whereas RAPID PAP showed 72% accuracy. AgNOR analysis may be useful as a quantitative marker of incipient cellular alterations and hence would be helpful in assessing suspicious lesions and thus can be regarded as a valuable adjunct. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Repolarization abnormalities in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Peter J; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The recognition of ventricular repolarization abnormalities in the newborn carries several and significant implications, because it calls attention to the possibility of dealing with an infant affected by the long QT syndrome (LQTS). This article provides key elements for the correct measurement of the QT interval in newborns and succinctly reviews some aspects of the disease. It gives normative values on the QT interval distribution in the first month of life based on a prospective study in more than 44,000 infants. It shows the probability, based on the QTc observed in two recordings, to find disease-causing mutations. The data indicate clearly that widespread electrocardiographic screening in the newborn allows early identification of most, if not all, the infants affected by LQTS with marked QT prolongation and thus of those at higher risk for life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death. Through the affected infants, it becomes possible to identify the family members affected by LQTS, including the "silent mutation carriers"; our study shows that disease-causing mutations are found in 51% of the family members. Because early recognition leads to the implementation of effective preventive strategies, it follows that electrocardiographic screening will avoid preventable deaths either in the first year of life when they are usually labeled as "sudden infant death syndrome" or later in life. The case is made for medicolegal implications whenever neonatologists and pediatricians fail to inform the parents of a newborn child of the prevalence of LQTS (one in 2000), of the effectiveness of existing therapies, and of the diagnosis with a simple electrocardiogram.

  14. Motivaciones de la expresión metafórica venezolana. El papá de los helados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAIKEL RAMÍREZ ÁLVAREZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue explicar las motivaciones de la expresión metafórica del habla cotidiana venezolana “el papá de los helados”. Teóricamente, se sustenta en Cuenca y Hilferty (1999, Johnson (2006, Díaz (2006, Lakoff y Johnson (2009 y Kövecses (2010. En cuanto a la metodología, es una investigación descriptiva e interpretativa. Los resultados son los siguientes: (a la imagen esquemática de la metáfora conceptual EL PODER ES ARRIBA se proyecta sobre la imagen esquemática de un helado en virtud de su verticalidad y acumulación hacia arriba; (b se recurre al helado, además, dado que lo dulce metaforiza a lo sublime; (c el dominio del padre se emplea, debido a que es el miembro que encabeza una familia, la autoridad simbólica; (d la imagen esquemática de el papá de los helados, a saber, el helado más grande de todos se proyecta sobre un hombre que destaque en determinado aspecto. En conclusión, la expresión metafórica “el papá de los helados” es motivada por un conjunto complejo de metáforas primarias, imágenes esquemáticas y metáforas cotidianas que surgen de las experiencias concretas y corrientes de los individuos, para designar a un hombre con poder sobre otros en algún aspecto de la vida diaria.

  15. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Youjun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2 promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.

  16. Motivaciones de la expresión metafórica venezolana. El papá de los helados

    OpenAIRE

    MAIKEL RAMÍREZ ÁLVAREZ; ANA MARÍA RAMÍREZ DÍAZ

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue explicar las motivaciones de la expresión metafórica del habla cotidiana venezolana “el papá de los helados”. Teóricamente, se sustenta en Cuenca y Hilferty (1999), Johnson (2006), Díaz (2006), Lakoff y Johnson (2009) y Kövecses (2010). En cuanto a la metodología, es una investigación descriptiva e interpretativa. Los resultados son los siguientes: (a) la imagen esquemática de la metáfora conceptual EL PODER ES ARRIBA se proyecta sobre la imagen esquemáti...

  17. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (pNail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study.

  18. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Neonatal Unit of Hammersmith Hospital, ...

  19. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  20. First Trimester Ultrasound Screening for Congenital Abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach used, especially with the introduction of first trimester ultrasound as a reliable screening method. Objective: To give a comprehensive review of the basis for first trimester ultrasound screening for congenital abnormalities, it's utilization in the prenatal screening for chromosomal, structural and genetic abnormalities ...

  1. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  2. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January through March 1993. There is one abnormal occurrence at a nuclear power plant disposed in this report that involved a steam generator tube rupture at Palo Verde Unit 2, and none for fuel cycle facilities. Three abnormal occurrences involving medical misadminstrations (two therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities are also discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  3. Understanding classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subianto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we

  4. A velhice nas telas do cinema: um olhar sobre a mudança dos papéis ocupacionais dos idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla da Silva Santana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dado o aumento da produção cinematográfica sobre a velhice, este estudo buscou identificar as modificações nos papéis ocupacionais dos idosos e como estes são representados nos filmes. Trata-se de um estudo documental, qualitativo, que utilizou filmes tendo como personagem principal um sujeito velho. Estes foram classificados por gênero e aplicou-se a Lista de Papéis Ocupacionais. Dos 23 filmes analisados, identificaram-se os papéis perdidos, mantidos e incorporados na velhice, assim como os conflitos diante da mudança como a falta de projetos de vida.  

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of New Amino Acid-Schiff Bases and Studies their Effects on the Activity of ACP, PAP and NPA Enzymes (In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa Salim M. Al-Garawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two new Schiff base compounds derived from the condensation reaction of L-glycine and L-tryptophan with 4-methylbenzal-dehyde have been synthesized. The Schiff base compounds were characterized by FT-IR, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Their effects on the activity of total (ACP, prostatic (PAP and non prostatic (NPA acid phosphatase enzymes were studied. The Schiff base derived from L-glycine (A demonstrated inhibition effect on the ACP and NPA activities and activation effect on PAP activity. The Schiff base derived from L-tryptophan (B demonstrated semi fixed inhibition effects on the ACP and NPA activities at high concentrations (5.5×10-2, 5.5×10-3 and 5.5×10-4 M and activator effect at low concentration (5.5×10-5 M while it was exhibits as activator on PAP activity.

  6. Social and Cultural Barriers to Women's Participation in Pap Smear Screening Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Latin American and Caribbean Countries: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermann, Erica J; VanDevanter, Nancy; Hammer, Marilyn J; Fu, Mei R

    2018-01-01

    Pap smear screening programs have been ineffective in reducing cervical cancer mortality in most Latin American and Caribbean countries, in part due to low screening rates. The purpose of this review was to analyze recent studies to identify demographic, social, and cultural factors influencing women's participation in Pap screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean. For this integrative review, cervical cancer screening in Latin America and the Caribbean was searched using PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases. Findings/Results: Demographic barriers to screening were socioeconomic status, education, race/ethnicity, and geography. Social barriers included lack of uniformity in screening guidelines, lack of knowledge regarding cervical cancer, and lack of preventive culture. Cultural barriers were fear/embarrassment and gender roles. There are multilevel barriers to Pap smear utilization among women in Latin America and the Caribbean. Findings highlight a need for health system engagement, promotion of preventive care, and community-generated educational programs and solutions.

