Sample records for understand scientific practice

  1. Understanding scientific practices: The role of robustness notions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mieke; Soler, Lena


    This article explores the role of `robustness-notions¿ in an account of the engineering sciences. The engineering sciences aim at technological production of, and intervention with phenomena relevant to the (dis-)functioning of materials and technological devices, by means of scientific

  2. Articulating Scientific Practice: Understanding Dean Hamer's "Gay Gene" Study as Overlapping Material, Social and Rhetorical Registers (United States)

    Lynch, John A.


    Rhetoricians have tried to develop a better understanding of the connection between words and things, but these attempts often employ a logic of representation that undermines a full examination of materiality and the complexity of scientific practice. A logic of articulation offers a viable alternative by focusing attention on the linkages…

  3. Mundane science use in a practice theoretical perspective: Different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public communication initiatives build on scientific claims. (United States)

    Halkier, Bente


    Public communication initiatives play a part in placing complicated scientific claims in citizen-consumers' everyday contexts. Lay reactions to scientific claims framed in public communication, and attempts to engage citizens, have been important subjects of discussion in the literatures of public understanding and public engagement with science. Many of the public communication initiatives, however, address lay people as consumers rather than citizens. This creates specific challenges for understanding public engagement with science and scientific citizenship. The article compares five different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public issue communication involving science, where the first four types are widely represented in the Public Understanding of Science discussions. The fifth understanding is a practice theoretical perspective. The article suggests how the public understanding of and engagement in science literature can benefit from including a practice theoretical approach to research about mundane science use and public engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Practical scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Muhammad, A


    Scientific computing is about developing mathematical models, numerical methods and computer implementations to study and solve real problems in science, engineering, business and even social sciences. Mathematical modelling requires deep understanding of classical numerical methods. This essential guide provides the reader with sufficient foundations in these areas to venture into more advanced texts. The first section of the book presents numEclipse, an open source tool for numerical computing based on the notion of MATLAB®. numEclipse is implemented as a plug-in for Eclipse, a leading integ

  5. Reorienting Esthetic Knowing as an Appropriate "Object" of Scientific Inquiry to Advance Understanding of a Critical Pattern of Nursing Knowledge in Practice. (United States)

    Bender, Miriam; Elias, Dina

    The esthetic pattern of knowing is critical for nursing practice, yet remains weakly defined and understood. This gap has arguably relegated esthetic knowing to an "ineffable" creativity that resists transparency and understanding, which is a barrier to articulating its value for nursing and its importance in producing beneficial health outcomes. Current philosophy of science developments are synthesized to argue that esthetic knowing is an appropriate "object" of scientific inquiry. Examples of empirical scholarship that can be conceived as scientific inquiry into manifestations of esthetic knowing are highlighted. A program of research is outlined to advance a science of esthetic knowing.

  6. Collaboration in scientific practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann


    This monograph investigates the collaborative creation of scientific knowledge in research groups. To do so, I combine philosophical analysis with a first-hand comparative case study of two research groups in experimental science. Qualitative data are gained through observation and interviews......, and I combine empirical insights with existing approaches to knowledge creation in philosophy of science and social epistemology. On the basis of my empirically-grounded analysis I make several conceptual contributions. I study scientific collaboration as the interaction of scientists within research...... to their publication. Specifically, I suggest epistemic difference and the porosity of social structure as two conceptual leitmotifs in the study of group collaboration. With epistemic difference, I emphasize the value of socio-cognitive heterogeneity in group collaboration. With porosity, I underline the fact...

  7. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas About Scientific Practices (United States)

    Ricketts, Amy


    With the goal of producing scientifically literate citizens who are able to make informed decisions and reason critically when science intersects with their everyday lives, the National Research Council (NRC) has produced two recent documents that call for a new approach to K-12 science education that is based on scientific practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. These documents will potentially influence future state standards and K-12 curricula. Teachers will need support in order to teach science using a practices based approach, particularly if they do not have strong science backgrounds, which is often the case with elementary teachers. This study investigates one cohort (n = 19) of preservice elementary teachers' ideas about scientific practices, as developed in a one-semester elementary science teaching methods course. The course focused on eight particular scientific practices, as defined by the National Research Council's A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (2012). Participants' written reflections, lesson plans and annotated teaching videos were analyzed in fine detail to better understand their ideas about what it means to engage in each of the practices. The findings suggest that preservice elementary teachers hold promising ideas about scientific practices (such as an emphasis on argumentation and communication between scientists, critical thinking, and answering and asking questions as the goal of science) as well as problematic ideas (including confusion over the purpose of modeling and the process of analysis, and conflating argumentation and explanation building). These results highlight the strengths and limitations of using the Framework (NRC 2012) as an instructional text and the difficulties of differentiating between preservice teachers' content knowledge about doing the practices and their pedagogical knowledge about teaching the practices.

  8. Using Learning Analytics to Understand Scientific Modeling in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Quigley


    Full Text Available Scientific models represent ideas, processes, and phenomena by describing important components, characteristics, and interactions. Models are constructed across various scientific disciplines, such as the food web in biology, the water cycle in Earth science, or the structure of the solar system in astronomy. Models are central for scientists to understand phenomena, construct explanations, and communicate theories. Constructing and using models to explain scientific phenomena is also an essential practice in contemporary science classrooms. Our research explores new techniques for understanding scientific modeling and engagement with modeling practices. We work with students in secondary biology classrooms as they use a web-based software tool—EcoSurvey—to characterize organisms and their interrelationships found in their local ecosystem. We use learning analytics and machine learning techniques to answer the following questions: (1 How can we automatically measure the extent to which students’ scientific models support complete explanations of phenomena? (2 How does the design of student modeling tools influence the complexity and completeness of students’ models? (3 How do clickstreams reflect and differentiate student engagement with modeling practices? We analyzed EcoSurvey usage data collected from two different deployments with over 1,000 secondary students across a large urban school district. We observe large variations in the completeness and complexity of student models, and large variations in their iterative refinement processes. These differences reveal that certain key model features are highly predictive of other aspects of the model. We also observe large differences in student modeling practices across different classrooms and teachers. We can predict a student’s teacher based on the observed modeling practices with a high degree of accuracy without significant tuning of the predictive model. These results highlight

  9. Scientific Challenges for Understanding the Quantum Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.


    A workshop titled "Scientific Challenges for Understanding the Quantum Universe" was held December 9-11, 2008, at the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center-National Accelerator Laboratory. The primary purpose of the meeting was to examine how computing at the extreme scale can contribute to meeting forefront scientific challenges in particle physics, particle astrophysics and cosmology. The workshop was organized around five research areas with associated panels. Three of these, "High Energy Theoretical Physics," "Accelerator Simulation," and "Experimental Particle Physics," addressed research of the Office of High Energy Physics’ Energy and Intensity Frontiers, while the"Cosmology and Astrophysics Simulation" and "Astrophysics Data Handling, Archiving, and Mining" panels were associated with the Cosmic Frontier.

  10. Routines, roles, and responsibilities for aligning scientific and classroom practices (United States)

    Ford, Michael J.; Wargo, Brian M.


    Reform efforts in science education have focused on engaging students in authentic scientific practices. For these efforts to succeed, detailed articulations of scientific practice need to be linked to understandings of classroom practice. Here we characterize engagement in practice generally in terms of 3Rs: routines, roles, and responsibilities. We argue that there is a misalignment between the 3Rs of scientific practice and the practices common in classrooms, and that this misalignment poses a considerable obstacle for beginning teachers who attempt to implement reform pedagogy. As part of a secondary methods course, 16 preservice teachers (PSTs) participated in two exemplar activities designed to engage them in scientific practices. The PST performances suggest that at least initially, they did not consider authentic scientific practices appropriate for classroom activities, implying a pedagogical repertoire dominated by the 3Rs of traditional classrooms. PST performances, however, evidenced a shift in the 3Rs from those common in classrooms to those required by these activities, suggesting that their visions for classrooms are malleable and underlining the importance of aligning the 3Rs of scientific and classroom practices during teacher preparation.

  11. Modelling Scientific Argumentation in the Classroom : Teachers perception and practice (United States)

    Probosari, R. M.; Sajidan; Suranto; Prayitno, B. A.; Widyastuti, F.


    The purposes of this study were to investigate teacher’s perception about scientific argumentation and how they practice it in their classroom. Thirty biology teachers in high school participated in this study and illustrated their perception of scientific argumentation through a questionnaire. This survey research was developed to measure teachers’ understanding of scientific argumentation, what they know about scientific argumentation, the differentiation between argument and reasoning, how they plan teaching strategies in order to make students’ scientific argumentation better and the obstacles in teaching scientific argumentation. The result conclude that generally, teachers modified various representation to accommodate student’s active participation, but most of them assume that argument and reasoning are similar. Less motivation, tools and limited science’s knowledge were considered as obstacles in teaching argumentation. The findings can be helpful to improving students’ abilities of doing scientific argumentation as a part of inquiry.

  12. Proportional Reasoning: An Essential Component of Scientific Understanding (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff


    In many scientific contexts, students need to be able to use mathematical knowledge in order to engage in scientific reasoning and problem-solving, and their understanding of scientific concepts relies heavily on their ability to understand and use mathematics in often new or unfamiliar contexts. Not only do science students need high levels of…

  13. Understanding Peer Review of Scientific Research (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011


    An important factor in the success of America's national research system is that federal funds for university-based research are awarded primarily through peer review, which uses panels of scientific experts, or "peers," to evaluate the quality of grant proposals. In this competitive process, proposals compete for resources based on their…

  14. A practical guide to scientific data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Livingstone, David J


    Inspired by the author's need for practical guidance in the processes of data analysis, A Practical Guide to Scientific Data Analysis has been written as a statistical companion for the working scientist.  This handbook of data analysis with worked examples focuses on the application of mathematical and statistical techniques and the interpretation of their results. Covering the most common statistical methods for examining and exploring relationships in data, the text includes extensive examples from a variety of scientific disciplines. The chapters are organised logically, from pl


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Trontelj


    Full Text Available In the field of science, we see cases of misconduct ranging from relatively minor departurefrom good manners and practice to more severe dishonesty and even criminal behaviour.Unethical experiments on human beings are among the worst abuses in scientific researchin medicine. Unethical research is usually also worthless from the scientific point of view.The commonest types of offence, however, include mismanagement of data, conscious misinterpretation,wrongful authorship, biased citation of work by others, plagiarism, misquotationor suppression of findings for the interests or upon the request of the sponsor or In the field of science, we see cases of misconduct ranging from relatively minor departurefrom good manners and practice to more severe dishonesty and even criminal behaviour.Unethical experiments on human beings are among the worst abuses in scientific researchin medicine. Unethical research is usually also worthless from the scientific point of view.The commonest types of offence, however, include mismanagement of data, conscious misinterpretation,wrongful authorship, biased citation of work by others, plagiarism, misquotationor suppression of findings for the interests or upon the request of the sponsor or In the field of science, we see cases of misconduct ranging from relatively minor departurefrom good manners and practice to more severe dishonesty and even criminal behaviour.Unethical experiments on human beings are among the worst abuses in scientific researchin medicine. Unethical research is usually also worthless from the scientific point of view.The commonest types of offence, however, include mismanagement of data, conscious misinterpretation,wrongful authorship, biased citation of work by others, plagiarism, misquotationor suppression of findings for the interests or upon the request of the sponsor or even a senior scientist in the team. Every case of misconduct and fraud may causedamage: it may undermine confidence of the

  16. Understanding the Impact of an Apprenticeship-Based Scientific Research Program on High School Students' Understanding of Scientific Inquiry (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Baksa, Kristen; Skinner, Jane


    The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of an apprenticeship program on high school students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry. Data related to seventeen students' understanding of science and scientific inquiry were collected through open-ended questionnaires. Findings suggest that although engagement in authentic…

  17. Understanding and making practice explicit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gráinne Conole


    Full Text Available This issue contains four, on the face of it, quite different papers, but on looking a little closer there are a number of interesting themes running through them that illustrate some of the key methodological and theoretical issues that e-learning researchers are currently struggling with; central to these is the issue of how do we understand and make practice explicit?

  18. Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of The Nature of Scientific Knowledge (United States)

    Kilic, Kerem; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Tekkaya, Ceren


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the 9th-grade students' understandings of the nature of scientific knowledge. The study also aimed to investigate the differences in students' understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge by gender, and school types. A total of 575 ninth grade students from four different school types (General…

  19. The Value of Bilingualism in Pupils' Understanding of Scientific Language. (United States)

    Kearsey, John; Turner, Sheila


    Argues that, although some bilingual pupils may be at a disadvantage in understanding scientific language, there may be some circumstances where being bilingual is an advantage in understanding scientific language. Presents evidence of circumstances where being bilingual was an advantage and circumstances where it was a disadvantage in…

  20. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard


    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  1. A Scientific Understanding of Keystroke Dynamics (United States)


    of Procedia — Social and Behavioral Sciences . Elsevier, 2011. S. Douhou and J. R. Magnus. The reliability of user authentication through keystroke...manifestations of people’s behavior — keystroke timings especially so. As such, looking to other sciences for solutions to the problem of understanding...excitement and enthusiasm over being studied. The discovery spurred changes in the research methods of behavioral science (Shadish et al., 2002

  2. Understanding veterinary leadership in practice. (United States)

    Pearson, Caroline Elizabeth; Butler, Allan J; Murray, Yaqub Paul


    The Vet Futures Report has identified 'exceptional leadership' as a key ambition for the long-term sustainability of the industry. This research investigates what it is like to be a veterinary surgeon in an in-practice leadership position, applying the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Through the researchers' interpretation of the seven participants' stories of their leadership experiences, the study advances understanding of the work environment, underlying motivations and the perceived responsibilities of veterinary leaders. Findings suggest, for many, a struggle in transition to leader positions, improving with time. The increase in pace of work is relayed by participants, with an ongoing, and unchallenged, work-life imbalance. The vets involved are highly motivated, driven by enjoyment of their jobs, a desire for self-determination and a need to make a difference. Relationships form the core of the perceived responsibilities, and yet are identified as the greatest day-to-day challenge of leadership. This study offers a valuable insight for veterinary surgeons, suggesting the industry could benefit from pausing and reflecting on behaviours. With a greater understanding of the complexity of leadership and followership, progress can be made to enact positive changes for the future. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Socio-scientific controversies and beginning teachers’ pedagogical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Reis


    Full Text Available The current investigation aimed to study the impact of recent socio-scientific controversies, made public through the media, on the concepts and practices of a group of Natural Science teachers at the start of their careers. This study is particularly relevant at a time that is heavily marked by much debate regarding the social and environmental impact of several scientific and technological innovations and by the implementation of new science curricula, that stress the importance of discussing socio-scientific controversies in the context of students’ scientific alphabetisation (namely in their understanding of the nature of science and its relation to society and culture (McComas, 2000. This investigation followed an interpretative approach of a qualitative nature. Through the construction of case studies, it sought to analyse the possible impact of socio-scientific controversies on the teachers’ concepts (about the nature, teaching and learning of science and pedagogic practice. For data collection semi-structured interviews were conducted and classes observed.The controversial issues raised by certain recent technological innovations – namely the environmental, social and cultural impact they may have – did have an impact on the teachers’ concepts about the nature, teaching and learning of science. Besides reinforcing the duality of feelings as regards science and technology, as a source of both progress and concern, they triggered in these teachers the idea of the need for a widespread scientific alphabetisation that empowers the population for understanding and deciding and acting upon these issues. However, the concept of scientific alphabetisation and the best way to achieve it vary among the teachers participating in this study.

  4. Understanding the Validity of Data: A Knowledge-Based Network Underlying Research Expertise in Scientific Disciplines (United States)

    Roberts, Ros


    This article considers what might be taught to meet a widely held curriculum aim of students being able to understand research in a discipline. Expertise, which may appear as a "chain of practice," is widely held to be underpinned by networks of understanding. Scientific research expertise is considered from this perspective. Within…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokina Zoya Titovna


    Full Text Available This article deals with a topic of interest : studying the expanding and deepening trend of integration of natural, technical, social and humanities fields of scientific knowledge. The point of absolute opposition between the sciences dealing with nature and those dealing with culture is subjected to criticism, the forms of integration of scientific knowledge are identified: mathematization, formalization, computerization of knowledge; philosophization/dialectization and environmentalization of the scientific knowledge. It is noted that such areas of scientific knowledge as synergetics, cybernetics, system theory, information technology, sociosynergetics, historical informatics, cliometrics, informatics for economics, evolutionary economics, human ecology, etc. Many scientific fields appear on the border between the science, technology and mathematics, and social and humanities studies, while the sharp borders between the natural sciences and cultural sciences tend to disappear, although specifics of studying the social reality still exists. Within the context of integration of sciences, comprehensive approach, synergetics, cybernetics, and mathematical model approach are analyzed. The philosophy of technology, and environmental problems, which are caused by the development of technological civilization, are studied. Practical value of integration processes in science is identified. The studied data is addressed to the specialists who are interested in the modern processes of integration of sciences, and modern issues of scientific and technical development of humanity, survival of humanity under the conditions of increasing technological understanding of the nature.

  6. Balancing regulatory control, scientific knowledge, and public understanding. (United States)

    Kingsbury, D T


    In summary, I would like to emphasize the continued need for broad and vigorous basic research, with a balance between the fundamental work that may eventually lead to commercial products and the fundamental work that is necessary for an understanding of the interaction of many types of organisms within the environment. I would like also to reiterate the need for balance in the regulatory approach so that we do not repress innovation in research and development. Over-regulation has many side effects. In addition to repressing innovation and not taking advantage of our research base, over-regulation leads to reluctance by the capital markets to invest in the future of our new industries, thereby halting their development at an early stage. At the same time, under-regulation leads to lack of confidence by the public and paralysis of the industry based on public outcry and legal proceedings. It is my personal belief that the combination of a sound approach to regulatory practice, based on current scientific knowledge, combined with appropriate communication with the public regarding the new products, will lead to an exciting future for all sectors of industry that use the new biotechnology.

  7. Health Psychology Bulletin : Improving Publication Practices to Accelerate Scientific Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Gjalt-jorn Ygram; Kok, Gerjo; Crutzen, Rik; Sanderman, Robbert


    The instrument of scientific publishing, originally a necessary tool to enable development of a global science, has evolved relatively little in response to technological advances. Current scientific publishing practices incentivize a number of harmful approaches to research. Health Psychology

  8. Educational Leadership ? understanding and developing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, Andy; Fink, Dean; Southworth, Geoff

    institutions. Different stakeholders bring different interests into policy debate, practice and research on leadership.The articles in this book explore and discuss the theme of 'Educational leadership: Understanding and developing practice' from the following perspectives.- Leadership and change- Leadership...

  9. On multi-level thinking and scientific understanding (United States)

    McIntyre, Michael Edgeworth


    Professor Duzheng YE's name has been familiar to me ever since my postdoctoral years at MIT with Professors Jule CHARNEY and Norman PHILLIPS, back in the late 1960s. I had the enormous pleasure of meeting Professor YE personally in 1992 in Beijing. His concern to promote the very best science and to use it well, and his thinking on multi-level orderly human activities, reminds me not only of the communication skills we need as scientists but also of the multi-level nature of science itself. Here I want to say something (a) about what science is; (b) about why multi-level thinking—and taking more than one viewpoint—is so important for scientific as well as for other forms of understanding; and (c) about what is meant, at a deep level, by "scientific understanding" and trying to communicate it, not only with lay persons but also across professional disciplines. I hope that Professor YE would approve.

  10. [Scientific collaboration and article citations: practices in medical journals]. (United States)

    Bador, Pascal; Lafouge, Thierry


    In order to characterize scientific collaboration the best way is to study co-signature of articles. Two indicators are interesting: number of authors and international character. The objective is to study correlation between these two indicators and citation number. We selected two pharmacy and medicine journals in order to compare practices. We used a sample of about 800 articles published in 2002-2005 for which we collected citations up to 2010. We transformed numeric variables, authors number and citation number, into qualitative variables. "Authors" and "Citations" variables are not independent. Less cited articles are often published by one author or a very small team while international character of articles generally increases citation number. This micro-analysis also allowed us to better understand publication practices. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  11. Agile Scientists? : Investigating Agile Practices in Scientific Software Development


    Sletholt, Magnus Thorstein


    The topic of this master thesis is development of scientific software. The research questions put forth are oriented towards specific agile practices and whether these are present in the development processes of scientific software projects. Moreover, the effects of applying such agile practices, particularly pertaining to the handling of requirements and testing, in scientific software projects are addressed in the thesis. In order to answer the proposed research questions a table consisting...

  12. Practical Realism: Against Standard Scientific Realism and Anti-Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Vihalemm


    Full Text Available In this paper, the elaboration of the concept of practical realist philosophy of science which began in the author's previous papers is continued. It is argued that practical realism is opposed to standard scientific realism, on the one hand, and antirealism, on the other. Standard scientific realism is challengeable due to its abstract character, as being isolated from practice. It is based on a metaphysical-ontological presupposition which raises the problem of the God's Eye point of view (as it was called by Hilary Putnam. Joseph Rouse's conception of science as practice, Sami Pihlström's pragmatic realism, and even Ilkka Niiniluoto's critical scientific realism are interpreted as practical realist conceptions. Pihlström suggests that the contemporary scientific realist should be prepared to accept the pragmatically naturalized Kantian transcendental perspective on realism. It is argued, however, that this realistically naturalized Kantianism can be nothing more than practical realism, as originated by Karl Marx.

  13. Creativity, Scientific Practice, and Knowledge Production (United States)

    Fryer, Marilyn


    In this interesting article, Hisham Ghassib (2010) describes the transformation of science from its craft status in a pre-modern era to the major knowledge industry it is today. He then compares the production of scientific knowledge with industrial production, but makes the important distinction between the process of developing scientific…

  14. Understanding biochar mechanisms for practical implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Bruno [Halle-Wittenberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrar- und Ernaehrungeswissenschaften Bodenbiogeochemie; Kammann, Claudia [Arbeitskreis zur Nutzung von Sekundaerrohstoffen und fuer Klimaschutz (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany). Fachausschuss Biokohle; Hochschule Geisenheim Univ. (Germany). Klimafolgenforschung-Klimawandel in Spezialkulturen; Loewen, Achim (ed.) [Arbeitskreis zur Nutzung von Sekundaerrohstoffen und fuer Klimaschutz (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany); HAWK Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst Hildesheim, Holzminden, Goettingen (Germany). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik NEUtec


    The conference on ''understanding biochar mechanisms for practical implementation'' 2015 at the Geisenheim University aims at understanding biochar mechanism, that are crucial for beneficial and safety biochar technology implementation. Further issues are ecotoxicology, biochar in agriculture, horticulture, and animal husbandry. Practical issues concern analysis and characterization of technological processes, sustainable uses and certification, regulation and marketing aspects. The Conference is structured in 10 sessions.

  15. Understanding Teacher Practice using their own Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer Schrøder


    This paper discusses ways of understanding teacher practice in educational settings. An educational setting consists of cultural, social and historical elements that all influence the teacher’s practice and, how she experiences this practice. It is argued that teaching science and technology...... is a socially conditioned practice. The teachers’ practice are formed by their previous education and experience but also influenced by their private life. This way of looking at teacher knowledge and experience requires attention to teachers’ perception of these aspects. Teachers seldom talk about...

  16. Understanding management practices in business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent; Thijssen, Sander; Pascucci, Stefano


    Following the call for process-oriented research on business incubation processes, this paper investigates the process of business incubation (BI) via an understanding of management practices and interactions. Based on a comprehensive literature review and empirical evidence of management practices

  17. Teachers' Integration of Scientific and Engineering Practices in Primary Classrooms (United States)

    Merritt, Eileen G.; Chiu, Jennie; Peters-Burton, Erin; Bell, Randy


    The Next-Generation Science Standards (NGSS) challenge primary teachers and students to work and think like scientists and engineers as they strive to understand complex concepts. Teachers and teacher educators can leverage what is already known about inquiry teaching as they plan instruction to help students meet the new standards. This cross-case analysis of a multiple case study examined teacher practices in the context of a semester-long professional development course for elementary teachers. We reviewed lessons and teacher reflections, examining how kindergarten and first grade teachers incorporated NGSS scientific and engineering practices during inquiry-based instruction. We found that most of the teachers worked with their students on asking questions; planning and carrying out investigations; analyzing and interpreting data, using mathematics and computational thinking; and obtaining, evaluating and communicating information. Teachers faced challenges in supporting students in developing their own questions that could be investigated and using data collection strategies that aligned with students' development of number sense concepts. Also, some teachers overemphasized the scientific method and lacked clarity in how they elicited and responded to student predictions. Discussion focuses on teacher supports that will be needed as states transition to NGSS.

  18. Vacuum technology Practice for scientific instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Nagamitsu


    Nanotechnology has reached a level where almost every new development and even every new product uses features of nanoscopic properties of materials. As a consequence, an enormous amount of scientific instruments is used in order to synthesize and analyze new structures and materials. Due to the surface sensitivity of such materials, many of these instruments require ultrahigh vacuum that has to be provided under extreme conditions like very high voltages. In this book, Yoshimura provides a review of the UHV related development during the last decades. His very broad experience in the design enables him to present us this detailed reference. After a general description how to design UHV systems, he covers all important issue in detail, like pumps, outgasing, Gauges, and Electrodes for high voltages. Thus, this book serves as reference for everybody using UVH in his scientific equipment

  19. Good enough practices in scientific computing. (United States)

    Wilson, Greg; Bryan, Jennifer; Cranston, Karen; Kitzes, Justin; Nederbragt, Lex; Teal, Tracy K


    Computers are now essential in all branches of science, but most researchers are never taught the equivalent of basic lab skills for research computing. As a result, data can get lost, analyses can take much longer than necessary, and researchers are limited in how effectively they can work with software and data. Computing workflows need to follow the same practices as lab projects and notebooks, with organized data, documented steps, and the project structured for reproducibility, but researchers new to computing often don't know where to start. This paper presents a set of good computing practices that every researcher can adopt, regardless of their current level of computational skill. These practices, which encompass data management, programming, collaborating with colleagues, organizing projects, tracking work, and writing manuscripts, are drawn from a wide variety of published sources from our daily lives and from our work with volunteer organizations that have delivered workshops to over 11,000 people since 2010.

  20. Modern Scientific Literacy: A Case Study of Multiliteracies and Scientific Practices in a Fifth Grade Classroom (United States)

    Allison, Elizabeth; Goldston, M. Jenice


    This study investigates the convergence of multiliteracies and scientific practices in a fifth grade classroom. As students' lives become increasingly multimodal, diverse, and globalized, the traditional notions of literacy must be revisited (New London Group 1996). With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States 2013a) in many states, either in their entirety or in adapted forms, it becomes useful to explore the interconnectedness multiliteracies and scientific practices and the resulting implications for scientific literacy. The case study included a fifth grade classroom, including the students and teacher. In order to create a rich description of the cases involved, data were collected and triangulated through teacher interviews, student interviews and focus groups, and classroom observations. Findings reveal that as science activities were enriched with multiliteracies and scientific practices, students were engaged in developing skills and knowledge central to being scientifically literate. Furthermore, this study establishes that characteristics of scientific literacy, by its intent and purpose, are a form of multiliteracies in elementary classrooms. Therefore, the teaching and learning of science and its practices for scientific literacy are in turn reinforcing the development of broader multiliteracies.

  1. Understanding producers' motives for adopting sustainable practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo-Barrera, Andres; Pennings, Joost M.E.; Hofenk, Dianne


    Understanding the motives and risk attitudes of producers to engage in sustainable practices is important for policy-makers who wish to increase the likelihood of adoption and improve the design of incentives. This article examines the underlying motives of producers to adopt sustainable

  2. Pre-service elementary teachers' understanding of scientific inquiry and its role in school science (United States)

    Macaroglu, Esra

    The purpose of this research was to explore pre-service elementary teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry within the context of their elementary science teaching and learning. More specifically, the study examined 24 pre-service elementary teachers' emerging understanding of (1) the nature of science and scientific inquiry; (2) the "place" of scientific inquiry in school science; and (3) the roles and responsibilities of teachers and students within an inquiry-based learning environment. Data sources consisted primarily of student-generated artifacts collected throughout the semester, including pre/post-philosophy statements and text-based materials collected from electronic dialogue journals. Individual data sources were open-coded to identify concepts and categories expressed by students. Cross-comparisons were conducted and patterns were identified. Assertions were formed with these patterns. Findings are hopeful in that they suggest pre-service teachers can develop a more contemporary view of scientific inquiry when immersed in a context that promotes this perspective. Not surprisingly, however, the prospective teachers encountered a number of barriers when attempting to translate their emerging ideas into practice. More research is needed to determine which teacher preparation experiences are most powerful in supporting pre-service teachers as they construct a framework for science teaching and learning that includes scientific inquiry as a central component.

  3. Practical guide to understanding Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER). (United States)

    Neely, J Gail; Sharon, Jeffrey D; Graboyes, Evan M; Paniello, Randal C; Nussenbaum, Brian; Grindler, David J; Dassopoulos, Themistocles


    "Comparative effectiveness research" (CER) is not a new concept; however, recently it has been popularized as a method to develop scientifically sound actionable data by which patients, physicians, payers, and policymakers may make informed health care decisions. Fundamental to CER is that the comparative data are derived from large diverse populations of patients assembled from point-of-care general primary care practices and that measured outcomes include patient value judgments. The challenge is to obtain scientifically valid data to be acted upon by decision-making stakeholders with potentially quite diversely different agenda. The process requires very thoughtful research designs modulated by complex statistical and analytic methods. This article is composed of a guiding narrative with an extensive set of tables outlining many of the details required in performing and understanding CER. It ends with short discussions of three example papers, limitations of the method, and how a practicing physician may view such reports.

  4. Open Science: Dimensions to a new scientific practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Silva de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Introduction:The practices of e-science and the use and reuse of scientific data have constituted a new scientific work that leads to the reflection on new regulatory, legal, institutional and technological frameworks for open science. Objective: This study shows the following research question: which dimensions provide sustainability for the formulation of a policy geared to open science and its practices in the Brazilian context? The aim of this study is to discuss the dimensions that support transversely the formulation of a policy for open science and its scientific practices. Methodology:Theoretically, the study is guided by the fourth scientific paradigm grounded in the e-Science. The methodology is supported by Bufrem’s studies (2013, which propose an alternative and multidimensional model for analysis and discussion of scientific research. Technically, the literature review and documentary survey were the methods used on the Data Lifecycle scientific model, laws and international agreements.For this study purpose, five dimensions were proposed, namely: epistemological, political, ethical-legal-cultural, morphological, and technological. Results: This studyunderstands that these dimensions substantiate an information policy or the development of minimum guidelines for the open science agenda in Brazil. Conclusions: The dimensions put away the reductionist perspective on survey data and they conducted the study for the multi-dimensional and multi-relational vision of open science.

  5. Guiding students to develop an understanding of scientific inquiry: a science skills approach to instruction and assessment. (United States)

    Stone, Elisa M


    New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific investigation. An individual teacher's investigation of the strategies and tools she designed to promote scientific inquiry in her classroom is outlined. This teacher-driven action research in the high school biology classroom presents a simple study design that allowed for reciprocal testing of two simultaneous treatments, one that aimed to guide students to use vocabulary to identify and describe different scientific practices they were using in their investigations-for example, hypothesizing, data analysis, or use of controls-and another that focused on scientific collaboration. A knowledge integration (KI) rubric was designed to measure how students integrated their ideas about the skills and practices necessary for scientific inquiry. KI scores revealed that student understanding of scientific inquiry increased significantly after receiving instruction and using assessment tools aimed at promoting development of specific inquiry skills. General strategies for doing classroom-based action research in a straightforward and practical way are discussed, as are implications for teaching and evaluating introductory life sciences courses at the undergraduate level.

  6. Guiding Students to Develop an Understanding of Scientific Inquiry: A Science Skills Approach to Instruction and Assessment (United States)

    Stone, Elisa M.


    New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific investigation. An individual teacher's investigation of the strategies and tools she designed to promote scientific inquiry in her classroom is outlined. This teacher-driven action research in the high school biology classroom presents a simple study design that allowed for reciprocal testing of two simultaneous treatments, one that aimed to guide students to use vocabulary to identify and describe different scientific practices they were using in their investigations—for example, hypothesizing, data analysis, or use of controls—and another that focused on scientific collaboration. A knowledge integration (KI) rubric was designed to measure how students integrated their ideas about the skills and practices necessary for scientific inquiry. KI scores revealed that student understanding of scientific inquiry increased significantly after receiving instruction and using assessment tools aimed at promoting development of specific inquiry skills. General strategies for doing classroom-based action research in a straightforward and practical way are discussed, as are implications for teaching and evaluating introductory life sciences courses at the undergraduate level. PMID:24591508

  7. A social epistemology of research groups collaboration in scientific practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wagenknecht, Susann


    This book investigates how collaborative scientific practice yields scientific knowledge. At a time when most of today’s scientific knowledge is created in research groups, the author reconsiders the social character of science to address the question of whether collaboratively created knowledge should be considered as collective achievement, and if so, in which sense. Combining philosophical analysis with qualitative empirical inquiry, this book provides a comparative case study of mono- and interdisciplinary research groups, offering insight into the day-to-day practice of scientists. The book includes field observations and interviews with scientists to present an empirically-grounded perspective on much-debated questions concerning research groups’ division of labor, relations of epistemic dependence and trust.

  8. Understanding personal narratives: an approach to practice. (United States)

    Gaydos, H Lea


    This paper explores the need for and nature of personal narratives and their relevance to nursing practice. It proposes that the co-creative aesthetic process can be used to understand and co-create personal narratives through an emphasis on self-defining memories and metaphor. Many authors in nursing and other human sciences have recognized the need for and importance of personal narrative, its relationship to aesthetic knowing and its value in qualitative research and in practice. The role of memory and metaphor in the creation of meaning in personal narratives, however, has not been sufficiently explored in nursing literature. The nature of personal narrative is explored, focusing on the way meaning is created from self-defining memories using metaphor. Then, the importance of personal narratives in nursing practice is considered, followed by discussion about how meaning in personal narratives may be co-created between clients and nurses using an aesthetic process developed by the author. The co-creative aesthetic process is an example of nursing as art and can be used to co-create personal narratives in practice. The experience of co-creating a self story with a nurse can be healing, as the self story is heard by a caring person, memories are understood in new ways, and the self story is both confirmed and recreated.

  9. Scientific Software - the role of best practices and recommendations (United States)

    Fritzsch, Bernadette; Bernstein, Erik; Castell, Wolfgang zu; Diesmann, Markus; Haas, Holger; Hammitzsch, Martin; Konrad, Uwe; Lähnemann, David; McHardy, Alice; Pampel, Heinz; Scheliga, Kaja; Schreiber, Andreas; Steglich, Dirk


    In Geosciences - like in most other communities - scientific work strongly depends on software. For big data analysis, existing (closed or open source) program packages are often mixed with newly developed codes. Different versions of software components and varying configurations can influence the result of data analysis. This often makes reproducibility of results and reuse of codes very difficult. Policies for publication and documentation of used and newly developed software, along with best practices, can help tackle this problem. Within the Helmholtz Association a Task Group "Access to and Re-use of scientific software" was implemented by the Open Science Working Group in 2016. The aim of the Task Group is to foster the discussion about scientific software in the Open Science context and to formulate recommendations for the production and publication of scientific software, ensuring open access to it. As a first step, a workshop gathered interested scientists from institutions across Germany. The workshop brought together various existing initiatives from different scientific communities to analyse current problems, share established best practices and come up with possible solutions. The subjects in the working groups covered a broad range of themes, including technical infrastructures, standards and quality assurance, citation of software and reproducibility. Initial recommendations are presented and discussed in the talk. They are the foundation for further discussions in the Helmholtz Association and the Priority Initiative "Digital Information" of the Alliance of Science Organisations in Germany. The talk aims to inform about the activities and to link with other initiatives on the national or international level.

  10. Writing practices: scientific diffusion texts in a portuguese course book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Braz da Silva Santos Rocha


    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to show how the production of scientific diffusion texts from a Portuguese textbook used in high schools is taught. The research questions are: (1 how is the scientific diffusion sphere presented to the student? (2 Which is the linguistic-discursive treatment that the authors offer to lead the student to the production of scientific diffusion texts? (3 How do these procedures help improve writing in the most varied genres in the scientific sphere? A didactic activity involving written production of a text for scientific diffusion from the textbook series Português: contexto, interlocução e sentido was chosen. The analysis is based on the concept of text as postulated by Bakhtin and the Circle, for whom the text is a real unit of discursive communication. The result shows that the activity does not materialize the Bakhtinian theoretical bases adopted in the teacher’s manual. In the dialogic perspective, in order to insert the student in the writing practices of scientific texts, it is necessary to make him/her take on the role of reader of journals and specialized magazines, as well as the role of scientist/researcher.

  11. Scientific literacy and academic identity: Creating a community of practice (United States)

    Reveles, John Michael


    This one-year ethnographic study of a third grade classroom examined the construction of elementary school science. The research focused on the co-development of scientific literacy and academic identity. Unlike much research in science education that views literacy as merely supportive of science; this dissertation research considers how students learned both disciplinary knowledge in science as well as about themselves as learners through language use. The study documented and analyzed how students came to engage with scientific knowledge and the impact this engagement had upon their academic identities over time. Ethnographic and discourse analytic methods were employed to investigate three research questions: (a) How were the students in a third grade classroom afforded opportunities to acquire scientific literate practices through the spoken/written discourse and science activities? (b) In what ways did students develop and maintain academic identities taken-up over time as they discursively appropriated scientific literate practices via classroom discourse? and (c) How did students collectively and individually inscribe their academic identities and scientific knowledge into classroom artifacts across the school year? Through multiple forms of analyses, I identified how students' communication and participation in science investigations provided opportunities for them to learn specific scientific literate practices. The findings of this empirical research indicate that students' communication and participation in science influenced the ways they perceived themselves as active participants within the classroom community. More specifically, students were observed to appropriate particular discourse practices introduced by the teacher to frame scientific disciplinary knowledge and investigations. Thus, emerging academic identities and developing literate practices were documented via analysis of discursive (spoken, written, and enacted) classroom interactions. A

  12. Scientific literacy: Role of natural history studies in constructing understanding of the nature of science (United States)

    Lutz, Martha Victoria Rosett


    Scientific literacy is a central goal of science education. One purpose of this investigation was to reevaluate the definition of 'scientific literacy.' Another purpose was to develop and implement new curriculum involving natural history experiments with insects, with the goal of allowing students opportunities to construct an understanding of the nature of science, a crucial aspect of scientific literacy. This investigation was a qualitative case study. Methods of data collection included direct observations, analysis of sketches and written products created by students and class-room teachers, and analysis of audio tapes. Major findings include: (1) Scientific literacy is generally defined by lists of factual information which students are expected to master. When asked to evaluate their knowledge of selected items on a list published in a science education reform curriculum guide, 15 practicing scientists reported lack of familiarity or comprehension with many items, with the exception of items within their areas of specialization. (2) Genuine natural history experiments using insects can be incorporated into the existing school schedule and need not require any increase in the budget for science materials. (3) Students as young as first through third grade can learn the manual techniques and conceptual skills necessary for designing and conducting original natural history experiments, including manipulating the insects, making accurate sketches, developing test able hypotheses, recording data, and drawing conclusions from their data. Students were generally enthusiastic both about working with live insects and also conducting genuine science experiments. (4) Girls appear both positive and engaged with natural history activities and may be more likely than boys to follow through on designing, conducting, and reporting on independent experiments. The results imply that a valid definition of scientific literacy should be based on the ability to acquire scientific

  13. Examining Data Processing Work as Part of the Scientific Data Lifecycle Comparing Practices Across Four Scientific Research Groups


    Paine, Drew; Lee, Charlotte


    Slides from Charlotte P. Lee's presentation at the 2015 iConference on our paper "Examining Data Processing Work as Part of the Scientific Data Lifecycle: Comparing Practices Across Four Scientific Research Groups".

  14. Promotion of scientific literacy: Bangladeshi teachers' perspectives and practices (United States)

    Sarkar, Mahbub; Corrigan, Deborah


    Background: In Bangladesh, a common science curriculum caters for all students at the junior secondary level. Since this curriculum is for all students, its aims are both to build a strong foundation in science while still providing students with the opportunities to use science in everyday life - an aim consistent with the notion of scientific literacy. Purpose: This paper reports Bangladeshi science teachers' perspectives and practices in regard to the promotion of scientific literacy. Sample: Six science teachers representing a range of geographical locations, school types with different class sizes, lengths of teaching experience and educational qualifications. Design and method: This study employed a case study approach. The six teachers and their associated science classes (including students) were considered as six cases. Data were gathered through observing the teachers' science lessons, interviewing them twice - once before and once after the lesson observation, and interviewing their students in focus groups. Results: This study reveals that participating teachers held a range of perspectives on scientific literacy, including some naïve perspectives. In addition, their perspectives were often not seen to be realised in the classroom as for teachers the emphasis of learning science was more traditional in nature. Many of their teaching practices promoted a culture of academic science that resulted in students' difficulty in finding connections between the science they study in school and their everyday lives. This research also identified the tension which teachers encountered between their religious values and science values while they were teaching science in a culture with a religious tradition. Conclusions: The professional development practice for science teachers in Bangladesh with its emphasis on developing science content knowledge may limit the scope for promoting the concepts of scientific literacy. Opportunities for developing pedagogic

  15. Developing good scientific publishing practices: one pharmaceutical company's perspective. (United States)

    Dowsett, Sherie A; Van Campen, Luann E; Bednar, Lisa A


    The scientific publishing practices of the pharmaceutical industry have been heavily criticized in recent years due to the inherent conflict of interest that arises when a pharmaceutical company publishes findings around its own drugs. Eli Lilly and Company ('Lilly') strives for transparency in its day-to-day activities, and, here, shares its principles, policies and practices on publishing "Lilly-sponsored" research. A conflict of interest does not necessarily equate to biased presentation of research findings, and operating a successful, for-profit business and maintaining a focus on improving the health of patients are not mutually exclusive goals. There is, however, potential for bias, and it is incumbent upon a for-profit to develop publication principles, policies and practices to address this. To this end, Lilly's Principles of Medical Research states that 'Lilly discloses publicly all medical research results that are important to patients, healthcare providers or payers--whether favorable or unfavorable to a Lilly product--in an accurate, objective, and balanced manner ...' The preparation of publications of Lilly-sponsored research involves close collaboration between external (i.e., academic or otherwise non-industry employees) and Lilly scientific researchers (including scientific writers), with both serving as authors. Lilly does not support 'ghost' or 'guest' authorship. Authorship is not just recognition of contribution but also public acknowledgement of responsibility for content, and all authors are expected to take an active role in developing the manuscript in line with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors-based authorship requirements. This is agreed to by authors before the manuscript is started. Lilly provides external authors with access to the trial data for manuscript development. Lilly does not pay external authors for their involvement in manuscript development. Scientific writers at Lilly, often with advanced scientific

  16. Striving for Scientific Integrity and Ethical Practices in Higher Education (United States)

    Geissman, J. W.


    The need for the highest levels of scientific integrity and ethical principles in higher education, globally, is obvious. This is the setting where faculty scientists practice and future scientists, as entering science majors, those who change course and switch to science, and graduate students, are nurtured and mentored. Institutions of higher education across the globe are devoting increasing attention to scientific integrity and ethical practices, often as mandated by specific (funding) agencies, and this certainly is a step in the right direction. One approach has involved graduate students, particularly PhD students, in formal classes/seminars on the subjects. Another, more institution-specific, is to require freshman science majors to take one or more classes designed to assist students, in many ways, to succeed in whatever science path they choose. For the past five years I have "taught" such a class, which I like to refer to as "Science is the Rest of Your Life 101". My section is very heavy on scientific integrity and ethical practices; most students have never been exposed to nor have considered such subjects. Their interest level is exceedingly keen. So, steps are being taken, but rectifying existing concerns will take time. Here are some (potential/real) problems. One facing all of higher education is the ever decreasing number, certainly in the United States, of tenured/tenure track faculty in all disciplines together with the generational "gap" or "double gap" (some colleagues of mine are in their 80s) between those who never for all intents and purposes received any "formal" exposure to scientific integrity and ethical practices issues and those fresh in the academy for which these subjects are recently and better engrained. At most institutions, those faculty never involved in such formal training because of, well, their age, are required to pass some form of on-line "certification" class in research ethics among other subjects on an annual or bi

  17. (Mis)understanding Science: The Problem with Scientific Breakthroughs. (United States)

    Evans, James P


    On Saturday morning, February 28, 1953, the mystery of heredity appeared secure. Humans hadn't the faintest idea of how genetic information was transmitted-how the uncanny resemblance between mother and daughter, grandfather and grandson was conveyed across generations. Yet, by that Saturday afternoon, two individuals, James Watson and Francis Crick, had glimpsed the solution to these mysteries. The story of Watson and Crick's great triumph has been told and retold and has rightly entered the pantheon of scientific legend. But Watson and Crick's breakthrough was just that: a rupture and dramatic discontinuity in human knowledge that solved a deep mystery, the likes of which occurs, perhaps, a couple of times each century. And that's the problem. The story is just so good and so irresistible that it has misled generations of scientists about what to expect regarding a life in science. And more damaging, the resulting breakthrough mentality misleads the public, the media, and society's decision-makers about how science really works, all to the detriment of scientific progress and our society's well-being. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  18. 76 FR 16443 - Proposed Information Collection: Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change... (United States)


    ... Collection: Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of... Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of the United States.'' The draft report reviews key issues related to freshwater resource data and climate change and identifies next...

