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Sample records for understand test-taking motivation

  1. Test-Taking Skills of Secondary Students: The Relationship with Motivation, Attitudes, Anxiety and Attitudes towards Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodeen, Hamzeh M.; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Alshumrani, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Test-taking skills are cognitive skills that enable students to undergo any test-taking situation in an appropriate manner. This study is aimed at assessing the relationship between students' test-taking skills and each of the following variables: motivation to learn mathematics; mathematics anxiety; attitudes towards mathematics; and attitudes…

  2. Pharmacy students' test-taking motivation-effort on a low-stakes standardized test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskiewicz, Rhonda A

    2011-04-11

    To measure third-year pharmacy students' level of motivation while completing the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) administered as a low-stakes test to better understand use of the PCOA as a measure of student content knowledge. Student motivation was manipulated through an incentive (ie, personal letter from the dean) and a process of statistical motivation filtering. Data were analyzed to determine any differences between the experimental and control groups in PCOA test performance, motivation to perform well, and test performance after filtering for low motivation-effort. Incentivizing students diminished the need for filtering PCOA scores for low effort. Where filtering was used, performance scores improved, providing a more realistic measure of aggregate student performance. To ensure that PCOA scores are an accurate reflection of student knowledge, incentivizing and/or filtering for low motivation-effort among pharmacy students should be considered fundamental best practice when the PCOA is administered as a low-stakes test.

  3. Modeling the Test-Taking Motivation Construct through Investigation of Psychometric Properties of an Expectancy-Value-Based Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knekta, Eva; Eklöf, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an expectancy-value-based questionnaire measuring five aspects of test-taking motivation (effort, expectancies, importance, interest, and test anxiety). The questionnaire was distributed to a sample of Swedish Grade 9 students taking a low-stakes (n = 1,047) or a high-stakes (n =…

  4. Play for Performance: Using Computer Games to Improve Motivation and Test-Taking Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Alan R.; Bhagwatwar, Akshay; Minas, Randall K.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of testing, especially certification and high-stakes testing, has increased substantially over the past decade. Building on the "serious gaming" literature and the psychology "priming" literature, we developed a computer game designed to improve test-taking performance using psychological priming. The game primed…

  5. The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating effect of listening metacognitive awareness on the relationship between expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score. According to the results, test takers' listening scores can be predicted by expectancy, interest, and listening anxiety significantly. The relationship between expectancy, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score was mediated by listening metacognitive awareness. The findings have implications for test takers to improve their test taking motivation and listening metacognitive awareness, as well as for L2 teachers to intervene in L2 listening classrooms.

  6. The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating effect of listening metacognitive awareness on the relationship between expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score. According to the results, test takers’ listening scores can be predicted by expectancy, interest, and listening anxiety significantly. The relationship between expectancy, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score was mediated by listening metacognitive awareness. The findings have implications for test takers to improve their test taking motivation and listening metacognitive awareness, as well as for L2 teachers to intervene in L2 listening classrooms.

  7. The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating...

  8. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  9. Understanding Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

  10. Artistic Understanding and Motivational Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekue, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse artistic understanding in primary and secondary education and the relationship between this understanding and motivational characteristics such as goal orientation, engagement in art activities and attitude to art education at school, which determine (according to prior research) learners' academic achievement, in…

  11. Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian; Hansen, Elin

    2014-01-01

    -established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame...

  12. The Validity of Value-Added Estimates from Low-Stakes Testing Contexts: The Impact of Change in Test-Taking Motivation and Test Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Sara J.; Sundre, Donna L.; Swain, Matthew S.; Williams, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Accountability mandates often prompt assessment of student learning gains (e.g., value-added estimates) via achievement tests. The validity of these estimates have been questioned when performance on tests is low stakes for students. To assess the effects of motivation on value-added estimates, we assigned students to one of three test consequence…

  13. Understanding producers' motives for adopting sustainable practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo-Barrera, Andres; Pennings, Joost M.E.; Hofenk, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the motives and risk attitudes of producers to engage in sustainable practices is important for policy-makers who wish to increase the likelihood of adoption and improve the design of incentives. This article examines the underlying motives of producers to adopt sustainable

  14. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  15. Test-taking skills of secondary students: The relationship with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    taking situation in an appropriate manner. This study is aimed at assessing the relationship between students' test-taking skills and each of the following variables: motivation to learn mathematics; mathematics anxiety; attitudes towards ...

  16. Reading Test-Taking Strategies in General Training IELTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Vahede

    2015-01-01

    The significance of gaining a better understanding of how test-taking strategies are used has been recognized by researchers. Considering this fact, this study aimed at investigating the test-taking strategies which were employed by IELTS candidates in reading comprehension test. Besides, it tried to take into account the differences among…

  17. Reading Test-taking Strategies in General Training IELTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vahede Nosrati

    2015-01-01

    The significance of gaining a better understanding of how test-taking strategies are used has been recognized by researchers. Considering this fact, this study aimed at investigating the test-taking strategies which were employed by IELTS candidates in reading comprehension test. Besides, it tried to take into account the differences among strategies used for different tasks. In order to gather data, two instruments were employed: the think-aloud protocol, and an IELTS reading test. The obtai...

  18. Using self-determination theory to understand motivation deficits in schizophrenia: the 'why' of motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect-disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or 'passing time'. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: (1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; (2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; (3) more disconnected-disengaged. Higher disconnected-disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Northern Virginia wineries: understanding visitor motivations for market segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammeral Geide; Laurie Harmon; Robert Baker

    2009-01-01

    The wine industry is a rapidly growing sector of Virginia's economy, yet little research has been done on this topic. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of northern Virginia winery visitors' motivations to help winery operators better focus their marketing efforts. This exploratory research project collected basic information about...

  20. Using goal orientations to understand motivation in strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Todd A; Chow, Graig M; Ewing, Martha E

    2008-07-01

    Despite the importance that today's athletics place on strength training, research exploring the motivation of athletes in this arena is sparse. It is known that not all athletes will use the same motivational cognitions as inspiration, and these differences can be explored through achievement goal orientations. Through questionnaire data and semistructured interviews, the present study investigated how collegiate athletes maintain high levels of motivation over a period of time during strength training and explored relationships among five goal orientations: task-orientation, self-enhancing ego-orientation, self-defeating ego-orientation, social-approval orientation, and work-avoidance orientation. Subjects (N = 133), comprising 90 men and 43 women, were current varsity collegiate athletes from 15 different sports at a major Midwestern university. In addition, using a screener survey to assess achievement goal orientations, 15 subjects from the sample group who demonstrated a stronger inclination to only one achievement goal orientation were interviewed to gain a more in-depth understanding of their motivation cognitions in strength training. Results showed that the strongest achievement goal orientations reported from all athletes were task-orientation and social-approval. Additionally, five higher-order themes (significant others, improvement, competitive demands, being stronger than others, and miscellaneous) were consistent among the interviewed athletes when describing how they stay motivated during strength training. Whereas all athletes were able to describe at least one motivational strategy they employed during strength training, the dominant achievement goal orientation of some athletes influenced their motivational strategy. By employing the T.A.R.G.E.T. model (), strength coaches can foster adaptive achievement goal orientations and thereby enhance intrinsic motivation for athletes engaging in strength training.

  1. Reading Test-taking Strategies in General Training IELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahede Nosrati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The significance of gaining a better understanding of how test-taking strategies are used has been recognized by researchers. Considering this fact, this study aimed at investigating the test-taking strategies which were employed by IELTS candidates in reading comprehension test. Besides, it tried to take into account the differences among strategies used for different tasks. In order to gather data, two instruments were employed: the think-aloud protocol, and an IELTS reading test. The obtained data were analyzed and interpreted qualitatively by the researcher. The findings indicated that candidates employed 15 different strategies which were categorized in 3 stages, pre-reading, reading, and post-reading stages. Furthermore, it was revealed that test-takers used certain strategies differently, depending on the type of the task. The findings provide a better understanding of strategy use among IELTS candidates and help teachers to improve their approaches toward teaching and learning goals. Keywords: Test-taking Strategy, Test-taker, Reading Comprehension, Language Learning Strategy, IELTS

  2. UNDERSTANDING VISITOR EXPERIENCES AND MOTIVATIONS IN SUBURBAN TAIPEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Tzu Lucetta TSAI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to cultivate higher-qualified human resources within the tourism field and provide plaining and developing direction based on the understanding of tourism features in San-ying area. There is a growing research interest in understanding the individual consumer's preferences, as well as management approaches of experiences and therefore, it has explored the understanding of the many different facets of experiences in tourism and hispitality business in suburban Taipei in particular the impact of the Sanxia and Yingge area. There is an attempt to examine the service quality of tourist attractions, moreover, the perceptions and travel experiences of tourists who visit Sanxia and Yingge area. Tourism and hospitality business in Sanxia and Yingge area present culture images and this study has discussed how this has influenced tourists' experiences, motivation and consumer behavior during their visit.

  3. Voices of University Students with ADHD about Test-Taking: Behaviors, Needs, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofiesh, Nicole; Moniz, Erin; Bisagno, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the test-taking behavior, needs, and strategies of postsecondary students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), focus group comments from 17 university students with ADHD were analyzed. These comments formed the basis for a series of research studies that are in progress regarding test-taking and individuals…

  4. Motivation Cards to Support Students’ Understanding on Fraction Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamirsyah Wahyu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This design research aims to develop a learning activity which supports the fifth-grade students to understand measurement fraction division problems (A whole number divided by a fraction that result in a whole number answer conceptually. Furthermore, how students solve the fraction division problem using models is also analyzed.  Data for the retrospective analysis is collected through two teaching experiments in the form of students’ work, field notes, and some part of classroom discussions. The important findings in this research are: 1 the developed learning activity namely Motivation Cards support students understand that  3 divided by one-half means how many one-half are in 3 through models. However, when the divisor is not a unit fraction they could not directly relate the unshaded part in area model for example. 2 area model is proper model to be firstly introduced when the students work on fraction division. 3 understanding this kind of fraction division help students understand other measurement fraction division where both divisor and dividend are fractions. 4 the learning activity supports the development of character values for students.    

  5. Motivation and flow: toward an understanding of the dynamics of the relation in architecture students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Maura J; Fullagar, Clive J

    2008-09-01

    The authors investigated the relation between motivation and flow in a sample of 327 architecture students. Specifically, they investigated the relation between flow and several levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as amotivation. They also assessed the need for autonomy in moderating the relation between intrinsic motivation and engagement. Results indicated a significant relation between flow experiences in academic activities and the more self-determined forms of intrinsic motivation, but not for extrinsic motivation. The need for autonomy moderated the relation between flow and intrinsic motivation. These results are discussed in the context of understanding flow as an intrinsically motivating state and a viable construct for understanding engagement.

  6. The added value of sustainability motivations in understanding sustainable food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, M.C.D.; Onwezen, M.C.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding consumer food choices is crucial to stimulate sustainable food consumption. Food choice motives are shown to be relevant in understanding consumer food choices. However, there is a focus on product motives, such as price and taste, whereas process motives (i.e. environmental welfare)

  7. Motivation in rehabilitation and acquired brain injury: can theory help us understand it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusec, Andrea; Velikonja, Diana; DeMatteo, Carol; Harris, Jocelyn E

    2018-04-25

    In acquired brain injury (ABI) populations, low motivation to engage in rehabilitation is associated with poor rehabilitation outcomes. Motivation in ABI is thought to be influenced by internal and external factors. This is consistent with Self-determination Theory, which posits that motivation is intrinsic and extrinsic. This paper discusses the benefit of using Self-determination Theory to guide measurement of motivation in ABI. Using a narrative review of the Self-determination Theory literature and clinical rehabilitation research, this paper discusses the unique role intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has in healthcare settings and the importance of understanding both when providing rehabilitation in ABI. Based on the extant literature, it is possible that two independently developed measures of motivation for ABI populations, the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust Motivation Questionnaire-Self and the Motivation for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire, may assess intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, respectively. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in ABI may be two equally important but independent factors that could provide a comprehensive understanding of motivation in individuals with ABI. This increased understanding could help facilitate behavioural approaches in rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Conceptualization of motivation in ABI would benefit from drawing upon Self-determination Theory. External factors of motivation such as the therapeutic environment or social support should be carefully considered in rehabilitation in order to increase engagement. Assessing motivation as a dual rather than a global construct may provide more precise information about the extent to which a patient is motivated.

  8. The added value of sustainability motivations in understanding sustainable food choices

    OpenAIRE

    Verain, M.C.D.; Onwezen, M.C.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding consumer food choices is crucial to stimulate sustainable food consumption. Food choice motives are shown to be relevant in understanding consumer food choices. However, there is a focus on product motives, such as price and taste, whereas process motives (i.e. environmental welfare) are understudied. The current study aims to add to the existing literature by investigating the added value of sustainable process motives (environmental welfare, animal welfare and social justice) ...

  9. Understanding Student Motivation: A Key to Retention in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkallah Elias G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores what motivates college students at different stages of their academic studies. Using Herzberg’s two-factor theory, the researchers conducted a survey of 535 students in three south-western universities to determine if motivations changed throughout their academic careers. Results showed that students at different stages of their college careers have different concerns and, as such, different motivational strategies are needed to respond to their concerns. Implications are given to grow and retain enrolment.

  10. The Successful Test Taker: Exploring Test-Taking Behavior Profiles through Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Lyrén, Per-Erik; Eklöf, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    To be successful in a high-stakes testing situation is desirable for any test taker. It has been found that, beside content knowledge, test-taking behavior, such as risk-taking strategies, motivation, and test anxiety, is important for test performance. The purposes of the present study were to identify and group test takers with similar patterns…

  11. Children's understanding of and motivations for toothbrushing: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, P; Stewart, K; Chetcuti, D; Chestnutt, I G

    2011-02-01

    To explore children's understanding of why they do or do not brush their teeth and their motivations for toothbrushing. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 66 children aged 6-7 years and 10-11 years in four purposively selected primary schools in Cardiff, UK. Data were analysed using a constructive process of Thematic Content Analysis and techniques of open and selective coding. While a routine activity, toothbrushing was prompted rather than monitored by parents and easily fell by the wayside because of tiredness, excitement or distraction. Rationalizations for toothbrushing were poorly formed in the children's accounts and related to 'doom scenarios' such as teeth falling out, or to issues of personal grooming and cleanliness rather than caries prevention. Electric (powered) toothbrushes were popular and had engaged the children's interest. Social and domestic circumstances, such as when children stayed with different parents at different times, impacted on toothbrushing routines. This study has revealed information that is of value in directing oral health education messages, oral health promotion programmes and has identified issues that potentially affect compliance with toothbrushing that merit further investigation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Internet Uses and Gratifications: Understanding Motivations for Using the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hanjun

    In this study, the uses and gratifications theory was applied to investigate the Internet users' motivations and their relationship with attitudes toward the Internet as well as types of Web site visited by users. Subjects were 185 college students who completed a self-report questionnaire. Four motivations and five types of Web sites were…

  13. Understanding the Motivation and Transformation of White Culturally Responsive Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, China; Alfred, Mary

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the motivation for White professors in higher education to become culturally inclusive in their teaching practices and the transformational experiences that created this motivation and shaped their development. The findings revealed personal convictions that centred on moral obligations towards teaching was…

  14. Using Self-Determination Theory to Understand Motivation Deficits in Schizophrenia: The ‘Why’ of Motivated Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, David E.; Sanchez, Amy H.; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Self-Determination Theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect/disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or ‘passing time’. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: 1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; 2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; 3) more disconnected/disengaged. Higher disconnected/disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. PMID:24853060

  15. The Importance of Motivation Theories for Understanding Washback to the Learner

    OpenAIRE

    WATANABE, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    The present paper portrays three theories of motivation in the expectation that it will help to understand the washback effect of language tests on learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The three theories that are identified involve attribution theories of motivation, flow, and functional theories of motivation. The characteristics of these theories are described in a way in which they may help understand the meaning of the recent attempt by the Japanese Ministry of Education to innov...

  16. Understanding Western Students: Motivations and Benefits for Studying in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Alexander S.; Allison, Jessica; Ma, Jian Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a rise in the number of Western students who are studying in China. Governments in China, and in other Western nations are expanding relations because China is currently developing world-class higher education institutions (Hennock, 2012). The present study explores motivations, deterrents and benefits of…

  17. Understanding and Assessing the Work Motivations of Employed Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Bezzina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study investigates the work motivations of employed women in the Maltese labor market. A self-administered questionnaire purposely designed for the present study was presented to a quota sample of 400 women employed in Malta. Statistical analyses revealed that (a the most important work motivators are “financial independence” and “earning money for basic necessities”; (b the 16 proposed work motivations could be grouped under two internally consistent and unidimensional factors, namely, “personal and professional development” and “social and economic well-being”; and (c that the intention to continue to work in the future was associated with a higher level of “education,” and greater levels of work motivation related to “personal and professional development” and “social and economic well-being.” The findings are discussed and the study provides 10 important recommendations for Maltese labor market policy makers and employers aimed at boosting the participation of working women. These include a more supportive support system for working mothers, flexible educational and training opportunities, and tighter enforcement of laws to prevent gender discrimination and harassment at the place of work and nonobserved economic activity. The study concludes by providing some interesting avenues for further research.

  18. Clinical teaching in paediatrics: understanding perceptions, motives and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaber, R E; Pollock, I

    2009-05-01

    Children and young people are used as cases and standardised patients in clinical exams and teaching courses. Consultation with them suggests that education and training are areas they feel they should actively participate in. To examine the perceptions, motives and concerns of children and young people participating in exam-focused clinical teaching, and to compare these views with those of their parents, trainees and tutors. Consultation and a pilot study were used to design an anonymised questionnaire with 5-point Likert scales and free text answers. This was sent to 112 children and young people, their parents, and tutors and trainees attending a clinical teaching course. Results were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test. 71% of the questionnaires sent to children and young people and their parents were completed. For children and young people the major reasons for taking part were the enjoyment of helping people to learn (92% agreement) and wanting to "give something back" (85% agreement). Parents put significantly more emphasis on giving something back than anything else. Tutors and trainees felt the chance for children and young people to earn pocket money was their most important motivation. The major problem highlighted was that it is tiring being repeatedly examined. All children and young people and their parents said that they would participate in future clinical teaching. This study demonstrates that in the context of well-planned, structured clinical teaching, most children and young people are primarily motivated to participate to help educate doctors.

  19. Understanding the motivations of the multigenerational physician assistant workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, John E; Delellis, Nailya O

    2013-10-01

    Physician assistants (PAs) are more frequently finding themselves in positions where they are responsible for staff recruitment and retention. Staff turnover is associated with significant financial costs for organizations. Motivational theories focusing on job design indicate that paying attention to a combination of factors related to the work itself, in addition to the environment where the work is performed, increases satisfaction. This study asked a convenience sample of practicing PAs to rate the importance of a number of work-related factors known to influence job satisfaction. The results may be used as a basis for designing an environment to increase job satisfaction and improve recruitment and retention of highly qualified staff.

  20. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice through Process Theories of Motivation: A Teaching Module and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Mary D.; Rosse, Joseph G.

    2007-01-01

    Management and organizational behavior students are often overwhelmed by the plethora of motivation theories they must master at the undergraduate level. This article offers a teaching module geared toward helping students understand how two major process theories of motivation, equity and expectancy theories and theories of organizational…

  2. An analysis for understanding the process of textual deconstruction as a motivator for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Delia Barrera Jiménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to analyze the potential of the process of textual understanding and construction, for the development of motivation towards learning in teacher trainees for Preuniversities. In this direction it advocates in the first place, to understand the dynamic relationship established between the process of textual attribution and production and the motivational one, which provides the indispensable condition for promoting the work with the text from all the subjects in the curriculum.

  3. Children's understandings and motivations surrounding novelty sweets: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kate F; Fairchild, Ruth M; Jones, Rhiannon J; Hunter, Lindsay; Harris, Carole; Morgan, Maria Z

    2013-11-01

    Novelty sweets resemble or can be used as toys, are brightly coloured, with striking imagery, and sold at pocket money prices. They encourage regular consumption as packaging can be resealed, leading to prolonged exposure of these high-sugar and low pH products to the oral tissues, risk factors for dental caries and erosion, respectively. To determine how children conceptualise novelty sweets and their motivations for buying and consuming them. Focus groups conducted using a brief schedule of open-ended questions, supported by novelty sweets used as prompts in the latter stages. Participants were school children (aged 9-10) from purposively selected state primary schools in Cardiff, UK. Key findings related to the routine nature of sweet eating; familiarity with and availability of novelty sweets; parental awareness and control; lack of awareness of health consequences; and the overall appeal of novelty sweets. Parents reported vagueness regarding consumption habits and permissiveness about any limits they set may have diluted the concept of treats. Flexible permissiveness to sweet buying applied to sweets of all kinds. Parents' reported lack of familiarity with novelty sweets combined with their low cost, easy availability, high sugar content, and acidity give cause for concern. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  4. Understanding employee motivation and organizational performance: Arguments for a set-theoretic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence demonstrates that motivated employees mean better organizational performance. The objective of this conceptual paper is to articulate the progress that has been made in understanding employee motivation and organizational performance, and to suggest how the theory concerning employee motivation and organizational performance may be advanced. We acknowledge the existing limitations of theory development and suggest an alternative research approach. Current motivation theory development is based on conventional quantitative analysis (e.g., multiple regression analysis, structural equation modeling. Since researchers are interested in context and understanding of this social phenomena holistically, they think in terms of combinations and configurations of a set of pertinent variables. We suggest that researchers take a set-theoretic approach to complement existing conventional quantitative analysis. To advance current thinking, we propose a set-theoretic approach to leverage employee motivation for organizational performance.

  5. Learned Helplessness: The Effect of Failure on Test-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Hwang, Chi-En; Copella, Margaret; Clark, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    This study examined learned helplessness and its effect on test taking. Students were given one of two tests; the first began with extremely difficult questions and the other started with easy questions. The researchers hypothesized that those who took the test beginning with difficult questions would become easily frustrated and possibly doubt…

  6. Improving Test-Taking Skills of LD Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Geraldine

    1981-01-01

    A multicomponent model to improve test taking skills of learning disabled (LD) adolescents is proposed to encourage anxiety management, problem solving skills, assertiveness, study skills, and student confidence and control. The role of the LD consultant in this process is described. (CL)

  7. Understanding why users tag: A survey of tagging motivation literature and results from an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmaier, Markus; Körner, Christian; Kern, Roman

    2012-12-01

    While recent progress has been achieved in understanding the structure and dynamics of social tagging systems, we know little about the underlying user motivations for tagging, and how they influence resulting folksonomies and tags. This paper addresses three issues related to this question. (1) What distinctions of user motivations are identified by previous research, and in what ways are the motivations of users amenable to quantitative analysis? (2) To what extent does tagging motivation vary across different social tagging systems? (3) How does variability in user motivation influence resulting tags and folksonomies? In this paper, we present measures to detect whether a tagger is primarily motivated by categorizing or describing resources, and apply these measures to datasets from seven different tagging systems. Our results show that (a) users' motivation for tagging varies not only across, but also within tagging systems, and that (b) tag agreement among users who are motivated by categorizing resources is significantly lower than among users who are motivated by describing resources . Our findings are relevant for (1) the development of tag-based user interfaces, (2) the analysis of tag semantics and (3) the design of search algorithms for social tagging systems.

  8. Expanding the understanding of motivation in the theory of public service contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    The understanding of what drives efficient performance is only partial in the standard theory of public service contracting where performance essentially is explained as dependent on extrinsic incentives. In this paper I claim that intrinsic motivations and the dynamics between intrinsic...... motivations and extrinsic incentives also have a role for explaining performance. This role is not limited to shifts from the public to the private service sector, as suggested by current supplements to standard theory, but it is also extended to play a part in on-going and recurrent contractual relationships...... that motivations among staff are rooted in both intrinsic as well as extrinsic motives and the provision of extrinsic incentives through the performance management scheme provokes different motivational reactions among staff with importance for both performance and management....

  9. Motivation to hide emotion and children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Warren, Madeleine; Diotte, Michèle

    2002-12-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions varied according to the motivation to hide emotions. Children, aged 6-7 and 10-11 years, were read stories designed to elicit either prosocial or self-protective motivated display rules and were asked to predict the facial expressions the protagonists would make to hide felt emotions. Children were found to understand the distinction between real and apparent emotions very well, independently of the type of motivation. Contrary to predictions, boys understood this distinction better than did girls when the motivation to hide positive emotions was prosocial. Children perceived neutralization as the most appropriate strategy to hide felt emotions, followed by masking.

  10. MOTIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)

  11. Self-determination theory and understanding of student motivation in physical education instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđić Višnja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical education is considered to be a favorable context for accomplishment of important educational outcomes and promotion of physical activity in children and youth. The real scope of physical education instruction largely depends on student motivation. Self-determination theory, as a specific macrotheory of motivation, offers a rewarding framework for understanding student motivation in physical education instruction. The paper presents the basic tenets of self-determination theory, the most important studies in the domain of physical education and didactic and methodical implications. Two mini-theories within the self-determination theory are analyzed in more detail, the cognitive evaluation theory and the organismic integration theory. Empirical verification of the theoretical tenets indicates the existence of typical motivational profiles of students in physical education instruction, the basic psychological needs as mediators of influence of social and interpersonal factors on student motivation, followed by the importance of motivational climate, students' goal orientations and teaching style for self-determination of students' behavior in physical education instruction. Didactic and methodical implications refer to the need for developing a more flexible curriculum of physical education, encouraging a motivational climate, task-focused goal orientations, and, especially, encouraging the perceived moving competence of the student.

  12. Vegetarian on purpose: Understanding the motivations of plant-based dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel L; Burrow, Anthony L

    2017-09-01

    Much recent research has explored vegetarians' dietary motivations, recurrently highlighting the significant influence they exert on how people view themselves and others. For vegetarians and other plant-based dieters, dietary motivations have been theorized to be a central aspect of identity. Yet not all plant-based dieters are motivated to follow their diets; rather, some face aversions and constraints. In this paper, we propose that motivations, aversions, and constraints constitute three distinct reasons for consuming a plant-based diet. After conceptually distinguishing motivations from aversions and constraints, we critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of two conceptual frameworks that exist for studying these motivations systematically: the ethical-health framework and the Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity (UMVI) motivational orientations framework. Importantly, these frameworks serve different purposes, and their suitability often depends on the research question at hand. Particularly given an increasing prevalence of plant-based dieting, cultivating a more holistic understanding of these two frameworks is necessary for advancing this discipline. Directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the motivational perspectives of sustainability: A case of biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pereira Querol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the expectations and visions of the actors involved in sustainable innovations, only the societal, motivational perspective is usually considered. The fact that local actors may have different multi-motivations is typically overlooked. The aim of this study is to examine and understand the multi-motivational perspectives in a sustainable production project. First, we introduce the concept of the object and analyze the case of a biogas production project as a mediating activity for making swine production more sustainable. We argue that the object of the activity, as manifested in motivational perspectives, shapes the way in which biogas production (BP systems are implemented. The article concludes by discussing how the concept of object can be used to explore the actual and future possibilities of using artifacts for increasing the sustainability of production.

  14. Developing Public Health Initiatives through Understanding Motivations of the Audience at Mass-Gathering Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Alison; Ranse, Jamie; Munn, Matthew Brendan

    2018-04-01

    This report identifies what is known about audience motivations at three different mass-gathering events: outdoor music festivals, religious events, and sporting events. In light of these motivations, the paper discusses how these can be harnessed by the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services. Lastly, motivations tell what kinds of interventions can be used to achieve an understanding of audience characteristics and the opportunity to develop tailor-made programs to maximize safety and make long-lasting public health interventions to a particular "cohort" or event population. A lot of these will depend on what the risks/hazards are with the particular populations in order to "target" them with public health interventions. Audience motivations tell the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services about the types of behaviors they should expect from the audience and how this may affect their health while at the event. Through these understandings, health promotion and event safety messages can be developed for a particular type of mass-gathering event based on the likely composition of the audience in attendance. Health promotion and providing public information should be at the core of any mass-gathering event to minimize public health risk and to provide opportunities for the promotion of healthy behaviors in the local population. Audience motivations are a key element to identify and agree on what public health information is needed for the event audience. A more developed understanding of audience behavior provides critical information for event planners, event risk managers, and Emergency Medical Services personnel to better predict and plan to minimize risk and reduce patient presentations at events. Mass-gathering event organizers and designers intend their events to be positive experiences and to have meaning for those who attend. Therefore, continual vigilance to improve public health effectiveness and efficiency can become best practice at events

  15. The Flipped Classroom and College Physics Students' Motivation and Understanding of Kinematics Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagande, Jeffrey Lloyd L.; Jugar, Richard R.

    2018-01-01

    Reversing the traditional classroom activities, in the flipped classroom model students view lectures at home and perform activities during class period inside the classroom. This study investigated the effect of a flipped classroom implementation on college physics students' motivation and understanding of kinematics graphs. A Solomon four-group…

  16. The Effect of Using the History of Sciences on Conceptual Understanding and Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizak, Djanette

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of using the history of science in teaching geometrical optics on the motivation and conceptual understanding of first year university students. For this purpose, 54 students were randomly selected, then divided into two groups: the experimental group was taught by using history of science before traditional…

  17. Understanding Crowdsourcing: Effects of motivation and rewards on participation and performance in voluntary online activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A.M. Borst (Irma)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCompanies increasingly outsource activities to volunteers that they approach via an open call on the internet. The phenomenon is called ‘crowdsourcing’. For an effective use of crowdsourcing it is important to understand what motivated these online volunteers and what is the influence of

  18. Conceptual Understanding of Acids and Bases Concepts and Motivation to Learn Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla; Geban, Omer

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle model oriented instruction (LCMI) on 11th-grade students' conceptual understanding of acids and bases concepts and student motivation to learn chemistry. The study, which lasted for 7 weeks, involved two groups: An experimental group (LCMI) and a control group (the…

  19. In search of a theoretical structure for understanding motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalia, Alice; Brekke, John

    2010-09-01

    This themed issue considers different ways to conceptualize the motivational impairment that is a core negative symptom of schizophrenia. Motivational impairment has been linked to poor functional outcome, thus it is important to understand the nature and causes of motivational impairment in order to develop better treatment strategies to enhance motivation and engage patients in the process of recovery. Motivation refers to the processes whereby goal-directed activities are instigated and sustained and can be thought of as the product of a complex interaction of physiological processes and social contextual variables. In this issue, the physiological processes of motivation are the focus of Barch and Dowd, who highlight the role of prefrontal and subcortical mesolimbic dopamine systems in incentive-based learning and the difficulties people with schizophrenia have using internal representations of relevant experiences and goals to drive the behavior that should allow them to obtain desired outcomes. The articles in this issue by Choi et al., Nakagami et al., and Silverstein, focus on social contextual or environmental variables that can shape behavior and motivation. Together, these articles highlight the impact of external cues and goal properties on the expectations and values attached to goal outcomes. Expectancy-value and Self-Determination theories provide an overarching framework to accommodate the perspectives and data provided in all these articles. In the following introduction we show how the articles in this themed issue both support the role of expectancies and value in motivation in schizophrenia and elucidate possible deficiencies in the way expectations and value get assigned.

  20. Test-taking skills of secondary students: the relationship with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30% of the variation in motivation to learn mathematics, 25% in attitudes ..... Descriptive statistics were calculated to answer the first research question, which .... Educational models that work well for a developed country may not apply to the cir ...

  1. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  2. Targeting cessation: understanding barriers and motivations to quitting among urban adult daily tobacco smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Sackey, Naa; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Santilli, Alycia; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2013-03-01

    Many people continue to smoke tobacco products despite known negative health consequences, including increased risk of chronic disease and death. Disparities exist in rates of smoking and chronic disease, underscoring the importance of understanding the barriers and motivations to smoking cessation among vulnerable populations, such as socioeconomically disadvantaged people of color. This study uses data from a cross-sectional randomized household survey conducted in six low-income neighborhoods in New Haven, Connecticut, USA (N=1205). The objectives were to examine barriers and motivations to quitting smoking among daily tobacco smokers (31.6% of respondents) and sociodemographic differences in endorsement of barriers and motivations. The two most common barriers to quitting were perceiving it to be too difficult and not wanting to quit. Financial costs, social support, and social influence were themes endorsed highly across both barriers and motivations to quitting. Sociodemographic differences were found, such as women and Black participants being more likely to be interested in a free quitline or quit website; women and Latinos being more likely to be afraid of gaining weight; and women, participants with less education, and older participants being more likely to be concerned about the cost of cessation products. Understanding barriers and motivations to quitting among disadvantaged populations is crucial. Financial issues, social support, and social norms should be targeted in promoting cessation among disadvantaged, urban populations. Programs, interventions, and policies can also use research about specific barriers and motivations for sociodemographic sub-groups to be tailored, targeted, and more effective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding youth motivation for water onion (Crinum thaianum J. Schulze conservation in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttasun Athihirunwong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water Onion is an aquatic plant endemic to the coastal plains of southern Thailand. The species is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List. Despite rapidly declining stocks, the species is not protected under any Thai legislation nor under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES. At the local level, Water Onion is protected and conserved by young people and adults for various socio-economic reasons. The study explored the participation and underlying conservation motivations of 312 youths in Kapoe district, Ranong province. Using principal component analysis, the youth's motivation for Water Onion conservation was classified into four categories: pro-social, pro-nature, social image, and extrinsic. The results from a logit regression indicated that pro-nature is one of the key motivational factors enhancing actual youth participation in the protection and conservation of Water Onion. It is important for policy makers to understand the effects of various types of motivation on different policy mechanisms in order to craft more effective policies that can further enhance youth participation in conservation initiatives. Keywords: biodiversity conservation, endemic species, pro-nature motivation, water onion, youth

  4. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education.