  7. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  9. Sensory abnormalities in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Visconti, Paola

    2017-11-04

    The clinical picture of children with autism spectrum disorder is characterized by deficits of social interaction and communication, as well as by repetitive interests and activities. Sensory abnormalities are a very frequent feature that often go unnoticed due to the communication difficulties of these patients. This narrative review summarizes the main features of sensory abnormalities and the respective implications for the interpretation of several signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, and therefore for its management. A search was performed in PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine) about the sensory abnormalities in subjects (particularly children) with autism spectrum disorder. Sensory symptoms are common and often disabling in children with autism spectrum disorder, but are not specific for autism, being a feature frequently described also in subjects with intellectual disability. Three main sensory patterns have been described in autism spectrum disorder: hypo-responsiveness, hyper-responsiveness, and sensory seeking; to these, some authors have added a fourth pattern: enhanced perception. Sensory abnormalities may negatively impact the life of these individuals and their families. An impairment not only of unisensory modalities but also of multisensory integration is hypothesized. Atypical sensory reactivity of subjects with autism spectrum disorder may be the key to understand many of their abnormal behaviors, and thus it is a relevant aspect to be taken into account in their daily management in all the contexts in which they live. A formal evaluation of sensory function should be always performed in these children. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. HPV self-sampling or the Pap-smear: a randomized study among cervical screening nonattenders from lower socioeconomic groups in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Garnier, H; Tamalet, C; Halfon, P; Leandri, F X; Le Retraite, L; Djoufelkit, K; Heid, P; Davies, P; Piana, L

    2013-12-01

    Today in France, low attendance to cervical screening by Papanicolaou cytology (Pap-smear) is a major contributor to the 3,000 new cervical cancer cases and 1,000 deaths that occur from this disease every year. Nonattenders are mostly from lower socioeconomic groups and testing of self-obtained samples for high-risk Human Papilloma virus (HPV) types has been proposed as a method to increase screening participation in these groups. In 2011, we conducted a randomized study of women aged 35-69 from very low-income populations around Marseille who had not responded to an initial invitation for a free Pap-smear. After randomization, one group received a second invitation for a free Pap-smear and the other group was offered a free self-sampling kit for HPV testing. Participation rates were significantly different between the two groups with only 2.0% of women attending for a Pap-smear while 18.3% of women returned a self-sample for HPV testing (p ≤ 0.001). The detection rate of high-grade lesions (≥CIN2) was 0.2‰ in the Pap-smear group and 1.25‰ in the self-sampling group (p = 0.01). Offering self-sampling increased participation rates while the use of HPV testing increased the detection of cervical lesions (≥CIN2) in comparison to the group of women receiving a second invitation for a Pap-smear. However, low compliance to follow-up in the self-sampling group reduces the effectiveness of this screening approach in nonattenders women and must be carefully managed. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  11. Prior high-risk HPV testing and Pap test results for 427 invasive cervical cancers in China's largest CAP-certified laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Baowen; Li, Zaibo; Griffith, Christopher C; Yan, Shanshan; Chen, Congde; Ding, Xiangdong; Liang, Xiaoman; Yang, Huaitao; Zhao, Chengquan

    2015-07-01

    Cervical cancer and its precursor lesions are caused by a persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection. hrHPV testing has been reported to have higher sensitivity than Papanicolaou (Pap) testing for the detection of cervical precursor lesions. However, limited data are available for prior human papillomavirus (HPV) testing results for patients later diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer, especially in countries lacking a national cervical cancer screening program such as China. This study investigated prior hrHPV testing results for patients with invasive cervical cancer in China. Cases with a histologic diagnosis of invasive cervical carcinoma were retrieved from Guangzhou KingMed Diagnostics (the largest independent pathology laboratory in China); prior hrHPV and Pap test results obtained within the year before the cancer diagnosis were recorded. HPV testing was negative in 7.5% of 427 cases of invasive cervical carcinoma, including squamous cell carcinoma (5%) and adenocarcinoma (25%). In 155 cervical cancer cases with prior hrHPV and Pap testing, the negative rate for Pap testing was 1.9%, and the negative rate for HPV was 9.7%. Furthermore, when only cases of adenocarcinoma (n = 18) were examined, both the hrHPV-negative rate and the Pap-negative rate were higher at 33% and 5.6%, respectively. These data demonstrate a considerable prior hrHPV-negative rate and a lower prior Pap-negative rate in patients with invasive cervical carcinoma (especially adenocarcinoma) from a population of women without access to an established screening program. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  12. HvPap-1 C1A Protease Participates Differentially in the Barley Response to a Pathogen and an Herbivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Diaz-Mendoza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-evolutionary processes in plant–pathogen/herbivore systems indicate that protease inhibitors have a particular value in biotic interactions. However, little is known about the defensive role of their targets, the plant proteases. C1A cysteine proteases are the most abundant enzymes responsible for the proteolytic activity during different processes like germination, development and senescence in plants. To identify and characterize C1A cysteine proteases of barley with a potential role in defense, mRNA and protein expression patterns were analyzed in response to biotics stresses. A barley cysteine protease, HvPap-1, previously related to abiotic stresses and grain germination, was particularly induced by flagellin or chitosan elicitation, and biotic stresses such as the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae or the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae. To elucidate the in vivo participation of this enzyme in defense, transformed barley plants overexpressing or silencing HvPap-1 encoding gene were subjected to M. oryzae infection or T. urticae infestation. Whereas overexpressing plants were less susceptible to the fungus than silencing plants, the opposite behavior occurred to the mite. This unexpected result highlights the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a particular biotic stress.

  13. Pap test adherence, cervical cancer perceptions, and HPV knowledge among HIV-infected women in a community health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Crystal Chapman; Chandler, Rasheeta; McMillan, Susan; Kromrey, Jeffrey; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Kurtyka, Don