  19. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer


    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  20. Scientific Models Help Students Understand the Water Cycle (United States)

    Forbes, Cory; Vo, Tina; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina


    The water cycle is a large, complex system that encompasses ideas across the K-12 science curriculum. By the time students leave fifth grade, they should understand "that a system is a group of related parts that make up a whole and can carry out functions its individual parts cannot" and be able to describe both components and processes…

  1. The NASA Ames Research Center Institutional Scientific Collection: History, Best Practices and Scientific Opportunities (United States)

    Rask, Jon C.; Chakravarty, Kaushik; French, Alison; Choi, Sungshin; Stewart, Helen


    The NASA Ames Life Sciences Institutional Scientific Collection (ISC), which is composed of the Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) and the Biospecimen Storage Facility (BSF), is managed by the Space Biosciences Division and has been operational since 1993. The ALSDA is responsible for archiving information and animal biospecimens collected from life science spaceflight experiments and matching ground control experiments. Both fixed and frozen spaceflight and ground tissues are stored in the BSF within the ISC. The ALSDA also manages a Biospecimen Sharing Program, performs curation and long-term storage operations, and makes biospecimens available to the scientific community for research purposes via the Life Science Data Archive public website ( As part of our best practices, a viability testing plan has been developed for the ISC, which will assess the quality of archived samples. We expect that results from the viability testing will catalyze sample use, enable broader science community interest, and improve operational efficiency of the ISC. The current viability test plan focuses on generating disposition recommendations and is based on using ribonucleic acid (RNA) integrity number (RIN) scores as a criteria for measurement of biospecimen viablity for downstream functional analysis. The plan includes (1) sorting and identification of candidate samples, (2) conducting a statiscally-based power analysis to generate representaive cohorts from the population of stored biospecimens, (3) completion of RIN analysis on select samples, and (4) development of disposition recommendations based on the RIN scores. Results of this work will also support NASA open science initiatives and guides development of the NASA Scientific Collections Directive (a policy on best practices for curation of biological collections). Our RIN-based methodology for characterizing the quality of tissues stored in the ISC since the 1980s also creates unique

  2. The Virtues of Scientific Practice: MacIntyre, (United States)

    Hicks, Daniel J; Stapleford, Thomas A


    “Practice” has become a ubiquitous term in the history of science, and yet historians have not always reflected on its philosophical import and in particular on its potential connections with ethics. This essay draws on the work of the virtue ethicist Alasdair MacIntyre to develop a theory of “communal practices” and explore how such an approach can inform the history of science, including allegations about the corruption of science by wealth or power, consideration of scientific ethics or “moral economies,” the role of values in science, the ethical distinctiveness (or not) of scientific vocations, and the relationship between history of science and the practice of science itself.

  3. On Understanding: Maxwell on the Methods of Illustration and Scientific Metaphor (United States)

    Cat, Jordi

    In this paper I examine the notion and role of metaphors and illustrations in Maxwell's works in exact science as a pathway into a broader and richer philosophical conception of a scientist and scientific practice. While some of these notions and methods are still at work in current scientific research-from economics and biology to quantum computation and quantum field theory-, here I have chosen to attest to their entrenchment and complexity in actual science by attempting to make some conceptual sense of Maxwell's own usage; this endeavour includes situating Maxwell's conceptions and applications in his own culture of Victorian science and philosophy. I trace Maxwell's notions to the formulation of the problem of understanding, or interpreting, abstract representations such as potential functions and Lagrangian equations. I articulate the solution in terms of abstract-concrete relations, where the concrete, in tune with Victorian British psychology and engineering, includes the muscular as well as the pictorial. This sets the basis for a conception of understanding in terms of unification and concrete modelling, or representation. I examine the relation of illustration to analogies and metaphors on which this account rests. Lastly, I stress and explain the importance of context-dependence, its consequences for realism-instrumentalism debates, and Maxwell's own emphasis on method.

  4. The pallid sturgeon: Scientific investigations help understand recovery needs (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.


    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  5. Continuous Improvement in Schools: Understanding the Practice (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen; Kumari, Roshni


    This article investigates conceptually and practically what it means for schools to engage in the practice of continuous improvement. The analysis draws upon prior research and discussion to predict core elements of the practice of continuous improvement in schools. The predictions are then applied to a case study of continuous improvement efforts…

  6. The treatment process of understanding scientific texts: A necessity in the current Cuban university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet María Guerra Santana


    Full Text Available This work has as main purpose to emphasize the need for treatment of the process of understanding scientific texts in the university today, for the development of science and technology has placed at the forefront in every race the problem of processing scientific information. The ability to produce scientific texts has been somewhat spontaneity in the curriculum of professional training in Cuban university, which has resulted in some professionals do not yet have linguistic, discursive and strategic " tools " best to communicate the style of science, hence the study of the process of understanding of scientific texts in undergraduate currently constitute a need in our universities.

  7. Investigating Assessment Bias for Constructed Response Explanation Tasks: Implications for Evaluating Performance Expectations for Scientific Practice (United States)

    Federer, Meghan Rector

    Assessment is a key element in the process of science education teaching and research. Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment is a major challenge for science education reforms. Prior research has documented several limitations of instrument types on the measurement of students' scientific knowledge (Liu et al., 2011; Messick, 1995; Popham, 2010). Furthermore, a large body of work has been devoted to reducing assessment biases that distort inferences about students' science understanding, particularly in multiple-choice [MC] instruments. Despite the above documented biases, much has yet to be determined for constructed response [CR] assessments in biology and their use for evaluating students' conceptual understanding of scientific practices (such as explanation). Understanding differences in science achievement provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Using the integrative framework put forth by the National Research Council (2012), this dissertation aimed to explore whether assessment biases occur for assessment practices intended to measure students' conceptual understanding and proficiency in scientific practices. Using a large corpus of undergraduate biology students' explanations, three studies were conducted to examine whether known biases of MC instruments were also apparent in a CR instrument designed to assess students' explanatory practice and understanding of evolutionary change (ACORNS: Assessment of COntextual Reasoning about Natural Selection). The first study investigated the challenge of interpreting and scoring lexically ambiguous language in CR answers. The incorporation of 'multivalent' terms into scientific discourse practices often results in statements or explanations that are difficult to interpret and can produce faulty inferences about student knowledge. The results of this study indicate that many undergraduate biology majors

  8. Understanding and Affecting Science Teacher Candidates' Scientific Reasoning in Introductory Astrophysics (United States)

    Steinberg, Richard; Cormier, Sebastien


    This study reports on a content course for science immersion teacher candidates that emphasized authentic practice of science and thinking scientifically in the context of introductory astrophysics. We explore how 122 science teacher candidates spanning three cohorts did and did not reason scientifically and how this evolved in our program. Our…

  9. Understanding the Effectiveness of Performance Management Practices (United States)


    practitioners.” Priem and Rosenstein (2001) and Rynes, Bartunek, and Daft (2001) have documented the science- practice gap between OB and other...provided the foundation for effective leadership and project management. Informally the author sought ways to motivate and focus the efforts of...predominate part of his leadership and project management philosophy. This thesis further investigates leadership and management practices focused

  10. Researching language teaching: Understanding practice through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we argue that second language acquisition (SLA) research and theory have a significant role to play in teacher education, especially at the masters level. The danger of overly practical approaches is that they cannot challenge current practice in ways that are both critical and rigorous. However, to engage ...

  11. West meets East: psychophysics studies for understanding mysterious Oriental health promoting practices (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen


    Based on his early graduated studies in psychophysics, the author has, in recent years, applied psychophysics for studying organic and motor senses (the two sensory systems deeply embedded inside of human body), and tried to understand the scientific foundation of the oriental health promoting practices. The preliminary results are promising and are discussed in detail in this paper. Psychophysics studies of organic and motor senses may be the tool to provide the connection between Western and Eastern medicines to form a balanced holistic medicine approach, and may help us to understand the scientific foundation of mysterious oriental health Promoting practices that serve as alternative medicines for promoting human wellness against illness.

  12. Probing Student Understanding of Scientific Thinking in the Context of Introductory Astrophysics (United States)

    Steinberg, Richard N.; Cormier, Sebastien; Fernandez, Adiel


    Common forms of testing of student understanding of science content can be misleading about their understanding of the nature of scientific thinking. Observational astronomy integrated with related ideas of force and motion is a rich context to explore the correlation between student content knowledge and student understanding of the scientific…

  13. Mathematics and science Teachers' Understanding and Practices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amy Stambach

    It employed qualitative methods of data collection including in-depth interviews and ... Education, Science, Technology, Scientific Research, 2003; Rwanda Education .... Rwandan science teachers were not having common understanding of ...

  14. Understanding structural engineering from theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Fah


    In our world of seemingly unlimited computing, numerous analytical approaches to the estimation of stress, strain, and displacement, including analytical, numerical, physical, and analog techniques, have greatly advanced the practice of engineering. Combining theory and experimentation, computer simulation has emerged as a third path for engineering design and performance evaluation. As a result, structural engineers working in the practical world of engineering must apply, and ideally, thrive, on these idealizations of science-based theories. Analyzing the major achievements in the field, Und

  15. Dynamic use of geoscience information to develop scientific understanding for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Tsang, C.F.


    This paper discusses the development and safety evaluation of a nuclear waste geologic repository. Scientific understanding dependent upon information from a number of geoscience disciplines is described. A discussion is given on the dynamic use of the information through the different stages. The authors point out the need for abstracting, deriving and updating a quantitative spatial and process model (QSPM) to develop a scientific understanding of site responses as a crucial element in the dynamic procedure

  16. Integrated Vegetation Management Practices Memorandum of Understanding (United States)

    Memorandum of Understanding between EPA and the Edison Electric Institute, U.S. Department of Agriculture (Forest Service), and U.S. Department of the Interior (Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Park Service for IVM.

  17. Scientific Teaching: Defining a Taxonomy of Observable Practices (United States)

    Couch, Brian A.; Brown, Tanya L.; Schelpat, Tyler J.; Graham, Mark J.; Knight, Jennifer K.


    Over the past several decades, numerous reports have been published advocating for changes to undergraduate science education. These national calls inspired the formation of the National Academies Summer Institutes on Undergraduate Education in Biology (SI), a group of regional workshops to help faculty members learn and implement interactive teaching methods. The SI curriculum promotes a pedagogical framework called Scientific Teaching (ST), which aims to bring the vitality of modern research into the classroom by engaging students in the scientific discovery process and using student data to inform the ongoing development of teaching methods. With the spread of ST, the need emerges to systematically define its components in order to establish a common description for education researchers and practitioners. We describe the development of a taxonomy detailing ST’s core elements and provide data from classroom observations and faculty surveys in support of its applicability within undergraduate science courses. The final taxonomy consists of 15 pedagogical goals and 37 supporting practices, specifying observable behaviors, artifacts, and features associated with ST. This taxonomy will support future educational efforts by providing a framework for researchers studying the processes and outcomes of ST-based course transformations as well as a concise guide for faculty members developing classes. PMID:25713097

  18. Scientific knowledge dissemination in Danish seed communities of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Misfeldt, Morten; Boelt, Birte


    Danish agriculture and seed science have a history of successful collaboration spanning more than a hundred years. In this study, we interviewed 26 growers, consultants, and scientists from the Danish seed community focusing on their current knowledge status and on their views on improving scient......, as only the innovative growers prioritized time allocation for additional knowledge search. To improve scientific knowledge dissemination and interdisciplinary collaboration among Danish seed-CoP we recommend a combination of face-to-face and online communication processes.......Danish agriculture and seed science have a history of successful collaboration spanning more than a hundred years. In this study, we interviewed 26 growers, consultants, and scientists from the Danish seed community focusing on their current knowledge status and on their views on improving...... scientific knowledge communication. Theoretically, we consider these actors participants in different communities of practice relating to the production of seeds (Seed-CoP), and we conclude that strong network collaboration is present among Danish seed-CoP effectuated by the valuable work undertaken...

  19. Identifying and Understanding Effective High School Practices (United States)

    Rutledge, Stacey A.; Cannata, Marisa


    The authors report on a yearlong investigation into similar schools that performed well and less well in the same district. They found that the higher-performing schools engaged in an intentional set of systemic practices that encourage Personalization for Academic and Social Learning (PASL) in one district and integrated structures of academic…

  20. Scientific, statistical, practical, and regulatory considerations in design space development. (United States)

    Debevec, Veronika; Srčič, Stanko; Horvat, Matej


    The quality by design (QbD) paradigm guides the pharmaceutical industry towards improved understanding of products and processes, and at the same time facilitates a high degree of manufacturing and regulatory flexibility throughout the establishment of the design space. This review article presents scientific, statistical and regulatory considerations in design space development. All key development milestones, starting with planning, selection of factors, experimental execution, data analysis, model development and assessment, verification, and validation, and ending with design space submission, are presented and discussed. The focus is especially on frequently ignored topics, like management of factors and CQAs that will not be included in experimental design, evaluation of risk of failure on design space edges, or modeling scale-up strategy. Moreover, development of a design space that is independent of manufacturing scale is proposed as the preferred approach.

  1. Radiation protection. Scientific fundamentals, legal regulations, practical applications. Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchert, Guido; Gay, Juergen; Kirchner, Gerald; Michel, Rolf; Niggemann, Guenter; Schumann, Joerg; Wust, Peter; Jaehnert, Susanne; Strilek, Ralf; Martini, Ekkehard


    The compendium on radiation protection, scientific fundamentals, legal regulations and practical applications includes contributions to the following issues: (1) Effects and risk of ionizing radiation: fundamentals on effects and risk of ionizing radiation, news in radiation biology, advantages and disadvantages of screening investigations; (2) trends and legal regulations concerning radiation protection: development of European and national radiation protection laws, new regulations concerning X-rays, culture and ethics of radiation protection; (3) dosimetry and radiation measuring techniques: personal scanning using GHz radiation, new ''dose characteristics'' in practice, measuring techniques for the nuclear danger prevention and emergency hazard control; (4) radiation exposure in medicine: radiation exposure of modern medical techniques, heavy ion radiotherapy, deterministic and stochastic risks of the high-conformal photon radiotherapy, STEMO project - mobile CT for apoplectic stroke patients; (5) radiation exposure in technology: legal control of high-level radioactive sources, technical and public safety using enclosed radioactive sources for materials testing, radiation exposure in aviation, radon in Bavaria, NPP Fukushima-Daiichi - a status report; (6) radiation exposure in nuclear engineering: The Chernobyl accident - historical experiences or sustaining problem? European standards for radioactive waste disposal, radioactive material disposal in Germany risk assessment of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (7) Case studies.

  2. Scientific teaching: defining a taxonomy of observable practices. (United States)

    Couch, Brian A; Brown, Tanya L; Schelpat, Tyler J; Graham, Mark J; Knight, Jennifer K


    Over the past several decades, numerous reports have been published advocating for changes to undergraduate science education. These national calls inspired the formation of the National Academies Summer Institutes on Undergraduate Education in Biology (SI), a group of regional workshops to help faculty members learn and implement interactive teaching methods. The SI curriculum promotes a pedagogical framework called Scientific Teaching (ST), which aims to bring the vitality of modern research into the classroom by engaging students in the scientific discovery process and using student data to inform the ongoing development of teaching methods. With the spread of ST, the need emerges to systematically define its components in order to establish a common description for education researchers and practitioners. We describe the development of a taxonomy detailing ST's core elements and provide data from classroom observations and faculty surveys in support of its applicability within undergraduate science courses. The final taxonomy consists of 15 pedagogical goals and 37 supporting practices, specifying observable behaviors, artifacts, and features associated with ST. This taxonomy will support future educational efforts by providing a framework for researchers studying the processes and outcomes of ST-based course transformations as well as a concise guide for faculty members developing classes. © 2015 B. A. Couch et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  3. Teacher formation related to socio-scientific issues: complexity, contributions and limitations of an educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariuce Campos de Moraes


    Full Text Available This reflection refers to teacher formation related to socio-scientific issues. Whereas such matters take into account the impact of scientific development in society, including ethical aspects and encompass dilemmas involving a wide range of prospects for its resolution, we propose analysis of the complexity that is inherent in their teaching. Thus, we aimed to analyze different spaces and teaching time that produce and are produced in close linkage between theory and practice, as well as their contributions and limitations. The study required a dynamic conversation system that led to the analysis indicators. The issue of sustainability was shown to be feasible for educational planning as cover technical and scientific knowledge, ethical, social and economic pressures. The collective production allowed understand arguments and reflective-creative processes. The lived relations in schools has accompanied and limited the ideas expressed on the socio-scientific issues. We understand that the simultaneity of research and reflection in the sociocultural context has strengthened teacher formation.

  4. Learning by doing? Prospective elementary teachers' developing understandings of scientific inquiry and science teaching and learning (United States)

    Haefner, Leigh Ann; Zembal-Saul, Carla

    This study examined prospective elementary teachers' learning about scientific inquiry in the context of an innovative life science course. Research questions included: (1) What do prospective elementary teachers learn about scientific inquiry within the context of the course? and (2) In what ways do their experiences engaging in science investigations and teaching inquiry-oriented science influence prospective elementary teachers' understanding of science and science learning and teaching? Eleven prospective elementary teachers participated in this qualitative, multi-participant case study. Constant comparative analysis strategies attempted to build abstractions and explanations across participants around the constructs of the study. Findings suggest that engaging in scientific inquiry supported the development more appropriate understandings of science and scientific inquiry, and that prospective teachers became more accepting of approaches to teaching science that encourage children's questions about science phenomena. Implications include careful consideration of learning experiences crafted for prospective elementary teachers to support the development of robust subject matter knowledge.

  5. Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in the Development of National Science' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Present collection comprises of materials of Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in the Development of National Science'. Present collection is intended for scientific and technical staff, postgraduates, and students of institutes of higher education.

  6. Understanding elder abuse in family practice (United States)

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Tazkarji, Bachir


    Abstract Objective To discuss what constitutes elder abuse, why family physicians should be aware of it, what signs and symptoms might suggest mistreatment of older adults, how the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index might help in identification of abuse, and what options exist for responding to suspicions of abuse. Sources of information MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Social Work Abstracts were searched for publications in English or French, from 1970 to 2011, using the terms elder abuse, elder neglect, elder mistreatment, seniors, older adults, violence, identification, detection tools, and signs and symptoms. Relevant publications were reviewed. Main message Elder abuse is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. While family physicians are well placed to identify mistreatment of seniors, their actual rates of reporting abuse are lower than those in other professions. This might be improved by an understanding of the range of acts that constitute elder abuse and what signs and symptoms seen in the office might suggest abuse. Detection might be enhanced by use of a short validated tool, such as the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index. Conclusion Family physicians can play a larger role in identifying possible elder abuse. Once suspicion of abuse is raised, most communities have social service or law enforcement providers available to do additional assessments and interventions. PMID:23242889

  7. Scientific Strategies and practices in Latin American Scientific Communication Reviews. An approach to their structural features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gustavo A. León Duarte


    Full Text Available The scientific production of the magazines here analyzed emphasizes the existence of a specializing and dominant perspective of study in the field of the Latin-American research in communication in the last years. This perspective of study has clearly two trends of practical boarding. A trend is the one that is debated in the research applied to the communication in means, where there exists the predominance of two particular lines of study and today probably turned into both principal slopes of study inside the Latin-American research of the communication. On the other hand, there is emphasized the research of the properly academic communication, where, in general lines, his idea of construction it develops from a particular perspective of study of the communication that no doubt is analogous to what they raise and demand separately and with different shades two of the principal institutional initiatives and collective academic that generate nowadays the Latin-American Thought of the Communication (PLC: The called Latin-American School of the Communication (ELACOM and the Researcher Latin-American Association of the Communication (ALAIC.

  8. Probing student understanding of scientific thinking in the context of introductory astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N. Steinberg


    Full Text Available Common forms of testing of student understanding of science content can be misleading about their understanding of the nature of scientific thinking. Observational astronomy integrated with related ideas of force and motion is a rich context to explore the correlation between student content knowledge and student understanding of the scientific thinking about that content. In this paper, we describe this correlation in detail with a focus on a question about the relative motion of the Sun and the Earth. We find that high achieving high school students throughout New York City struggle with what constitutes scientific justification and thought processes, but can improve these skills tremendously in an inquiry-oriented summer astronomy-physics program.

  9. Dynamic use of geoscience information to develop scientific understanding for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Tsang, C.F.


    The development and safety evaluation of a nuclear waste geologic repository require a proper scientific understanding of the site response. Such scientific understanding depends on information from a number of geoscience disciplines, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, geomechanics and hydrogeology. The information comes in four stages: (1) general regional survey data base, (2) surface-based testing, (3) exploratory shaft testing, and (4) repository construction and evaluation. A discussion is given on the dynamic use of the information through the different stages. We point out the need for abstracting, deriving and updating a quantitative spatial and process model (QSPM) to develop a scientific understanding of site responses as a crucial element in the dynamic procedure. 2 figs

  10. Scientific thinking in elementary school: Children's social cognition and their epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills. (United States)

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate


    Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding the nature of science), and general information-processing skills (inhibition, intelligence, and language abilities) in a whole-class testing procedure. A multiple indicators multiple causes model revealed a significant influence of social cognition (AToM) on epistemological understanding, and a McNemar test suggested that children's development of AToM is an important precursor for the emergence of an advanced, mature epistemological understanding. Children's epistemological understanding, in turn, predicted their experimentation skills. Importantly, this relation was independent of the common influences of general information processing. Significant relations between experimentation skills and inhibition, and between epistemological understanding, intelligence, and language abilities emerged, suggesting that general information processing contributes to the conceptual development that is involved in scientific thinking. The model of scientific thinking that was tested in this study (social cognition and epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills) fitted the data significantly better than 2 alternative models, which assumed nonspecific, equally strong relations between all constructs under investigation. Our results support the conclusion that social cognition plays a foundational role in the emergence of children's epistemological understanding, which in turn is closely related to the development of experimentation skills. Our findings have significant implications for the teaching of scientific thinking in elementary school and they stress the importance of children's epistemological understanding in

  11. Influence of student-designed experiments with fast plants on their understanding of plants and of scientific inquiry (United States)

    Akey, Ann Kosek


    This dissertation investigates the influence of student designed experiments with Fast Plants in an undergraduate agroecology course on the students' conceptual understanding of plant life cycles and on their procedural understanding of scientific experimentation. It also considers students' perspectives on the value of these experiences. Data sources included semi-structured interviews with students and the instructor, a written task, course evaluations, and observations of class meetings. Students came into the course having strong practical experience with plants from their agricultural backgrounds. Students did not always connect aspects of plant biology that they studied in class, particularly respiration and photosynthesis, to plant growth requirements. The instructor was able to bridge the gap between some practical knowledge and textbook knowledge with experiences other than the Fast Plant project. Most students held an incomplete picture of plant reproduction that was complicated by differences between agricultural and scientific vocabulary. There is need for teaching approaches that help students tie together their knowledge of plants into a cohesive framework. Experiences that help students draw on their background knowledge related to plants, and which give students the opportunity to examine and discuss their ideas, may help students make more meaningful connections. The Fast Plant project, a positive experience for most students, was seen by these undergraduate students as being more helpful in learning about scientific experimentation than about plants. The process of designing and carrying out their own experiments gave students insight into experimentation, provoked their curiosity, and resulted in a sense of ownership and accomplishment.

  12. What can scientific practice look like in a classroom? Insights from scientists' critique of high school students' climate change argumentation practice (United States)

    Walsh, E.; McGowan, V. C.


    The Next Generation Science Standards promote a vision in which learners engage in authentic knowledge in practice to tackle personally consequential science problems in the classroom. However, there is not yet a clear understanding amongst researchers and educators of what authentic practice looks like in a classroom and how this can be accomplished. This study explores these questions by examining interactions between scientists and students on a social media platform during two pilot enactments of a project-based curriculum focusing on the ecological impacts of climate change. During this unit, scientists provided feedback to students on infographics, visual representations of scientific information meant to communicate to an audience about climate change. We conceptualize the feedback and student work as boundary objects co-created by students and scientists moving between the school and scientific contexts, and analyze the structure and content of the scientists' feedback. We find that when giving feedback on a particular practice (e.g. argumentation), scientists would provide avenues, critiques and questions that incorporated many other practices (e.g. data analysis, visual communication); thus, scientists encouraged students to participate systemically in practices instead of isolating one particular practice. In addition, scientists drew attention to particular habits of mind that are valued in the scientific community and noted when students' work aligned with scientific values. In this way, scientists positioned students as capable of participating "scientifically." While traditionally, incorporating scientific inquiry in a classroom has emphasized student experimentation and data generation, in this work, we found that engaging with scientists around established scientific texts and data sets provided students with a platform for developing expertise in other important scientific practices during argment construction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Gagianone


    understanding of mechanisms completely unknown by the time of LO development and also the comprehension of scientific knowledge construction through a playful and participative activity.AcknowledgementsWe thank Prograd-UFF for scholarship supply.Key wordsAdrenoleukodystrophy; Biochemistry teaching; scientific knowledge


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovic Slobodan


    Full Text Available Modern culinary direction - molecular gastronomy is very complex, and the relative youth of that direction affects the ignorance of the matter by a large number of professionals and the general public. It is precisely this lack of matter which causes a number of disagreements between chefs and scientists, while there is a number of related debates about aspects of molecular gastronomy, especially in connection with a change in its gastronomic cuisine. The main focus of disagreement lies in the name of ''molecular'', which mostly leads to a misunderstanding, because of the identification with something microscopic. A very common mistake is to address this branch of gastronomy as a style of cooking, which she doesn't represent. The second mistake is naming its practical application of molecular cooking, molecular cuisine. Molecular gastronomy is a scientific discipline that studies food and asks questions and gives answers so far unanswered questions about gastronomy. Simply put, molecular gastronomy can be understood as a process of application of science in everyday cooking, and the application of molecular gastronomy in the kitchen. Modern man with his awareness made some chefs to reconsider the adoption of these radical ideas to accomplish the fusion of science and gastronomy. This idea is established as a full hit, because today the best restaurants in the world, the vast majority of those who have seen the benefits of these two joints before incompatible branches of human activity. As a culinary direction it quickly spread to Western Europe and North America, and it later spread to other parts of the world, but Croatia and neighboring countries are not one of them. Molecular gastronomy shows the trends of further progress, and in the future molecular gastronomy will be more prevalent and popular.

  15. Geographic trends of scientific output and citation practices in psychiatry. (United States)

    Igoumenou, Artemis; Ebmeier, Klaus; Roberts, Nia; Fazel, Seena


    Measures of research productivity are increasingly used to determine how research should be evaluated and funding decisions made. In psychiatry, citation patterns within and between countries are not known, and whether these differ by choice of citation metric. In this study, we examined publication characteristics and citation practices in articles published in 50 Web of Science indexed psychiatric and relevant clinical neurosciences journals, between January 2004 and December 2009 comprising 51,072 records that produced 375,962 citations. We compared citation patterns, including self-citations, between countries using standard x(2) tests. We found that most publications came from the USA, with Germany being second and UK third in productivity. USA articles received most citations and the highest citation rate with an average 11.5 citations per article. The UK received the second highest absolute number of citations, but came fourth by citation rate (9.7 citations/article), after the Netherlands (11.4 citations/article) and Canada (9.8 citations/article). Within the USA, Harvard University published most articles and these articles were the most cited, on average 20.0 citations per paper. In Europe, UK institutions published and were cited most often. The Institute of Psychiatry/Kings College London was the leading institution in terms of number of published records and overall citations, while Oxford University had the highest citation rate (18.5 citations/record). There were no differences between the self-citation practices of American and European researchers. Articles that examined some aspect of treatment in psychiatry were the most published. In terms of diagnosis, papers about schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were the most published and the most cited. We found large differences between and within countries in terms of their research productivity in psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. In addition, the ranking of countries and institutions differed widely

  16. Scaffolded Instruction Improves Student Understanding of the Scientific Method & Experimental Design (United States)

    D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.


    Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…

  17. What Science Is about--Development of the Scientific Understanding of Secondary School Students (United States)

    Cincera, Jan; Medek, Michal; Cincera, Pavel; Lupac, Miroslav; Tichá, Irena


    Background: Development of scientific understanding of secondary school students is considered to be one of the goals of environmental education. However, it is not quite clear what instructional strategies and what other factors contribute to the effectiveness of environmental education programs promoting this goal. Purpose: The aim was to…

  18. Understanding How Participation in Education Changes Mothers' Parenting Practices (United States)

    Harding, Jessica F.; Morris, Pamela A.


    This research explores whether low-income mothers' participation in education influences a constellation of different parenting practices that are related to young children's academic outcomes. Importantly, understanding whether maternal participation in education influences mothers' parenting practices can illuminate a pathway by which increases…

  19. Instructional games: Scientific language use, concept understanding, and attitudinal development of middle school learners (United States)

    Mongillo, Geraldine

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning

  20. Diagramming Scientific Papers - A New Idea for Understanding/Teaching/Sharing Science (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Fedi, M.


    How do we best communicate scientific results? As the number of scientists and scientific papers steadily increases, one of the greatest challenges is effective and efficient sharing of science. The official repository of scientific knowledge is the peer-reviewed journal archive. However, this primary knowledge can be difficult to access and understand by anyone but a relevant specialist. We propose some new ideas for diagramming the content and significance of scientific papers using a simple and intuitive graphical approach. We propose a visual mapping that highlights four fundamental aspects of most scientific papers: Data, Methods/Models, Results/Ideas, and Implications/Importance. Each of these aspects is illustrated within boxed fields which contain one or more labeled elements positioned to reflect novelty (aka originality) and impact relative to the vertical and horizontal axes. The relative position of the boxed fields themselves indicates the relative significance of data, methods, ideas, or implications to the paper. Optional lines between boxed elements indicate the flow and dependence of data/methods/ideas within the paper. As with any graphical depiction, you need to see it to best appreciate it -- this written abstract is only meant as an introduction to the idea.We anticipate that diagramming may prove useful in both communication of scientific ideas among scientists as well as in education and outreach. For example, professors could assign diagramming of papers as a way to help students organize their thoughts about the structure and impact of scientific articles. Students could compare and defend their diagrams as a way to facilitate discussion/debate. Authors could diagram their own work as a way to efficiently summarize the importance and significance of their work. We also imagine that (in the future) automatic diagramming might be used to help summarize or facilitate the discovery of archived work.

  1. Guiding students towards sensemaking: teacher questions focused on integrating scientific practices with science content (United States)

    Benedict-Chambers, Amanda; Kademian, Sylvie M.; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan


    Science education reforms articulate a vision of ambitious science teaching where teachers engage students in sensemaking discussions and emphasise the integration of scientific practices with science content. Learning to teach in this way is complex, and there are few examples of sensemaking discussions in schools where textbook lessons and teacher-directed discussions are the norm. The purpose of this study was to characterise the questioning practices of an experienced teacher who taught a curricular unit enhanced with educative features that emphasised students' engagement in scientific practices integrated with science content. Analyses indicated the teacher asked four types of questions: explication questions, explanation questions, science concept questions, and scientific practice questions, and she used three questioning patterns including: (1) focusing students on scientific practices, which involved a sequence of questions to turn students back to the scientific practice; (2) supporting students in naming observed phenomena, which involved a sequence of questions to help students use scientific language; and (3) guiding students in sensemaking, which involved a sequence of questions to help students learn about scientific practices, describe evidence, and develop explanations. Although many of the discussions in this study were not yet student-centred, they provide an image of a teacher asking specific questions that move students towards reform-oriented instruction. Implications for classroom practice are discussed and recommendations for future research are provided.

  2. Providing services to trafficking survivors: Understanding practices across the globe. (United States)

    Steiner, Jordan J; Kynn, Jamie; Stylianou, Amanda M; Postmus, Judy L


    Human trafficking is a global issue, with survivors representing all genders, ages, races, ethnicities, religions, and countries. However, little research exists that identifies effective practices in supporting survivors of human trafficking. The research that does exist is Western-centric. To fill this gap in the literature, the goal of this research was to understand practices used throughout the globe with adult human trafficking survivors. A qualitative approach was utilized. Providers from 26 countries, across six different continents, were interviewed to allow for a comprehensive and multi-faceted understanding of practices in working with survivors. Participants identified utilizing an empowerment-based, survivor, and human life-centered approach to working with survivors, emphasized the importance of engaging in community level interventions, and highlighted the importance of government recognition of human trafficking. Findings provide information from the perspective of advocates on best practices in the field that can be used by agencies to enhance human trafficking programming.

  3. Pedagogical Practices to Support Classroom Cultures of Scientific Inquiry (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert; Tasker, Tammy; White, Barbara


    This article examines the pedagogical practices of two science inquiry teachers and their students using a Web-based system called Web of Inquiry (WOI). There is a need to build a collective repertoire of pedagogical practices that can assist elementary and middle school teachers as they support students to develop a complex model of inquiry based…

  4. Scientific-theoretical research approach to practical theology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All of them work with practical theological hermeneutics. The basic hermeneutic approach of Daniël Louw is widened with an integrated approach by Richard R. Osmer in which practical theology as a hermeneutic discipline also includes the empirical aspect which the action theory approach has contributed to the ...

  5. Implementation of Scientific Community Laboratories and Their Effect on Student Conceptual Learning, Attitudes, and Understanding of Uncertainty (United States)

    Lark, Adam

    Scientific Community Laboratories, developed by The University of Maryland, have shown initial promise as laboratories meant to emulate the practice of doing physics. These laboratories have been re-created by incorporating their design elements with the University of Toledo course structure and resources. The laboratories have been titled the Scientific Learning Community (SLC) Laboratories. A comparative study between these SLC laboratories and the University of Toledo physics department's traditional laboratories was executed during the fall 2012 semester on first semester calculus-based physics students. Three tests were executed as pre-test and post-tests to capture the change in students' concept knowledge, attitudes, and understanding of uncertainty. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was used to evaluate students' conceptual changes through the semester and average normalized gains were compared between both traditional and SLC laboratories. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) was conducted to elucidate students' change in attitudes through the course of each laboratory. Finally, interviews regarding data analysis and uncertainty were transcribed and coded to track changes in the way students understand uncertainty and data analysis in experimental physics after their participation in both laboratory type. Students in the SLC laboratories showed a notable an increase conceptual knowledge and attitudes when compared to traditional laboratories. SLC students' understanding of uncertainty showed most improvement, diverging completely from students in the traditional laboratories, who declined throughout the semester.

  6. Is it all in the game? Flow experience and scientific practices during an INPLACE mobile game (United States)

    Bressler, Denise M.

    Mobile science learning games show promise for promoting scientific practices and high engagement. Researchers have quantified this engagement according to flow theory. Using an embedded mixed methods design, this study investigated whether an INPLACE mobile game promotes flow experience, scientific practices, and effective team collaboration. Students playing the game (n=59) were compared with students in a business-as-usual control activity (n=120). Using an open-ended instrument designed to measure scientific practices and a self-report flow survey, this study empirically assessed flow and learner's scientific practices. The game players had significantly higher levels of flow and scientific practices. Using a multiple case study approach, collaboration among game teams (n=3 teams) were qualitatively compared with control teams (n=3 teams). Game teams revealed not only higher levels of scientific practices but also higher levels of engaged responses and communal language. Control teams revealed lower levels of scientific practice along with higher levels of rejecting responses and command language. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  7. The (Mis)understanding of Scientific Uncertainty? How Experts View Policy-Makers, the Media and Publics


    Landstrom, Catharina; Hauxwell-Baldwin, Richard; Lorenzoni, Irene; Rogers-Hayden, Tee


    Frequent claims that publics ‘misunderstand’ science ignore the contested definition of scientific uncertainty itself. Scientific uncertainty means different things in the natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities, while public controversies show that these interpretations of scientific uncertainty have different implications for policy and decision-making. This prompts analysis of the ways that experts view scientific uncertainty and how they characterise the (mis)understandings o...

  8. Evidence-based music therapy practice: an integral understanding. (United States)

    Abrams, Brian


    The American Music Therapy Association has recently put into action a plan called its Research Strategic Priority, with one of its central purposes to advance the music therapy field through research promoting Evidence-Based Practice of music therapy. The extant literature on music therapy practice, theory, and research conveys a range of very different perspectives on what may count as the "evidence" upon which practice is based. There is therefore a need to conceptualize evidence-based music therapy practice in a multifaceted, yet coherent and balanced way. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a framework based upon four distinct epistemological perspectives on evidence-based music therapy practice that together represent an integral understanding.

  9. Teaching for Scientific Literacy? An Examination of Instructional Practices in Secondary Schools in Barbados (United States)

    Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.


    This study examined the extent to which the instructional practices of science teachers in Barbados are congruent with best practices for teaching for scientific literacy. Additionally, through observation of practice, it sought to determine the teachers' demonstrated role in the classroom, their demonstration of learning through discourse,…

  10. Understanding and Representing Changing Work Structures and Practices through Art (United States)

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.


    Courses: Organizational Communication, Advanced Organizational Communication, Organizing Work, Management/Organizational History. Objectives: This activity will help students to understand major shifts in the organization of work and creatively represent changing work structures and practices. An optional follow-up assignment is included. A…

  11. Perception, understanding and practice of ethics during research on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Scandals have occurred over time involving conduct of research in different parts of the world. This study was aimed at exploring researchers' perception, understanding, appreciation and practice of research ethics during research on human subjects. Methods: A qualitative approach using the exploratory and ...

  12. Community-Engaged Scholarship: Toward a Shared Understanding of Practice (United States)

    da Cruz, Cynthia Gordon


    Community-engaged scholarship (CES) is frequently recommended as a postsecondary practice for producing knowledge to address real-world issues and support the public good. But CES has multiple meanings, and understandings overlap with similar terms, such as publicly engaged scholarship. I draw upon recommendations in the field to propose an…

  13. Implementation of Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) in basic scientific research: Translating the concept beyond regulatory compliance. (United States)

    Jena, G B; Chavan, Sapana


    The principles of Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) are mainly intended for the laboratories performing studies for regulatory compliances. However, today GLP can be applied to broad disciplines of science to cater to the needs of the experimental objectives, generation of quality data and assay reproducibility. Considering its significance, it can now be applied in academics; industries as well as government set ups throughout the world. GLP is the best way to promote the reliability, reproducibility of the test data and hence facilitates the international acceptability. Now it is high time to translate and implement the concept of GLP beyond regulatory studies. Thus, it can pave the way for better understanding of scientific problems and help to maintain a good human and environmental health. Through this review, we have made an attempt to explore the uses of GLP principles in different fields of science and its acceptability as well as looking for its future perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Publication Ethics and the Emerging Scientific Workforce: Understanding ‘Plagiarism’ in a Global Context (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K.


    Scientific publication has long been dominated by the English language and is rapidly moving towards near complete hegemony of English, while the majority of the world’s publishing scientists are not native English speakers. This imbalance has important implications for training in and enforcement of publication ethics, particularly with respect to plagiarism. A lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as patchwriting can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by non-native speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. A rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among both native English speaking and non-native English speaking writers, editors, educators, and administrators. Recommendations for educating and training are provided. PMID:22104051

  15. Perspective: publication ethics and the emerging scientific workforce: understanding "plagiarism" in a global context. (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K


    English has long been the dominant language of scientific publication, and it is rapidly approaching near-complete hegemony. The majority of the scientists publishing in English-language journals are not native English speakers, however. This imbalance has important implications for training concerning ethics and enforcement of publication standards, particularly with respect to plagiarism. The authors suggest that lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as "patchwriting" can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by nonnative speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. They propose that a rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among editors, educators, administrators, and both native-English-speaking and nonnative-English-speaking writers. They offer recommendations for creating environments in which such dialogue and training can occur.

  16. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program (United States)

    Gosz, J.


    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  17. A Sample Practical Report to Facilitate Writing in the Scientific Style (United States)

    Corradi, Hazel Ruth


    The ability to write concise and accurate scientific reports is highly valued in university level science. From reflection on marking student final year reports, it was apparent that many students have had insufficient practice at writing complete "scientific paper" style reports by that time, although some do it very well. This is a previously…

  18. Implementing the Netherlands Code of Conduct for Scientific Practice : A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurbiers, D.; Osseweijer, P.; Kinderlerer, J.


    Widespread enthusiasm for establishing scientific codes of conduct notwithstanding, the utility of such codes in influencing scientific practice is not self-evident. It largely depends on the implementation phase following their establishment—a phase which often receives little attention. The aim of

  19. Towards Building Science Teachers’ Understandings of Contemporary Science Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Lancaster


    Full Text Available Faculties of Education and Science at Monash University have designed a Masters unit to assist pre-service and in-service science teachers in exploring the practices of contemporary science and examine how varied understandings can influence science communication. Teachers are encouraged to explore their current understandings of the Nature of Science (NoS and to contrast their views with those known to be widely held by society (Cobern & Loving, 1998. Teachers are challenged to provide insights into their thinking relating to the NoS. In order to build understandings of contemporary science practice each teacher shadows a research scientist and engages them in conversations intended to explore the scientists’ views of NoS and practice. Findings suggest that teachers were initially uncomfortable with the challenge to express ideas relating to their NoS and were also surprised how diverse the views of NoS can be among teachers, scientists and their peers, and that these views can directly impact ways of communicating contemporary science practice.

  20. Understanding the Correlations between Social Attention and Topic Trends of Scientific Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlei Dong


    Full Text Available Purpose: We propose and apply a simplified nowcasting model to understand the correlations between social attention and topic trends of scientific publications. Design/methodology/approach: First, topics are generated from the obesity corpus by using the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA algorithm and time series of keyword search trends in Google Trends are obtained. We then establish the structural time series model using data from January 2004 to December 2012, and evaluate the model using data from January 2013. We employ a state-space model to separate different non-regression components in an observational time series (i.e. the tendency and the seasonality and apply the “spike and slab prior” and stepwise regression to analyze the correlations between the regression component and the social media attention. The two parts are combined using Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques to obtain our results. Findings: The results of our study show that (1 the number of publications on child obesity increases at a lower rate than that of diabetes publications; (2 the number of publication on a given topic may exhibit a relationship with the season or time of year; and (3 there exists a correlation between the number of publications on a given topic and its social media attention, i.e. the search frequency related to that topic as identified by Google Trends. We found that our model is also able to predict the number of publications related to a given topic. Research limitations: First, we study a correlation rather than causality between topics' trends and social media. As a result, the relationships might not be robust, so we cannot predict the future in the long run. Second, we cannot identify the reasons or conditions that are driving obesity topics to present such tendencies and seasonal patterns, so we might need to do “field” study in the future. Third, we need to improve the efficiency of our model by finding more efficient

  1. Keynote address: the scientific basis of the present and future practice of clinical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, G.H.


    At mid-century radiotherapy was more an art than a science, but is presently based on radiobiological parameters and cell kinetics. This close interaction between basic scientific principles and clinical practice has been made possible because one can correlate quantitatively doses of irradiation with observed responses. First, a short historical review will be made because it gives a perspective for the understanding both of progress made and prevailing misconceptions. The important radiobiological parameters and cell kinetics will then be discussed in some detail to demonstrate that they should be thoroughly understood in their relationship to radiotherapy. The overall treatment planning must be based on the clinical applications of the main radiobiological parameters. The combined treatment with surgery, either pre- or postoperatively, and multiple daily fractionations will be used as examples. The teaching of radiobiology should be considerably expanded, not only for its own scientific merit but also to show how it applies to clinical situations. This should be reflected in the expansion of the board examination

  2. Reflective Practice: Eight Stages of Publishing a Scientific Research Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Donovan


    Full Text Available This paper suggests a methodology of academic paper classification for the scientist intending to contribute to peer-reviewed scientific literature. This will enable the progress of the typescript through the publication system to be accurately determined at any stage. The publication process is split into eight subdivisions of differing worth and import: in navel contemplation; in preparation; submitted; in review; revision, revised, and resubmitted; accepted; in press; and publication. Papers in navel contemplation are referred to as in preparation by many, which can be an embarrassment when asked exactly what has been prepared. Rather than listing papers as in preparation in academic submissions, it is better to list them as unpublished data until published. Efficient authors keep a close watch on their papers between submission and the proof stage. They must be sufficiently organized to manage their publications and to be aware when things slow down. The methodology is flexible and, if it does not work for some authors, then they have a simple framework to adapt to their own preferences. In short, scientists need to show care and not be overly optimistic about the progress of any paper.

  3. Feminism, theory and practice of a scientific archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrocal, María Cruz


    Full Text Available The paper reviews American feminist archaeology and its emphasis on the scientific character of the discipline. It is a synthesis of the origin and development of feminist archaeology, its links to gender archaeology and postprocessual archaeology, and its value as an epistemological critique of the discipline. The paper also considers the development of feminist archaeology in Spain, and its link to historical materialist archaeology.

    Este artículo revisa la arqueología feminista, fundamentalmente norteamericana, y su contribución a la comprensión de la arqueología como ciencia. Se sintetiza brevemente el origen y desarrollo de la arqueología feminista, su relación con la arqueología de género y la arqueología posprocesual, y su valor como crítica epistemológica de la disciplina. Se observa también el desarrollo de la arqueología feminista en España y su relación con la arqueología materialista histórica.

  4. Collaborative Learning in the Scientific Community of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesionkowska, J.