  5. Scaffolding software: How does it influence student conceptual understanding and motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kyle A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of scaffolding software on student conceptual understanding and motivation. This study also provides insight on how students use the scaffolding features found in Artemis and the extent to which features show a relationship to student conceptual understanding and motivation. A Randomized Solomon Four Group Design was used in this study. As students worked through a project based unit over photosynthesis, the students performed information seeking activities that were based on their own inquiry. For this purpose, the students in the experimental group used an example of scaffolding software called Artemis, while the students in the control group used a search engine of their choice. To measure conceptual understanding, the researcher analyzed student generated concept maps on photosynthesis using three different methods (quantitative, qualitative, hierarchical). To measure motivation, the researcher used a survey that measured motivation on five different indicators: intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy for learning and performance. Finally, the researcher looked at the relationship and influence of the scaffolding features on two student performance scores at the end of the unit. This created a total of ten dependent variables in relationship to the treatment. Overall, the students used the collaborative features 25% of the time, the maintenance features 0.84% of the time, the organizational features 16% of the time, the saving/viewing features 7% of the time and the searching features 51% of the time. There were significant correlations between the saving/viewing features hits and the students' task value (r = .499, p motivation.

  6. The Virtue of Culture in Understanding Motivation at School: Commentary on the Special Issue on Culture and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Students' higher level of motivation is not based solely on intrapersonal factors as innate characteristics, but also on contexts in which students are supposed to develop their competencies. Thus, the cultural context is expected to shape motivation. Values and beliefs shared by a cultural group will affect students' motivation to learn and…

  7. Understanding Motivations and User Interests as Antecedents for Different Interaction Forms in Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    This study contributes to the understanding of online user communities as a potential source of innovation. That would require an interest from users in interacting in such communities. In order to establish interaction, users must provide as well as consume information. However, depending...... on the innovation task, one may be more important than the other. It is therefore important to understand, how companies can increase user willingness to engage in these different interaction forms. This study investigates the influence of various motivation factors and user interests on intention to provide...... or consume information in online food communities. A survey was conducted among 1009 respondents followed by analysis based on Structural Equation Modelling. Results revealed the effect of motivation factors to be stronger than basic consumer interests indicating that companies can influence the intended...

  8. Understanding consumer motivations for interacting in online food communities – potential for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    This study contributes to the understanding of online user communities as a potential source of innovation. That would require an interest from users in interacting in such communities. In order to establish interaction, users must provide as well as consume information. However, depending...... on the innovation task, one may be more important than the other. It is therefore important to understand, how companies can increase user willingness to engage in these different interaction forms. This study investigates the influence of various motivation factors and user interests on intention to provide...... or consume information in online food communities. A survey was conducted among 1009 respondents followed by analysis based on Structural Equation Modelling. Results revealed the effect of motivation factors to be stronger than basic consumer interests indicating that companies can influence the intended...

  9. Adopting a dyadic perspective to better understand the association between physical attractiveness and dieting motivations and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tania; Meltzer, Andrea L

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between women's objective physical attractiveness and their dieting motivations and behaviors may depend upon their social environment-specifically, their romantic partners' attractiveness-such that less attractive women with more attractive partners may be particularly motivated to diet. Theoretically, men's dieting motivations should not depend on their partners' attractiveness. We tested this possibility using a sample of 223 U.S. newlywed spouses. After completing measures assessing dieting motivations, each participant was photographed; we used those photographs to code spouses' objective facial and body attractiveness. Results demonstrated that own and partner attractiveness interacted to predict only women's dieting motivations and behaviors. Less attractive wives married to more (versus less) attractive husbands reported more dieting motivations and behaviors. In contrast, men's dieting motivations were not significantly associated with their own and their partners' attractiveness. These findings highlight the value of adopting a dyadic approach to understanding dieting motivations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding how prevocational training on care farms can lead to functioning, motivation and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen-Dalskau, Lina H; Berget, Bente; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Tellnes, Gunnar; Ihlebæk, Camilla

    2016-12-01

    Prevocational training aims to improve basic vocational and social skills, supporting return to work for people who have been out of work for a long time. Care farms provide prevocational training; the aim of the study was to use the self-determination theory to gain an understanding of how these programmes can lead to healthy functioning and motivation for clients. A total of 194 participants in prevocational training on care farms answered questions about demographic information, their perception of being a colleague, the social community on the farm, experiencing nature and animals and need satisfaction. A cross-sectional design resulting in a structural equation model was used to understand how elements of the care farm context influence satisfaction of three psychological needs. The results showed that a feeling of being a useful colleague led to competence, experiencing a sense of group belonging led to relatedness and autonomy, while receiving social support from the farmer led to satisfaction of all three needs for the participants. The results explain how prevocational training can stimulate participants' functionality, motivation and well-being. This understanding enables initiators and managers of prevocational training to understand and further strengthen the need-supportive elements of such programmes. Implications for Rehabilitation Prevocational training on care farms can facilitate motivation, functioning and well-being for clients. Making clients feel like useful colleagues that belong to a client group will strengthen the positive qualities of these programmes. Support, understanding and acknowledgement from the farmer are the most important elements for a positive development for the clients.

  11. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweiki E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement

  12. Understanding motivations for dietary supplementation during pregnancy: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek PhD, Lenka; Umberger PhD, Wendy J; Makrides PhD, Maria; Collins PhD, Carmel T; Zhou PhD, Shao Jia

    2018-02-01

    to increase understanding of psychosocial factors (behavioural, normative and control beliefs) motivating vitamin and mineral supplement use during pregnancy. ten focus group discussions and two in-depth interviews were conducted using a script comprising questions based on study objectives. All discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework approach. South Australia, Australia. 40 women aged 21-45 years who were either pregnant oreducation level (secondary education only vs. post-secondary) and gravidity (first vs. subsequent pregnancy). all women, except one, used dietary supplements during pregnancy. Most women took supplements to achieve peace of mind knowing that nutrient requirements were 'definitely' being met. Other common factors motivating supplement use were the beliefs that supplementation: benefits maternal and fetal health; corrects known nutritional deficiencies; and is a more efficient method of obtaining required nutrients relative to food. Advice received from healthcare providers and marketing of supplements also motivated supplementation, while forgetting to take supplements was the most common barrier to use. Cost was only a barrier when considering whether or not to continue supplementation post-birth. women believe that supplements are an easier and more reliable source of nutrients than food intake alone, and rely on dietary supplementation as an insurance policy during pregnancy. Further studies are needed in larger and more representative samples to validate these findings and to test the effectiveness of information and intervention strategies targeting appropriate supplement use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893

  14. Understanding the Motivations: A Qualitative Analysis of Israelis Holding a Bachelor's Degree Who Pursue an MBA Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Ayelet

    2017-01-01

    Motivations for study abroad have been studied mostly from a quantitative point of view. This study attempted to understand those motivations through qualitative methodology, by getting "into the heads" of international students using a multiple case study approach. Participants were 15 Israeli Hebrew-speaking graduates. Data sources…

  15. Perspectives on Teacher Quality: Bilingual Education and ESL Teacher Certification, Test-Taking Experiences, and Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemberger, Nancy; Reyes-Carrasquillo, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive exploratory study looked at the certification process, test-taking experiences, and instructional practices of a group of graduate bilingual education (BE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers to understand why some had problems passing teacher certification tests after completing their degrees. The study surveyed 63 BE…

  16. Understanding informal payments in health care: motivation of health workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Thomas, Steve; Bidwell, Posy; Mtui, Tina; Mwisongo, Aziza

    2009-06-30

    There is growing evidence that informal payments for health care are fairly common in many low- and middle-income countries. Informal payments are reported to have a negative consequence on equity and quality of care; it has been suggested, however, that they may contribute to health worker motivation and retention. Given the significance of motivation and retention issues in human resources for health, a better understanding of the relationships between the two phenomena is needed. This study attempts to assess whether and in what ways informal payments occur in Kibaha, Tanzania. Moreover, it aims to assess how informal earnings might help boost health worker motivation and retention. Nine focus groups were conducted in three health facilities of different levels in the health system. In total, 64 health workers participated in the focus group discussions (81% female, 19% male) and where possible, focus groups were divided by cadre. All data were processed and analysed by means of the NVivo software package. The use of informal payments in the study area was confirmed by this study. Furthermore, a negative relationship between informal payments and job satisfaction and better motivation is suggested. Participants mentioned that they felt enslaved by patients as a result of being bribed and this resulted in loss of self-esteem. Furthermore, fear of detection was a main demotivating factor. These factors seem to counterbalance the positive effect of financial incentives. Moreover, informal payments were not found to be related to retention of health workers in the public health system. Other factors such as job security seemed to be more relevant for retention. This study suggests that the practice of informal payments contributes to the general demotivation of health workers and negatively affects access to health care services and quality of the health system. Policy action is needed that not only provides better financial incentives for individuals but also

  17. Understanding informal payments in health care: motivation of health workers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidwell Posy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that informal payments for health care are fairly common in many low- and middle-income countries. Informal payments are reported to have a negative consequence on equity and quality of care; it has been suggested, however, that they may contribute to health worker motivation and retention. Given the significance of motivation and retention issues in human resources for health, a better understanding of the relationships between the two phenomena is needed. This study attempts to assess whether and in what ways informal payments occur in Kibaha, Tanzania. Moreover, it aims to assess how informal earnings might help boost health worker motivation and retention. Methods Nine focus groups were conducted in three health facilities of different levels in the health system. In total, 64 health workers participated in the focus group discussions (81% female, 19% male and where possible, focus groups were divided by cadre. All data were processed and analysed by means of the NVivo software package. Results The use of informal payments in the study area was confirmed by this study. Furthermore, a negative relationship between informal payments and job satisfaction and better motivation is suggested. Participants mentioned that they felt enslaved by patients as a result of being bribed and this resulted in loss of self-esteem. Furthermore, fear of detection was a main demotivating factor. These factors seem to counterbalance the positive effect of financial incentives. Moreover, informal payments were not found to be related to retention of health workers in the public health system. Other factors such as job security seemed to be more relevant for retention. Conclusion This study suggests that the practice of informal payments contributes to the general demotivation of health workers and negatively affects access to health care services and quality of the health system. Policy action is needed that not only

  18. Understanding and motivating health care employees: integrating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, training and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Suzanne G; Dundis, Stephen P

    2003-09-01

    This paper applies Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Model to the challenges of understanding and motivating employees in a rapidly changing health care industry. The perspective that Maslow's Model brings is an essential element that should be considered as the health care arena is faced with reorganization, re-engineering, mergers, acquisitions, increases in learning demands, and the escalating role of technology in training. This paper offers a new perspective related to how Maslow's Model, as used in business/organizational settings, can be directly related to current workforce concerns: the need for security and freedom from stress, social belongingness, self-esteem, self-actualization, altered work/social environments, and new opportunities for learning and self-definition. Changes in health care will continue at an accelerated pace and with these changes will come the need for more and more training. The use of technology in training has heightened access, faster distribution, innovation and increased collaboration. However, with this technology come attendant challenges including keeping up with the technology, the increased pace of training, depersonalization, and fear of the unknown. The Maslow model provides a means for understanding these challenges in terms of universal individual needs. How does one motivate employees in the face of increased demands, particularly when they are being asked to meet these demands with fewer resources? The answer is, in large part, to make the employee feel secure, needed, and appreciated. This is not at all easy, but if leaders take into consideration the needs of the individual, the new technology that provides challenges and opportunities for meeting those needs, and provides the training to meet both sets of needs, enhanced employee motivation and commitment is possible.

  19. Understanding family health information seeking: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    Although a family health history can be used to assess disease risk and increase health prevention behaviors, research suggests that few people have collected family health information. Guided by the Theory of Motivated Information Management, this study seeks to understand the barriers to and facilitators of interpersonal information seeking about family health history. Individuals who were engaged to be married (N = 306) were surveyed online and in person to understand how factors such as uncertainty, expectations for an information search, efficacy, and anxiety influence decisions and strategies for obtaining family health histories. The results supported the Theory of Motivated Information Management by demonstrating that individuals who experienced uncertainty discrepancies regarding family heath history had greater intention to seek information from family members when anxiety was low, outcome expectancy was high, and communication efficacy was positive. Although raising uncertainty about family health history may be an effective tool for health communicators to increase communication among family members, low-anxiety situations may be optimal for information seeking. Health communication messages must also build confidence in people's ability to communicate with family to obtain the needed health information.

  20. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Attitude roots and Jiu Jitsu persuasion: Understanding and overcoming the motivated rejection of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsey, Matthew J; Fielding, Kelly S

    2017-01-01

    There is a worryingly large chasm between scientific consensus and popular opinion. Roughly one third of Americans are skeptical that humans are primarily responsible for climate change; rates of some infectious diseases are climbing in the face of anti-immunization beliefs; and significant numbers of the population worldwide are antievolution creationists. It is easy to assume that resistance to an evidence-based message is a result of ignorance or failure to grasp evidence (the "deficit model" of science communication). But increasingly, theorists understand there are limits to this approach, and that if people are motivated to reject science, then repeating evidence will have little impact. In an effort to create a transtheoretical language for describing these underlying motivations, we introduce the notion of "attitude roots." Attitude roots are the underlying fears, ideologies, worldviews, and identity needs that sustain and motivate specific "surface" attitudes like climate skepticism and creationism. It is the antiscience attitude that people hear and see, but it is the attitude root-what lies under the surface-that allows the surface attitudes to survive even when they are challenged by evidence. We group these attitude roots within 6 themes-worldviews, conspiratorial ideation, vested interests, personal identity expression, social identity needs, and fears and phobias-and review literature relevant to them. We then use these insights to develop a "jiu jitsu" model of persuasion that places emphasis on creating change by aligning with (rather than competing with) these attitude roots. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Understanding the motivation: a qualitative study of dental students' choice of professional career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J; Clarke, W; Wilson, N

    2008-05-01

    Given the changing nature of the dental workforce, and the need to retain the services of future members, it is important to understand why current dental students perceive that they were motivated to study dentistry. Qualitative research provides the opportunity to explore the underlying issues in addition to informing subsequent quantitative research. The objectives of this research were to investigate final-year dental students' motivation for studying dentistry and how they perceive this has been modified during their undergraduate degree programme. Purposive sampling of a representative group of 35 final-year dental students at King's College London Dental Institute to participate in audio-taped focus groups. Qualitative data were analysed using Framework Methodology. The findings suggest a strong emphasis on having a career, providing 'professional status', 'financial benefits', 'job security, flexibility and independence' and 'good quality of life'. Students reported being attracted by features of the job, supported to a greater or lesser extent by personal experience, family and friends. It appears however that students' initial motivation is being tempered by their experiences during their undergraduate degree programme, in particular, the 'responsibilities of an intensive professional education', their 'mounting student debt' and the perception of 'feeling undervalued'. This perception related to dentistry in general and National Health Service dentistry in particular, being undervalued, by government, patients, the public and members of the dental profession. Students' vision of a 'contained professional career' within health care, providing status and financial benefits, appears to have influenced their choice of dentistry. Pressures relating to student life and policy changes are perceived as impacting on key components of professional life, particularly status in the social and economic order. The implications for educators, professional leaders and

  3. Student Use of Scaffolding Software: Relationships with Motivation and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kyle A.; Lumpe, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    This study was designed to theoretically articulate and empirically assess the role of computer scaffolds. In this project, several examples of educational software were developed to scaffold the learning of students performing high level cognitive activities. The software used in this study, Artemis, focused on scaffolding the learning of students as they performed information seeking activities. As 5th grade students traveled through a project-based science unit on photosynthesis, researchers used a pre-post design to test for both student motivation and student conceptual understanding of photosynthesis. To measure both variables, a motivation survey and three methods of concept map analysis were used. The student use of the scaffolding features was determined using a database that tracked students' movement between scaffolding tools. The gain scores of each dependent variable was then correlated to the students' feature use (time and hits) embedded in the Artemis Interface. This provided the researchers with significant relationships between the scaffolding features represented in the software and student motivation and conceptual understanding of photosynthesis. There were a total of three significant correlations in comparing the scaffolding use by hits (clicked on) with the dependent variables and only one significant correlation when comparing the scaffold use in time. The first significant correlation ( r = .499, p students' task value. This correlation supports the assumption that there is a positive relationship between the student use of the saving/viewing features and the students' perception of how interesting, how important, and how useful the task is. The second significant correlation ( r = 0.553, p students' self-efficacy for learning and performance. This correlation supports the assumption that there is a positive relationship between the student use of the searching features and the students' perception of their ability to accomplish a task as

  4. Using travel socialization and underlying motivations to better understand motorcycle usage in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Lai, Chi-Yen

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces self-determination theory (SDT) to refine previous models of vehicle usage motivation. We add travel socialization theory regarding parental influence on vehicle usage to enhance previous structural models describing motorcycle usage behavior. Our newly developed model was empirically verified in a sample of 721 motorcycle users in Taiwan. In addition to instrumental, symbolic, and affective motivations, perceived parental attitudes (PPAs) towards motorcycle riding were found to have a significant effect on individuals' motorcycle use habits. Additionally, participants who perceived their parents to have more positive attitudes toward motorcycles were found to have more experience being chauffeured on motorcycles by their parents. Based on these results, we suggest means to confront the challenges brought on by the rapid growth of motorcycle usage, especially serious motorcycle traffic accidents. These results improve our understanding motorcycle usage in Taiwan and can be used by transportation professionals who are seeking solutions to the rapid growth of motorcycle usage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Teaching Games for Understanding: A Comprehensive Approach to Promote Student's Motivation in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortigüela Alcalá, David; Hernando Garijo, Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    It seems important to consider students' attitudes towards physical education (PE), and the way they learn sports. The present study examines students' perceptions of motivation and achievement in PE after experiencing three consecutive sport units. Two hundred and thirty seven students from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade in a high school in Burgos (Spain) and two teachers agreed to participate. They were divided into two groups in order to compare two instructional approaches. The experimental group (A), 128 students, experienced Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), while the control group (B), 109 students, experienced a technical-traditional approach. Each group was taught by a different teacher. The study followed a mixed-method research design with quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) data. Results revealed that group A showed greater motivation and achievement in PE than group B. Significant differences were found in achievement. Participants with better academic results in group A were more positive in sport participation. Meanwhile, students who practiced more extracurricular sports in group B were more actively involved in sport. Teachers disagreed greatly on the way sport should be taught in PE.

  6. Understanding parental motivators and barriers to uptake of child poison safety strategies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, L; Waters, E; Sherrard, J; Ozanne-Smith, J; Robinson, J; Young, S; Hutchinson, A

    2005-12-01

    To develop an understanding of factors acting as barriers and motivators to parental uptake of child poison safety strategies. A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews and focus groups. A grounded theory approach was used for the collection and analysis of data. Sixty five parents of children under 5 years of age, some of whom had experienced an unintentional child poisoning incident. A range of knowledge based, environmental, and behavioral barriers to comprehensive parental uptake of poison safety practices were identified. As a result there tended to be only partial implementation of safety initiatives in the home. Selection of safety practices was often guided by the interests and behaviors of the child. This made the child vulnerable to changes in the home environment, inadequate supervision, and/or shifts in their own behavior and developmental ability. Personal or vicarious exposure of a parent to a child poisoning incident was a significant motivator for parental review of safety practices. Environmental measures targeting child resistant containers, warning labels, and lockable poisons cupboards will support parents' efforts to maintain poison safety. Additional education campaigns using stories of actual poisoning incidents may help to increase awareness of risk and encourage increased uptake.

  7. Can achievement emotions be used to better understand motivation, learning, and performance in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  8. Paradigms for Assessing Hedonic Processing and Motivation in Humans: Relevance to Understanding Negative Symptoms in Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Gold, James M; Kring, Ann M

    2017-07-01

    Clinicians and researchers have long known that one of the debilitating aspects of psychotic disorders is the presence of "negative symptoms," which involve impairments in hedonic and motivational function, and/or alterations in expressive affect. We have a number of excellent clinical tools available for assessing the presence and severity of negative symptoms. However, to better understand the mechanisms that may give rise to negative symptoms, we need tools and methods that can help distinguish among different potential contributing causes, as a means to develop more targeted intervention pathways. Using such paradigms is particularly important if we wish to understand whether the causes are the same or different across disorders that may share surface features of negative symptoms. This approach is in line with the goals of the Research Diagnostic Criteria Initiative, which advocates understanding the nature of core dimensions of brain-behavior relationships transdiagnostically. Here we highlight some of the emerging measures and paradigms that may help us to parse the nature and causes of negative symptoms, illustrating both the research approaches from which they emerge and the types of constructs that they can help elucidate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

  10. A self-determination theory approach to understanding the antecedents of teachers' motivational strategies in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ian M; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Standage, Martyn

    2008-02-01

    Physical education teachers can influence students' self-determination through the motivational strategies that they use. The current study examined how teachers' reported use of three motivational strategies (providing a meaningful rationale, providing instrumental help and support, and gaining an understanding of the students) were predicted by perceived job pressure, perceptions of student self-determination, the teachers' autonomous orientation, psychological need satisfaction, and self-determination to teach. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which perceived job pressure, perceptions of student self-determination, and teacher autonomous orientation predicted teacher psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn positively influenced teacher self-determination. The last positively predicted the use of all three strategies. Direct positive effects of teachers' psychological need satisfaction on the strategies of gaining an understanding of students and instrumental help and support were also found. In summary, factors that influence teacher motivation may also indirectly affect their motivational strategies toward students.

  11. Self-Determination Approach to Understanding of Motivation in Students of Helping Professions

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbáčková, Karla; Suchánková, Eliška

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents research results aimed at the identification of the motivation to learn of students in the preparation of helping professions. Student motivation is an important part of the self-regulated learning process, yet not sufficient attention is paid to this issue at the tertiary level of education. The research aims to discover the extent to which students' motivation to learn is internalized, and also to determine the extent to which this motivation is domain-specific. For resea...

  12. Understanding Middle School Students' Motivation in Math Class: The Expectancy-Value Model Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important variables affecting middle school students' mathematics performance is motivation. Motivation is closely related with expectancy belief regarding the task and value attached to the task. Identification of which one or ones of the factors constituting motivation is more closely related to mathematics performance may help…

  13. Examining the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Test-Taking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Blanshetyn, Victoria; Marshall-Wolp, Elizabeth; McCue, Elizabeth; Strauss, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between stereotype threat and individual test-taking behaviors. Previous research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on test scores, but little research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on the test-taking behaviors impacting those scores. Using a pre-post experimental design, stereotype…

  14. Organization of Concepts Relevant to Emotions and Their Regulation during Test Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Paul A.; Davis, Heather A.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2002-01-01

    Studied college students' organization of concepts related to emotions and their regulation during test taking and whether students with test anxiety have a different conceptual organization about test taking. Results with 78 and 76 students show that for students with low and moderate test anxiety, the organizational scheme for the selected…

  15. To travel or not to travel: towards understanding the theory of nativistic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    George, Babu P.; Inbakaran, Robert; Poyyamoli, Gopalsamy

    2010-01-01

    Largely employing the frameworks provided by the opponent process theory, the trans-theoretical model of change, and the two factor theory of motivation, the present paper introduces the concept of ‘nativistic motivation’ into the tourism literature. Although nativistic motivation might turn out to be an important category in the nomological network of tourism theory, it has thus far escaped the attention of tourism researchers. The traditional conceptualization of tourism motivation included...

  16. [Intrinsic motivation: a new direction of understanding and treatment of schizophrenia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, Maayan; Grunhaus, Leon; Israeli, David

    2013-09-01

    While diagnosing schizophrenia, clinicians focus on feeling the quality and nature of the internal motivation of patients. This motivational quality was theoretically conceptualized by Self Determination Theory (SDT). In this article we will review some of the basics of this theory, which focuses on motivational variables assessing behavior on an internal-external axis. Then, we will review prominent findings in the topic of using SDT concepts for the treatment of schizophrenia. The next stage will include a discussion as to the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivators as well as possible neuroanatomy of these behavioral variables. Finally, directions for research will be offered in the field of schizophrenia diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Understanding motivational structures that differentially predict engagement and achievement in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine S.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Seitz, Jeffery; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Middle school has been documented as the period in which a drop in students' science interest and achievement occurs. This trend indicates a lack of motivation for learning science; however, little is known about how different aspects of motivation interact with student engagement and science learning outcomes. This study examines the relationships among motivational factors, engagement, and achievement in middle school science (grades 6-8). Data were obtained from middle school students in the United States (N = 2094). The theoretical relationships among motivational constructs, including self-efficacy, and three types of goal orientations (mastery, performance approach, and performance avoid) were tested. The results showed that motivation is best modeled as distinct intrinsic and extrinsic factors; lending evidence that external, performance based goal orientations factor separately from self-efficacy and an internal, mastery based goal orientation. Second, a model was tested to examine how engagement mediated the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and science achievement. Engagement mediated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and science achievement, whereas extrinsic motivation had no relationship with engagement and science achievement. Implications for how classroom practice and educational policy emphasize different student motivations, and in turn, can support or hinder students' science learning are discussed.

  18. Use of protection motivation theory, affect, and barriers to understand and predict adherence to outpatient rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindley, Emma J; Zizzi, Samuel J; Nasypany, Alan M

    2008-12-01

    Protection motivation theory (PMT) has been used in more than 20 different health-related fields to study intentions and behavior, albeit primarily outside the area of injury rehabilitation. In order to examine and predict patient adherence behavior, this study was carried out to explore the use of PMT as a screening tool in a general sample of people with orthopedic conditions. New patients who were more than 18 years old and who were prescribed 4 to 8 weeks of physical therapy treatment (n=229) were administered a screening tool (Sports Injury Rehabilitation Beliefs Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and a barriers checklist) prior to treatment. Participants' adherence was assessed with several attendance measures and an in-clinic assessment of behavior. Statistical analyses included correlation, chi-square, multiple regression, and discriminant function analyses. A variety of relationships among affect, barriers, and PMT components were evident. In-clinic behavior and attendance were influenced by affect, whereas dropout status was predicted by affect, severity, self-efficacy, and age. The screening tool used in this study may assist in identifying patients who are at risk for poor adherence and provide valuable information to enhance provider-patient relationships and foster patient adherence. However, it is recommended that more research be conducted to further understand the impact of variables on patient adherence and that the screening tool be enhanced to increase its predictive ability.

  19. Predictors of children's prosocial lie-telling: Motivation, socialization variables, and moral understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela

    2011-11-01

    Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial behaviors. These were explored in two studies. In Study 1, 72 children (36 second graders and 36 fourth graders) participated in a disappointing gift paradigm in either a high-cost condition (lost a good gift for a disappointing one) or a low-cost condition (received a disappointing gift). More children lied in the low-cost condition (94%) than in the high-cost condition (72%), with no age difference. In Study 2, 117 children (42 preschoolers, 41 early elementary school age, and 34 late elementary school age) participated in either a high- or low-cost disappointing gift paradigm and responded to prosocial vignette scenarios. Parents reported on their parenting practices and family emotional expressivity. Again, more children lied in the low-cost condition (68%) than in the high-cost condition (40%); however, there was an age effect among children in the high-cost condition. Preschoolers were less likely than older children to lie when there was a high personal cost. In addition, compared with truth-tellers, prosocial liars had parents who were more authoritative but expressed less positive emotion within the family. Finally, there was an interaction between children's prosocial lie-telling behavior and their evaluations of the protagonist's and recipient's feelings. Findings contribute to understanding the trajectory of children's prosocial lie-telling, their reasons for telling such lies, and their knowledge about interpersonal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Learning pathologic anatomy during medical formation: Understanding the contribution of the motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toquet, Claire; Normand, Adeline; Guihard, Gilles

    2018-05-26

    The motivations of medical students for Pathologic Anatomy are little known although they can strongly influence their academic performance. Our work focused on the analysis of the relationship between performance and motivation for Pathologic Anatomy. Second-year students (n=268) from the University of Nantes were contacted to complete a motivation questionnaire and to provide indicators of performance and attendance. The responses were analyzed in order to establish the psychometric reliability and the factorial structure of the questionnaire. The relationship between motivation and performance was explored by correlation and by linear regression studies. A cluster analysis was performed to specify the distribution of the two variables in our sample. The sample corresponded to 168 respondents with a F/M ratio similar to that of our population. Our data demonstrated the reliability of the questionnaire and a structure described by 5 motivation factors (self-determination, self-efficacy, career, grade and intrinsic motivation). The academic performance was not significantly correlated with the overall motivation or with student attendance. However, it was predicted by self-determination and self-efficacy. Our work revealed gender differences as well as the existence of two distinct clusters defined by the motivation and performance of the students. This work constitutes the first study of the motivations of French medical students for cyto-pathology. It validates a quantitative assessment tool for motivation. Finally, it explores the heterogeneity of the distribution of motivation and academic performance within a population of learners. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding changes in the motivation of stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation in hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickrell, M.; Bongers, B.; van den Hoven, E.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke patient motivation can fluctuate during rehabilitation due to a range of factors. This study reports on qualitative research, consisting of observations of stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation and interviews with patients about the changes in motivation they identified during their time

  2. Understanding and Motivating Human Control: Outcome and Reward Information in Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marien, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323242529

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis motivated goal-directed behavior is investigated from a self-emergent process perspective. This perspective supposes that motivation for goal-directed behavior can be the result of a pattern of relatively simple interactions between reward and outcome information. In this thesis three

  3. Examining the Reggio Emilia Approach: Keys to Understanding Why It Motivates Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Alexa Fraley; Jones, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Because of the success of the Reggio Emilia Approach in early childhood education, it could be useful to researchers and practitioners to identify and explicate components of the approach that make it effective in motivating students. In this paper, we examine the Reggio Emilia Approach through the lens of the MUSIC® Model of Motivation, a model…

  4. Understanding Instructor Nonverbal Immediacy, Verbal Immediacy, and Student Motivation at a Small Liberal Arts University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Instructor communication behaviors and student motivation to learn relationships were studied at a small liberal arts university. Specifically, relationships between instructor nonverbal immediacy, verbal immediacy behaviors and student motivation to learn were measured. Only instructor verbal immediacy behaviors had a significant linear…

  5. Applying Self-Determination Theory to Understand the Motivation for Becoming a Physical Education Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Michael; Jackson, Kevin; Casey, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the reasons people choose physical education teaching as a profession and investigated the relationship of these choices with motivation. Physical education pre-service teachers (n = 324) completed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) and a measure of reasons for choosing physical education teaching. Confident interpersonal…

  6. Understanding the Leaky Engineering Pipeline: Motivation and Job Adaptability of Female Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathiamma, Manjusha Thekkedathu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a mixed-method study conducted using qualitative grounded theory and quantitative survey and correlation approaches. This study aims to explore the motivation and adaptability of females in the engineering profession and to develop a theoretical framework for both motivation and adaptability issues. As a result, this study…

  7. Understanding the role of emotion-oriented coping in women's motivation for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Slesnick, Natasha; Zhang, Jing

    2018-03-01

    This study tested a sequential mediation model that emotion-oriented coping and motivation for change mediate the relations between anxiety and depressive symptoms and the change in substance use. Data included 183 substance using women, randomly assigned to family therapy (N=123) or individual therapy (N=60). They reported their baseline anxiety and depressive symptoms, emotion-oriented coping, as well as motivation for change throughout treatment, and substance use over a time period of 1.5years. Latent growth curve modeling showed that increased baseline motivation was associated with a faster decline in alcohol and drug use. Moreover, higher baseline anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with a faster decrease in drug use through higher emotion-oriented coping and higher baseline motivation. This study underscores the importance of emotion-oriented coping in increasing clients' motivation and reducing their drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Practical implications of understanding the influence of motivations on commitment to voluntary urban conservation stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asah, Stanley T; Blahna, Dale J

    2013-08-01

    Although the word commitment is prevalent in conservation biology literature and despite the importance of people's commitment to the success of conservation initiatives, commitment as a psychological phenomenon and its operation in specific conservation behaviors remains unexplored. Despite increasing calls for conservation psychology to play a greater role in meeting conservation goals, applications of the psychological sciences to specific conservation behaviors, illustrating their utility to conservation practice, are rare. We examined conservation volunteers' motivations and commitment to urban conservation volunteering. We interviewed key informant volunteers and used interview findings to develop psychometric scales that we used to assess motivations and commitment to volunteer. We surveyed 322 urban conservation volunteers and used factor analysis to reveal how volunteers structure their motivations and commitment to volunteer for urban conservation activities. Six categories of motivations and 2 categories of commitment emerged from factor analysis. Volunteers were motivated by desires to help the environment, defend and enhance the ego, career and learning opportunities, escape and exercise, social interactions, and community building. Two forms of commitment, affective and normative commitment, psychologically bind people to urban conservation volunteerism. We used linear-regression models to examine how these categories of motivations influence volunteers' commitment to conservation volunteerism. Volunteers' tendency to continue to volunteer for urban conservation, even in the face of fluctuating counter urges, was motivated by personal, social, and community functions more than environmental motivations. The environment, otherwise marginally important, was a significant motivator of volunteers' commitment only when volunteering met volunteers' personal, social, and community-building goals. Attention to these personal, social, and community

  9. Understanding motivation for substance use treatment: the role of social pressure during the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ilana; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Henderson, Joanna

    2011-06-01

    Research has shown that social pressure is related to treatment motivation and plays an important role in treatment engagement in adults with problematic substance use. Despite the shifts in autonomy and decision-making in emerging adulthood, the factors affecting treatment motivation (e.g., readiness to comply with treatment) during this period have been largely ignored. In this cross sectional study, 134 youth (83 males and 51 females) presenting to an outpatient substance abuse program completed questionnaires regarding substance use history, mental health, social pressure to reduce use and enter treatment, and treatment motivation. Age was positively related to identification of internal reasons for seeking treatment and negatively related to external coercive social pressures as a motivator for treatment. Peer pressure accounted for significant variance in Identified (e.g., personal choice and commitment to the program) and Introjected (e.g., guilt about continued substance use) treatment motivation. Family pressure was related only to External treatment motivation when peer pressure was considered in the regression model. These results highlight the importance of emerging adult peers as motivators of youths' treatment seeking. Limitations, directions for future research and treatment implications are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heating up Climate Literacy Education: Understanding Teachers' and Students' Motivational and Affective Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    presentation, findings from a research program exploring the role of "hot constructs" such as motivation and emotion in teaching and learning about climate change will be shared. In these studies, we have explored constructs such as emotions, misconceptions, plausibility perceptions, understanding deep time, and dispositions towards uncertainty. Results from four studies will be highlighted. In the first study, we demonstrated that comfort with ambiguity and a willingness to think deeply about issues predicted both change in attitudes towards climate change and expressed willingness to take mitigative action in college students (Sinatra, et al. 2011). In another study with college students, we demonstrated that knowledge of deep time and plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change were related to students' understanding of weather and climate distinctions (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a study with graduate education students, we found that misconceptions about climate change were associated with strong emotions (Broughton, et al., 2011). With practicing teachers we have found that emotions, specifically anger and hopelessness, were significant predictors of plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, in preparation). The implications for climate change education of the findings will be discussed.