    2015-01-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been widely used as a framework to explain health behaviors in diverse populations, but little HBM research has focused on HIV-infected women and their increased risks for cervical cancer. We used Champion's Health Belief Model and Self-Efficacy scales to assess relationships between Pap test adherence and constructs of the HBM among 300 HIV-infected women. In addition, we assessed the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer knowledge and key HBM concepts. Participants reported low levels of knowledge regarding risk for cervical cancer and HPV. They perceived lower personal risk for cervical cancer. Women with higher perceived self-efficacy and lower perceived barrier scores reported better Pap test adherence. Findings indicate that HIV-infected women are not aware of the risk for cervical cancer and may not take preventive actions. Further research is needed to identify the full range of factors that impact adherence to cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression and Significance of the HIP/PAP and RegIIIγ Antimicrobial Peptides during Mammalian Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John David; Jackson, Ashley R.; Li, Birong; Ching, Christina B.; Vonau, Martin; Easterling, Robert S.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; McHugh, Kirk M.; Becknell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) serve key roles in defending the urinary tract against invading uropathogens. To date, the individual contribution of AMPs to urinary tract host defense is not well defined. In this study, we identified Regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) as the most transcriptionally up-regulated AMP in murine bladder transcriptomes following uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection. We confirmed induction of RegIIIγ mRNA during cystitis and pyelonephritis by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunoblotting demonstrates increased bladder and urinary RegIIIγ protein levels following UPEC infection. Immunostaining localizes RegIIIγ protein to urothelial cells of infected bladders and kidneys. Human patients with UTI have increased urine concentrations of the orthologous Hepatocarcinoma-Intestine-Pancreas / Pancreatitis Associated Protein (HIP/PAP) compared to healthy controls. Recombinant RegIIIγ protein does not demonstrate bactericidal activity toward UPEC in vitro, but does kill Staphylococcus saprophyticus in a dose-dependent manner. Kidney and bladder tissue from RegIIIγ knockout mice and wild-type mice contain comparable bacterial burden following UPEC and Gram-positive UTI. Our results demonstrate that RegIIIγ and HIP/PAP expression is induced during human and murine UTI. However, their specific function in the urinary tract remains uncertain. PMID:26658437

  15. Educational intervention on knowledge of cervical cancer and uptake of Pap smear test among market women in Niger State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Godwin Jiya; Oche, Mansur O; Ango, Jessica Timane; Kaoje, Aminu Umar; Awosan, Kehinde Joseph; Raji, Ismail A

    2017-12-31

    Cervical cancer is the most common female genital tract carcinoma worldwide. It is increasingly becoming the leading carcinoma seen among women in the developing world. The aim of our study was to showcase the effect of educational intervention on the knowledge of cervical cancer and subsequently the uptake of Pap smear test amongst market women in Niger state, Nigeria. The state has a rich network of markets in all the local government areas because of the fishing activities, bountiful agricultural produce yearly and its situation to the North of the national capital, Abuja. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two groups with pre and post intervention data collection. Sample size was determined based on a previous similar study done in Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used for recruiting the study participants. SPSS statistical software was used for data entry, editing and analysis. Respondents' knowledge of cervical cancer were comparable at pre-intervention but were statistically significantly better (PPap smear test however the uptake of Pap smear test remained low even after intervention. This underscores the need for sustained intervention programs to eventually translate knowledge acquired to habitual practice.

  16. Physical activity on prescription (PAP): self-reported physical activity and quality of life in a Swedish primary care population, 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödjer, Lars; H Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg; Börjesson, Mats

    2016-12-01

    To study the self-reported level of physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving physical activity on prescription (PAP) for up to 24 months. Observational study conducted in a regular healthcare setting. A primary care population in Sweden receiving physical activity on prescription as part of regular care was studied alongside a reference group. The group comprised 146 patients receiving PAP at two different primary care locations (n = 96 and 50, respectively). The reference group comprised 58 patients recruited from two different primary care centres in the same region. We used two self-report questionnaires - the four-level Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS) to assess physical activity, and SF-36 to assess QOL. A significant increase in the PA level was found at six and 12 months following PAP, with an ongoing non-significant trend at 24 months (p = .09). A clear improvement in QOL was seen during the period. At 24 months, significant and clinically relevant improvements in QOL persisted in four out of eight sub-scale scores (Physical Role Limitation, Bodily Pain, General Health,Vitality) and in one out of two summary scores (Physical Component Summary). Patients receiving PAP showed an increased level of self-reported PA at six and 12 months and improved QOL for up to 24 months in several domains. The Swedish PAP method seems to be a feasible method for bringing about changes in physical activity in different patient populations in regular primary healthcare. While increased physical activity (PA) is shown to improve health, the implementation of methods designed to increase activity is still being developed. Key points The present study confirms that the Swedish physical activity on prescription (PAP) method increases the self-reported level of PA in the primary care setting at six and 12 months. Furthermore, this study shows that PAP recipients report a clinically relevant long-term improvement in quality

  17. Tingkat Pengetahuan Mahasiswi Fakultas Sastra Universitas Sumatera Utara Angkatan 2008 mengenai Pap Smear sebagai Satu Langkah Deteksi Awal untuk Kanker Serviks

    OpenAIRE

    Tracie Gan Pay Fong

    2011-01-01

    For the background, it is found that the cervical cancer incidence rate in Indonesia is still fairly high, around 22.3%. Most cases of cervical cancer (60-80%) was detected at an advanced stage though this cancer can be detected early. One of the early detection is by doing a Pap Smear test. The objective of this study was to assess the students’ level of knowledge about the awareness of Pap Smear as an early detection for cancer cervix. The method used in this study was analytical desc...

  18. Genital tract abnormalities among female sex workers who douche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal douche products have been associated with cervical cancer. We examined female sex workers (FSWs) in Nigeria who douche with lemon or lime juice and compared the findings with that of nonusers. We obtained Pap smears and performed colposcopy of the vulva, vagina and cervix. A total of 374 FSWs ...

  19. How 'idiopathic' is adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? A systematic review on associated abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom P C Schlösser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite more than a century of dedicated research, the etiology and pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS remain unclear. By definition, 'idiopathic' implies an unknown cause. Nevertheless, many abnormalities concomitant to AIS have been described, often with the suggestion that these abnormalities are related to etio-pathogenesis. Insight in the concomitant abnormalities may assist in improving the understanding of the etiological pathways of AIS. We aimed to systematically review and synthesize available studies on abnormalities concomitant to AIS. METHODS: Original studies comparing untreated AIS patients with healthy adolescents on abnormalities other than the deformity of the spine were retrieved from PubMed and Embase. We followed PRISMA guidelines and to quantify the relationship between each abnormality and AIS we used a best-evidence-syntheses for relating risk-of-bias to consistency of effect sizes. RESULTS: We identified 88 relevant citations, forty-seven carried high risk-of-bias and twenty studies did not report quantitative data in a sufficient manner. The remaining twenty-one publications failed to report data from before initiation of the deformity and blind assessments. These cross-sectional studies provided data on fourteen abnormalities concomitant to AIS. With our best-evidence-syntheses we were unable to find both strong evidence and a consistent pattern of occurrence for AIS and any of these abnormalities. From moderate risk-of-bias studies a relatively consistent pattern of occurrence for AIS and impaired gait control (4 studies; 155 subjects; Cohen's d = 1.00 and decreased bone mineral density (2 studies; 954 subjects; Cohen's d = -0.83 was found. For nine abnormalities a consistent pattern of occurrence with AIS was found, but the evidence for these was weak. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available literature, strong evidence is lacking for a consistent pattern of occurrence of AIS and any

  20. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Prediction of heart abnormality using MLP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Januar, Yulni; Mat, Muhammad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Awang, Mat Kamil

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality does not choose gender, age and races when it strikes. With no warning signs or symptoms, it can result to a sudden death of the patient. Generally, heart's irregular electrical activity is defined as heart abnormality. Via implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network, this paper tries to develop a program that allows the detection of heart abnormality activity. Utilizing several training algorithms with Purelin activation function, an amount of heartbeat signals received through the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be employed to condition the MLP network.