    Full text: The paper describes research done in the scope of doctoral project. The aim of the study is to discover how to improve the process of collaborative learning in the community of scientists by the development of a community of practice. A mixed methods approach was used combining data from content analysis, interviews and questionnaires. Results show that such community helps to build relationships and network with others, it motivates to share work-related knowledge, represents an area of common interest for organization, but also that it is mainly driven by the willingness of members and is lacking instruments to share ideas. (author

  5. Modeling as an Anchoring Scientific Practice for Explaining Friction Phenomena (United States)

    Neilson, Drew; Campbell, Todd


    Through examining the day-to-day work of scientists, researchers in science studies have revealed how models are a central sense-making practice of scientists as they construct and critique explanations about how the universe works. Additionally, they allow predictions to be made using the tenets of the model. Given this, alongside research suggesting that engaging students in developing and using models can have a positive effect on learning in science classrooms, the recent national standards documents in science education have identified developing and using models as an important practice students should engage in as they apply and refine their ideas with peers and teachers in explaining phenomena or solving problems in classrooms. This article details how students can be engaged in developing and using models to help them make sense of friction phenomena in a high school conceptual physics classroom in ways that align with visions for teaching and learning outlined in the Next Generation Science Standards. This particular unit has been refined over several years to build on what was initially an inquiry-based unit we have described previously. In this latest iteration of the friction unit, students developed and refined models through engaging in small group and whole class discussions and investigations.

  6. The importance of professional skills alongside scientific and technical excellence to underpin ethical geoscience practice (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel


    There is consensus that reliable ground models, based on a sound understanding of the geology and surface processes are vital as a basis for natural hazard identification and risk assessment, and there is a great deal of skill and experience in the geoscience community with mapping, modelling and predicting natural hazards and their likely impacts. This presentation will highlight the contributions of geology and geomorphology in the identification of natural hazards and mitigation of their impacts. It will then consider a range of "professional skills" that are needed by geoscientists working with other specialists and non-specialists (e.g. engineers, emergency services, land-use planners, architects responsible for building codes, politicians, regulators, the public etc) alongside technical and scientific excellence. It will argue that development and application of both scientific/technical and professional skills is essential to ensure that the maps, models and other data relevant to natural hazards and environmental change are used to provide effective public protection through communication, land-use planning and planning for resilience. The professional skills of particular importance include interdisciplinary collaboration; project management; cost-benefit analysis; effective communication with specialists and non specialists (especially the public); and facilitative skills. All the technical, scientific and professional skills need to be applied competently and with the highest standards of ethical underpinning. The contribution will consider how this can be achieved (or at least facilitated) through professional training, award of professional titles, licensure etc, drawing on international examples of best practice in professional codes of conduct and regulation directed to the protection of the public.

  7. Assessing Scientific Practices Using Machine-Learning Methods: How Closely Do They Match Clinical Interview Performance? (United States)

    Beggrow, Elizabeth P.; Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis; Boone, William J.


    The landscape of science education is being transformed by the new Framework for Science Education (National Research Council, A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2012), which emphasizes the centrality of scientific practices—such as explanation, argumentation, and communication—in science teaching, learning, and assessment. A major challenge facing the field of science education is developing assessment tools that are capable of validly and efficiently evaluating these practices. Our study examined the efficacy of a free, open-source machine-learning tool for evaluating the quality of students' written explanations of the causes of evolutionary change relative to three other approaches: (1) human-scored written explanations, (2) a multiple-choice test, and (3) clinical oral interviews. A large sample of undergraduates (n = 104) exposed to varying amounts of evolution content completed all three assessments: a clinical oral interview, a written open-response assessment, and a multiple-choice test. Rasch analysis was used to compute linear person measures and linear item measures on a single logit scale. We found that the multiple-choice test displayed poor person and item fit (mean square outfit >1.3), while both oral interview measures and computer-generated written response measures exhibited acceptable fit (average mean square outfit for interview: person 0.97, item 0.97; computer: person 1.03, item 1.06). Multiple-choice test measures were more weakly associated with interview measures (r = 0.35) than the computer-scored explanation measures (r = 0.63). Overall, Rasch analysis indicated that computer-scored written explanation measures (1) have the strongest correspondence to oral interview measures; (2) are capable of capturing students' normative scientific and naive ideas as accurately as human-scored explanations, and (3) more validly detect understanding

  8. [Scientific, practical and educational aspects of clinical epidemiology]. (United States)

    Briko, N I


    This article defines clinical epidemiology and describes its goal and objectives. The author claims that clinical epidemiology is a section of epidemiology which underlies the development of evidence-based standards for diagnostics, treatment and prevention and helps to select the appropriate algorithm for each clinical case. The study provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine. Epidemiological research is shown to be methodological basis of clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine with randomized controlled trials being the "gold standard" for obtaining reliable data. The key stages in the history of clinical epidemiology are discussed and further development of clinical epidemiology and the integration of courses on clinical epidemiology in education is outlined for progress in medical research and health care practice.

  9. The understanding of theory and practice in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Nielsen, Gitte

    This project deals with the matter of nursing education on professional bachelor level in Denmark. It is a fact that opinions differ in the matter of what can and must be learned in respectively clinical practice and in theoretical practice in a professional nursing training. The aim...... of this project is to investigate the understandings of clinical as well as theoretical training in nursing education, and to discuss which implications and problems these opinions can have for the nursing students’ competences to develop the profession. The method of this project consists of three qualitative...... focus group interviews. The informants are nursing students, teachers from a university college and clinical instructors from a university hospital. The three focus group interviews are conducted from a theoretical frame of reference regarding the matter of theory and practice. The method of data...

  10. Training transfer: scientific background and insights for practical application. (United States)

    Issurin, Vladimir B


    Training transfer as an enduring, multilateral, and practically important problem encompasses a large body of research findings and experience, which characterize the process by which improving performance in certain exercises/tasks can affect the performance in alternative exercises or motor tasks. This problem is of paramount importance for the theory of training and for all aspects of its application in practice. Ultimately, training transfer determines how useful or useless each given exercise is for the targeted athletic performance. The methodological background of training transfer encompasses basic concepts related to transfer modality, i.e., positive, neutral, and negative; the generalization of training responses and their persistence over time; factors affecting training transfer such as personality, motivation, social environment, etc. Training transfer in sport is clearly differentiated with regard to the enhancement of motor skills and the development of motor abilities. The studies of bilateral skill transfer have shown cross-transfer effects following one-limb training associated with neural adaptations at cortical, subcortical, spinal, and segmental levels. Implementation of advanced sport technologies such as motor imagery, biofeedback, and exercising in artificial environments can facilitate and reinforce training transfer from appropriate motor tasks to targeted athletic performance. Training transfer of motor abilities has been studied with regard to contralateral effects following one limb training, cross-transfer induced by arm or leg training, the impact of strength/power training on the preparedness of endurance athletes, and the impact of endurance workloads on strength/power performance. The extensive research findings characterizing the interactions of these workloads have shown positive transfer, or its absence, depending on whether the combinations conform to sport-specific demands and physiological adaptations. Finally, cross

  11. Nurse ethical awareness: Understanding the nature of everyday practice. (United States)

    Milliken, Aimee; Grace, Pamela


    Much attention has been paid to the role of the nurse in recognizing and addressing ethical dilemmas. There has been less emphasis, however, on the issue of whether or not nurses understand the ethical nature of everyday practice. Awareness of the inherently ethical nature of practice is a component of nurse ethical sensitivity, which has been identified as a component of ethical decision-making. Ethical sensitivity is generally accepted as a necessary precursor to moral agency, in that recognition of the ethical content of practice is necessary before consistent action on behalf of patient interests can take place. This awareness is also compulsory in ensuring patient good by recognizing the unique interests and wishes of individuals, in line with an ethic of care. Scholarly and research literature are used to argue that bolstering ethical awareness and ensuring that nurses understand the ethical nature of the role are an obligation of the profession. Based on this line of reasoning, recommendations for education and practice, along with directions for future research, are suggested.

  12. A Framework for Understanding Physics Students' Computational Modeling Practices (United States)

    Lunk, Brandon Robert

    With the growing push to include computational modeling in the physics classroom, we are faced with the need to better understand students' computational modeling practices. While existing research on programming comprehension explores how novices and experts generate programming algorithms, little of this discusses how domain content knowledge, and physics knowledge in particular, can influence students' programming practices. In an effort to better understand this issue, I have developed a framework for modeling these practices based on a resource stance towards student knowledge. A resource framework models knowledge as the activation of vast networks of elements called "resources." Much like neurons in the brain, resources that become active can trigger cascading events of activation throughout the broader network. This model emphasizes the connectivity between knowledge elements and provides a description of students' knowledge base. Together with resources resources, the concepts of "epistemic games" and "frames" provide a means for addressing the interaction between content knowledge and practices. Although this framework has generally been limited to describing conceptual and mathematical understanding, it also provides a means for addressing students' programming practices. In this dissertation, I will demonstrate this facet of a resource framework as well as fill in an important missing piece: a set of epistemic games that can describe students' computational modeling strategies. The development of this theoretical framework emerged from the analysis of video data of students generating computational models during the laboratory component of a Matter & Interactions: Modern Mechanics course. Student participants across two semesters were recorded as they worked in groups to fix pre-written computational models that were initially missing key lines of code. Analysis of this video data showed that the students' programming practices were highly influenced by

  13. Lessons Learned about Best Practices for Communicating Earthquake Forecasting and Early Warning to Non-Scientific Publics (United States)

    Sellnow, D. D.; Sellnow, T. L.


    Earthquake scientists are without doubt experts in understanding earthquake probabilities, magnitudes, and intensities, as well as the potential consequences of them to community infrastructures and inhabitants. One critical challenge these scientific experts face, however, rests with communicating what they know to the people they want to help. Helping scientists translate scientific information to non-scientists is something Drs. Tim and Deanna Sellnow have been committed to for decades. As such, they have compiled a host of data-driven best practices for communicating effectively to non-scientific publics about earthquake forecasting, probabilities, and warnings. In this session, they will summarize what they have learned as it may help earthquake scientists, emergency managers, and other key spokespersons share these important messages to disparate publics in ways that result in positive outcomes, the most important of which is saving lives.

  14. How are scientific thinking skills best developed? Direct instruction vs. inquiry practice (United States)

    Dean, David Worth, Jr.

    Despite its support and adoption by most major scientific and educational organizations, some researchers have questioned whether inquiry learning is indeed the best method for acquiring the skills of inquiry. Klahr and colleagues have investigated the development of the control of variables strategy, or controlled comparison (CC), and claim that a brief session of direct instruction, characterized by explicit training of CC, as opposed to allowing children to discover CC through inquiry learning, is sufficient for acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of this core aspect of inquiry. Kuhn and colleagues, however, argue that direct instruction may be insufficient for development of the metastrategic level of understanding necessary to adequately maintain and transfer inquiry skills. In the present study, I attempt to identify the intervention most effective in supporting acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of these skills. Three groups of students received either a direct instruction session followed by standard classroom instruction (DI-only), an introductory session (without direct instruction) followed by practice sessions only (PR-only), or a direct instruction session followed by practice sessions (DI+PR). Practice sessions involved the use of a computer-based inquiry task requiring students to investigate the effects of five potential causal variables on an outcome. The two practice groups worked with this program during 12 sessions over nine weeks. They worked with structurally identical software programs during five weekly maintenance sessions. During this time, the DI-only group received standard classroom instruction. All groups were assessed on familiar and unfamiliar computer-based inquiry tasks at the conclusion of intervention (immediate assessment) and maintenance sessions (delayed assessment). Students in the two practice groups demonstrated improvement in an integrative measure of inquiry skill (valid intent, valid strategy, valid inference, and

  15. Learning in a Community of Practice: Factors Impacting English-Learning Students' Engagement in Scientific Argumentation (United States)

    González-Howard, María; McNeill, Katherine L.


    Recent education reform efforts have included an increasing push for school science to better mirror authentic scientific endeavor, including a focus on science practices. However, despite expectations that all students engage in these language-rich practices, little prior research has focused on how such opportunities will be created for…




  17. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.


    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  18. The translations and the organizing of scientific practices in R&D biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Bezerra de Souza Matos

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering the scientific practices related to Research & Development in biotechnology and, based on the assumptions of Actor Network Theory (ANT, this study aimed to describe the main translations that influenced the composition of an actor-networks, reflecting on the organizing practices in a scientific laboratory Research & Development of Northeast Biotechnology Network (Brazil. The methodological procedures were based on the historical approach of biotechnology under study from an ethnographic posture. The composition of the corpus was organized in the form of reports, observing the historical passages. The history of biotechnology has been reported between the plots of design, patenting and commercialization practices, highlighting the creation of heterogeneous actors’ networks. Finally, he emphasized the influence of laboratory scientist's leadership in the way of organizing of scientific practices.

  19. Explicitly Targeting Pre-Service Teacher Scientific Reasoning Abilities and Understanding of Nature of Science through an Introductory Science Course (United States)

    Koenig, Kathleen; Schen, Melissa; Bao, Lei


    Development of a scientifically literate citizenry has become a national focus and highlights the need for K-12 students to develop a solid foundation of scientific reasoning abilities and an understanding of nature of science, along with appropriate content knowledge. This implies that teachers must also be competent in these areas; but…

  20. Student Scientific Research within Communities-of-Practice (Abstract) (United States)

    Genet, R.; Armstrong, J.; Blanko, P.; Boyce, G. B. P.; Brewer, M.; Buchheim, R.; Calanog, J.; Castaneda, D.; Chamberlin, R.; Clark, R. K.; Collins, D.; Conti, D.; Cormier, S.; FItzgerald, M.; Estrada, C.; Estrada, R.; Freed, R.; Gomez, E.; Hardersen, P.; Harshaw, R.; Johnson, J.; Kafka, S.; Kenney, J.; Monanan, K.; Ridgely, J.; Rowe, D.; Silliman, M.; Stojimirovic, I.; Tock, K.; Walker, D.


    (Abstract only) Social learning theory suggests that students who wish to become scientists will benefit by being active researchers early in their educational careers. As coauthors of published research, they identify themselves as scientists. This provides them with the inspiration, motivation, and staying power that many will need to complete the long educational process. This hypothesis was put to the test over the past decade by a one-semester astronomy research seminar where teams of students managed their own research. Well over a hundred published papers coauthored by high school and undergraduate students at a handful of schools substantiated this hypothesis. However, one could argue that this was a special case. Astronomy, after all, is supported by a large professional-amateur community-of-practice. Furthermore, the specific area of research - double star astrometry - was chosen because the observations could be quickly made, the data reduction and analysis was straight forward, and publication of the research was welcomed by the Journal of Double Star Observations. A recently initiated seminar development and expansion program - supported in part by the National Science Foundation - is testing a more general hypothesis that: (1) the seminar can be successfully adopted by many other schools; (2) research within astronomy can be extended from double star astrometry to time series photometry of variable stars, exoplanet transits, and asteroids; and (3) the seminar model can be extended to a science beyond astronomy: environmental science' specifically atmospheric science. If the more general hypothesis is also supported, seminars that similarly feature published high school and undergraduate student team research could have the potential to significantly improve science education by increasing the percentage of students who complete the education required to become professional scientists.

  1. Student Scientific Research within Communities-of-Practice (United States)

    Genet, Russell; Armstrong, James; Blanko, Philip; Boyce, Grady Boyce, Pat; Brewer, Mark; Buchheim, Robert; Calanog, Jae; Castaneda, Diana; Chamberlin, Rebecca; Clark, R. Kent; Collins, Dwight; Conti, Dennis Cormier, Sebastien; Fitzgerald, Michael; Estrada, Chris; Estrada, Reed; Freed, Rachel Gomez, Edward; Hardersen, Paul; Harshaw, Richard; Johnson, Jolyon Kafka, Stella; Kenney, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Ridgely, John; Rowe, David Silliman, Mark; Stojimirovic, Irena; Tock, Kalee; Walker, Douglas; Wallen, Vera


    Social learning theory suggests that students who wish to become scientists will benefit by being active researchers early in their educational careers. As coauthors of published research, they identify themselves as scientists. This provides them with the inspiration, motivation, and staying power that many will need to complete the long educational process. This hypothesis was put to the test over the past decade by a one-semester astronomy research seminar where teams of students managed their own research. Well over a hundred published papers coauthored by high school and undergraduate students at a handful of schools substantiated this hypothesis. However, one could argue that this was a special case. Astronomy, after all, is supported by a large professional-amateur community-of-practice. Furthermore, the specific area of research-double star astrometry-was chosen because the observations could be quickly made, the data reduction and analysis was straight forward, and publication of the research was welcomed by the Journal of Double Star Observations. A recently initiated seminar development and expansion program-supported in part by the National Science Foundation-is testing a more general hypothesis that: (1) the seminar can be successfully adopted by many other schools; (2) research within astronomy can be extended from double star astrometry to time series photometry of variable stars, exoplanet transits, and asteroids; and (3) the seminar model can be extended to a science beyond astronomy: environmental science-specifically atmospheric science. If the more general hypothesis is also supported, seminars that similarly feature published high school and undergraduate student team research could have the potential to significantly improve science education by increasing the percentage of students who complete the education required to become professional scientists.

  2. Understanding students' epistemologies: Examining practice and meaning in community contexts (United States)

    Bang, Megan Elisabeth

    There is a great need to raise the levels of science achievement for those groups of children who have traditionally underperformed. Prior cognitive research with Native people suggests that problems with achievement for Native students may be more complicated then simple problems with knowing or not knowing content knowledge. This dissertation hypothesizes that Native Americans engage in practices and have funds of knowledge that facilitate sophisticated reasoning in the domain of science. However, the knowledge and patterns of reasoning are not elicited, acceptable, or recognized in classroom science, or perhaps are in conflict with classroom science. Furthermore the divergence is not simply in the details of what is known; there is discord at the level of epistemology, in the fundamental ways in which Native people conceptualize knowledge of the natural world. This work proposes a new framework, Micro-practice epistemology, for understanding epistemology. I propose that epistemology should be understood as implicitly and explicitly imbedded in the worldviews, values, beliefs and practices of our everyday lives. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods this work investigates the everyday practices related to nature, the epistemological stances and biological knowledge embedded in those practices in a 3X3 model (age cohort: child, adult, elder X community). The three communities involved in this work include: Chicago urban Indian community, Menominee reservation community, and a rural working poor white community. I find significant differences in all three areas across communities. Native communities tend to participate in practices in which some aspect of nature is fore-grounded while non-Native participants tended to participate in practices in which nature is the back-grounded. These findings are extended to explore the ways in which worldviews and values are connected to practice and knowledge about the natural world. I find significant differences in

  3. Scientific and Practical Commentary on Specialists’ Professional Standards in Thermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Semenov


    Full Text Available The professional standards for heat treatment specialists such as "Specialist in thermal equipment installation and tests", "Specialist in analysis and diagnosis of heat treatment process systems", "Specialist in automation and mechanization of heat treatment process systems" were developed according to the Rules for the Development, Approval, and Application of Professional Standards adopted by a Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated 01.22.2013 № 23.The article objective is to find a way that allows directors of machine-building plants to understand the provisions of abovementioned professional standards.This commentary was developed with participation of experts, who were in charge of the professional standards.When developing the professional standards it was taken into consideration that, presently, the most promising are vacuum and ion processes of heat and thermo-chemical treatment.In this connection a new classification of the thermal equipment and manufacturing processes has been realized according to criterion of technical complexity. This classification puts the thermal equipment and manufacturing processes into simple, complex, and specifically complex.As proposed, the specifically complex thermal equipment is a multi-zone thermal one with each zone being under precise temperature control, and a vacuum or ion equipment for thermal and thermochemical treatment with integrated cooling system. The complex thermal equipment is an equipment for heat and thermochemical treatment in controlled atmosphere, and a multichamber or continuous heat treatment furnaces, as well as vacuum and ion-plasma equipment, except for specifically complex thermal equipment. The simple thermal equipment is a heat treatment one except for complex and specifically complex thermal equipment.The article gives concrete examples of simple, complex and specifically complex thermal equipment.The criteria to classify the heat treatment technological

  4. Veterinary students' understanding of a career in practice. (United States)

    Tomlin, J L; Brodbelt, D C; May, S A


    Lack of a clear perception of the realities of a career in veterinary medicine could adversely affect young graduates' satisfaction with the profession and their long-term commitment to it. Veterinary students' understanding of a career in practice were explored. Traditional-entry first-year and final-year students, as well as entry-level 'Gateway' (widening participation) students, were invited to complete a questionnaire exploring their pre-university experiences and their understandings of a career in general practice. Broadly speaking, the undergraduate students taking part in the survey (the majority of whom were entry-level students) had a realistic view of average weekly working hours, out-of-hours duties and the development of their remuneration packages over the course of their careers. The main attractions of the profession were working with animals and the perception of a rewarding job. The main concerns were making mistakes and balancing work and home life. The vast majority of students wanted to pursue a career in general practice, and other career opportunities did not appear to be well understood, particularly by entry-level students.

  5. An Inquiry-Based Laboratory Module to Promote Understanding of the Scientific Method and Bacterial Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie B. Berkmen


    Full Text Available Students are engaged and improve their critical thinking skills in laboratory courses when they have the opportunity to design and conduct inquiry-based experiments that generate novel results. A discovery-driven project for a microbiology, genetics, or multidisciplinary research laboratory course was developed to familiarize students with the scientific method. In this multi-lab module, students determine whether their chosen stress conditions induce conjugation and/or cell death of the model BSL-1 Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Through consultation of the primary literature, students identify conditions or chemicals that can elicit DNA damage, the SOS response, and/or cellular stress.  In groups, students discuss their selected conditions, develop their hypotheses and experimental plans, and formulate their positive and negative controls. Students then subject the B. subtilis donor cells to the stress conditions, mix donors with recipients to allow mating, and plate serial dilutions of the mixtures on selective plates to measure how the treatments affect conjugation frequency and donor cell viability.  Finally, students analyze and discuss their collective data in light of their controls. The goals of this module are to encourage students to be actively involved in the scientific process while contributing to our understanding of the conditions that stimulate horizontal gene transfer in bacteria.

  6. Utilizing Professional Vision in Supporting Preservice Teachers' Learning About Contextualized Scientific Practices. Collaborative Discourse Practices Between Teachers and Scientists (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli


    Drawn from the cultural-historical theories of knowing and doing science, this article uses the concept of professional vision to explore what scientists and experienced teachers see and articulate as important aspects of climate science practices. The study takes an abductive reasoning approach to analyze scientists' videotaped lectures to recognize what scientists pay attention to in their explanations of climate science practices. It then analyzes how ideas scientists attended align with experienced teachers' sense-making of scientific practices to teach climate change. The findings show that experienced teachers' and scientists' explanations showed alignment in the focus on scientific practices, but indicated variations in the temporal and spatial reasoning of climate data. Furthermore, the interdisciplinarity of climate science was emphasized in climate scientists' lectures, but was not apparent once scientists and teachers shared the same culture in meetings to provide feedback to preservice teachers. Given the importance of teaching through scientific practices in classrooms, this study provides suggestions to capture the epistemic diversity of scientific disciplines.

  7. Utilizing Professional Vision in Supporting Preservice Teachers' Learning About Contextualized Scientific Practices - Collaborative Discourse Practices Between Teachers and Scientists (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli


    Drawn from the cultural-historical theories of knowing and doing science, this article uses the concept of professional vision to explore what scientists and experienced teachers see and articulate as important aspects of climate science practices. The study takes an abductive reasoning approach to analyze scientists' videotaped lectures to recognize what scientists pay attention to in their explanations of climate science practices. It then analyzes how ideas scientists attended align with experienced teachers' sense-making of scientific practices to teach climate change. The findings show that experienced teachers' and scientists' explanations showed alignment in the focus on scientific practices, but indicated variations in the temporal and spatial reasoning of climate data. Furthermore, the interdisciplinarity of climate science was emphasized in climate scientists' lectures, but was not apparent once scientists and teachers shared the same culture in meetings to provide feedback to preservice teachers. Given the importance of teaching through scientific practices in classrooms, this study provides suggestions to capture the epistemic diversity of scientific disciplines.

  8. Scientific practices and social behaviors in managing landslide risks: comparing experiences between developing and developed countries (United States)

    Devoli, G.


    A successful landslide risk reduction program requires that the society is aware and understand the landslide problems within the geographic area involved. Central organizations that manage national landslide risks should: a) create and systematically applied natural hazard laws/national landslide strategies, where roles and limits of responsibilities of federal, state, provincial, municipal and private entities are well defined; c) establish fruitful multidisciplinary and interinstitutional collaboration among scientists; d) provide good risk assessments in which landslide experts report transparently what is really known and the limitations of methods and tools used; e) share and systematically communicate their knowledge more effectively with all private and public stakeholders involved, paying attention to providing balanced information about risks and addressing inevitable uncertainties; f) support the mass-media in spreading correct scientific information; g) perform serious risk and cost-benefit analyses before mitigation measures are realized; h) assist local authorities in the application of land-use planning policies and g) built trust and confidence by means of a continuous contact and communication with the public and local authorities. However, this is not yet achieved, not even in developed countries where, in theory, more economical resources are available and people are better educated then in developing countries. Herein I make some observations on how national landslide prevention efforts are being organized in two countries (Nicaragua and Norway), where I have been worked at governmental agencies as landslide expert in the last 10 years. I start describing similarities and differences between the countries and try to compare practices and experiences. The analysis was motivated by the following questions: Why after so many years of landslide mapping and investigations, landslide prevention is not good and effective as it should be? Is this

  9. Understanding physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice: A qualitative study. (United States)

    Lowe, Anna; Littlewood, Chris; McLean, Sionnadh


    Physical inactivity is a major public health issue and healthcare professionals are encouraged to promote physical activity during routine patient contacts in order to reduce non-communicable diseases and enhance individuals' quality of life. Little is known about physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice in the UK. The aim of this study was to better understand physiotherapists' experience of physical activity promotion in clinical practice. A qualitative study was undertaken comprising 12 telephone interviews with participants using a quota sampling approach. The qualitative data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach and written up according to COREQ guidelines. Four themes were identified (1) Current physiotherapy practice (2) Barriers to, and facilitators of physical activity promotion, (3) Exercise or physical activity? and (4) Functional restoration versus general wellbeing. Physiotherapists use routine clinical contacts to discuss physical activity. However, brief interventions are not consistently used and no common framework to guide physical activity promotion was identified. Approaches appear to be inconsistent and informal and focus largely on short-term restoration of function rather than health promotion. There is scope to improve practice in line with current guidance to maximise potential impact on inactivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Practical wisdom, understanding of coherence and competencies for everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette


    The focus of this article is the subject home economics education in the primary and lower secondary school in the 21st century. Practical wisdom, understanding of coherence and competencies for everyday life are suggested as aims of home economics education. It is argued that these elements should...... and experiencing the profession   [1] Bildung is the German word for education, but it is used as a pedagogical term in English literature as it has another and more specific meaning than the word education. The word in Danish is dannelse....

  11. Declaration of input sources in scientific research: should this practice be incorporated to organizational information management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osvaldo De Sordi

    Full Text Available This research studies the declaration of input sources for research in scientific communications, more specifically, whether this practice of the academy may be considered a good example to be followed by organizations. Seven hypotheses address two dimensions of input sources: origin (primary or secondary and nature (data or information. It appears that the declaration of research inputs in the academy is problematic, mostly incomplete or inaccurate. This does not reduce the importance of this practice; it simply indicates that the academy should not be considered a privileged space, with wide dominance and practice excellence. Nevertheless, the information environment of organizations can learn and benefit from the experience of the scientific academy. From the analyses of the research sample, a set of procedures has been developed, which allowed organizational analysts and researchers to elaborate a complete and accurate analysis of the input sources to be declared in organizational or scientific communication.

  12. Understanding the nature of science and scientific progress: A theory-building approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chuy


    Full Text Available In 1993 Carey and Smith conjectured that the most promising way to boost students’ understanding of the nature of science is a “theory-building approach to teaching about inquiry.” The research reported here tested this conjecture by comparing results from two Grade 4 classrooms that differed in their emphasis on and technological support for creating and improving theories. One class followed a Knowledge Building approach and used Knowledge Forum®, which together emphasize theory improvement and sustained creative work with ideas. The other class followed an inquiry approach mediated through collaborative project-based activities. Apart from this, the two classes were demographically similar and both fell within the broad category of constructivist, inquiry-based approaches and employed a range of modes and media for investigative research and reports. An augmented version of Carey and Smith’s Nature of Science Interview showed that the Knowledge Building approach resulted in deeper understanding of the nature of theoretical progress, the connections between theories and facts, and the role of ideas in scientific inquiry.

  13. Towards a comprehensive model of scientific research and professional practice in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Marian Brzeziński


    Full Text Available In this article I present a model of associations between two social domains: the scientific research domain (here psychology and the professional practice domain. In the former case, its quality is determined by social and individual methodological awareness (MA. I introduce my own definition of MA. What determines the validity and usefulness of practical actions undertaken by professionals (e.g., assessment, therapy in the practice domain is the accurately constructed empirical theory high in descriptive power, explanatory power and predictive power. I propose a model (my own conceptualization in which I analyze information flow between the domains of scientific research (psychology as a science and professional practice (psychology as a profession. In the subsequent and final part I discuss my own model which links theory and practice: Scientific Research and Professional Practice in Psychology (SRPPP. The article ends with a presentation of three contexts in which the interrelationship between theory and practice is immersed: the ethical, psychological and cultural contexts.

  14. Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in solving the most important issues of globalization process' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Present collection comprises of materials of Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in solving the most important issues of globalization process'. Present collection is intended for scientific and technical staff, postgraduates, and students of institutes of higher education.

  15. Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA): A Method for Evaluating Changes in Understanding and Visualization of the Scientific Process in a Multidisciplinary Student Population. (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J; Rigakos, Bessie

    The scientific process is nonlinear, unpredictable, and ongoing. Assessing the nature of science is difficult with methods that rely on Likert-scale or multiple-choice questions. This study evaluated conceptions about the scientific process using student-created visual representations that we term "flowcharts." The methodology, Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA), consisted of a prompt and rubric that was designed to assess students' understanding of the scientific process. Forty flowcharts representing a multidisciplinary group without intervention and 26 flowcharts representing pre- and postinstruction were evaluated over five dimensions: connections, experimental design, reasons for doing science, nature of science, and interconnectivity. Pre to post flowcharts showed a statistically significant improvement in the number of items and ratings for the dimensions. Comparison of the terms used and connections between terms on student flowcharts revealed an enhanced and more nuanced understanding of the scientific process, especially in the areas of application to society and communication within the scientific community. We propose that SPFA can be used in a variety of circumstances, including in the determination of what curricula or interventions would be useful in a course or program, in the assessment of curriculum, or in the evaluation of students performing research projects. © 2016 K. J. Wilson and B. Rigakos. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  16. Proceedings of scientific, practical and methodical conference devoted to 30-years anniversary of the institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulazhanova, K.S.


    Collection consists of materials of scientific, practical and methodological conference devoted to 30-year anniversary of the Almaty Technological Inst., which considered following items: actual problems of food and light industry, equipment of food and grain-processing productions, chemistry of foodstuffs and materials etc. (author)

  17. Problems of Chernobyl. Materials of International scientific and practical conference 'Shelter-98'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchnikov, O.O.


    These transactions contain materials of International Scientific and Practical Conference 'Shelter-98', which was held 27-30 November 1998 in Slavutich. They describe the results of the research work of the specialists from Ukraine, neighborhood and far foreign counties. The results, targeted at solving the problems of converting the Shelter Object into oncologically safe state

  18. Improving Student Achievement and Teacher Effectiveness through Scientifically Based Practices. NCREL Viewpoints, Number 11 (United States)

    Schuch, Linda, Ed.


    "Viewpoints" is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a short, informative booklet. This volume of "Viewpoints" focuses on using scientifically based practices to improve student achievement and teacher effectiveness. The audio CDs provide the voices, or viewpoints, of various leaders from the education field who have worked closely…

  19. Understanding game-based literacy practices in a school context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Jesper; Brok, Lene Storgaard

    methodology, and the interventions will be carried out at 20 schools in Denmark and will consist of 4 specially designed game-based units in each of the subjects Danish (as L1), mathematics, and science in both 5th and 7th grade. Games include digital as well as analogue games, and we understand game...... in the 21st Century (GBL21), a five years large-scale intervention project launched in December 2017. The overall aim is to explore how and to what degree students develop 21st century skills through a game-based pedagogy in different school subjects. The GBL21 project is based on a mixed methods......-based learning as relating to the process of designing games, exploring game worlds, and reflecting on game activities in an educational context. The purpose of the qualitative strand is to explore how the game-based learning activities influence the literacy practices in the different classrooms. This includes...

  20. Toward an Understanding of the Use of Academic Theories in Public Relations Practice. (United States)

    Cornelissen, Joep P.


    Discusses a focal issue in the public relations field: the way that practitioners use academic theories. Offers an exploration of the possible modes of use of academic or scientific theory in public relations practice. Notes that the premise of this model is that scientific knowledge is seldom used in an unaltered form in practice. Closes by…

  1. A qualitative study of collaboration in general practice: understanding the general practice nurse's role. (United States)

    McInnes, Susan; Peters, Kath; Bonney, Andrew; Halcomb, Elizabeth


    To explore the nature of collaboration between registered nurses and general practitioners in Australian general practice. There is international recognition that collaboration between health professionals can improve care coordination, enhance health outcomes, optimise the work environment and reduce healthcare costs. However, effective collaboration requires a clear understanding of each team member's role. A qualitative approach guided by Naturalistic Inquiry was used to elicit and interpret participant narratives. Eight general practitioners and fourteen registered nurses working in general practice were purposefully recruited. Data were collected via individual, semi-structured face-to-face interviews during February to May 2015. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Data revealed three overarching themes. This study presents the data for the overarching theme 'Understanding the general practice registered nurse's role'. Many general practitioner participants lacked clarity around the role and scope of practice of the registered nurse. At the same time, nursing participants often articulated their role as an assistant rather than as an independent health professional. This limited collaboration and the nurses' role within the team. Collaboration was enhanced when general practitioners actively sought an understanding of the registered nurses scope of practice. Clarifying the nurses' role promotes collaboration and supports nurses to work to the full extent of their practice. This is important in terms of optimising the nurses' role within the team and reinforcing their professional identity. Identification of key issues around understanding the nurses' role may help inform strategies that improve collaboration and workplace relations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Preservice special education teachers' understandings, enactments, views, and plans for scientific inquiry: Issues and hopes (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajlakshmi

    This study examined the understandings, enactments, views, and plans for scientific inquiry held by preservice special education teachers enrolled in a K--8 general science methods course. Sixteen participants from four special education concentration areas---Mild to Moderate Educational Needs, Moderate to Intense Educational Needs, Mild to Moderate Educational Needs with Language Arts and Reading Emphasis, and Early Childhood Intervention---participated in this study. Qualitative data were collected from questionnaires, interviews, teaching videos, lesson plans, planning commentaries, and reflection papers. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) and compared against the theoretical view of inquiry as conceptualized by the National Research Council (NRC, 2000). The participants held unique interpretations of inquiry that only partially matched with the theoretical insights provided by the NRC. The participants' previous science learning experiences and experiences in special education played an important role in shaping their conceptualizations of inquiry as learned in the science methods class. The impacts of such unique interpretations are discussed with reference to both science education and special education, and implications for teacher education are provided.

  3. Traditional Chinese medicine formulas for irritable bowel syndrome: from ancient wisdoms to scientific understandings. (United States)

    Xiao, Hai-Tao; Zhong, Linda; Tsang, Siu-Wai; Lin, Ze-Si; Bian, Zhao-Xiang


    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) serves as the most common alternative therapeutic approach for Western medicine and benefits IBS patients globally. Due to the lack of scientific evidence in the past, TCM formulas were not internationally well recognized as promising IBS remedies. In this review, firstly, we present the etiology and therapy of IBS in terms of traditional Chinese medical theory. Secondly, we summarize the clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TCM formulas for IBS patients that are available in the literature (from 1998 to September 2013), in which 14 RCTs conducted of high quality were discussed in detail. Of the 14 selected trials, 12 of those concluded that TCM formulas provided superior improvement in the global symptoms of IBS patients over the placebo or conventional medicines. As well, all 14 RCTs suggested that TCM formulas have good safety and tolerability. Last but not least, we explore the pharmacological mechanisms of the anti-IBS TCM formulas available in the literature (from 1994 to September, 2013). Collectively, in combating IBS symptoms, most TCM formulas exert multi-targeting actions including the regulation of neurotransmitters and hormones in the enteric nervous system (ENS), modulation of smooth muscle motility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, attenuation of intestinal inflammation and restoration of intestinal flora, etc. In conclusion, TCM formulas appear to be promising for IBS treatment. This review provides a useful reference for the public in furthering a better understanding and acceptance of TCM formulas as IBS remedies.

  4. Understanding "revolving door" patients in general practice: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Williamson, Andrea E; Mullen, Kenneth; Wilson, Philip


    'Revolving door' patients in general practice are repeatedly removed from general practitioners' (GP) lists. This paper reports a qualitative portion of the first mixed methods study of these marginalised patients. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with six practitioner services staff and six GPs in Scotland, utilizing Charmazian grounded theory to characterise 'revolving door' patients and their impact from professionals' perspectives. 'Revolving door' patients were reported as having three necessary characteristics; they had unreasonable expectations, exhibited inappropriate behaviours and had unmet health needs. A range of boundary breaches were reported too when 'revolving door' patients interacted with NHS staff. We utilise the 'sensitising concepts' of legitimacy by drawing on literature about 'good and bad' patients and 'dirty work designations.' We relate these to the core work of general practice and explore the role that medical and moral schemas have in how health service professionals understand and work with 'revolving door' patients. We suggest this may have wider relevance for the problem doctor patient relationship literature.

  5. Understanding the role of the teacher in emerging classroom practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Jeppe


    The relationship between acquisitionism and participationism is a challenge in research on and with teachers. This study uses a patterns-of-participation framework (PoP), which aims to develop coherent and dynamic understandings of teaching as well as to meet the conceptual and methodological pro...... herself in her team of teachers. However, in other situations her engagement with mathematics is overshadowed by her involvement in other practices. The study suggests that there is some potential in PoP in spite of methodological difficulties.......The relationship between acquisitionism and participationism is a challenge in research on and with teachers. This study uses a patterns-of-participation framework (PoP), which aims to develop coherent and dynamic understandings of teaching as well as to meet the conceptual and methodological...... problems of other approaches. The paper presents PoP theoretically, but also illustrates its empirical use. It presents a novice teacher, Anna, who often engages with mathematics and with aspects of ‘the reform’ in ways that link well with how she builds relationships with her students and positions...

  6. Understanding how orthopaedic surgery practices generate value for healthcare systems. (United States)

    Olson, Steven A; Mather, Richard C


    Orthopaedic surgery practices can provide substantial value to healthcare systems. Increasingly, healthcare administrators are speaking of the need for alignment between physicians and healthcare systems. However, physicians often do not understand what healthcare administrators value and therefore have difficulty articulating the value they create in discussions with their hospital or healthcare organization. Many health systems and hospitals use service lines as an organizational structure to track the relevant data and manage the resources associated with a particular type of care, such as musculoskeletal care. Understanding service lines and their management can be useful for orthopaedic surgeons interested in interacting with their hospital systems. We provide an overview of two basic types of value orthopaedic surgeons create for healthcare systems: financial or volume-driven benefits and nonfinancial quality or value-driven patient care benefits. We performed a search of PubMed from 1965 to 2012 using the term "service line." Of the 351 citations identified, 18 citations specifically involved the use of service lines to improve patient care in both nursing and medical journals. A service line is a structure used in healthcare organizations to enable management of a subset of activities or resources in a focused area of patient care delivery. There is not a consistent definition of what resources are managed within a service line from hospital to hospital. Physicians can positively impact patient care through engaging in service line management. There is increasing pressure for healthcare systems and hospitals to partner with orthopaedic surgeons. The peer-reviewed literature demonstrates there are limited resources for physicians to understand the value they create when attempting to negotiate with their hospital or healthcare organization. To effectively negotiate for resources to provide the best care for patients, orthopaedic surgeons need to claim and

  7. An exploration of middle school science teachers' understandings and teaching practice of science as inquiry (United States)

    Castle, Margaret Ann

    understanding of science increases (Akkus, Gunel & Hand, 2007; Gibson, 2002; Liu, Lee & Linn, 2010). As a result, it is important to explore middle school science teachers' definition of science as inquiry because of its importance in how their understandings are reflected in their practice. Researchers must witness, first- hand, what is taking place in middle school science classrooms with respect to the teaching of scientific inquiry before recommendations for improvements can be made. We must also allow opportunities for middle school science teachers to broach, examine, explore, interpret and report implementation strategies when practicing the elements of scientific inquiry as a science content area. It then stands to reason that more research needs to be done to: (1) assess teachers' knowledge related to reform-based teaching, (2) investigate teachers' views about the goals and purposes of inquiry, and (3) investigate the processes by which teachers carry out SI and motivation for undertaking such a complex and difficult to manage form of instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine middle school science teachers' understandings and skills related to scientific inquiry; how those understandings and skills were translated into classroom practice, and the role the school district played in the development of such understandings and skills.

  8. Exploring multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices in two elementary classrooms (United States)

    Allison, Elizabeth Rowland

    This study explored the voices of children in a changing world with evolving needs and new opportunities. The workplaces of rapidly moving capitalist societies value creativity, collaboration, and critical thinking skills which are of growing importance and manifesting themselves in modern K-12 science classroom cultures (Gee, 2000; New London Group, 2000). This study explored issues of multiliteracies and student voice set within the context of teaching and learning in 4th and 5th grade science classrooms. The purpose of the study was to ascertain what and how multiliteracies and scientific practices (NGSS Lead States, 2013c) are implemented, explore how multiliteracies influence students' voices, and investigate teacher and student perceptions of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices. Grounded in a constructivist framework, a multiple case study was employed in two elementary classrooms. Through observations, student focus groups and interviews, and teacher interviews, a detailed narrative was created to describe a range of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices that occurred with the science classroom context. Using grounded theory analysis, data were coded and analyzed to reveal emergent themes. Data analysis revealed that these two classrooms were enriched with multiliteracies that serve metaphorically as breeding grounds for student voice. In the modern classroom, defined as a space where information is instantly accessible through the Internet, multiliteracies can be developed through inquiry-based, collaborative, and technology-rich experiences. Scientific literacy, cultivated through student communication and collaboration, is arguably a multiliteracy that has not been considered in the literature, and should be, as an integral component of overall individual literacy in the 21st century. Findings revealed four themes. Three themes suggest that teachers address several modes of multiliteracies in science, but identify

  9. Exploring How Research Experiences for Teachers Changes Their Understandings of the Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn R.


    The nature of science is a prevalent theme across United States national science education standards and frameworks as well as other documents that guide formal and informal science education reform. To support teachers in engaging their students in authentic scientific practices and reformed teaching strategies, research experiences for teachers…

  10. Bridging the Gap between Scientific and Indigenous knowledge to Better Understand Social Impacts of Changing Rainfall Regimes (United States)

    Lynch, A. H.; Joachim, L.; Zhu, X.; Hammer, C.; Harris, M.; Griggs, D.


    The Murray-Darling Basin incorporates Australia's three longest rivers and is important for an agricultural industry worth more than $9 billion per annum, a rich biodiversity of habitat and species, and the very life of its traditional owners. The complex and sometimes enigmatic relationships between modes of variability and Australian regional rainfall distribution means that reliable projections of future water availability remain highly uncertain. Persistent drought, with associated heat stress and high fire danger, and episodic flooding rains present further challenges. Indeed, recent extremes likely herald a tipping point for the communities and ecosystems that rely on the river system. The Barmah-Millewa region in the Murray-Darling Basin is the heart of Yorta Yorta Traditional Tribal Lands. The Yorta Yorta continue to assert their inherent rights to country and have shown through oral, documentary and material evidence, that their social, spiritual, economic and cultural links with country have never been broken. Current water policy and practice, highly contested community consultation processes, cross-border governance issues and a changing social landscape create in this region a microcosm for understanding the complex demands of economic, environmental and cultural security along the Murray-Darling Basin as the climate changes. New approaches to bridging the gap between scientific and Indigenous epistemologies have emerged in recent years, including for example ecosystem-based adaptation (Vignola et al. 2009) and the analysis of cultural water flows (Weir 2010). The potential for innovation using these approaches has informed a study that investigates how the deep knowledge of country of the Yorta Yorta people can be combined with state of the art climate science to develop a better understanding of the competing demands on water resources in the Barmah-Millewa region now and in the future. An important dimension of this collaborative work with the Yorta

  11. Introduction to four papers on Curt Richter and analysis of his scientific practice. (United States)

    Smith, Gerard P


    Curt Richter was one of the founders of our field. He did outstanding research for over 60 years. Richter did fundamental work in appetite for food and minerals in the 1930s and discovered the homeostatic functions of ingestive behavior. This paper introduces four papers on specific topics of his work by contemporaneous experts. Each of the papers reviews Richter's experiments and then shows how the problem developed since he left it. The papers demonstrate that providing the historical basis for contemporary science is not only instructive, it is also heuristic for the science waiting to be done. In addition to introducing the four papers, I analyze the scientific ideas, values, and men that influenced Richter's scientific practice. I conclude that Claude Bernard, Walter Cannon, Francois Magendie, and Maurice Arthus were important for Richter's scientific ideas and values, but it was the joy of research that explains his experimental success for over 60 years.