  11. Evolving social responsibility understandings, motivations, and career goals of undergraduate students initially pursuing engineering degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulifson, Gregory A.

    Engineers impact the lives of every person every day, and need to have a strong sense of social responsibility. Understanding what students think about social responsibility in engineering and their futures is very important. Further, by identifying influences that change these ideas and shape their conceptualizations, we can intervene to help prepare students for their responsibilities as part of the profession in the future. This thesis presents the experiences, in their own words, of 34 students who started in engineering. The study is composed of three parts: (i) engineering students' ideas about socially responsible engineering and what influenced these ideas, (ii) how students see themselves as future socially responsible engineers and how this idea changes over their first three years of college, and (iii) what social responsibility-related reasons students who leave engineering have for choosing a new major. Results show that students are complicated and have varied paths through and out of engineering studies. Students came up with their own ideas about socially responsible engineering that converged over the years on legal and safety related aspects of the profession. Relatedly, students identified with the engineering profession through internships and engineering courses, and rarely described socially responsible aspirations that could be accomplished with engineering. More often, those students who desired to help the disadvantaged through their engineering work left engineering. Their choice to leave was a combination of an unsupportive climate, disinterest in their classes, and a desire to combine their personal and professional social responsibility ambitions. If we want engineering students to push the engineering profession forward to be more socially responsible, we can identify the effective influences and develop a curriculum that encourages critical thinking about the social context and impacts of engineering. Additionally, a social

  12. How do cancer patients navigate the public information environment? Understanding patterns and motivations for movement among information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Rebekah H; Romantan, Anca; Kelly, Bridget J; Stevens, Robin S; Gray, Stacy W; Hull, Shawnika J; Ramirez, A Susana; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about how patients move among information sources to fulfill unmet needs. We interviewed 43 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients. Using a grounded theory approach, we identified patterns and motivations for movement among information sources. Overall, patients reported using one source (e.g., newspaper) followed by the use of another source (e.g., Internet), and five key motivations for such cross-source movement emerged. Patients' social networks often played a central role in this movement. Understanding how patients navigate an increasingly complex information environment may help clinicians and educators to guide patients to appropriate, high-quality sources.

  13. Understanding gendered aspects of migration aspiration and motives of university students by multivariate statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đula Borozan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression in measuring, explaining and evaluating (i gender differences in expressing migration aspirations, and (ii a gender effect on migration motivation of university students in Croatia. The results supported the thesis that migration is a complex gendering process that assumes subjective assessment of the whole set of interrelated motives. According to logistic regression, gender is a significant predictor of migration aspirations among the selected demographic and socio-economic variables. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that gender and migration aspirations in interaction matter when it comes to migration motives, particularly related to the perceived importance of social networks. Females, and especially those who aspire to migrate, assessed these motives as more important than males.

  14. A cross-cultural, multilevel study of inquiry-based instruction effects on conceptual understanding and motivation in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Meiko

    Student achievement and motivation to learn physics is highly valued in many industrialized countries including the United States and Japan. Science education curricula in these countries emphasize the importance and encourage classroom teachers to use an inquiry approach. This dissertation investigated high school students' motivational orientations and their understanding of physics concepts in a context of inquiry-based instruction. The goals were to explore the patterns of instructional effects on motivation and learning in each country and to examine cultural differences and similarities. Participants consisted of 108 students (55 females, 53 males) and 9 physics teachers in the United States and 616 students (203 females and 413 males) and 11 physics teachers in Japan. Students were administered (a) Force Concept Inventory measuring physics conceptual understanding and (b) Attitudes about Science Questionnaire measuring student motivational orientations. Teachers were given a survey regarding their use of inquiry teaching practices and background information. Additionally, three teachers in each country were interviewed and observed in their classrooms. For the data analysis, two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods were used to examine individual student differences (i.e., learning, motivation, and gender) within each classroom (i.e., inquiry-based teaching, teaching experience, and class size) in the U.S. and Japan, separately. Descriptive statistical analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that there was a cultural similarity in that current teaching practices had minimal influence on conceptual understanding as well as motivation of high school students between the U.S. and Japan. In contrast, cultural differences were observed in classroom structures and instructional approaches. Furthermore, this study revealed gender inequity in Japanese students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Limitations of the study, as well as

  15. Group Differences in Test-Taking Behaviour: An Example from a High-Stakes Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Eklöf, Hanna; Lyrén, Per-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether different groups of test-takers vary in their reported test-taking behaviour in a high-stakes test situation. A between-group design (N = 1129) was used to examine whether high and low achievers, as well as females and males, differ in their use of test-taking strategies, and in level of reported test anxiety and…

  16. Understanding and scaffolding Danish schoolteachers’ motivation for using classroom-based physical activity: study protocol for a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of physical activity for children’s health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers’ views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers’ motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support. Methods and analysis The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases—a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers’ motivation will be measured using the Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers. The theory of scaffolding guides the qualitative phase, which consists of in-depth interviews with participants selected from the quantitative phase based on levels of motivation and on demographic information. In accordance with the study aims, the analysis of data will identify teachers’ internal and external levels of motivation. The purpose of the qualitative phase is to enhance understanding of teachers’ motivation and of their need for support in the use of physical activity in teaching. Ethics and dissemination All relevant ethics approvals have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark approval ID S-20162000–40 and the Danish Data Protection Agency approval ID 16/15491). The study was deemed not notifiable by both authorities. Trial

  17. Understanding and scaffolding Danish schoolteachers' motivation for using classroom-based physical activity: study protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Louise Stjerne; Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    The benefits of physical activity for children's health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers' views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers' motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support. The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases-a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers' motivation will be measured using the Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers. The theory of scaffolding guides the qualitative phase, which consists of in-depth interviews with participants selected from the quantitative phase based on levels of motivation and on demographic information. In accordance with the study aims, the analysis of data will identify teachers' internal and external levels of motivation. The purpose of the qualitative phase is to enhance understanding of teachers' motivation and of their need for support in the use of physical activity in teaching. All relevant ethics approvals have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark approval ID S-20162000-40 and the Danish Data Protection Agency approval ID 16/15491). The study was deemed not notifiable by both authorities. NCT02894346; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  18. `Discover, Understand, Implement, and Transfer': Effectiveness of an intervention programme to motivate students for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Kerstin; Köller, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Considerable research has focused on how best to satisfy modern societies' needs for skilled labour in the field of science. The present study evaluated an intervention programme designed to increase secondary school students' motivation to pursue a science career. Students from 3 schools of the highest educational track participated for up to 2 years in the intervention programme, which was implemented as an elective in the school curriculum. Our longitudinal study design for evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention programme included all students at the grade levels involved in the programme with students who did not participate serving as a control group. Mixed-model analyses of variance showed none of the intended effects of the intervention programme on science motivation; latent growth models corroborated these results. When the programme began, students who enrolled in the science elective (n = 92) were already substantially more motivated than their classmates (n = 228). Offering such an intervention programme as an elective did not further increase the participating students' science motivation. It seems worthwhile to carry out intervention programmes with talented students who show (comparatively) little interest in science at the outset rather than with highly motivated students who self-select into the programme.

  19. Understanding the leaky engineering pipeline: Motivation and job adaptability of female engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathiamma, Manjusha Thekkedathu

    This dissertation is a mixed-method study conducted using qualitative grounded theory and quantitative survey and correlation approaches. This study aims to explore the motivation and adaptability of females in the engineering profession and to develop a theoretical framework for both motivation and adaptability issues. As a result, this study endeavors to design solutions for the low enrollment and attenuation of female engineers in the engineering profession, often referred to as the "leaky female engineering pipeline." Profiles of 123 female engineers were studied for the qualitative approach, and 98 completed survey responses were analyzed for the quantitative approach. The qualitative, grounded-theory approach applied the constant comparison method; open, axial, and selective coding was used to classify the information in categories, sub-categories, and themes for both motivation and adaptability. The emergent themes for decisions motivating female enrollment include cognitive, emotional, and environmental factors. The themes identified for adaptability include the seven job adaptability factors: job satisfaction, risk- taking attitude, career/skill development, family, gender stereotyping, interpersonal skills, and personal benefit, as well as the self-perceived job adaptability factor. Illeris' Three-dimensional Learning Theory was modified as a model for decisions motivating female enrollment. This study suggests a firsthand conceptual parallelism of McClusky's Theory of Margin for the adaptability of female engineers in the profession. Also, this study attempted to design a survey instrument to measure job adaptability of female engineers. The study identifies two factors that are significantly related to job adaptability: interpersonal skills (related.

  20. Understanding “Baby Boomers” and “Millennials” motivations to interact with brands on Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Rute Sofia Matos de

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and importance of social media and, in particular, social networking sites (SNS), has made it possible for an accessible integration between consumers and brands, by providing unlimited reasons for users to express, share and create content. The aim of this dissertation is to explore what motivates consumers to interact with brands on social media and to understand the relevance of those variables in explaining consumers’ loyalty toward a brand. Members of two distinct genera...

  1. Creating Rich Portraits: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Understanding Profiles of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Haimovitz, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    A person-centered, mixed-methods approach (self-report surveys, semistructured interviews, school records) was used to characterize and evaluate profiles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations among 243 third- through eighth-grade students. Cluster analysis suggested four distinct profiles: high quantity (high intrinsic, high extrinsic), primarily…

  2. Understanding Children's Reading Activities: Reading Motivation, Skill and Child Characteristics as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger; Duncan, Lynne G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a range of child characteristics (sex, age, socioeconomic status, reading skill and intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation) predicted engagement (i.e., time spent) in different reading activities (fiction books, factual books, school textbooks, comics, magazines and digital texts). In total, 791 children…

  3. Self-Determination Theory and Middle School Mathematics Teachers: Understanding the Motivation to Attain Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Amy K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to use Self-Determination Theory as a framework to analyze middle school mathematics teachers' motivation to attain effective professional development concerning Ohio's Learning Standards as well as other instructional aspects that affect the classroom. Teachers are exceptionally busy meeting…

  4. "Discover, Understand, Implement, and Transfer": Effectiveness of an Intervention Programme to Motivate Students for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Kerstin; Köller, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on how best to satisfy modern societies' needs for skilled labour in the field of science. The present study evaluated an intervention programme designed to increase secondary school students' motivation to pursue a science career. Students from 3 schools of the highest educational track participated for up to 2…

  5. Understanding employees' informal workplace learning: The joint influence of career motivation and self-construal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Monique; Yang, H.; Sanders, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the joint influence of employees' career motivation and their self-construal on their engagement in three informal workplace learning activities: keeping up-to-date, asking for feedback from supervisors and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach –

  6. Understanding users’ motivations to engage in virtual worlds: A multipurpose model and empirical testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; Feldberg, J.F.M.; van den Hooff, B.J.; Meents, S.; Merikivi, J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growth and commercial potential of virtual worlds, relatively little is known about what drives users' motivations to engage in virtual worlds. This paper proposes and empirically tests a conceptual model aimed at filling this research gap. Given the multipurpose nature of virtual words

  7. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  8. Explorers, Detectives, Matchmakers, and Lion Tamers: Understanding Jigsaw Puzzlers' Techniques and Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Angela Cora

    2013-01-01

    Why do people enjoy jigsaw puzzles, which--challenging and time-consuming as they are--might be considered more like work than play? The author investigates the motivations, preferences, and satisfactions of individuals working on jigsaw puzzles, and she explores how these elements of play relate to the procedures and strategies puzzlers use to…

  9. Understanding the link between older volunteers’ resources and motivation to volunteer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Principi, Andrea; Schippers, Joop; Naegele, Gerd; Di Rosa, Mirko; Lamura, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of older volunteers’ available human, social, and cultural capital on their motivational forces to volunteer, measured through the Volunteer Function Inventory. A large European database of 955 older volunteers (i.e., aged 50+) was employed,

  10. Donor Motivations and Decision Making: Understanding the Major Gift Development Process from a Donor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Anna Lee

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is faced with a challenge to its traditional funding structure. As a result, academic programs must seek alternative sources of support. Chief among these sources is philanthropy in the form of major gifts. Insight into donor motivations and decision making when approached to consider a major gift may help to maximize the success…

  11. Understanding Factors Associated with Children's Motivation to Engage in Recess-Time Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is linked with health and academic benefits. While recess provides the greatest opportunity for children to accumulate physical activity, most children are not motivated to engage in sufficient amounts of physical activity during recess. Research demonstrates a strong relationship between self-efficacy and children's motivation…

  12. Pushing the boundaries of research on human resources for health: fresh approaches to understanding health worker motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Aarushi; Scott, Kerry; Govender, Veloshnee; George, Asha

    2018-04-01

    A country's health workforce plays a vital role not only in serving the health needs of the population but also in supporting economic prosperity. Moreover, a well-funded and well-supported health workforce is vital to achieving universal health coverage and Sustainable Development Goal 3 to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. This perspective article highlights the potential of underutilized health policy and systems research (HPSR) approaches for developing more effective human resources for health policy. The example of health worker motivation is used to showcase four types of HPSR (exploratory, influence, explanatory and emancipatory) that move beyond describing the extent of a problem. Most of the current literature aiming to understand determinants and dynamics of motivation is descriptive in nature. While this is an important basis for all research pursuits, it often gives little information about mechanisms to improve motivation and strategies for intervention. Motivation is an essential determinant of health worker performance, particularly for those working in difficult conditions, such as those facing many health workers in low- and middle-income countries. Motivation mediates health workforce performance in multiple ways: internally governing health worker behaviour; informing decisions on becoming a health worker; workplace location and ability to perform; and influencing willingness to engage politically. The four fresh research approaches described can help policy-makers better understand why health workers behave the way they do, how interventions can improve performance, the mechanisms that lead to change, and strategies for empowering health workers to be agents of change themselves.

  13. Understanding how dogs encourage and motivate walking: cross-sectional findings from RESIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Westgarth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people live with dogs but not all walk with them regularly. This study examines the demographic and behavioural factors that contribute towards owners reporting having a strong sense of encouragement and motivation to walk provided by their dogs, which we call ‘the Lassie effect’. Methods Data was collected from 629 dog owners participating in the RESIDE cross-sectional survey in Perth, Western Australia. Multivariable logistic regression analyses of factors associated with two separate outcome survey items ‘Dog encouragement to walk’ (how often dog encouraged me to go walking in last month and ‘Dog motivation to walk’ (Having a dog makes me walk more. Results Owning a larger dog; having an increased level of attachment to dog; knowing dog enjoys going for a walk; believing walking keeps dog healthy; and having high social support from family to go walking, were positively associated with both outcomes ‘dog encouragement to walk’ and ‘dog motivation to walk’. Conversely, reporting the presence of children at home; that the child is the main person who walks with the dog; and perceiving dog-specific barriers to walking with dog daily; were negatively associated with both outcomes. In addition, ‘Dog motivation to walk’ only was positively associated with a belief walking reduces barking, and negatively with owning a dog that is overweight or a dog that is too old/sick. Reporting that the spouse/partner is main person who walks with the dog was also negatively associated with ‘dog motivation to walk’, as was increased perceived access to public open spaces with dog-supportive features. Conclusions There are both dog and owner factors that are associated with an owner’s sense of encouragement, and motivation to walk the dog, which in turn has been found to be associated with dog waking behaviour. These factors may be targeted in future interventions to increase and maintain physical activity

  14. Understanding Motivational Factors in Business Environment: Difference Between Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Y

    OpenAIRE

    Vuokko, Essi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to research and evaluate the motivational differences between three different generations, Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and 1964), generation X (born between 1965 and 1980) and generation Y (born between 1981 and 200), in business environment. As the earlier studies regarding the topic suggest, there are notable differences between the generations’ preferred rewarding systems and working environments, for example. Due to these expected differences in the ch...

  15. Understanding older adults' motivators and barriers to participating in organized programs supporting exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedenweg, Kelly; Meischke, Hendrika; Bohl, Alex; Hammerback, Kristen; Williams, Barbara; Poe, Pamela; Phelan, Elizabeth A

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about older adults' perceptions of organized programs that support exercise behavior. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 older adults residing in King County, Washington, who either declined to join, joined and participated, or joined and then quit a physical activity-oriented program. We sought to explore motivators and barriers to physical activity program participation and to elicit suggestions for marketing strategies to optimize participation. Two programs supporting exercise behavior and targeting older persons were the source of study participants: Enhance(®)Fitness and Physical Activity for a Lifetime of Success. We analyzed interview data using standard qualitative methods. We examined variations in themes by category of program participant (joiner, decliner, quitter) as well as by program and by race. Interview participants were mostly females in their early 70s. Approximately half were non-White, and about half had graduated from college. The most frequently cited personal factors motivating program participation were enjoying being with others while exercising and desiring a routine that promoted accountability. The most frequent environmental motivators were marketing materials, encouragement from a trusted person, lack of program fees, and the location of the program. The most common barriers to participation were already getting enough exercise, not being motivated or ready, and having poor health. Marketing messages focused on both personal benefits (feeling better, social opportunity, enjoyability) and desirable program features (tailored to individual needs), and marketing mechanisms ranged from traditional written materials to highly personalized approaches. These results suggest that organized programs tend to appeal to those who are more socially inclined and seek accountability. Certain program features also influence participation. Thoughtful marketing that involves a variety of messages and mechanisms is

  16. Teaching Study Skills and Test-Taking Strategies to Elementary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.; Taylor-Ferreira, Jill C.

    1999-01-01

    Presents and evaluates a pilot program to reduce test anxiety and related social-evaluative concerns. The Testbusters program teaches effective study habits, study skills, and test-taking strategies for children in grades 4 through 7. Results indicate that Testbusters decreased general levels of test anxiety and improved overall grade point…

  17. Stereotypes and the Achievement Gap: Stereotype Threat Prior to Test Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Markus; Kronberger, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat is known as a situational predicament that prevents members of negatively stereotyped groups to perform up to their full ability. This review shows that the detrimental influence of stereotype threat goes beyond test taking: It impairs stereotyped students to build abilities in the first place. Guided by current theory on…

  18. Toward an Understanding of Motivational Influences on Prospective Memory Using Value-Added Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel I Cook

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined value-added intentions by manipulating the cognitive frame associated with monetary contingencies for detecting prospective memory cues. We associated a loss-frame with a monetary punishment for failing to respond to cues and a gain-frame with a monetary reward for remembering to respond to cues and compared those frames to a no-frame control condition with no contingency linked to performance. Across two experiments, we find increased prospective memory performance for participants in the loss-frame (Experiments 1 and 2 and in the gain-frame (Experiment 2 conditions relative to the no-frame condition. This value-related improvement in prospective memory was not accompanied by a significant increase in cue monitoring as measured by intention induced interference to an ongoing task and recognition memory for ongoing task items. The few previous studies investigating motivational prospective memory showed mixed results regarding whether prospective memory improves due to incentives or not. Our results provide further evidence that, under some experimental conditions, prospective memory improves with rewards and that the benefit generalizes to penalizing performance. The results have both practical implications and theoretical implications for motivation models of prospective memory.

  19. Understanding the cognitive and motivational underpinnings of sexual passion from a dualistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Frederick L; Vallerand, Robert J; Bernard-Desrosiers, Léa; Guilbault, Valérie; Rajotte, Guillaume

    2017-11-01

    Sexual passion has always been conceptualized as a one-dimensional phenomenon that emerges from interactions with partners. Drawing from the literature on passionate activities, sexual passion was defined in terms of its intrapersonal motivational and cognitive components and examined from a dualistic perspective. More specifically, in 5 studies, we investigated how 2 types of sexual passion, harmonious and obsessive, can lead to clearly distinct subjective, relational, and cognitive outcomes. Study 1 validated a scale measuring harmonious and obsessive sexual passion, and showed that each type of sexual passion leads to common, but also distinct, subjective consequences during sexual activity engagement for both singles and romantically engaged individuals. Studies 2 and 3 differentiated the constructs of harmonious and obsessive sexual passion from competing constructs existing in the literature and provided evidence for its predictive validity regarding various relational outcomes, including relationship sustainability over time. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 investigated the cognitive consequences of each type of sexual passion by showing how they reflect distinct levels of integration of sexual and relational representations, and how they can lead to biased processing of sexual information (Study 4) and conflict with ongoing sex-unrelated goals (Studies 5a and 5b). Overall, the present series of studies provides a new look at sexual passion from a motivational and cognitive intrapersonal perspective that is not restricted to interpersonal ramifications with partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Role of Motivation and Understanding in the Change of Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This is a reflection on a case of in-service teacher education. Two Swiss teachers, assisted by a change agent, were developing an innovative teaching approach, inspired by Wiggins & McTighe's methodology Understanding by Design (UbD). While one developed a real understanding and mastery of this approach--improving therefore his professional…

  1. Understanding motivation of visitors at dark tourism sites : Case study of August 7th Memorial Park, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Gaya, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the fascination of death and disaster has influenced the tourism scene and today, millions of visitors from all over the world travel to sites of death and disaster. This study aims to identify what motivates tourists to visit sites of death and disaster in order to understand better visitor behavior at such sites and specifically the August 7th Memorial Park, Kenya; which was the site of a 1998 terrorist bomb attack that caused the deaths of 218 people and injured thousands more. ...

  2. Understanding and scaffolding Danish schoolteachers' motivation for using classroom-based physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Louise Stjerne; Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The benefits of physical activity for children's health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited......: The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases-a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers' motivation will be measured...... have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics...

  3. Understanding the school outcomes of juvenile offenders: an exploration of neighborhood influences and motivational resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Mulvey, Edward P; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-08-01

    As a group, delinquent youth complete less education and show poor academic outcomes compared to their non-delinquent peers. To better understand pathways to school success, this study integrated individual- and neighborhood-level data to examine academic functioning among 833 White, Black, and Hispanic male juvenile offenders (age 14-17) living in two urban communities. A multilevel path analysis confirmed that youth in relatively more affluent communities report greater access to opportunities in the areas of education and employment, and that these opportunities are associated with higher expectations to succeed and better grades. Findings highlight the importance of taking an ecological approach for understanding processes that shape school effort and achievement. Implications are discussed in the context of promoting academic success among juvenile offenders, specifically, and for understanding pathways to healthy adjustment, more generally.

  4. Using narratives to understand the motivational factors and experience of being a self-initiated academic expatriate in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinashe T. Harry

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A growing movement of foreign nationals is settling in South Africa. Given this, there is a need to understand not only those factors influencing foreign nationals to settle in South Africa but also their lived experiences as a basis for individual career development. Research purpose: To investigate the expatriation motivational factors and experiences of selfinitiated academic expatriates in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Calls have been made within the careers literature for more empirical focus on understanding career development using some of the neglected sample groups. Research approach, design and method: The interpretive paradigm was adopted to understand the main purpose of the study. Guided by study objectives, unstructured interviews were conducted using a sample of foreign academics working in South Africa (n = 25. Main findings: Individual stories and narratives highlighted that academics relocated for the following reasons: (1 individual preference, (2 economic meltdown and (3 political conditions. Furthermore, the lived experiences of the expatriates reflected discrimination within the workplace and the community of residences in South Africa. Practical and managerial implications: Research findings indicate that the human resources (HR function can come up with interventions that positively influence the lived experience and career development of foreign academics working in South Africa. Contribution: The expatriate experience framed in this study provides a picture of the career development processes of neglected sample groups in the extant literature. Such an understanding is key in advancing literature and proposing interventions. All this is important given the global trend on labour and skills movement added to the role South Africa plays in the international arena.

  5. Understanding Motivations to Adopt Once-a-Day Milking amongst New Zealand Dairy Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewsell, D.; Clark, D. A.; Dalley, D. E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study to understand why some New Zealand dairy farmers are changing from twice-a-day (TAD) to once-a-day (OAD) milking. Increasing herd size, unavailability of suitable labour and changing lifestyle expectations from farmers and their staff have led some to explore OAD milking as a means of alleviating these…

  6. Understanding feeding patterns in growing pigs by modelling growth and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, I.J.M.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Hofstede, G.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding is an essential behaviour for body maintenance in pigs and closely related to their growth and productivity performance. Mechanisms underlying feeding behaviour in pigs are still unclear. Understanding these mechanisms can provide valuable insights into the complex interactions among various

  7. Leader Empowering Behaviour: The Leader’s Perspective : Understanding the motivation behind leader empowering behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Hakimi (Natalia)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe present dissertation tries to shed light on the phenomenon of empowering leadership. We aim to understand the antecedents of leader empowering behaviour. In doing so, we mean to remedy the stated lack of research on empowering leadership and on the effect of follower’s behaviour on

  8. Understanding students' motivation in project work: a 2 x 2 achievement goal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Woon Chia; Wang, C K John; Tan, Oon Seng; Ee, Jessie; Koh, Caroline

    2009-03-01

    The project work (PW) initiative was launched in 2000 by the Ministry of Education, Singapore, to encourage application of knowledge across disciplines, and to develop thinking, communication, collaboration, and metacognitive skills. Although PW has been introduced for a few years, few studies have examined the motivation of students in PW, especially with the use of the recently proposed 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. To use a cluster analytic approach to identify students' achievement goal profiles at an intra-individual level, and to examine their links to various psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes in PW. Participants were 491 Secondary 2 students (mean age = 13.78, SD = 0.77) from two government coeducational schools. Cluster analysis was performed to identify distinct subgroups of students with similar achievement goal profiles. One-way MANOVAs, followed by post hoc Tukey HSD tests for pairwise comparisons were used to determine whether there was any significant difference amongst clusters in terms of the psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes in PW. Four distinct clusters of students were identified. The cluster with high achievement goals and the cluster with moderately high goals had the most positive psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes. In contrast, the cluster with very low scores for all four achievement goals had the most maladaptive profile. The study provides support for the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework, and demonstrates that multiple goals can operate simultaneously. However, it highlights the need for cross-cultural studies to look into the approach-avoidance dimension in the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

  9. The disposition to understand for oneself at university: integrating learning processes with motivation and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Noel; McCune, Velda

    2013-06-01

    A re-analysis of several university-level interview studies has suggested that some students show evidence of a deep and stable approach to learning, along with other characteristics that support the approach. This combination, it was argued, could be seen to indicate a disposition to understand for oneself. To identify a group of students who showed high and consistent scores on deep approach, combined with equivalently high scores on effort and monitoring studying, and to explore these students' experiences of the teaching-learning environments they had experienced. Re-analysis of data from 1,896 students from 25 undergraduate courses taking four contrasting subject areas in eleven British universities. Inventories measuring approaches to studying were given at the beginning and the end of a semester, with the second inventory also exploring students' experiences of teaching. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify groups of students with differing patterns of response on the inventory scales, with a particular focus on students showing high, stable scores. One cluster clearly showed the characteristics expected of the disposition to understand and was also fairly stable over time. Other clusters also had deep approaches, but also showed either surface elements or lower scores on organized effort or monitoring their studying. Combining these findings with interview studies previously reported reinforces the idea of there being a disposition to understand for oneself that could be identified from an inventory scale or through further interviews. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Building an Understanding: What Motivates Teachers to use Science in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuck, Karen M.

    a means to facilitate teaching and learning goals and beliefs held by this group of teachers. Reasons for continued use included the project was found to be user friendly and the project maintained a variety of equipment, and updated labs and equipment on a regular basis. In addition, teachers were given an opportunity to have a voice in the project, selecting labs and materials as the project expanded over the years, which gave teachers a sense of ownership and empowerment. Assertions about this group of teachers were also developed. These teachers were found to be reflective about their teaching practices, and resourceful problem-solvers. They also maintain strong professional attitudes, and value life-long learning. The research participants believe maintaining a dynamic curriculum and continued professional growth keep the teaching processes exciting for themselves, which then sparks student interest excitement and motivation to learn.

  11. Understanding motivators and barriers of hospital-based obstetric and pediatric health care worker influenza vaccination programs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckerman, Jane L; Shrestha, Lexa; Collins, Joanne E; Marshall, Helen S

    2016-07-02

    Understanding motivators and barriers of health care worker (HCW) vaccination programs is important for determining strategies to improve uptake. The aim of this study was to explore key drivers and HCW decision making related to recommended vaccines and seasonal influenza vaccination programs. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured one-to-one interviews with 22 HCWs working at a tertiary pediatric and obstetric hospital in South Australia. A thematic analysis and coding were used to examine data. Key motivators that emerged included: sense of responsibility, convenience and ease of access, rotating trolleys, the influenza vaccine being free, basic knowledge about influenza and influenza vaccination, peer pressure, personal values and family culture, as well as the culture of support for the program. Personal decisions were the major barrier to HCWs receiving the influenza vaccine which were predominantly self-protection related or due to previous experience or fear of adverse reactions. Other barriers that emerged were misconceptions about the influenza vaccine, needle phobia and privacy concerns. This study identified both attitudinal and structural barriers that could be addressed to improve uptake of the seasonal influenza vaccine.

  12. Motivational Pathways to STEM Career Choices: Using Expectancy-Value Perspective to Understand Individual and Gender Differences in STEM Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    The United States has made a significant effort and investment in STEM education, yet the size and the composition of the STEM workforce continues to fail to meet demand. It is thus important to understand the barriers and factors that influence individual educational and career choices. In this article, we conduct a literature review of the current knowledge surrounding individual and gender differences in STEM educational and career choices, using expectancy-value theory as a guiding framework. The overarching goal of this paper is to provide both a well-defined theoretical framework and complementary empirical evidence for linking specific sociocultural, contextual, biological, and psychological factors to individual and gender differences in STEM interests and choices. Knowledge gained through this review will eventually guide future research and interventions designed to enhance individual motivation and capacity to pursue STEM careers, particularly for females who are interested in STEM but may be constrained by misinformation or stereotypes.

  13. The Effect of Cooperative Learning with DSLM on Conceptual Understanding and Scientific Reasoning among Form Four Physics Students with Different Motivation Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Hamzah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cooperative Learning with a Dual Situated Learning Model (CLDSLM and a Dual Situated Learning Model (DSLM on (a conceptual understanding (CU and (b scientific reasoning (SR among Form Four students. The study further investigated the effect of the CLDSLM and DSLM methods on performance in conceptual understanding and scientific reasoning among students with different motivation levels. A quasi-experimental method with the 3 x 2 Factorial Design was applied in the study. The sample consisted of 240 stu¬dents in six (form four classes selected from three different schools, i.e. two classes from each school, with students randomly selected and assigned to the treatment groups. The results showed that students in the CLDSLM group outperformed their counterparts in the DSLM group—who, in turn, significantly outperformed other students in the traditional instructional method (T group in scientific reasoning and conceptual understanding. Also, high-motivation (HM students in the CLDSLM group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the T groups in conceptual understanding and scientific reasoning. Furthermore, HM students in the CLDSLM group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the DSLM group in scientific reasoning but did not significantly outperform their counterparts on conceptual understanding. Also, the DSLM instructional method has significant positive effects on highly motivated students’ (a conceptual understanding and (b scientific reason¬ing. The results also showed that LM students in the CLDSLM group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the DSLM group and (T method group in scientific reasoning and conceptual understanding. However, the low-motivation students taught via the DSLM instructional method significantly performed higher than the low-motivation students taught via the T method in scientific reasoning. Nevertheless, they did not

  14. Conditioning factors of test-taking engagement in PIAAC: an exploratory IRT modelling approach considering person and item characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Goldhammer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A potential problem of low-stakes large-scale assessments such as the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC is low test-taking engagement. The present study pursued two goals in order to better understand conditioning factors of test-taking disengagement: First, a model-based approach was used to investigate whether item indicators of disengagement constitute a continuous latent person variable by domain. Second, the effects of person and item characteristics were jointly tested using explanatory item response models. Methods Analyses were based on the Canadian sample of Round 1 of the PIAAC, with N = 26,683 participants completing test items in the domains of literacy, numeracy, and problem solving. Binary item disengagement indicators were created by means of item response time thresholds. Results The results showed that disengagement indicators define a latent dimension by domain. Disengagement increased with lower educational attainment, lower cognitive skills, and when the test language was not the participant’s native language. Gender did not exert any effect on disengagement, while age had a positive effect for problem solving only. An item’s location in the second of two assessment modules was positively related to disengagement, as was item difficulty. The latter effect was negatively moderated by cognitive skill, suggesting that poor test-takers are especially likely to disengage with more difficult items. Conclusions The negative effect of cognitive skill, the positive effect of item difficulty, and their negative interaction effect support the assumption that disengagement is the outcome of individual expectations about success (informed disengagement.

  15. Test-Taking Strategies and Task-based Assessment: The Case of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Barati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effect of task-based assessment on the type and frequency of test-taking strategies that three proficiency groups of Iranian adult EFL learners used when completing the First Certificate in English FCE reading paper. A total of 70 EFL university undergraduates (53 females and 17 males took part in the main phase of this study. They were divided into three proficiency groups: high, intermediate, and low. A set of Chi-square analyses was used to explore the type and frequency of test-taking strategies used by participants. The results suggested that the intermediate group test takers used the strategies significantly different after completing each task (sub-test in the FCE reading paper. However, the high and low proficient test takers› use of strategies was only significant after completing the third task of the FCE reading paper. The findings also revealed that a pattern could be drawn of the type of strategies used by the three proficiency groups who participated in this study. Nonetheless, such a pattern shifted at times depending on the ability of the test takers and/or the task under study.

  16. Measuring and understanding motivation among community health workers in rural health facilities in India-a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Goel, Sonu; Kumar, Ajay M V

    2016-08-09

    Motivated human resource is the key to improve health system performance and retention of health workers. There is scanty literature on measuring motivation of health workers in India. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure and identify important aspects of health workers' motivation in North India. A mixed method study design was adopted. Under the quantitative component, we interviewed randomly selected 62 community health workers (CHWs) in 18 sub-centres in two blocks of District Ambala, Haryana, India using a structured motivation scale. In-depth interviews were also carried out with 18 CHWs to explore the sources of motivation. The age of respondents and training in the past 12 months were found to be significantly associated with motivation. Job burnout, poor personal health, job insecurity and less career development opportunities were the individual level de-motivators, whereas not being able to fulfil family roles and poor supportive supervision were identified as environmental factors for poor motivation. Love for work, and financial incentives were individual level motivators, while community support and recognition, organizational commitment and pride, regular training were identified as environmental level motivators. Non-financial motivators such as interpersonal relations, family support, skill and career development opportunities require more attention. Regular need-based training is essential to maintain high levels of motivation.