  2. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  3. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  4. Understanding homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on understanding homelessness. It criticizes approaches that ignore, distort or diminish the humanity of homeless people, or else, add little to our understanding of that humanity. In particular, it rejects what it calls “epidemiological” approaches, which deny the possibility of agency for homeless people, insofar as those approaches view the situation of those people largely as a “social fact”, to be explained in terms of causal variables or “risk factors” ...

  5. [Dental abnormalities after treatment for childhood cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladosievičová, B; Jurkovič, R; Izakovičová Hollá, L

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancer therapy often increases the risk of dental complications, such as tooth and roots agenesis, microdontia, abnormal development of tooth enamel, increased risk of cavity and other abnormalities. In a comparison with other late adverse effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantion, a relative small number of clinical stud-ies observing patients for more than two years after completion of anticancer treatment was published. In this article, we review the incidence of dental abnormalities caused by commonly used anticancer treatment modalities as well as discuss their risk factors. Early identification of high-risk patients, early detection and management of dental abnormalities and better education of patients or their guardians, may have an impact on quality of life of cancer survivors.

  6. On two abnormal sharks from Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The description of the two abnormal sharks, Carchariaswalbeehmi and Eulamia dussumieri collected from Gujarat, India, is given Of these C walbeehmi was double-headed The other shark E dussumieri had thumb snouted albino...

  7. Video Traffic Analysis for Abnormal Event Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    We propose the use of video imaging sensors for the detection and classification of abnormal events to be used primarily for mitigation of traffic congestion. Successful detection of such events will allow for new road guidelines; for rapid deploymen...

  8. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  9. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1990. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none involving a nuclear power plant. There were five abnormal occurrences at NRC licensees: (1) deficiencies in brachytherapy program; (2) a radiation overexposure of a radiographer; (3) a medical diagnostic misadministration; (4) administration of iodine-131 to a lactating female with subsequent uptake by her infant; and (5) a medical therapy misadministration. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported an abnormal occurrence involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported occurrence

  10. Errata :Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent Abortions in Lagos, Nigeria. Akinde OR, Daramola A O, Taiwo I A, Afolayan M O and Akinsola Af. Sonographic Mammary Gland Density Pattern in Women in Selected ommunities of Southern Nigeria.

  11. Video traffic analysis for abnormal event detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    We propose the use of video imaging sensors for the detection and classification of abnormal events to : be used primarily for mitigation of traffic congestion. Successful detection of such events will allow for : new road guidelines; for rapid deplo...

  12. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  13. Abnormal ''Contamination' Levels On Garden Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.; Levinson, S.; Elmelech, V.; Pelled, O.; Tshuva, A.; Laichter, Y.

    1999-01-01

    During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring

  14. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age.

  15. Familial eccrine syringofibroadenomatosis with associated ophthalmologic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Palay, D; Templeton, S F

    1998-08-01

    Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) is a rare benign adnexal tumor, generally with sporadic occurrence and not linked to other diseases. Only one familial occurrence of ESFA has been reported. We describe the familial occurrence of multiple ESFAs in a father and his two sons, all of whom also had similar eyelid abnormalities and progressive corneal scarring. This description of hereditary ESFA is the first to link ESFA with periocular and ocular abnormalities.

  16. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  17. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  18. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection among women with different degrees of cervical cytological abnormalities in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Franchina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are etiological agents of cervical cancer. In the absence of Pap smear alterations, high-risk HPV DNA can be detected in cervical samples. The prevalence of papillomavirus infection and their genotype distribution varies greatly across populations. The aims of this study were: i to assess the prevalences of HPV genotypes in people living in Eastern Sicily (Italy and the frequency of HPV multiple infections; ii to evaluate the association between HPV genotypes and cervical lesions in order to improve the epidemiological knowledge useful for monitoring or treating infected women. Nested PCR and reverse dot/blot hybridization were used for the detection and typing of HPV DNA in 315 women who had had an abnormal PAP-smear. HPV DNA test was positive in 70.5% cases; the prevalence was 50% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 80.8% in low grade-, and 76.2% in high grade-squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL. The genotype distribution showed a predominance of HPV-16 (56.7% followed by HPV-18 (12.2%, HPV-31 (9.5% and HPV-6 (9.5%. Multiple infections were detected in 35.1% of the infected patients. High frequency of positive results for HPV was confirmed and, even in case of ASCUS, patients should be taken into account for genotyping. Our data indicate that multiple infections are consistent in women with low-grade lesions while they are less frequent in women with H-SIL. This could reinforce the theory of the multi-stage cancer model, by which one HPV type becomes predominant along with the progression of cervical lesion severity.

  19. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  20. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  1. US Navy Women's Experience of an Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lisa A; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Sadler, Lois S; Dixon, Jane; Womack, Julie; Wilson, Candy

    2016-01-01

    Recent policy revisions allow greater inclusion of military women in operational and/or deployable positions (ie, shipboard, overseas, and war zone duty assignments), but these positions can create unique health care challenges. Military members are often transient due to deployments and change of duty stations, impacting timely follow-up care for treatable health conditions. There has been minimal research on challenges or strategies in preventive health screening and follow-up for US military women. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to describe US Navy women's experiences with abnormal cervical cancer screenings requiring colposcopic follow-up care. Ship- and shored-based women receiving care at a military colposcopy clinic completed interviews about their experience. Two forms of narrative analysis, Labov's sociolinguistic structural analysis and Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis, were employed to gain a more robust understanding of the women's experiences. The sample was comprised of 26 women (16 ship-based, 10 shore-based). Five themes were identified: 1) It's like this bombshell (initial abnormal results notification); 2) I didn't understand (self-discovery process); 3) Freaked (emotional toll); 4) It's kind of like this back and forth (scheduling and navigating care); and 5) It really opened my eyes (lessons learned). The women's stories highlighted some issues unique to military health care, such as operational demands and follow-up care; other issues are likely common for most women learning about an abnormal cervical cancer screening result. Areas important for practice and future research include improving notification practices, providing information, understanding women's fear, and continuity of care. Research exploring educational initiatives and self-management practices are critical within military populations. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  2. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  3. Women's perceptions and attitudes about cervical cancer in Turkey: Kato's device as an alternative to the Pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa Kursat; Sahin, Gulay; Dikici, Mustafa Fevzi; Igde, Fusun Artiran; Yaris, Fusun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the status of women's perception and attitudes about cervical cancer and their thoughts on Kato's self-sampling device. This descriptive research was conducted between July- December 2012 with a study populationof married women older than 18 years. A total of 246 women volunteered, with a mean age of 34.9±9.22 (19-52). In the last year, 52.0% had been examined by a gynecologist to address a complaint or for a periodic health check. Of the 118 who had not had a gynecological examination, 42.4% indicated negligence, 26.3% stated the reason was no complaint, 14.4% feared they might receive bad results from the examination, and 8.5% stated that were shy or embarrassed. Of all of the women, 35.0% answered that they had information about cervical cancer, and 0.7% had heard about the HPV vaccine. No one in their families had received the vaccine. Of the women, 28.5% had had a Pap smear, and 71.4% of those had normal results. Of those who had never had a Pap smear, 47.2% had never heard about the test; 18.8% explained the reason for not having a test as shyness or embarrassment with a male doctor. None of the women had heard about Kato's device. Once the women were informed, 73.6% expresseed interest in use; 51.9% answered they could use it and not be embarrassed, 30.9% would use it because they did not have to see a doctor, and 17.1% would use it as it allows them to take a smear in all conditions and whenever they want. Of the women, 60.0% thought that they could not successfully use Kato's device; 40.0% thought that a smear should be taken by a doctor. Most of the women in our population had never had a Pap smear and wanted to use the Kato's device.