  12. The influence of authentic scientific research experiences on teachers' conceptions of the nature of science (NOS) and their NOS teaching practices (United States)

    Moriarty, Meghan A.

    This study explored the influence of teachers' authentic scientific research experiences (ASREs) on teachers' conceptions of the nature of science (NOS) and teachers' NOS instruction. Twelve high school biology teachers participated in this study. Six of the participants had authentic scientific research experience (ASRE) and six had not participated in authentic scientific research. Data included background surveys, modified Views of the Nature of Science (VNOS) questionnaires, interviews, and teaching observations. Data was coded based on the eight NOS understandings outlined in 2013 in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Evidence from this study indicates participating in authentic scientific research as a member of a scientific community has dual benefits of enabling high school science teachers with informed understandings of the NOS and positioning them to teach with the NOS. However, these benefits do not always result from an ASRE. If the nature of the ASRE is limited, then it may limit teachers' NOS understandings and their NOS teaching practices. The results of this study suggest that participation in ASREs may be one way to improve teachers' NOS understandings and teaching practices if the experiences themselves offer a comprehensive view of the NOS. Because ASREs and other science learning experiences do not always offer such experiences, pre-service teacher education and professional development opportunities may engage science teachers in two ways: (1) becoming part of a scientific community may enable them to teach with NOS and (2) being reflective about what being a scientist means may improve teachers' NOS understandings and better position them to teach about NOS.. Keywords: nature of science, authentic scientific research experiences, Next Generation Science Standards, teaching about NOS, teaching with NOS.

  13. Children’s understanding of scientific concepts : Combining a micro-developmental approach with a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Steffie


    This paper shows that the social (teacher) and material environment (task) play an active part in children's learning process and cannot be viewed as a separate, outside-based influence on cognitive development. We illustrate this using a longitudinal study on children's understanding of scientific

  14. Drama-Based Science Teaching and Its Effect on Students' Understanding of Scientific Concepts and Their Attitudes towards Science Learning (United States)

    Abed, Osama H.


    This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…

  15. The Effectiveness of the Brain Based Teaching Approach in Enhancing Scientific Understanding of Newtonian Physics among Form Four Students (United States)

    Saleh, Salmiza


    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Brain Based Teaching Approach in enhancing students' scientific understanding of Newtonian Physics in the context of Form Four Physics instruction. The technique was implemented based on the Brain Based Learning Principles developed by Caine & Caine (1991, 2003). This brain compatible…

  16. Innovating Chinese Herbal Medicine: From Traditional Health Practice to Scientific Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Gu


    Full Text Available As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM, the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research.

  17. Innovating Chinese Herbal Medicine: From Traditional Health Practice to Scientific Drug Discovery. (United States)

    Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng


    As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research.

  18. Developing Students’ Reflections about the Function and Status of Mathematical Modeling in Different Scientific Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten


    position held by the modeler(s) and the practitioners in the extra-mathematical domain. For students to experience the significance of different scientific practices and cultures for the function and status of mathematical modeling in other sciences, students need to be placed in didactical situations......Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical...... where such differences are exposed and made into explicit objects of their reflections. It can be difficult to create such situations in the teaching of contemporary science in which modeling is part of the culture. In this paper we show how history can serve as a means for students to be engaged...

  19. Scientific-practical and legal problems of implementation of the personalized medicine. (United States)

    Bezdieniezhnykh, N O; Reznikova, V V; Rossylna, O V


    The article is devoted to the comprehensive analysis of scientific, practical and legal issues of personalized medicine that is a rapidly developing science-driven approach to healthcare. It is concluded that there is lack of general legal framework for the encouragement of scientific researches and practical implementation in this field. The article shows foreign experience and prospects for the introduction of personalized medicine as a key concept of healthcare system, which is based on a selection of diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive measures that would be the most effective for a particular person in view of individual characteristics. The conclusions and proposals to improve the current legislation and development of personalized medicine in Ukraine are suggested.

  20. Innovating Chinese Herbal Medicine: From Traditional Health Practice to Scientific Drug Discovery


    Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng


    As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. W...



    Ana Paula Batista da Silva; Ernani Ott


    The aim of this study was to analyze the interaction between scientific research and professional accounting practice. In this exploratory study, as it examines a theme that has been little explored in Brazil, a quantitative approach was adopted and a survey was used as the data collection technique, supported by a research instrument with questions on aspects like: interest in and use of research; study and development of themes; means to disseminate the research; and causes of the gap betwe...

  2. An investigation of the practice of scientific inquiry in secondary science and agriculture courses (United States)

    Grady, Julie R.

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to investigate the practice of scientific inquiry in two secondary biology classes and one agriculture class from different schools in different communities. The focus was on teachers' interests and intentions for the students' participation in inquiry, the voices contributing to the inquiry, and students' opportunities to confront their conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP) served as the context by providing students with opportunities to design and conduct original experiments to help elucidate the function(s) of a disabled gene in Arabidopsis thaliana . Transcripts of teacher and student semi-structured interviews, field notes of classroom observations and classroom conversations, and documents (e.g., student work, teacher handouts, school websites, PREP materials) were analyzed for evidence of the practice of scientific inquiry. Teachers were interested in implementing inquiry because of potential student learning about scientific research and because PREP supports course content and is connected to a larger scientific project outside of the school. Teachers' intentions regarding the implementation of inquiry reflected the complexity of their courses and the students' previous experiences. All inquiries were student-directed. The biology students' participation more closely mirrored the practice of scientists, while the agriculture students were more involved with the procedural display of scientific inquiry. All experiences could have been enhanced from additional knowledge-centered activities regarding scientific reasoning. No activities brought explicit attention to NOS. Biology activities tended to implicitly support NOS while the agriculture class activities tended to implicitly contradict NOS. Scientists' interactions contributed to implied support of the NOS. There were missed opportunities for explicit attention to NOS in all classes

  3. Clinical practice guidelines as learned treatises: understanding their use as evidence in the courtroom. (United States)

    Recupero, Patricia R


    It is important for forensic experts to understand how clinical practice guidelines may enter the courtroom, what role they may play in a trial, and how they relate to expert testimony. Guidelines enter the record in several different ways and in several types of cases, typically with the assistance of an expert witness. A common vehicle for their introduction is the learned-treatise exception to the hearsay rule. Case law before and after Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. helps to elucidate the scrutiny that courts may direct toward medical texts proffered as evidence. This article discusses the implications of different rules and relevant case law for the forensic psychiatrist. The discussion notes important considerations for the expert witness, such as how guidelines may affect the expert's role, concerns about the reliability and relevance of scientific evidence, and questions about whether guidelines will be used for inculpatory or exculpatory purposes in medical malpractice trials.

  4. The respiratory practical persons: new understanding and approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslanov D.V.


    Full Text Available It is analysed modern information about existent respiratory practices. The methodological, physiological and psychological aspects of respiratory practices are examined. 2 groups of students of higher humanitarian institute are participated in experiment: healthy (students of basic group, n1=180 and with different chronic pathology in the stage of remission (students of group of medical physical education, n2=50. Duration of experiment made about two months. Frequency of the controlled respiratory practice - 1-2 times per a week. The algorithm of respiratory practice is presented. Exercises and recommendations are resulted on their application.

  5. Understanding Ecodesign through a Communities of Practice Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skelton, Kristen; Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea; Schmidt, Kirsten


    Despite many years of tool development and legislative initiatives, companies are still challenged by ecodesign. This article applies Etienne Wenger's communities of practice approach to the existing environmental and product development practices of two Danish case companies. It is a contribution...... community members; the use of boundary objects for establishing dialogue and encouraging participation; and the balance between participation and reification in the process of continuously negotiating meaning. In conclusion, ways in which ecodesign can be strengthened using Wenger's principles...... for cultivating communities of practice are suggested. A diversified approach to ecodesign whereby existing communities can expand their current practices and transform into ecodesign communities is also suggested....

  6. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts. (United States)

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa


    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  7. Exploring the Changes in Students' Understanding of the Scientific Method Using Word Associations (United States)

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Sinan, Olcay; Bowman, Charles R.; Yildirim, Yetkin


    A study is presented that explores how students' knowledge structures, as related to the scientific method, compare at different student ages. A word association test comprised of ten total stimulus words, among them "experiment," "science fair," and "hypothesis," is used to probe the students' knowledge structures.…

  8. The Effect of Constructivist Learning Using Scientific Approach on Mathematical Power and Conceptual Understanding of Students Grade IV (United States)

    Kusmaryono, Imam; Suyitno, Hardi


    This study used a model of Concurrent Embedded with the aim of: (1) determine the difference between the conceptual understanding and mathematical power of students grade fourth who take the constructivist learning using scientific approach and direct learning, (2) determine the interaction between learning approaches and initial competence on the mathematical power and conceptual of understanding, and (3) describe the mathematical power of students grade fourth. This research was conducted in the fourth grade elementary school early 2015. Data initial competence and mathematical power obtained through tests, and analyzed using statistical tests multivariate and univariate. Statistical analysis of the results showed that: (1) There are differences in the concept of understanding and mathematical power among the students who follow the scientifically-based constructivist learning than students who take the Direct Learning in terms of students initial competency (F = 5.550; p = 0.007 problem solving and contributes tremendous increase students' math skills. Researcher suggested that the learning of mathematics in schools using scientifically- based constructivist approach to improve the mathematical power of students and conceptual understanding.

  9. Characteristics of Spanish articles of "scientific quality" cited in clinical practice guidelines on mental health. (United States)

    Permanyer-Miralda, Gaietà; Adam, Paula; Guillamón, Imma; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Pons, Joan M V


    The study aims to illustrate the impact of Spanish research in clinical decision making. To this end, we analysed the characteristics of the most significant Spanish publications cited in clinical practice guidelines (CPG) on mental health. We conducted a descriptive qualitative study on the characteristics of ten articles cited in Spanish CPG on mental health, and selected for their "scientific quality". We analysed the content of the articles on the basis of the following characteristics: topics, study design, research centres, scientific and practical relevance, type of funding, and area or influence of the reference to the content of the guidelines. Among the noteworthy studies, some basic science studies, which have examined the establishment of genetic associations in the pathogenesis of mental illness are included, and others on the effectiveness of educational interventions. The content of those latter had more influence on the GPC, because they were cited in the summary of the scientific evidence or in the recommendations. Some of the outstanding features in the selected articles are the sophisticated designs (experimental or analytical), and the number of study centres, especially in international collaborations. Debate or refutation of previous findings on controversial issues may have also contributed to the extensive citation of work. The inclusion of studies in the CPG is not a sufficient condition of "quality", but their description can be instructive for the design of future research or publications. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Fuzzy pictures as philosophical problem and scientific practice a study of visual vagueness

    CERN Document Server

    Cat, Jordi


    This book presents a comprehensive discussion on the characterization of vagueness in pictures. It reports on how the problem of representation of images has been approached in scientific practice, highlighting the role of mathematical methods and the philosophical background relevant for issues such as representation, categorization and reasoning. Without delving too much into the technical details, the book examines and defends different kinds of values of fuzziness based on a complex approach to categorization as a practice, adopting conceptual and empirical suggestions from different fields including the arts. It subsequently advances criticisms and provides suggestions for interpretation and application. By describing a cognitive framework based on fuzzy, rough and near sets, and discussing all of the relevant mathematical and philosophical theories for the representation and processing of vagueness in images, the book offers a practice-oriented guide to fuzzy visual reasoning, along with novel insights ...

  11. Peer Review Practices for Evaluating Biomedical Research Grants: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. (United States)

    Liaw, Lucy; Freedman, Jane E; Becker, Lance B; Mehta, Nehal N; Liscum, Laura


    The biomedical research enterprise depends on the fair and objective peer review of research grants, leading to the distribution of resources through efficient and robust competitive methods. In the United States, federal funding agencies and foundations collectively distribute billions of dollars annually to support biomedical research. For the American Heart Association, a Peer Review Subcommittee is charged with establishing the highest standards for peer review. This scientific statement reviews the current literature on peer review practices, describes the current American Heart Association peer review process and those of other agencies, analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of American Heart Association peer review practices, and recommends best practices for the future. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. From the EEL to the EGO: psychoanalysis and the remnants of Freud's early scientific practice. (United States)

    Wieser, Martin


    While numerous historiographical works have been written to shed light on Freud's early theoretical education in biology, physiology, and medicine and on the influence of that education on psychoanalysis, this paper approaches Freud's basic comprehension of science and methodology by focusing on his early research practice in physiology and neuranatomy. This practice, taking place in the specific context of Ernst Brücke's physiological laboratory in Vienna, was deeply concerned with problems of visuality and the revelation of hidden organic structures by use of proper preparation techniques and optical instruments. The paper explores the connection between such visualizing practices, shaped by a physiological context as they were, and Freud's later convictions of the scientific status of psychoanalysis and the function of its method as means to unveil the concealed structure of the "psychical apparatus". © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Understanding Graduate School Aspirations: The Effect of Good Teaching Practices (United States)

    Hanson, Jana M.; Paulsen, Michael B.; Pascarella, Ernest T.


    This study examined the effects of good teaching practices on post-baccalaureate degree aspirations using logistic regression techniques on a multi-institutional, longitudinal sample of students at 4-year colleges and universities in the USA. We examined whether eight good teaching practices (non-classroom interactions with faculty, prompt…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bahlol


    Full Text Available Purpose. Pharmaceutical industry is transnational and globally important. Many pharmaceutical companies operate their business in multinational and international forms in different countries. Diverse researches from different countries indicated and confirmed marketing promotion importance in pharmaceutical field. Therefore, marketing promotion and its effects are a very important issue that should be globally investigated in real life and evidence context. We oriented our research according to these scientific and practical values.Methodology. We reviewed pharmaceutical marketing promotion researches from more than 25 different countries, e.g., USA, Canada, Italy, France, Russia, India, Egypt and Syria where we employed our knowledge of three widely spread languages, i.e., English, Russian and Arabic. Such language variation supports us with large and variable amount of scientific knowledge, deep understanding and ability of analysis. Some studies investigated average response to pharmaceutical marketing promotion and few studies took into consideration heterogeneity in their effects with respect to advertising medium or drug characteristics.Originality. We investigated empirical evidences of pharmaceutical marketing promotion that can be directed to either consumer or healthcare professionals.Findings. We extracted, gathered and associated information of pharmaceutical promotion globally which oriented us to several evidence and practical facts with regard to employing promotion tools in different definite situations pertinent to main directions; their welfare and health enhancing effects and adverse effects. Practical Implications- Consequently, we developed practically-oriented guidelines for companies concerning pharmaceutical promotion globally ate the end of this paper.

  15. Meaningful Engagement in Scientific Practices: How Classroom Communities Develop Authentic Epistemologies for Science (United States)

    Krist, Christina Rae

    Recent reforms in science education, based on decades of learning research, emphasize engaging students in science and engineering practices as the means to develop and refine disciplinary ideas. These reforms advocate an epistemic shift in how school science is done: from students learning about science ideas to students figuring out core science ideas. This shift is challenging to implement: how do we bring the goals and practices of a discipline into classroom communities in meaningful ways that go beyond simply following rote scientific procedures? In this dissertation, I investigate how classroom communities learn to engage meaningfully in scientific practices, characterizing their engagement as a process of epistemic learning. I take a situated perspective that defines learning as shifts in how members engage in communities of practice. I examine students' epistemic learning as a function of their participation in a classroom community of scientific practice along two dimensions: what they do, or the practical epistemic heuristics they use to guide how they build knowledge; and who they are, or how ownership and authorship of ideas is negotiated and affectively marked through interaction. I focus on a cohort of students as they move from 6th to 8 th grade. I analyze three science units, one from each grade level, to look at the epistemic heuristics implicit in student and teacher talk and how the use of those heuristics shifts over time. In addition, I examine one anomalous 8th grade class to look at how students and the teacher position themselves and each other with respect to the ideas in their classroom and how that positioning supports epistemic learning. Taken together, these analyses demonstrate how students' engagement in scientific practices evolves in terms of what they do and who they are in relation to the knowledge and ideas in their classroom over time. I propose a model for epistemic learning that articulates how classroom communities develop

  16. Cultures of Diversity: Considering Scientific and Humanistic Understandings in Introductory Psychology (United States)

    Guest, Andrew M.; Simmons, Zachary L.; Downs, Andrew; Pitzer, Mark R.


    Teachers of psychology tend to agree that learning about diversity is an important goal for undergraduate psychology courses. There is significantly less agreement about what aspects of diversity psychology students should understand. The current research proposes and investigates two potentially distinct ways students might understand diversity:…

  17. Mathematics and science teachers' understanding and practices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... school level understand and implement learner-centered pedagogy. ... prove that teachers' knowledge and skills as regard learner-centred pedagogical ...

  18. Fluid dynamics practices as a scientific divulgation tool in high school education


    Fabiano Tavares da Silva; Lamon Benevides de Souza; Leôncio Diógenes Tavares Câmara

    2016-01-01 This extension project was designed to bring together students from high schools in Nova Friburgo-RJ region with the Instituto Politécnico IPRJ / UERJ, providing an experience within the university with scientific incentive practices to the area of sciences and earth. Introducing the universe and diversity in the mathematics and science area with a short course aimed to studies of particles analysis, viscosity and permeability, this initia...

  19. The analysis of scientific-practical tools of the company creditworthiness evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolova Lyudmila


    Full Text Available The article examines methodical approaches of evaluation of industrial companies’ credit ability. On the bases of critical analysis of professional literature on the subject of the study, the definition of basic concepts was determined; the existing scientific and methodological tools of creditworthiness evaluation of the company were examined. The solution scheme of the company credit rating calculating algorithm was done. It’s implementation is based on the author's mathematical software. The authors performed an experimental testing of the proposed methodological approach, which allowed to establish appropriate recommendations of practical orientation.

  20. Social Network and Content Analysis of the North American Carbon Program as a Scientific Community of Practice (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Ihli, Monica; Hendrick, Oscar; Delgado-Arias, Sabrina; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Griffith, Peter


    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) was formed to further the scientific understanding of sources, sinks, and stocks of carbon in Earth's environment. Carbon cycle science integrates multidisciplinary research, providing decision-support information for managing climate and carbon-related change across multiple sectors of society. This investigation uses the conceptual framework of com-munities of practice (CoP) to explore the role that the NACP has played in connecting researchers into a carbon cycle knowledge network, and in enabling them to conduct physical science that includes ideas from social science. A CoP describes the communities formed when people consistently engage in shared communication and activities toward a common passion or learning goal. We apply the CoP model by using keyword analysis of abstracts from scientific publications to analyze the research outputs of the NACP in terms of its knowledge domain. We also construct a co-authorship network from the publications of core NACP members, describe the structure and social pathways within the community. Results of the content analysis indicate that the NACP community of practice has substantially expanded its research on human and social impacts on the carbon cycle, contributing to a better understanding of how human and physical processes interact with one another. Results of the co-authorship social network analysis demonstrate that the NACP has formed a tightly connected community with many social pathways through which knowledge may flow, and that it has also expanded its network of institutions involved in carbon cycle research over the past seven years.

  1. Molecular biology in a distributed world. A Kantian perspective on scientific practices and the human mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagrazia Portera


    Full Text Available In recent years the number of scholarly publications devoted to Kant's theory of biology has rapidly growing, with particular attention being given to Kant's thoughts about the concepts of teleology, function, organism, and their respective roles in scientific practice. Moving from these recent studies, and distancing itself from their mostly evolutionary background, the main aim of the present paper is to suggest an original "cognitive turn" in the interpretation of Kant's theory of biology. More specifically, the Authors will trace a connection between some Kantian theses about the “peculiar” or special nature of the human mind (intellectus ectypus, advanced in the Critique of the Power of Judgement (§ 76, 77, and some specific epistemological issues pertaining to the research practice of contemporary molecular biology.

  2. Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach (United States)

    Nicol, Janni; Taplin, Jill


    Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Steiner Waldorf High Scope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the Steiner Waldorf Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years…

  3. Third International Scientific and Practical Conference «Space Travel is Approaching Reality» (Successful Event in Difficult Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusevych Tetiana


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the presentations of participants of III International Scientific and Practical Conference «Space Travel – approaching reality», held on 6–7 November 2014 in Kharkiv, Ukraine

  4. Relations between representational consistency, conceptual understanding of the force concept, and scientific reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Nieminen


    Full Text Available Previous physics education research has raised the question of “hidden variables” behind students’ success in learning certain concepts. In the context of the force concept, it has been suggested that students’ reasoning ability is one such variable. Strong positive correlations between students’ preinstruction scores for reasoning ability (measured by Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning and their learning of forces [measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI] have been reported in high school and university introductory courses. However, there is no published research concerning the relation between students’ ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency and their learning of forces. To investigate this, we collected 131 high school students’ pre- and post-test data of the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (for representational consistency and the FCI. The students’ Lawson pretest data were also collected. We found that the preinstruction level of students’ representational consistency correlated strongly with student learning gain of forces. The correlation (0.51 was almost equal to the correlation between Lawson prescore and learning gain of forces (0.52. Our results support earlier findings which suggest that scientific reasoning ability is a hidden variable behind the learning of forces. In addition, we suggest that students’ representational consistency may also be such a factor, and that this should be recognized in physics teaching.

  5. Understanding knowledge as a commons from theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ostrom, Elinor


    Looking at knowledge as a shared resource: experts discuss how to define, protect, and build the knowledge commons in the digital age. Knowledge in digital form offers unprecedented access to information through the Internet but at the same time is subject to ever-greater restrictions through intellectual property legislation, overpatenting, licensing, overpricing, and lack of preservation. Looking at knowledge as a commons―as a shared resource―allows us to understand both its limitless possibilities and what threatens it. In Understanding Knowledge as a Commons, experts from a range of disciplines discuss the knowledge commons in the digital era―how to conceptualize it, protect it, and build it. Contributors consider the concept of the commons historically and offer an analytical framework for understanding knowledge as a shared social-ecological system. They look at ways to guard against enclosure of the knowledge commons, considering, among other topics, the role of research libraries, the advantage...

  6. Understanding Financial Statements in Clinical Practice: A Primer. (United States)

    Makanji, Heeren S; Jenis, Louis G


    The purpose of this article is to describe the different types of financial statements and the information they contain regarding the current and long-term financial health of a business practice. These statements are essential to guiding strategic decision making for physicians and executives.

  7. Fostering Scientific and Numerate Practices in Journalism to Support Rapid Public Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Yarnall


    Full Text Available Journalism has the potential––and arguably the mandate––to expand public understanding of societally important phenomena. However, some methods for more effectively educating the public have been persistently underutilized: in particular, embedding informative numerical rates and efficient scientific explanations in news reports. In the current era of disrupting and downsizing the news business, the challenges to using such methods have only increased. To address this problem, this article seeks to (a raise awareness about the psychological reasons that help explain why it is crucial to use such elements in news reports, and (b exhibit some methods for doing so that require modest effort. Building on a review of relevant psychological literatures, principles, and existing reporting methods, we describe findings from a series of cognitive-scientific studies that demonstrate how using key––and relatively minimal––scientific and numerical elements can enhance public learning from news reports. We conclude by also describing curricula and resources designed to help journalists and bloggers use these methods.

  8. Scientific biography, cognitive deficits, and laboratory practice. James McKeen Cattell and early American experimental psychology, 1880-1904. (United States)

    Sokal, Michael M


    Despite widespread interest in individual life histories, few biographies of scientists make use of insights derived from psychology, another discipline that studies people, their thoughts, and their actions. This essay argues that recent theoretical work in psychology and tools developed for clinical psychological practice can help biographical historians of science create and present fuller portraits of their subjects' characters and temperaments and more nuanced analyses of how these traits helped shape their subjects' scientific work. To illustrate this thesis, the essay examines the early career of James McKeen Cattell--an influential late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century experimental psychologist--through a lens offered by psychology and argues that Cattell's actual laboratory practices derived from an "accommodation" to a long-standing "cognitive deficit." These practices in turn enabled Cattell to achieve more precise experimental results than could any of his contemporaries; and their students readily adopted them, along with their behavioral implications. The essay concludes that, in some ways, American psychology's early twentieth-century move toward a behavioral understanding of psychological phenomena can be traced to Cattell's personal cognitive deficit. It closes by reviewing several "remaining general questions" that this thesis suggests.

  9. Mutual understanding: a communication model for general practice. (United States)

    Hantho, Arne; Jensen, Lena; Malterud, Kirsti


    To present our pursuits towards development of a simple model for clinical communication intended for application by the practitioner as a tool for enhancing mutual understanding. Inspired by theories about patient-centredness and interactive modes of understanding, and supported by the perspectives of the Danish philosopher Niels Thomassen, we reviewed audiotapes from our own consultations. Recognising four dimensions assumed to be essential for mutual understanding in the transcripts, we explored these dimensions further. We present a communication model consisting of the following dimensions: The Framework, within which the communication takes place; The Subject, about which the communication takes place; The Persons, between whom the communication takes place; and The Action, verbally and non-verbally, through which communication takes place. We describe these dimensions in detail. The nature of the dimensions indicates that there is an interrelationship between them, implying that the character of the communication may change if one of the factors is changed. Analysis of an ongoing or recent consultation completed in accordance with these four dimensions allows the doctor to refocus the communication, thus leading to a more extensive mutual understanding and perhaps enhanced freedom of action.

  10. An Inquiry into the Issue of Understanding and Practicing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Democratic election which ought to be the hallmark of democracy has suffered so much in Nigeria. Lack of proper understanding of what it means to have democracy has been one of the major problems that plague our state Nigeria's experience in governance and politics since independence has been a struggle. As the ...

  11. Understanding and Practice of Information Literacy in Australian Government Libraries (United States)

    Kirton, Jennifer; Barham, Lyn; Brady, Sean


    Most research on information literacy has emerged from the academic sector and there is a lack of research undertaken in the workplace. To further expand on this area of study, a survey was undertaken to investigate librarians' understanding of information literacy and the application of information literacy in government libraries in Australia.…

  12. Understanding and Supporting Visual Communication within Costume Design Practice (United States)

    Bradley, Rachael Leigh


    Theatres provide artistic value to many people and generate revenue for communities, yet little research has been conducted to understand or support theatrical designers. Over 1,800 non-profit theatres and 3,522 theatre companies and dinner theatres operate in the United States. In 2008, 11 million people attended 1,587 Broadway shows for a total…

  13. Putting Measurement First: Understanding "Grit" in Educational Policy and Practice (United States)

    Peterson, Daniel


    Non-cognitive dispositions have recently become psychological constructs of interest in the education, economics, philosophy, sociology, and psychology literature. In this article, I draw the distinction between property-first and measurement-first approaches to understanding the meaning of a particular non-cognitive disposition theoretical term,…

  14. Analyzing Ocean Tracks: A model for student engagement in authentic scientific practices using data (United States)

    Krumhansl, K.; Krumhansl, R.; Brown, C.; DeLisi, J.; Kochevar, R.; Sickler, J.; Busey, A.; Mueller-Northcott, J.; Block, B.


    The collection of large quantities of scientific data has not only transformed science, but holds the potential to transform teaching and learning by engaging students in authentic scientific work. Furthermore, it has become imperative in a data-rich world that students gain competency in working with and interpreting data. The Next Generation Science Standards reflect both the opportunity and need for greater integration of data in science education, and emphasize that both scientific knowledge and practice are essential elements of science learning. The process of enabling access by novice learners to data collected and used by experts poses significant challenges, however, recent research has demonstrated that barriers to student learning with data can be overcome by the careful design of data access and analysis tools that are specifically tailored to students. A group of educators at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) and scientists at Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station are collaborating to develop and test a model for student engagement with scientific data using a web-based platform. This model, called Ocean Tracks: Investigating Marine Migrations in a Changing Ocean, provides students with the ability to plot and analyze tracks of migrating marine animals collected through the Tagging of Pacific Predators program. The interface and associated curriculum support students in identifying relationships between animal behavior and physical oceanographic variables (e.g. SST, chlorophyll, currents), making linkages between the living world and climate. Students are also supported in investigating possible sources of human impact to important biodiversity hotspots in the Pacific Ocean. The first round of classroom testing revealed that students were able to easily access and display data on the interface, and collect measurements from the animal tracks and oceanographic data layers. They were able to link multiple types of data to draw powerful

  15. The Realist Paradigm Of Energy Diplomacy In The Russian Scientific Tradition And Its Practical Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. О. Reinhardt


    Full Text Available Nowadays energy diplomacy tends to be one of most relevant and important fields of applied research in International Relations. It is characterized by an interdisciplinary approach being an intersection of political and economic theory, international law, energetics, theory of diplomacy, as well as other fields. Still, numerous research works in the given area both in Russia and abroad are characterized by a number of controversies, such as absence of a common theoretical, methodological basis and conventional terminology, as well as lack of consistency in the choice of scientific paradigms, which leads to divergence of research results and hinders the comparability of the latter. Along with that, in terms of scientific policy it is worth mentioning the absence of a common scientific space in the above field of research, which tends to be shaped by national research cultures and traditions. Throughout the 2000-2010s representatives of the MGIMO scientific school have accumulated experience in dealing with problems of energy diplomacy. However, most of the existing works do not specify the selected political theory paradigms, such as, for instance, realism, liberalism or constructivism. With no intention to conduct a comparative analysis of the aforementioned concepts, the authors of the article outline the key theoretical findings of political realism as the most suitable paradigm for explaining, analyzing and eventually forecasting the recent trends and phenomena given the current geopolitical and economical juncture. They prove the applicability of the proposed model to the OPEC case study and demonstrate its potential practical usefulness for policy-makers in foreign affairs and international energy relations.

  16. Understanding implementation in complex public organizations – implication for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Cecilie Høiland


    Full Text Available The effective implementation of politically initiated public service innovations to the front-lines of the public service organization, where the innovation is to be applied, is a challenge that both practitioners and researchers struggle to solve. We highlight the importance of analysing contextual factors at several levels of the implementation system, as well as the importance of considering how the practical everyday work situations of the front-line workers influence their application of the innovation in question. We illustrate this by exploring the implementation process of a specific work inclusion measure, looking at its wider context and some of its implementation outcomes at a specific public agency. The intention is to illustrate the significance of considering the contextual complexity influencing implementation work as a reminder for practitioners to take this into account in their planning and practices.

  17. Indigenous Methodology in Understanding Indigenous Nurse Graduate Transition to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna L. M. Kurtz


    Full Text Available Increasing Indigenous health care professional presence in health care aims to reduce health inequities of Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Nurses are the largest health professional group and nurse graduates the main source of recruitment. The quality of graduate transition to practice is evident in the literature; however, little is reported about Indigenous new graduates. We describe using Indigenous methodology and two-eyed seeing (Indigenous and Western perspectives in exploring Indigenous transition experiences. Talking circles provided a safe environment for nurses, nurse educators and students, health managers, and policy makers to discuss Indigenous new graduate case scenarios. The methodology was critical in identifying challenges faced, recommendations for change, and a new collective commitment for cultural safety education, and ethical and respectful relationships within education, practice, and policy.

  18. Understanding Digital Note-Taking Practice for Visualization. (United States)

    Willett, Wesley; Goffin, Pascal; Isenberg, Petra


    We present results and design implications from a study of digital note-taking practice to examine how visualization can support revisitation, reflection, and collaboration around notes. As digital notebooks become common forms of external memory, keeping track of volumes of content is increasingly difficult. Information visualization tools can help give note-takers an overview of their content and allow them to explore diverse sets of notes, find and organize related content, and compare their notes with their collaborators. To ground the design of such tools, we conducted a detailed mixed-methods study of digital note-taking practice. We identify a variety of different editing, organization, and sharing methods used by digital note-takers, many of which result in notes becoming "lost in the pile''. These findings form the basis for our design considerations that examine how visualization can support the revisitation, organization, and sharing of digital notes.

  19. Participatory approaches to understanding practices of flood management across borders (United States)

    Bracken, L. J.; Forrester, J.; Oughton, E. A.; Cinderby, S.; Donaldson, A.; Anness, L.; Passmore, D.


    The aim of this paper is to outline and present initial results from a study designed to identify principles of and practices for adaptive co-management strategies for resilience to flooding in borderlands using participatory methods. Borderlands are the complex and sometimes undefined spaces existing at the interface of different territories and draws attention towards messy connections and disconnections (Strathern 2004; Sassen 2006). For this project the borderlands concerned are those between professional and lay knowledge, between responsible agencies, and between one nation and another. Research was focused on the River Tweed catchment, located on the Scottish-English border. This catchment is subject to complex environmental designations and rural development regimes that make integrated management of the whole catchment difficult. A multi-method approach was developed using semi-structured interviews, Q methodology and participatory GIS in order to capture wide ranging practices for managing flooding, the judgements behind these practices and to 'scale up' participation in the study. Professionals and local experts were involved in the research. The methodology generated a useful set of options for flood management, with research outputs easily understood by key management organisations and the wider public alike. There was a wide endorsement of alternative flood management solutions from both managers and local experts. The role of location was particularly important for ensuring communication and data sharing between flood managers from different organisations and more wide ranging stakeholders. There were complex issues around scale; both the mismatch between communities and evidence of flooding and the mismatch between governance and scale of intervention for natural flood management. The multi-method approach was essential in capturing practice and the complexities around governance of flooding. The involvement of key flood management organisations was

  20. Understanding human resource management practices in Botswana's public health sector. (United States)

    Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna Stannie; Gauld, Robin; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the management of the public sector health workforce in Botswana. Using institutional frameworks it aims to document and analyse human resource management (HRM) practices, and make recommendations to improve employee and health system outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws from a large study that used a mixed methods approach to assess performance of Botswana's Ministry of Health (MOH). It uses data collected through document analysis and in-depth interviews of 54 key informants comprising policy makers, senior staff of the MOH and its stakeholder organizations. Findings Public health sector HRM in Botswana has experienced inadequate planning, poor deployment and underutilization of staff. Lack of comprehensive retention strategies and poor working conditions contributed to the failure to attract and retain skilled personnel. Relationships with both formal and informal environments affected HRM performance. Research limitations/implications While document review was a major source of data for this paper, the weaknesses in the human resource information system limited availability of data. Practical implications This paper presents an argument for the need for consideration of formal and informal environments in developing effective HRM strategies. Originality/value This research provides a rare system-wide approach to health HRM in a Sub-Saharan African country. It contributes to the literature and evidence needed to guide HRM policy decisions and practices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Batista da Silva


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the interaction between scientific research and professional accounting practice. In this exploratory study, as it examines a theme that has been little explored in Brazil, a quantitative approach was adopted and a survey was used as the data collection technique, supported by a research instrument with questions on aspects like: interest in and use of research; study and development of themes; means to disseminate the research; and causes of the gap between research and practice. Considering the objectives, it is classified as descriptive, since it was described how this interaction occurs. Data were analyze through factor analysis in R, resuming them in factors for further analysis, validated through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO test and Bartlett’s sphericity yet. In conclusion, due to their different characteristics, it is natural that some distancing exists between research and accounting practice. This can be minimized though, among other factors, through professionals’ great interest in knowing and applying the research results in practice, and also by confirming that the most researched themes in accountancy are the themes of greatest interest in accounting professionals’ opinion. These results suggest that greater attention is due to the interaction and communication between the academy and accounting professionals, with a view to greater efficacy.

  2. Compatibility of scientific research and specialty training in general practice. A cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Carmienke, Solveig; Herrmann, Wolfram J


    In many departments of General Practice (GP) in Germany, young doctors who are trainees also work as researchers. Often these trainees work part time at the university and part time as a trainee in clinical practice. However, little is known about the situation of the actors involved. The aim of the study was to investigate the perspectives of GP trainees, heads of departments and GP trainers regarding the combination of research and GP training. We conducted a web-based survey with the heads of all German departments of General Practice, GP trainees who also conduct research and their GP trainers. The questionnaires consisted of open and closed questions. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative methods. 28 heads of GP departments and 20 GP trainees responded. The trainees were mostly very satisfied with their situation as a trainee. However, the trainees considered the combination of research and GP training as difficult. The respondents name as problems the coordination of multiple jobs and the lack of credibility given to research in General Practice. They name as solutions research-enabling training programs and uniform requirements in training regarding research. The combination of GP training and scientific research activity is perceived as difficult. However, well-organized and designed programs can improve the quality of the combination.

  3. A process approach to children's understanding of scientific concepts : A longitudinal case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Steffie; Steenbeek, Henderien; van Dijk, Marijn; van Geert, Paul

    In order to optimally study changes in the complexity of understanding, microgenetic measures are needed, and a coupling of these to longer-term measures. We focus on the interaction dynamics between a 4-year old boy and a researcher while they work on tasks about air pressure in three subsequent

  4. Understanding the Nature of Science and Scientific Progress: A Theory-Building Approach (United States)

    Chuy, Maria; Scardamalia, Marlene; Bereiter, Carl; Prinsen, Fleur; Resendes, Monica; Messina, Richard; Hunsburger, Winifred; Teplovs, Chris; Chow, Angela


    In 1993 Carey and Smith conjectured that the most promising way to boost students' understanding of the nature of science is a "theory-building approach to teaching about inquiry." The research reported here tested this conjecture by comparing results from two Grade 4 classrooms that differed in their emphasis on and technological…

  5. Improving Marking Reliability of Scientific Writing with the Developing Understanding of Assessment for Learning Programme (United States)

    Bird, Fiona L.; Yucel, Robyn


    The Developing Understanding of Assessment for Learning (DUAL) programme was developed with the dual aims of improving both the quality and consistency of feedback students receive and the students' ability to use that feedback to improve. DUAL comprises a range of processes (including marking rubrics, sample reports, moderation discussions and…

  6. Understanding practice patterns of glaucoma sub-specialists in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S. Choudhari


    Full Text Available AIM: To obtain information on the prevailing practice patterns of glaucoma specialists in India. METHODS: Glaucoma specialists attending the Annual Conference of the Glaucoma Society of India (GSI were surveyed. This survey, conducted in 2013, was based on an interactive audience response system. RESULTS: The information was obtained from 146 glaucoma specialists. Approximately half (n=83; 57% had ≥10y of experience in managing glaucoma and were in institutional practice (n=74, 51%. Goldmann applanation tonometry was preferred by 103 (72% specialists whilst n=25 (17.4% used non-contact tonometer. Indentation gonioscopy was favoured by two-thirds (n=90, 66% whereas stereoscopic optic disc examination and visual fields using Humphrey perimeter was performed by a majority of the specialists surveyed (n=115, 86% and n=114; 83% respectively. Nearly three quarter specialists (n=96; 72% preferred optical coherence tomography for imaging. The primary choice for treatment of angle closure disease and primary open angle glaucoma was laser (iridotomy, n=117; 93% and medical management (prostaglandin analogue, n=104; 78%, respectively. Approximately only a third of the specialists surveyed (n=37; 28% were performing both trabeculectomy and implantation of a glaucoma drainage device and about half (n=64; 47% were not operating on congenital glaucoma at all. CONCLUSION: This survey has found conformance with preferred practice patterns in several areas of diagnosis and management of glaucoma, but there was diversity in a few areas. The information is a significant step towards improvement of glaucoma care in India, including planning for future strategies.

  7. The measurement of the effect on citation inequality of differences in citation practices across scientific fields. (United States)

    Crespo, Juan A; Li, Yunrong; Li, Yungrong; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier


    This paper has two aims: (i) to introduce a novel method for measuring which part of overall citation inequality can be attributed to differences in citation practices across scientific fields, and (ii) to implement an empirical strategy for making meaningful comparisons between the number of citations received by articles in 22 broad fields. The number of citations received by any article is seen as a function of the article's scientific influence, and the field to which it belongs. A key assumption is that articles in the same quantile of any field citation distribution have the same degree of citation impact in their respective field. Using a dataset of 4.4 million articles published in 1998-2003 with a five-year citation window, we estimate that differences in citation practices between the 22 fields account for 14% of overall citation inequality. Our empirical strategy is based on the strong similarities found in the behavior of citation distributions. We obtain three main results. Firstly, we estimate a set of average-based indicators, called exchange rates, to express the citations received by any article in a large interval in terms of the citations received in a reference situation. Secondly, using our exchange rates as normalization factors of the raw citation data reduces the effect of differences in citation practices to, approximately, 2% of overall citation inequality in the normalized citation distributions. Thirdly, we provide an empirical explanation of why the usual normalization procedure based on the fields' mean citation rates is found to be equally successful.

  8. Understanding Science Teaching Effectiveness: Examining How Science-Specific and Generic Instructional Practices Relate to Student Achievement in Secondary Science Classrooms (United States)

    Mikeska, Jamie N.; Shattuck, Tamara; Holtzman, Steven; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Duchesneau, Nancy; Qi, Yi; Stickler, Leslie


    In order to create conditions for students' meaningful and rigorous intellectual engagement in science classrooms, it is critically important to help science teachers learn which strategies and approaches can be used best to develop students' scientific literacy. Better understanding how science teachers' instructional practices relate to student…

  9. Computer-aided software understanding systems to enhance confidence of scientific codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.; Oeren, T.I.


    A unique characteristic of nuclear waste disposal is the very long time span over which the combined engineered and natural containment system must remain effective: hundreds of thousands of years. Since there is no precedent in human history for such an endeavour, simulation with the use of computers is the only means we have of forecasting possible future outcomes quantitatively. The need for reliable models and software to make such forecasts so far into the future is obvious. One of the critical elements necessary to ensure reliability is the degree of reviewability of the computer program. Among others, there are two very important reasons for this. Firstly, if there is to be any chance at all of validating the conceptual models as implemented by the computer code, peer reviewers must be able to see and understand what the program is doing. It is all but impossible to achieve this understanding by just looking at the code due to possible unfamiliarity with the language and often due as well to the length and complexity of the code. Secondly, a thorough understanding of the code is also necessary to carry out code maintenance activities which include among others, error detection, error correction and code modification for purposes of enhancing its performance, functionality or to adapt it to a changed environment. The emerging concepts of computer-aided software understanding and reverse engineering can answer precisely these needs. This paper will discuss the role they can play in enhancing the confidence one has on computer codes and several examples will be provided. Finally a brief discussion of combining state-of-art forward engineering systems with reverse engineering systems will show how powerfully they can contribute to the overall quality assurance of a computer program. (13 refs., 7 figs.)

  10. Reflective Writing for a Better Understanding of Scientific Concepts in High School (United States)

    El-Helou, Joseph; Kalman, Calvin S.


    Science teachers can always benefit from efficient tools that help students to engage with the subject and understand it better without significantly adding to the teacher's workload nor requiring too much of class time to manage. Reflective writing is such a low-impact, high-return tool. What follows is an introduction to reflective writing, and more on its usefulness for teachers is given in the last part of this article.

  11. Understanding Age, Memories, and How They Impact Aesthetic Practice. (United States)

    Laban, Lovely C

    According to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (), the number of nonsurgical treatments grew 650% from 1996 to 2016. As these procedures have evolved and improved, so have their ability to deliver results that enhance one's natural beauty and reverse the signs of aging. Many patients seek these procedures in the hopes of looking younger and more refreshed, but "younger" can be subjective and the patient's desired outcome may be difficult for practitioners to interpret. A recent study () of 350 women found that patients are carrying around a "memory photo" of themselves that is about 10 years younger than their actual age. Findings from this survey yielded new insights into patient perceptions of age and provides practitioners with a powerful new tool that can be applied in daily clinical practice.

  12. [Towards understanding human ecology in nursing practice: a concept analysis]. (United States)

    Huynh, Truc; Alderson, Marie


    Human ecology is an umbrella concept encompassing several social, physical, and cultural elements existing in the individual's external environment. The pragmatic utility method was used to analyze the "human ecology" concept in order to ascertain the conceptual fit with nursing epistemology and to promote its use by nurses in clinical practice. Relevant articles for the review were retrieved from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and CSA databases using the terms "human ecology," "environment," "nursing," and "ecology." Data analysis revealed that human ecology is perceived as a theoretical perspective designating a complex, multilayered, and multidimensional system, one that comprises individuals and their reciprocal interactions with their global environments and the subsequent impact of these interactions upon their health. Human ecology preconditions include the individuals, their environments, and their transactions. Attributes of this concept encompass the characteristics of an open system (e.g., interdependence, reciprocal).

  13. Understanding the security management practices of humanitarian organizations. (United States)

    Bollettino, Vincenzo


    Humanitarian organisations operate in increasingly hostile environments. Although authoritative statistics are scarce, anecdotal evidence suggests that aid workers face life-threatening risks that are exacerbated by the growing number of humanitarian organisations operating in the field, the diversity of their mandates, the lack of common professional security standards, and limited success in inter-agency security coordination. Despite broad acceptance of the need for better security management and coordination, many humanitarian organisations remain ambivalent about devoting increased resources to security management and security coordination. A critical lack of basic empirical knowledge of the field security environment hampers efforts to enhance security management practices. The absence of a systematic means of sharing incident data undermines the capacity of the humanitarian community to address proactively security threats. In discussions about humanitarian staff safety and security, the least common denominator remains cumulative anecdotal evidence provided by the many security personnel working for humanitarian organisations in the feld.