  17. Understanding Negative Self-Evaluations in Borderline Personality Disorder-a Review of Self-Related Cognitions, Emotions, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2017-03-01

    Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature. Since terminology used in clinical research on self-referential processing is diverse and often confusing, we start with reviewing some of the main concepts in this area of research using a conceptual framework provided from social psychology. Most studies on self-referential processing in BPD focused on descriptions of self-esteem and revealed a negative self-concept, particularly expressed by explicitly reported low self-esteem. Moreover, self-esteem is unstable in BPD and likely reactive to self-relevant cues. BPD patients are prone to negative emotions with respect to themselves, such as self-disgust and shame. First data point to altered self-related motives, too. In conclusion, although explicit self-esteem is widely studied as a global and trait-like feature of BPD, there is a strong lack of studies that take the complexity of the construct self-esteem into account. Further studies on alterations in self-related processes are required to deepen our understanding of impairments of the self-concept in BPD and enable the improvement of psychosocial therapeutic approaches.

  18. Understanding L2 motivation within a multilingual framework: A comparative analysis of Japanese language learners in Australia and South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    TOSHIYUKI NAKAMURA

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the motivational development of Japanese language learners in Australia and South Korea and their future self-images as bilingual or multilingual individuals. Initial motivation to study Japanese was generally linked to an interest in Japanese language and culture. However, visions of possible future careers became a more significant motivational factor as the students progressed in their studies. The study explores the impact of the students’ multilingual competencies, ...

  19. Measuring and understanding motivation among community health workers in rural health facilities in India-a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Goel, Sonu; Kumar, Ajay M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Motivated human resource is the key to improve health system performance and retention of health workers. There is scanty literature on measuring motivation of health workers in India. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure and identify important aspects of health workers? motivation in North India. Methods A mixed method study design was adopted. Under the quantitative component, we interviewed randomly selected 62 community health workers (CHWs) in 18 sub-centres in two...

  20. Understanding the motivations of health-care providers in performing female genital mutilation: an integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Marie-Hélène; Pallitto, Christina; Groleau, Danielle

    2017-03-23

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional harmful practice that can cause severe physical and psychological damages to girls and women. Increasingly, trained health-care providers carry out the practice at the request of families. It is important to understand the motivations of providers in order to reduce the medicalization of FGM. This integrative review identifies, appraises and summarizes qualitative and quantitative literature exploring the factors that are associated with the medicalization of FGM and/or re-infibulation. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, CINAHL and grey literature databases. Hand searches of identified studies were also examined. The "CASP Qualitative Research Checklist" and the "STROBE Statement" were used to assess the methodological quality of the qualitative and quantitative studies respectively. A total of 354 articles were reviewed for inclusion. Fourteen (14) studies, conducted in countries where FGM is largely practiced as well as in countries hosting migrants from these regions, were included. The main findings about the motivations of health-care providers to practice FGM were: (1) the belief that performing FGM would be less harmful for girls or women than the procedure being performed by a traditional practitioner (the so-called "harm reduction" perspective); (2) the belief that the practice was justified for cultural reasons; (3) the financial gains of performing the procedure; (4) responding to requests of the community or feeling pressured by the community to perform FGM. The main reasons given by health-care providers for not performing FGM were that they (1) are concerned about the risks that FGM can cause for girls' and women's health; (2) are preoccupied by the legal sanctions that might result from performing FGM; and (3) consider FGM to be a "bad practice". The findings of this review can inform public health program planners, policy makers and researchers to adapt or create strategies to end

  1. Learner-Centred Teaching Contributes in Promising Results in Improving Learner Understanding and Motivation: A Case Study at Malaysia Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Wei-Li; Neo, Mai; Neo, Tse-Kian

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, traditional teaching is still a common approach among many lecturers. There have been many studies that have reported its limitations and many lecturers have started to adopt a more learner-centred teaching approach to promote better learner understanding and learner motivation. Throughout this effort, it is noticed there are…

  2. Understanding physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes after completing an exercise intervention trial: A mediation model of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Shane N; Fortier, Michelle S; Guérin, Eva; Tulloch, Heather; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P; Reid, Robert D

    2009-08-01

    This study was set out to test if autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and 12-month physical activity (PA) in adults with type 2 diabetes involved in a randomized exercise trial. Participants (n = 234) completed questionnaires measuring barrier self-efficacy at 3 months, autonomous motivation at 6 months, and PA at 12 months. A mediational analysis of longitudinal data revealed that autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between barrier-self-efficacy and PA. High barrier self-efficacy can therefore help predict 12-month PA in adults with type 2 diabetes, although this effect is attenuated by autonomous motivation. Hence, participating in PA for autonomous reasons such as by choice and/or for fun further explains PA at 12 months in this population. Results of this study extend our understanding of the motivational constructs involved in PA in the maintenance phase. This study has important theoretical implications in that it helps to organize and consolidate well-known correlates of PA by proposing a temporal relationship between them that could be tailored in interventions.

  3. The role of motivation in understanding social contextual influences on physical activity in underserved adolescents in the ACT Trial: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawman, Hannah G; Wilson, Dawn K; Van Horn, M Lee; Zarrett, Nicole

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has shown that social contextual factors are important in understanding physical activity (PA) behavior, although little is known about how these factors may relate to PA, especially in underserved adolescents (low income, minorities). This study examined how motivation may differentially mediate the relationship of two social contextual variables (i.e., peer and parent social support) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Baseline data (n = 1421 sixth graders, 54% female, 72% African American) from the Active by Choice Today (ACT) trial in underserved adolescents were analyzed. Motivation was examined as a mediator of the relationships between peer social support, parent social support, and MVPA (measured by 7-day accelerometer estimates). Motivation and peer but not parent support were significantly related to MVPA overall. Significant mediation effects were found indicating motivation partially mediated the relation between peer social support and MVPA and to a lesser degree parent support and MVPA. These findings provide support for the importance of social contextual influences, especially peer social support, on underserved adolescents' PA and motivation for PA.

  4. On Motivation and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea UDRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Economic motivations were a big influence on consumer behavior motivation. In this context, it is considered that the general motives which give motivation to purchase content can be structured into rational and emotional motives, the motives innate and acquired motives, all gaining an individual or group event. The study of consumer behavior, with general motivations, attention increasingly larger granted special incentives, consisting of assertiveness feeling (emerging desire for a product)...

  5. How Users Search the Mobile Web: A Model for Understanding the Impact of Motivation and Context on Search Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study explores how search motivation and context influence mobile Web search behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: We studied 30 experienced mobile Web users via questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and an online diary tool that participants used to record their daily search activities. SQLite Developer was used to extract data from the users' phone logs for correlation analysis in Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS. Findings: One quarter of mobile search sessions were driven by two or more search motivations. It was especially difficult to distinguish curiosity from time killing in particular user reporting. Multi-dimensional contexts and motivations influenced mobile search behaviors, and among the context dimensions, gender, place, activities they engaged in while searching, task importance, portal, and interpersonal relations (whether accompanied or alone when searching correlated with each other. Research limitations: The sample was comprised entirely of college students, so our findings may not generalize to other populations. More participants and longer experimental duration will improve the accuracy and objectivity of the research. Practical implications: Motivation analysis and search context recognition can help mobile service providers design applications and services for particular mobile contexts and usages. Originality/value: Most current research focuses on specific contexts, such as studies on place, or other contextual influences on mobile search, and lacks a systematic analysis of mobile search context. Based on analysis of the impact of mobile search motivations and search context on search behaviors, we built a multi-dimensional model of mobile search behaviors.

  6. Understanding the association between maltreatment history and adolescent risk behavior by examining popularity motivations and peer group control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years, SD = .86) reported on their alcohol use, delinquent behavior, childhood experiences of physical and emotional maltreatment and neglect, peer group processes involving control and individual popularity motivations. Regression analyses showed that, beyond the significant contributions of childhood maltreatment, peer group control predicted risky alcohol use and delinquent behavior. Peer group control and popularity motivations exacerbated the negative effect of physical maltreatment on delinquent behavior. Boys' experiences of peer group control were more strongly linked to alcohol use and delinquent behavior than girls'. These results suggest that there is a significant window of opportunity during adolescence where the peer group context can exacerbate or buffer childhood experiences.

  7. What a man wants: understanding the challenges and motivations to physical activity participation and healthy eating in middle-aged Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kolt, Gregory S; Duncan, Mitch; Ellison, Marcus; George, Emma; Mummery, W Kerry

    2012-11-01

    Little attention has been paid to the physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviors of middle-aged men; thus, the aim of this study was to gather information and gain insight into the PA and nutrition behaviors of these men. Six focus group sessions were undertaken with middle-aged men (N = 30) from regional Australia to explore the challenges and motivations to PA participation and healthy eating. Men had a good understanding of PA and nutrition; however, this was sometimes confounded by inconsistent media messages. Work commitments and family responsibilities were barriers to PA, while poor cooking skills and abilities were barriers to healthy eating. Disease prevention, weight management, and being a good role model were motivators for PA and healthy eating. By understanding what a man wants, PA and nutrition interventions can be designed and delivered to meet the needs of this hard-to-reach population.

  8. Financial Literacy; Strategies and Concepts in Understanding the Financial Planning With Self-EfficacyTheory and Goal SettingTheory of Motivation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mu’izzuddin, -; Taufik, -; Ghasarma, Reza; Putri, Leonita; Adam, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the strategies and concepts in understanding the financial literacy with the approach of self-efficacy theory and goal setting theory of motivation. The discussion begins with the concept of behavioral finance that discusses links between financial concepts to the behavior, and then proceed with the concept and measurement of financial literacy of individuals altogether with some approaches and factors that may affect it. Self-efficacy theory and goal setting theory of ...

  9. Understanding producers’ motives to adopt sustainable practices: the role of expected rewards, risk perception, and risk tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofenk, D.J.B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Trujillo Barrera, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine producers’ motives underlying the adoption of sustainable practices. In particular, we focus on expected economic, social, and personal rewards, and examine the roles of producers’ risk perception and risk tolerance. Preliminary results from a survey

  10. Understanding Producers’ Motives for Adopting Sustainable Practices: The Role of Expected Rewards, Risk Perception, and Risk Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofenk, D.J.B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Trujillo Barrera, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines producers’ motives underlying the adoption of sustainable practices. In particular, we focus on expected economic, social, and personal rewards, and examine the role of producers’ risk perception and risk tolerance. Results from personal computer-guided interviews with164 hog

  11. Understanding Social OER Environments--A Quantitative Study on Factors Influencing the Motivation to Share and Collaborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkkalainen, Henri; Jokinen, Jussi P. P.; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    Social software environments are increasingly used for open education: teachers and learners share and collaborate in these environments. While there are various possibilities for the inclusion of such social functionalities for OER, many organizational, individual and technological challenges can hinder the motivation of teachers to share and…

  12. Understanding by Design (UbD) in EFL Teaching: The Investigation of Students' Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtseven, Nihal; Altun, Sertel

    2016-01-01

    In today's world, where learning a foreign language is highly prioritized, it is an important prerequisite that education has components that are lasting, meaningful, and transferable to everyday life. Moreover, these components would have a positive influence on student motivation. The purpose of this study is to investigate students' language…

  13. Implications from Self-Efficacy and Attribution Theories for an Understanding of Undergraduates' Motivation in a Foreign Language Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan Peggy; Schallert, Diane L.

    2008-01-01

    Although studies on self-efficacy and attribution have independently contributed to the motivation literature, these two constructs have rarely been considered together in the domain of foreign language learning. Here, 500 undergraduates in Spanish, German, and French courses were asked to report whether test scores represented a successful or…

  14. Understanding urban green space as a health resource: a qualitative comparison of visit motivation and derived effects among park users in Sheffield, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Katherine N; Warber, Sara L; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-01-22

    With increasing interest in the use of urban green space to promote human health, there is a need to understand the extent to which park users conceptualize these places as a resource for health and well-being. This study sought to examine park users' own reasons for and benefits from green space usage and compare these with concepts and constructs in existing person-environment-health theories and models of health. Conducted in 13 public green spaces in Sheffield, UK, we undertook a qualitative content analysis of 312 park users' responses to open-ended interview questions and identified a breadth, depth and salience of visit motivators and derived effects. Findings highlight a discrepancy between reasons for visiting and derived effects from the use of urban green space. Motivations emphasized walking, green space qualities, and children. Derived effects highlighted relaxation, positive emotions within the self and towards the place, and spiritual well-being. We generate a taxonomy of motivations and derived effects that could facilitate operationalization within empirical research and articulate a conceptual framework linking motivators to outcomes for investigating green space as a resource for human health and well-being.

  15. Understanding Urban Green Space as a Health Resource: A Qualitative Comparison of Visit Motivation and Derived Effects among Park Users in Sheffield, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Gaston

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing interest in the use of urban green space to promote human health, there is a need to understand the extent to which park users conceptualize these places as a resource for health and well-being. This study sought to examine park users’ own reasons for and benefits from green space usage and compare these with concepts and constructs in existing person-environment-health theories and models of health. Conducted in 13 public green spaces in Sheffield, UK, we undertook a qualitative content analysis of 312 park users’ responses to open-ended interview questions and identified a breadth, depth and salience of visit motivators and derived effects. Findings highlight a discrepancy between reasons for visiting and derived effects from the use of urban green space. Motivations emphasized walking, green space qualities, and children. Derived effects highlighted relaxation, positive emotions within the self and towards the place, and spiritual well-being. We generate a taxonomy of motivations and derived effects that could facilitate operationalization within empirical research and articulate a conceptual framework linking motivators to outcomes for investigating green space as a resource for human health and well-being.

  16. Public Pre-K and Test Taking for the NYC Gifted-and-Talented Programs: Forging a Path to Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Weinberg, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    The New York City Department of Education (NYC DOE) gifted-and-talented programs aim to support all students of exceptional learning potential within the public school system. Using proprietary data made available to us by the NYC DOE, we show, however, that substantial disparities exist in the rates of gifted-and-talented admission test taking,…

  17. Brain-Based Teaching Strategies for Improving Students' Memory, Learning, and Test-Taking Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The past two decades have provided extraordinary progress in our understanding of the nature of learning. Never before have neuroscience and classroom instruction been so closely linked. Now, educators can find evidence-based neuroimaging and brain-mapping studies to determine the most effective ways to teach, as advances in technology enable…

  18. Motivated Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ePatterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  19. Understanding the motivations and activities of transnational advocacy networks against child sex trafficking in the Mekong Subregion: The value of cosmopolitan globalisation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Davy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Child sex trafficking has become one of the most highly publicised social issues of our time and, due to its global nature, transnational anti-trafficking advocacy networks are well placed and central to lead campaigns against it. Whilst there is an abundance of literature on the subjects of child sex trafficking and transnational advocacy networks we lack an understanding of the motivations of these networks that act as buffers against trafficking. Cosmopolitan globalisation theory remains a compelling framework for examining the motivations of transnational anti-child sex trafficking networks in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Applying a cosmopolitan globalisation lens, this article discusses the social justice goals of transnational advocacy networks, their centrality in combating child sex trafficking, and their ability to perform cosmopolitan ‘globalisation from below’ to counter global social problems.

  20. Understanding the underlying motives and intention among Indian blood donors towards voluntary blood donation: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Chandra, B

    2018-05-01

    The present study aims to fill the gap in the literature by conducting a comprehensive research on Indian donor's intention towards voluntary blood donation in India. The study attempts to conceptualize and validate an integrative framework incorporating voluntary function inventory (VFI) in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model with the purpose tomeasure the voluntary blood donation intention. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has been used to rigorously test the hypothesized interrelationships among the underlying motives influencing voluntary blood donation intention. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of respondents selected conveniently from selct locations in India. Total 450 completed questionnaires were received out of 1000 distributed. The study develops a final conceptual framework that determines the drivers of blood donor's intention towards voluntary donation. The components of theory of planned behavior (TPB) model which include 'attitude', 'subjective norms' (SN), and 'perceived behavioral control' (PBC) along with modified volunteer functions namely 'value', 'social', 'career' and 'enhancement' were found significantly explaining the donation intention in the model. The model achieves robustness with respect to predicting Indian donor's intention towards the voluntary donation of blood. The proposed model in this study advances the theory and research on thevolunteering motives towards blood donation. The study would provide a comprehensiveunderstanding of donors' intention to the practitioners, policy makers and Non-Government Organization (NGO), helping them to frame a calibrated strategydirected towards facilitating healthy blood donation practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Test-Taking Strategies in L2 Assessment: The Test of English for International Communication Speaking Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny

    2016-08-01

    This research explored the test-taking strategies associated with the Test of English for International Communication Speaking Test (TOEIC-S) and their relationship with test performance. Capitalizing on two sets of TOEIC-S and a custom-made strategy inventory, the researcher collected data from a total of 215 Taiwanese English learners consisting of 84 males and 131 females with an average age of 20.1 years (SD = 2.6). Quantitative data analysis gave rise to three major findings. First, TOEIC-S test-taking strategy use constituted a multi-faceted construct that involved multiple types of strategic behaviors. Second, these strategic behaviors matched those allowing test-takers to communicate both in real life and in the workplace. Third, communication strategy use and cognitive strategy use both contributed significantly to TOEIC-S performance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. EBT Payment for Online Grocery Orders: a Mixed-Methods Study to Understand Its Uptake among SNAP Recipients and the Barriers to and Motivators for Its Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Olivia; Tagliaferro, Barbara; Rodriguez, Noemi; Athens, Jessica; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2018-04-01

    To examine Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients' use of the first online supermarket accepting Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) payment. In this mixed-methods study, the authors collected EBT purchase data from an online grocer and attempted a randomized controlled trial in the South Bronx, New York City, followed by focus groups with SNAP beneficiaries aged ≥18 years. Participants were randomized to shop at their usual grocery store or an online supermarket for 3 months. Focus groups explored barriers and motivators to online EBT redemption. Few participants made online purchases, even when incentivized in the randomized controlled trial. Qualitative findings highlighted a lack of perceived control over the online food selection process as a key barrier to purchasing food online. Motivators included fast, free shipping and discounts. Electronic Benefit Transfer for online grocery purchases has the potential to increase food access among SNAP beneficiaries, but challenges exist to this new food buying option. Understanding online food shopping barriers and motivators is critical to the success of policies targeting the online expansion of SNAP benefits. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding Physical Activity Motivation and Behaviour Through Self-Determination and Servant Leadership Theories in a Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Samantha M; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2017-09-27

    Despite its well-established benefits, physical activity (PA) engagement is low in the adult population; evidence suggests that this is especially a concern for women > 60 years. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the feasibility of a six-week randomized control trial of Self-Determination Theory-based dance and walking programs for older women. Primary outcomes were feasibility measures: recruitment, retention, and satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included self-reported PA, behavioural regulations, and psychological needs. Thirty-five women completed the study (M = 62.8 ± 4.8 years), representing 39% recruitment and 95% retention rate. Both programs were highly attended. Exploratory effect sizes for secondary measures were promising. Emergent themes highlighted the importance of servant leadership concepts in the group setting for motivating PA. Our findings provide support for expanding this trial to a full-scale study.

  4. Female high school biology students' biofilm-focused learning: The contributions of three instructional strategies to patterns in understanding and motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ales, Jo Dale Hill

    2000-12-01

    This exploratory study examined three instructional strategies used with female high school biology students. The relative contributions of the strategies to student understanding of microbiology and motivation in science were analyzed. The science education community targeted underachievement in science by implementing changes in content and practices (NRC, 1996). Research suggested that teachers facilitate learnirig environments based on human constructivism (Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1997) that is rooted in meaningful learning theory (Ausubel, Novak & Hanesian, 1978). Teachers were advised to use both visual and verbal instructional strategies (Paivio, 1983) and encourage students to construct understandings by connecting new experiences to prior knowledge. The American Society for Microbiology supports the study of microorganisms because of their prominence in the biosphere (ASK 1997). In this study, two participating teachers taught selected microbiology concepts while focused on the cutting edge science of biofilms. Biology students accessed digitized biofilm images on an ASM web page and adapted them into products, communicated with biofilm researchers, and adapted a professional-quality instructional video for cross-age teaching. The study revealed improvements in understanding as evidenced on a written test; however, differences in learnirig outcomes were not significant. Other data, including student journal reflections, observations of student interactions, and student clinical interviews indicate that students were engaged in cutting edge science and adapted biofilm images in ways that increased understanding of microbiology (with respect to both science content and as a way of knowing) and motivation. An ASM CD-ROM of the images did not effectively enhance learning and this study provides insights into what could make it more successful. It also identifies why, in most cases, students' E-mail communication with biofilm researchers was unsuccessful

  5. Age-Related Changes in Children's Understanding of Effort and Ability: Implications for Attribution Theory and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Amy S.; Cole, David A.; Sigal, Amanda B.; Benbow, Lovisa D.; Satterwhite, Lindsay F.; Swygert, Katherine E.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Building on Nicholls's earlier work, we examined developmental changes in children's understanding of effort and ability when faced with a negative outcome. In a sample of 166 children and adolescents (ages 5-15 years), younger children conflated the meaning of effort and ability, explaining that smart students work hard, whereas older children…

  6. Impact of Interactive Multimedia Module with Pedagogical Agents on Students' Understanding and Motivation in the Learning of Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamisah; Lee, Tien Tien

    2014-01-01

    The Electrochemistry topic is found to be difficult to learn due to its abstract concepts involving macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic representation levels. Studies have shown that animation and simulation using information and communication technology (ICT) can help students to visualize and hence enhance their understanding in learning…

  7. Tapping into a vital resource: Understanding the motivators and barriers to blood donation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Z. Zanin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Due to paucity of research on this topic, our understanding of blood donor behaviour in SSA is limited. Local traditions and cultures intimately shape individuals’ proclivity towards the donation process. In order to change the attitudes and behaviours of many potential donors in SSA it is important to address the deterrents to blood donation, as many represent misconceptions or culture-specific beliefs that may be the ultimate driving force dictating donor behaviour.

  8. "The difference is in the tomato at the end": Understanding the motivations and practices of cannabis growers operating within Belgian Cannabis Social Clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardal, Mafalda

    2018-03-11

    In Belgium, Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) collectively organize the cultivation and distribution of cannabis for the personal use of their members. In this paper we seek to improve understanding of the motivations and practices of cannabis growers operating within CSCs, shedding light on the cultivation process. We draw on data gathered through face-to-face semi-structured interviews with the directors of seven active Belgian CSCs (n = 21) and CSC growers (n = 23). These data are complemented by additional fieldwork and a review of policies relating to CSCs', including bylaws and growing protocols. The Belgian CSCs rely on single and multiple in-house grower arrangements. Most CSC growers had been cultivating cannabis prior to joining their current CSC, albeit growing in different contexts (non-commercial and commercial). The CSC growers discussed both ideological and pragmatic motives for operating within a CSC. Cultivation took place indoors and followed organic practices. Despite their small-scale (20 plants on average), the grow sites used specialized equipment. The growers reported receiving financial compensation to cover production costs. This paper offers new insights into a particular sector of domestic cannabis cultivation - CSC growers and their practices within those collectives - which has not been studied previously. The Belgian CSCs have decentralized production among small-scale grow sites, at a size comparable to that found in other small-scale cultivation studies. In terms of motivations and practices, CSC growers share some features typically ascribed to small-scale cannabis cultivators. At the same time, CSC growers seemed particularly engaged with the CSC model and willing to adhere to the (self-)regulated practices developed by the organizations. This had implications for the way cultivation was organized and for the role of the grower within the CSC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit; Petrič, Taja; Pictet, Gabriel; Pommier, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents the results of a realist evaluation that aimed to understand how, why and under what circumstances a Red Cross (RC) capacity-building intervention influences the motivation and the performance of RC community health volunteers involved in the delivery of an immunisation programme in Kampala, Uganda. Method Given the complexity of the intervention, we adopted realist evaluation as our methodological approach and the case study as our study design. Data collection included document review, participant observation and interviews. The constant comparative method was used for the analysis. Two contrasted cases were selected within the five Kampala districts. Each case covers the management of the immunisation programme implemented at a RC branch. In each case, a programme manager and 15 RC volunteers were interviewed. The selection of the volunteers was purposive. Results We found that a capacity-building programme including supervision supportive of autonomy, skills and knowledge enhancement, and adapted to the different subgroups of volunteers, leads to satisfaction of the three key drivers of volunteer motivation: feelings of autonomy, competence and connectedness. This contributes to higher retention, and better task performance and well-being among the volunteers. Enabling contextual conditions include the responsiveness of the Uganda Red Cross Society (URCS) to community needs, and recognition of the work of the volunteers, from the URCS and the community. Conclusions A management approach that caters for the different motivational states and changing needs of the volunteers will lead to better performance. The findings will inform not only the management of community health volunteers, but also the management of all kinds of health workers. PMID:26525721

  10. [Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, Manfred; Renner, Gerolf

    2015-01-01

    Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities? A review of 23 German intelligence test manuals shows that test-authors do not exclude the use of their tests for children with disabilities. However, these special groups play a minor role in the construction, standardization, and validation of intelligence tests. There is no sufficient discussion and reflection concerning the issue which construct-irrelevant requirements may reduce the validity of the test or which individual test-adaptations are allowed or recommended. Intelligence testing of children with disabilities needs more empirical evidence on objectivity, reliability, and validity of the assessment-procedures employed. Future test construction and validation should systematically analyze construct-irrelevant variance in item format, the special needs of handicapped children, and should give hints for useful test-adaptations.

  11. Motivering van spoorbaaninstandhoudingstoesighouers

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Com. (Business Management) Personnel motivation is one of management's most important tasks, but due to a lack of understanding of the nature of motivation, it is also frequently neglected resulting in losses to the organisation. The purpose of this document was to perform a motivation study on the supervisory staff of a railway maintenance depot. With the results of this study the cause of the low level of motivation was determined, followed by recommendations to management in order to ...

  12. The role of self-determined motivation in the understanding of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2006-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the purpose of the present study was to examine whether motivation, self-determined and controlling types of motivation could predict a range of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations. Exercisers (n¼375) from ten health clubs in the North of England completed questionnaires measuring exercise motivation, exercise stages of change, number of relapses from exercise, future intention to exercise, barriers s...

  13. A Proposed Framework to Understand the Intrinsic Motivation Factors on University Students’ Behavioral Intention to Use a Mobile Application for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ronnie H. Shroff; Christopher J Keyes

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: By integrating a motivational perspective into the Technology Acceptance Model, the goal of this study is to empirically test the causal relationship of intrinsic motivational factors on students’ behavioral intention to use (BIU) a mobile application for learning. Background: Although the Technology Acceptance Model is a significant model, it largely remains incomplete as it does not take into consideration the motivation factors and/or outside influences in the adoption of ...

  14. Understanding individual differences in school achievement : the specific and joint impact of motivation and parenting style independent of children's measured intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence explains some variance in students’ school achievement, but not all. Motivation and parenting have been well-documented as non-cognitive predictors and are crucial to students’ school achievement. Better performance of students under Eastern culture could be attributed to motivation and parenting. The present research is dedicated to exploring the associations among motivation and parenting, as well as their specific and joint predictive power for school achievement, independent ...

  15. Self-reported attitudes and behaviors of general surgery residents about ethical academic practices in test taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignol, Valerie P; Gans, Alyssa; Booth, Branyan A; Markert, Ronald; Termuhlen, Paula M

    2010-08-01

    A correlation exists between people who engage in academic dishonesty as students and unethical behaviors later as professionals. Academic dishonesty has been assessed among medical students, but not among general surgery residents. We sought to describe the attitudes of general surgery residents with regard to ethical practices in test taking. A survey with 4 scenarios describing activities related to examination taking that may or may not be considered unethical was administered. Participants were asked about participation in the activities-either personally or any knowledge of others-and whether the activities were unethical. Fifty-seven of 62 residents (92%) participated. For each scenario, >70% indicated that neither they nor anyone else they knew had participated in the activities. Behaviors deemed unethical included memorizing or using memorized questions to prepare for future tests (52%), selling questions for financial gain (90%), and purchasing previously used questions (57%). No difference in attitudes was seen among incoming interns, junior-level (postgraduate year [PGY]1-3), or senior-level (PGY4-6) residents. Overall, general surgery residents indicated that they had not participated in activities they felt to be unethical. Defining what is unethical was less clear. This represents an area for further education. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  17. A Proposed Framework to Understand the Intrinsic Motivation Factors on University Students' Behavioral Intention to Use a Mobile Application for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Keyes, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: By integrating a motivational perspective into the Technology Acceptance Model, the goal of this study is to empirically test the causal relationship of intrinsic motivational factors on students' behavioral intention to use (BIU) a mobile application for learning. Background: Although the Technology Acceptance Model is a significant…

  18. The role of self-determined motivation in the understanding of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2006-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the purpose of the present study was to examine whether amotivation, self-determined and controlling types of motivation could predict a range of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations. Exercisers (n = 375) from ten health clubs in the North of England completed questionnaires measuring exercise motivation, exercise stages of change, number of relapses from exercise, future intention to exercise, barriers self-efficacy, physical self-worth and social physique anxiety. Controlling for age and sex, multiple and logistic regression analyses supported our hypotheses by showing self-determined motivation (i.e. intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) to predict more adaptive behavioural, cognitive and physical self-evaluation patterns than external regulation and amotivation. Introjected regulation was related to both adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Furthermore, a multivariate analysis of variance revealed that exercisers in the maintenance stage of change displayed significantly more self-determined motivation to exercise than those in the preparation and action stages. The results illustrate the importance of promoting self-determined motivation in exercisers to improve the quality of their experiences, as well as to foster their exercise behaviour. Future research should examine the mechanisms that promote self-determined motivation in exercise.

  19. Understanding Postpartum Healthcare Services and Exploring the Challenges and Motivations of Maternal Health Service Providers in the Philippines: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tadashi; Suplido, Sherri Ann; Llave, Cecilia; Tuliao, Maria Teresa R; Tanaka, Yuko; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2015-06-01

    Given the shortage of medical professionals in the Philippines, Barangay Health Workers (BHWs) may play a role in providing postpartum healthcare services. However, as there are no reports regarding BHW activities in postpartum healthcare, we conducted this study to understand postpartum healthcare services and to explore the challenges and motivations of maternal health service providers. Focus group interview (FGI) of 13 participants was conducted as qualitative research methodology at Muntinlupa City. The results were analyzed according to the interview guide. The proceedings of the FGI were transcribed verbatim, and researchers read and coded the transcripts. The codes were then used to construct categories. Four important activities were highlighted among 11 analysis codes. These activities were "Assessment of postpartum women's conditions," "Recommendation to visit a health facility," "Measurement of blood-pressure and vitamin intake," and "Providing postpartum health information." Among five analysis codes, we identified three challenges that BHWs face, which were "No current information regarding postpartum care," "Some postpartum women do not want to receive healthcare services from BHW," and "Too many assigned postpartum women." Among five analysis codes, we identified two reasons for continuing BHW activities, which were "Hospitality to help postpartum women and their family in the community" and "Performance of mission in providing BHW services." This study is the first to evaluate BHW activities in postpartum healthcare services. Our results indicate that BHWs play a potentially important role in evaluating postpartum women's physical and mental conditions through home-visiting services. However, several difficulties adversely affected their activities, and these must be addressed to maximize the contributions of BHWs to the postpartum healthcare system.

  20. Motivation from control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Kennedy, Patrick M; Tory Higgins, E

    2013-09-01

    Human motivation is sensitive to value-to the outcomes of actions. People invest mental and physical resources for obtaining desired results or for stopping and reversing undesired ones. Accordingly, people's motivation is sensitive to information about their standing in relation to outcome attainment ('outcome feedback'). In this paper, we argue and present the first evidence for the existence of another motivational sensitivity in humans-a sensitivity to our degree of control on the environment and hence to information about that control ('control feedback'). We show that when actions have even trivial and constant perceptual effects, participants' motivation to perform is enhanced. We then show that increased motivation is not because more information about task performance is available and that motivation is increased only in conditions in which control over the effects can be firmly established by the mind. We speculate on the implications for understanding motivation, and potentially, physical and mental health.

  1. Jack Michael's Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of motivating operation (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of drive. Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on how to study motivation by shifting its origins from the organism to the environment. Michael's account also served to stimulate applied research and to better understand behavioral functio...

  2. Why Johnny Won't Cooperate: An Examination of Behavior and Motivation Theory to Understand Resistance to Change in the Workplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... This thesis is advanced by synthesizing the motivation theories of Maslow, McGregor, and Merzberg to develop a model which describes behavior as a function of human need and points to the existence...

  3. A Proposed Framework to Understand the Intrinsic Motivation Factors on University Students’ Behavioral Intention to Use a Mobile Application for Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie H. Shroff

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: By integrating a motivational perspective into the Technology Acceptance Model, the goal of this study is to empirically test the causal relationship of intrinsic motivational factors on students’ behavioral intention to use (BIU a mobile application for learning. Background:\tAlthough the Technology Acceptance Model is a significant model, it largely remains incomplete as it does not take into consideration the motivation factors and/or outside influences in the adoption of new technology. Methodology: A Mobile Application Motivation Instrument (MAMI was developed from a comprehensive review of literature on intrinsic motivation and verified using a formalized card sorting procedure. Four intrinsic motivation scales were developed: perceived competence (COM, perceived challenge (CHA, perceived choice (CHO, and perceived interest (INT. Consequently, a scale to assess students’ behavioral intention (BIU to use mobile applications was developed using existing scales from prior TAM instruments. Contribution: Incorporating the motivational factors into TAM may provide better explanation and prediction of student acceptance and usage of mobile applications. A potential contribution of this study is the development of a reliable and valid instrument that could be further used by a growing community of researchers, instructional designers, and instructors. Findings: Data were collected from 193 participants to test the causal relationship of perceived competence (COM, perceived challenge (CHA, perceived choice (CHO, and perceived interest (INT on students’ behavioral intention to use (BIU a mobile application, using a structural equation modeling approach. The structural path model indicated that perceived competence (COM, perceived challenge (CHA, perceived choice (CHO, and perceived interest (INT had a significant influence on students’ behavioral intention to use (BIU a mobile application for learning. Implications of this study

  4. Understanding self-monitoring of blood glucose among individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: an information-motivation-behavioral skills analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Kohut, Taylor; Schachner, Holly; Stenger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) information deficits, motivational obstacles, and behavioral skills limitations in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and to assess the relationship of these deficits with SMBG frequency. Individuals with type 1 (n = 208; 103 male, 105 female) and type 2 (n = 218; 107 male, 111 female) diabetes participated in an online survey assessing SMBG information, motivation, behavioral skills, and behavior. A substantial proportion of participants scored as SMBG uninformed, unmotivated, and unskilled on specific assessment items. SMBG information, motivation, and behavioral skills deficits were significantly correlated with SMBG frequency, such that individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, who were less informed, less motivated, and less behaviorally skilled, reported lower frequency of SMBG. Common and consequential SMBG information, motivation, and behavioral skills deficits were present, and patients with these gaps were less likely to test frequently. Clinical education focusing on relevant SMBG information, motivation to act, and behavioral skills for acting effectively may be a priority.