  4. Detection of pap, sfa, afa, foc, and fim Adhesin-Encoding Operons in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates Collected From Patients With Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahdar, Masoud; Rashki, Ahmad; Miri, Hamid Reza; Rashki Ghalehnoo, Mehdi

    2015-08-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) with its virulence factors is the most prevalent cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). This study aimed to determine the occurrence of fim, pap, sfa, and afa genes among 100 UPEC isolates collected from patients diagnosed with UTI. A total of 100 UPEC isolates were obtained from urine samples of patients with UTI. The prevalence of 5 virulence genes encoding type 1 fimbriae (fimH), pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap), S and F1C fimbriae (sfa and foc) and afimbrial adhesins (afa) were determined through PCR method. We also investigated the phylogenetic background of all isolates. In addition, the distribution of adhesin-encoding operons between the phylogroups was assessed. The prevalence of genes encoding for fimbrial adhesive systems was 95% for fim, 57% for pap, 16% for foc, and 81% for sfa. The operons encoding for afa afimbrial adhesins were identified in 12% of isolates. The various combinations of detected genes were designated as virulence patterns. The fim gene, which occurred in strains from all phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) was evaluated and no significant differences were found among these groups. Conversely, significant differences were observed in relation to pap, afa, foc, and sfa operons. These results indicate that the PCR method is a powerful genotypic assay for the detection of adhesin-encoding operons. Thus, this assay can be recommended for clinical use to detect virulent urinary E. coli strains, as well as epidemiological studies.

  5. The effect of health education on the knowledge, attitude, and uptake of free Pap smear among female teachers in Birnin-Kebbi, North-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, A N; Abiola, A O; Ibrahim, Mto

    2012-01-01

    The Routine Pap smear test has successfully reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer in the presence of a proper structure for its implementation. This study was designed to assess the effect of health education on the knowledge, attitude, and uptake of Pap smear among female teachers. It was a quasi-experimental, controlled study with a pre-test, post-test design. A total of 100 respondents were recruited for each of the intervention and control groups, by the multistage sampling technique. The mean knowledge score of cervical cancer was low in both the interventions (25.5% ± 10.5) and control groups (18.9% ± 10.0) at baseline; a significant rise to 57.2% ± 20.7 was recorded after the intervention in the Intervention group (Peducation had no significant effect on the uptake of a free Pap smear among teachers. Despite the significant improvement in the attitude toward the test, many respondents did not like the test after than before the intervention. Sociocultural issues such as the gender of the sample collector, and system factors like few service delivery points, and the time required to access the service could have contributed to the poor uptake recorded in this study. A program designed to improve routine cervical cancer screening by Pap smear should therefore address not only the knowledge and cost, but also the sociocultural and systemic factors.

  6. Inequity of healthcare utilization on mammography examination and Pap smear screening in Thailand: Analysis of a population-based household survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanya Chongthawonsatid

    Full Text Available Healthcare in Thailand is not equally distributed, and not all people can equally access healthcare resources even if they are covered by health insurance. To examine factors associated with the utilization of mammography examination for breast cancer and Pap smear screening for cervical cancer, data from the national reproductive health survey conducted by the National Statistical Office of Thailand in 2009 was examined. The survey was carried out on 15,074,126 women aged 30-59 years. The results showed that the wealthier respondents had more mammograms than did the lower-income groups. The concentration index was 0.144. The data on Pap smears for cervical cancer also showed that the wealthier respondents were more likely to have had a Pap smear than their lower-income counterparts. The concentration index was 0.054. Determinants of mammography examination were education, followed by health welfare and wealth index, whereas the determinants of Pap smear screening were wealth index, followed by health welfare and education. The government should support greater education for women because education was associated with socioeconomic status and wealth. There should be an increase in the number of screening campaigns, mobile clinics, and low-cost mammograms and continued support for accessibility to mammograms, especially in rural areas and low-income communities.

  7. Knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors and pap smear testing behavior among female primary health care workers: a study from south Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Savas; Can, Huseyin; Turan, Sercan

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. We here examined knowledge about cervical cancer in relation to Papanicolaou (Pap) testing among female primary health care workers in Hatay, a city is located in the south of Turkey. The study was completed on 261 women healthcare workers who were or had been sexually active and who accepted to participate to the study. The participants gave verbal informed consent and thereafter questionnaires prepared by the investigators were administered by personal interview. Only 30.3% (n=79) of the participants regularly had a gynecologic examination. While 87.4% (n=228) of the participants reported that they had already heard about the Pap smear test, only 45.2% (n=118) had undergone this test. It was determined that had undergone an average of 1.66 ± 0.89 times (1-4) within the last five years. Some 56.0% (n=117) of the participants were well informed about the Pap smear test (pcervical cancer, regularly having a Pap smear test is crucial. Healthcare workers should also demonstrate sensitivity about this issue. We think that the importance of the issue should be re-highlighted by organizing in-service training for female primary healthcare workers. Studies are warranted to determine the psychosociological factors that cause individuals to not have the test.

  8. Investigation of the Role of Training Health Volunteers in Promoting Pap Smear Test Use among Iranian Women Based on the Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Leila; Harami, Zahra Khiyali; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is known as one of the most prevalent types of cancers and a major public health problem in developing countries which can be detected by Pap test, prevented, and treated. Despite the effective role of Pap test in decreasing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer, it is still one the most common causes of cancer-related deaths among women, especially in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed to examine the effect of educational interventions implemented by health volunteers based on protection motivation theory (PMT) on promoting Pap test use among women. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 60 health volunteers and 420 women. The study participants were divided into an intervention and a control group. Data were collected using a valid self-reported questionnaire including demographic variables and PMT constructs which was completed by both groups before and 2 months after the intervention. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software, version 19 and were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent T-test, and descriptive statistical methods. PPap test use also increased by about 62.9% among the study women. This study showed a significant positive relationship between PMT-based training and Pap test use. The results also revealed the successful contribution of health volunteers to training cervical cancer screening. Thus, training interventions based on PMT are suggested to be designed and implemented and health volunteers are recommended to be employed for educational purposes and promoting the community's, especially women's, health.