  14. A conceptual framework for understanding the perspectives on the causes of the science-practice gap in ecology and conservation. (United States)

    Bertuol-Garcia, Diana; Morsello, Carla; N El-Hani, Charbel; Pardini, Renata


    Applying scientific knowledge to confront societal challenges is a difficult task, an issue known as the science-practice gap. In Ecology and Conservation, scientific evidence has been seldom used directly to support decision-making, despite calls for an increasing role of ecological science in developing solutions for a sustainable future. To date, multiple causes of the science-practice gap and diverse approaches to link science and practice in Ecology and Conservation have been proposed. To foster a transparent debate and broaden our understanding of the difficulties of using scientific knowledge, we reviewed the perceived causes of the science-practice gap, aiming to: (i) identify the perspectives of ecologists and conservation scientists on this problem, (ii) evaluate the predominance of these perspectives over time and across journals, and (iii) assess them in light of disciplines studying the role of science in decision-making. We based our review on 1563 sentences describing causes of the science-practice gap extracted from 122 articles and on discussions with eight scientists on how to classify these sentences. The resulting process-based framework describes three distinct perspectives on the relevant processes, knowledge and actors in the science-practice interface. The most common perspective assumes only scientific knowledge should support practice, perceiving a one-way knowledge flow from science to practice and recognizing flaws in knowledge generation, communication, and/or use. The second assumes that both scientists and decision-makers should contribute to support practice, perceiving a two-way knowledge flow between science and practice through joint knowledge-production/integration processes, which, for several reasons, are perceived to occur infrequently. The last perspective was very rare, and assumes scientists should put their results into practice, but they rarely do. Some causes (e.g. cultural differences between scientists and decision

  15. Recent scientific advances in leiomyoma (uterine fibroids) research facilitates better understanding and management. (United States)

    Taylor, Darlene K; Holthouser, Kristine; Segars, James H; Leppert, Phyllis C


    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most prevalent medical problem of the female reproductive tract, but there are few non-surgical treatment options. Although many advances in the understanding of the molecular components of these tumors have occurred over the past five years, an effective pharmaceutical approach remains elusive. Further, there is currently no clinical method to distinguish a benign uterine leiomyoma from a malignant leiomyosarcoma prior to treatment, a pressing need given concerns about the use of the power morcellator for minimally invasive surgery. This paper reviews current studies regarding the molecular biology of uterine fibroids, discusses non-surgical approaches and suggests new cutting-edge therapeutic and diagnostic approaches.

  16. Does attainment of Piaget's formal operational level of cognitive development predict student understanding of scientific models? (United States)

    Lahti, Richard Dennis, II

    Knowledge of scientific models and their uses is a concept that has become a key benchmark in many of the science standards of the past 30 years, including the proposed Next Generation Science Standards. Knowledge of models is linked to other important nature of science concepts such as theory change which are also rising in prominence in newer standards. Effective methods of instruction will need to be developed to enable students to achieve these standards. The literature reveals an inconsistent history of success with modeling education. These same studies point to a possible cognitive development component which might explain why some students succeeded and others failed. An environmental science course, rich in modeling experiences, was used to test both the extent to which knowledge of models and modeling could be improved over the course of one semester, and more importantly, to identify if cognitive ability was related to this improvement. In addition, nature of science knowledge, particularly related to theories and theory change, was also examined. Pretest and posttest results on modeling (SUMS) and nature of science (SUSSI), as well as data from the modeling activities themselves, was collected. Cognitive ability was measured (CTSR) as a covariate. Students' gain in six of seven categories of modeling knowledge was at least medium (Cohen's d >.5) and moderately correlated to CTSR for two of seven categories. Nature of science gains were smaller, although more strongly correlated with CTSR. Student success at creating a model was related to CTSR, significantly in three of five sub-categories. These results suggest that explicit, reflective experience with models can increase student knowledge of models and modeling (although higher cognitive ability students may have more success), but successfully creating models may depend more heavily on cognitive ability. This finding in particular has implications in the grade placement of modeling standards and

  17. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education (United States)

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki


    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  18. [Scientific and practical activity of the Department of Muscle Biochemistry of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine]. (United States)

    Vynogradova, R P; Danilova, V M; Yurasova, S P


    The article focuses on scientific and practical activity of the Department of Muscle Biochemistry of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine in the context of its foundation and development. Main findings and practical achievements in the area of muscle biochemistry are summarized and discussed.

  19. Scientific approach as an understanding and applications of hydrological concepts of tropical rainforest (United States)

    Haryanto, Z.; Setyasih, I.


    East Kalimantan has a variety of biomes, one of which is tropical rain forests. Tropical rain forests have enormous hydrological potential, so it is necessary to provide understanding to prospective teachers. Hydrology material cannot be separated from the concept of science, for it is needed the right way of learning so students easily understand the material. This research uses descriptive method with research subject is geography education students taking hydrology course at Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Mulawarman University. The results showed that the students were able to observe, ask question, collect data, give reason, and communicate the hydrological conditions of tropical rain forest biomes, especially related to surface ground water and groundwater conditions. Tropical rainforests are very influenced by the hydrological conditions of the region and the availability of water is affected by the forest area as a catchment area. Therefore, the tropical rainforest must be maintained in condition and its duration, so that there is no water crisis and hydrological related disasters.

  20. Fluid dynamics practices as a scientific divulgation tool in high school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Tavares da Silva


    Full Text Available This extension project was designed to bring together students from high schools in Nova Friburgo-RJ region with the Instituto Politécnico IPRJ / UERJ, providing an experience within the university with scientific incentive practices to the area of sciences and earth. Introducing the universe and diversity in the mathematics and science area with a short course aimed to studies of particles analysis, viscosity and permeability, this initiative encompasses more than knowledge of these activities, but also restore the link between school and university, inserting the high school students in the university environment and scientific activities. The importance of providing a "north" for teens, due to the great difficulty of choosing their profession, makes this Extension Project a potential tool that will certainly contribute to the professional future of these young citizens. Therefore, the students had a laboratory experience and also it was possible to motivate them to go further in the superior education through the awareness that university is accessible to all of people.

  1. Social responsibility of business and government as the basic scientific and practical position of regional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efim Mikhaylovich Kozakov


    Full Text Available This paper describes social responsibility in regional studies as a base of scientific and practical position has an interdisciplinary character and is a key in economic theory topic, referred to as «behavioral economics». The strategic aspect of social behavior should eventually become a daily norm at all levels of administration and corporate governance in all spheres of human activity. Tactical objective of regional and municipal authorities is development and implementation of research-based socially responsible policy. The level of social responsibility cannot be measured using a single universal (integral indicator. The idea that «The economics has as much science inside, as much as it has mathematics», as formulated in the XIX century, in the beginning of the XXI century should be rephrased the following way: «The economics has as much science inside, as much as it has humanity».

  2. Supporting students' scientific explanations: A case study investigating the synergy focusing on a teacher's practices when providing instruction and using mobile devices (United States)

    Delen, Ibrahim

    Engage students in constructing scientific practices is a critical component of science instruction. Therefore a number of researchers have developed software programs to help students and teachers in this hard task. The Zydeco group, designed a mobile application called Zydeco, which enables students to collect data inside and outside the classroom, and then use the data to create scientific explanations by using claim-evidence-reasoning framework. Previous technologies designed to support scientific explanations focused on how these programs improve students' scientific explanations, but these programs ignored how scientific explanation technologies can support teacher practices. Thus, to increase our knowledge how different scaffolds can work together, this study aimed to portray the synergy between a teacher's instructional practices (part 1) and using supports within a mobile devices (part 2) to support students in constructing explanations. Synergy can be thought of as generic and content-specific scaffolds working together to enable students to accomplish challenging tasks, such as creating explanations that they would not normally be able to do without the scaffolds working together. Providing instruction (part 1) focused on understanding how the teacher scaffolds students' initial understanding of the claim-evidence-reasoning (CER) framework. The second component of examining synergy (part 2: using mobile devices) investigated how this teacher used mobile devices to provide feedback when students created explanations. The synergy between providing instruction and using mobile devices was investigated by analyzing a middle school teacher's practices in two different units (plants and water quality). Next, this study focused on describing how the level of synergy influenced the quality of students' scientific explanations. Finally, I investigated the role of focused teaching intervention sessions to inform teacher in relation to students' performance. In

  3. Nurses experience of using scientific knowledge in clinical practice: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Renolen, Åste; Hjälmhult, Esther


    Guidelines recommend the use of evidence-based practice in nursing. Nurses are expected to give patients care and treatment based on the best knowledge available. They may have knowledge and positive attitudes, but this does not mean that they are basing their work on evidence-based practice. Knowledge is still lacking about what is needed to successfully implement evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about what nurses perceive as the most important challenge in implementing evidence-based practice and to explain how they act to face and overcome this challenge. We used classical grounded theory methodology and collected data through four focus groups and one individual interview in different geographical locations in one large hospital trust in Norway. Fourteen registered clinical practice nurses participated. We analysed the data in accordance with grounded theory, using the constant comparative method. Contextual balancing of knowledge emerged as the core category and explains how the nurses dealt with their main concern, how to determine what types of knowledge they could trust. The nurses' main strategies were an inquiring approach, examining knowledge and maintaining control while taking care of patients. They combined their own experienced-based knowledge and the guidelines of evidence-based practice with a sense of control in the actual situation. The grounded theory contextual balancing of knowledge may help us to understand how nurses detect what types of knowledge they can trust in clinical practice. The nurses needed to rely on what they did, and they seemed to rely on their own experience rather than on research. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.

  5. The Merapi Interactive Project: Offering a Fancy Cross-Disciplinary Scientific Understanding of Merapi Volcano to a Wide Audience. (United States)

    Morin, J.; Kerlow, I.


    The Merapi volcano is of great interest to a wide audience as it is one of the most dangerous volcanoes worldwide and a beautiful touristic spot. The scientific literature available on that volcano both in Earth and Social sciences is rich but mostly inaccessible to the public because of the scientific jargon and the restricted database access. Merapi Interactive aims at developing clear information and attractive content about Merapi for a wide audience. The project is being produced by the Art and Media Group at the Earth Observatory of Singapore, and it takes the shape of an e-book. It offers a consistent, comprehensive, and jargon-filtered synthesis of the main volcanic-risk related topics about Merapi: volcanic mechanisms, eruptive history, associated hazards and risks, the way inhabitants and scientists deal with it, and what daily life at Merapi looks like. The project provides a background to better understand volcanoes, and it points out some interactions between scientists and society. We propose two levels of interpretation: one that is understandable by 10-year old kids and above and an expert level with deeper presentations of specific topics. Thus, the Merapi Interactive project intends to provide an engaging and comprehensive interactive book that should interest kids, adults, as well as Earth Sciences undergraduates and academics. Merapi Interactive is scheduled for delivery in mid-2016.

  6. The Effect of Cooperative Learning with DSLM on Conceptual Understanding and Scientific Reasoning among Form Four Physics Students with Different Motivation Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Hamzah


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cooperative Learning with a Dual Situated Learning Model (CLDSLM and a Dual Situated Learning Model (DSLM on (a conceptual understanding (CU and (b scientific reasoning (SR among Form Four students. The study further investigated the effect of the CLDSLM and DSLM methods on performance in conceptual understanding and scientific reasoning among students with different motivation levels. A quasi-experimental method with the 3 x 2 Factorial Design was applied in the study. The sample consisted of 240 stu¬dents in six (form four classes selected from three different schools, i.e. two classes from each school, with students randomly selected and assigned to the treatment groups. The results showed that students in the CLDSLM group outperformed their counterparts in the DSLM group—who, in turn, significantly outperformed other students in the traditional instructional method (T group in scientific reasoning and conceptual understanding. Also, high-motivation (HM students in the CLDSLM group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the T groups in conceptual understanding and scientific reasoning. Furthermore, HM students in the CLDSLM group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the DSLM group in scientific reasoning but did not significantly outperform their counterparts on conceptual understanding. Also, the DSLM instructional method has significant positive effects on highly motivated students’ (a conceptual understanding and (b scientific reason¬ing. The results also showed that LM students in the CLDSLM group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the DSLM group and (T method group in scientific reasoning and conceptual understanding. However, the low-motivation students taught via the DSLM instructional method significantly performed higher than the low-motivation students taught via the T method in scientific reasoning. Nevertheless, they did not

  7. Review of the Scientific Understanding of Radioactive Waste at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site. (United States)

    Peterson, Reid A; Buck, Edgar C; Chun, Jaehun; Daniel, Richard C; Herting, Daniel L; Ilton, Eugene S; Lumetta, Gregg J; Clark, Sue B


    This Critical Review reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micro scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions. Further, remnant or changing radiation fields may affect the stability and rheology of the waste. These conditions pose challenges for transport through conduits or pipes to treatment plants for vitrification. Additionally, recalcitrant boehmite degrades glass quality and the high aluminum content must be reduced prior to vitrification for the manufacture of waste glass of acceptable durability. However, caustic leaching indicates that boehmite dissolves much more slowly than predicted given surface normalized rates. Existing empirical models based on ex situ experiments and observations generally only describe material balances and have not effectively predicted process performance. Recent advances in the areas of in situ microscopy, aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, theoretical modeling across scales, and experimental methods for probing the physics and chemistry at mineral-fluid and mineral-mineral interfaces are being implemented to build robustly predictive physics-based models.

  8. Review of the Scientific Understanding of Radioactive Waste at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Chun, Jaehun; Daniel, Richard C.; Herting, Daniel L. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Ilton, Eugene S.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Clark, Sue B. [Chemistry


    This paper reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micron scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions. Further, remnant or changing radiation fields may affect the stability and rheology of the waste. These conditions pose challenges for transport through conduits or pipes to treatment plants for vitrification. Additionally, recalcitrant boehmite degrades glass quality and must be reduced prior to vitrification, but dissolves much more slowly than predicted given surface normalized rates. Existing empirical models based on ex situ experiments and observations lack true predictive capabilities. Recent advances in in situ microscopy, aberration corrected TEM, theoretical modeling across scales, and experimental methods for probing the physics and chemistry at mineral-fluid and mineral-mineral interfaces are being implemented to build robustly predictive physics-based models.

  9. Students' understandings of nature of science and their arguments in the context of four socio-scientific issues (United States)

    Khishfe, Rola; Alshaya, Fahad S.; BouJaoude, Saouma; Mansour, Nasser; Alrudiyan, Khalid I.


    The purpose of this study was to examine students understandings about nature of science (NOS) and their arguments in context of controversial socio-scientific issue (SSI). A total of 74 11th graders in six schools in Saudi Arabia participated in the study. The instrument used was a questionnaire consisting of four scenarios addressing SSI about global warming, genetically modified food, acid rain, and human cloning. The scenarios were followed by questions relating to argumentation and NOS. Quantitative and qualitative measures were employed to analyze the data related to participants understandings of three NOS aspects (subjective, tentative, and empirical) and their arguments components (argument, counterargument, and rebuttal). Results showed no significant correlations between argument components and the NOS aspects. On the other hand, qualitative data showed that participants who generated well-developed arguments across the four SSI also exhibited more informed understandings of the NOS aspects, especially for female participants. Further, the chi-square analyses did not show significant differences in participants arguments and NOS understandings across the four scenarios. Again, the qualitative data from questionnaires showed differences in participants responses to the different scenarios. The results were interpreted along contextual factors, emotional factors, and cultural factors. Implications for the teaching of NOS and arguments were discussed.

  10. Parenting Styles and Practices in Children's Obesogenic Behaviors: Scientific Gaps and Future Research Directions (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April


    Abstract Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute. PMID:23944926

  11. Scientists in the making: An ethnographic investigation of scientific processes as literate practice in an elementary classroom (United States)

    Crawford, Teresa Jo

    This study explored the issue of literacy in science by examining how the social and academic literate practices in an elementary classroom formed the basis for learning across the curriculum, with a specific focus on the disciplinary field of science. Through the study of classroom interaction, issues related to student knowledge and ability were addressed as they pertain to scientific literacy in the context of science education reform. The theoretical framework guiding this study was drawn from sociocultural studies of scientific communities and interactional ethnography in education. To investigate the literate practices of science in a school setting, data were collected over a two-year period with the same teacher in her third grade and then her fourth/fifth grade classroom. Data were collected through participant observation in the form of fieldnotes, video data, interviews, and various artifacts (e.g., writings, drawings, teaching protocols). Using ethnographic and sociolinguistic methods of analysis this work examined classroom members' discursive practices to illustrate the role that discourse plays in creating opportunities for engagement in, and access to, scientific knowledge. These analyses revealed that the discursive actions and practices among members of this classroom shaped a particular type of learning environment that was process-oriented and inquiry based. It was shown that this learning environment afforded opportunities for students to engage in the processes of science outside the official, planned curriculum, often leading to whole class scientific investigations and discussions. Additionally, within this classroom community students were able to draw on multiple discourses to display their knowledge of scientific concepts and practices. Overall, this study found that the literate practices of this classroom community, as they were socially constructed among members, contributed to opportunities for students to practice science and

  12. Executive Summary of the NHLBI Workshop Report: Leveraging Current Scientific Advancements to Understand Sarcoidosis Variability and Improve Outcomes. (United States)

    Maier, Lisa A; Crouser, Elliott D; Martin, William J; Eu, Jerry


    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease that primarily affects the lung; it is associated with significant disparities, more commonly impacting those in the prime of their lives (age 20-50 yr, with a second peak after age 60 yr), black individuals, and women. However, the burden of disease, the ability to diagnose and prognose organ involvement and course, as well as specific treatment options, management options, and disease pathogenesis remain poorly understood. As a result, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute undertook a sarcoidosis workshop, "Leveraging Current Scientific Advancements to Understand Sarcoidosis Variability and Improve Outcomes," to help address these issues by defining the scientific and clinical priorities to improve sarcoidosis care. The overarching recommendations from this workshop are outlined in the following summary and detailed in the accompanying articles. The recommendations included establishing collaborations and networks to conduct research based on consensus definitions of disease phenotypes and standards of care, and to provide clinical outreach to areas with a burden of disease to improve care. These collaborative networks would also serve as the hub to conduct clinical trials of devastating phenotypes (e.g., cardiac, neurologic, and fibrotic disease) not only for treatment but to enhance our understanding of the burden of disease. In addition, the networks would be used to leverage state-of-the-art "omics" and systems biology research, as well as other studies to advance understanding of disease pathogenesis, and development of biomarkers and therapeutic targets, with a goal to translate this information to improve care of individuals with sarcoidosis.

  13. The role of medical education in the development of the scientific practice of medicine. (United States)

    Cardinal, Lucien; Kaell, Alan


    The authors describe the important role of medical schools and graduate medical education programs (residencies) in relationship to the advances in Medicine witnessed during the twentieth century; diagnosis, prognosis and treatment were revolutionized. This historical essay details the evolution of the education system and the successful struggle to introduce a uniform, science-based curriculum and bedside education. The result was successive generations of soundly educated physicians prepared with a broad knowledge in science, an understanding of laboratory methods and the ability to practice medicine at the bedside. These changes in medical education created a foundation for the advancement of medicine.

  14. Toward best practice framing of uncertainty in scientific publications: A review of Water Resources Research abstracts (United States)

    Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Helgeson, Casey; Elsawah, Sondoss; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Kummu, Matti


    Uncertainty is recognized as a key issue in water resources research, among other sciences. Discussions of uncertainty typically focus on tools and techniques applied within an analysis, e.g., uncertainty quantification and model validation. But uncertainty is also addressed outside the analysis, in writing scientific publications. The language that authors use conveys their perspective of the role of uncertainty when interpreting a claim—what we call here "framing" the uncertainty. This article promotes awareness of uncertainty framing in four ways. (1) It proposes a typology of eighteen uncertainty frames, addressing five questions about uncertainty. (2) It describes the context in which uncertainty framing occurs. This is an interdisciplinary topic, involving philosophy of science, science studies, linguistics, rhetoric, and argumentation. (3) We analyze the use of uncertainty frames in a sample of 177 abstracts from the Water Resources Research journal in 2015. This helped develop and tentatively verify the typology, and provides a snapshot of current practice. (4) We make provocative recommendations to achieve a more influential, dynamic science. Current practice in uncertainty framing might be described as carefully considered incremental science. In addition to uncertainty quantification and degree of belief (present in ˜5% of abstracts), uncertainty is addressed by a combination of limiting scope, deferring to further work (˜25%) and indicating evidence is sufficient (˜40%)—or uncertainty is completely ignored (˜8%). There is a need for public debate within our discipline to decide in what context different uncertainty frames are appropriate. Uncertainty framing cannot remain a hidden practice evaluated only by lone reviewers.

  15. Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA): A Method for Evaluating Changes in Understanding and Visualization of the Scientific Process in a Multidisciplinary Student Population (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Rigakos, Bessie


    The scientific process is nonlinear, unpredictable, and ongoing. Assessing the nature of science is difficult with methods that rely on Likert-scale or multiple-choice questions. This study evaluated conceptions about the scientific process using student-created visual representations that we term "flowcharts." The methodology,…

  16. Practice Alignment and intent as distinctions for understanding cross-boundary knowledge creation practices in knowledge ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Mathias

    This paper explores how practice alignment and intent across organizational boundaries may serve as an explanation for collaborative knowledge creation in a knowledge ecosystem. The paper is based on a longitudinal case study of a large multinational knowledge ecosystem consisting of many...... communities of practices and organisations. By applying a practice theory approach to five data sets collected over a five-year period, the study investigates how two distinctions may serve as a potential gateway into understanding knowledge creation across boundaries. The two distinctions – practice...... are identified and discussed. Potential implications for organisational and knowledge ecosystem conceptions are identified and discussed for further research....

  17. Best Practices for Making Scientific Data Discoverable and Accessible through Integrated, Standards-Based Data Portals (United States)

    Lucido, J. M.


    Organization (ISO) metadata records to enhance data discovery for both human and machine interpretation. Lastly, the Water Quality Portal ( achieves interoperable dissemination of water quality data by referencing a vocabulary service for mapping constituents and methods between the USGS and USEPA. The NGWMN Data Portal, Geo Data Portal and Water Quality Portal are three examples of best practices when implementing data portals that provide distributed scientific data in an integrated, standards-based approach.

  18. Patterns of participation - a framework for understanding the role of the teacher for classroom practic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorte Moeskær; Østergaard, Camilla Hellsten; Skott, Jeppe


    Research on teachers’ knowledge and beliefs has grown big in recent years. The larger parts of these fields are built on acquisitionist interpretations of human functioning. We explore the potentials of a participationist framework for understanding the role of the teacher for emerging classroom ...... practices. The framework is built on social practice theory and symbolic interactionism and adopts a processual approach to understanding the role of the teacher. We use the framework in a qualitative study of two teachers with different prior experiences...

  19. Nuclear energy: technology, safety, ecology, economy, management. The I All-Russian scientific-practical conference of young nuclear scientists of Siberia. Collection of scientific papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Collection of research papers I All-Russian scientific-practical conference of young nuclear scientists in Siberia, held 19-25 September 2010 in Tomsk, is presented. The edition contains material on a wide range of research scientists-economists, professors, graduate students and young scientists, and school children of Tomsk, Seversk, and several other Russian cities on the technology, security, ecology, economics, management in the nuclear power industry. Discussion of the presented research was conducted on sections: 1. Technological support for the nuclear fuel cycle, 2. Nuclear non-proliferation and environmental safety of the nuclear fuel cycle, 3. Energy: Present and Future 4. It all starts with an idea [ru

  20. Patterns of participation: a framework for understanding the role of the teacher for emerging classroom practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorthe M.; Østergaard, Camilla H.; Skott, Jeppe

    practices. The framework is built on social practice theory and symbolic interactionism and adopts a processual approach to understanding the role of the teacher. We use the framework in a qualitative study of two teachers with different prior experiences. The study suggests that the framework has some...

  1. Understanding Healthcare Workers Self-Reported Practices, Knowledge and Attitude about Hand Hygiene in a Medical Setting in Rural India. (United States)

    Diwan, Vishal; Gustafsson, Charlotte; Rosales Klintz, Senia; Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Rita; Sharma, Megha; Shah, Harshada; Pathak, Ashish; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia


    To describe self-reported practices and assess knowledge and attitudes regarding hand hygiene among healthcare workers in a rural Indian teaching hospital. A rural teaching hospital and its associated medical and nursing colleges in the district of Ujjain, India. The study population consisted of physicians, nurses, teaching staff, clinical instructors and nursing students. Self-administered questionnaires based on the World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare were used. Out of 489 healthcare workers, 259 participated in the study (response rate = 53%). The proportion of healthcare workers that reported to 'always' practice hand hygiene in the selected situations varied from 40-96% amongst categories. Reported barriers to maintaining good hand hygiene were mainly related to high workload, scarcity of resources, lack of scientific information and the perception that priority is not given to hand hygiene, either on an individual or institutional level. Previous training on the topic had a statistically significant association with self-reported practice (p = 0.001). Ninety three per cent of the respondents were willing to attend training on hand hygiene in the near future. Self-reported knowledge and adherence varied between situations, but hand hygiene practices have the potential to improve if the identified constraints could be reduced. Future training should focus on enhancing healthcare workers' knowledge and understanding regarding the importance of persistent practice in all situations.

  2. Theoretical and practical fundamentals of scientific and educational projects: a case of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Bilovodska


    Full Text Available Development of educational and scientific spheres in general and project activity of universities in particular, acquire foreground importance in the modern world. In the article approaches to rendering a term “project” and its basic characteristics are analyzed. Scientific and educational projects are a special type: although they represent a subsidiary activity, they are vital to the image, rankings, prosperity and at some point to competitiveness. The major funding opportunities for scientific and educational projects are generalized. The authors have analyzed the official figures of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine which show the levels of cost funding of scientific and educational projects and describe its main sources in 2010-2015. A study of impact factors on the funding levels of Ukrainian scientific and educational projects by foreign sources was conducted using the method of correlation analysis. According to the results of the conducted analysis, it was determined that activity of international mobility of Ukrainian scientists doesn’t influence the levels of international funding. It was also established that there is a strong inverse relationship between such factors as a share of expenditures on scientific and scientific-technical activities in GDP, a number of organizations involved in scientific and scientific-technical activities and a number of grants for scientific research received from international funds.

  3. Understanding School Climate, Aggression, Peer Victimization, and Bully Perpetration: Contemporary Science, Practice, and Policy (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Low, Sabina K.; Jimerson, Shane R.


    Existing scholarship suggests that classroom practices, teacher attitudes, and the broader school environment play a critical role in understanding the rates of student reports of aggression, bullying, and victimization as well as correlated behaviors. A more accurate understanding of the nature, origins, maintenance, and prevalence of bullying…

  4. Fifth Anniversary youth scientifically-practical conference Nuclear-industrial complex of Ural: problems and prospects. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Theses of reports of the Fifth Anniversary youth scientifically-practical conference Nuclear-industrial complex of Ural: problems and prospects (21-23 April 2009, Ozersk) are presented. The book contains abstracts of papers of fourth thematic sections: SNF reprocessing: science and industry; Radioecology and radiobiology; Advanced science-intensive technologies and materials; Education and training for NFC plants

  5. Organizing of medical ensurance of human population under extreme conditions. Summaries of reports of scientific-practical conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Summary of reports are presented of Scientific-Practical conference on the organizing of medical ensurance of human population under extreme conditions including radiation accidents. The conference held in Moscow in October, 1994. It covered problems of organizing medical ensurance of population, medical surveillance problems, sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological problems (including radiation protection), and medical provision problems under extreme conditions

  6. Using Social Media to Promote Pre-Service Science Teachers' Practices of Socio-Scientific Issue (SSI) - Based Teaching (United States)

    Pitiporntapin, Sasithep; Lankford, Deanna Marie


    This paper addresses using social media to promote pre-service science teachers' practices of Socio-Scientific Issue (SSI) based teaching in a science classroom setting. We designed our research in two phases. The first phase examined pre-service science teachers' perceptions about using social media to promote their SSI-based teaching. The…

  7. Taking the Scientist's Perspective. The Nonfiction Narrative Engages Episodic Memory to Enhance Students' Understanding of Scientists and Their Practices (United States)

    Larison, Karen D.


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States 2013) mandates that schools provide students an understanding of the skills and knowledge that scientists use to engage in scientific practices. In this article, I argue that one of the best ways to accomplish this goal is to have students take the perspective of the scientist by reading nonfiction narratives written by scientists and science writers. I explore the anthropological and neurological evidence that suggests that perspective-taking is an essential component in the learning process. It has been shown that by around age 4, the human child begins to be able to take the perspective of others—a process that neuroscientists have shown engages episodic memory, a memory type that some neurocognitive scientists believe is central in organizing human cognition. Neuroscientists have shown that the brain regions in which episodic memory resides undergo pronounced anatomical changes during adolescence, suggesting that perspective-taking assumes an even greater role in cognition during adolescence and young adulthood. Moreover, I argue that the practice of science itself is narrative in nature. With each new observation and experiment, the scientist is acting to reveal an emerging story. It is the story-like nature of science that motivates the scientist to push onward with new experiments and new observations. It is also the story-like nature of the practice of science that can potentially engage the student. The classroom studies that I review here confirm the power of the narrative in increasing students' understanding of science.

  8. Taking the Scientist's Perspective - The Nonfiction Narrative Engages Episodic Memory to Enhance Students' Understanding of Scientists and Their Practices (United States)

    Larison, Karen D.


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States 2013) mandates that schools provide students an understanding of the skills and knowledge that scientists use to engage in scientific practices. In this article, I argue that one of the best ways to accomplish this goal is to have students take the perspective of the scientist by reading nonfiction narratives written by scientists and science writers. I explore the anthropological and neurological evidence that suggests that perspective-taking is an essential component in the learning process. It has been shown that by around age 4, the human child begins to be able to take the perspective of others—a process that neuroscientists have shown engages episodic memory, a memory type that some neurocognitive scientists believe is central in organizing human cognition. Neuroscientists have shown that the brain regions in which episodic memory resides undergo pronounced anatomical changes during adolescence, suggesting that perspective-taking assumes an even greater role in cognition during adolescence and young adulthood. Moreover, I argue that the practice of science itself is narrative in nature. With each new observation and experiment, the scientist is acting to reveal an emerging story. It is the story-like nature of science that motivates the scientist to push onward with new experiments and new observations. It is also the story-like nature of the practice of science that can potentially engage the student. The classroom studies that I review here confirm the power of the narrative in increasing students' understanding of science.

  9. Scientific and practical tools for dealing with water resource estimations for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Hughes


    Full Text Available Future flow regimes will be different to today and imperfect knowledge of present and future climate variations, rainfall–runoff processes and anthropogenic impacts make them highly uncertain. Future water resources decisions will rely on practical and appropriate simulation tools that are sensitive to changes, can assimilate different types of change information and flexible enough to accommodate improvements in understanding of change. They need to include representations of uncertainty and generate information appropriate for uncertain decision-making. This paper presents some examples of the tools that have been developed to address these issues in the southern Africa region. The examples include uncertainty in present day simulations due to lack of understanding and data, using climate change projection data from multiple climate models and future catchment responses due to both climate and development effects. The conclusions are that the tools and models are largely available and what we need is more reliable forcing and model evlaution information as well as methods of making decisions with such inevitably uncertain information.

  10. Understanding general practice: a conceptual framework developed from case studies in the UK NHS. (United States)

    Checkland, Kath


    General practice in the UK is undergoing a period of rapid and profound change. Traditionally, research into the effects of change on general practice has tended to regard GPs as individuals or as members of a professional group. To understand the impact of change, general practices should also be considered as organisations. To use the organisational studies literature to build a conceptual framework of general practice organisations, and to test and develop this empirically using case studies of change in practice. This study used the implementation of National Service Frameworks (NSFs) and the new General Medical Services (GMS) contract as incidents of change. In-depth, qualitative case studies. The design was iterative: each case study was followed by a review of the theoretical ideas. The final conceptual framework was the result of the dynamic interplay between theory and empirical evidence. Five general practices in England, selected using purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews with all clinical and managerial personnel in each practice, participant and nonparticipant observation, and examination of documents. A conceptual framework was developed that can be used to understand how and why practices respond to change. This framework enabled understanding of observed reactions to the introduction of NSFs and the new GMS contract. Important factors for generating responses to change included the story that the practice members told about their practice, beliefs about what counted as legitimate work, the role played by the manager, and previous experiences of change. Viewing general practices as small organisations has generated insights into factors that influence responses to change. Change tends to occur from the bottom up and is determined by beliefs about organisational reality. The conceptual framework suggests some questions that can be asked of practices to explain this internal reality.

  11. Preventive dentistry: practitioners' recommendations for low-risk patients compared with scientific evidence and practice guidelines. (United States)

    Frame, P S; Sawai, R; Bowen, W H; Meyerowitz, C


    The purpose of this article is to compare published evidence supporting procedures to prevent dental caries and periodontal disease, in low-risk patients, with the actual preventive recommendations of practicing dentists. Methods included (1) a survey questionnaire of general dentists practicing in western New York State concerning the preventive procedures they would recommend and at what intervals for low-risk children, young adults, and older adults; and (2) review of the published, English-language literature for evidence supporting preventive dental interventions. The majority of dentists surveyed recommended semiannual visits for visual examination and probing to detect caries (73% to 79%), and scaling and polishing to prevent periodontal disease (83% to 86%) for low-risk patients of all ages. Bite-wing radiographs were recommended for all age groups at annual or semiannual intervals. In-office fluoride applications were recommended for low-risk children at intervals of 6 to 12 months by 73% of dentists but were recommended for low-risk older persons by only 22% of dentists. Application of sealants to prevent pit and fissure caries was recommended for low-risk children by 22% of dentists. Literature review found no studies comparing different frequencies of dental examinations and bite-wing radiographs to determine the optimal screening interval in low-risk patients. Two studies of the effect of scaling and polishing on the prevention of periodontal disease found no benefit from more frequent than annual treatments. Although fluoride is clearly a major reason for the decline in the prevalence of dental caries, there are no studies of the incremental benefit of in-office fluoride treatments for low-risk patients exposed to fluoridated water and using fluoridated toothpaste. Comparative studies using outcome end points are needed to determine the optimal frequency of dental examinations and bite-wing radiographs for the early detection of caries, and of scaling

  12. I Wonder…Scientific Exploration and Experimentation as a Practice of Christian Faith (United States)

    Shaver, Ruth E.


    "I Wonder...Gaining Wisdom and Growing Faith Through Scientific Exploration" is an intergenerational science curriculum designed to be used in congregations. The goal of this curriculum and the theoretical work underpinning it is to counter the perception that people of faith cannot also be people who possess a scientific understanding…

  13. Understanding the Franchised Strategic Praxis from the Practice Established by Franchise System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Vitor Medeiros Júnior


    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the perception of a franchise on building strategies located around practices experienced by referencing franchisor's standards and regional reality. There is a complexity in the relationship between franchisee and franchisor in a franchise system and its implications in the strategies developed by these actors. This qualitative research adopted the theoretical approach called Strategy as Practice, which seeks to understand the strategy considering its stakeholders (practitioners, practices established and incorporated in addition to the practice that represents the effective implementation of strategic actions, socially constructed and reconstructed. For data collection, in-depth open interviews were conducted with the owner of two franchise stores, located in a city in the Brazil´s Northeast. The data were analyzed and categorized according to feedback from the franchisee on how he responds to practices imposed by the franchise system. As a result, four categories were identified that represent relevant practices: workshops sponsored by the franchisor, the franchisee's annual planning, visiting consultants, and business strategies for sales. It was concluded that although there is considerable control of the franchisor on its franchisees, many of the practices of the franchise system are adapted and transformed in practice by the franchisee, often in a different way than was originally imposed. We emphasize the importance of strategy as practice approach in understanding the construction and interpretation of the strategy in a franchise system based on social relationships developed in this system.

  14. Mastering scientific computing with R

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, Paul


    If you want to learn how to quantitatively answer scientific questions for practical purposes using the powerful R language and the open source R tool ecosystem, this book is ideal for you. It is ideally suited for scientists who understand scientific concepts, know a little R, and want to be able to start applying R to be able to answer empirical scientific questions. Some R exposure is helpful, but not compulsory.

  15. Enteral nutrition practices in the intensive care unit: Understanding of nursing practices and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta


    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutritional support is important for the comprehensive management of patients in intensive care units (ICUs. Aim: The study was aimed to survey prevalent enteral nutrition practices in the trauma intensive care unit, nurses′ perception, and their knowledge of enteral feeding. Study Design: The study was conducted in the ICU of a level 1 trauma center, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. The study design used an audit. Materials and Methods: Sixty questionnaires were distributed and the results analyzed. A database was prepared and the audit was done. Results: Forty-two (70% questionnaires were filled and returned. A majority (38 of staff nurses expressed awareness of nutrition guidelines. A large number (32 of staff nurses knew about nutrition protocols of the ICU. Almost all (40 opined enteral nutrition to be the preferred route of nutrition unless contraindicated. All staff nurses were of opinion that enteral nutrition is to be started at the earliest (within 24-48 h of the ICU stay. Everyone opined that the absence of bowel sounds is an absolute contraindication to initiate enteral feeding. Passage of flatus was considered mandatory before starting enteral nutrition by 86% of the respondents. Everyone knew that the method of Ryle′s tube feeding in their ICU is intermittent boluses. Only 4 staff nurses were unaware of any method to confirm Ryle′s tube position. The backrest elevation rate was 100%. Gastric residual volumes were always checked, but the amount of the gastric residual volume for the next feed to be withheld varied. The majority said that the unused Ryle′s tube feed is to be discarded after 6 h. The most preferred (48% method to upgrade their knowledge of enteral nutrition was from the ICU protocol manual. Conclusion: Information generated from this study can be helpful in identifying nutrition practices that are lacking and may be used to review and revise enteral feeding

  16. Understanding health through social practices: performance and materiality in everyday life. (United States)

    Maller, Cecily Jane


    The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Understanding comfort and senses in social practices: Insights from a Danish field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten


    Thermal comfort is central to energy consumption in housing and one of the main drivers behind worldwide GHG emissions. Research on residential energy consumption has therefore addressed comfort in relation to indoor temperatures. This paper argues that by widening the focus of comfort to include...... other aspects such as air, light and materials, more sustainable ideas of residential comfort might be developed. The paper takes a practice theoretical perspective but argues that the senses should be better incorporated into the approach to understand different aspects of comfort. The paper...... investigates how comfort can be understood as sensorial within theories of practice. This implies understanding how the senses are incorporated in embodied and routinised social practices, through which comfort is sensed and interpreted. Comfort is related to a range of everyday practices in the home...

  18. Practical epistemology: the role of peer review in organizing scientific research


    Alexei V. Shestopal; Vladimir I. Konnov


    The article considers peer review as the main procedure for demarcating scientific knowledge from other kinds thereof, which do not meet the criteria set for research results. The authors examine the history of peer review, which has first been used in early scientific journals and then has become one of the key approaches to distributing funds for research in science foundations, such as the U.S. National Science Foundation. The article also considers the role of peer review in the legal pro...

  19. Ethical Culture and Financial Reporting: Understanding Financial Reporting Practice within Javanese Perspective


    Anis Chariri


    This study is a case study conducted in an Indonesian insurance company. The aim of the study is to understand the dynamics of financial reporting in the company. Ontologically, this study is built on a belief that financial reporting practice is a socially constructed reality. As a socially constructed reality, such a practice involves an interaction among social actors, and between organisational actors and the institutional and cultural environment in which the company operates. The main r...

  20. Measurement Instrument for Scientific Teaching (MIST): A Tool to Measure the Frequencies of Research-Based Teaching Practices in Undergraduate Science Courses. (United States)

    Durham, Mary F; Knight, Jennifer K; Couch, Brian A


    The Scientific Teaching (ST) pedagogical framework provides various approaches for science instructors to teach in a way that more closely emulates how science is practiced by actively and inclusively engaging students in their own learning and by making instructional decisions based on student performance data. Fully understanding the impact of ST requires having mechanisms to quantify its implementation. While many useful instruments exist to document teaching practices, these instruments only partially align with the range of practices specified by ST, as described in a recently published taxonomy. Here, we describe the development, validation, and implementation of the Measurement Instrument for Scientific Teaching (MIST), a survey derived from the ST taxonomy and designed to gauge the frequencies of ST practices in undergraduate science courses. MIST showed acceptable validity and reliability based on results from 7767 students in 87 courses at nine institutions. We used factor analyses to identify eight subcategories of ST practices and used these categories to develop a short version of the instrument amenable to joint administration with other research instruments. We further discuss how MIST can be used by instructors, departments, researchers, and professional development programs to quantify and track changes in ST practices. © 2017 M. F. Durham et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  1. The influence of new scientific information on the treatment of elderly patients in general practice. (United States)

    Kubesová, H; Holik, J; Bogrova, I


    It has been proven that with an increasing number of diseases elderly patients are treated by an increasing number of drugs despite the fact that treatment of elderly persons should be as simple as possible. Simpler dosage of (fewer?) drugs may contribute to a good cooperation on the part of patients, as well as to a lower incidence of undesirable effects and drug interactions. Sticking to established medication schemes is another feature observed in practice, which interferes with the introduction of novelties. The aim of this study was to investigate the actual situation of medication of elderly patients treated by general practitioners in this country. Between 1996 and 1998, a random group of 1481 patients aged older than 75 was studied in cooperation with general practitioners. A detailed history was obtained and physical examination was performed, signs of depression were assessed, Barthel's test of everyday activities, and IADL (activities of daily living) and MMSE (Mini Mental State Examination) tests were applied. A unified "Protocol on Examination" was used in which three questions were concerned with medication--the kinds of drugs taken by the patient, their names and dosage, and whether any hypnotics were taken. The five most frequently prescribed groups include vasodilators (62% patients), cardiotonics (39%), analgetics (41%) and Ca-antagonists (25%). The dynamics of the prescription were remarkable--a significant decrease of the use of analgetics and cardiotonics was observed in comparison with a significant increase in the use of ACE inhibitors. The number of drugs administered is as follows: while only 1.3% patients took no drugs, 1.6% patients took more than 13 drugs. 61% patients rank among the categories taking 4-5 or 6-8 kinds of drugs. On the whole, general practitioners tend to prescribe medicaments in doses one tablet per day. The results suggest that, even nowadays, elderly patients are treated with a rather high number of medicaments. In

  2. Understanding childbirth practices as an organizational cultural phenomenon: a conceptual framework. (United States)

    Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Misago, Chizuru


    Understanding the main values and beliefs that might promote humanized birth practices in the specialized hospitals requires articulating the theoretical knowledge of the social and cultural characteristics of the childbirth field and the relations between these and the institution. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework allowing examination of childbirth practices through the lens of an organizational culture theory. A literature review performed to extrapolate the social and cultural factors contribute to birth practices and the factors likely overlap and mutually reinforce one another, instead of complying with the organizational culture of the birth place. The proposed conceptual framework in this paper examined childbirth patterns as an organizational cultural phenomenon in a highly specialized hospital, in Montreal, Canada. Allaire and Firsirotu's organizational culture theory served as a guide in the development of the framework. We discussed the application of our conceptual model in understanding the influences of organizational culture components in the humanization of birth practices in the highly specialized hospitals and explained how these components configure both the birth practice and women's choice in highly specialized hospitals. The proposed framework can be used as a tool for understanding the barriers and facilitating factors encountered birth practices in specialized hospitals.

  3. Workplace Interventions to Prevent Disability from Both the Scientific and Practice Perspectives: A Comparison of Scientific Literature, Grey Literature and Stakeholder Observations. (United States)

    Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Bültmann, Ute; Amick, Benjamin; Munir, Fehmidah; Tveito, Torill H; Anema, Johannes R


    Purpose The significant individual and societal burden of work disability could be reduced if supportive workplace strategies could be added to evidence-based clinical treatment and rehabilitation to improve return-to-work (RTW) and other disability outcomes. The goal of this article is to summarize existing research on workplace interventions to prevent disability, relate these to employer disability management practices, and recommend future research priorities. Methods The authors participated in a year-long collaboration that ultimately led to an invited 3-day conference, Improving Research of Employer Practices to Prevent Disability, held October 14-16, 2015, in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. The collaboration included a topical review of the literature, group conference calls to identify key areas and challenges, drafting of initial documents, review of industry publications, and a conference presentation that included feedback from peer researchers and a question/answer session with an expert panel with direct employer experience. Results Evidence from randomized trials and other research designs has shown general support for job modification, RTW coordination, and organizational support, but evidence is still lacking for interventions at a more granular level. Grey literature reports focused mainly on job re-design and work organization. Panel feedback focused on organizational readiness and the beliefs and values of senior managers as critical factors in facilitating changes to disability management practices. While the scientific literature is focused on facilitating improved coping and reducing discomforts for individual workers, the employer-directed grey literature is focused on making group-level changes to policies and procedures. Conclusions Future research might better target employer practices by tying interventions to positive workplace influences and determinants, by developing more participatory interventions and research designs, and by

  4. Exploring the Impacts of Cognitive and Metacognitive Prompting on Students' Scientific Inquiry Practices Within an E-Learning Environment (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Yu-Ting


    This study explores the effects of metacognitive and cognitive prompting on the scientific inquiry practices of students with various levels of initial metacognition. Two junior high school classes participated in this study. One class, the experimental group (n = 26), which received an inquiry-based curriculum with a combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts, was compared to the other class, the comparison group (n = 25), which received only cognitive prompts in the same curriculum. Data sources included a test of inquiry practices, a questionnaire of metacognition, and worksheets. The results showed that the mixed cognitive and metacognitive prompts had significant impacts on the students' inquiry practices, especially their planning and analyzing abilities. Furthermore, the mixed prompts appeared to have a differential effect on those students with lower level metacognition, who showed significant improvement in their inquiry abilities. A combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts during an inquiry cycle was found to promote students' inquiry practices.

  5. From the Field to the Classroom: Developing Scientifically Literate Citizens Using the Understanding Global Change Framework in Education and Citizen Science (United States)

    Toupin, C.; Bean, J. R.; Gavenus, K.; Johnson, H.; Toupin, S.