  5. Using the theory of planned behaviour to understand the motivation to learn about HIV/AIDS prevention among adolescents in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreeyesus Hadera, H; Boer, H; Kuiper, W A J M

    2007-08-01

    Various studies indicate that school- or university-based HIV prevention curricula can reduce the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour among adolescent youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, effective HIV/AIDS prevention education may be problematic, if the needs of youth are not served adequately. To date, little attention has been given to the motivation of youth to learn about HIV/AIDS and about their preferences for HIV/AIDS curriculum design options. The aim of this study was to get insight into the determinants of the motivation of youth to learn about HIV/AIDS prevention and to assess their curriculum design preferences. Students from a university in Tigray, Ethiopia, filled out a structured questionnaire, which assessed demographics, variables that according to the Theory of Planned Behaviour are related to the motivation to learn, and their preferences for independent, carrier and integrated HIV/AIDS curriculum designs. On average, participants were highly motivated to learn about HIV/AIDS. Motivation to learn was primarily related to social norms and was not related to self-efficacy to discuss HIV/AIDS in class. The often discussed reluctance to discuss sexuality and condom use in curricula in Sub-Saharan Africa, seems to be more related to existing negative social norms, than to lack of self-efficacy. Participants revealed a high preference for the independent, carrier and integrated curriculum design options. However, students with a higher motivation to learn about HIV/AIDS were more attracted to the independent course design.

  6. Motivating Tomorrow's Biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The story of biology is far more complex and fascinating than straightforward facts or neatly labeled diagrams of structures and systems. Although exams can motivate students, the key to using these extrinsic motivators to increase student understanding lies in the way the assessments are designed and what they measure. Those involved in…

  7. From motivation to acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well...

  8. Understanding HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy: an information--motivation--behavioral skills model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Fisher, William A; Shuper, Paul A; Cornman, Deborah H; Christie, Sarah; Macdonald, Susan; Pillay, Sandy; Mahlase, Gethwana; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2013-08-01

    The current study applied the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model (Fisher & Fisher, 1992; Fisher & Fisher, 1993) to identify factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), a population of considerable significance for curtailing, or maintaining, South Africa's generalized HIV epidemic. HIV prevention information, HIV prevention motivation, HIV prevention behavioral skills, and HIV transmission risk behavior were assessed in a sample of 1,388 South Africans infected with HIV and receiving ART in 16 clinics in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Findings confirmed the assumptions of the IMB model and demonstrated that HIV prevention information and HIV prevention motivation work through HIV prevention behavioral skills to affect HIV transmission risk behavior in this population. Subanalyses confirmed these relationships for HIV transmission risk behavior overall and for HIV transmission risk behavior with partners perceived to be HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown. A consistent pattern of gender differences showed that for men, HIV prevention information and HIV prevention motivation may have direct links with HIV preventive behavior, whereas for women, the effect of HIV prevention motivation works through HIV prevention behavioral skills to affect HIV preventive behavior. These IMB model-based findings suggest directions for HIV prevention interventions with South African men and women living with HIV and on ART as an important component of overall strategies to contain South Africa's generalized HIV epidemic. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Motivational Variables in Conceptual Change: Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Cause of Lunar Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackes, Mesut

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to explore and describe the role of cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational variables in conceptual change. More specifically, the purposes of the study were (1) to investigate the predictive ability of a learning model that was developed based on the intentional conceptual change perspective in predicting change in conceptual…

  10. Online Military Training: Using a Social Cognitive View of Motivation and Self-Regulation to Understand Students' Satisfaction, Perceived Learning, and Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Using a social cognitive framework, the present study investigated the relations between two motivational constructs, prior experience, and several adaptive outcomes. Participants (n = 204) completed a survey that assessed their perceived task value, self-efficacy, prior experience, and a collection of outcomes that included their satisfaction,…

  11. More than fear induction: Toward an understanding of people's motivation to be well-prepared for emergencies in flood prone areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Terpstra, T.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the extent and manner to which evaluations of flood-related precautions are affected by an individual's motivation and perception of context. It argues that the relationship between risk perception and flood risk preparedness can be fruitfully specified in terms of

  12. Understanding the Relationship between Parental Education and STEM Course Taking through Identity-Based and Expectancy-Value Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Ryan C.; Rozek, Christopher S.; Hyde, Janet S.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Destin, Mesmin

    2016-01-01

    High school students from lower-socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are less likely to enroll in advanced mathematics and science courses compared to students from higher-SES backgrounds. The current longitudinal study draws on identity-based and expectancy-value theories of motivation to explain the SES and mathematics and science…

  13. How to Motivate Employees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kušar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.

  14. Clustering Teachers' Motivations for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to teach is a powerful, yet neglected, force in teaching at institutes of higher education. A better understanding of academics' motivations for teaching is necessary. The aim of this mixed-method study was to identify groups with distinctively different motivations for teaching. Six clusters were identified: expertise, duty,…

  15. MOTIVATION AND MOTIVES - DRIVER AND REASON OF CONSUMER'S BUYING BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    TICHINDELEAN Mihai; VINEREAN Simona

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to understand and measure consumer's motives as part of the complex mental structure which has as result a certain buying behavior. To achieve this goal, the authors structured the paper in two parts: the first part contains a literature review regarding the concepts of motivation and motives, while the second part tries to measure and explain several dimensions of buying motives by using a statistical analysis tool - exploratory factor analysis.

  16. Understanding the Relationship Between Parental Education and STEM Course Taking Through Identity-Based and Expectancy-Value Theories of Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Svoboda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High school students from lower–socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds are less likely to enroll in advanced mathematics and science courses compared to students from higher-SES backgrounds. The current longitudinal study draws on identity-based and expectancy-value theories of motivation to explain the SES and mathematics and science course-taking relationship. This was done by gathering reports from students and their parents about their expectations, values, and future identities for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM topics beginning in middle school through age 20. Results showed that parental education predicted mathematics and science course taking in high school and college, and this relationship was partially mediated by students’ and parents’ future identity and motivational beliefs concerning mathematics and science. These findings suggest that psychological interventions may be useful for reducing social class gaps in STEM course taking, which has critical implications for the types of opportunities and careers available to students.

  17. Understanding the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation--uses and abuses of meta-analysis: comment on Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, M R; Henderlong, J; Gingras, I

    1999-11-01

    Recently, 3 different meta-analytic reviews of the literature concerning the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation have appeared, including that by Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999) in this issue. Interestingly, despite their common focus, these reviews have offered dramatically opposed bottom-line conclusions about the meaning and implications of this literature. In this comment, the authors examine differences among these 3 reviews and conclude that the findings of this literature have been more accurately captured by the reviews of Deci et al. and Tang and Hall (1995) than by that of Cameron and Pierce (1994). More broadly, the authors also suggest that there may be significant short- and long-term costs to the unthinking or automatic use of meta-analysis with theoretically derived, procedurally diverse, and empirically complex literatures like that concerning extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation.

  18. Understanding motives for intravaginal practices amongst Tanzanian and Ugandan women at high risk of HIV infection: the embodiment of social and cultural norms and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Shelley; Zalwango, Flavia; Andrew, Bahati; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet; Hayes, Richard J; Francis, Suzanna C

    2014-02-01

    Some types of intravaginal practices (IVP) may increase the risk for HIV acquisition. This is particularly worrisome for populations with dual high prevalence of HIV and IVP. Women involved in transactional sex are at increased risk for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Social, cultural and economic influences are strong drivers of IVP in this population. To explore this, we carried out a qualitative research study to investigate the drivers and motivations for using IVP within a large observational study of women at high risk of HIV in Tanzania and Uganda from September 2008 to September 2009. Of the 201 women selected, 176 women took part in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Additionally, in Tanzania, eight focus group discussions among study participants and community members were carried out to obtain information on community norms and expectations. IVP were motivated by overlapping concerns with hygiene, morality, sexual pleasure, fertility, relationship security, and economic security. These motives were driven by the need to meet cultural and social expectations of womanhood, and at the same time attend to personal well-being. Among women involved in transactional sex in East Africa, interventions aimed at modifying or eliminating IVP should attend to local cultural and social norms as well as the individual as an agent of change. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding motives for intravaginal practices amongst Tanzanian and Ugandan women at high risk of HIV infection: The embodiment of social and cultural norms and well-being☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Shelley; Zalwango, Flavia; Andrew, Bahati; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet; Hayes, Richard J.; Francis, Suzanna C.

    2014-01-01

    Some types of intravaginal practices (IVP) may increase the risk for HIV acquisition. This is particularly worrisome for populations with dual high prevalence of HIV and IVP. Women involved in transactional sex are at increased risk for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Social, cultural and economic influences are strong drivers of IVP in this population. To explore this, we carried out a qualitative research study to investigate the drivers and motivations for using IVP within a large observational study of women at high risk of HIV in Tanzania and Uganda from September 2008 to September 2009. Of the 201 women selected, 176 women took part in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Additionally, in Tanzania, eight focus group discussions among study participants and community members were carried out to obtain information on community norms and expectations. IVP were motivated by overlapping concerns with hygiene, morality, sexual pleasure, fertility, relationship security, and economic security. These motives were driven by the need to meet cultural and social expectations of womanhood, and at the same time attend to personal well-being. Among women involved in transactional sex in East Africa, interventions aimed at modifying or eliminating IVP should attend to local cultural and social norms as well as the individual as an agent of change. PMID:24565154

  20. I Walk My Dog Because It Makes Me Happy: A Qualitative Study to Understand Why Dogs Motivate Walking and Improved Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Garry; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dog walking is a popular everyday physical activity. Dog owners are generally more active than non-owners, but some rarely walk with their dog. The strength of the dog–owner relationship is known to be correlated with dog walking, and this qualitative study investigates why. Twenty-six interviews were combined with autoethnography of dog walking experiences. Dog walking was constructed as “for the dog”, however, owners represented their dog’s needs in a way which aligned with their own. Central to the construction of need was perceptions of dog personality and behaviour. Owners reported deriving positive outcomes from dog walking, most notably, feelings of “happiness”, but these were “contingent” on the perception that their dogs were enjoying the experience. Owner physical activity and social interaction were secondary bonuses but rarely motivating. Perceptions and beliefs of owners about dog walking were continually negotiated, depending on how the needs of the owner and dog were constructed at that time. Complex social interactions with the “significant other” of a pet can strongly motivate human health behaviour. Potential interventions to promote dog walking need to account for this complexity and the effect of the dog-owner relationship on owner mental wellbeing. PMID:28825614

  1. I Walk My Dog Because It Makes Me Happy: A Qualitative Study to Understand Why Dogs Motivate Walking and Improved Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Christley, Robert M; Marvin, Garry; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2017-08-19

    Dog walking is a popular everyday physical activity. Dog owners are generally more active than non-owners, but some rarely walk with their dog. The strength of the dog-owner relationship is known to be correlated with dog walking, and this qualitative study investigates why. Twenty-six interviews were combined with autoethnography of dog walking experiences. Dog walking was constructed as "for the dog", however, owners represented their dog's needs in a way which aligned with their own. Central to the construction of need was perceptions of dog personality and behaviour. Owners reported deriving positive outcomes from dog walking, most notably, feelings of "happiness", but these were "contingent" on the perception that their dogs were enjoying the experience. Owner physical activity and social interaction were secondary bonuses but rarely motivating. Perceptions and beliefs of owners about dog walking were continually negotiated, depending on how the needs of the owner and dog were constructed at that time. Complex social interactions with the "significant other" of a pet can strongly motivate human health behaviour. Potential interventions to promote dog walking need to account for this complexity and the effect of the dog-owner relationship on owner mental wellbeing.

  2. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. Methods and analysis The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers’ performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. Discussion We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital

  3. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  4. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    . This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  5. Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.

    The paper draws together a wide variety of research which relates to the topic of intrinsic motivation; intrinsically motivated activities are defined as those which a person does for no apparent reward except the activity itself or the feelings which result from the activity. Most of this research was not originally reported within the framework…

  6. Gerontechnology motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Gerontechnology’s framework has been formulated in a functional way, with little attention paid to motivation. Abraham H. Maslow’s theory of human motivation (1943) can fill this gap with his hierarchy of needs to be fulfilled in the following order: physiological, safety related, social, esteem and

  7. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  8. Motivation in Mathematics: Goals Reflected in Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Markku S.

    2006-01-01

    Students in a mathematics classroom are motivated to do many things, not only the ones we expect them to do. In order to understand student behaviour in classrooms we need to increase our understanding of what motivation is and how it is regulated. Two issues relevant to a critique of mainstream motivation research need consideration: (a) the…

  9. Automated Motivic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Motivic analysis provides very detailed understanding of musical composi- tions, but is also particularly difficult to formalize and systematize. A computational automation of the discovery of motivic patterns cannot be reduced to a mere extraction of all possible sequences of descriptions...... for lossless compression. The structural complexity resulting from successive repetitions of patterns can be controlled through a simple modelling of cycles. Generally, motivic patterns cannot always be defined solely as sequences of descriptions in a fixed set of dimensions: throughout the descriptions...... of the successive notes and intervals, various sets of musical parameters may be invoked. In this chapter, a method is presented that allows for these heterogeneous patterns to be discovered. Motivic repetition with local ornamentation is detected by reconstructing, on top of “surface-level” monodic voices, longer...

  10. Computing Educator Attitudes about Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Settle, Amber; Sedlak, Brian

    2016-01-01

    While motivation is of great interest to computing educators, relatively little work has been done on understanding faculty attitudes toward student motivation. Two previous qualitative studies of instructor attitudes found results identical to those from other disciplines, but neither study considered whether instructors perceive student motivation to be more important in certain computing classes. In this work we present quantitative results about the perceived importance of student motivat...

  11. Motivation and its importance in learning English

    OpenAIRE

    Нетесова, Мария Витальевна

    2015-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to pay our attention to such a significant problem as motivation in the process of learning a foreign language. The paper is devoted to the very important problem concerning educational process. For most purposes in today, motivation has different reasons why we act in a certain way. We may indeed be motivated by influences as basic as pain and pleasure. The key to understanding motivation is, to some, understanding why it is important to an individual...

  12. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  13. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...

  14. Logistical Factors in Teachers' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Research in education and psychology contributes to an understanding of how educators create contexts for learning that encourage intrinsic motivation and increase academic achievement. In this article, the researcher investigated how teachers themselves define effectiveness and identified what factors influence their motivation, both positively…

  15. The Leadership's Role in Motivating Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horga Maria Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    It is impossible to neglect motivation, since it represents the source of team productivity. Theindividual’s availability and willingness to perform tasks represents one of the key factors in thecompany's efficient operation. The leader understands the need to motivate employees and to seethem as resources within the company; thus, the increased focus on motivating and promoting thestaff is required.

  16. Directed Motivational Currents: Using vision to create effective motivational pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Muir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vision, that is, the mental representation of the sensory experience of a future goal state (involving imagination and imagery, is currently at the forefront of motivational innovation, and in recent years it has been seen increasingly more often in the motivational tool kit of practicing language teachers. Theories such as Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self system have explored the power that creating effective visions can harness (see, e.g., Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014 and when viewed in conjunction with other current research avenues, such as future time perspective and dynamic systems theory, vision offers exciting potential. A Directed Motivational Current is a new motivational construct that we suggest is capable of integrating many current theoretical strands with vision: It can be described as a motivational drive which energises long-term, sustained behaviour (such as language learning, and through placing vision and goals as critical central components within this construct, it offers real and practical motivational potential. In this conceptual paper, we first discuss current understandings of vision and of Directed Motivational Currents, and then analyse how they may be optimally integrated and employed to create effective motivational pathways in language learning environments.

  17. Integrative Perspectives of Academic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittum, Jessica Rebecca

    , interest, and caring) in science class to determine whether or not the students grouped into meaningful "motivation profiles." 5 stable profiles emerged: (1) low motivation; (2) low value and high support; (3) somewhat high motivation; (4) somewhat high empowerment and values, and high support; and (5) high motivation. As this study serves as a proof of concept, we concluded by describing the 5 clusters. Together, these studies represent a focus on more integrative and person-centered approaches to studying and understanding academic motivation.

  18. Exploring the Effect of Teaching Test-Taking Strategies on Intermediate Level Learners on Reading Section of Ielts; Learners’ Attitude in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Language proficiency tests have become common instruments to judge people based on their performance. Thus, the scores on language proficiency tests, such as the International English Language Testing System (IELTS or Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL, play a crucial role in the test-takers’ lives. Because of increasing demands on the part of students to get a good score on these tests, test preparatory courses have emerged. These preparatory courses, characteristically short and limited in terms of time, equip IELTS candidates with the skills required for passing the test, called test-taking strategies. The present study explored the effect of strategy teaching- namely wash-back effect on reading section of academic IELTS on intermediate learners in Iran. Besides, learners’ attitude toward the strategy teaching was investigated as well. According to the descriptive statistics and t-test results, those learners who received strategy teaching outperformed those who had not received strategy teaching in reading section of IELTS.According to t-test results, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of the two groups since the p value was lower than .05 (p < .001.  Furthermore, the learners had positive attitudes toward receiving strategy teaching since there was a significant difference between the obtained mean score and the presupposed average because the p value was lower than .05.

  19. Personality Traits and Motives for Volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Juzbasic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of predicting volunteer motives based on five-factor model of personality in a sample of 159 volunteers from Zagreb, Osijek and Split. Data was collected using IPIP-300 personality questionnaire and Volunteer Functions Inventory. Results indicate that Croatian volunteers are agreeable, conscientious, altruistic, dutiful, and moral persons with artistic interests. Their most salient motives for volunteering are understanding and values. Hierarchical regression analysis confirmed that the five-factor model personality traits independently predict 17% of protective motive variance, 12% of values motive, 18% of career motive, 10% of understanding motive, and 12% of enhancement motive. Social motive was not explained by personality traits.

  20. Motivating Students in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedden, Mandy L; Clark, Kevin R

    2016-07-01

    To examine instructors' and students' perspectives on motivation in the classroom and clinical environments and to explore instructional strategies educators can use to motivate college students in the 21st century. Articles selected for this review were from peer-reviewed journals and scholarly sources that emphasized student and educator perspectives on motivation and instructional strategies to increase student motivation. Understanding how college students are motivated can help educators engage students in lessons and activities, ultimately improving the students' academic performance. Students exhibit increased motivation in classes when educators have high expectations, conduct an open-atmosphere classroom, and use multidimensional teaching strategies. Instructional styles such as connecting with students, creating an interactive classroom, and guiding and reminding students improved student motivation. Radiologic science educators must be mindful of how college students are motivated and use various instructional strategies to increase students' motivation in the classroom and clinical setting. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  1. University STAFF: motivation of innovative activities

    OpenAIRE

    Vyzhigin Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The article researches the motivation and improvement of the innovative activities of faculty by means of implementation of the score-rating assessment of knowledge in the educational process. This research clarified the scientific understanding of the nature of motivation of professors; identified criteria motivating researchers and professors; proposed an innovative method to improve motivated teaching career on the basis of score-rating system of assessment.

  2. University STAFF: motivation of innovative activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyzhigin Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the motivation and improvement of the innovative activities of faculty by means of implementation of the score-rating assessment of knowledge in the educational process. This research clarified the scientific understanding of the nature of motivation of professors; identified criteria motivating researchers and professors; proposed an innovative method to improve motivated teaching career on the basis of score-rating system of assessment.

  3. Creative Proactive-Concluding Theory of Motivating

    OpenAIRE

    Blašková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with necessity to change the understanding of human resource philosophy to the new philosophy: philosophy of human potential. In these intentions, it is very important to motivate human potential in the organisations. But, in the area of motivating, situation within the organisations isn't sufficient. Thereto the article gives an introductive presentation of a new theory of motivating: creative proactive-concluding theory of motivating. The theory leads the managers to utili...

  4. Why Volunteer? Understanding Motivations for Student Volunteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Clare

    2010-01-01

    The profile of volunteering in English Higher Education (HE) has been enhanced in recent years through various initiatives that have not only funded activities, but have sought to expand the range of volunteering opportunities available to students and recognise the contribution that volunteering can make to students' employability. This expansion…

  5. Work and family decision-making framework: A motivational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchilla, Nuria; Moragas, Maruja; Kim, Sowon

    2012-01-01

    We introduce motivation theory as a way of understanding the decision-making process in the work and family context. We use core concepts from motivation theory - extrinsic, intrinsic and prosocial motivation - and link them to motivational learning to build our framework. We then propose a framework illustrating motivational factors that influence work-family decision-making and offer propositions focusing on the motivational consequences for individuals which will impact their future decisi...

  6. Multi-institutional study of self-reported attitudes and behaviors of general surgery residents about ethical academic practices in test taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignol, Valerie P; Grannan, Kevin; Sabra, John; Cromer, Robert M; Jarman, Benjamin; Dent, Daniel; Sticca, Robert P; Nelson, Timothy M; Kukora, John S; Daley, Brian J; Treat, Robert W; Termuhlen, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    Correlation exists between people who engage in academic dishonesty as students and unethical behavior once in practice. Previously, we assessed the attitudes of general surgery residents and ethical practices in test taking at a single institution. Most residents had not participated in activities they felt were unethical, yet what constituted unethical behavior was unclear. We sought to verify these results in a multi-institutional study. A scenario-based survey describing potentially unethical activities related to the American Board of Surgery In-training Examination (ABSITE) was administered. Participants were asked about their knowledge of or participation in the activities and whether the activity was unethical. Program directors were surveyed about the use of ABSITE results for resident evaluation and promotion. Ten programs participated in the study. The resident response rate was 67% (186/277). Of the respondents, 43% felt that memorizing questions to study for future examinations was unethical and 50% felt that using questions another resident memorized was unethical. Most felt that buying (86%) or selling (79%) questions was unethical. Significantly more senior than junior residents have memorized (30% vs 16%; p = 0.04) or used questions others memorized (33% vs 12%; p = 0.002) to study for future ABSITE examinations and know of other residents who have done so (42% vs 20%; p = 0.004). Most programs used results of the ABSITE in promotion (80%) and set minimum score expectations and consequences (70%). Similar to our single-institution study, residents had not participated in activities they felt to be unethical; however the definition of what constitutes cheating remains unclear. Differences were identified between senior and junior residents with regard to memorizing questions for study. Cheating and unethical behavior is not always clear to the learner and represents an area for further education. © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery

  7. Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives: Relationships among multiple motivational domains and alcohol use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Ladd, Benjamin O; Anderson, Kristen G

    2016-04-01

    Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives have been previously linked with alcohol consumption in high school and college students; however, little research has examined the impact of such sources of motivations concurrently. Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), the current study tested the hypothesis that alcohol-related and academic motives would be associated with one another along internal vs. external focused dimensions. We also examined the relative influence of these motives on alcohol consumption. College students (N=226) completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives, abstinence motives, academic motives, and alcohol-related outcomes. Findings suggest that drinking motives are related to abstinence motives but not academic motives. Both forms of alcohol-related motives were related to alcohol use and consequences; no associations between academic motives and alcohol variables were observed. The lack of associations among academic motives, alcohol-related motives, and alcohol variables departs from previous findings suggesting that academic motives impact alcohol use. The current findings indicate a greater understanding of the interplay of motivational sets related to salient issues for youth, such as academics, is needed in order to expand intervention models for alcohol use in such populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Consumer motivations for sustainable consumption:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezvani, Zeinab; Jansson, Johan; Bengtsson, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Recent conceptual studies identify gain, normative and hedonic factors as three categories of motivations of consumer proenvironmental behavior. However, empirical understanding of how these motivations interact and affect proenvironmental behavior is limited. This study is based on a survey of car...... owners in Sweden (N = 573) and uses structural equation modeling to analyze the data. The empirical findings point to the importance of all three motivations (gain, normative and hedonic) in consumer electric vehicle adoption intentions. Furthermore, for consumers who perceive high social norms regarding...

  9. Motivational Leadership: Tips From the Business World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Prabhakar; Bhargava, Puneet

    2016-05-01

    It is an important task for leadership to identify the motivating factors for employees and motivate them to fulfill their individual and organizational goals. Although there are several motivational factors (extrinsic and intrinsic), intrinsic motivational factors such as autonomy, mastery, and purpose are more important for deeper lasting job satisfaction and higher performance. In this article, the authors discuss how an understanding of these factors that influence motivation has the potential to transform an organization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Study into the Motivation of Knowledge Workers: Using an adapted version of the MOCC model of motivation to explain the motivational tendencies of project managers and engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    There is a general need across organisations to better understand the motivation of knowledge workers. Based on our own empirical findings, research into early and contemporary motivation theories and use of Sharp et al.’s (2009) Motivators, Outcomes, Context, and Characteristics (MOCC) motivational model we adapted our own model. Through adapting the content of the model but keeping the framework intact, we were able to explain the various aspects of motivation in project management and engi...

  11. Understanding the visual resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd L. Newby

    1971-01-01

    Understanding our visual resources involves a complex interweaving of motivation and cognitive recesses; but, more important, it requires that we understand and can identify those characteristics of a landscape that influence the image formation process. From research conducted in Florida, three major variables were identified that appear to have significant effect...

  12. The motivational landscape of first-person shooter games

    OpenAIRE

    Finnerman, T. (Tomi); Kuoppala, A. (Antti)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to gain better understanding of the motivations to play video games, particularly first-person shooter games. The aim was therefore to produce a motivational landscape that describes and categorizes the main motivations to play first-person shooter games (FPS). The study tries to expand the understanding of mot...

  13. Motivating the Knowledge Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Herzberg . The Two - factor Theory asserts that motivators and de-motivators are mutually exclusive sets of factors . This research supports...various theories of motivation and the data collected from this effort, the author developed a two -dimensional model of the factors that motivate... Theory X/ Theory Y Two - factor Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Operant Conditioning Protection Motivation Theory

  14. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-06-01

    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Motivation Engineering to Employee by Employees Abraham Maslow Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Suyono; Sri Wiwoho Mudjanarko

    2017-01-01

    Among many existing motivational theories, perhaps Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theories are widely known. This theory passes a message to us that once a person passes a certain level of need, he is no longer motivated by the level of motivation below. This provides an understanding that a manager or leader or motivator in the organization should know what is needed by subordinates. The need of a daily production worker with staff of managerial staff is different. To provide motivation that ca...

  16. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Mata, Jutta; Palmeira, António L; Markland, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theor...

  17. Measuring Tourism motivation: Do Scales matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Songshan (Sam)

    2009-01-01

    Measuring tourist motivation has always been a challenging task for tourism researchers. This paper aimed to increase the understanding of tourist motivation measurement by comparing two frequently adopted motivation measurement approaches: self-perception (SP) and importance-rating (IR) approaches. Results indicated that both SP and IR scales were highly reliable in terms of internal consistency. However, respondents tended to rate more positively in the SP scale than in the IR scale. Factor...

  18. The relevance of motivation in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Paulet Manuel; Ciobica Alin; Cojocaru Sabina; Popescu Radu; Timofte Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Lately there is a growing interest in the negative symptoms in schizophrenia and their mechanisms of action, with special focus on the motivation process. The lack of motivation is increasingly recognized to be a very important impediment to positive management in schizophrenic pathology. In this mini-review, we described the current understanding of the nature and causes of the specific motivational deficits in schizophrenia in order to find better managem...

  19. HOW TO MOTIVATE OTHERS AND MOTIVATE YOURSELF IN TIMES OF CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Work motivation is an adaptive behavior with which we respond effectively to our job demands. The current crisis has introduced changes in some basic working conditions (timetable, salary, security, etc. that are affecting a type of motivation determined by the external conditions of the worker. Research shows that this nonself-determined motivation is weaker in intensity and less persistent over time than self-determined motivation. Based on the research we have been developing in recent years, we propose some guidelines that focus on encouraging a more autonomous and self-determined motivation. Much of this research has been based on a dynamic understanding of work motivation. Understanding the dynamics of motivation gives us useful guidelines for action.

  20. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...

  1. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  2. Motivation for pilgrimage: using theory to explore motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Blackwell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a discussion of the motivations for pilgrimage and it will draw upon theories of motivation to explore the continuing attraction of pilgrimage in contemporary times. This discussion is located within the field of Event Management. Event Management is a fast growing discipline which focuses on the design, production and management of planned events, such as festivals, celebrations, conferences, fund-raisers and so on. Clearly pilgrimages, as planned events, fit into this definition. In this context, it is essential to recognise the importance of understanding the motives and needs of event customers so that we can plan to help our customers satisfy their motives. Whilst it might seem abhorrent and commercial to talk of pilgrims as customers, pilgrimages and religious sites have become more and more commodified and increasingly are deemed to need professional management. Key theories of motivation will be compared in order to identify the prime motivating factors underpinning people’s decisions to make pilgrimages.

  3. Motivation: What have we learned and what is still missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, B; Knecht, S

    2016-01-01

    This final chapter deliberates three overarching topics and conclusions of the research presented in this volume: the endurance of the concept of extrinsic vs intrinsic motivation, the importance of considering subjective costs of activities when aiming to understand and enhance motivation, and current knowledge of the neurobiological underpinnings of motivation. Furthermore, three topics for future motivation research are outlined, namely the assessment and determinants of intrinsic benefits, the reconciliation of activity-specific motivation models with generalized motivation impairments in clinical populations, and the motivational dynamics of groups. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…

  5. Open government objectives and participation motivations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; Ehrenhard, Michel Léon; Kuhn, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Open government aims, among others, at improving engagement of citizens in public sector activities. To realize this potential, we need to understand citizens' motivations to engage in the many different variants of open government. This article identifies motivations for open government

  6. [The motivational interview in the educational approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudan, Corinne

    2014-12-01

    The motivational interview helps nurses trained in this technique to optimise the motivational approach with the patient. This communication tool also gives them greater understanding of the resistance of people confronted with a chronic disease and to support them more effectively towards change.

  7. Applied Problems and Use of Technology in an Aligned Way in Basic Courses in Probability and Statistics for Engineering Students--A Way to Enhance Understanding and Increase Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterqvist, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Researchers and teachers often recommend motivating exercises and use of mathematics or statistics software for the teaching of basic courses in probability and statistics. Our courses are given to large groups of engineering students at Lund Institute of Technology. We found that the mere existence of real-life data and technology in a course…

  8. Assessing Validity of Measurement in Learning Disabilities Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling: The Roles of Anxiety and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to test the hypothesis that the psychometric characteristics of ability scales may be significantly distorted if one accounts for emotional factors during test taking. Specifically, the present studies evaluate the effects of anxiety and motivation on the item difficulties of the Rasch model. In Study 1, the…

  9. Motivation programmes of organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Pízová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...

  10. 'It's like a personal motivator that you carried around wi' you': utilising self-determination theory to understand men's experiences of using pedometers to increase physical activity in a weight management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnachie, Craig; Wyke, Sally; Mutrie, Nanette; Hunt, Kate

    2017-05-05

    Self-monitoring using pedometers is an effective behaviour change technique to support increased physical activity (PA). However, the ways in which pedometers operate as motivational tools in adoption and maintenance of PA is not well understood. This paper investigates men's experiences of pedometers as motivational tools both during and after their participation in a 12-week group-based, weight management programme for overweight/obese men, Football Fans in Training (FFIT). Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 28 men, purposively sampled to include men who did and did not achieve 5% weight loss during the programme. Data were analysed thematically utilising the framework approach, using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) - namely concepts of behavioural regulation and the basic needs of relatedness, competence and autonomy - as an analytical lens. During the programme, FFIT's context and fellow participants supported relatedness and encouraged use of the pedometer. The pedometer was seen to provide tangible proof of progress, thus increasing competence for change, whilst the ability to monitor one's own progress and take remedial action supported autonomy; these men portrayed the pedometer as an 'ally'. However, a minority found the pedometer 'dispiriting' or controlling when it evidenced their inability to meet their PA targets. After the programme, some men no longer used the device as they had fully internalised their motivations for increased PA. In contrast, others continued to use pedometers or progressed to other self-monitoring technologies because it was enjoyable and facilitated maintenance of their increased PA. However, the minority of men who experienced the pedometer as controlling no longer used it. They were less successful in achieving 5% weight loss and appeared reliant on external factors, including support from coach and group members, to maintain motivation. These findings show how self-monitoring using pedometers and

  11. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  12. Achievement motive of future physical education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Dušanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of the characteristics of achievement motive of future physical education teachers. Starting from understanding of the importance of achievement motive for the successful accomplishment of professional goals and roles of teachers, the aim of our research is to examine the level of achievement motive, the characteristics of its structure and differences according to gender. The instrument MOP2002 (Franceško et al., 2002a was applied, which presupposes the complex structure of this motive. The sample consisted of 373 students (263 male and 110 female of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Belgrade. The results show that their achievement motive is characterized by the tendency towards high level of presence, and its structure is in the largest degree determined by the components accomplishing goals as a source of pleasure and perseverance in accomplishing goals, which is followed by orientation towards planning. The component competing with others is demonstrated in a moderate degree and it is least expressed. It was shown that female students have a larger degree of achievement motive when compared to male students, and accomplishing goals as a source of pleasure and perseverance in accomplishing goals mostly contribute to the difference in structure of achievement motive. It can be expected that the achievement motive, with the structure and degree of presence determined in our respondents, will contribute that they, as future teachers, become a good motivational model and the creators of a desirable motivational climate.