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practice about pap smear test among women living in Bojnourd, North East of Iran: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Narjes; Jajvandian, Roya; Bolandhemmat, Maryam; Mirzaiinajmabadi, Khadigeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the extent of knowledge, attitudes and practical behavior of women in Bojnourd conerning the Pap smear test. This cross-sectional and population-based study was conducted with 1000 Iranian women aged 15-60 years old in Bojnourd city. In order to collect the data, a validated questionnaire was provided in four sections covering demographic information and questions about knowledge, attitude and practice about the Pap smear. Statistical analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 17.0) applying a 0.05 significance level. Evaluation of knowledge showed that 146 women (14.6%) had very weak, and 594 women (59.4%) had weak knowledge. In contrast, most of the women studied, 873 (87.3%), had a positive attitude toward the Pap smear test. According to the findings, 375 women (37.6%) had done this test so far. Findings indicated that the extent of knowledge had a meaningful relationship with the attitude status (pPap smear test, so that only a low percentage of women had undergone this test.

  10. Striatal abnormalities in trichotillomania: a multi-site MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Masanori; Redden, Sarah A; Keuthen, Nancy J; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2018-01-01

    Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) is characterized by the repetitive pulling out of one's own hair, and is classified as an Obsessive-Compulsive Related Disorder. Abnormalities of the ventral and dorsal striatum have been implicated in disease models of trichotillomania, based on translational research, but direct evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to elucidate subcortical morphometric abnormalities, including localized curvature changes, in trichotillomania. De-identified MRI scans were pooled by contacting authors of previous peer-reviewed studies that examined brain structure in adult patients with trichotillomania, following an extensive literature search. Group differences on subcortical volumes of interest were explored (t-tests) and localized differences in subcortical structure morphology were quantified using permutation testing. The pooled sample comprised N=68 individuals with trichotillomania and N=41 healthy controls. Groups were well-matched in terms of age, gender, and educational levels. Significant volumetric reductions were found in trichotillomania patients versus controls in right amygdala and left putamen. Localized shape deformities were found in bilateral nucleus accumbens, bilateral amygdala, right caudate and right putamen. Structural abnormalities of subcortical regions involved in affect regulation, inhibitory control, and habit generation, play a key role in the pathophysiology of trichotillomania. Trichotillomania may constitute a useful model through which to better understand other compulsive symptoms. These findings may account for why certain medications appear effective for trichotillomania, namely those modulating subcortical dopamine and glutamatergic function. Future work should study the state versus trait nature of these changes, and the impact of treatment.

  11. Abnormal patterning analysis using actual lens and illumination source data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jongkyun; Lee, Jeonkyu; Kang, Eunsuk; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Guerrero, James; Chung, Rob

    2005-05-01

    As the minimum feature size shrinks down, i.e. low K1 lithography regime, the tool"s lens aberration sensitivity and user defined illumination imperfection might play a major role in patterning error. Thus, the study of impact from lens aberration and illumination on patterning is required for good tool maintenance and yield improvement. For this purpose, we collected many cases of abnormal patterning result from production line and then simulated in terms of actual lens aberration and illumination source data. LITEL products of ISI(In-situ Interferometer) and SMI(Source Metrology Interferometer) were used for characterizing lens and illumination source. Moreover, the ACE(Analysis and Characteristic Engine) of LITEL development product was used as the simulator. In this work, deformation of pattern fidelity, for example, CD asymmetry in word line and metal contact layer, pattern bending in isolation layer and also decreasing process window in bit line layer will be discussed with experimental and simulation data. Finally, we are able to make a guideline for preventing abnormal phenomenon. From this study, we can understand which lens aberration terms and illumination imperfection take an effect of abnormal pattering result.

  12. Eye Movement Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis: Pathogenesis, Modeling, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Serra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS commonly causes eye movement abnormalities that may have a significant impact on patients’ disability. Inflammatory demyelinating lesions, especially occurring in the posterior fossa, result in a wide range of disorders, spanning from acquired pendular nystagmus (APN to internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO, among the most common. As the control of eye movements is well understood in terms of anatomical substrate and underlying physiological network, studying ocular motor abnormalities in MS provides a unique opportunity to gain insights into mechanisms of disease. Quantitative measurement and modeling of eye movement disorders, such as INO, may lead to a better understanding of common symptoms encountered in MS, such as Uhthoff’s phenomenon and fatigue. In turn, the pathophysiology of a range of eye movement abnormalities, such as APN, has been clarified based on correlation of experimental model with lesion localization by neuroimaging in MS. Eye movement disorders have the potential of being utilized as structural and functional biomarkers of early cognitive deficit, and possibly help in assessing disease status and progression, and to serve as platform and functional outcome to test novel therapeutic agents for MS. Knowledge of neuropharmacology applied to eye movement dysfunction has guided testing and use of a number of pharmacological agents to treat some eye movement disorders found in MS, such as APN and other forms of central nystagmus.

  13. [Correlation between TORCH infections and abnormal pregnant outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Cheng, Jun-Zhen; Wang, Feng-Hui

    2013-04-01

    To understand the correlation between TORCH infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes, so as to provide recommendations for birth defect interventions. The serum samples from 900 pregnant women were tested for TORCH-IgM by capture ELISA. The women with positive results were followed up and the outcomes of their pregnancies were investigated. The total TORCH-IgM positive rate of the pregnant women was 4.11% (37/900). The IgM positive rates of CMV, HSV II , RV and TOX were 2.00% (18/900), 0.78% (7/900), 0.44% (4/900), and 0.89% (8/900) respectively. Thirty-one TORCH-IgM positive pregnant women continued their pregnancies and 20 of them were found abnormal pregnancy outcomes, accounting for 64.52%. TORCH infections are important risk factors responsible for abnormal pregnant outcomes. The screening of TORCH should be performed during pregnancy, and the appropriate interventions can reduce the occurrence of abnormal pregnancy and prevent birth defects.