    With the copious amount of science and pseudoscience reported on by non-experts in the media, it is critical for educators to help students develop into scientifically literate citizens. One of the most direct ways to help students develop deep scientific understanding and the skills to critically question the information they encounter is to bring science into their daily experiences and to contextualize scientific inquiry within the classroom. Our work aims to use a systems-based models approach to engage students in science, in both formal and informal contexts. Using the Understanding Global Change (UGC) and the Understanding Science models developed at the Museum of Paleontology at UC Berkeley, high school students from Arizona were tasked with developing a viable citizen science program for use at the Center for Alaskan Coastal Studies in Homer, Alaska. Experts used the UGC model to help students define why they were doing the work, and give context to the importance of citizen science. Empowered with an understanding of the scientific process, excited by the purpose of their work and how it could contribute to the scientific community, students whole-heartedly worked together to develop intertidal monitoring protocols for two locations while staying at Peterson Bay Field Station, Homer. Students, instructors, and scientists used system models to communicate and discuss their understanding of the biological, physical, and chemical processes in Kachemak Bay. This systems-based models approach is also being used in an integrative high school physics, chemistry, and biology curriculum in a truly unprecedented manner. Using the Understanding Global Change framework to organize curriculum scope and sequence, the course addresses how the earth systems work, how interdisciplinary science knowledge is necessary to understand those systems, and how scientists and students can measure changes within those systems.

  6. Specimens as records: scientific practice and recordkeeping in natural history research. (United States)

    Ilerbaig, Juan


    For the past two decades, scholars in archival science have begun to question traditional assumptions about the nature of the record. Drawing on theories from fields such as sociology, organization theory, and science studies, and on their own ethnographic studies, they propose more inclusive definitions and widening the contexts of analysis of record making and recordkeeping. This paper continues this critical consideration of the concept of record by examining the nature of nonprototypical records in the scientific world. The paper focuses on the system of specimens and field notes established by biologist Joseph Grinnell at the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (University of California, Berkeley) as a means of examining several aspects of the nature of the scientific record: materiality, representation, and the triad evidence/memory/accountability. Focusing on the creation and management of these scientific records, the paper argues that further analyses of scientific record making and recordkeeping are bound to benefit both scientific work, which depends more and more on databases and archives, as well as archival science, which is becoming more relevant beyond its traditional realm of the legal/business/administrative world.

  7. Building a local community of practice in scientific programming for Life Scientists


    Stevens, Sarah; Kuzak, Mateusz; Martinez, Carlos; Moser, Aurelia; Bleeker, Petra; Galland, Marc


    For most experimental biologists, handling the avalanche of data generated is similar to self-learn how to drive. Although that might be doable, it is preferable and safer to learn good practices. One way to achieve this is to build local communities of practice by bringing together scientists that perform code-intensive research to spread know-how and good practices. Here, we indicate important challenges and issues that stand in the way of establishing these local communities of practice. F...

  8. Scientific rigour in qualitative research--examples from a study of women's health in family practice. (United States)

    Hamberg, K; Johansson, E; Lindgren, G; Westman, G


    The increase in qualitative research in family medicine raises a demand for critical discussions about design, methods and conclusions. This article shows how scientific claims for truthful findings and neutrality can be assessed. Established concepts such as validity, reliability, objectivity and generalization cannot be used in qualitative research. Alternative criteria for scientific rigour, initially introduced by Lincoln and Guba, are presented: credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability. These criteria have been applied to a research project, a qualitative study with in-depth interviews with female patients suffering from chronic pain in the locomotor system. The interview data were analysed on the basis of grounded theory. The proposed indicators for scientific rigour were shown to be useful when applied to the research project. Several examples are given. Difficulties in the use of the alternative criteria are also discussed.

  9. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis? (United States)

    Rasanen, Keijo


    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it…

  10. Exploring a Pluralist Understanding of Learning for Sustainability and Its Implications for Outdoor Education Practice (United States)

    Paulus, Susanne C.


    This article explores a pluralist understanding of learning for sustainability in educational theory and relates it to outdoor education practice. In brief, this kind of learning can be described as a deep engagement with an individual's multiple identities and the personal location in diverse geo-physical and socio-cultural surroundings. I…

  11. Using theories of practice to understand HIV-positive persons varied engagement with HIV services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten; Wringe, Alison; Seeley, Janet


    Objectives: This article considers the potential of ‘theories of practice’ for studying and understanding varied (dis)engagement with HIV care and treatment services and begins to unpack the assemblage of elements and practices that shape the nature and duration of individuals’ interactions with ...

  12. Understanding the Development of Chinese EFL Learners' Email Literacy through Exploratory Practice (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-shan


    While many empirical studies demonstrate the effects of instruction on enhancing second language (L2) learners' pragmatic competence (Rose, 2005), few have attempted to gain an understanding of the quality of classroom life in addition to instructional efficacy. Drawing on the framework of Exploratory Practice (Allwright, 2005), the present study…

  13. Two secondary teachers’ understanding and classroom practice of dialogic teaching: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Pol, Janneke; Brindley, Sue; Higham, Rupert John Edward


    Dialogic Teaching (DT) is effective in fostering student learning; yet, it is hard to implement. Little research focused on secondary teachers’ learning of DT and on the link between teachers’ understanding and practices, although these two are usually strongly intertwined. Using a wide range of

  14. Leading Schools with Migrant Children in Shanghai: Understanding Policies and Practices (United States)

    Qian, Haiyan; Walker, Allan David


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is threefold: to sketch the current policy context that frames the education of migrant children in Shanghai; to explore the work lives of school leaders in the privately owned but government-supported schools; and to understand the socio-cultural and educational factors that shape the leadership practices in…

  15. Argumentation Practices in Classroom: Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium (United States)

    Kaya, Ebru


    This study examines the impact of argumentation practices on pre-service teachers' understanding of chemical equilibrium. The sample consisted of 100 pre-service teachers in two classes of a public university. One of these classes was assigned as experimental and the other as control group, randomly. In the experimental group, the subject of…

  16. Supporting students with disabilities--promoting understanding amongst mentors in practice. (United States)

    Tee, Stephen; Cowen, Michelle


    Good practice demands a clinical practice culture positively disposed to students with disabilities. Equality legislation seeks to protect those with a disability from either direct or indirect discrimination. The balance between providing "reasonable adjustments" for the student, whilst ensuring "Fitness to Practice", and ultimate employability, requires a close partnership between higher education and practice mentors. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of a range of interactive resources, used in the preparation of mentors to help them address the specific learning needs of disabled students. The evaluation revealed the benefit of student 'stories' in helping mentors to understand the support needs of disabled students and ensure reasonable adjustments are implemented in compliance with disability legislation. The interactive resources have been helpful in promoting positive action towards disabled students' learning, empathic understanding of mental health issues and knowledge and skills acquisition in support of dyslexic students. Implementing reasonable adjustments in practice requires a close working partnership between HEI's and mentors who appreciate support in understanding the development and application of coping strategies to overcome disabilities. Effective preparation of mentors is essential to ensure that opportunities for disabled students to succeed are maximised. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Compreendendo a lacuna entre a prática e a evolução técnico-científica do banho no leito Comprendiendo la laguna entre la práctica y la evolución técnico-científica del baño en la cama Understanding the gap between practice and the technical-scientific evolution of the bed-bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaine Sandrini Alves Maciel


    Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo qualitativo, realizado com pacientes acamados, visando compreender a experiência da pessoa dependente da enfermagem para o banho no leito e desenvolver um modelo teórico representativo dessa experiência. Utilizou-se como referencial teórico o Interacionismo Simbólico e, como referencial metodológico, a Grounded Theory. Dos resultados emergiu o fenômeno - aprendendo a avaliar a vida e a enfermagem, ao tornar-se dependente de seus cuidados para o banho no leito. Isso possibilitou identificar a categoria central - propondo um modelo assistencial de enfermagem para o banho no leito, na perspectiva do processo avaliativo do paciente, que contrapõe a evolução técnico-científica relativa ao procedimento.Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, realizado con los pacientes postrados, que procura comprender la experiencia de la persona dependiente de la enfermería para el baño en la cama, y desarrollar un modelo teórico que represente esa experiencia. Fue utilizado como referencial teórico el Interaccionismo Simbólico y como referencial metodológica la Grounded Theory. De los resultados ha emergido el fenómeno - aprendiendo a evaluar la vida y la enfermería al volverse dependiente de sus cuidados para el baño en la cama. A partir de ahí, fue posible identificar la categoría central - proponiendo un modelo asistencial de enfermería para el baño en la cama, desde la perspectiva del proceso evaluativo del paciente, que contrapone la evolución técnico-científica relativa al procedimiento.The objectives of this qualitative study were to understand the experience of the nursing dependent person for the bed-bath and develop a theoretical model of this experience. The Symbolic Interactionism perspective and Grounded Theory methodology were used to develop the study. Observation and interview were the strategies used for data collection. Based on data analysis, a phenomenon was identified: learning to assess life and

  18. Science Teachers' Understanding and Practice of Inquiry-Based Instruction in Uganda (United States)

    Ssempala, Fredrick

    High school students in Uganda perform poorly in science subjects despite the Ugandan government's efforts to train science teachers and build modern science laboratories in many public high schools. The poor performance of students in science subjects has been largely blamed on the inability by many science teachers to teach science through Inquiry-Based Instruction (IBI) to motivate the students to learn science. However, there have been no empirical studies done to establish the factors that influence science teachers' understanding and practice of IBI in Uganda. Most of the published research on IBI has been conducted in developed countries, where the prevailing contexts are very different from the contexts in developing countries such as Uganda. Additionally, few studies have explored how professional development (PD) training workshops on inquiry and nature of science (NOS) affect chemistry teachers' understanding and practice of IBI. My purpose in this multi-case exploratory qualitative study was to explore the effect of a PD workshop on inquiry and NOS on chemistry teachers' understanding and practice of IBI in Kampala city public schools in Uganda. I also explored the relationship between chemistry teachers' NOS understanding and the nature of IBI implemented in their classrooms and the internal and external factors that influence teachers' understanding and practice of IBI. I used a purposive sampling procedure to identify two schools of similar standards from which I selected eight willing chemistry teachers (four from each school) to participate in the study. Half of the teachers (those from School A) attended the PD workshop on inquiry and NOS for six days, while the control group (those from School B) did not. I collected qualitative data through semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, and document analysis. I analyzed these data by structural, conceptual and theoretical coding approach. I established that all the participating chemistry

  19. Understandings of how Professional Practice and Problem Definitions Influence the Possibilities of Children's Conduct of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn Larsen, Maja

    are being covered up by the unifying administrative processes, it seems to undermine an understanding of the way these conflicts are of importance to the child’s concrete conditions of life. So saying, a more precise comprehension of children’s actual difficulties involves the analysis of, how the process...... practices (School, institutions family etc.). However the administrative bureaucracy’s call for unambiguous determination of “special needs” undermines the comprehension of plurality of professional perspectives. In this way a gap occurs between a multifaceted understanding of the child’s conduct of life...... and the production of the “child as a case”. I intend to explore the connections between bureaucratic, interdisciplinary and professional practices that are organised to support children, including the bureaucratic process of defining children’s “special needs”. In the process different professionals understand...

  20. Comparison of Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Dynamics in Model-Based Scientific Inquiry and Scientific Inquiry Environments (United States)

    Arslan Buyruk, Arzu; Ogan Bekiroglu, Feral


    The focus of this study was to evaluate the impact of model-based inquiry on pre-service physics teachers' conceptual understanding of dynamics. Theoretical framework of this research was based on models-of-data theory. True-experimental design using quantitative and qualitative research methods was carried out for this research. Participants of…

  1. A Third Use of Sociology of Scientific Knowledge: A Lens for Studying Teacher Practice (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel Z.; Avery, Leanne M.


    Over the last two decades, science educators and science education researchers have grown increasingly interested in utilising insights from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) to inform their work and research. To date, researchers in science education have focused on two applications: results of sociological studies of science have been…

  2. The ethics of improving African traditional medical practice: scientific or African traditional research methods? (United States)

    Nyika, Aceme


    The disease burden in Africa, which is relatively very large compared with developed countries, has been attributed to various factors that include poverty, food shortages, inadequate access to health care and unaffordability of Western medicines to the majority of African populations. Although for 'old diseases' knowledge about the right African traditional medicines to treat or cure the diseases has been passed from generation to generation, knowledge about traditional medicines to treat newly emerging diseases has to be generated in one way or another. In addition, the existing traditional medicines have to be continuously improved, which is also the case with Western scientific medicines. Whereas one school of thought supports the idea of improving medicines, be they traditional or Western, through scientific research, an opposing school of thought argues that subjecting African traditional medicines to scientific research would be tantamount to some form of colonization and imperialism. This paper argues that continuing to use African traditional medicines for old and new diseases without making concerted efforts to improve their efficacy and safety is unethical since the disease burden affecting Africa may continue to rise in spite of the availability and accessibility of the traditional medicines. Most importantly, the paper commends efforts being made in some African countries to improve African traditional medicine through a combination of different mechanisms that include the controversial approach of scientific research on traditional medicines.

  3. Whatever Happened to the Silent Scientific Revolution?--Research, Theory and Practice in Distance Education. (United States)

    Morgan, Alistair

    The point of departure for this article is the title of a book edited by David Fetterman, "Qualitative Approaches to Educational Evaluation--The Silent Scientific Revolution." This article addresses the question of how the shift to a qualitative, phenomenological approach has impinged on research and evaluation in distance education.…

  4. The Role of Student-Advisor Interactions in Apprenticing Undergraduate Researchers into a Scientific Community of Practice (United States)

    Thiry, Heather; Laursen, Sandra L.


    Among science educators, current interest in undergraduate research (UR) is influenced both by the traditional role of the research apprenticeship in scientists' preparation and by concerns about replacing the current scientific workforce. Recent research has begun to demonstrate the range of personal, professional, and intellectual benefits for STEM students from participating in UR, yet the processes by which student-advisor interactions contribute to these benefits are little understood. We employ situated learning theory (Lave and Wenger, Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge in 1991) to examine the role of student-advisor interactions in apprenticing undergraduate researchers, particularly in terms of acculturating students to the norms, values, and professional practice of science. This qualitative study examines interviews with a diverse sample of 73 undergraduate research students from two research-extensive institutions. From these interviews, we articulate a continuum of practices that research mentors employed in three domains to support undergraduate scientists-in-training: professional socialization, intellectual support, and personal/emotional support. The needs of novice students differed from those of experienced students in each of these areas. Novice students needed clear expectations, guidelines, and orientation to their specific research project, while experienced students needed broader socialization in adopting the traits, habits, and temperament of scientific researchers. Underrepresented minority students, and to a lesser extent, women, gained confidence from their interactions with their research mentors and broadened their future career and educational possibilities. Undergraduate research at research-extensive universities exemplifies a cycle of scientific learning and practice where undergraduate researchers are mentored by graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, who are

  5. Kindergarten Students' Levels of Understanding Some Science Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes According to Demographic Variables (The Sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey) (United States)

    Ilhan, Nail; Tosun, Cemal


    The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students' levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC) and scientific inquiry processes (SIP) and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the…

  6. Understanding adaptation and transformation through indigenous practice: the case of the Guna of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina J. Apgar


    Full Text Available Resilience is emerging as a promising vehicle for improving management of social-ecological systems that can potentially lead to more sustainable arrangements between environmental and social spheres. Central to an understanding of how to support resilience is the need to understand social change and its links with adaptation and transformation. Our aim is to contribute to insights about and understanding of underlying social dynamics at play in social-ecological systems. We argue that longstanding indigenous practices provide opportunities for investigating processes of adaptation and transformation. We use in-depth analysis of adaptation and transformation through engagement in participatory action research, focusing on the role of cultural and social practices among the Guna indigenous peoples in Panama. Our findings reveal that cultural practices facilitating leadership development, personhood development, and social networking are critical for enabling both adaptation and transformation. Further, we argue that Guna ritual practice builds additional skills, such as critical self-reflection and creative innovation, that are important for supporting the deeper changes required by transformation.

  7. Ethics Teaching in Higher Education for Principled Reasoning: A Gateway for Reconciling Scientific Practice with Ethical Deliberation. (United States)

    Aközer, Mehmet; Aközer, Emel


    This paper proposes laying the groundwork for principled moral reasoning as a seminal goal of ethics interventions in higher education, and on this basis, makes a case for educating future specialists and professionals with a foundation in philosophical ethics. Identification of such a seminal goal is warranted by (1) the progressive dissociation of scientific practice and ethical deliberation since the onset of a problematic relationship between science and ethics around the mid-19th century, and (2) the extensive mistrust of integrating ethics in science and engineering curricula beyond its "applied," "practical," or "professional" implications. Although calls by international scientific and educational bodies to strengthen ethics teaching in scientific education over the past quarter century have brought about a notion of combining competence in a certain field with competence in ethics, this is neither entrenched in the academic community, nor fleshed out as regards its core or instruments to realize it. The legitimate goals of ethics teaching in higher education, almost settled since the 1980s, can be subsumed under the proposed seminal goal, and the latter also would safeguard content and methods of ethics interventions against the intrusion of indoctrinative approaches. In this paper, derivation of the proposed seminal goal rests on an interpretation of the Kohlbergian cognitive-developmental conception of moral adulthood consisting in autonomous principled moral reasoning. This interpretation involves, based on Kant's conception of the virtuous person, integrating questions about the "good life" into the domain of principled reasoning.

  8. Affordances and Challenges of Using Argument as a Connective Discourse for Scientific Practices to Teach Climate Science (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, A.; Wolfson, J.


    An important goal of science education is to support development of citizens to participate in public debate and make informed decisions relevant to their lives and their worlds. The NGSS (Next Generation Science Standards) suggest engaging students in science classrooms in argumentation as a practice to help enhance the quality of evidence based decision making. In this multi-case study, we explored the use of written argumentation in eight secondary school science classrooms during a lesson on the relationship between ocean temperature and its CO2 holding capacity. All teachers of these classrooms were trained during a day long NSF funded Climate Literacy Workshop on the basic concepts of climate science, scientific practices and implementation of an activity called "It's a Gassy World". The data of the current study involved students' written arguments, teachers' written reflections on the implementation of the activity as well as field notes from the Climate Literacy Workshop. A qualitative discourse analysis of the data was used to find common themes around affordances and challenges of argument as a connective discourse for scientific practices to teach climate change. The findings show that participating in written argumentation process encouraged students to discuss their experimental design and use data interpretation for their evidences. However, the results also indicated the following challenges: a) teachers themselves need support in connecting their evidence to their claims, b) arguing a socioscientific issue creates a sensitive environment c) conceptual quality of an argument needs to be strengthen through background in courses other than science, and d) graphing skills (or lack of) can interfere with constructing scientifically accurate claims. This study has implications in effectively teaching climate change through argumentation, and thus creating opportunities for practicing authentic climate science research in K-12 classrooms.

  9. Qatar pharmacists' understanding, attitudes, practice and perceived barriers related to providing pharmaceutical care. (United States)

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Al-Saeed, Hassna Sohil; Khaja, Maryam


    Pharmaceutical care (PC) is the philosophy of practice that includes identifying and resolving medication therapy problems to improve patient outcomes. The study objectives were to examine the extent of pharmaceutical care practice and the barriers to pharmaceutical care provision as perceived by Qatar pharmacists and to assess their level of understanding of pharmaceutical care and their attitudes about pharmaceutical care provision. Setting Qatar pharmacies. A cross sectional survey of all pharmacists in Qatar was made. Consenting pharmacists were given the option to complete the survey either online using an online software or as paper by fax or by hand. 1. Extent of pharmaceutical care practice in Qatar. 2. Barriers to pharmaceutical care provision in Qatar. 3. Qatar pharmacists' level of understanding of pharmaceutical care. 4. Qatar pharmacists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical care provision. Over 8 weeks, 274 surveys were collected (34 % response rate). More than 80 % of respondents had correct understanding of the aim of PC and of the pharmacist role in PC. However, only 47 % recognized the patient role in PC and only 35 % were aware of the differences between clinical pharmacy and PC. Yet, more than 80 % believed that they could be advocates when it comes to patients' medications and health matters. Concerning their practice, respondents reported spending little time on PC activities. Offering feedback to the physician about the patient progress was always or most of the time performed by 21 % of respondents. The top perceived barriers for PC provision included inconvenient access to patient medical information (78 %) and lack of staff and time (77 and 74 % respectively). Although PC is not incorporated into pharmacy practice, Qatar pharmacists showed positive attitudes toward PC provision. Further work should focus on improving their PC understanding and on overcoming all barriers.

  10. Practical epistemology: the role of peer review in organizing scientific research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Shestopal


    Full Text Available The article considers peer review as the main procedure for demarcating scientific knowledge from other kinds thereof, which do not meet the criteria set for research results. The authors examine the history of peer review, which has first been used in early scientific journals and then has become one of the key approaches to distributing funds for research in science foundations, such as the U.S. National Science Foundation. The article also considers the role of peer review in the legal process, wherein observance of this procedure can be seen as the main criteria, which separates scientific evidence from mere testimony. The description of the main elements of the peer review procedure is based on the "Statement of principles for scientific merit review" the summary of the results of the Global Summit on Merit Review, which brought together heads of science funding organizations from more than 50 countries. The Statement listed the following principles: expert assessment, transparency, impartiality, appropriateness, confidentiality, integrity and ethical considerations. Although these principles are seen as a way to guarantee efficient peer review one has to consider the peculiarities of a particular research area, first of all the differences between social and natural sciences. Accordingly the article gives an overview of key traits of peer review in the social sciences and humanities. The authors also consider the main procedural elements - preparation of individual reviews, consideration by panels, anonymity of reviewers. Finally the article addresses the problems of peer review such as non-transparent process, elitism in selecting reviewers, conservativeness of decisions, and possible ways of handling these problems.

  11. The basics of information security understanding the fundamentals of InfoSec in theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Andress, Jason


    As part of the Syngress Basics series, The Basics of Information Security provides you with fundamental knowledge of information security in both theoretical and practical aspects. Author Jason Andress gives you the basic knowledge needed to understand the key concepts of confidentiality, integrity, and availability, and then dives into practical applications of these ideas in the areas of operational, physical, network, application, and operating system security. The Basics of Information Security gives you clear-non-technical explanations of how infosec works and how to apply these princi

  12. Benefits and harms of general health checks- lifelong learning in general practice: how to read and use scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arreskov, Anne Beiter; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke

    the paper using the method of critical appraisal. Session content The didactic method used in the workshop is mostly small group activities with eight participants and two tutors in each group. The participants will receive two scientific papers: the BMJ-version of the Cochrane review about general health......Abstract title: Benefits and harms of general health checks - lifelong learning in general practice: how to read and use scientific literature Objectives After this workshop the participants will know the basics of how to read a systematic literature review and interpret a meta-analysis and be able......, assesses, and implements methods of diagnosis and treatment on the basis of the best available current research, clinical expertise, and combines this with the needs and preferences of the patient, is termed evidence-based medicine. By learning and practising the principles of evidence-based medicine, GPs...

  13. Acceleromyography for use in scientific and clinical practice: a systematic review of the evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C.; Viby-Mogensen, J.


    This systematic review describes the evidence on the use of acceleromyography for perioperative neuromuscular monitoring in clinical practice and research. The review documents that although acceleromyography is widely used in research, it cannot be used interchangeably with mechanomyography...

  14. Facing the Incompleteness of Epistemic Trust: Managing Dependence in Scientific Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann


    Based on an empirical study of a research team in natural science, the author argues that collaborating scientists do not trust each other completely. Due to the inherent incompleteness of trust, epistemic trust among scientists is not sufficient to manage epistemic dependency in research teams....... To mitigate the limitations of epistemic trust, scientists resort to specific strategies of indirect assessment such as dialoguing practices and the probing of explanatory responsiveness. Furthermore, they rely upon impersonal trust and deploy practices of hierarchical authorship....

  15. Ethical Culture and Financial Reporting: Understanding Financial Reporting Practice within Javanese Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Chariri


    Full Text Available This study is a case study conducted in an Indonesian insurance company. The aim of the study is to understand the dynamics of financial reporting in the company. Ontologically, this study is built on a belief that financial reporting practice is a socially constructed reality. As a socially constructed reality, such a practice involves an interaction among social actors, and between organisational actors and the institutional and cultural environment in which the company operates. The main research question of this study is how organisational culture shapes the company on the construction of its financial reporting practice. This study reveals that the company is committed to quality financial reporting because such reporting can be used to gain legitimacy and to maintain social harmony. The company conducts itself in this way is because it reflects Javanese culture, a dominant culture in Indonesia. Furthermore, this study concludes that the way the actors in the company construct financial reporting practice is influenced by its organisational culture. The organisational culture of the company, which reflects Javanese culture, is able to shape the behaviour of its actors from the top level to lower levels to conduct ethical and transparent business practice. Thus, as Hines (1988 claims, this paper concludes that financial reporting practice is a socially constucted reality.

  16. Understanding A Special Operations Role: Network Caretakers Of Knowledge-Based Communities Of Practice (United States)


    contextual understanding of an area. In Team of Teams, the landmark doctrinal book describing McChrystalian management styles , the author writes, “Team...4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2...practice, design, knowledge management , knowledge, learning, Libya, organizational design, SOCAFRICA, Special Operations, strategic arena 15. NUMBER OF

  17. Patterns of participation - a framework for understanding the role of the teacher for classroom practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorte Moeskær; Østergaard, Camilla Hellsten; Skott, Jeppe

    Research on teachers’ knowledge and beliefs has grown big in recent years. The larger parts of these fields are built on acquisitionist interpretations of human functioning. We explore the potentials of a participationist framework for understanding the role of the teacher for emerging classroom ...... potential and sheds light on the dynamic relationships between the teacher’s engagement in the practices of the mathematics classroom and other, personally significant, past and present ones....

  18. Enacting understanding of inclusion in complex contexts: Classroom practices of South African teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Engelbrecht


    Full Text Available While the practice of inclusive education has recently been widely embraced as an ideal model for education, the acceptance of inclusive education practices has not translated into reality in most mainstream classrooms. Despite the fact that education policies in South Africa stipulate that all learners should be provided with the opportunities to participate as far as possible in all classroom activities, the implementation of inclusive education is still hampered by a combination of a lack of resources and the attitudes and actions of the teachers in the classroom. The main purpose of this paper was to develop a deeper understanding of a group of South African teachers' personal understanding about barriers to learning and how their understanding relates to their consequent actions to implement inclusive education in their classrooms. A qualitative research approach placed within a cultural-historical and bio-ecological theoretical framework was used. The findings, in this paper, indicate that the way in which teachers understand a diversity of learning needs is based on the training that they initially received as teachers, which focused on a deficit, individualised approach to barriers to learning and development, as well as contextual challenges, and that both have direct and substantial effects on teachers' classroom practices. As a result, they engage in practices in their classrooms that are less inclusive, by creating dual learning opportunities that are not sufficiently made available for everyone, with the result that every learner is not able to participate fully as an accepted member of their peer group in all classroom activities.

  19. Understanding practice change in community pharmacy: a qualitative research instrument based on organisational theory. (United States)

    Roberts, Alison S; Hopp, Trine; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Chen, Timothy F; Herborg, Hanne; Williams, Kylie; Aslani, Parisa


    The past decade has seen a notable shift in the practice of pharmacy, with a strong focus on the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS) by community pharmacists. The benefits of these services have been well documented, yet their uptake appears to be slow. Various strategies have been developed to overcome barriers to the implementation of CPS, with varying degrees of success, and little is known about the sustainability of the practice changes they produce. Furthermore, the strategies developed are often specific to individual programs or services, and their applicability to other CPS has not been explored. There seems to be a need for a flexible change management model for the implementation and dissemination of a range of CPS, but before it can be developed, a better understanding of the change process is required. This paper describes the development of a qualitative research instrument that may be utilised to investigate practice change in community pharmacy. Specific objectives included gaining knowledge about the circumstances surrounding attempts to implement CPS, and understanding relationships that are important to the change process. Organisational theory provided the conceptual framework for development of the qualitative research instrument, within which two theories were used to give insight into the change process: Borum's theory of organisational change, which categorizes change strategies as rational, natural, political or open; and Social Network Theory, which helps identify and explain the relationships between key people involved in the change process. A semi-structured affecting practice change found in the literature that warranted further investigation with the theoretical perspectives of organisational change and social networks. To address the research objectives, the instrument covered four broad themes: roles, experiences, strategies and networks. The qualitative research instrument developed in this study provides a

  20. Some non-scientific influences on radiation protection standards and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.


    The influence of philosophy, politics, the media, morality, laws and economics on standards of radiation protection are discussed. While it is known that the dose-effect relationship for low-LET radiations is not linear over the whole dose range, it has been assumed to be linear in the interest of caution. This assumption has resulted in widespread controversy concerning radioprotection standards. Possible corrective actions include better communication within the scientific community and with the general public and much broader education of and dissemination of information to the public. (H.K.)

  1. Is the metaphor of 'barriers to change' useful in understanding implementation? Evidence from general medical practice. (United States)

    Checkland, Kath; Harrison, Stephen; Marshall, Martin


    To investigate how general medical practices in the UK react to bureaucratic initiatives, such as National Health Service (NHS) National Service Frameworks (NSFs), and to explore the value of the metaphor of 'barriers to change' for understanding this. Interviews, non-participant observation and documentary analysis within case studies of four practices in northern England. The practices had not actively implemented NSFs. At interview, various 'barriers' that had prevented implementation were listed, including the complexity of the documents and lack of time. Observation suggested that these barriers were constructions used by the participants to make sense of the situation in which they found themselves. The metaphor of 'removing barriers to change' was of limited use in a context where non-implementation of policy was an emergent property of underlying organizational realities, likely to be modifiable only if these realities were addressed.

  2. Fourth youth scientifically-practical conference Nuclear-industrial complex of Ural: problems and prospects. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Theses of reports of the Fourth youth scientifically-practical conference Nuclear-industrial complex of Ural: problems and prospects (18-20 April 2007, Ozersk) are presented. The book contains theses of reports of the seventh subject sections: NFC: science and industry; Ecological problems in NFC development: radiation safety, radioecology and radiobiology; Nuclear power engineering: economics, safety, field experience; Atomic branch: history, today and future; New technologies in education. Education and training for NFC plants, public opinion; Information technologies and telecommunications; Long-term science intensive technologies and new materials [ru

  3. Emergency nurses' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Eilis


    PURPOSE: To examine emergency nurses\\' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR in the emergency department, Cork University Hospital, Republic of Ireland. METHOD: A quantitative descriptive design was used in the study. A questionnaire developed by ENA was distributed to emergency nurses working in a level I trauma emergency department at Cork University Hospital. The total sample number was 90, including all emergency nurses with at least 6 months\\' emergency nursing experience. RESULTS: Emergency nurses often took families to the bedside during resuscitation efforts (58.9%) or would do so if the opportunity arose (17.8%). A high percentage (74.4%) of respondents would prefer a written policy allowing the option of family presence during CPR. The most significant barrier to family witnessed resuscitation (FWR) was conflicts occurring within the emergency team. The most significant facilitator to FWR was a greater understanding of health care professionals on the benefits of FWR to patients and families, indicating the need for educational development. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study and previously published studies indicate the need for development of written polices and guidelines on the practice to meet the needs of patients, families, and staff by providing consistent, safe, and caring practices for all involved in the resuscitation process. Recommendations of the study include the development of a written policy and an educational programme on the safe implementation and practices of FWR.

  4. Scientific Research Activity of Students Pre-Service Teachers of Sciences at University: The Aspects of Understanding, Situation and Improvement (United States)

    Lamanauskas, Vincentas; Augiene, Dalia


    The development of student abilities of scientific research activity (SRA) in the process of studies appears as a highly important area. In the course of studies, students not only increase their general competencies, acquire professional abilities and skills but also learn to conduct research. This does not mean that all students will build their…

  5. Preschool Pathways to Science (PrePS[TM]): Facilitating Scientific Ways of Thinking, Talking, Doing, and Understanding (United States)

    Gelman, Rochel; Brenneman, Kimberly; Macdonald, Gay; Roman, Moises


    To ensure they're meeting state early learning guidelines for science, preschool educators need fun, age-appropriate, and research-based ways to teach young children about scientific concepts. The basis for the PBS KIDS show "Sid the Science Kid," this teaching resource helps children ages 3-5 investigate their everyday world and develop the…

  6. Deepening Our Understanding of Academic Inbreeding Effects on Research Information Exchange and Scientific Output: New Insights for Academic Based Research (United States)

    Horta, Hugo


    This paper analyzes the impact of academic inbreeding in relation to academic research, and proposes a new conceptual framework for its analysis. We find that mobility (or lack of) at the early research career stage is decisive in influencing academic behaviors and scientific productivity. Less mobile academics have more inward oriented…

  7. Does Attainment of Piaget's Formal Operational Level of Cognitive Development Predict Student Understanding of Scientific Models? (United States)

    Lahti, Richard Dennis, II.


    Knowledge of scientific models and their uses is a concept that has become a key benchmark in many of the science standards of the past 30 years, including the proposed Next Generation Science Standards. Knowledge of models is linked to other important nature of science concepts such as theory change which are also rising in prominence in newer…

  8. Social competence and competency model as a field of scientific and practical interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ksenofontova


    Full Text Available The article examines the history of the use of the term “competence” and related terms in sociology, linguistics, pedagogy and practice of human resource management to identify the area of “sociology of competence”. Discussion points of the terms interpretations of the semantic sphere of “competence/competency” are considered by experts from different countries. On this basis, we propose a Universal competence-model that enables diverse professionals to work out a “common language” to contemporary social practices for discussing the relevant issues of competence assessment and development.

  9. Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology (United States)

    Fratesi, Sarah E.; Vacher, H. L.


    In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over…

  10. Assessing Scientific Practices Using Machine-Learning Methods: How Closely Do They Match Clinical Interview Performance? (United States)

    Beggrow, Elizabeth P.; Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis; Boone, William J.


    The landscape of science education is being transformed by the new "Framework for Science Education" (National Research Council, "A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas." The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2012), which emphasizes the centrality of scientific…

  11. Socio-scientific research contribution to energy practice; Sozialwissenschaftlicher Forschungsbeitrag fuer die Energiepraxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artho, J.; Soland, M.


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the findings of a study made by the University of Zurich, Switzerland, on socio-scientific aspects of energy use. Basic socio-psychological mechanisms are examined on which energy policy instruments can be based. Basic mechanisms are discussed such as enforced behaviour, non-enforced action, habitual acts and action taken on the basis of heuristics and rules-of-thumb. The second part of the paper looks at examples of the use of these principles, discussing, amongst other things, cost-benefit and moral reasoning, habits, mental accounting and boomerang effects. Finally the analyses are summarised and further research needed as a result of these analyses is noted.

  12. Steroid compounds of phytogenic origin: scientometric research data of scientific and practical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov А.Е.


    Full Text Available Steroid compounds of phytogenic origin are important in clinical medicine rendering anti-inflammatory, anti-prolifer-ative and antithrombotic actions. However, steroid compounds of phytogenic origin, in particular, steroid saponins are insufficiently studied from an identification position in tissues of vegetable organisms and methods of their physical and chemical analysis. The scientometric analysis of research data (abstract documents containing an analytical array of scientific publications concerning isolation, selection, cleaning, identification and the quantitative definition of steroid saponins in tissues of the higher vascular plants in the abstract bibliographic database SciVerse Scopus (Elsevier publishing house with use of criteria "key word" and "the key phrase" is provided in the article.

  13. Concept Communication and Interpretation of Illness: A Holistic Model of Understanding in Nursing Practice. (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor

    To ensure patient communication in nursing, certain conditions must be met that enable successful exchange of beliefs, thoughts, and other mental states. The conditions that have received most attention in the nursing literature are derived from general communication theories, psychology, and ethical frameworks of interpretation. This article focuses on a condition more directly related to an influential coherence model of concept possession from recent philosophy of mind and language. The basic ideas in this model are (i) that the primary source of understanding of illness experiences is communicative acts that express concepts of illness, and (ii) that the key to understanding patients' concepts of illness is to understand how they depend on patients' lifeworlds. The article argues that (i) and (ii) are especially relevant in caring practice since it has been extensively documented that patients' perspectives on disease and illness are shaped by their subjective horizons. According to coherentism, nurses need to focus holistically on patients' horizons in order to understand the meaning of patients' expressions of meaning. Furthermore, the coherence model implies that fundamental aims of understanding can be achieved only if nurses recognize the interdependence of patients' beliefs and experiences of ill health. The article uses case studies to elucidate how the holistic implications of coherentism can be used as conceptual tools in nursing.

  14. Daily Practice Clinic of Scientific Evidence in the Physiotherapy Management of Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Constanza Trillos Chacón


    Full Text Available Introduction: 80 % of adults experience back pain at least once in their life. Back pain is the third leading cause of consultation in the emergency room, the fourth in general practice, the second of disability pension and the first job relocation. Objective: To compare the criteria that guide decision making of a group of physiotherapists in Bogota Colombia for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain management criteria contained in the guide COST B13 (European Guidelines For The Management Of Chronic Non- specific Low Back Pain, 2004. Material and methods: This was a descriptive study, for which clinical practice guideline COST B13 for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain through the AGREE tool is selected and a survey was applied to 50 physiotherapists through a convenience sample with to compare the clinical practices that are performed with the recommendations given guidance. Results: 56 % of respondents had some type of training for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain (DLCI. 94 % of patients with DLCI served range in age from 40 to 59, with female predominance. In 80 % of respondents stated that physiotherapists diagnostic help with counting for the management of patients is the radiological image. 80 % of physiotherapists evaluated variable lumbar pain experienced by the patient and 54 % stance. Other aspects were reported in lower percentage. In the treatment of DLCI, physiotherapists reported use of stretching in 80 % of cases, the superficial thermotherapy in 70 % and isometric muscle strength in 70 %, all with favorable results.Conclusion: There are differences between clinical practice of physiotherapists and guidelines contained in the recommendations of the guide in the cost DLCI B13. Mainly in the processes of physiotherapy assessment of the surveyed population as they are often focused on observation and not always in the rigorous measurement, which makes it difficult to establish

  15. Understanding school climate, aggression, peer victimization, and bully perpetration: contemporary science, practice, and policy. (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Low, Sabina K; Jimerson, Shane R


    Existing scholarship suggests that classroom practices, teacher attitudes, and the broader school environment play a critical role in understanding the rates of student reports of aggression, bullying, and victimization as well as correlated behaviors. A more accurate understanding of the nature, origins, maintenance, and prevalence of bullying and other aggressive behavior requires consideration of the broader social ecology of the school community. However, studies to date have predominantly been cross-sectional in nature, or have failed to reflect the social-ecological framework in their measurement or analytic approach. Thus, there have been limited efforts to parse out the relative contribution of student, classroom, and organizational-level factors. This special topic section emphasizes a departure from a focus on student attitudes and behaviors, to a social-contextual approach that appreciates how much features of the school environment can mitigate or perpetuate aggression. This collection of articles reflects innovative and rigorous approaches to further our understanding of climate, and has implications for theory, measurement, prevention, and practice. These studies highlight the influence of school climate on mental health, academic achievement, and problem behavior, and will hopefully stimulate interest in and further scholarship on this important topic. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level. (United States)

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas


    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The nature of science and the preservice elementary teacher: Changes in understanding and practice (United States)

    Rivas, Michael Gerald

    This action research project studies preservice elementary teachers in a science methods course. The purpose of this research project was to enhance preservice teachers' understanding of specific nature of science (NOS) tenets so as to promote equity and access within the elementary science classroom. In particular, I chose five NOS tenets that were listed in the first chapter of the AAAS (1989) document titled, "The Nature of Science," and connected them to equitable educational goals and practices. The theoretical framework guiding this study came from bodies of scholarship relating to the NOS, social constructivism, and action research. This study addressed the following three questions: (1) What opportunities were provided the preservice teachers so that they could enhance their understandings of the NOS? (2) What were the changes in preservice teachers' understanding of the NOS as a result? (3) How did the prospective teachers' understandings of the NOS translate into their classroom practice? The analysis revealed that the science methods course's operational curriculum consisted of implicit and explicit teaching of the NOS, as well as intended and untended NOS tenets. The prospective teachers initially held a limited view of the NOS, but by the end of the course their view had been enhanced. In addition, the participants made direct connections between their new understandings of the NOS and equity and access in the science classroom. In their teaching, the preservice teachers as a group implicitly taught all five of the NOS tenets. In fact, a majority taught three of the five intended tenets. Explicitly, only one tenet was taught, but it was taught with a direct connection to making the science classroom more inclusive. The findings of this study indicate that preservice teachers can have their views of the NOS enhanced even though they may have experienced years of deficient science instruction. They pointed out that this enhanced view of the NOS can be

  18. Methodological and Practical Issues of Scientific Research on the Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasescu, M.


    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role and importance of marketing research in a dynamic and complex sector such as retail. The paper approaches the theoretical issues related to the methods and instruments of marketing research appropriate for the retail market. The theory about qualitative and quantitative research methods is supported by relevant examples which lead to a better understanding of the marketing research process and of its effectiveness on retail activities.

  19. Identifying children who may be cognitively gifted: the gap between practical demands and scientific supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available When it comes to high cognitive ability assessment, traditional “IQ-diagnosis” has not proven to be particularly helpful. Psychological assessment aimed at promoting the development of gifted individuals requires a scientifically based theoretical model that identifies which cognitive strengths are necessary and which weaknesses can be compensated, and that takes the moderating effects of personality and environment into account when describing the interplay between ability and achievement. While such models – including the one described in the following paper – do exist, they currently lack an adequate theoretical foundation or at least a convincing empirical validation. Science still stands before the challenge of offering appropriate psychodiagnostic instruments to measure model components while fulfilling practitioners’ requirements. The following work describes a prototypic example of how such requirements might be met for ability testing. Yet in terms of personality and environmental variables, particularly caregiving, currently available methods are wholly unsuitable for meeting intended goals. Systematic behavioral observation offers a possible solution. Its validity, objectivity, comprehensiveness and efficiency in terms of high ability testing – as well as that of interview guides – must, however, be further explored.

  20. Women, weight, poverty and menopause: understanding health practices in a context of chronic disease prevention. (United States)

    Audet, Mélisa; Dumas, Alex; Binette, Rachelle; Dionne, Isabelle J


    Socioeconomic inequalities in health persist despite major investments in illness prevention campaigns and universal healthcare systems. In this context, the increased risks of chronic diseases of specific sub-groups of vulnerable populations should be further investigated. The objective of this qualitative study is to examine the interaction between socioeconomic status (SES) and body weight in order to understand underprivileged women's increased vulnerability to chronic diseases after menopause. By drawing specifically on Pierre Bourdieu's sociocultural theory of practice, 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted from May to December of 2013 to investigate the health practices of clinically overweight, postmenopausal women living an underprivileged life in Canada. Findings emphasise that poor life conditions undermine personal investment in preventive health and weight loss, showing the importance for policy makers to bring stronger consideration on upstream determinants of health. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  1. Clinical practice of acute respiratory distress syndrome in Japan: A nationwide survey and scientific evidences. (United States)

    Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tatsumi, Koichiro


    There has been limited information about epidemiology and clinical practice of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in Japan. An invitation letter to the web-based survey was mailed to all 871 board certified hospitals of the Japanese Respiratory Society. The questionnaires were designed to collect data on epidemiology and clinical practice of ARDS, including diagnostic measures and therapeutics. Within 4 months of the survey period, valid responses were obtained from 296 (34%) hospitals. The incidence of ARDS was estimated to be 3.13 cases/100 hospital beds or 1.91 cases/ICU bed per year. The most frequent underlying disease was pneumonia (34%), followed by sepsis (29%). In hospitals with fewer ICU beds, pulmonologists tended to be in charge of management of ARDS patients. Routine diagnostic measures included computed tomography of the chest (69.6% of the hospitals) and Swan-Ganz catheterization was rarely performed for diagnosis. In 87.4% of the hospitals, non-invasive ventilation was applied to management of ARDS patients, especially those with mild disease. Prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for ARDS patients was more widely adopted in hospitals with larger numbers of ICU beds and intensivists. In 58.2% of the responding hospitals, corticosteroid was considered as a treatment option for ARDS, among which pulse therapy was routinely introduced to ARDS patients in 35.4%. The incidence of ARDS in Japan was estimated to be lower than that in the recent international study. The scale and equipment of hospitals and the number of intensivists might influence clinical practice of ARDS. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey N. Petrov


    Full Text Available The paper outlines science and methodological aspects of issuing bulletins for the civil aircraft and practical prob- lems accumulated in the national aviation industry within the mentioned area. Bulletins are used to inform operators about the purpose, data content and technologies outlining the design changes accomplishment if the aircraft considered at the moment of the design changes is already at the operational stage. Hence maintaining aircraft airworthiness is impossible without making certain modifications and repairs in the design, the bulletins issuing and implementation procedures have notable impact on safety and effectiveness of air transportation.Deficiencies considered are the results of practices used since 1980 and supported by the later interstate standard GOST 31270-2004 in the field of the bulletins development and implementation, which are not in line with contemporary conditions of international civil aviation activities. Negative consequences of transferring the Soviet way of working with aircraft bulletins intothe changed conditions of the state regulation of civil aviation activities in Russia are shown as well as those for substantial com-plication of the rules and procedures in comparison to the standards of Unified System of Design Documentation.Main theses of the ICAO standards and international practice are briefly analyzed, however they are not complete- ly presented in the national aviation regulations. The recommendations proposed are aimed to eliminate mentioned defi- ciencies through the standards amendment process and improvement of Russia's civil aviation regulatory base. Developed recommendations are mainly focused on the formulation of the new concept and certain content of the revised standard requirements to replace GOST 31270-2004.