  13. Command and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....

  14. Motivating Language and Empathic Leadership Drives Aircraft Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    M.O.T.O), which has helped me understand the impact of motivating language! Commanders and senior enlisted leaders, thank you for your shared...Exchange and Motivating Language. Source: Mayfield & Mayfield (2009). 3. Empathic Leadership in the Workplace Empathy or empathic emotions has an...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. MOTIVATING

  15. Motivational Profiles and Their Associations with Achievement Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

    2009-01-01

    With the belief that theoretical integration in motivation may help us better understand motivational behavior, we designed this study to explore adolescents' motivational profiles and their associations with knowledge acquisition, leisure-time exercise behaviors, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Middle school students from a large urban inner-city…

  16. Motivation, Achievement-Related Behaviours, and Educational Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.I. Rotgans (Jerome)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDo students who are motivated behave differently in terms of their learning in the classroom and perform better than students who are less or not motivated? Understanding if and how motivational beliefs (e.g. self-efficacy judgments or task-value beliefs) are related to academic

  17. The influence of motivation on Librarians' job satisfaction | Nwaigwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A general opinion that is supported by research is that motivation is crucial to any workforce, if they are expected to perform to their optimum. The common understanding being that motivated staff will put in more and be satisfied with their jobs. The influence of motivation on the job satisfaction of librarians is therefore crucial ...

  18. Improving Students' Intrinsic Motivation in Piano Learning: Expert Teacher Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zijia; Southcott, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Many students learn to play the piano but some lack the motivation to continue learning. Many students learn for extrinsic reasons. This research will explore understandings about student motivation held by expert piano teachers who have developed strategies to improve their students' intrinsic motivation to begin and continue learning. This small…

  19. Motivation Engineering to Employee by Employees Abraham Maslow Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Suyono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among many existing motivational theories, perhaps Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theories are widely known. This theory passes a message to us that once a person passes a certain level of need, he is no longer motivated by the level of motivation below. This provides an understanding that a manager or leader or motivator in the organization should know what is needed by subordinates. The need of a daily production worker with staff of managerial staff is different. To provide motivation that can improve performance to both, a motivator must provide different treatment according to their needs.

  20. Motivating Students with Authentic Science Experiences: Changes in Motivation for School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Jenny M.; Lindberg, Stina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Students' motivation for science declines over the early teenage years, and students often find school science difficult and irrelevant to their everyday lives. This paper asks whether creating opportunities to connect school science to authentic science can have positive effects on student motivation. Purpose: To understand how…

  1. On the instigation of implicit motivation: How deprivation and positive affect cause motivated behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the question how people become motivated to perform specific actions without giving it much conscious thought. For example, how does it come that you mindlessly drink a glass of beer in one gulp? Based on a review of the literature, a framework to understand motivated

  2. College Students' Motivation for Physical Activity: Differentiating Men's and Women's Motives for Sport Participation and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Marcus; Hebert, Edward; Bartholomew, John

    2005-01-01

    Despite the many clear benefits of an active lifestyle, lack of physical activity is a significant health problem in the college population. A key issue in physical activity research is developing an understanding of motivation. Although physical activity takes many forms, most research designed to enhance motivation for and adherence to physical…

  3. Social Relationships and Motivation in Secondary School: Four Different Motivation Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Jagenow, Danilo; Drury, Kate; Hoferichter, Frances

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance our understanding of individual differences in scholastic motivation, the present study examined if social relationships in school are equally important for motivation across a large sample of adolescent students. Based on past research as well as our preliminary findings, it was hypothesized that there would be four different…

  4. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsi...

  5. Asian International Graduate Students’ Extrinsic Motivation to Pursue Degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Takashiro

    2017-01-01

    The author examined the types of extrinsic motivation for Asian international graduate students pursuing graduate degrees. The theoretical framework used was extrinsic motivation within Self-Determination Theory. Even though the presence of Asian international graduate students is steadily increasing worldwide, research into their extrinsic motivation is scarce. It is important for educators to explore and understand Asian international graduate students’ extrinsic motivation since such stude...

  6. The Role of Client Motivation in Workplace Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Mabin; Christine Randall

    2014-01-01

    Motivation has been recognised as an essential component in managing medical issues, adjusting to physical disability, cognitive impairment, returning to work, and improving psychosocial functioning (Wagner & McMahon, 2004).  This research explores the role of client motivation in workplace rehabilitation and demonstrates the implications for rehabilitation counselling practice. The research focuses on understanding the concept of motivation, reasons for its presence or absence, and why motiv...

  7. Motivation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccia, Thierry; Viau, Rolland

    2017-02-01

    Motivation is a concept which has fascinated researchers for many decades. The field of medical education has become interested in motivation recently, having always assumed that medical students must be motivated because of their commitment to highly specific training, leading to a very specific profession. However, motivation is a major determinant of the quality of learning and success, the lack of which may well explain why teachers sometimes observe medical students who are discouraged, have lost interest or abandon their studies, with a feeling of powerlessness or resignation. After describing the importance of motivation for learning in medicine, this Guide will define the concept of motivation, setting it within the context of a social cognitive approach. In the second part of this Guide, recommendations are made, based upon the so-called "motivational dynamic model", which provides a multitude of various strategies with positive effects on students' motivation to learn.

  8. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  9. The Impact of Motivation on Employees Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kušar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How does Motivation Impact Employees Effectiveness? Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine how motivation contributes to greater work efficiency. Method: Qualitative method was used, specifically, interviews with five individuals, two leaders and three employees in different organizations. Results: The research study provides findings on how motivation affects theeffective work of employees and how employees are encouraged to maximize work motivation. The results also present which demotivating factors are most present at work. Organization: The findings assist management staff to understand their rolein motivating their employees and how much it is important that leaders themselves should be the most motivated. Society: Results show that employee motivation is very important at the workplace. Because of this, employees have to take care of a good work climate within the organization and for good interpersonal relationships with fellow employees. Originality: Certain motivators were ranked differently in the review of literature, because many respondents in this study favored intangible motivating factors before tangible ones. Limitations/further research: The study is limited to employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. One of the limitations is the time determination, because I was interviewing employees at a specific time (now and not for the past.

  10. Substance use and motivation: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korcha, Rachael A; Polcin, Douglas L; Bond, Jason C; Lapp, William M; Galloway, Gantt

    2011-01-01

    Motivation to change substance use behavior is an important component of the recovery process that has usually been studied at entry into treatment. Less studied, but equally important, is the measurement of motivation over time and the role motivation plays in subsequent substance use. The present study sought to examine longitudinal motivation toward sobriety among residents of sober living houses. Sober living residents (n = 167) were followed at 6-month intervals over an 18-month period and assessed for motivation and substance use outcomes at each study interview. Motivation was measured using the costs and benefits subscales of the Alcohol and Drug Consequences Questionnaire (ADCQ) and substance use outcomes included the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) alcohol scale, ASI drug scale, and peak density of substance use (number of days of most use in a month). Participants reported higher benefits than costs of sobriety or cutting down substance use at every study time point. Using lagged generalized estimating equation models, the ADCQ costs predicted increased severity for alcohol, drugs, and peak density, whereas the benefits subscale predicted decreased drug and peak density. Longitudinal measurement of motivation can be a useful clinical tool to understand later substance use problems. Given the mixed findings from prior studies on the effects of baseline motivation, a shift toward examining longitudinal measures of motivation at proximal and temporal intervals is indicated.

  11. Motivational modes and learning in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerde, Karin; Braun, Erin Kendall; Higgins, E Tory; Shohamy, Daphna

    2015-08-01

    Learning and motivation are intrinsically related, and both have been linked to dopamine. Parkinson's disease results from a progressive loss of dopaminergic inputs to the striatum and leads to impairments in motivation and learning from feedback. However, the link between motivation and learning in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. To address this gap, we leverage a well-established psychological theory of motivation, regulatory mode theory, which distinguishes between two functionally independent motivational concerns in regulating behavior: a concern with having an effect by initiating and maintaining movement (Locomotion) and a concern with establishing what is correct by critically evaluating goal pursuit means and outcomes (Assessment). We examined Locomotion and Assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. Parkinson's disease patients demonstrated a selective decrease in Assessment motivation but no change in Locomotion motivation, suggesting that Parkinson's disease leads to a reduced tendency to evaluate and monitor outcomes. Moreover, weaker Assessment motivation was correlated with poorer performance on a feedback-based learning task previously shown to depend on the striatum. Together, these findings link a questionnaire-based personality inventory with performance on a well-characterized experimental task, advancing our understanding of how Parkinson's disease affects motivation with implications for well-being and treatment outcomes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  13. Motivation in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate medical students’ motivation, particularly the importance of quality of motivation, factors influencing and outcomes and to explore how these can be applied to ...

  14. Motivation and career development

    OpenAIRE

    Flemr, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this diploma thesis is to outline various theories of work motivation, career growth and their practical application in sales team management within a sales organization. In the theoretical part the paper deals with the definition of essential terms including but not limited to motivation, work motivation, career and work career. Moreover, it focuses on selected motivational theories, basic criteria and current principles of managing the work career, career growth and de...

  15. Unges motivation i udskolingen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi; Hjort-Madsen, Peder

    Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen......Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen...

  16. Learner Motivation and Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina; Gudeva, Liljana Koleva; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...

  17. Theme: Motivating Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartin, Stacy A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "How Do I Turn Your Crank to Get You Going?" (Gartin); "How Do You Say 'I Don't Know' and Not Feel Guilty?" (Dickson); "Basics of Motivation" (Rankin); "Challenge to Lead Motivates Students" (D'Haem, Krueger); "Don't Just Tell Me, Teach Me!" (Custer, Leugers); "The 'I' in Motivation" (Woody); and "Student Self Discipline Scale" (Coffman).…

  18. Motivation, Management, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Joseph A.

    There is an increasing interest today in the ways in which human motivation contributes to the productivity and performance of personnel. This early study of motivation management emphasizes that the organizational environment is a principal determinant of the quality of employee motivation. Concrete considerations in the management of motivation…

  19. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  20. Personlighed og motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2017-01-01

    ses som forskelle i deres personlighed og i deres motivation. Kapitlet er opbygget således, at ganske kort præciseres først de to begreber, personlighed og motivation, hvorefter udvalgte teoretiske perspektiver på personlighed og motivation tages op. Til sammen vil disse bidrage til at besvare...

  1. Researching Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaabi, Sultan Ali R.; Alkaabi, Warda; Vyver, Glen

    2017-01-01

    Motivation has been studied by different scientists in different fields of knowledge such as biology, psychology, and education for a long period, which has cultivated a wealth of knowledge in these disciplines. The richness in motivation theories poses complexity in motivation research. Due to these complexities, many researchers focus on using a…

  2. Transfer line tests take centre stage

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Last weekend, proton beams came knocking on the LHC's door. Shooting from the SPS and into the two LHC transfer lines, the proton beams were dumped just short of entering the accelerator.   The upper plot shows the trajectory of the first TI2 beam, which reached the end of the transfer line in a single attempt after 18 months of technical stop. Below, a smoother beam trajectory in TI2 after some corrections. For the first time since Run 1, the SPS to LHC transfer lines (TI8 and TI2) transported proton beams just short of the LHC. "We tested the beam instrumentation, the devices that measure the beam intensity, transverse beam profile, position and losses, as well as the beam collimators along the transfer lines," says Reyes Alemany Fernandez, the engineer in charge of the LHC. "We were also able to spot possible bottle necks in the beam trajectory and to perform the first optics measurements." Once the beams arrived at the transfer line beam dumps...

  3. Pain, decisions and actions: a motivational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eWiech

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Because pain signals potential harm to the organism, it immediately attracts attention and motivates decisions and action. However, pain is also subject to motivations – an aspect that has led to considerable changes in our understanding of (chronic pain over the recent years. The relationship between pain and motivational states is therefore clearly bidirectional.This review provides an overview on behavioral and neuroimaging studies investigating motivational aspects of pain. We highlight recent insights into the modulation of pain through fear and social factors, summarize findings on the role of pain in fear conditioning, avoidance learning and goal conflicts and discuss evidence on pain-related cognitive interference and motivational aspects of pain relief.

  4. The social motivation theory of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Coralie; Kohls, Gregor; Troiani, Vanessa; Brodkin, Edward S; Schultz, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The idea that social motivation deficits play a central role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has recently gained increased interest. This constitutes a shift in autism research, which has traditionally focused more intensely on cognitive impairments, such as theory-of-mind deficits or executive dysfunction, and has granted comparatively less attention to motivational factors. This review delineates the concept of social motivation and capitalizes on recent findings in several research areas to provide an integrated account of social motivation at the behavioral, biological and evolutionary levels. We conclude that ASD can be construed as an extreme case of diminished social motivation and, as such, provides a powerful model to understand humans' intrinsic drive to seek acceptance and avoid rejection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Motivator-manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs.

  6. BULGARIAN TEACHERS’ CAREER MOTIVATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of several studies of teachers’ career motivation since Bulgarian Renaissance till nowadays is presented in this paper. 203 Bulgarian teachers in public schools were studied by means of a questionnaire created by Slavchov & Stoyanova (2007 measuring career motivational types, according to Moses’ typology (2003. The career motivational type of Authenticity seekers was the most preferred by the studied Bulgarian teachers, followed by Personal developers and Stability seekers. Career builders as a career motivational type was minor career motivator, the least preferred one by Bulgarian teachers. A lot of significant positive correlations existed between teachers’ career motivational types. Some social-demographic factors (such as gender, specialty, work experience, and age differentiated teachers’ career motivators. The type of Autonomy seekers was more preferred career motivator by male teachers than by female teachers in correspondence to the traditional stereotypes for men. Longer teachers’ work experience and teachers’ advance in age were related to more frequency of Stability seekers, but less frequency of Novelty seekers career motivator. Preschool and elementary school teachers preferred more strongly Authenticity seekers as a career motivator than teachers in natural sciences and mathematics. Establishing major career motivators for teachers may be related to opportunities for improvement of performance and work satisfaction.

  7. Public Service Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  8. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...

  9. (Mis)managing employee motivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Motivated employees are crucial to all organizations, but some management initiatives may actually decrease motivation. Motivation crowding theory thus expects that command and incentives – if they are perceived as controlling - crowd out intrinsic motivation. The perception is thus expected...

  10. Motivation in a multigenerational radiologic science workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalar, Traci

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in history, radiologic science (RS) workplaces consist of 4 generational cohorts. As each cohort possess their own attitudes, values, work habits, and expectations, motivating a generational diverse workplace is challenging. Through the understanding of generational differences, managers are better able to accommodate individual as well as generational needs and help create a more productive and higher performing workplace. The purpose of this paper is to assist managers in the understanding and utilization of generational differences to effectively motivate staff in an RS workplace. Generational cohorts will be defined and discussed along with an in-depth discussion on each of the generations performing in today's RS workplace. Motivators and how they impact the different generational cohorts will be addressed along with how to best motivate a multigenerational RS workplace.

  11. How Motivation Influences Student Engagement: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sitwat; Zyngier, David

    2012-01-01

    The authors use Ryan and Deci's (2000) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to better understand how student motivation and engagement are linked combined with Schlechty's Student Engagement Continuum to analyse the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on students' different engagement types. The study seeks to understand which type of…

  12. Work motivation of nurses: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Suominen, Tarja

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this review is to describe nurses' work motivation from the perspective of staff nurses. This information would be useful for the development of motivation strategies and further research into nurses' work motivation. A thorough review of the research literature. The literature search was performed using four databases: CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, and SocINDEX. Only studies that met the following criteria were selected for review: (1) were published between 1990 and 2009, (2) were written in English, (3) dealt with work motivation, (4) concerned working staff nurses, (5) involved empirical research, (6) clearly and explicitly provided the research results about the factors affecting nurses' work motivation. Altogether 24 studies met these criteria and were included in this review. Inductive content analysis was carried out to analyse and categorise the data. Nursing research has neither clear understanding nor consensus about the concept of work motivation; nor has a universal definition been adopted. Despite limited empirical evidence it may be concluded that staff nurses appear to be motivated. Five categories of factors affecting their work motivation were identified: (1) work-place characteristics, (2) working conditions, (3) personal characteristics, (4) individual priorities, and (5) internal psychological states. Further research is needed to gain a more comprehensive insight into nurses' work motivation and the factors affecting it. This can be achieved by defining the concept of work motivation as precisely as possible, working out a pertinent research methodology, and subsequently developing and testing a theoretical model of nurses' work motivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hospital nurses' work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p extrinsic motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. Motivating the Stakeholders, a Feature of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Raluca ROBU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation, in a narrow meaning, based on a classical vision on the organisation and management, aims only at the employees or staff of the organization. This optics still predominates both in theory and in the worldwide managerial practice. Motivation, in a broad meaning, contoured in recent years, based on a modern vision on the organization and management is centred on the stakeholders, namely on those people, categories of staff and organisms who have major interests in developing the activity and performances of the organisation. In order to understand motivation, the managers must first understand the reasons why the individuals behave in a certain way and for which they have certain reactions under threatening situations or by which influencing is attempted. Motivation is an internal process, not an imperative one which can be compelled from the outside. Managers must understand the motivation strategies, the way in which they succeed or fail on the grounds of the way in which they succeed in influencing the inner motivations of the employees.

  15. Investigating teachers’ exploration of a professional development website: An innovative approach to understanding the factors that motivate teachers to use Internet-based resources / Investigation de l’exploration par les enseignants d’un site Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Beach

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study examined an innovative methodology, combining screen capture technology and a retrospective think aloud, for exploring the use of Internet-based resources by elementary teachers. Pre-service and in-service teachers explored The Balanced Literacy Diet, a free, interactive, and evidenced-informed professional development website. As participants navigated through this complex site, each visual step was captured using Camtasia Studio, a screen recording computer software program developed by TechSmith. Immediately following their 10-minute exploration, participants revisited their online choices virtually and verbalized their thoughts while viewing their screen recording. Qualitative analysis confirmed the usefulness of the methodology and provided insights about the factors that motivate teachers to use professional development websites. Results of the analysis can contribute to the ongoing development of high quality online learning environments. Cette étude qualitative s’est penchée sur une méthodologie innovatrice combinant les technologies de saisie d’écran et la pensée rétrospective à voix haute pour l’exploration de l’utilisation des ressources dans Internet par les enseignants de l’élémentaire. Des enseignants en formation initiale et des enseignants sur place ont exploré The Balanced Literacy Diet, un site Web de perfectionnement professionnel gratuit, interactif et s’appuyant sur des données probantes. Tandis que les participants naviguaient dans ce site complexe, chaque étape visuelle était captée à l’aide de Camtasia Studio, un logiciel d’enregistrement de l’écran développé par TechSmith. Immédiatement après leur exploration de 10 minutes, les participants ont revisité virtuellement leurs choix en ligne et ont verbalisé leurs réflexions en regardant l’enregistrement de l’écran. L’analyse qualitative a confirmé l’utilité de la méthodologie et a fourni des

  16. [Reconsideration of nicotine and other substance dependence: a clue from dependence-related mentation including reward, motivation, learning, delusion and hallucination toward understanding the concept of non-substance-related addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hisatsugu

    2013-11-01

    Nicotine produces core symptoms of substance dependence (craving and withdrawal) without any psychotic symptoms. The psychopharmacological structure of craving is hypothesized to be constituted by three components: the primary reinforcing property of a substance, the secondary reinforcing property of that substance (conditioned aspects of the environment, such as contextual or specific cues associated with substance taking), and the negative affective motivational property during withdrawal (i.e. the desire to avoid the dysphoric withdrawal symptoms elicits craving). Among the three components, the primary reinforcing property of a substance forms the most fundamental factor for establishing substance dependence. Sensitization or reverse tolerance observed in locomotor activity of animals, which had been believed to be a methamphetamine psychosis model, is demonstrated to reflect the establishment of conditioned reinforcement. Finally, non-substance-related addiction such as gambling, internet, and sex is discussed. From the aspect of the above hypothetical psychopharmacological structure of craving, the most significant difference between substance dependence and non-substance-related addiction is that the primary reinforcing property of non-substance reward is relatively intangible in comparison with that of a substance of abuse.

  17. Forming and actualization of cognitive motives as means for development of students' analytical thinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Svetlana Nikolaevna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considered different approaches to understanding the concepts of motivation and motive. Species analyzed motives of educational activity. Established that cognitive motives are most effective for the development of analytical thinking of students. The study used data from test 1-4 grade students. An interconnection between the level of academic achievement and student motivation level of its training. Isolated areas of forming and maintaining cognitive motives of students in the learning process. It is established that the formation and activation of the cognitive motivation of students affected: the content of educational material, organizing training activities, style of teaching. Each component provides the motivational aspect of students to study.

  18. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  19. Second Language Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of ESP learning motivation. The meaning of motivation and three main approaches to motivational psychology: expectancy-value theory, goal-directed theory and the self-determination theory are presented, two distinct orientations for learning a language: integrative and instrumental are described in the paper. The importance of needs analysis to ESP learning is stressed and the main conditions (interest in the topic and activity; relevance to the students’ lives; expectancy of success and feelings of being in control and satisfaction in the outcome for motivation are described. The skills that ESP learners need to develop are specified. The description of approaches to motivational psychology is proposed, as motivation is of great significance in foreign language learning.

  20. Motivation and remuneration

    OpenAIRE

    SOUKUP, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor work is analysis of remuneration and motivation in travel agencies and companies, where is established performance pay system for self-employed. Work consists of literature review and practical part. Literature review contains information about motivation and remuneration. Practical part includes information about analyzed companies, analysis remuneration and motivation, evaluation analyzed companies and conceiving performance pay system, in which are participants sel...

  1. Motivation in Experiential Education

    OpenAIRE

    Porada, Petr

    2007-01-01

    This project is dedicated to study of motivation in experiential courses. More exactly it tries to describe motivation means suitable for teenage trainees to make them cooperate willingly and actively on course asset. And not just that. It also describes factors which have influence on quality and quantity of aplicated effort, manners how to enforce trainees to carry on working when some problem appears and also how the motivation is affected by the instructor's and peers' admittance. The pro...

  2. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  3. Adaptive Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    concept of motivation at all. Nuttin (1973) placed -5- Landy: ONR Annual Report certain hedonistic overtones on White’s principle of effectance motivation...deficiencies of motivation theories become particularly apparent in dealing with the issue of boredom . Tn terms of objective reality, it would seem...with expcsure to a c nstant stimulus set, we might justifiably conclude that there is a regular sequence which characterizes the appearance of boredom

  4. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  5. The Motivated Project Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Financial incentives that match level of achievement • Regular, constructive feedback. Hierarchy of Needs ( Abraham H. Maslow ) Team members can be...Much has been written regarding motivational Defense AT&L: November-December 2009 58 theory . To further complicate mat- ters, some motivational... theories clearly contradict others, and a manager’s ability to motivate is, to no small degree, related to his or her leadership approach and inter

  6. Can implicit motivation be measured?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Alexandra; Scholderer, Joachim

    According to recent neurobiological models, food choices are influenced by two separate reward systems: motivational wanting (incentive salience of the reward) and affective liking (hedonic pleasure associated with the reward). Both are assumed to have conscious and unconscious components. Applying...... such promising conceptual frameworks within consumer research would not only be helpful for understanding human appetite but also has implications for predicting consumer behaviour. Since the affective liking system has strong similarities to contemporary attitude theories, implicit and explicit measures...... of evaluation could be applied. However, no comparable procedures have been developed for the motivational wanting component; generally accepted “low-tech” measures are therefore still lacking! Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and test implicit measures of wanting that can be used as dependent...

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF PERSONNEL MOTIVATION IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the motivation of personnel, essential tool in the management process, and also a component derived from human resource management. In economic activity, personnel motivation should be regarded as an internal process, not as an imperative that can be imposed from outside the economic entity. Managers of economic entities must, first, understand personnel motivation strategies, how they influence positively or negatively the internal motivations of employees. Personnel motivation by itself attracts an end, just as profitable and moral, individual and social welfare making.

  8. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  9. Guided Reading and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  10. Motives for Social Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Mickelson, Kristin D.

    1995-01-01

    A set of motive statements for social comparison was elicited from one group of subjects and then rated in terms of usefulness by a second group of subjects. Analysis of these statements revealed six motives in response to two different hypothetical scenarios: self-evaluation, common bond, self-improvement, self-enhancement, altruism, and…

  11. Motivating University Researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Alves de Sousa, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation into how universities approach the need and means for motivating university researchers through their management practices. The role of work motivation for this group deserves attention because pressures from outside and within the universities are said

  12. What is this Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, T. R.

    1971-01-01

    Maslow's Hierarchial Theory, Mcgregor's X & Y Theory, and Hertsberg's Hygiene Theory all based on motivation, are examined as to their effectiveness to increase worker production. The author feels management should not concentrate on motivation and offers his own theory, Spiral Web Theory, to help increase employee productiveness. (RB)

  13. Emotion, Motivation, and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekaerts, Monique, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Nine papers on the interrelationship between emotion, motivation, and learning are presented. Articles focusing on motivation were presented at the Second Conference of the European Association of Learning and Instruction in Tubingin, West Germany. Three other papers focus on anxiety, optimism-pessimism, stress, coping, and social support. (TJH)

  14. Motivation techniques for supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N. D.

    1974-01-01

    Guide has been published which deals with various aspects of employee motivation. Training methods are designed to improve communication between supervisors and subordinates, to create feeling of achievement and recognition for every employee, and to retain personnel confidence in spite of some negative motivators. End result of training is reduction or prevention of errors.

  15. Motivation in medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis

  16. Mange unge mangler motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutters, Camilla; Katznelson, Noemi

    2012-01-01

    Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring.......Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring....

  17. Motives for SMS Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.; Almekinders, Johan; van Buren, Ruud; Snippers, Roy; Wessels, Jacqueline

    This study was designed to identify, from a uses-and-gratifications point of view, the motives that young people in the age of 12 to 25 have for using SMS. The study also aimed to assess whether these SMS motives are related to age, gender, current education, mobile phone experience, SMS experience

  18. Measuring Adolescent Science Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ("Gymnasium") completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one…

  19. Students' Motivation in Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretu, Daniela

    2003-01-01

    Presents an approach that teachers can use to promote and investigate students' motivation to learn in the classroom. Notes that the strategies used are from Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking courses. Explains the following motivational devices: dual-entry diary; clusters; know/want to know/learned; think/pair/share; discussion web;…

  20. How winning changes motivation in multiphase competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Szu-Chi; Etkin, Jordan; Jin, Liyin

    2017-06-01

    What drives motivation in multiphase competitions? Adopting a dynamic approach, this research examines how temporary standing-being ahead of (vs. behind) one's opponent-in a multiphase competition shapes subsequent motivation. Six competitions conducted in the lab and in the field demonstrate that the impact of being ahead on contestants' motivation depends on when (i.e., in which phase of the competition) contestants learn they are in the lead. In the early phase, contestants are concerned about whether they can win; being ahead increases motivation by making winning seem more attainable. In the later phase, however, contestants are instead driven by how much additional effort they believe they need to invest; being ahead decreases motivation by reducing contestants' estimate of the remaining effort needed to win. Temporary standing thus has divergent effects on motivation in multiphase competitions, driven by a shift in contestants' main concern from the early to the later phase and thus the meaning they derive from being ahead of their opponent. By leveraging insights gained from approaching individuals' self-regulation as a dynamic process, this research advances understanding of how motivation evolves in a unique interdependent self-regulatory context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  2. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  3. Motivators for Alzheimer's disease clinical trial participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardach, Shoshana H; Holmes, Sarah D; Jicha, Gregory A

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) research progress is impeded due to participant recruitment challenges. This study seeks to better understand, from the perspective of individuals engaged in clinical trials (CTs), research motivations. Participants, or their caregivers, from AD treatment and prevention CTs were surveyed about research motivators. The 87 respondents had a mean age of 72.2, were predominantly Caucasian, 55.2% were male, and 56.3% had cognitive impairment. An overwhelming majority rated the potential to help themselves or a loved one and the potential to help others in the future as important motivators. Relatively few respondents were motivated by free healthcare, monetary rewards, or to make others happy. Recruitment efforts should focus on the potential benefit for the individual, their loved ones, and others in the future rather than free healthcare or monetary rewards.

  4. Explicit and Implicit Approach Motivation Interact to Predict Interpersonal Arrogance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D.; Ode, Scott; Spencer L., Palder; Fetterman, Adam K.

    2012-01-01

    Self-reports of approach motivation are unlikely to be sufficient in understanding the extent to which the individual reacts to appetitive cues in an approach-related manner. A novel implicit probe of approach tendencies was thus developed, one that assessed the extent to which positive affective (versus neutral) stimuli primed larger size estimates, as larger perceptual sizes co-occur with locomotion toward objects in the environment. In two studies (total N = 150), self-reports of approach motivation interacted with this implicit probe of approach motivation to predict individual differences in arrogance, a broad interpersonal dimension previously linked to narcissism, antisocial personality tendencies, and aggression. The results of the two studies were highly parallel in that self-reported levels of approach motivation predicted interpersonal arrogance in the particular context of high, but not low, levels of implicit approach motivation. Implications for understanding approach motivation, implicit probes of it, and problematic approach-related outcomes are discussed. PMID:22399360

  5. Explicit and implicit approach motivation interact to predict interpersonal arrogance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Ode, Scott; Palder, Spencer L; Fetterman, Adam K

    2012-07-01

    Self-reports of approach motivation are unlikely to be sufficient in understanding the extent to which the individual reacts to appetitive cues in an approach-related manner. A novel implicit probe of approach tendencies was thus developed, one that assessed the extent to which positive affective (versus neutral) stimuli primed larger size estimates, as larger perceptual sizes co-occur with locomotion toward objects in the environment. In two studies (total N = 150), self-reports of approach motivation interacted with this implicit probe of approach motivation to predict individual differences in arrogance, a broad interpersonal dimension previously linked to narcissism, antisocial personality tendencies, and aggression. The results of the two studies were highly parallel in that self-reported levels of approach motivation predicted interpersonal arrogance in the particular context of high, but not low, levels of implicit approach motivation. Implications for understanding approach motivation, implicit probes of it, and problematic approach-related outcomes are discussed.

  6. Motivation and learning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Hans Ernst; Horstendahl, Michaela

    1997-09-01

    Being involved in science education we cannot avoid confronting the problem of students' waning interest in physics. Therefore, we want to focus on arguments developed by new theoretical work in the field of motivation. Especially, we are attracted by the theory of motivation featured by Deci and Ryan, because it is related to an assumptions of human development similar to our own approach. Beneath elements of cognitive development, motivation is seen as a basic concept to describe students' learning in a physics classroom. German students at lower and upper secondary level regard physics as very difficult to learn, very abstract and dominated by male students. As a result physics at school continuously loses importance and acceptance although a lot of work has been done to modernise and develop the related physics courses. We assume that knowing about the influence of motivation on learning physics may lead to new insights in the design of classroom settings. Referring to Deci and Ryan, we use a model of motivation to describe the influence of two different teaching strategies (teacher and discourse oriented) on learning. Electrostatics was taught in year 8. The outcomes of a questionnaire which is able to evaluate defined, motivational states are compared with the interpretation of the same student's interaction in the related situation of the physics classroom. The scales of the questionnaire and the categories of analysis of the video-recording are derived from the same model of motivation.

  7. Motivation of Students’ English Learning and Its Implications for English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚莉

    2016-01-01

    As is well-known, people’s behaviors come from certain motivation. The learning of English also related to this certain motivation. The stronger the motivation is, the better effects on English learning students will have. If English teachers have a comprehensive understanding of the types and effects of the motivation, it will be useful for them to adjust their teaching methods to stimulate and sustain the students’ motivation.

  8. The relevance of motivation in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulet Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lately there is a growing interest in the negative symptoms in schizophrenia and their mechanisms of action, with special focus on the motivation process. The lack of motivation is increasingly recognized to be a very important impediment to positive management in schizophrenic pathology. In this mini-review, we described the current understanding of the nature and causes of the specific motivational deficits in schizophrenia in order to find better management strategies for this heterogeneous disorder. All the data and theories presented here clearly demonstrate that amotivation is a fundamental aspect of the negative symptomatology in schizophrenia and could represent a useful factor in understanding and improving the mechanisms and further management of schizophrenia.

  9. Drivers of Employee Motivation: Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Azeem, Sabeen

    2016-01-01

    Employee Motivation is a growing area of importance for the Human Resource Departments organizations of all sizes. Managing the workforce efficiently and effectively has become crucial in order to achieve excellent output from the employees which would lead to the attainment of organizational goals. This study aims to understand the influence of multiple motivational factors on employee motivation of employees of Bank A. Additionally, the mediating role of job satisfaction is elaborated which...

  10. Motivation and will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Vásquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the relationship between motivation and volitional processes as described by current motivation theories. The root of the separation between both moments of behavioris traced back to Tetens and Kant’s threefold view of the mind. Sensory perception is reduced to feeling and the will to energy without a proper object. The history of this conception isoutlined. Nuttin’s motivation theory is presented as an alternative to the limitations of other contemporary theories. Some educational consequences are sketched out.

  11. Simulating motivated cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.

  12. Delegation and Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Angst, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study the determinants of decision rights transfer and its effects on the motivation of an agent. The study is based on a laboratory experiment conducted on 130 subjects playing an innovative principal-agent game. Interestingly, the results show that agents do not favour...... a delegation and a decision is considered rather burdensome. Although the experiment could not give support for the behavioural hypothesis of higher effort provided by participants who receive choice subsequently, the survey illuminates the interaction between delegation motives, effort motivators, goals...

  13. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......, monetary incentives are found to cause different crowding effects for these different types of intrinsic motivation. The results call for more theoretical work on the drivers of motivation crowding effects and for practitioners to pay more attention to what type of intrinsic motivation is at stake, when...

  14. Motivation and Resolve of U.S. Air Force Pilot Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    demonstrated character and emotional composure (stability), and a consistent desire and proven resolve to become, and remain, a pilot ( motivation ). MFS-N... motivation used at MFS-N. The goals of this research are to better understand what motivates pilot candidates to pursue aviation careers and to establish...baseline motivation and grit scores. These scores can then be utilized, in conjunction with other MFS-N testing information, to understand pre-morbid

  15. Employee Motivation for Personal Development Plan Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Lisa; Grohnert, Therese; Beausaert, Simon; Segers, Mien

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to understand conditions under which personal development plans (PDPs) can effectively be implemented for professional learning. Both the organization's manner of supporting the PDP practice as well as the individual employee's motivation is taken into account. Design/ methodology/approach: A questionnaire was…

  16. Prosocial Behavior and Public Service Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteve, Marc; Urbig, Diemo; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Boyne, George

    2016-01-01

    Although research on public service motivation (PSM) is vast, there is little evidence regarding the effects of PSM on observable behavior. This article contributes to the understanding of the behavioral implications of PSM by investigating whether PSM is associated with prosocial behavior.