  14. Does abnormal sleep impair memory consolidation in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of schizophrenia, its relation to the pathophysiology, signs, and symptoms of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. Sleep disturbances are well known to impair cognition in healthy individuals. Yet, in spite of its ubiquity in schizophrenia, abnormal sleep has generally been overlooked as a potential contributor to cognitive deficits. Amelioration of cognitive deficits is a current priority of the schizophrenia research community, but most efforts to define, characterize, and quantify cognitive deficits focus on cross-sectional measures. While this approach provides a valid snapshot of function, there is now overwhelming evidence that critical aspects of learning and memory consolidation happen offline, both over time and with sleep. Initial memory encoding is followed by a prolonged period of consolidation, integration, and reorganization, that continues over days or even years. Much of this evolution of memories is mediated by sleep. This article briefly reviews (i abnormal sleep in schizophrenia, (ii sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy individuals, (iii recent findings of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, and (iv implications of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia. This literature suggests that abnormal sleep in schizophrenia disrupts attention and impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and task automation. We conclude that these sleep-dependent impairments may contribute substantially to generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Understanding this contribution may open new avenues to ameliorating cognitive dysfunction and thereby improve outcome in schizophrenia.

  15. Definition and classification of abnormal vaginal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G

    2007-06-01

    Studying the vaginal microflora is not only fascinating, with many discoveries to be made, it is also a very practical way to help women get rid of bothersome and sometimes dangerous infections. Gram-stained vaginal preparations, Pap smears, specific cultures, and nucleic acid detection techniques can be used to diagnose the constituents of the vaginal flora, but in trained hands office-based microscopy of a fresh vaginal smear, preferably using a x400 magnification phase-contrast microscope, allows almost every diagnosis and combination of diagnoses imaginable. In this chapter I will address the pros and cons of the tools that are in use to study vaginal flora, and discuss the different types of bacterial flora and the difficulties encountered in reaching the correct diagnosis of pathological conditions. The 'intermediate flora' is addressed separately, and a new entity--'aerobic vaginitis'--is discussed. Future research should focus on the interaction between infecting microorganisms and host defence mechanisms, as both together generate the pathogenicity of these conditions.

  16. Ocular abnormalities in healthy Standardbred foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Giovanni; Sgorbini, Micaela; Marmorini, Paola; Corazza, Michele

    2013-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and describe ocular abnormalities in healthy Standardbred foals within 48 h of birth. One hundred and two neonatal foals. All foals had an unassisted delivery. On the basis of physical examination and the results of hematological and biochemical parameters, all foals were unaffected by systemic diseases. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed within 48 h of birth. Foals with ocular hemorrhages were re-examined weekly until the abnormalities were resolved. 65/102 (63.7%) foals did not show ocular abnormalities, while in 37/102 (36.3%) cases, ocular abnormalities were present. Retinal and subconjunctival hemorrhages were recorded in 19/102 (18.6%), and in 13/102 (12.7%), respectively. In 4/102 (3.9%) animals, an entropion of the lower eyelid was present. Only one foal (1%) showed a congenital nuclear unilateral cataract. No other ocular abnormalities were detected. However, all foals showed various degrees of remnants of hyaloid system. One week after the first ocular examination, retinal hemorrhages had resolved in 100% of the eyes, whereas subconjunctival hemorrhages had disappeared in all eyes by the second week following the first examination. The acquired ocular lesions observed with relatively high frequency in the examined healthy Standardbred foals were ocular hemorrhages, which always showed a good outcome. Although these abnormalities were present at birth, they were not considered strictly congenital but likely acquired during parturition. Instead, congenital ocular abnormalities were rarely diagnosed, and the entropion of the lower eyelid was the most common disease in the breed. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth Print Email Ultrasound examinations are often done as ... What causes urinary tract abnormalities to occur before birth? In about one of 500 births, some abnormality ...

  18. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  19. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  20. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  1. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  2. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  3. Using poisson regression to compare rates of unsatisfactory pap smears among gynecologists and to evaluate a performance improvement plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Hatley, Warren G; de Riese, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate impact of a performance improvement (PI) plan implemented after initial analysis, comparing 7 gynecologists working in 2 clinics. From January to October 2005, unsatisfactory rates for gynecologists and clinics were calculated. A PI plan was instituted at the end of the first quarter of 2006. Unsatisfactory rates for each quarter of 2006 and the first quarter of 2007 were calculated. Poisson regression analyzed results. A total of 100 ThinPrep Pap smears initially deemed unsatisfactory underwent reprocessing and revaluation. The study's first part evaluated 2890 smears. Clinic unsatisfactory rates, 2.7% and 2.6%, were similar (p > 0.05). Gynecologists' unsatisfactory rates were 4.8-0.6%; differences between each of the highest 2 and lowest rates were significant (p improvement. Reprocessing ThinPrep smears is an important means of reducing unsatisfactory rates but should not be a substitute for attention to quality in sampling.

  4. Psychometric Testing of the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire: Measuring Women's Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Kelly; Stines Doane, Lisa

    2017-04-01

    Some women avoid routine Pap testing because of negative attitudes and beliefs. The ability to measure these factors is limited by lack of valid and reliable tools. Therefore, this article describes steps taken to test a measure. Validity and reliability testing of psychometric scales was conducted. Sample consisted of 344 women. Using principal component analysis resulted in 4 components: Exam-Related Factors, Benefits, Vulnerability, and Risks and Barriers. Revised scale included 28 items explaining 46% variance, with good internal consistency (α = .84). Women who did not routinely screen exhibited significantly more negativity. The measure demonstrates validity and reliability across different groups of women and can be used to inform the design of individualized interventions to promote repeat screening.

  5. Assessment of the Validity and Reproducibility of the Pap Smear in Mexico: Necessity of a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes-Díaz, Elsa; Ruiz, Patricia Alonso-de; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    An assessment was performed of the quality of Pap readings in 19 cytology laboratories (CLs) in Mexico from the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. Nine CLs were affiliated with the Health Ministry (SSA), and ten were affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS). Two sets of 200 cervical cytology specimens were prepared, one set for each institution. Fourteen percent of the specimens were positive and six were inappropriate for diagnosis (3%). All cervical cytology specimens were processed in the cytopathology laboratory at the General Hospital of Mexico, and histopathology was available for each positive case. Thirty percent of the SSA reading centers had a sensitivity of at least 80%; however, not one of the ten IMSS laboratories evaluated reached this figure. Some reading centers had a sensitivity standards and enhanced cost-effectiveness of the early detection of cervicouterine cancer (CC) in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing the effect of the order of cell Collection for Pap Smear on the results of cytologic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parvin Rahnama

    2005-08-01

    We observed higher proportion of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS detection in the spatula- first group (33 cases, 59% compared with brush- first group (20 cases, 3.6% which is insignificant (P=0.09. This study showed that the ability of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL detection in spatula- first group (27 cases, 4.8%, was comparable to brush-first group (23 cases, 4.1%. Conclusions: Because reported SIL cases are higher when samples are first taken from exocervix and rate of blood contamination increases when samples are taken from endocervix (p=0.004, it is better to take samples first from exocervix for Pap Smear. This strategy increases the chance of diagnosis of cellular lesions of cervix.