  3. Understanding men's health and illness: a gender-relations approach to policy, research, and practice. (United States)

    Schofield, T; Connell, R W; Walker, L; Wood, J F; Butland, D L


    Men's health has emerged as an important public concern that may require new kinds of healthcare interventions and increased resources. Considerable uncertainty and confusion surround prevailing understandings of men's health, particularly those generated by media debate and public policy, and health research has often operated on oversimplified assumptions about men and masculinity. A more useful way of understanding men's health is to adopt a gender-relations approach. This means examining health concerns in the context of men's and women's interactions with each other, and their positions in the larger, multidimensional structure of gender relations. Such an approach raises the issue of differences among men, which is a key issue in recent research on masculinity and an important health issue. The gender-relations approach offers new ways of addressing practical issues of healthcare for men in college environments.

  4. What Is "Good" Mentoring? Understanding Mentoring Practices of Teacher Induction through Case Studies of Finland and Australia (United States)

    Pennanen, Matti; Bristol, Laurette; Wilkinson, Jane; Heikkinen, Hannu L. T.


    Mentoring is a practice widely utilised to support new teachers. However, in locally formed systems, the practice of mentoring is conditioned by traditions and arrangements specific to the site. To understand "good" mentoring, these local arrangements cannot be ignored. In this article, the theory of practice architectures is employed to…

  5. Final Scientific and Technical Report - Practical Fiber Delivered Laser Ignition Systems for Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalin, Azer [Seaforth, LLC


    Research has characterized advanced kagome fiber optics for their use in laser ignition systems. In comparison to past fibers used in laser ignition, these fibers have the important advantage of being relatively bend-insensitivity, so that they can be bent and coiled without degradation of output energy or beam quality. The results are very promising for practical systems. For pulse durations of ~12 ns, the fibers could deliver >~10 mJ pulses before damage onset. A study of pulse duration showed that by using longer pulse duration (~20 – 30 ns), it is possible to carry even higher pulse energy (by factor of ~2-3) which also provides future opportunities to implement longer duration sources. Beam quality measurements showed nearly single-mode output from the kagome fibers (i.e. M2 close to 1) which is the optimum possible value and, combined with their high pulse energy, shows the suitability of the fibers for laser ignition. Research has also demonstrated laser ignition of an engine including reliable (100%) ignition of a single-cylinder gasoline engine using the laser ignition system with bent and coiled kagome fiber. The COV of IMEP was <2% which is favorable for stable engine operation. These research results, along with the continued reduction in cost of laser sources, support our commercial development of practical laser ignition systems.

  6. Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Vacher


    Full Text Available In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over all. Geological research has shifted emphasis over the study period, moving away from economic geology and petroleum geology, towards physics- and chemistry-based topics. The Apollo lunar landings had as much influence on the topics and practice of geological research as the much-cited plate-tectonics revolution. These results reflect the barely-tangible effects of the changes in vocabulary and habit of thought that have pervaded the substance of geology. Geological literature has increased in volume and specialization, resulting in a highly fragmentary literature. However, we infer that "big science," characterized by large amounts of funding, collaboration, and large logistical investments, makes use of this specialization and turns "twigging" into a phenomenon that enhances, rather than inhibits, the enterprise of research.

  7. Magneto-laser-ultrasonic therapy. Scientific materials used in practice. V.4(1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samosyuk, I.Z.; Chukhraev, N.V.; Myasnikov, V.G.; Samosyuk, N.I.


    Contemporary data about the use of magnetotherapy, ultrasound and magnetolaser therapy in resonance energy ranges are presented in this book. Practical methodics of simultaneous and combined use of these physical factors in different branches of clinical medicine (neurology, cardiology, gastroenterology and others) are described. General idea of biological rhythms is given and it is considered as a background of living systems development. Biorhythms are used for determination of 'biological resonance', the optimum correlation between vibrations of the organism and external ones. In such a way the best results of treatment are achieved. Modern principles of the sensitive zone choice, bases of biorhythmic and resonance phenomena are presented. Practical uses of them became more and more important in physiotherapy and acupuncture. Human biological rhythms are taken into consideration during bioresonance treatment. Features of each treatment method are described. Reactions of different organism systems (nervous, hearth and vessel, bone, respiratory systems, internal secretion) on magnetic field influence, obtained treatment effects of magnetotherapy and possible mistakes in treatment are discussed. Special advices on the use of ultrasound therapy and magnetotherapy are given. The most part of magneto-laser-ultrasound therapy uses refers to the new generation of series 'MIT' and 'MIT-11' apparat which combine all three treatment factors

  8. Review Essay: From Local Practices to Public Knowledge: Action Research as Scientific Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Martí


    Full Text Available In recent years action research has been gradually introduced into academic thought, giving impetus to contributions such as The Action Research Dissertation, specifically aimed at doing and reporting doctoral research based on this methodology. Beyond purely instrumental aspects (contributing criteria and tools for the execution of dissertations through action research, the book raises some issues that play a fundamental role in assessing action research at the university level: its epistemological bases, researchers' positionality, quality criteria, and the ways in which the process is narrated. This review essay introduces the debate (Section 1, reviews the chapters of the book (Section 2, and notes its contributions to this ongoing discussion and where it falls short, and, more generally, on the relation between universities, action research, and social practices (Section 3. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs080320

  9. 13th Scientific and Technical Conference on Transport Systems : Theory and Practice 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpiński, Grzegorz; v.1 Intelligent transport systems and travel behaviour; v.2 Contemporary challenges of transport systems and traffic engineering


    The publication contains numerous valuable guidelines one will find particularly useful while making decisions concerning development and improvement of transport systems. It provides a multitude of case studies connected with diverse problems of both technical and organisational nature. The knowledge displayed while discussing practical examples as well as the decision making support systems described in the publication will certainly attract interest of those who face the challenge of seeking solutions to problems of contemporary transport systems on a daily basis. Consequently, this publication is dedicated to local authorities involved in planning and preparation of development strategies for specific transport related areas (in both urban and regional dimension) as well as to representatives of business and industry, being those who participate directly in the implementation of traffic engineering solutions. The guidelines provided in individual chapters of the publication will make it possible to addres...

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis. New scientific insights and practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, K.G.A.


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive diagnostic modality for the detection of inflammatory changes in peripheral joints. Nevertheless, the widespread clinical use of MRI in assessing patients with early rheumatoid arthritis is still hampered by the technical complexity and higher cost of MRI compared with conventional radiography. This overview summarizes the results of recent research and gives practical tips on how to perform MRI of the hands. The authors present an MR protocol for hand imaging, discuss the pros and cons of low-field MR scanners, and outline pitfalls and artifacts. The MRI changes associated with rheumatoid arthritis such as synovitis, tenosynovitis, erosions, and bone marrow edema are described including their prognostic significance. The proven facts on the validation and grading of MR changes in rheumatoid arthritis are summarized. Finally, the role of MRI in the differential diagnosis of arthritis is critically discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Understanding as Integration of Heterogeneous Representations (United States)

    Martínez, Sergio F.


    The search for understanding is a major aim of science. Traditionally, understanding has been undervalued in the philosophy of science because of its psychological underpinnings; nowadays, however, it is widely recognized that epistemology cannot be divorced from psychology as sharp as traditional epistemology required. This eliminates the main obstacle to give scientific understanding due attention in philosophy of science. My aim in this paper is to describe an account of scientific understanding as an emergent feature of our mastering of different (causal) explanatory frameworks that takes place through the mastering of scientific practices. Different practices lead to different kinds of representations. Such representations are often heterogeneous. The integration of such representations constitute understanding.

  12. Understanding the Magic of the Bicycle; Basic scientific explanations to the two-wheeler's mysterious and fascinating behavior (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph W.

    The bicycle is a common, yet unique mechanical contraption in our world. In spite of this, the bike's physical and mechanical principles are understood by a select few. You do not have to be a genius to join this small group of people who understand the physics of cycling. This is your guide to fundamental principles (such as Newton's laws) and the book provides intuitive, basic explanations for the bicycle's behaviour. Each concept is introduced and illustrated with simple, everyday examples. Although cycling is viewed by most as a fun activity, and almost everyone acquires the basic skills at a young age, few understand the laws of nature that give magic to the ride. This is a closer look at some of these fun, exhilarating, and magical aspects of cycling. In the reading, you will also understand other physical principles such as motion, force, energy, power, heat, and temperature.

  13. Diagnosing non-cavitated lesions in epidemiological studies: practical and scientific considerations. (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana Christina; Mestrinho, Heliana Dantas


    Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in diagnosing non-cavitated lesions in epidemiological studies involving large numbers of preschool children, schoolchildren and young adults. In this context, assessment of lesions characteristics indicating whether or not there is ongoing mineral loss is also considered relevant. The reasoning sustained by these studies is that diagnosis of the caries process limited to the cavitated level is no longer in accordance with current state-of-the-art knowledge in cariology. This paper highlights one topic of the lecture entitled "Caries Process: Evolving Evidence and Understanding," presented at the 18th Congress of the Brazilian Association for Oral Health Promotion (Associação Brasileira de Odontologia de Promoção de Saúde - ABOPREV) in April 2013. In the framework of epidemiological studies, the interest in diagnosing active and inactive non-cavitated lesions was elucidated. However, relevant questions associated with the diagnosis of non-cavitated lesions that might raise concerns among researchers and health administrators were not addressed. The present paper aims to bring these questions into discussion. The contribution of this discussion in terms of developing the understanding of caries decline is analyzed by using data from a caries trends study of Brazilian preschool children residing in the Federal District of Brazil as an example. The inclusion of active and inactive non-cavitated lesions in the diagnosis of the caries process allowed us to demonstrate that, in Brazilian 1- to 5-year-old children, caries prevalence decreased significantly from 1996 to 2006, simultaneously with a reduction in the rate of caries progression.

  14. Kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts and scientific inquiry processes according to demographic variables (the sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail İlhan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC and scientific inquiry processes (SIP and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the kindergarten students’ LUSSC and SIP. This study was conducted according to quantitative research design. The study group consisted of 335 kindergarten students from 20 different rural and urban schools. In the study, the scale for “Turkish Kindergarten Students’ Understandings of Scientific Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes” was used. According to some variables (such as mother’s education level and family structure, there was a statistically significant difference between students’ mean scores for LUSSC and between students’ mean scores for SIP. Within the scope of this study, it was found that among the predictor variables (age, family’s income level, and number of brother/sister were significant predictors for LUSSC, and number of brother/sister was a significant predictor for SIP.

  15. Social support, acculturation, and optimism: understanding positive health practices in Asian American college students. (United States)

    Ayres, Cynthia G; Mahat, Ganga


    This study developed and tested a theory to better understand positive health practices (PHP) among Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. It tested theoretical relationships postulated between PHP and (a) social support (SS), (b) optimism, and (c) acculturation, and between SS and optimism and acculturation. Optimism and acculturation were also tested as possible mediators in the relationship between SS and PHP. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 163 Asian college students in an urban setting completed four questionnaires assessing SS, PHP, optimism, and acculturation and one demographic questionnaire. There were statistically significant positive relationships between SS and optimism with PHP, between acculturation and PHP, and between optimism and SS. Optimism mediated the relationship between SS and PHP, whereas acculturation did not. Findings extend knowledge regarding these relationships to a defined population of Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. Findings contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian Americans. The theoretical and empirical findings of this study provide the direction for future research as well. Further studies need to be conducted to identify and test other mediators in order to better understand the relationship between these two variables.

  16. Understanding the divide between the theory and practice of organisational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Pollack


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different ways that academics and practitioners write about and discuss change management, to develop an understanding of whether there is a divide between the theory and practice of change management. This research used scientometric research techniques to compare three corpora: one based on the most cited research in the general management literature on change management; one based on the most cited research in specialist change management journals; and one based on interviews with practising change managers. It was found that the general management literature emphasised an abstract understanding of knowledge management and the learning organisation, while the change management literature focused more on issues associated with value, culture and social identity. The practitioners emphasised issues at the individual, project and team levels, the need for the effective use of targeted communication to achieve organisational change objectives, and the value of rapidly identifying key drivers in a new context. This research found significant differences between these three corpora, which lends support to other researchers’ claims of a divide between theory and practice in change management.

  17. "To Be a Scientist Sometimes You Have to Break Down Stuff about Animals": Examining the Normative Scientific Practices of a Summer Herpetological Program for Children (United States)

    Scott, Catherine Marie


    When studying informal science programs, researchers often overlook the opportunities enabled and constrained in each program and the practices reinforced for participants. In this case study, I examined the normative scientific practices reinforced in one-week-long "Herpetology" (the study of reptiles and amphibians) program for…

  18. Pop Rocks! Engaging first-year geology students by deconstructing and correcting scientific misconceptions in popular culture. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Almberg


    Full Text Available Popular culture abounds with ill-conceived notions about Earth’s processes.  Movies, books, music, television and even video games frequently misrepresent fundamental scientific principles, warping viewers’ perceptions of the world around them.  First year geoscience students are not immune to pop culture’s portrayal of earth science and the misconceptions they bring to Geology 101 cloud their ability to differentiate between fact and fiction.  Working within an action research context, a semester-long assessment was designed with the intent to highlight and subsequently challenge students’ misconceptions using examples of “bad geoscience” from pop culture.  Students were required to practice and refine generic skills within this context.  This project succeeded in engaging students, but requires refinement to become more effective in enhancing their geoscience literacy. 

  19. Some non-scientific influences on radiation protection standards and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.


    In this introductory lecture to the 5th International Congress of the IRPA, the problem of setting radiation protection standards and practice is broadly reviewed under the following headings:- 1) Biological effects of radiation, 2) Philosophy, 3) The Media, 4) Morality, (with particular reference to the problem of different classes of exposure) 5) Laws and Regulations (with particular reference to the U.S.) 6) Economics, 7) Education, 8) Credibility of scientists. It is suggested that because of their basic training in a sense of objectivity, a good argument can be made that scientists are as devoid of special interest as any other group. An argument is made that the problem of setting standards for protection can be reduced to a blending of two theories, a) that we are dealing with a single linear, no-threshold dose-effect relationship and b) the toxicological view that concentrations of a toxic substance should be set somewhat below that at which any effect could be found. (U.K.)

  20. Rééducation Posturale Globale in musculoskeletal diseases: scientific evidence and clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tosarelli


    Full Text Available Several studies on the treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with physiotherapy and clinical experiences on the basis of a method called Rééducation Posturale Globale (RPG, have highlighted the usefulness of this treatment. Although such treatment technique is commonly used in physical therapy practice, only few studies support its therapeutic effectiveness. Objective: To search the literature for evidence of RPG effectiveness, in order to identify the most appropriate therapeutic contexts for its use. Methods: A review of the literature through the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, Pedro, and Medscape. The keywords used for the search in the databases are: Rééducation Posturale Globale, Souchard, Posture, and Manual Therapy. The following clinical studies were selected: randomized controlled studies, non-randomized controlled studies, observation studies, and case reports, in English, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian. Results: Out of 18 studies found, 9 were analyzed: 2 randomized controlled studies, 2 non-randomized controlled studies, 3 non-controlled studies, and 2 case reports. Conclusions: The RPG method has been shown to be an effective treatment technique for musculoskeletal diseases, in particular for ankylosing spondylitis, acute and chronic low back pain, and lumbar discherniation. Although the scarcity of rigorous experimental trials on a large scale does not allow the drawing of undisputable conclusions, the results gathered up to now are an encouragement to carry on research in the field of conservative treatment.

  1. How to Generate Understanding of the Scientific Process in Introductory Biology: A Student-Designed Laboratory Exercise on Yeast Fermentation (United States)

    Collins, Linda T.; Bell, Rebekah P.


    Heavy faculty teaching loads and limited funds biology teachers designed certain objectives in order to increase the understandability of the subject matter of the laboratory exercises they write. In relation to these objectives an old "cookbook" laboratory exercise on yeast fermentation is introduced which involve students asking questions,…

  2. Using Memes and Memetic Processes to Explain Social and Conceptual Influences on Student Understanding about Complex Socio-Scientific Issues (United States)

    Yoon, Susan


    This study investigated seventh grade learners' decision making about genetic engineering concepts and applications. A social network analyses supported by technology tracked changes in student understanding with a focus on social and conceptual influences. Results indicated that several social and conceptual mechanisms potentially affected how…

  3. Using Models to Understand Sea Level Rise (United States)

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren; Medina, Edwing


    Important science phenomena--such as atomic structure, evolution, and climate change--are often hard to observe directly. That's why an important scientific practice is to use scientific models to represent one's current understanding of a system. Using models has been included as an essential science and engineering practice in the "Next…

  4. Understanding science teaching effectiveness: examining how science-specific and generic instructional practices relate to student achievement in secondary science classrooms (United States)

    Mikeska, Jamie N.; Shattuck, Tamara; Holtzman, Steven; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Duchesneau, Nancy; Qi, Yi; Stickler, Leslie


    In order to create conditions for students' meaningful and rigorous intellectual engagement in science classrooms, it is critically important to help science teachers learn which strategies and approaches can be used best to develop students' scientific literacy. Better understanding how science teachers' instructional practices relate to student achievement can provide teachers with beneficial information about how to best engage their students in meaningful science learning. To address this need, this study examined the instructional practices that 99 secondary biology teachers used in their classrooms and employed regression to determine which instructional practices are predictive of students' science achievement. Results revealed that the secondary science teachers who had well-managed classroom environments and who provided opportunities for their students to engage in student-directed investigation-related experiences were more likely to have increased student outcomes, as determined by teachers' value-added measures. These findings suggest that attending to both generic and subject-specific aspects of science teachers' instructional practice is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms that result in more effective science instruction in secondary classrooms. Implications about the use of these observational measures within teacher evaluation systems are discussed.

  5. Radiation protection. Scientific fundamentals, legal regulations, practical applications. Compendium; Strahlenschutz. Wissenschaftliche Grundlagen, Rechtliche Regelungen, Praktische Anwendungen. Kompendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchert, Guido; Gay, Juergen; Kirchner, Gerald; Michel, Rolf; Niggemann, Guenter; Schumann, Joerg; Wust, Peter; Jaehnert, Susanne; Strilek, Ralf; Martini, Ekkehard (eds.)


    The compendium on radiation protection, scientific fundamentals, legal regulations and practical applications includes contributions to the following issues: (1) Effects and risk of ionizing radiation: fundamentals on effects and risk of ionizing radiation, news in radiation biology, advantages and disadvantages of screening investigations; (2) trends and legal regulations concerning radiation protection: development of European and national radiation protection laws, new regulations concerning X-rays, culture and ethics of radiation protection; (3) dosimetry and radiation measuring techniques: personal scanning using GHz radiation, new ''dose characteristics'' in practice, measuring techniques for the nuclear danger prevention and emergency hazard control; (4) radiation exposure in medicine: radiation exposure of modern medical techniques, heavy ion radiotherapy, deterministic and stochastic risks of the high-conformal photon radiotherapy, STEMO project - mobile CT for apoplectic stroke patients; (5) radiation exposure in technology: legal control of high-level radioactive sources, technical and public safety using enclosed radioactive sources for materials testing, radiation exposure in aviation, radon in Bavaria, NPP Fukushima-Daiichi - a status report; (6) radiation exposure in nuclear engineering: The Chernobyl accident - historical experiences or sustaining problem? European standards for radioactive waste disposal, radioactive material disposal in Germany risk assessment of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (7) Case studies.

  6. Between individual agency and structure in HIV prevention: understanding the middle ground of social practice. (United States)

    Kippax, Susan; Stephenson, Niamh; Parker, Richard G; Aggleton, Peter


    When HIV prevention targets risk and vulnerability, it focuses on individual agency and social structures, ignoring the centrality of community in effective HIV prevention. The neoliberal concept of risk assumes individuals are rational agents who act on information provided to them regarding HIV transmission. This individualistic framework does not recognize the communities in which people act and connect. The concept of vulnerability on the other hand acknowledges the social world, but mainly as social barriers that make it difficult for individuals to act. Neither approach to HIV prevention offers understanding of community practices or collective agency, both central to success in HIV prevention to date. Drawing on examples of the social transformation achieved by community action in Australia and Brazil, this article focuses on this middle ground and its role in effective HIV prevention.

  7. Domestic abuse as a transgressive practice: understanding nurses' responses through the lens of abjection. (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie


    Domestic abuse is a worldwide public health issue with long-term health and social consequences. Nurses play a key role in recognizing and responding to domestic abuse. Yet there is considerable evidence that their responses are often inappropriate and unhelpful, such as trivializing or ignoring the abuse. Empirical studies have identified several reasons why nurses' responses are sometimes wanting. These include organizational constraints, e.g. lack of time and privacy; and interpersonal factors such as fear of offending women and lack of confidence. We propose, however, that these factors present only a partial explanation. Drawing on the work of Julia Kristeva, we suggest that alternative understandings may be derived through applying the concept of abjection. Abjection is a psychological defence against any threat (the abject) to the clean and proper self that results in rejection of the abject. Using examples from our own domestic abuse research, we contend that exposure of nurses to the horror of domestic abuse evokes a state of abjection. Domestic abuse (the abject) transgresses established social boundaries of clean and proper. Thus when exposed to patients' and clients' experiences of it, some nurses subconsciously reject domestic abuse as a possibility (abjection). They do this to protect themselves from the horror of the act, but in so doing, render themselves unable to formulate appropriate responses. Rather than understanding the practice of some nurses as wilfully neglectful or ignorant, we argue that through a state of abjection, they are powerless to act. This does not refute existing evidence about nurses' responses to domestic abuse. Rather, as a relatively unknown concept in nursing, abjection provides an additional explanatory layer that accounts for why some nurses respond the way they do. Crucially, it elucidates the need for nurses to be supported emotionally when faced with the transgressive practice of abuse. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A new model to understand the career choice and practice location decisions of medical graduates. (United States)

    Stagg, P; Greenhill, J; Worley, P S


    Australian medical education is increasingly influenced by rural workforce policy. Therefore, understanding the influences on medical graduates' practice location and specialty choice is crucial for medical educators and medical workforce planners. The South Australian Flinders University Parallel Rural Community Curriculum (PRCC) was funded by the Australian Government to help address the rural doctor workforce shortage. The PRCC was the first community based medical education program in Australia to teach a full academic year of medicine in South Australian rural general practices. The aim of this research was to identify what factors influence the career choices of PRCC graduates. A retrospective survey of all contactable graduates of the PRCC was undertaken. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS 14.0 for Windows. Qualitative data were entered into NVIVO 7 software for coding, and analysed using content analysis. Usable data were collected from 46 of the 86 contactable graduates (53%). More than half of the respondents (54%) reported being on a rural career path. A significant relationship exists between being on a rural career pathway and making the decision prior to or during medical school (p = 0.027), and between graduates in vocational training who are on an urban career path and making a decision on career specialty after graduation from medical school (p = .004). Graduates in a general practice vocational training program are more likely to be on a rural career pathway than graduates in a specialty other than general practice (p = .003). A key influence on graduates' practice location is geographic location prior to entering medical school. Key influences on graduates choosing a rural career pathway are: having a spouse/partner with a rural background; clinical teachers and mentors; the extended rural based undergraduate learning experience; and a specialty preference for general practice. A lack of rural based internships and specialist training

  9. Understanding the importance of teachers in facilitating student success: Contemporary science, practice, and policy. (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R; Haddock, Aaron D


    Teacher quality has a vital influence on student success or failure. Thus, further research regarding teacher effectiveness, teacher evaluation, teacher well-being, and teacher contributions is essential to inform school psychologists and allied educational professionals who collaborate and consult with teachers to facilitate student success. In this special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly, a series of 6 articles further elucidate teachers' powerful contributions to student outcomes along with concrete, research-based ways for school psychologists to support and collaborate with teachers. The studies included in the special section describe how teacher support facilitates students' positive academic and social-emotional outcomes and how students' attitudes toward learning moderate the association between the classroom environment and students' academic achievement. Studies also report on the development and validation of self-report measures focused on both teacher subjective well-being and teachers' use of evidence-based practices. Finally, the articles included in the special topic section offer insights and ideas for refining teacher evaluation practices, understanding the factors contributing to program implementation fidelity, and improving prevention, early identification, and intervention efforts aimed at fostering school completion and positive youth development. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. BNFL's advertising phase II: 'We understand that you are a successful scientific company, but what do you actually do?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskins, Louise


    Full text: Last year, I presented a case study about the development of BNFL's advertising strategy and the challenges which we overcame since its launch in 1995. The case study this year will follow the progress of the strategy's second phase. It will begin by reiterating the role of advertising in the communications mix and the distinct part we believe it plays in building and retaining a strong corporate reputation amongst influential audiences within the UK. Our advertising to date has aimed to define BNFL's role in the nuclear sector and so detach the company from the contentious debate which surrounds the nuclear industry in general. The case study will briefly summarise how effective we have been in achieving this objective through the first phase of television and press advertising. The presentation will concentrate, in particular, on the development of the second phase which has involved the production of a new television advertisement and a press and poster advertisement. Having introduced the key characteristics of the company to the UK population during the first phase through describing key scientific achievements, phase two concentrates on BNFL's core activity - recycling nuclear fuel. The presentation will outline the various development phases including concept research, our tough negotiations with the UK's advertising regulatory bodies (the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) and the Independent Television Commission (ITC) through to final production, testing and media scheduling. Generating positive attribution amongst the UK population is obviously the key success indicator. Equally, we believe that it is imperative to share such communications activity with another key stakeholder - our own employees. The case study will outline the phase of internal negotiations and substantiation through to the methods we adopted to ensure that employees saw the television advertisement before the UK population at large. The campaign was launched on

  11. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.


    This is the first book written on using Blender (an open source visualization suite widely used in the entertainment and gaming industries) for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  12. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.


    This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  13. Scientific production on indoor air quality of environments used for physical exercise and sports practice: Bibliometric analysis. (United States)

    Andrade, Alexandro; Dominski, Fábio Hech; Coimbra, Danilo Reis


    In order to minimize adverse health effects and increase the benefits of physical activity, it is important to systematize indoor air quality study in environments used for physical exercise and sports. To investigate and analyze the scientific production related to indoor air quality of environments used for physical exercise and sports practice through a bibliometric analysis. The databases Scielo, Science Direct, Scopus, Lilacs, Medline via Pubmed, and SportDiscus were searched from their inception to March 2016. Bibliometric analysis was performed for authors, institutions, countries, and collaborative networks, in relation to publication year, theme, citation network, funding agency, and analysis of titles and keywords of publications. Country, area, and impact factor of the journals were analyzed. Of 1281 studies screened, 34 satisfied the inclusion criteria. The first publication occurred in 1975. An increase in publications was observed in the last 15 years. Most of the studies were performed by researchers in the USA, followed by Portugal and Italy. Seventeen different scientific journals have published studies on the subject, and most are in the area of Environmental Sciences. It was noted that the categories of author keywords associated with "Pollutants," "Sport Environment," and "Physical Exercise" were the most commonly used in most studies. A total of 68% of the studies had at least one funding agency, and 81% of studies published in the last decade had funding. Our results demonstrate that there is recent exponential growth, driven in the last decade by researchers in environmental science from European institutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding Preservice Teachers' Development of Pedagogical Knowledge Practices When Co-Teaching Primary Science to Peers (United States)

    Hudson, Peter


    Preservice teachers articulate the need for more teaching experiences for developing their practices, however, extending beyond existing school arrangements may present difficulties. Thus, it is important to understand preservice teachers' development of pedagogical knowledge practices when in the university setting. This mixed-method study…

  15. A Process-Philosophical Understanding of Organizational Learning as "Wayfinding": Process, Practices and Sensitivity to Environmental Affordances (United States)

    Chia, Robert


    Purpose: This paper aims to articulate a practice-based, non-cognitivist approach to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: This paper explores the potential contribution of a process-based "practice turn" in social theory for understanding organizational learning. Findings: In complex, turbulent environments, robust…

  16. Pastoral ministry in a missional age: Towards a practical theological understanding of missional pastoral care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume H. Smit


    Full Text Available This article concerns itself with the development of a missional ecclesiology and the practices that may accept the challenge of conducting pastoral ministry in the context of South African, middleclass congregations adapting to a rapidly changing, post-apartheid environment. Some practical theological perspectives on pastoral counselling are investigated, whilst Narrative Therapy is explored as an emerging theory of deconstruction to enable the facilitating of congregational change towards a missional understanding of church life in local communities. Subsequently, the theological paradigm of missional ecclesiology is investigated before drawing the broad lines of a theory for pastoral ministry within missional ecclesiology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: In this article, a missional base theory is proposed for pastoral counselling, consisting of interdisciplinary insights gained from the fields of Missiology, Practical Theology, Narrative Therapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. The implications of this proposal for the development of a missional pastoral theory focus on the following three aspects:� re-establishing pastoral identity: exploring Christ� pastoral development: intentional faith formation� pastoral ministry: enabling Christ-centred lives.In such a missional pastoral theory four practices should be operationalised: first of all, a cognitive approach to increasing knowledge of the biblical narrative is necessary. This provides the hermeneutical skills necessary to enable people to internalise the biblical ethics and character traits ascribed to the Christian life. Secondly, a pastoral theory needs to pay close attention to development of emotional intelligence. Thirdly, this should be done in the context of small groups, where the focus falls on the personality development of members. Finally, missional pastoral theory should also include the acquisition of life coaching skills, where leaders can be

  17. Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice (United States)

    Hvidsten, Connie J.

    Connie J. Hvidsten September 2016 Education Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice This dissertation consists of three papers analyzing writings and interviews of experienced secondary science teachers during and after a two-year professional development (PD) program focused on model-based reasoning (MBR). MBR is an approach to science instruction that provides opportunities for students to use conceptual models to make sense of natural phenomena in ways that are similar to the use of models within the scientific community. The aim of this research is to better understand the learning and learning pathways teachers identified as valuable in supporting changes in their teaching practice. To accomplish this aim, the papers analyze the ways teachers 1) ascribe their learning to various aspects of the program, 2) describe what they learned, and 3) reflect on the impact the PD had on their teaching practice. Twenty-one secondary science teachers completed the Innovations in Science Instruction through Modeling (ISIM) program from 2007 through 2009. Commonalities in the written reflections and interview responses led to a set of generalizable findings related to the impacts and outcomes of the PD. The first of the three papers describes elements of the ISIM program that teachers associated with their own learning. One of the most frequently mentioned PD feature was being in the position of an adult learner. Embedding learning in instructional practice by collaboratively developing and revising lessons, and observing the lessons in one-another's classrooms provided a sense of professional community, accountability, and support teachers reported were necessary to overcome the challenges of implementing new pedagogical practices. Additionally, teachers described that opportunities to reflect on their learning and connect their

  18. A pilot study using children's books to understand caregiver perceptions of parenting practices. (United States)

    Bauer, Nerissa S; Hus, Anna M; Sullivan, Paula D; Szczepaniak, Dorota; Carroll, Aaron E; Downs, Stephen M


    To conduct a pilot study to test the feasibility and acceptability of using children's books to understand caregiver perceptions of parenting practices around common behavior challenges. A prospective 1-month pilot study was conducted in 3 community-based pediatric clinics serving lower income families living in central Indianapolis. One hundred caregivers of 4- to 7-year-old children presenting for a well-child visit chose 1 of 3 available children's books that dealt with a behavioral concern the caregiver reported having with the child. The book was read aloud to the child in the caregiver's presence by a trained research assistant and given to the families to take home. Outcomes measured were caregiver intent to change their interaction with their child after the book reading, as well as caregiver reports of changes in caregiver-child interactions at 1 month. Reading the book took an average of 3 minutes. Most (71%) caregivers reported intent to change after the book reading; two-thirds (47/71) were able to identify a specific technique or example illustrated in the story. One month later, all caregivers remembered receiving the book, and 91% reported reading the book to their child and/or sharing it with someone else. Three-fourths of caregivers (60/80) reported a change in caregiver-child interactions. The distribution of children's books with positive parenting content is a feasible and promising tool, and further study is warranted to see whether these books can serve as an effective brief intervention in pediatric primary care practice.

  19. Turning scientific approaches into practical conservation actions: the case of Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro, Mexico. (United States)

    Velázquez, A; Bocco, G; Torres, A


    Optimum natural resource management and biodiversity conservation are desirable goals. These, however, often exclude each other, since maximum economic benefits have promoted drastic reductions in biodiversity throughout the world. This dilemma confronts local stakeholders, who usually go for maximizing economic inputs, whereas other social (e.g., academic) sectors are favor conservation practices. In this paper we describe the way two scientific approaches--landscape and participatory research--were used to develop sound and durable land use scenarios. These two approaches included expert knowledge of both social and environmental conditions in indigenous communities. Our major emphasis was given to detect spatially explicit land use scenarios and capacity building in order to construct a decision support system operated by stakeholders of the Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro in Mexico. The system for decision-making was fed with data from inventories of both abiotic and biotic biodiversity components. All research, implementation, and monitoring activities were conducted in close collaboration with members of the indigenous community. As a major result we obtained a number of forest alternative uses that favor emerging markets and make this indigenous community less dependent on a single market. Furthermore, skilled members of the community are now running the automated system for decision-making. In conclusion, our results were better expressed as products with direct benefits in local livelihoods rather than pure academic outputs.

  20. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis: a guide to good practice and understanding some new applications. (United States)

    Murchie, E H; Lawson, T


    Chlorophyll fluorescence is a non-invasive measurement of photosystem II (PSII) activity and is a commonly used technique in plant physiology. The sensitivity of PSII activity to abiotic and biotic factors has made this a key technique not only for understanding the photosynthetic mechanisms but also as a broader indicator of how plants respond to environmental change. This, along with low cost and ease of collecting data, has resulted in the appearance of a large array of instrument types for measurement and calculated parameters which can be bewildering for the new user. Moreover, its accessibility can lead to misuse and misinterpretation when the underlying photosynthetic processes are not fully appreciated. This review is timely because it sits at a point of renewed interest in chlorophyll fluorescence where fast measurements of photosynthetic performance are now required for crop improvement purposes. Here we help the researcher make choices in terms of protocols using the equipment and expertise available, especially for field measurements. We start with a basic overview of the principles of fluorescence analysis and provide advice on best practice for taking pulse amplitude-modulated measurements. We also discuss a number of emerging techniques for contemporary crop and ecology research, where we see continual development and application of analytical techniques to meet the new challenges that have arisen in recent years. We end the review by briefly discussing the emerging area of monitoring fluorescence, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, field phenotyping, and remote sensing of crops for yield and biomass enhancement.

  1. Consumers' practical understanding of healthy food choices: a fake food experiment. (United States)

    Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara


    Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method.

  2. Developing Students' Reflections on the Function and Status of Mathematical Modeling in Different Scientific Practices: History as a Provider of Cases (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten


    Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical position held by the modeler(s) and the…

  3. Problems of Chernobyl. Materials of International scientific and practical conference 'Shelter-98'; Problemi Chornobilya. Materyiali Myizhnarodnoyi Naukovo-Praktichnoyi Konferentsyiyi 'Ukrittya-98'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyuchnikov, O O [eds.


    These transactions contain materials of International Scientific and Practical Conference 'Shelter-98', which was held 27-30 November 1998 in Slavutich. They describe the results of the research work of the specialists from Ukraine, neighborhood and far foreign counties. The results, targeted at solving the problems of converting the Shelter Object into oncologically safe state.

  4. Environmental Science and Engineering Merit Badges: An Exploratory Case Study of a Non-Formal Science Education Program and the U.S. Scientific and Engineering Practices (United States)

    Vick, Matthew E.; Garvey, Michael P.


    The Boy Scouts of America's Environmental Science and Engineering merit badges are two of their over 120 merit badges offered as a part of a non-formal educational program to U.S. boys. The Scientific and Engineering Practices of the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards provide a vision of science education that includes integrating eight…

  5. Landslide risk assessment and landslide disaster risk management: on the missing link between scientific knowledge, decision making and practice (Sergey Soloviev Medal Lecture) (United States)

    Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema


    Different investigations have been developed to address the uncertainty and quality evaluations leading to improve landslide hazard and risk assessment. With no doubt, and by using a wide range of scientific and technical approaches, they have contributed to a major extent to the understanding of the dynamics of landslide processes at different scales. Nonetheless, in a similar fashion than other hazards, it has been rather difficult to assess in a precise manner the multi-dimensions of their associated vulnerability and what is more, to effectively link risk assessments with disaster risk management. Owing to the double-character of landslide events, as natural and socio-natural hazards, mass movements turn out to be very complex processes, as their occurrence is also enhanced by population growth, socio-economic inequality, urbanization processes, land-degradation, unsustainable practices and mounting hazard exposure. Disaster Risk Management rope in the actions to attain Disaster Risk Reduction. The latter aims at decreasing existing hazard, vulnerability, and exposure, in addition to strengthening resilience, and very importantly, avoiding the construction of future disaster risk (UNISDR, 2015a). More specifically, and along the same line of ideas, the new-fangled Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) 2015-2030 (UNISDR, 2015b) points towards reducing disaster risk and losses by engaging in a series of actions at local, national and global levels. Among them and of utterly significance are those initiatives related to the need of moving from risk assessment into disaster risk management. Consequently, and beyond championing scientific and technical capacity to strengthen landslide knowledge to assess vulnerability, hazard exposure and disaster risks, the challenge remains in the realm of promoting and improving permanent communication, dialogue and partnership among the science and technology communities, policymakers and other stakeholders

  6. 'I'm a consumer, I'm not a scientist': Cultivating Student Domain Identification, Agency, and Affect through Engagement in Scientific Practices (United States)

    Scalone, Giovanna

    using appraisal analysis to show how students talking about their images of science yield different ways of knowing and dispositions in science. Thirdly, by tracing the inclination and obligation of doing science, I illustrate how subjectivity versus materiality/objectivity in science impact how students perceive science. Fourth, student images of science, ways of identifying with science and having agency in science are analyzed using a thematic analysis to identify patterns and emerging themes. Next, I assess students' developing understanding of scientific inquiry using HLM to determine whether the Agency units versus the Inquiry units predicted students' learning outcomes based on the inquiry assessment. Finally, I discuss the implications of these analyses. This study accounts for how youth develop practice-linked identities in science entails the fleeting identity performances and language choices made for and by youth in the science classroom. Central to this notion of identity is agency where positionality as well as material and symbolic, interactional and situational resources constrain or enable identity development. In a learning context, these choices and values inherent in language use are relational to learner agency outside of language, but ensouled in performative curating where solidarity, intention, creativity, emotion, accountability, anticipation, cognition, and rewards enable the capacity to transform the self, others, and communities. This dissertation demonstrates how design features embedded in curriculum related to personal relevance and the societal context for science affords teachers to engage youth in agentic science learning in the classroom in ways that become more meaningful and supportive of science identification than traditional inquiry approaches to teaching science.

  7. Graphical methods and Cold War scientific practice: the Stommel Diagram's intriguing journey from the physical to the biological environmental sciences. (United States)

    Vance, Tiffany C; Doel, Ronald E


    In the last quarter of the twentieth century, an innovative three-dimensional graphical technique was introduced into biological oceanography and ecology, where it spread rapidly. Used to improve scientists' understanding of the importance of scale within oceanic ecosystems, this influential diagram addressed biological scales from phytoplankton to fish, physical scales from diurnal tides to ocean currents, and temporal scales from hours to ice ages. Yet the Stommel Diagram (named for physical oceanographer Henry Stommel, who created it in 1963) had not been devised to aid ecological investigations. Rather, Stommel intended it to help plan large-scale research programs in physical oceanography, particularly as Cold War research funding enabled a dramatic expansion of physical oceanography in the 1960s. Marine ecologists utilized the Stommel Diagram to enhance research on biological production in ocean environments, a key concern by the 1970s amid growing alarm about overfishing and ocean pollution. Before the end of the twentieth century, the diagram had become a significant tool within the discipline of ecology. Tracing the path that Stommel's graphical techniques traveled from the physical to the biological environmental sciences reveals a great deal about practices in these distinct research communities and their relative professional and institutional standings in the Cold War era. Crucial to appreciating the course of that path is an understanding of the divergent intellectual and social contexts of the physical versus the biological environmental sciences.

  8. [New Scientific Evidence-based Public Health Guidelines and Practical Manual for Prevention of Sick House Syndrome]. (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Araki, Atsuko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Azuma, Kenichi; Kawai, Toshio; Yamato, Hiroshi; Osawa, Haruki; Shibata, Eiji; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Masuchi, Ayumi; Minatoya, Machiko; Ait Bamai, Yu


    Recently, we have published a book containing evidence-based public health guidelines and a practical manual for the prevention of sick house syndrome. The manual is available through the homepage of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare ( It is an almost completely revised version of the 2009 version. The coauthors are 13 specialists in environmental epidemiology, exposure sciences, architecture, and risk communication. Since the 1970s, health problems caused by indoor chemicals, biological pollution, poor temperature control, humidity, and others in office buildings have been recognized as sick building syndrome (SBS) in Western countries, but in Japan it was not until the 1990s that people living in new or renovated homes started to describe a variety of nonspecific subjective symptoms such as eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, and general fatigue. These symptoms resembled SBS and were designated "sick house syndrome (SHS)." To determine the strategy for prevention of SHS, we conducted a nationwide epidemiological study in six cities from 2003-2013 by randomly sampling 5,709 newly built houses. As a result 1,479 residents in 425 households agreed to environmental monitoring for indoor aldehydes and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). After adjustment for possible risk factors, some VOCs and formaldehyde were dose-dependently shown to be significant risk factors. We also studied the dampness of the houses, fungi, allergies, and others. This book is fully based on the scientific evidence collected through these studies and other newly obtained information, especially from the aspect of architectural engineering. In addition to SHS, we included chapters on recent information about "multi-chemical sensitivity."

  9. Using the Systems-Practice Framework to Understand Food Allergen Management Practices at College Catering Operations: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Verstappen, Jennie; Mirosa, Miranda; Thomson, Carla


    The number of individuals with food allergies or intolerances attending catered university residential colleges is increasing, and safe dining options are required to minimize the risk of allergic reactions and food-induced death. This qualitative research study sought to advance professional knowledge of the factors affecting allergen management practices, particularly pertaining to college foodservices. Three catered residential colleges affiliated with a major university in New Zealand were selected as research sites. The study used an ethnographic approach and systems-practice theory as a framework for data collection and organizing results. Data collection techniques included document analyses (3 hours per site), observations (6 to 8 hours per site), focus groups with foodservice workers (30 to 45 minutes per site, n=16), and interviews with foodservice managers (45 to 90 minutes per interview, n=5). Notes and transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using NVivo for Mac software, version 11.1.1, to identify factors affecting allergen management practices. The main factors affecting allergen management practices at college foodservices included information provided by residents about dietary requirements; communication between residents and foodservice staff; systems for allergen management; attitude of foodservice staff; and college size. Detailed dietary information, effective communication with residents, sufficient resources, clarification of responsibilities, and thorough systems are required for staff to perform safe allergen management practices. Ultimately, successful implementation was predominantly determined by staff attitude. Foodservice managers are advised to identify motivators and address barriers of staff attitudes toward allergen management practices to promote successful implementation. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding the relationship between the variability in agrometeorological indices and adaptation practices across the Canadian Prairies (United States)

    Chipanshi, A.; Qi, D.; Zhang, Y.; Cherneski, P.


    In an attempt to understand how agriculture will adapt to the changing and variable climate, crop based agrometeorological indices including the Effective Growing Degree Days (EGDDs), Growing Season Length (GSL), Heat waves, Water Demand (Precipitation - Evapotranspiration) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) were analyzed in terms of frequency, duration and trend over a 63-year timeframe (1950 to 2012) from the Canadian Prairies and related to crop production. The heat based indices (EGDD, GSL and Heat waves) increased over the analysis period due to an upward increase in the observed mean temperature. The change was most noticeable in the northern portion of the study area where agriculture is limited by insufficient heat units under the present climate. Heat waves became more frequent in the southern parts of the study area (there were more days above the 30oC threshold). Water availability as assessed from water demand (P-PE) and SPEI trended downward especially in Alberta and Saskatchewan. In spite of the increased severity and frequency in water deficits, there was a noticeable reduction in the variability of crop yield over time. This was attributed to the increased adaptive capacity that has been gained through the use of improved seed hybrids, fertilizer, the use of fungicides and adoption of best management practices such as zero till and direct seeding. After crop yields were de-trended to remove effects of technology, the cumulative precipitation during the growing season explained the majority of the variance in crop yield. This initial analysis has set the stage for analyzing the characteristics of agrometeorological indices under climate change scenarios and how accumulated precipitation during the growing season will affect crop yield and production.