  17. Prosocial behavior and public service motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteve, M.; Urbig, D.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Boyne, George

    Although research on public service motivation (PSM) is vast, there is little evidence regarding the effects of PSM on observable behavior. This article contributes to our understanding of the behavioral implications of PSM by investigating whether PSM is associated with prosocial behavior.

  18. A Phenomenological Study on Lack of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Research and Reviews, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to point out the underlying reasons about the lack of motivation at academic activities concerning Attribution Theory. Attribution Theory trys to understand how the people answer "why" question and how they do casual explanations. This research is a qualitative based research. It used the phenomenological…

  19. Motivation and morality: Insights into political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C

    2014-06-01

    Our past work linking motivation and morality provides a basis for understanding differences in political ideology and positions across the political spectrum. Conservatism is rooted in avoidance-based proscriptive morality, whereas liberalism is rooted in approach-based prescriptive morality. Two distinct, binding, group moralities reflect these different regulatory systems and emphasize social coordination through Social Order versus social cooperation through Social Justice.

  20. Teaching Team Invasion Games and Motivational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John; Morgan, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Team invasion games (TIG) make up a large part of the PE curriculum in Scottish schools. It is important, therefore, to understand the environmental conditions that contribute to pupils' motivation to learn to play TIG. Consequently, this study aimed to identify the teaching behaviours exhibited when teaching TIG using a game-based approach and a…

  1. Children's theories of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C

    2011-09-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emotion, Motivation und Volition

    OpenAIRE

    Ulich, Dieter

    1996-01-01

    Emotion, Motivation und Volition / D. Ulich ; V. Brandstätter ; P. M. Gollwitzer. - In: Psychologie / hrsg. von Dietrich Dörner ... - 2., überarb. und erw. Aufl. - Stuttgart u.a. : Kohlhammer, 1996. - S. 115-135

  3. Measuring adolescent science motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-02-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ('Gymnasium') completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one criterion, extracted a loading pattern, which in principle, followed the SMQ-II frame. Two items were dropped due to inappropriate loadings. The remaining SMQ-II seems to provide a consistent scale matching the findings in literature. Nevertheless, also possible shortcomings of the scale are discussed. Data showed a higher perceived self-determination in girls which seems compensated by their lower self-efficacy beliefs leading to equality of females and males in overall science motivation scores. Additionally, the Big Five personality traits and science motivation components show little relationship.

  4. INTEREST AND READING MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamdu Alhamdu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interest and reading motivation based on literature review. The concept of the interest portrayed as a psychological state that occurs during interaction between individual and specific topic, object or activity including process of willingness, increased attention, concentration and positive feeling to the topic, object or activity. Meanwhile reading motivation emphasized to mental readiness, willingness and refers to beliefs and perception of individual to engage in reading activity. Some researchers were identified factors that influenced reading motivation such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors, self-concept and value of reading, and interest. In general, the literature review described that have positive relationship between interest and reading motivation.

  5. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  6. Motivation in Distance Leaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of partici­pants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and parti­cipants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.

  7. Motivation and reward systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerde, W.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reward systems are identified as one of the human resource management (HRM) practices that may impact motivation. Reward systems may consist of several components, including financial and nonfinancial rewards, in fixed and variable amounts. Reinforcement, expectancy, and equity principles are

  8. Motivation and Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  9. Motivation and library management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Likar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.

  10. A Longitudinal Approach to Changes in the Motivation of Dutch Pharmacists in the Current Continuing Education System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L; de Boer, Anthonius; Croiset, Gerda; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Koster, Andries S

    2018-03-01

    Objective. To explore the changes in motivation of Dutch pharmacists for Continuing Education (CE) in the Dutch CE system. Methods. Pharmacists' motivation was measured across three time points with the Academic Motivation Scale, based on the Self-Determination Theory of motivation. The Latent Growth Modelling technique was used to analyze these data. Results. Over a period of 21 months, Controlled Motivation had increased and Relative Autonomous Motivation of Dutch pharmacists had decreased. Traineeship was the only demographic factor with a significant influence on the change in motivation. No subgroups with different trajectories could be identified. Conclusion. Relative Autonomous Motivation of Dutch pharmacists for CE decreases over time. This indicates a loss of Autonomous Motivation ("good" motivation) in favor of Controlled Motivation ("bad" motivation). Further research needs to be conducted to gain a better understanding of the association between pharmacist motivation and the features of the current CE system.

  11. Learning Motivation and Achievements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯泽野

    2016-01-01

    It is known to all that motivation is one of the most important elements in EFL learning.This study analyzes the type of English learning motivations and learning achievements within non-English majors’ students (Bilingual program in Highway School and Architecture) in Chang’an University, who has been considered English as the foreign language. This thesis intends to put forward certain strategies in promoting foreign language teaching.

  12. Environmental Morale and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Bruno S; Stutzer, Alois

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of environmental morale and environmental motivation in individual behavior from the point of view of economics and psychology. It deals with the fundamental public good problem, and presents empirical (laboratory and field) evidence on how the cooperation problem can be overcome. Four different theoretical approaches are distinguished according to how individuals� underlying environmental motivation is modeled. Specifically, we look at the interaction betwee...

  13. Feedback og motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerresgaard, Helle

    2016-01-01

    sættes læring i forbindelse med begrebet motivation. I blandt andet Banduras teori, understreges vigtigheden af en tæt forbindelse mellem elevens mestring og lærerens passende målsætning. Med afsæt i (fx) Vygotsky’s ’Zonen for nærmeste udvikling’ belyser artiklen hvordan elevernes motivation kan blive...

  14. Motivational Differences between MOOC and Undergraduate Astronomy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formanek, Martin; Wenger, Matthew; Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris David

    2018-01-01

    It is vital for the instructors and designers of the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) to understand the motivation of its users for enrolling in the class and their reasons to engage with the material. This is particularly important for MOOCs focusing on scientific topics such as our MOOC on Astronomy (Astronomy: Exploring time and space) whose audience is less motivated by a desire to advance their careers compared to other MOOCs. In order to learn more about the motivation of our learners we deployed in our Astronomy MOOC a survey based on the Science Motivation Questionnaire II developed by Glynn et. al (2011). We specifically asked for reasons to sign up for the course and the overall motivation and attitude towards astronomy and science courses. We compare results of 3360 participants of this survey with a similar instrument administered to 638 students in undergraduate Astronomy classes for non Astronomy majors at the University of Arizona. Our comparison not only looks at the demographic differences, but also at reasons for signing up for the course and scores in motivational categories such as self-determination, self-efficacy, grade motivation, career motivation, hobby motivation, social motivation, and intrinsic motivation showing, that these populations of learners are fundamentally different.

  15. Nursing students motivation toward their studies – a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Kerstin EL

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study focuses on Swedish nursing students' motivation toward their studies during their three year academic studies. Earlier studies show the importance of motivation for study commitment and result. The aim was to analyze nursing students' estimation of their degree of motivation during different semester during their education and to identify reasons for the degree of motivation. Methods A questionnaire asking for scoring motivation and what influenced the degree of motivation was distributed to students enrolled in a nursing programme. 315 students who studied at different semesters participated. Analyzes were made by statistical calculation and content analysis. Results The mean motivation score over all semesters was 6.3 (ranked between 0–10 and differed significantly during the semesters with a tendency to lower score during the 5th semester. Students (73/315 with motivation score 6 reported positive opinions to becoming a nurse (125/234, organization of the programme and attitude to the studies. The mean score value for the motivation ranking differed significantly between male (5.8 and female (6.8 students. Conclusion Conclusions to be drawn are that nursing students mainly grade their motivation positive distributed different throughout their entire education. The main motivation factor was becoming a nurse. This study result highlights the need of understanding the students' situation and their need of tutorial support.

  16. Motivation and Learning Engagement through Playing Math Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Daisyane; Vasconcelos, Lucas; Orey, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: With video games being a source of leisure and learning, educators and researchers alike are interested in understanding children's motivation for playing video games as a way to learn. This study explores student motivation and engagement levels in playing two math video games in the game "Club Penguin." Method: This is a…

  17. Ideation High Performers: A Study of Motivational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergendahl, Magnus; Magnusson, Mats; Björk, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    As innovation today is one of the keys to success for firms, creativity among employees becomes an important asset and the understanding about what motivates employees in ideation is consequently of high interest. This article addresses differences in motivation among high and low performers in ideation and contributes to existing theory by…

  18. Group creativity and innovation: a motivated information processing perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Nijstad, B.A.; Bechtoldt, M.N.; Baas, M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the Motivated Information Processing in Groups Model (De Dreu, Nijstad, & Van Knippenberg, 2008) to understand group creativity and innovation. Although distinct phenomena, group creativity and innovation are both considered a function of epistemic motivation (EM; the degree to

  19. Educators' motivation on integration of ICTs into pedagogy: case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates factors that motivate educators to use Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools in disadvantaged areas. The study employed Herzberg' Motivation–Hygiene theory to guide the process of understanding the factors that motivate or demotivate educators when using the technology for ...

  20. The Application of Motivational Theories to Business and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Paul; Farrar, Lochia A.

    This workshop, designed to use motivational theories in understanding work behaviors and to increase job satisfaction and performance, deals with cognitive theories in motivation, need theories, and the Equity Theory within the Expectancy Valence Model. Counseling technique areas of communication skills and rational thinking that facilitate the…

  1. Motivation Terminology in Reading Research: A Conceptual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Kristin; Jang, Bong Gee; McKenna, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of motivation in understanding the development and practices of reading, problems persist in how motivation-related constructs are defined and investigated. This article reports a concept analysis of how 12 terms have been used in current reading research. Selection criteria resulted in the identification of 92 data-based…

  2. The public service-motivated volunteer devoting time or effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costello, Joyce; Homberg, Fabian; Secchi, Davide

    2017-01-01

    and thus may inform subsequent empirical work. First, we address academic debates concerning the measurement of volunteer effort. Second, we propose using public service motivation (PSM) theory as a means to understand the motivation of volunteers across sectors. We suggest that different PSM dimensions...

  3. A Phenomenological Look at 4-H Volunteer Motives for Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Jessalyn; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Volunteers play a vital role in 4-H programs. Without their service, many programs would not be possible. Understanding volunteer motives provides Extension educators with tools for finding high-quality volunteers. The research reported here used McClelland's (1985) framework for motivation (affiliation, achievement, and power) and…

  4. Participation in Biodiversity Conservation: Motivations and Barriers of Australian Landholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Cocklin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation programs that appeal to landholders' motivations and minimise their barriers to participation may result in both increased uptake rates and improved ecological outcomes. To understand their motivations and barriers to conserve biodiversity, qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 landholders who had participated in…

  5. Volunteer Motivations at a National Special Olympics Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Selina; Engelhorn, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the motivations for people to volunteer with the management and execution of major sporting events is important for the recruitment and retention of the volunteers. This research investigated volunteer motivations at the first National Special Olympics held in Ames, Iowa, USA in July 2006. A total of 289 participants completed the 28…

  6. Teacher, Parent and Student Perceptions of the Motives of Cyberbullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Louise; Campbell, Marilyn A.; Mergler, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the motivation of students who cyberbully is important for both prevention and intervention efforts for this insidious form of bullying. This qualitative exploratory study used focus groups to examine the views of teachers, parents and students as to the motivation of students who cyberbully and who bully in other traditional forms.…

  7. The Leadership Effect on Employees Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henrique Guilherme Scatolin; Rafael Barranco; Robson Pereira de Torres

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect that the leadership causes on employees' motivation within the organizations, in order to show the reader that leadership is an external stimulus necessary to awaken the employees' intrinsic feelings, among them, the motivation. The leader faces constant challenges in the organization day by day and he is responsible for understanding his lead team, as well as their several natures and cultural models. In the classical theory, people worked in a mechanistic manner with the motivation, but with the industrial development and the competitiveness incitement, it was observed that to survive on the market, companies need to extract as much as possible of the intellectual capital of its human factor. Therefore, it is necessary to establish conditions under which people feel motivated to work towards the goals outlined by the companies, thus obtaining satisfactory results. This article concludes that motivation is an internal force that is directly affected by external factors in which the manager is responsible for identifying what really motivates each employee in the search for the best results.

  8. Understanding Organizational Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    The attention-based view (ABV) of the firm highlights the role of decision makers’ attention in firm behavior. The ABV vastly improves our understanding of decision makers’ focus of attention; how that focus is situated in an organization’s procedural and communication channels; and how the distr......The attention-based view (ABV) of the firm highlights the role of decision makers’ attention in firm behavior. The ABV vastly improves our understanding of decision makers’ focus of attention; how that focus is situated in an organization’s procedural and communication channels; and how...... the distribution of the focus of attention among decision makers participating in those procedural and communication channels affects their understanding of a situation, their motivation to act, and, ultimately, their behavior. Significant progress has been made in recent years in refining and extending the ABV...

  9. The Effect of Motivational Practices on Volunteer Motivation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assesses whether organizations' motivational practices affect volunteer motivation and levels of performance. This study was guided by the following two research questions: first, what motivation practices exist in Volunteer Involving Organizations and whether such affect volunteers' motivation to volunteer again?

  10. Action Control, L2 Motivational Self System, and Motivated Learning Behavior in a Foreign Language Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khany, Reza; Amiri, Majid

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical developments in second or foreign language motivation research have led to a better understanding of the convoluted nature of motivation in the process of language acquisition. Among these theories, action control theory has recently shown a good deal of explanatory power in second language learning contexts and in the presence of…

  11. Motivation Matters? The Relationship among Different Types of Learning Motivation, Engagement Behaviors and Learning Outcomes of Undergraduate Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tzu-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand predictors of different learning outcomes among various student background characteristics, types of learning motivation and engagement behaviors. 178 junior students were surveyed at a 4-year research university in Taiwan. The scales of motivation, engagement and perceived learning outcomes were adapted…

  12. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among adolescent ten-pin bowlers in kuala lumpur, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Eng-Wah; Khoo, Selina; Wong, Rebecca; Wee, Eng-Hoe; Lim, Boon-Hooi; Rengasamy, Shabesan Sit

    2015-03-29

    Motivation has long been associated with sports engagement. However, to date no research has been performed to understand the domain of motivation among ten-pin bowlers. The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type (competitive vs. casual). A total of 240 bowlers (104 male, 136 female; 152 competitive, 88 casual) with a mean age of 16.61 ± 0.78 years were recruited in Kuala Lumpur. The Sport Motivation Scale, a 28-item self-report questionnaire measuring seven subscales (i.e., intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, extrinsic motivation to identify regulation, extrinsic motivation for introjection regulation, extrinsic motivation to external regulation, and amotivation) was administered. Results showed significant differences (t=10.43, df=239, p=0.01) between total scores of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among ten-pin bowlers. There were significant gender differences with respect to intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, and extrinsic motivation to identify regulation. However, no significant bowler type differences were found for either the intrinsic (t=-1.15, df=238, p=0.25) or extrinsic (t=-0.51, df=238, p=0.61) motivation dimensions. In conclusion, our study demonstrated substantial intrinsic motivation for gender effects, but no bowler type effects among adolescent ten-pin bowlers.

  13. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Among Adolescent Ten-Pin Bowlers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Eng-Wah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has long been associated with sports engagement. However, to date no research has been performed to understand the domain of motivation among ten-pin bowlers. The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type (competitive vs. casual. A total of 240 bowlers (104 male, 136 female; 152 competitive, 88 casual with a mean age of 16.61 ± 0.78 years were recruited in Kuala Lumpur. The Sport Motivation Scale, a 28-item self-report questionnaire measuring seven subscales (i.e., intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, extrinsic motivation to identify regulation, extrinsic motivation for introjection regulation, extrinsic motivation to external regulation, and amotivation was administered. Results showed significant differences (t=10.43, df=239, p=0.01 between total scores of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among tenpin bowlers. There were significant gender differences with respect to intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, and extrinsic motivation to identify regulation. However, no significant bowler type differences were found for either the intrinsic (t=-1.15, df=238, p=0.25 or extrinsic (t=-0.51, df=238, p=0.61 motivation dimensions. In conclusion, our study demonstrated substantial intrinsic motivation for gender effects, but no bowler type effects among adolescent ten-pin bowlers.

  14. Motivation to Improve Work through Learning: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kueh Hua Ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to enhance our current understanding of the transfer of training by proposing a conceptual model that supports the mediating role of motivation to improve work through learning about the relationship between social support and the transfer of training. The examination of motivation to improve work through motivation to improve work through a learning construct offers a holistic view pertaining to a learner's profile in a workplace setting, which emphasizes learning for the improvement of work performance. The proposed conceptual model is expected to benefit human resource development theory building, as well as field practitioners by emphasizing the motivational aspects crucial for successful transfer of training.

  15. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  16. Activating the Forces of Public Service Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    2015-01-01

    Employees with higher public service motivation (PSM) are likely to perform better in public service jobs. However, research on how practitioners may capitalize on this knowledge is sparse. This article expands the understanding of how to activate employee PSM, which is understood as a human...... resource that is present in the work environment. Using a randomized survey experiment with 528 law students, this article shows how low-intensity treatments may activate PSM and how the effect of PSM activation efforts compares with efforts to activate another, less self-determined type of motivation...

  17. (Re)Defining Salesperson Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Rushana; de Jong, Ad; Lee, Nick

    2018-01-01

    The construct of motivation is one of the central themes in selling and sales management research. Yet, to-date no review article exists that surveys the construct (both from an extrinsic and intrinsic motivation context), critically evaluates its current status, examines various key challenges...... apparent from the extant research, and suggests new research opportunities based on a thorough review of past work. The authors explore how motivation is defined, major theories underpinning motivation, how motivation has historically been measured, and key methodologies used over time. In addition......, attention is given to principal drivers and outcomes of salesperson motivation. A summarizing appendix of key articles in salesperson motivation is provided....

  18. Employees' motivation and emloyees' benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Nedzelská, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is analysing methods how to stimulate and motivate employees. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the concept of motivation, concepts close to motivation and selected existing theories of motivation. It also deals with employee benefits, function, division and benefits which are frequently offered to employees. The practical part of the thesis, mainly based on written and online questionnaires, concentrates on motivation of employees at Nedcon Boh...

  19. Neuroscientific Model of Motivational Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung-il

    2013-01-01

    Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Rewa...

  20. Motivation: Kept Alive Through Unschooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda LEVIN-GUTIERREZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is a process, which can be fostered or killed in the name of education. In this paper, the author explores two theories of motivation-Expectancy-Value and Three Elements of Intrinsic Motivation-within the context of unschooling and within a school system. Based on the concepts presented through these theories, the author concludes that unschoolers hold on to their intrinsic motivation while schooled childrens motivation may be killed by attending school.

  1. MOTIVATIONAL AND VALUE-SEMANTIC DETERMINANTS OF INDIVIDUAL ASSERTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva Inga Viktorovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to reveal the concept of "determinants of assertiveness" of a personality, which are determined by motivational characteristics and life value and meaning orientations of the individual. The immediate driving force of human action is the motive or the system of motives. The system of motives of human behavior in different situations of activities, communication and cognition is determined by the personal world view (set of ideas, interests, and beliefs. The value orientation, influencing the direction of human activity, determines a person's behavior and is a personality determinant in the manifestations of assertive behavior and assertiveness. Therefore, the significant psychological factors that contribute to the development of assertiveness are high motivation to success, positive attitudes, and such values as compassion, tolerance, mutual understanding, sympathy, concern that oppose to violence, domination, suppression and submission. The article also presents the results of an empirical study of motivational and value-semantic characteristics of the individual.

  2. Public Service Motivation and Monetary Incentives: Substitutes or Motivation Crowding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2011-01-01

    Motivation is probably one of the most important determinants for organizational performance, because it stimulates effort and effective behaviors among people in the organization. But what type of motivation should public managers rely on? The PSM literature has argued that public service...... motivation is the most important type of motivation in the delivery of public service, because it substitutes for egoistic motivation. Organizations whose members have high levels of PSM are therefore expected to be less dependent on utilitarian motivators such as monetary incentives. Motivation crowding...... theory, on the other hand, argues that the relationship is opposite, so it is the degree of incentives that affects motivation. Both arguments lead to expectations of an association between public service motivation and monetary incentives, but so far this complex relationship has not been entangled...

  3. Self, partner, and relationship motivations for healthy and unhealthy behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Young

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background This study merges two theoretical paradigms: self-determination theory and interdependence theory. The primary objective was to examine whether people in relationships are motivated to enact healthy or unhealthy behaviors based on personal (i.e., autonomous or interpersonal (controlled motives. Participants and procedure We tested the sources of healthy and unhealthy motivation in a cross-sectional, dyadic survey, collecting data from 243 couples in romantic relationships. Survey items assessed sources of healthy and unhealthy motivational influence, including the self, partner, and relationship, in conjunction with relationship satisfaction and well-being. Data were analyzed according to the Actor Partner Interdependence Model to examine intrapersonal and interpersonal associations between variables. Results Healthy and unhealthy behavior motivation appears to be a relational, rather than individual construct. Partner healthy motivation was positively associated with individuals’ relationship satisfaction. For individuals who reported more unhealthy relationship motivations, relationship satisfaction and well-being were lower. There were no significant associations for self motivations. Conclusions The findings suggest that relational partners and the romantic relationship itself are important in understanding the dimensions of health motivation for people in relationships. We conclude that the romantic relationship context impacts health maintenance, supporting the merging of personal and interpersonal motivations for health behaviors.

  4. Motivation for risk sports

    OpenAIRE

    Hlava, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Title: Motivation for risk sports Objectives: The aim of our thesis is to find out primary and secondary motives of athletes for the operation of high-risk sports and coming back to it. We also want to find out what is the starter for doing risk sports. Other questions are why athletes keep doing it and how perceive the potential risk. Methods: In our study, we chose qualitative investigation method and semistructured interview with eight respondents. For the interview, we drew up a list of q...

  5. Motive Criminal Procedure Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Вапнярчук

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the need for such a level of mental regulation of behavior of proving motivation. The latter refers to internal motivation conscious entity Criminal Procedure proof, due to specific needs, interests and goals that cause a person to act rishymist. Detailed attention is given to the first two determinants, namely the nature of needs and interests. In particular, analyzes highlighted in the literature variety of needs (physiological, ekzistentsionalni, social, prestige, cognitive, aesthetic and spiritual and the manifestation of some of them in the criminal procedural proof.

  6. Understanding MOOC Students: Motivations and Behaviours Indicative of MOOC Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursel, B. K.; Zhang, L.; Jablokow, K. W.; Choi, G. W.; Velegol, D.

    2016-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) continue to appear across the higher education landscape, originating from many institutions in the USA and around the world. MOOCs typically have low completion rates, at least when compared with traditional courses, as this course delivery model is very different from traditional, fee-based models, such as…

  7. Understanding Learners' Motivation and Learning Strategies in MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario-Hoyos, Carlos; Estévez-Ayres, Iria; Pérez-Sanagustín, Mar; Delgado Kloos, Carlos; Fernández-Panadero, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have changed the way in which OER (Open Educational Resources) are bundled by teachers and consumed by learners. MOOCs represent an evolution towards the production and offering of structured quality OER. Many institutions that were initially reluctant to providing OER have, however, joined the MOOC wave.…

  8. Understanding Motivation for Study: Human Capital or Human Capability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Much research into the reasons students undertake tertiary study is at least implicitly based on rational choice theory: students calculate costs in order to maximize direct individual gain. The policy emphasis on pathways has somewhat broader bases including social inclusion as well as economic productivity, but narrowly focuses on institutional…

  9. Energizing porters by proton-motive force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N

    1994-11-01

    It is generally accepted that the chemistry of water was the most crucial determinant in shaping life on earth. Among the more important chemical features of water is its dissociation into protons and hydroxyl ions. The presence of relatively high proton concentrations in the ambient solution resulted in the evolution of proton pumps during the dawn of life on earth. These proton pumps maintained neutral pH inside the cells and generated electrochemical gradients of protons (proton-motive force) across their membranes. The existence of proton-motive force enabled the evolution of porters driven by it that are most probably among the more primitive porters in the world. The directionality of the substrate transport by the porters could be to both sides of the membranes because they can serve as proton symporters or antiporters. One of the most important subjects of this meeting is the mechanism by which proton-motive and other ion-motive forces drive the transport processes through porters. Is there a common mechanism of action for all proton-driven porters? Is there some common partial reaction by which we can identify the way that porters are energized by proton-motive force? Is there a common coupling between proton movement and uptake or secretion of certain molecules? Even a partial answer to one of these questions would advance our knowledge... or confusion. As my mentor Efraim Racker used to say: 'If you are not totally confused you do not understand the issue'.

  10. Music and Combat Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    and hence, motivating them more strongly to continue. Thoughts of protecting their home, lives and local ideals were subconsciously aroused by the...perspective. There was a clear bias , but they aimed not to broadcast lies. The BBC broadcast in 45 languages with 107 news transmissions daily

  11. Motivational Orientations in Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtonen, Mari; Olkinuora, Erkki; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai; Lehtinen, Erno

    2008-01-01

    The rapid development in working life during recent decades has changed the structures of work organisations and expectations of employees' work. Differing forms of professional employment and different types of organisational environments likely promote different types of motivational patterns in workers. The aim of this study was to apply a…

  12. Assessment of Teacher Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Feyyat

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the achievement of educational goals by determining teachers' levels of motivation. With this aim in mind, the opinions of 386 teachers employed in primary schools in Tokat province were sought. According to the findings of the study, the teachers stated that their needs were not fulfilled according to…

  13. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal value...

  14. Moral motivation within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Romy van der

    2013-01-01

    Morality is of particular importance to people: People want to be considered moral and want to belong to moral groups. Consequently, morality judgments have the potential to motivate individuals to behave in ways that are considered to be ‘good’. In the current dissertation, I examined the impact of

  15. Developing a Motivational Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Describes the use of job enrichment techniques as tools for increased productivity and organizational change. The author's motivational work design model changes not only the job design but also structural elements such as physical layout, workflow, and organizational relationships. Behavior change is more important than job enrichment. (MF)

  16. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the…

  17. Impulsive action and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically,

  18. Keeping Plateaued Performers Motivated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLon, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the problem of keeping library staff motivated when promotions are not available. Topics addressed include the importance of management training that emphasizes communication skills; alternative ways to help employees grow, including staff development programs, lateral transfers, job rotation, and short-term projects; and helpful…

  19. Gamification and Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick; Doyle, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The literature suggests that gamified learning interventions may increase student engagement and enhance learning. We empirically investigate this by exploring the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on the participation and performance of over 100 undergraduate students in an online gamified learning intervention. The paper makes a…

  20. Motivation og handlingskapacitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2012-01-01

    Der har i flere år være en interesse for at undersøge motivationen hos producenterne af offentlige ydelser, mens der i mindre grad findes empiriske analyser af brugernes handlingskapacitet. Artiklen råder bod på dette ved at analysere forskelle i motivation og handlingskapacitet på fire serviceom......Der har i flere år være en interesse for at undersøge motivationen hos producenterne af offentlige ydelser, mens der i mindre grad findes empiriske analyser af brugernes handlingskapacitet. Artiklen råder bod på dette ved at analysere forskelle i motivation og handlingskapacitet på fire...... serviceområder (skoler, dagpasning, hospitaler og videregående uddannelser). Der anvendes henholdsvis et veletableret mål for public service motivation (n=377 producenter) og et nyudviklet mål for handlingskapacitet (n=1056 brugere). Resultaterne viser, at der er relativt højest handlingskapacitet og public...... service motivation på daginstitutionsområdet efterfulgt af skoleområdet, mens de videregående uddannelser placerer sig relativt lavest på begge variable. Hospitalsbrugerne har næsten lige så lav handlingskapacitet som brugerne af de videregående uddannelser, mens de hospitalsansattes public service...

  1. Entrepreneurship and Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorholt, Julie; Harris, Erica

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a three-week project-based unit on entrepreneurship conducted with students in communications classes in an Academic English context. A detailed road map of the project is given, starting with an introduction and ending with final presentations and poster sessions. Students were motivated by their own interests in business…

  2. The Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivators on Employee Engagement in Information Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Understanding motivation in the workforce is a crucial step toward creating a dynamic work environment that enriches and fulfills workers. This research stems from LIS management class discussions on the topic of motivation and highlights the need for radical shifts in management approaches to motivation in information organizations. Our analysis…

  3. Relationships between trip motivations and selected variables among Allegheny National forest visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan R. Graefe; Brijesh Thapa; John J. Confer; James D. Absher

    2000-01-01

    To meet visitors’ needs, managers must understand the motivations driving visitors to wilderness areas. This paper compares the motivations of different segments of Allegheny National Forest users. Factor analysis identified 5 motivation factors (social, escape, fun, nature and learning), with two items retained as single item dimensions (close to home and challenge)....

  4. Educators' Motivation on Integration of ICTs into Pedagogy: Case of Disadvantaged Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigona, Agnes; Chigona, Wallace; Davids, Zane

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates factors that motivate educators to use Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools in disadvantaged areas. The study employed Herzberg' Motivation-Hygiene theory to guide the process of understanding the factors that motivate or demotivate educators when using the technology for teaching and learning.…

  5. Reconceptualizing Student Motivation: Accounting for the Social Context beyond the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Sandra; Harley, Dave; Wilcox, Paula; Pemberton, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This paper problematizes the widespread use of self-determination theory, with its dichotomized conceptualization of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as an adequate means of understanding higher education student motivation. We draw on theories of situated motivation and extend them to encompass areas of students' lives beyond the academic…

  6. A Profile Approach to Self-Determination Theory Motivations at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Christina M.; Diefendorff, James M.; Kim, Tae-Yeol; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) posits the existence of distinct types of motivation (i.e., external, introjected, identified, integrated, and intrinsic). Research on these different types of motivation has typically adopted a variable-centered approach that seeks to understand how each motivation in isolation relates to employee outcomes. We…

  7. Viability of an Online Community of Practice for Motivating Studio Art Students' Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation and creativity are valuable attributes in the 21st century. In response, more instructional time must be focused on motivating high school students to expand their creative abilities. Self-determination theory (SDT) and communities of practice (CoP) are theoretical foundations helpful for understanding how intrinsic motivation promotes…

  8. Success Avoidant Motivation and Behavior; Its Development Correlates and Situational Determinants. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Matina S.

    This paper reports on a successful attempt to understand success avoidant motivation and behavior by the development of an empirically sophisticated scoring system of success avoidant motivation and the observation of its behavioral correlates and situational determinants. Like most of the work on achievement motivation, the study was carried out…

  9. Persistence Motivations of Chinese Doctoral Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji

    2014-01-01

    This study explored what motivated 6 Chinese international students to complete a PhD in science, technology, engineering, and math fields in the United States despite perceived dissatisfaction. This study was grounded in the value-expectancy achievement motivation theory and incorporated a Confucian cultural lens to understand motivation. Four…

  10. The Revision and Validation of the Academic Motivation Scale in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yi Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Ye; Zhang, Houcan

    2016-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) has contributed greatly to our understanding of human motivation. Based on SDT, the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) was developed to assess students' motivation to learn. AMS has been successfully applied to the educational context in Western cultures. However, no psychometrically validated version is available in…

  11. Wellness Centers in Slovenia: Tourists’ Profiles and Motivational Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Rančić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wellness and spa tourism has increasingly become an important economic and marketing strategy for hoteliers, resorts and tourist destinations to attract tourist visitations. Deep understanding of consumer profiles and their key motivations within this context is vital in order to sustain the growth of wellness and spa tourism business. This paper presents an exploratory study that seeks to understand the spa and wellness tourists’ motivation during their visits to spa and wellness service centers in Slovenia. The purpose of this research is to examine the characteristics of a healthy-living market segment and its motivational behavior to wellness facilities in Slovenia. The paper provides the broad understanding of wellness and spa tourists’ profiles in Slovenia and the key motivation factors

  12. Motivational Function of Plans and Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Alispahić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The academic literature shows that by helping tune out distractions, goals can get individuals' to try harder, work longer, and achieve more. Goals that people set for themselves and that are devoted to attaining mastery are usually healthy. But goals imposed by others—sales targets, quarterly returns, standardized test scores—can sometimes have dangerous side effects (Pink, 2009. Because understanding action demands understanding intention, the idea of motivation is natural and readily expressed in everyday language. Cognitive mental events like goals and expectancies can function as a “spring to action”, a moving force that energizes and directs action in purposive ways (Reeve, 2005. Cognitive studies of motivation are dealing with relationship between cognition and action. Literature is indicating a few cognitive elements that can have motivational significance. The article presents the overview of theory and research about the motivational function of plans and goals, according to Goal setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990 and Self-determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000. Suggestions for additional research are also indicated.

  13. Students׳ motivation for architecture education in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R.O. Olweny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the persistence and success of students has gained increasing attention to unravel the “architectural education black-box.” However, the motivation and pre-socialization of incoming students were largely ignored as these factors fell outside the direct control of architecture schools. Motivational factors can affect the educational process given that the values, expectations, and career-related goals of incoming students influence their attitudes to education. This study seeks to uncover the motivational factors of applicants to an architecture program in East Africa and appreciate those factors that lead students into architecture as a career choice. Through qualitative content analysis, the study revealed the motivational factors of applicants, which were classified into four groups: educational, external, personal, and prestige. These factors were comparable with those found in previous studies conducted in Europe and North America, but nevertheless highlight contextual variances unique to the region. The findings raise questions of the role architecture education in engaging incoming students in discourse that aids their understanding of architecture and architectural education.

  14. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  15. Understanding Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hix, W. R.; Lentz, E. J.; Baird, M.; Messer, O. E. B.; Mezzacappa, A.; Lee, C.-T.; Bruenn, S. W.; Blondin, J. M.; Marronetti, P.