  7. Weeding atypical glandular cell look-alikes from the true atypical lesions in liquid-based Pap tests: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Moira D; Horst, Julie A; Bibbo, Marluce

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify features that separate atypical glandular cells (AGC) associated with glandular neoplasia from its mimickers, both benign and neoplastic. We reviewed cases of AGC diagnosed on liquid-based Pap tests (LBP) for which corresponding histological follow-up was available. A review of the literature for similar studies in LBP tests was also conducted. We find that certain benign mimics can be reliably separated from AGC, but recommend caution in attempting to increase specificity at the risk of losing sensitivity. Although accounting for only a small percentage of diagnoses AGC require a thorough clinical evaluation, including colposcopy. Most cases are ultimately found to be benign. When evaluating smears suspicious for AGC, it is important to examine the subtle features which make truly atypical cells discernible from their numerous benign mimickers.

  8. The performance of tele-cervicography for detection of preinvasive and invasive disease of the uterine cervix as an adjunctive test to Pap smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyehyun; Kim, Soo-Nyung; Sim, Seung-Hyuk; Han, Seijun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic capacity of tele-cervicography for the detection of cervical neoplasia as an adjunctive test with Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. Pap smear and tele-cervicography were performed on each subject. Histologic results were obtained for all patients. Of the 863 females who had a tele-cervigram, 252 (29.2%) had a positive result. Of the 60 histologically confirmed cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), 56 (93.3%) were detected by tele-cervicography, including 16 (26.7%) with a positive grade of 1 and 40 (66.7%) with a positive grade of 2. With the positive threshold of tele-cervicography set as any positive grade (P0 to P3), the overall sensitivity was 94.0% (95% CI: 88.0-97.3%), the specificity was 80.9% (95% CI: 80.0-81.5%), and the positive likelihood ratio was 4.94 (95% CI: 4.23-5.77) for the detection of HSILs or cancer. The combination of tele-cervicography with Pap smear testing for the detection of HSILs or cancer resulted in an increase in sensitivity from 84.6% (Pap only: cutoff = atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or more severe) to 98.3% (Pap plus tele-cervicography: cutoff = P0 or more severe). The sensitivity of tele-cervicography was higher than that of cytology for the detection of cervical neoplasia, and combining the two tests increased the sensitivity. Tele-cervicography can be considered a useful complementary tool to cytology.

  9. Negative computer-imaged ThinPrep Pap test and positive hybrid capture2 HPV co-testing results: A quality assurance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rema; Molina, David; Halligan, Allison M; Vakil, Behzad; Alperstein, Susan A; Hoda, Rana S

    2015-09-01

    Women ≥30 years of age with negative (-) Pap tests and positive (+) HPV co-test results have a higher prevalence and cumulative risk of developing high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+). Thus, the current management in these women is to repeat co-test in 12 months or immediate reflex genotyping for HPV16 or HPV 16/18. If genotyping is not an option, timely quality assurance (QA) rescreen of such Pap tests may be a valuable alternative. All ThinPrep Pap tests (TPPT) interpreted as negative for intra epithelial lesion (NILM) or NILM with reactive cellular changes (NILM/RCC) and a (+) high-risk HPV [Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), Qiagen, Hilden, Germany] co-test result over a 45-month period (10/2009-06/2013) underwent monthly QA review. The TPPT were screened by the TP Imaging System [TIS, Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA]. Twenty five thousand six hundred and seventy five (18%) NILM and NILM/RCC TPPT of a total of 141,548 TPPT underwent HPV co-test. HPV test was (+) in 2,300 (8.9%) TPPT cases. HPV (+) cases by age group were Pap, and one case showed endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) on biopsy. Timely QA review of HPV (+) Pap (-) co-tests is a valuable monitor. Ninety percentage of reclassified cases were in ≥30 age group and 70% were originally signed out by using TIS 22 Field of View (FOV) only. Three reclassified cases had significant findings on follow up (F/U). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  11. Chromosomal abnormality in patients with secondary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safai, Akbar; Vasei, Mohammad; Attaranzadeh, Armin; Azad, Fariborz; Tabibi, Narjes

    2012-04-01

    Secondary amenorrhea is a condition in which there is cessation of menses after at least one menstruation. It is a symptom of different diseases, such as hormonal disturbances which range from pituitary to ovarian origin, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Knowledge of the distinct cause of secondary amenorrhea is of tremendous benefit for the management and monitoring of patients. In this study, we determine the chromosomal abnormalities in patients with secondary amenorrhea in Southwest Iran. We selected 94 patients with secondary amenorrhea who referred to our Cytogenetic Ward from 2004 until 2009. For karyotyping, peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures were set up by conventional technique. In this study, 5.3% (n=5) of patients with secondary amenorrhea presented with chromosomal abnormalities, of which all contained an X element. The chromosomal abnormalities were: i) 45, X (n=1); ii) 47, XXX (n=1); iii) 45, X [13]/ 45, Xi(X)q[17] (n=1);  iv) 45, X[12]/46,X,+mar[12] (n=1); and v) 46,X,del(Xq)(q23q28) (n=1). Our study revealed that some causes of secondary amenorrhea could be due to chromosomal abnormalities. Therefore, cytogenetic studies should be important tests in the evaluation of patients with secondary amenorrhea.

  12. Trends in Epithelial Cell Abnormalities Observed on Cervical Smears over a 21-Year Period in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Kapila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to analyse trends in epithelial cell abnormalities (ECAs in cervical cytology at a tertiary care hospital in Kuwait. Methods: ECAs in 135,766 reports were compared over three seven-year periods between 1992 and 2012. Conventional Papanicolaou (Pap smear tests were used in the first two periods and ThinPrep (Hologic Corp., Bedford, Massachusetts, USA tests were used in the third. Results: Significant increases in satisfactory smears, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance/atypical glandular cells (AGUS/AGCs were seen in the second and third periods (P 0.05. An increase was noted in carcinomas between the first and second periods although a significant decline was seen in the third (P <0.014. Conclusion: Satisfactory smears, ASCUS and AGUS/AGC increased during the study period although no significant increases in LSILs, HSILs or carcinomas were observed.

  13. Cervical cancer screening in Turkey: a community-based experience after 60 years of pap smear usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhindi, Hakan; Nazlican, Ersin; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in females in the World with around 500,000 new cases occurring annually, but the first in the developing countries with a high mortality if not diagnosed early. Papanicolau (Pap) smear is a cheap, easy-to-apply and widely accepted test which has been long used to detect cervical cancer at very early stages. However, despite being available for nearly 60 years, the test can hardly be considered to have become successfully applied in many communities. We aimed in this study to present the results of a screening survey for cervical cancer which targeted a women population aged between 35 and 40 living in a semi-rural area in the province of Hatay, located in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey, with specific aims of increasing early diagnosis, educ