    2010-03-01

    Our understanding of core-collapse supernovae continues to improve as better microphysics is included in increasingly realistic neutrino-radiationhydrodynamic simulations. Recent multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors between 12 and 25 solar mass, have motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of how supernovae explode. Recent progresses on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  16. Individual differences in empathy are associated with apathy-motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Patricia L; Ang, Yuen-Siang; Husain, Masud; Crockett, Molly J

    2017-12-11

    Empathy - the capacity to understand and resonate with the experiences of other people - is considered an essential aspect of social cognition. However, although empathy is often thought to be automatic, recent theories have argued that there is a key role for motivation in modulating empathic experiences. Here we administered self-report measures of empathy and apathy-motivation to a large sample of healthy people (n = 378) to test whether people who are more empathic are also more motivated. We then sought to replicate our findings in an independent sample (n = 198) that also completed a behavioural task to measure state affective empathy and emotion recognition. Cognitive empathy was associated with higher levels of motivation generally across behavioural, social and emotional domains. In contrast, affective empathy was associated with lower levels of behavioural motivation, but higher levels of emotional motivation. Factor analyses showed that empathy and apathy are distinct constructs, but that affective empathy and emotional motivation are underpinned by the same latent factor. These results have potentially important clinical applications for disorders associated with reduced empathy and motivation as well as the understanding of these processes in healthy people.

  17. Reading Motivation: 10 Elements for Success. Motivational Strategies That Work!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, Kori M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational processes are the foundation for coordinating cognitive goals and strategies in reading. Becoming an excellent, active reader involves attunement of motivational processes with cognitive and language processes in reading. This article presents K-12 strategies for motivating reading success. It describes 10 instructional elements that…

  18. Motivation and Ways to Motivate Students of Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洪琼

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is critical in English learning of middle school,thus,how to effectively motivate students in English learning is an important problem.This study intends to find ways to motivate students of middle school.Self-report data were collected from 45 students in The Experiment Middle School Attached to Yunnan Normal University by using a close-ended questionnaire.

  19. Using Managerial Role Motivation Training to Overcome Motivational Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, John B.

    Research on motivation to manage can be summarized in five points: (1) motivation to manage is a major factor for success; (2) motivation to manage declined in students from the 1960's to the 1970's; (3) this decline is evident in the relevant age groups; (4) differences between United States students and foreign students place the United States…

  20. Motivation in computer-assisted instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Amanda; Shewokis, Patricia A; Ting, Kimberly; Fung, Kevin

    2016-08-01

    Computer-aided instruction (CAI) is defined as instruction in which computers play a central role as the means of information delivery and direct interaction with learners. Computer-aided instruction has become mainstream in medical school curricula. For example, a three-dimensional (3D) computer module of the larynx has been created to teach laryngeal anatomy. Although the novelty and educational potential of CAI has garnered much attention, these new technologies have been plagued with low utilization rates. Several experts attribute this problem to lack of motivation in students. Motivation is defined as the desire and action toward goal-oriented behavior. Psychologist Dr. John Keller developed the ARCS theory of motivational learning, which proposed four components: attention (A), relevance (R), concentration (C), and satisfaction (S). Keller believed that motivation is not only an innate characteristic of the pupil; it can also be influenced by external factors, such as the instructional design of the curriculum. Thus, understanding motivation is an important step to designing CAI appropriately. Keller also developed a 36-item validated instrument called the Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) to measure motivation. The objective of this study was to study motivation in CAI. Medical students learning anatomy with the 3D computer module will have higher laryngeal anatomy test scores and higher IMMS motivation scores. Higher anatomy test scores will be positively associated with higher IMMS scores. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. After obtaining institutional review board approval, 100 medical students (mean age 25.5 ± 2.5, 49% male) were randomized to either the 3D computer module (n = 49) or written text (n = 51). Information content was identical in both arms. Students were given 30 minutes to study laryngeal anatomy and then completed the laryngeal anatomy test and IMMS. Students were categorized as either junior (year 1

  1. Motivation and personality: relationships between putative motive dimensions and the five factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C

    2010-04-01

    There are few multidimensional measures of individual differences in motivation available. The Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire assesses 15 putative dimensions of motivation. The dimensions are based on evolutionary theory and preliminary evidence suggests the motive scales have good psychometric properties. The scales are reliable and there is evidence of their consensual validity (convergence of self-other ratings) and behavioral validity (relationships with self-other reported behaviors of social importance). Additional validity research is necessary, however, especially with respect to current models of personality. The present study tested two general and 24 specific hypotheses based on proposed evolutionary advantages/disadvantages and fitness benefits/costs of the five-factor model of personality together with the new motive scales in a sample of 424 participants (M age=28.8 yr., SD=14.6). Results were largely supportive of the hypotheses. These results support the validity of new motive dimensions and increase understanding of the five-factor model of personality.

  2. Why Do People Regulate Their Emotions? A Taxonomy of Motives in Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Maya

    2016-08-01

    Emotion regulation involves the pursuit of desired emotional states (i.e., emotion goals) in the service of superordinate motives. The nature and consequences of emotion regulation, therefore, are likely to depend on the motives it is intended to serve. Nonetheless, limited attention has been devoted to studying what motivates emotion regulation. By mapping the potential benefits of emotion to key human motives, this review identifies key classes of motives in emotion regulation. The proposed taxonomy distinguishes between hedonic motives that target the immediate phenomenology of emotions, and instrumental motives that target other potential benefits of emotions. Instrumental motives include behavioral, epistemic, social, and eudaimonic motives. The proposed taxonomy offers important implications for understanding the mechanism of emotion regulation, variation across individuals and contexts, and psychological function and dysfunction, and points to novel research directions. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Individuals’ Motivation to Participate in Sport Tourism: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Aicher; Jessica Brenner

    2015-01-01

    Using self-determination theory (SDT) as a conceptual framework, we utilized previous research to develop a conceptual model to better understand individuals’ motivation to participate in sport tourism and events. The model represents the six propositions we put forward that depict the relationships between motivational factors associated with sport tourism and event participation and individuals’ controlled or autonomous motivation. Specifically, organizational motivations are proposed to en...

  4. Online Gamers' Preferences for Online Game Charging Mechanisms: The Effect of Exploration Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Fan-Chen Tseng; Ching-I Teng

    2015-01-01

    Online games construct a virtual world where gamers can explore and experience various exciting environments. However, studies on gamer behavior rarely investigated the relationships between motivations and spending for online games. Understanding these relationships helps online game service providers manage gamers' motivations and develop better revenue models. This study investigated the relationships between one core motivation for playing online games—exploration motivation—and onlin...

  5. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Mata, Jutta; Palmeira, António L; Markland, David

    2012-03-02

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation--not only considering the level but also type of motivation--in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change.

  6. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Pedro J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change.

  7. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Rachel B; Herring, Matthew P; Campbell, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided.

  8. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change. PMID:22385818

  9. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided. PMID:28337165

  10. Motivational modes and learning in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Erin Kendall; Higgins, E. Tory; Shohamy, Daphna

    2015-01-01

    Learning and motivation are intrinsically related, and both have been linked to dopamine. Parkinson’s disease results from a progressive loss of dopaminergic inputs to the striatum and leads to impairments in motivation and learning from feedback. However, the link between motivation and learning in Parkinson’s disease is not well understood. To address this gap, we leverage a well-established psychological theory of motivation, regulatory mode theory, which distinguishes between two functionally independent motivational concerns in regulating behavior: a concern with having an effect by initiating and maintaining movement (Locomotion) and a concern with establishing what is correct by critically evaluating goal pursuit means and outcomes (Assessment). We examined Locomotion and Assessment in patients with Parkinson’s disease and age-matched controls. Parkinson’s disease patients demonstrated a selective decrease in Assessment motivation but no change in Locomotion motivation, suggesting that Parkinson’s disease leads to a reduced tendency to evaluate and monitor outcomes. Moreover, weaker Assessment motivation was correlated with poorer performance on a feedback-based learning task previously shown to depend on the striatum. Together, these findings link a questionnaire-based personality inventory with performance on a well-characterized experimental task, advancing our understanding of how Parkinson’s disease affects motivation with implications for well-being and treatment outcomes. PMID:25552569

  11. Embodied Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Leonard Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  12. Motivation and evaluation of empolyees

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkulová, Anna

    2015-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is focused on motivation and assessment of employees in the company. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the influence of team building and benefits on employees' motivation. Literature based theoretical part of my thesis describes and investigates the real meaning and purpose of motivation and basic motivational concepts. Furthermore, I outlined the basics behind employee benefits, team building and also stated the current given trends in these areas. The practical pa...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF MOTIVATION BY ENTROPY

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz G³owacki

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is inseparable from human work. It is also one of the five most important elements of the management process. The ability to determine the level of motivation would therefore be very useful in the work of every manager. This paper is an attempt to quantify motivation and evaluate its size, using the concept of entropy. The main reason to try defining a method of measuring the amount of motivation is to improve the management techniques of companies.

  14. Motives of terrorist acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a relatively new phenomenon, and data on terrorist motivations and psychological profiles of terrorists are fairly scarce and limited. In theory, there is a large number of quantitative analyses of collective violence, murder, and crime, however, none of these can be identified with terrorism. Most current studies do not consider a great heterogeneity of terrorists, and numerous practical, conceptual, and psychological barriers slow down the science of learning about terrorism. Psychology, as a science of behavior, certainly makes a great contribution to the study of terrorism as a very complex phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to analyze and synthesize social and psychological determinants which contribute to the development of terrorist motives, and to elaborate on those facts which have been discussed in scientific and professional literature so far.

  15. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  16. Motivations Behind Sustainable Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Vörösmarty, Gyöngyi; Dobos, Imre; Tátrai, Tünde

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability issues in purchasing are receiving greater attention. Literature is rapidly growing, with several research programs being initiated to investigate the topic. This study presents the results of a research project which aims to reveal and structure the motivating forces leading companies to make efforts in sustainability purchasing and the means used to attain achievements in some fields of sustainability. Results presented in the literature are scattered in terms of ...

  17. Veganism: Motivations and Difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Mathilde Therese Claudine; Harvey, John Carr; Trauth, Christina

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of people are adopting a vegan lifestyle, which means to stop consuming products, that are made from or based on animals, like meat, dairy or eggs. However, the number of research concerning veganism is limited. As the existing research is mainly concentrating on the process of adopting a vegan lifestyle and the view of vegans, these findings shall be examined further with the question, What are the motivation and difficulties about adopting a plant based vegan diet in We...

  18. Motivating Staff, Parents, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cynthia Cavenaugh

    Two motivational theories considered particularly useful in administering early childhood programs are discussed, and guidelines for motivating staff, parents, and children are provided. First, the two-factor theory of motivation within organizations, as outlined by Herzberg (1959), is described. Offered in this section are a list of motivators…

  19. Work Motivation: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzell, Raymond A.; Thompson, Donna E.

    1990-01-01

    Presents theories of motivation classified as those dealing either with exogenous causes or with endogenous processes. The following strategies for improving work motivation are discussed: (1) personal motives; (2) incentives and rewards; (3) reinforcement; (4) goal-setting techniques; (5) personal and material resources; (6) social and group…

  20. Motives for corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Mazereeuw V/d Duijn Schouten, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we analyze the motives of executives to take responsibility for the labor, environmental and social aspects of their business. We distinguish three motives: one extrinsic (financial) and two intrinsic (ethical and altruistic) motives and empirically investigate the influences of

  1. Motivated reasoning during recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Heather Barry; Balcetis, Emily; De Cremer, David

    2018-03-01

    This research shows how job postings can lead job candidates to see themselves as particularly deserving of hiring and high salary. We propose that these entitlement beliefs entail both personal motivations to see oneself as deserving and the ability to justify those motivated judgments. Accordingly, we predict that people feel more deserving when qualifications for a job are vague and thus amenable to motivated reasoning, whereby people use information selectively to reach a desired conclusion. We tested this hypothesis with a 2-phase experiment (N = 892) using materials drawn from real online job postings. In the first phase of the experiment, participants believed themselves to be more deserving of hiring and deserving of higher pay after reading postings composed of vaguer types of qualifications. In the second phase, yoked observers believed that participants were less entitled overall, but did not selectively discount endorsement of vaguer qualifications, suggesting they were unaware of this effect. A follow-up preregistered experiment (N = 905) using postings with mixed qualification types replicated the effect of including more vague qualifications on participants' entitlement beliefs. Entitlement beliefs are widely seen as problematic for recruitment and retention, and these results suggest that reducing the inclusion of vague qualifications in job postings would dampen the emergence of these beliefs in applicants, albeit at the cost of decreasing application rates and lowering applicants' confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  3. The Effectiveness of Motivation Training for Increasing Students’ Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Tentama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Students’ low level of motivation becomes a matter of concern to be addressed immediately. Students' motivation needs to be improved as it is a factor that will affect their lives in the future. This study aims to observe or examine the effectiveness of motivation training in increasing students' motivation.The research method used was the pre-experiment with one group pre-test post-test design. The subjects of this study were 15 boy and girl students of Grade X of SMK who had a low level of motivation. The measuring instruments were the motivation scales given during the pre-test and post-test. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon test with non-parametric measurements to determine the significance of difference in the motivation level before and after the training. The data were tested using SPSS 17.0 for Windows.The result of Wilcoxon analysis to test the hypothesis whether there is a difference between the pre-test and post-test of students' motivation showed that the p = 0.025 (p < 0.05. This means that there was a significant difference between the motivation before the treatment (pre-test and after the treatment (post-test, which indicated that the students' motivation increased after a treatment in the form of motivation training.

  4. Understanding disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Hanah A; Anderson, Adam K

    2012-03-01

    Disgust is characterized by a remarkably diverse set of stimulus triggers, ranging from extremely concrete (bad tastes and disease vectors) to extremely abstract (moral transgressions and those who commit them). This diversity may reflect an expansion of the role of disgust over evolutionary time, from an origin in defending the body against toxicity and disease, through defense against other threats to biological fitness (e.g., incest), to involvement in the selection of suitable interaction partners, by motivating the rejection of individuals who violate social and moral norms. The anterior insula, and to a lesser extent the basal ganglia, are implicated in toxicity- and disease-related forms of disgust, although we argue that insular activation is not exclusive to disgust. It remains unclear whether moral disgust is associated with insular activity. Disgust offers cognitive neuroscientists a unique opportunity to study how an evolutionarily ancient response rooted in the chemical senses has expanded into a uniquely human social cognitive domain; many interesting research avenues remain to be explored. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Surgeons' motivation for choice of workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähler, Lena; Kristiansen, Maria; Rudkjøbing, Andreas; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin

    2012-09-01

    To ensure qualified health care professionals at public hospitals in the future, it is important to understand which factors attract health care professionals to certain positions. The aim of this study was to explore motives for choosing employment at either public or private hospitals in a group of Danish surgeons, as well as to examine if organizational characteristics had an effect on motivation. Eight qualitative interviews were conducted with surgeons from both public and private hospitals sampled using the snowball method. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by means of phenomenological theory. Motivational factors such as personal influence on the job, the opportunity to provide the best possible patient care, challenging work tasks colleagues, and ideological reasons were emphasized by the surgeons as important reasons for their choice of employment. Motivational factors appeared to be strongly connected to the structure of the organization; especially the size of the organization was perceived to be essential. It is worth noting that salary, in contrast to the general belief, was considered a secondary benefit rather than a primary motivational factor for employment. The study revealed that motivational factors are multidimensional and rooted in organizational structure; i.e. organizational size rather than whether the organization is public or private is crucial. There is a need for further research on the topic, but it seems clear that future health care planning may benefit from taking into account the implications that large organizational structures have for the staff working within these organizations. not relevant. not relevant.

  6. Motivational Profiles and Motivation for Lifelong Learning of Medical Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burgt, Stéphanie M E; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Wilschut, Janneke A; Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; Croiset, Gerda; Peerdeman, Saskia M

    2018-05-22

    Medical specialists face the challenge of maintaining their knowledge and skills and continuing professional development, that is, lifelong learning. Motivation may play an integral role in many of the challenges facing the physician workforce today including maintenance of a high performance. The aim of this study was to determine whether medical specialists show different motivational profiles and if these profiles predict differences in motivation for lifelong learning. An online questionnaire was sent to every medical specialist working in five hospitals in the Netherlands. The questionnaire included the validated Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning together with background questions like age, gender, and type of hospital. Respondents were grouped into different motivational profiles by using a two-step clustering approach. Four motivational profiles were identified: (1) HAMC profile (for High Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (2) MAMC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (3) MALC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation), and (4) HALC profile (for High Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation). Most of the female specialists that work in an academic hospital and specialists with a surgical specialty were represented in the HALC profile. Four motivational profiles were found among medical specialists, differing in gender, experience and type of specialization. The profiles are based on the combination of autonomous motivation (AM) and controlled motivation (CM) in the specialists. The profiles that have a high score on autonomous motivation have a positive association with lifelong learning.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work

  7. Understanding Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Eugene W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Urges returning to the original federalist debates to understand contemporary federalism. Reviews "The Federalist Papers," how federalism has evolved, and the centralization of the national government through acts of Congress and Supreme Court decisions. Recommends teaching about federalism as part of teaching about U.S. government…

  8. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  9. Skill versus luck: A motivational analysis of gambling involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal, Y; Vallerand, R J

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to test the skill/luck distinction among gambling games by comparing the motivations underlying participation in a skill (horse racing) and a luck (lottery) betting activity. Predictions were made using Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991). It was predicted that self-determined motivations (intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) would be more prominent for the skill game because it is conducive to optimal challenges, fun, and self-involvement. Conversely, the non self-determined forms of motivation (especially external regulation) should be more important for the game of luck because the luck dimension precludes true involvement of the self and orients the individual towards material gains. Results from a hierarchical discriminant function analysis, with 120 gamblers predominantly involved in one of the two betting activities, supported these hypotheses. These results highlight the relevance of a motivational analysis for a better understanding of the inherent properties of gambling games.

  10. A Critical Review of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳晓娟

    2009-01-01

    As one of the major factors affecting second language learners' success to their acquisition achievement, motivation has been examined in a wide variety of research papers. It is thus instructive to conduct a critical review of both theoretical and empirical developments in SLA research from over the last few decades. This approach will provide a broad, and integrated perspective onto the current understanding of the complex topic of motivation. Such an undertaking is valuable for teachers, and researchers alike, in developing useful teaching methods, and finding future avenues of SLA motivation research respectively.The following paper provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical findings, examines some of the problems and contradictions found/11 current SLA research, and gives an initial departure point for future directions of research in the area of motivation. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the implications for teachers, and possible classroom strategies that axe drawn from the current body of motivation research.

  11. Prosocial motivation, stress and burnout among direct support workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Robert

    2014-03-01

    This study explores whether the desire to engage in work that is beneficial to others moderates the effects of stress on burnout. Based on a survey of 1570 direct support professionals in Ontario, this study conducted linear regression analyses and tested for the interaction effects of prosocial motivation on occupational stress and burnout. Prosocial motivation significantly moderated the association of emotional exhaustion (EE) and role boundary stress with depersonalization (DP). Prosocial motivation also moderated the effects of role ambiguity stress with a direct support worker's sense of personal accomplishment. In contrast, prosocial motivation magnified feelings of EE when interacted with a sense of personal accomplishment. Prosocial motivation plays an important role in explaining the relatively low levels of DP in the sector. The study advances our understanding of the key components of burnout among direct support workers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Asian International Graduate Students’ Extrinsic Motivation to Pursue Degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Takashiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The author examined the types of extrinsic motivation for Asian international graduate students pursuing graduate degrees. The theoretical framework used was extrinsic motivation within Self-Determination Theory. Even though the presence of Asian international graduate students is steadily increasing worldwide, research into their extrinsic motivation is scarce. It is important for educators to explore and understand Asian international graduate students’ extrinsic motivation since such students would provide unique, distinctive cultural aspects in the classroom in their host countries. The research design employed was qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 graduate students from four Asian countries. The identified themes were a faculty influence, b personal recognition, and c utility for careers. Asian international graduate students expressed that their ultimate extrinsic motivation was to get professional jobs in academia. The author discussed the implications of these findings for instructors.

  13. IDENTIFYING MOTIVATION FACTOR INVOLVEMENT OF SARAWAK MALAY WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masyantie Mohamad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarawak multilayered cake among Sarawak product signature famous among the local as well as international tourist visiting Sarawak. In fact, Sarawak Malay women entrepreneurs have become very necessary players in the entrepreneurial field specifically in this cottage industries from the early introduction of this business, they have facing various problem in this businesses. Thus, this research aims to build an understanding of motivational factor that encourage Sarawak Malay women entrepreneurial experiences especially in multilayered cake businesses. Using qualitative methods, this research aims to identify the entrepreneurial motivations factors; with regards to start-up motivation by Sarawak Malay women. The finding shows that the motivations that influence Malay women within Kuching, Sarawak areas to start and grow their business are involve self-driven and context driven that motivate them involve in multilayered cakes businesses.

  14. A Preliminary Study of Classroom Motivators and De-Motivators from a Motivation-Hygiene Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katt, James A.; Condly, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to begin answering two simple questions: "What motivates our students?" and its corollary, "What prevents our students from being motivated?" The motivation-hygiene theory (F. Herzberg, "Work and the nature of man," World Publishing, Cleveland, OH, 1966), a well-tested theory from organizational…

  15. Multiple motives and persuasive communication : Creative elaboration as a result of impression motivation and accuracy motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, AE; Manstead, ASR; Spears, R

    The authors examined the influence of impression motivation (Experiments 1 and 2) and the combined effects of accuracy motivation and impression motivation (Experiment 3) on the elaboration of persuasive messages as reflected in attitude change and cognitive responses. Intermediate levels of

  16. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  17. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  18. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  19. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  20. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  1. How to help the patient motivate himself?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, A

    2012-03-01

    In order to help a patient with a chronic disease motivate himself, caregivers spontaneously make use of reason with a view to having the patient share the caregivers' point of view, in other words, to some extent, transforming the care recipient into a caregiver. However, it is not unusual for a caregiver suffering from the disease in which he specializes not to treat himself in compliance with the rules he recommends to his patients. Man is a trinity with three instances of the self. In addition to the "rational self" that tends towards the universal, there is also an "animal self" subject to powerful, frequently imperious, primary needs which may be compared to impulsions, compulsions and addictions. Lastly, there is an "identity self", an irreducible singularity, governed by the law of optimizing pleasure or, in any event, avoiding moral distress. The patient has to learn to navigate between objectives oriented by reason, more or less imperious urges and the striving for well-being and avoidance of moral distress. These various instances of the "self" have a distinct relationship with the norm and with time. Psychologists recognize two types of motivation: intrinsic motivation, an activity implemented for itself, and extrinsic motivation, an activity practiced for its secondary beneficial effects. Clearly, caring for oneself derives from an extrinsic motivation. This motivation may be very powerful but is frequently of limited duration. Helping a patient suffering from a chronic disease motivate himself over time thus consists in helping the patient take on board an extrinsic motivation in order for the treatment to become a routine or a source of satisfaction or even pleasure. The physician has to promote the acquisition of self-care skills and a feeling of success in the patient. The physician is also to help the patient negotiate the optimum compromise between his "rational self" and his "identity self" by acting as the advocate of the two parties, while not

  2. The motivation of lifelong mathematics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim Ali, Siti Aishah

    2013-04-01

    As adults, we have always learned throughout our life, but this learning is informal. Now, more career-switchers and career-upgraders who are joining universities for further training are becoming the major group of adult learners. This current situation requires formal education in courses with controlled output. Hence, lifelong learning is seen as a necessity and an opportunity for these adult learners. One characteristic of adult education is that the learners tend to bring with them life experience from their past, especially when learning mathematics. Most of them associate mathematics with the school subjects and unable to recognize the mathematics in their daily practice as mathematics. They normally place a high value on learning mathematics because of its prominent role in their prospective careers, but their learning often requires overcoming personal experience and motivating themselves to learn mathematics again. This paper reports on the study conducted on a group of adult learners currently pursuing their study. The aim of this study is to explore (i) the motivation of the adult learners continuing their study; and (ii) the perception and motivation of these learners in learning mathematics. This paper will take this into account when we discuss learners' perception and motivation to learning mathematics, as interrelated phenomena. Finding from this study will provide helpful insights in understanding the learning process and adaption of adult learners to formal education.

  3. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  4. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  5. Motivations to nurse: an exploration of what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enter nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Kim; West, Caryn; Macmanus, Mary; Waqa, Silina; Stewart, Lee; Henry, Renee; Lindsay, David; Conaglen, Jo; Hall, Julianne; McAuliffe, Marie; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the motivations of student nurses enrolled in nursing courses across a variety of Pacific Island countries. The image of nursing, the desire to help others, family and friends in the profession, personal experience, security, travel opportunities and flexibility have all been identified as motivators for people to enter nursing. To date, what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enrol in a nursing course has not been investigated. An exploratory qualitative approach using focus group interviews with 152 nursing students was undertaken. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, revealing four themes: (i) helping others; (ii) 'making a difference for my people'; (iii) following in the footsteps of others; and (iv) financial and professional gain. In a time of health and nursing workforce shortages, developing a deeper understanding of what drives people can be used to improve recruitment strategies in the future. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. The Role of Motivation in Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    The mastery of English learning is influenced by some variables, one of them is motivation. Motivation in learning second language is classified as integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Some experts of language teaching also categorized motivation into two types namely intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. This paper discusses about kinds of motivation and how it takes a role in influencing students mastery in learning language. It was literature study that focused to f...

  7. A New Paradigm for Evaluating Avoidance/Escape Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Bouchekioua, Youcef; Mimura, Masaru; Tanaka, Kenji F

    2017-07-01

    Organisms have evolved to approach pleasurable opportunities and to avoid or escape from aversive experiences. These 2 distinct motivations are referred to as approach and avoidance/escape motivations and are both considered vital for survival. Despite several recent advances in understanding the neurobiology of motivation, most studies addressed approach but not avoidance/escape motivation. Here we develop a new experimental paradigm to quantify avoidance/escape motivation and examine the pharmacological validity. We set up an avoidance variable ratio 5 task in which mice were required to press a lever for variable times to avoid an upcoming aversive stimulus (foot shock) or to escape the ongoing aversive event if they failed to avoid it. We i.p. injected ketamine (0, 1, or 5 mg/kg) or buspirone (0, 5, or 10 mg/kg) 20 or 30 minutes before the behavioral task to see if ketamine enhanced avoidance/escape behavior and buspirone diminished it as previously reported. We found that the performance on the avoidance variable ratio 5 task was sensitive to the intensity of the aversive stimulus. Treatment with ketamine increased while that with buspirone decreased the probability of avoidance from an aversive stimulus in the variable ratio 5 task, being consistent with previous reports. Our new paradigm will prove useful for quantifying avoidance/escape motivation and will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of motivation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  8. Motivations of parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birac, C.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the motivations of parametric studies in connection with the Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components PISC II. The objective of the PISC II exercise is to evaluate the effectiveness of current and advanced NDT techniques for inspection of reactor pressure vessel components. The parametric studies were initiated to determine the influence of some parameters on defect detection and dimensioning, and to increase the technical bases of the Round Robin Tests. A description is given of the content of the parametric studies including:- the effect of the defects' characteristics, the effect of equipment characteristics, the effect of cladding, and possible use of electromagnetic techniques. (U.K.)

  9. Motives for barter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2011-01-01

    Barter is not something that was present only before invention of money. Even Fortune 500 companies are involved in barter. The most common bartered goods and services are media and travel. As the amount of barter increases even in the U.S., it is worth investigating the reasons why organizations...... use barter. The paper provides a literature review of barter motives digested from academic journal articles covered in the Web of Science and EBSCO databases. The review includes also drivers that are specific for developing countries....

  10. Successful innovation by motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Koudelková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is one of the most important factors for business growth. Human capital plays a significant role in the successful process of innovation. This article deals with employee motivation in the innovation process and the main scientific aim of this study is to present results of research that was undertaken in the Czech Republic at the beginning of 2013. Questionnaires were used for the survey and statistical analyses such as Chi square test or Hierarchical cluster analysis were used for data processing. This study also provides a theoretical and practical overview of business innovation in the Czech Republic.

  11. Personal Development is Motivating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    The education system is increasingly being managed with the help of competence goals that are so clear-cut that we are hindering the students from making decisions and working things out for themselves. Therefore, they are not adequately prepared for the society of the future. Although we do...... not know what the future will bring, we do know that they must continue to learn and be creative. Professor Katrin Hjort, therefore, is fighting for an education system that stimulates students’ personal development, which is also crucial for their motivation....

  12. How do emotion and motivation direct executive control?

    OpenAIRE

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2009-01-01

    Emotion and motivation have crucial roles in determining human behavior. Yet, how they interact with cognitive control functions is less understood. Here, the basic elements of a conceptual framework for understanding how they interact are introduced. More broadly, the `dual competition' framework proposes that emotion and motivation affect both perceptual and executive competition. In particular, the anterior cingulate cortex is hypothesized to be engaged in attentional/effortful control mec...

  13. Motivation and Psychological Contract in the Singapore Private Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Poh, Din Kiat

    2008-01-01

    This management project seeks to understand the sources of motivation and the types of psychological contracts prevalent amongst employees in Singapore's private banking industry. Singapore's private banking industry had seen tremendous growth in the last few years with the Government's push to make it the Switzerland of Asia. This growth has resulted in high demand for talent and high turnover rates. It is often said that money is not the key reason why people stayed motivated. Part of this ...

  14. Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues

    OpenAIRE

    Neiders, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    "Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues" Annotation The dissertation "Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues" is a philosophical study of Socratic views in moral psychology. Particular attention is paid to what the author calls (1) Doxastic competence and (2) Orectic competence. It is argued that according to Socrates these two different epistemic relations are important aspects of our self-understanding. The doxast...

  15. Motivators and barriers to returning to school: RN to BSN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romp, Celeste R; Kiehl, Ermalynn M; Bickett, Anette; Bledsoe, Sarah F; Brown, Debbie S; Eitel, Stephanie B; Wall, Mary Patricia

    2014-01-01

    With national emphasis on increasing baccalaureate-prepared nurses, the role of the staff development educator of promoting lifelong learning is ideal for advising and mentoring non-bachelor's-prepared nurses to return to school. However, an understanding of the motivators and barriers for nurses to return to school is essential for success. A descriptive correlational research study was completed to determine the motivators and barriers of returning to school for registered nurses without a bachelor's degree.

  16. Students' motivation and academic success in inclusive classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Stošović Danijela D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the motivation experiences of students in the conditions of inclusive education determines teaching procedures considerably. The main aim of this research was to determine whether there were any difference in motivation experience between students with learning and developmental difficulties and the students without these difficulties, and whether there is any correlation of academic success and motivation experiences between these two groups. The sample comprised 87 students of the fifth grade (24.13% students with learning and developmental difficulties, and 75.86% students without these difficulties. The examination of motivation experience was carried out by the Scale for Estimating Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation. Statistics analyses show that there are differences in experiencing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among students with and without learning and developmental difficulties. Learning difficulties correlate with lower academic achievement at the end of the fourth grade. As academic success increases the motivation experience decreases in both groups. The obtained results stress the importance of interventions by teachers and other school professionals in order to maintain motivational levels of all students. The results of this research highlight the quality of assessment system of academic achievement of all students and suggest further researching how and which way teachers understand and apply different functions of assessment.

  17. The roots of physics students' motivations: Fear and integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dusen, Ben

    Too often, physics students are beset by feelings of failure and isolation rather than experiencing the creative joys of discovery that physics has to offer. This dissertation research was founded on the desire of a teacher to make physics class exciting and motivating to his students. This work explores how various aspects of learning environments interact with student motivation. This work uses qualitative and quantitative methods to explore how students are motivated to engage in physics and how they feel about themselves while engaging in physics. The collection of four studies in this dissertation culminates in a sociocultural perspective on motivation and identity. This perspective uses two extremes of how students experience physics as a lens for understanding motivation: fear and self-preservation versus integrity and self-expression. Rather than viewing motivation as a property of the student, or viewing students as inherently interested or disinterested in physics, the theoretical perspective on motivation and identity helps examine features of the learning environments that determine how students' experience themselves through physics class. This perspective highlights the importance of feeling a sense of belonging in the context of physics and the power that teachers have in shaping students' motivation through the construction of their classroom learning environments. Findings demonstrate how different ways that students experience themselves in physics class impact their performance and interest in physics. This dissertation concludes with a set of design principles that can foster integration and integrity among students in physics learning environments.

  18. Social motivation and health in college club swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Austin R; Ramos, William D

    2018-03-22

    Participation in recreational sport clubs on campus is a popular student activity nationwide. These sport-based organizations provide a host of benefits within recognized dimensions of health and wellness. Understanding participants' motives for engaging in these types of activities can provide insight in design and delivery and enhance participant health. This study focuses on outcomes related to the social motivations for participation in a recreational sport swim club and their potential relationship to social health. Current members of recreational swimming clubs were contacted for participation in the study from March-April 2016. A Leisure Motivation Scale (LMS) survey was sent electronically to 196 collegiate swim clubs nationwide. Aggregate and multivariate analyses from 1011 responses were conducted to examine the social motivation and motivational differences of participants. Social motivations emerged as the predominate motivational construct, indicating important implications for social health improvement through participation. Demographically, results indicated no statistically significant differences in social motivation factors based on participant gender, and statistically significant differences within participant race, university affiliation and practice frequency. Impacts of these findings are important for practitioners and participants when evaluating the potential these programs have to influence participant social health.

  19. A Brief Analysis of L2 Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武曼

    2017-01-01

    Learning motivation is the motility to urge the student to be engaged in the studies activity. This thesis has introduced types of L2 learning motivation. Through the contrast and analysis about the positive motivation and negative motivation in prac?tical applications, this paper has indicated the unique of positive motivation and the defects of negative motivation, and make rea?sonable suggestions.

  20. Toward the development of a motivational model of pain self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Nielson, Warren R; Kerns, Robert D

    2003-11-01

    Adaptive management of chronic pain depends to a large degree on how patients choose to cope with pain and its impact. Consequently, patient motivation is an important factor in determining how well patients learn to manage pain. However, the role of patient motivation in altering coping behavior and maintaining those changes is seldom discussed, and theoretically based research on motivation for pain treatment is lacking. This article reviews theories that have a direct application to understanding motivational issues in pain coping and presents a preliminary motivational model of pain self-management. The implications of this model for enhancing engagement in and adherence to chronic pain treatment programs are then discussed. The article ends with a call for research to better understand motivation as it applies to chronic pain self-management. In particular, there is a need to determine whether (and which) motivation enhancement interventions increase active participation in self-management treatment programs for chronic pain.