  11. Five male preservice elementary teachers: Their understandings, beliefs and practice regarding science teaching (United States)

    Hoover, Barbara Grambo

    Many factors influence teacher choices concerning the frequency, instructional methods, and content of science teaching. Although the role of gender in science learning has been studied extensively, the gender of elementary teachers as it intersects their teaching of science has not been investigated. In this ethnographic study, I focused on five male preservice elementary teachers as they experienced their student teaching internship, aiming to understand their underlying beliefs about science and science teaching and how those beliefs influenced their practice. In an attempt to illuminate the complex interplay of personality, experience, interests, and gender in the professional lives of these men, this study emphasized the importance of context in the formation and expression of their science beliefs and pedagogy. For this reason, I collected data from a number of sources. From September, 2001 to May, 2002, I observed my participants in their science methods courses and on multiple occasions as they taught science in elementary classrooms in a suburban school district. I reviewed journal entries required for the science methods class and examined documents such as handouts, readings and teacher guides from their elementary teaching experience. I conducted semi-structured and informal interviews. I analyzed data from these sources using grounded theory methodology. Although these five men had many similarities, they differed in their love of science, their exposure to science, their avocational interests, and their views of science pedagogy. This study, however, revealed a unifying theme: each participant had his own set of personal and academic resources that he carried into the classroom and used to construct a distinctive science learning environment. Some of these resources intersect with gender. For example, several men had science-related avocational interests. There was a common emphasis on creating a relaxed, enjoyable, hands-on teaching environment as

  12. Understanding perceptions of stakeholder groups about Forestry Best Management Practices in Georgia. (United States)

    Tumpach, Chantal; Dwivedi, Puneet; Izlar, Robert; Cook, Chase


    Forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs) are critical in ensuring sustainable forest management in the United States because of their effectiveness in protecting water quality, reducing soil erosion, maintaining riparian habitat, and sustaining site productivity. The success of forestry BMPs depends heavily on coordination among primary stakeholder groups. It is important to understand perceptions of such groups for a successful forest policy formulation. We used the SWOT-AHP (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats analysis with the Analytical Hierarchy Process) framework to assess perceptions of three stakeholder groups (loggers, landowners, agency foresters) about forestry BMPs in Georgia, the largest roundwood producing state in the United States. The agency and logger stakeholder groups gave the highest priority to improved reputation under the strength category, whereas the landowner stakeholder group perceived sustainable forestry as the highest priority under the same category. Lack of landowner education was the highest priority under the weakness category for landowner and agency stakeholder groups, whereas the logger stakeholder group selected lack of trained personnel as the highest priority under the same category. Agency and landowner stakeholder groups gave the highest priority to training and education while loggers indicated maintenance of forest-based environmental benefits as their highest priority under the opportunity category. Finally, landowners and agency stakeholder groups perceived more regulations and restrictions as most significant in the threat category whereas the logger stakeholder group was most concerned about the insufficient accounting of cost sharing under the same category. Overall, selected stakeholder groups recognize the importance of forestry BMPs and had positive perceptions about them. A collaborative approach based on continuous feedback can streamline expectations of stakeholder groups about forestry BMPs in

  13. Scientific impact: opportunity and necessity. (United States)

    Cohen, Marlene Z; Alexander, Gregory L; Wyman, Jean F; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Porock, Davina; Wurzbach, Mary E; Rawl, Susan M; Conn, Vicki S


    Recent National Institutes of Health changes have focused attention on the potential scientific impact of research projects. Research with the excellent potential to change subsequent science or health care practice may have high scientific impact. Only rigorous studies that address highly significant problems can generate change. Studies with high impact may stimulate new research approaches by changing understanding of a phenomenon, informing theory development, or creating new research methods that allow a field of science to move forward. Research with high impact can transition health care to more effective and efficient approaches. Studies with high impact may propel new policy developments. Research with high scientific impact typically has both immediate and sustained influence on the field of study. The article includes ideas to articulate potential scientific impact in grant applications as well as possible dissemination strategies to enlarge the impact of completed projects.

  14. The art of practice. Understanding the process of musical maturation through reflection


    Esslin-Peard, Monica; Shorrocks, Tony; Welch, Graham F.


    Much has been written in the last 30 years about musical practice and performance, but there is little consensus over what practice really means, or how musicians progress by practising. Researchers tend to focus on specific elements in practice rather than maintaining a more holistic perspective. Whilst academics historically focused on (primarily Western) classical musicians, more recent research has encompassed popular, jazz and folk musicians. The current research project at the Universit...

  15. Promoting Science Learning and Scientific Identification through Contemporary Scientific Investigations (United States)

    Van Horne, Katie

    This dissertation investigates the implementation issues and the educational opportunities associated with "taking the practice turn" in science education. This pedagogical shift focuses instructional experiences on engaging students in the epistemic practices of science both to learn the core ideas of the disciplines, as well as to gain an understanding of and personal connection to the scientific enterprise. In Chapter 2, I examine the teacher-researcher co-design collaboration that supported the classroom implementation of a year-long, project-based biology curriculum that was under development. This study explores the dilemmas that arose when teachers implemented a new intervention and how the dilemmas arose and were managed throughout the collaboration of researchers and teachers and between the teachers. In the design-based research of Chapter 3, I demonstrate how students' engagement in epistemic practices in contemporary science investigations supported their conceptual development about genetics. The analysis shows how this involved a complex interaction between the scientific, school and community practices in students' lives and how through varied participation in the practices students come to write about and recognize how contemporary investigations can give them leverage for science-based action outside of the school setting. Finally, Chapter 4 explores the characteristics of learning environments for supporting the development of scientific practice-linked identities. Specific features of the learning environment---access to the intellectual work of the domain, authentic roles and accountability, space to make meaningful contributions in relation to personal interests, and practice-linked identity resources that arose from interactions in the learning setting---supported learners in stabilizing practice-linked science identities through their engagement in contemporary scientific practices. This set of studies shows that providing students with the

  16. Development and Analysis of an Instrument to Assess Student Understanding of GOB Chemistry Knowledge Relevant to Clinical Nursing Practice (United States)

    Brown, Corina E.; Hyslop, Richard M.; Barbera, Jack


    The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the…

  17. Two Heads Are Better than One: Influencing Preservice Classroom Teachers' Understanding and Practice of Classroom-Library Collaboration (United States)

    Moreillon, Judi


    Two Heads Are Better than One: The Factors Influencing the Understanding and Practice of Classroom-Library Collaboration proposed to identify the factors involved in educating future K-8 classroom teachers about collaboration for instruction with school library media specialists (SLMSs). This longitudinal study monitored the growth of teacher…

  18. "Peeling an onion": Layering as a methodology to understand learning as an embodied assemblage of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Liv Kondrup


    This paper considers science learning as an embodied assemblages of practices and seeks to propose a methodology to systematically analyze the multiple layers that shape how students’ do and learn science. Science learning as an embodied assemblage of practices sensitizes us towards the dimension...

  19. Cultural Differences in Sleeping Practices--Helping Early Childhood Educators Understand. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan


    Discusses cultural differences in sleeping practices, focusing on how child caregivers can provide developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive care. Describes co-sleeping as an accepted practice in many cultures with several benefits. Discusses the role of cultural values, beliefs, priorities, and goals and the importance of…

  20. Understanding Online Teacher Best Practices: A Thematic Analysis to Improve Learning (United States)

    Corry, Michael; Ianacone, Robert; Stella, Julie


    The purpose of this study was to examine brick-and-mortar and online teacher best practice themes using thematic analysis and a newly developed theory-based analytic process entitled Synthesized Thematic Analysis Criteria (STAC). The STAC was developed to facilitate the meaningful thematic analysis of research based best practices of K-12…

  1. Understanding cultural practices of governing in the Panama Canal Expansion Megaproject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marrewijk, A.H.; Smits, K.C.M.


    The academic debate on governance in project management is dominated by research that looks at the structure of governance regimes, but there is very little research on the micro-practices of governance as it actually takes place. This paper fills this gap by focusing on the governance practices of

  2. [Scientific concepts in clinical medicine]. (United States)

    Rogler, G


    The understanding of the scientific basis and the theory of knowledge are surprisingly heterogeneous in practical and clinical medicine. It is frequently influenced or based on the philosophical theory of critical rationalism founded by Sir Karl Popper. Because the theory of knowledge and the understanding of scientific truth is the central basis for cautious and good clinical practise it is necessary to discuss both points to avoid unscientific auto-immunisation against critique in a type of medicine that regards herself as science-based. Evidence-based medicine would not be possible without interpretation and explanation of existing data into the individual treatment context. Besides an inductive or deductive logic the historical and situative side-conditions of the gathering of knowledge and of experiments are of central importance for their interpretation and their relevance in clinical practice. This historical and situative context warrants reflection but must also be paid attention to in the reflections on medical ethics.

  3. Current Understandings of the Research-Practice Gap From the Viewpoint of Complementary Medicine Academics: A Mixed-Method Investigation. (United States)

    Leach, Matthew J; Tucker, Basil

    Research plays an important role in advancing health and healthcare. However, much research evidence is not reflected in contemporary complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practice. Understanding and addressing the reasons for this research-practice gap may have positive implications for quality of care. To shed light on the gap between research and CAM practice. Descriptive cross-sectional, mixed-method study. A total of 126 senior CAM academics across Australasia, Europe, UK, and North America. Participants completed a 30-item online survey and a semi-structured interview; both of which explored the research-practice gap in CAM. A total of 43 (34%) academics completed the survey, with 29 (67%) respondents undergoing an interview. There was general agreement among respondents that CAM research should be informed by practice, and practice informed by research; however, most agreed that this did not reflect the current situation. Translational issues were perceived to be the primary reason for the research-practice gap in CAM. Suggested strategies for closing the gap focussed mostly around improving CAM student/practitioner education and training, and researcher-practitioner engagement and collaboration. Study findings point toward the presence of a research-practice gap in CAM, with several factors likely to be instrumental in sustaining this gap. Attention now needs to focus on understanding the views of CAM clinicians on this issue. Insights gained from this research will help inform the development of a multi-modal strategy that will effectively target the barriers to change in order to bring CAM research and practice closer together. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the process of patient satisfaction with nurse-led chronic disease management in general practice. (United States)

    Mahomed, Rosemary; St John, Winsome; Patterson, Elizabeth


      To investigate the process of patient satisfaction with nurse-led chronic disease management in Australian general practice.   Nurses working in the primary care context of general practice, referred to as practice nurses, are expanding their role in chronic disease management; this is relatively new to Australia. Therefore, determining patient satisfaction with this trend is pragmatically and ethically important. However, the concept of patient satisfaction is not well understood particularly in relation to care provided by practice nurses.   A grounded theory study underpinned by a relativist ontological position and a relativist epistemology.   Grounded theory was used to develop a theory from data collected through in-depth interviews with 38 participants between November 2007-April 2009. Participants were drawn from a larger project that trialled a practice nurse-led, collaborative model of chronic disease management in three Australian general practices. Theoretical sampling, data collection, and analysis were conducted concurrently consistent with grounded theory methods.   Patients undergo a cyclical process of Navigating Care involving three stages, Determining Care Needs, Forming Relationship, and Having Confidence. The latter two processes are inter-related and a feedback loop from them informs subsequent cycles of Determining Care Needs. If any of these steps fails to develop adequately, patients are likely to opt out of nurse-led care.   Navigating Care explains how and why time, communication, continuity, and trust in general practitioners and nurses are important to patient satisfaction. It can be used in identifying suitable patients for practice nurse-led care and to inform the practice and organization of practice nurse-led care to enhance patient satisfaction. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Plagiarism in scientific publishing. (United States)

    Masic, Izet


    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of


    Masic, Izet


    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  7. The Role of Motivation and Understanding in the Change of Teaching Practices (United States)

    Ostinelli, Giorgio


    This is a reflection on a case of in-service teacher education. Two Swiss teachers, assisted by a change agent, were developing an innovative teaching approach, inspired by Wiggins & McTighe's methodology Understanding by Design (UbD). While one developed a real understanding and mastery of this approach--improving therefore his professional…

  8. Scientific inference learning from data

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, Simon


    Providing the knowledge and practical experience to begin analysing scientific data, this book is ideal for physical sciences students wishing to improve their data handling skills. The book focuses on explaining and developing the practice and understanding of basic statistical analysis, concentrating on a few core ideas, such as the visual display of information, modelling using the likelihood function, and simulating random data. Key concepts are developed through a combination of graphical explanations, worked examples, example computer code and case studies using real data. Students will develop an understanding of the ideas behind statistical methods and gain experience in applying them in practice. Further resources are available at, including data files for the case studies so students can practise analysing data, and exercises to test students' understanding.

  9. The Second Annual Student Scientific-Practical Conference in memory of M.Y. Kondratyev “Social Psychology: Issues of Theory and Practice”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanin P.A.


    Full Text Available The present report contains the report on the work of the Second Annual Student Scientific-Practical Conference in Memory of M.Y. Kondratyev «Social Psychology: Issues of Theory and Practice». The conference was attended by the undergraduate and graduate students of MSUPE who submitted the reports, which reflected modern trends in the study of socialization of the individual, optimization of motivation in learning and professional activity, harmonization of interpersonal and intergroup relations in various spheres of life of a modern man.

  10. Digital Media for STEM Learning: Developing scientific practice skills in the K-12 STEM classroom with resources from WGBH and PBS LearningMedia (United States)

    Foster, J.; Connolly, R.


    WGBH's "Bringing the Universe to America's Classrooms" project is a 5-year effort to design, produce and evaluate digital media tools and resources that support scientific practice skills in diverse K-12 learners. Resources leverage data and content from NASA and WGBH signature programs, like NOVA, into sound instructional experiences that provide K-12 STEM teachers with free, quality resources for teaching topics in the Earth and Space Sciences. Resources address the content and practices in the new K-12 Framework for Science Education and are aligned with the NGSS. Participants will learn about design strategies, findings from our evaluation efforts, and how to access free resources on PBS LearningMedia.

  11. Perspectives for understanding the relationship between the theory and the practice in teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article reflects the main theoretical proposals about the relations between theory and practice that are have been formulated in the field of teacher training. The problem that is at the bottom of the theory-practice relationship: professional alienation of teachers in education. To overcome this mostly two responses have been: focus on the theory: convert to the teacher in an intellectual, and the proposal focus on the practice: assess the importance of the personal practical knowledge of teachers. Halfway between both perspectives it is possible to raise three current and relevant lines of research for studies to illuminate the relations between theory-practice in teacher training: (1 teacher’s thought and implicit theories, (2 the reflective teacher and (3 the formulation of principles of procedure and action research and theories experienced. This review haves the objective of reveal the complexity of linked thought, research and teaching action; but it also allows us move forward in building a comprehensive framework covering various forms of approach to a subject which lies at the base of any discussion on the teaching profession and advance in the challenge of achieving a practical domain and a critical awareness in the teaching.

  12. A set of vertically integrated inquiry-based practical curricula that develop scientific thinking skills for large cohorts of undergraduate students. (United States)

    Zimbardi, Kirsten; Bugarcic, Andrea; Colthorpe, Kay; Good, Jonathan P; Lluka, Lesley J


    Science graduates require critical thinking skills to deal with the complex problems they will face in their 21st century workplaces. Inquiry-based curricula can provide students with the opportunities to develop such critical thinking skills; however, evidence suggests that an inappropriate level of autonomy provided to underprepared students may not only be daunting to students but also detrimental to their learning. After a major review of the Bachelor of Science, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a series of three vertically integrated courses with inquiry-style laboratory practicals for early-stage undergraduate students in biomedical science. These practical curricula were designed so that students would work with increasing autonomy and ownership of their research projects to develop increasingly advanced scientific thinking and communication skills. Students undertaking the first iteration of these three vertically integrated courses reported learning gains in course content as well as skills in scientific writing, hypothesis construction, experimental design, data analysis, and interpreting results. Students also demonstrated increasing skills in both hypothesis formulation and communication of findings as a result of participating in the inquiry-based curricula and completing the associated practical assessment tasks. Here, we report the specific aspects of the curricula that students reported as having the greatest impact on their learning and the particular elements of hypothesis formulation and communication of findings that were more challenging for students to master. These findings provide important implications for science educators concerned with designing curricula to promote scientific thinking and communication skills alongside content acquisition.

  13. Seeing Orange, Feeling Blue: Sound Art as an Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Public Perception and Scientific Understanding of Risk (United States)

    Steltzer, H.; House, B.


    In August 2015, 3 million gallons of acidic mine water flooded into a mountain stream, then flowed into the Animas River and the San Juan River. Downstream communities in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah watched in shock as the rivers on which they depend turned an unworldly orange color. As a result, water color currently drives public concern about river health. Data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency and local and state public health indicate that water color does not correspond with health risk. Health risk is driven by river chemistry that cannot be seen, and river chemistry and quantity vary seasonally and due to precipitation events. Rivers have a pulse, one that is both regular and irregular, some aspects of which can be seen and others that cannot be seen. As a science communicator, I wanted to know if art could communicate the `pulse of the river', helping people to understand the dynamic quality of mountain rivers, and why scientific data is needed to determine health risk. Brian's vision was to do this through sound with real-time data on river water chemistry generating tones so that we can hear what we can't see. Through art, complex data on our world and how it is changing can be shared, reach more people, and lead to new dialogue. These conversations are much needed as we work to manage for global environmental issues.

  14. Representational Classroom Practices that Contribute to Students' Conceptual and Representational Understanding of Chemical Bonding (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Nichols, Kim


    Understanding bonding is fundamental to success in chemistry. A number of alternative conceptions related to chemical bonding have been reported in the literature. Research suggests that many alternative conceptions held by chemistry students result from previous teaching; if teachers are explicit in the use of representations and explain their content-specific forms and functions, this might be avoided. The development of an understanding of and ability to use multiple representations is crucial to students' understanding of chemical bonding. This paper draws on data from a larger study involving two Year 11 chemistry classes (n = 27, n = 22). It explores the contribution of explicit instruction about multiple representations to students' understanding and representation of chemical bonding. The instructional strategies were documented using audio-recordings and the teacher-researcher's reflection journal. Pre-test-post-test comparisons showed an improvement in conceptual understanding and representational competence. Analysis of the students' texts provided further evidence of the students' ability to use multiple representations to explain macroscopic phenomena on the molecular level. The findings suggest that explicit instruction about representational form and function contributes to the enhancement of representational competence and conceptual understanding of bonding in chemistry. However, the scaffolding strategies employed by the teacher play an important role in the learning process. This research has implications for professional development enhancing teachers' approaches to these aspects of instruction around chemical bonding.

  15. [Modern directions of scientific and practical research of the policy of active and healthy longevity: experience and perspectives]. (United States)

    Golubeva, E Yu

    Modern terminology on active and healthy aging used in scientific and project activities is discussed. There have been analyzed the WHO conception on active aging, which has no precise universally agreed definition, its main determinants. The directions of scientific expertise in the major European projects INNOVAGE - assessment of potentially profitable social innovations relating to the welfare and quality of life and health in old age; MOPACT - the interference between the demographic development and the main dimensions of economic and social contribution of older persons is defined. The approach to implement the policy of active and healthy longevity as a valuable asset of the modern society is underlined.

  16. Understanding influential factors on implementing green supply chain management practices: An interpretive structural modelling analysis. (United States)

    Agi, Maher A N; Nishant, Rohit


    In this study, we establish a set of 19 influential factors on the implementation of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) practices and analyse the interaction between these factors and their effect on the implementation of GSCM practices using the Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) method and the "Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée à un Classement" (MICMAC) analysis on data compiled from interviews with supply chain (SC) executives based in the Gulf countries (Middle East region). The study reveals a strong influence and driving power of the nature of the relationships between SC partners on the implementation of GSCM practices. We especially found that dependence, trust, and durability of the relationship with SC partners have a very high influence. In addition, the size of the company, the top management commitment, the implementation of quality management and the employees training and education exert a critical influence on the implementation of GSCM practices. Contextual elements such as the industry sector and region and their effect on the prominence of specific factors are also highlighted through our study. Finally, implications for research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding partnership practice in primary health as pedagogic work: what can Vygotsky's theory of learning offer? (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick


    Primary health policy in Australia has followed international trends in promoting models of care based on partnership between professionals and health service users. This reform agenda has significant practice implications, and has been widely adopted in areas of primary health that involve supporting families with children. Existing research shows that achieving partnership in practice is associated with three specific challenges: uncertainty regarding the role of professional expertise, tension between immediate needs and longer-term capacity development in families, and the need for challenge while maintaining relationships based on trust. Recently, pedagogic or learning-focussed elements of partnership practice have been identified, but there have been no systematic attempts to link theories of learning with the practices and challenges of primary health-care professionals working with families in a pedagogic role. This paper explores key concepts of Vygotsky's theory of learning (including mediation, the zone of proximal development, internalisation, and double stimulation), showing how pedagogic concepts can provide a bridge between the policy rhetoric of partnership and primary health practice. The use of this theory to address the three key challenges is explicitly discussed.

  18. Digital Learning Aids for Nynorsk Pupils in School: - A Politically Sensitive Area or a Question of a Deeper Scientific Understanding of Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Johan Krumsvik


    Full Text Available This position paper focuses on Nynorsk in the digital era and the need for research-based knowledge about it in school settings in Norway. The Norwegian language situation is exceptional because Norway has two written standards, Bokmål (majority variety and Nynorsk (minority variety, and both the Education Act and the Norwegian Directorate of Education require that publishers provide parallel editions of all paper-based and digital learning aids for pupils. However, a national report by Skjær,Eiksund, Fretland, Holen & Netteland(2008 revealed that few publishers have developed and offered digital learning aids in Nynorsk. In 2015 the situation appears to be largely unchanged, even though the authorities, language organisations and “leadings lights” have taken several initiatives to encourage compliance with the Education Act; however, what is needed is further research into the situation of parallel editions of digital learning aids. This is of particular interest today since the pupils in the county with the highest rate (97% of Nynorsk-pupils has consistently been at the top of the list as one of the best performing counties in Norway in national tests since 2006 (Directorate of Education 2015. In addition, Vangsnes, Söderlund & Blekesaune (2015 find that municipalities in Norway with more than 50% Nynorsk-pupils achieve better in National tests when compared to Bokmål municipalities. The main message in our position paper is that the digital revolution might have changed some underlying premises for how we understand and use language and dialects, and the need for parallel editions of digital learning aids in Bokmål and Nynorsk is no longer a question of economics or of political statements for or against Nynorsk, etc., but is instead a question of a more nuanced scientific understanding of learning and achievement in today’s digitized school. The achievements of Nynorsk pupils in national tests is one indicator of school

  19. Understanding the essential elements of work-based learning and its relevance to everyday clinical practice. (United States)

    Williams, Caroline


    To critically review the work-based learning literature and explore the implications of the findings for the development of work-based learning programmes. With NHS budgets under increasing pressure, and challenges to the impact of classroom-based learning on patient outcomes, work-based learning is likely to come under increased scrutiny as a potential solution. Evidence from higher education institutions suggests that work-based learning can improve practice, but in many cases it is perceived as little more than on-the-job training to perform tasks. The CINAHL database was searched using the keywords work-based learning, work-place learning and practice-based learning. Those articles that had a focus on post-registration nursing were selected and critically reviewed. Using the review of the literature, three key issues were explored. Work-based learning has the potential to change practice. Learning how to learn and critical reflection are key features. For effective work-based learning nurses need to take control of their own learning, receive support to critically reflect on their practice and be empowered to make changes to that practice. A critical review of the literature has identified essential considerations for the implementation of work-based learning. A change in culture from classroom to work-based learning requires careful planning and consideration of learning cultures. To enable effective work-based learning, nurse managers need to develop a learning culture in their workplace. They should ensure that skilled facilitation is provided to support staff with critical reflection and effecting changes in practice. CONTRIBUTION TO NEW KNOWLEDGE: This paper has identified three key issues that need to be considered in the development of work-based learning programmes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Understanding implementation processes of clinical pathways and clinical practice guidelines in pediatric contexts: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Shannon D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada is among the most prosperous nations in the world, yet the health and wellness outcomes of Canadian children are surprisingly poor. There is some evidence to suggest that these poor health outcomes are partly due to clinical practice variation, which can stem from failure to apply the best available research evidence in clinical practice, otherwise known as knowledge translation (KT. Surprisingly, clinical practice variation, even for common acute paediatric conditions, is pervasive. Clinical practice variation results in unnecessary medical treatments, increased suffering, and increased healthcare costs. This study focuses on improving health outcomes for common paediatric acute health concerns by evaluating strategies that improve KT and reduce clinical practice variation. Design/Methods Using a multiple case study design, qualitative and quantitative data will be collected from four emergency departments in western Canada. Data sources will include: pre- and post-implementation focus group data from multidisciplinary healthcare professionals; individual interviews with the local champions, KT intervention providers, and unit/site leaders/managers; Alberta Context Tool (ACT survey data; and aggregated patient outcome data. Qualitative and quantitative data will be systematically triangulated, and matrices will be built to do cross-case comparison. Explanations will be built about the success or lack of success of the clinical practice guidelines (CPG and clinical pathways (CPs uptake based upon the cross-case comparisons. Significance This study will generate new knowledge about the potential causal mechanisms and factors which shape implementation. Future studies will track the impact of the CPG/CPs implementation on children's health outcome, and healthcare costs.

  1. The Effect of Project-Based History and Nature of Science Practices on the Change of Nature of Scientific Knowledge (United States)

    Çibik, Ayse Sert


    The aim of this study is to compare the change of pre-service science teachers' views about the nature of scientific knowledge through Project-Based History and Nature of Science training and Conventional Method. The sample of the study consists of two groups of 3rd grade undergraduate students attending teacher preparation program of science…

  2. Abstracts of 3. International scientific-practical conference 'Semipalatinsk Test Site. Radiation Legacy and Non-proliferation Issues'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Conference gathered representatives of more than 25 countries and international organizations. In the Conference among with actual problems of current environment conditions in Kazakhstan, perspective trends in the field of radiation protection, radio-ecological and radiobiological research and issues of international co-operation in support of non-proliferation regime, other advanced scientific projects were considered [ru

  3. Children's Visual Representations of Food and Meal Time: Towards an Understanding of Nutrition and Educational Practices (United States)

    Savoie-Zajc, Lorraine


    Within the broad perspective of school and social exclusion, this article pays attention to an important factor of exclusion: overweight and obesity in primary school children. An interdisciplinary research was conducted and aimed at the study of social representations and practices surrounding food which primary school children, their parents and…

  4. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice (United States)

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat


    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  5. Toward a Pedagogy of Linguistic Diversity: Understanding African American Linguistic Practices and Programmatic Learning Goals (United States)

    Perryman-Clark, Staci M.


    The relationship between cultural diversity, linguistic diversity, and composition has been a topic that has received much attention in rhetoric and composition's disciplinary conversations, even if current pedagogical practices used to address these matters lag behind in progress. In this essay, the author focuses on how to address linguistic…

  6. Teacher Logs: A Tool for Gaining a Comprehensive Understanding of Classroom Practices (United States)

    Glennie, Elizabeth J.; Charles, Karen J.; Rice, Olivia N.


    Examining repeated classroom encounters over time provides a comprehensive picture of activities. Studies of instructional practices in classrooms have traditionally relied on two methods: classroom observations, which are expensive, and surveys, which are limited in scope and accuracy. Teacher logs provide a "real-time" method for…

  7. Tech-Savvy Science Education? Understanding Teacher Pedagogical Practices for Integrating Technology in K-12 Classrooms (United States)

    Hechter, Richard; Vermette, Laurie Anne


    This paper examines the technology integration practices of Manitoban K-12 inservice science educators based on the Technological, Pedagogical, and Content knowledge (TPACK) framework. Science teachers (n = 433) completed a 10-item online survey regarding pedagogical beliefs about technology integration, types of technology used, and how often…

  8. Understanding Barriers to Safer Sex Practice in Zimbabwean Marriages: Implications for Future HIV Prevention Interventions (United States)

    Mugweni, Esther; Omar, Mayeh; Pearson, Stephen


    Against the backdrop of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in stable relationships in Southern Africa, our study presents sociocultural barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008. Our aim was to identify…

  9. Exploring Secondary School Students' Understanding and Practices of Waste Management in Ogun State, Nigeria (United States)

    Ifegbesan, Ayodeji


    This study examined the level of awareness, knowledge and practices of secondary schools students with regard to waste management. Few studies have captured waste management problems in Nigerian educational institutions, particularly the views of students. Using a structured, self-administered questionnaire, 650 students were surveyed from six…

  10. Understanding the Organizational Nature of Student Persistence: Empirically-based Recommendations for Practice. (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.


    Builds on the assumption that colleges and universities are organizations and subsequently that the organizational perspective provides important insights for improving retention on campuses. A review of existing organizational studies of undergraduate persistence serves as the basis for ten empirically-based recommendations for practice that are…

  11. Understanding University Students' Thoughts and Practices about Digital Citizenship: A Mixed Methods Study (United States)

    Kara, Nuri


    The purpose of this study was to investigate university students' thoughts and practices concerning digital citizenship. An explanatory mixed methods design was used, and it involved collecting qualitative data after a quantitative phase in order to follow up on the quantitative data in more depth. In the first quantitative phase of the study, a…

  12. The Individual-Practice Framework as a design tool to understand consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscicelli, L.; Moreno, Mariale; Cooper, Tim; Fisher, Tom


    Design for behaviour change is a growing research field which aims at providing methods and tools to foster pro-environmental and pro-social action through the application of diverse theories, models and approaches from the social sciences. This chapter presents the Individual-Practice Framework,

  13. Concussion Management in Community College Athletics: Revealing and Understanding the Gap between Knowledge and Practice (United States)

    Chinn, Nancy Resendes; Porter, Paul


    The seriousness of concussions in athletics is only recently becoming fully understood and appreciated. There are significant implications for the concussed student-athlete both in returning to the playing field and the classroom. Although practices are now in place to improve identification and management of concussions in professional sports,…

  14. Leveraging Faculty Reflective Practice to Understand Active Learning Spaces: Flashbacks and Re-Captures (United States)

    Ramsay, Crystal M.; Guo, Xiuyan; Pursel, Barton K.


    Although learning spaces research is not new, research approaches that target the specific teaching and learning experiences of faculty and students who occupy active learning classrooms (ALCs) is nascent. We report on two novels data collection approaches: Flashbacks and Re-Captures. Both leverage faculty reflective practice and provide windows…

  15. Understanding the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Their Practical Applications (United States)

    Lazarim, Fernanda Lorenzi; Stancanelli, Mirtes; Brenzikofer, Rene; de Macedo, Denise Vaz


    We have introduced the study of synthesis pathways using two experiments: 1--the determination of the glycemic index (GI) of some foods and the effects of fiber and fat on the GI; 2--the determination of blood glucose levels after the ingestion of meals with high and low glycemic loads (GL). After a practice assembly, when the foods and meals that…

  16. [Tone psychology and music research as catalysts of experimental-scientific practice and methodology in the circle of Carl Stumpf]. (United States)

    Klotz, Sebastian


    The study of acoustics, harmonics and of music has been providing scientific models since Greek Antiquity. Since the early modern ages, two separate cultures began to emerge out of the study of music: a technical acoustics and an aesthetically and philosophically inspired musical criticism. In the writings of Johann Friedrich Herbart (1811) a scientific approach to musical aesthetics and to music perception is taking shape that reinstalls the listening process as a highly complex and logical phenomenon. By opening music for a scientific psychological investigation, Herbart pioneered the physiologically and acoustically grounded seminal work by Hermann von Helmholtz On the sensations of tone (1863) which the author considered a prerequisite for musical aesthetics and music theory. Helmholtz in turn inspired the philosopher and psychologist Carl Stumpf to further investigate musical perception (beginning in 1883). To Stumpf, it provided a paradigm for experimental psychology as mental functions and phenomena could be studied in detail. These functions and phenomena are the actual objects of scientific study in Stumpf's inductive and descriptive psychology. Combining insights from statistics, ethnology, anthropology, psychoacoustics and the cultural history of mankind, Stumpf and his team developed a new blend of science which absorbs styles of reasoning, analytical procedures and academic convictions from natural history, the natural sciences and the humanities but at the same time identifies shortcomings of these approaches that fail to grasp the complexities of psychic functions. Despite their reliance on the quasi-objective phonograph and despite their commitment to objectivity, precision and measurement, mental phenomena relating to tonal perception and to music provided too complex a challenge to be easily articulated and shared by the scientific community after 1900. The essay illustrates these tensions against the background of a history of objectivity.

  17. Understanding your users a practical guide to user requirements methods, tools, and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, Kathy


    Today many companies are employing a user-centered design (UCD) process, but for most companies, usability begins and ends with the usability test. Although usability testing is a critical part of an effective user-centered life cycle, it is only one component of the UCD process. This book is focused on the requirements gathering stage, which often receives less attention than usability testing, but is equally as important. Understanding user requirements is critical to the development of a successful product. Understanding Your Users is an easy to read, easy to implement, how-to guide on

  18. Practical and effective management of libraries integrating case studies, general management theory and self-understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Moniz, Jr, Richard


    Aimed at library science students and librarians with newly assigned administrative duties the book is about improving one's thinking and decision making in a role as a library manager. Most librarians get very little exposure to management issues prior to finding themselves in a management role. Furthermore, most library science students do not expect that they will need to understand management yet they quickly find that there is a need to understand this perspective to be effective at almost any library job. Effective library management is about having some tools to make decisions (such as

  19. Understanding the business implications of emissions trading : a practical look at EPCOR`s experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodelman, J. [EPCOR, Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    An historical overview of the concept of trading carbon dioxide emissions was given, examining the evolution of environmental issues in general and of the climate change issue, and the typical corporate response to GHG emissions control in particular. Mention is made of the fact that while industry in general embraces the idea of trading as the most viable option, there are many who still dispute the scientific evidence. Although the Kyoto Protocol is recognized as a turning point, the challenge of defining the form carbon credit is to take is still largely a matter of debate, as are the processes for baseline identification, verification and registration. Value versus price and cost are still worrisome issues, as are credit ownership, the very high expectations regarding credit pricing, and the management of these expectations. EPCOR`s own expectations, and approach to the problem are described. Lessons learned from early programs such as the Voluntary Challenge Registry program are also described. 3 figs.

  20. Unilateral collaboration: The practices and understandings of traditional birth attendants in southeastern Nigeria. (United States)

    Ohaja, Magdalena; Murphy-Lawless, Jo


    Despite the promotion of hospital-based maternity care as the safest option, for less developed countries, many women particularly those in the rural areas continue to patronise indigenous midwives or traditional birth attendants. Little is known about traditional birth attendants' perspectives regarding their pregnancy and birth practices. To explore traditional birth attendants' discourses of their pregnancy and birthing practices in southeast Nigeria. Hermeneutic phenomenology guided by poststructural feminism was the methodological approach. Individual face to face semi-structured interviews were conducted with five traditional birth attendants following consent. Participants' narratives of their pregnancy and birth practices are organised into two main themes namely: 'knowing differently,' and 'making a difference.' Their responses demonstrate evidence of expertise in sustaining normal birth, safe practice including hygiene, identifying deviation from the normal, willingness to refer women to hospital when required, and appropriate use of both traditional and western medicines. Inexpensive, culturally sensitive, and compassionate care were the attributes that differentiate traditional birth attendants' services from hospital-based maternity care. The participants provided a counter-narrative to the official position in Nigeria about the space they occupy. They responded in ways that depict them as committed champions of normal birth with ability to offer comprehensive care in accordance with the individual needs of women, and respect for cultural norms. Professional midwives are therefore challenged to review their ways of practice. Emphasis should be placed on what formal healthcare providers and traditional birth attendants can learn from each other. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: Using Goal-Oriented Applied Research as a Means of Building Comprehensive and Integrated Scientific Understanding (United States)

    Bostick, B. C.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Schlosser, P.; Corbett, E.


    Conventional instruction in science often proceeds from the general to the specific and from text to action. Fundamental terminologies, concepts, and ideas that are often abstract are taught first and only after such introductory processes can a student engage in research. Many students struggle to find relevance when presented information without context specific to their own experiences. This challenge is exacerbated for students whose social circles do not include adults who can validate scientific learning from their own experiences. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program inverts the standard paradigm and places small groups of students in research projects where they begin by performing manageable tasks on complex applied research projects. These tasks are supplemented with informal mentoring and relevant articles (~1 per week). Quantitative metrics suggest the approach is highly successful—most participants report a dramatic increase in their enthusiasm for science, 100% attend college, and approximately 50% declare majors in science or technology. We use one project, the construction of a microbial battery, to illustrate this novel model of science learning and argue that it should be considered a best practice for project-based science education. The goal of this project was to build a rechargeable battery for a mobile phone based on a geochemical cycle, to generate and store electricity. The students, mostly from ethnic groups under-represented in the STEM fields, combined concepts and laboratory methods from biology, chemistry and physics to isolate photosynthetic bacteria from a natural salt marsh, and made an in situ device capable of powering a light bulb. The younger participants had been exposed to neither high school chemistry nor physics at the start of the project, yet they were able to use the project as a platform to deepen their science knowledge and their desire for increased participation in formal science education.

  2. Sonic branding: a framework for understanding sound branding and an overview of its most noticeable practices across industries


    Bollue, Sebastien


    This thesis presents the importance and relevance of sound in branding, as very few studies on sonic branding have been conducted so far. The aim of this thesis is to lay out a framework for understanding sonic branding as a phenomenon and for getting an overview of the most notable practices of sonic branding across various industries. The study is commissioned by the advertising agency Wondergarden for who a workshop was also created. Additionally this thesis hopefully can inspire other...

  3. Programs and Practices: Students' Historical Understandings in International Baccalaureate, Advanced Placement and Regular World History Courses (United States)

    Ryter, Di


    World history has become increasingly important and has often been a required course for high school students in the United States. This multi-case study provides examples and descriptions of students' demonstration of historical understandings. It also includes multiple perspectives and experiences of world history students and teachers, and…

  4. Understanding Immigrant College Students: Applying a Developmental Ecology Framework to the Practice of Academic Advising (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.


    Immigrant college student populations continue to grow, but the complexity of their unique needs and issues remain relatively unknown. To gain a better understanding of the multiple contextual factors impacting immigrant students from a systems-based approach, I applied Bronfenbrenner's (1977) human ecology framework to the study. Students…

  5. Representational Classroom Practices that Contribute to Students' Conceptual and Representational Understanding of Chemical Bonding (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Nichols, Kim


    Understanding bonding is fundamental to success in chemistry. A number of alternative conceptions related to chemical bonding have been reported in the literature. Research suggests that many alternative conceptions held by chemistry students result from previous teaching; if teachers are explicit in the use of representations and explain their…

  6. Understanding Program Planning Theory and Practice in a Feminist Community-Based Organization (United States)

    Bracken, Susan J.


    The purpose of this article is to discuss feminist-program-planning issues, drawing from a critical ethnographic study of a Latin American feminist community-based organization. The research findings discuss the centrality of feminist identity to understanding and analyzing day-to-day program-planning process issues within a feminist…

  7. Understanding the Role of Trust in Virtual Communities of Practice: Perspectives from Members and Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thu Pho, Hang; Saustrup, Nina; Tambo, Torben


    Trust has different connotations characterized by various aspects such as sociology, psychology and economics. However, the focus of this paper is on trust within virtual context in the field of digital information, where trust reflects human-computer interaction. Virtual communities have extended...... the reach of our interactions beyond the geographical limitations of traditional communities, forming new kinds of communities based on shared practice (Wenger 2006). On this basis, we emphasize trust in virtual communities of practice (VCoPs) where online groups exchange information, knowledge...... and experience. This paper is qualitative based on literature studies and employs a comparative methodology in studying trust, trust perception and psycho-social relations to VCoPs. This paper investigates three case studies of virtual community providers (VCPs) (Facebook, LinkedIn and Experts-Exchange) grounded...

  8. Gerontology found me: gaining understanding of advanced practice nurses in geriatrics. (United States)

    Campbell-Detrixhe, Dia D; Grassley, Jane S; Zeigler, Vicki L


    Examining the meanings of the experiences of advanced practice nurses (APNs) who chose to work with older adults and why they continue to work with this population was the focus of this hermeneutic qualitative research study. Twelve geriatric APNs currently practicing in two South Central states were interviewed using an open-ended interview guide. Using Gadamerian hermeneutics, the researchers identified Gerontology Found Me as the significant expression that reflected the fundamental meaning of the experience as a whole. Four themes emerged that further described the meanings of the participants' personal, educational, and professional experiences: Becoming a Gerontology Nurse, Being a Gerontology Nurse, Belonging to Gerontology, and Bringing Others to Gerontology. This study concluded that APNs' personal and professional experiences were more influential than educational experiences to become geriatric nurses, and having these personal and professional experiences of being in relationship with older individuals further contributed to their choice of gerontology.

  9. Understanding and Using the Controller Area Network Communication Protocol Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Di Natale, Marco; Giusto, Paolo; Ghosal, Arkadeb


    This is the first book to offer a hands-on guide to designing, analyzing and debugging a communication infrastructure based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus.  Although the CAN bus standard is well established and currently used in most automotive systems, as well as avionics, medical systems and other devices, its features are not fully understood by most developers, who tend to misuse the network. This results in lost opportunities for better efficiency and performance.   This book offers a comprehensive range of architectural solutions and domains of analysis. It also provides formal models and analytical results, with thorough discussion of their applicability, so that it serves as an invaluable reference for researchers and students, as well as practicing engineers.    Offers the first comprehensive guide to bridging the gap between theory and implementation of the widely accepted Controller Area Network (CAN) bus; Provides examples and best practices for design of communication systems, as w...

  10. African American Social Networking Online: Applying a Digital Practice Approach to Understanding Digital Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith


    Full Text Available This study develops a framework for systematic examination of information and communication technologies (ICTs usage differences within a group. This framework situates the digital divide and digital inequalities model within a broader conceptual model of digital practice, exemplified by how groups of people use ICTs. I use nationally representative data to examine online activities on social networking sites (SNS for African Americans and other ethnoracial groups. The data for this research comes from the Pew Internet and American Life’s “Spring Tracking Survey 2008”. The results from regression analyses support the digital practice framework which moves discussions of ICT usage beyond social and economic advantages or disadvantages, and addresses individual and group needs in using these technologies.

  11. Understanding foreign language teachers’ practical knowledge: What’s the role of prior language learning experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Arıoğul


    Full Text Available Teachers’ practical knowledge is considered as teachers’ general knowledge, beliefsand thinking (Borg, 2003 which can be traced in teachers’ practices (Connelly & Clandinin,1988 and shaped by various background sources (Borg, 2003; Grossman, 1990; Meijer,Verloop, and Beijard, 1999. This paper initially discusses how language teachers areinfluenced by three background sources: teachers’ prior language learning experiences, priorteaching experience, and professional coursework in pre- and in-service education. Bydrawing its data from the author’s longitidunal study, it also presents the findings of a crosscasetheme emerged from the investigation of three English as a foreign language (EFLteachers’ prior language learning experiences. The paper also discusses how the participationin studies on teachers’ knowledge raises teachers’ own awareness while it informs theresearch.

  12. Understanding nursing practice in stroke units: a Q-methodological study.


    Clarke, DJ; Holt, J


    Abstract Purpose: Nurses represent the largest professional group working with stroke-survivors, but there is limited evidence regarding nurses' involvement in post-stroke rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore the perspectives of nurses and other multidisciplinary stroke team members on nurses' practice in stroke rehabilitation. Method: Q-methodological study with 63 multidisciplinary stroke unit team members and semi-structured interviews with 27 stroke unit t...

  13. SANParks, people and adaptive management: Understanding a diverse field of practice during changing times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise K. Swemmer


    Conservation implications: Benefit sharing through biodiversity conservation has been shown to be crucial for the long-term success of protected areas, but the practicalities of implementing this are thwart with challenges. Despite this, SANParks is attempting to facilitate and promote benefits through conservation, specifically in the sense of benefits that support livelihoods whilst reducing vulnerability. With this in mind, we acknowledge the importance of the concepts of scale, resilience, complexity and adaptive learning for, and during, this process.

  14. Using Social Marketing Principles to Understand an Extension Audience’s Landscape Water Conservation Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Warner


    Full Text Available A substantial amount of water is applied to Florida landscapes, and encouraging water conservation through irrigation practices has been identified as a priority programming area where there is great opportunity to positively affect the state’s water resources. Florida Extension addresses this priority area through educational programming. Social marketing has been identified as a promising approach to changing behaviors that influence environmental issues, such as water-saving irrigation technologies and practices. This approach recognizes that there are barriers that prevent individuals from engaging in positive behavior changes. This study evaluated an irrigation seminar using a retrospective pretest-posttest design that incorporated elements of a social marketing intercept survey. Thirty-four attendees participated and primarily represented green industry professional and government sectors. Study objectives were to evaluate the workshop and describe the audience using social marketing principles for future program planning based on audience research. The audience rated their descriptive norms, a strong predictor of behavioral change, lower than their injunctive norms, a less robust predictor. The majority planned to adopt at least one water-conservation best management practice as a result of the workshop. We make recommendations for applying social marketing principles to Extension programming.

  15. Pop Rocks! Engaging first-year geology students by deconstructing and correcting scientific misconceptions in popular culture. A Practice Report


    Leslie Almberg


    Popular culture abounds with ill-conceived notions about Earth’s processes.  Movies, books, music, television and even video games frequently misrepresent fundamental scientific principles, warping viewers’ perceptions of the world around them.  First year geoscience students are not immune to pop culture’s portrayal of earth science and the misconceptions they bring to Geology 101 cloud their ability to differentiate between fact and fiction.  Working within ...

  16. Understanding Minority Shareholders' Perceptions Pertaining To Corporate Governance Practices In Malaysia


    Lee, Mun Jye


    Corporate Governance is concerned about the establishment of structures, processes and mechanisms by which businesses and affairs of the firms are directed, managed and monitored. The presence of effective corporate governance mechanisms are believed to generate long term stakeholders‟ values at large through the accountability of managers and enhancing the firms‟ performances. This research makes an attempt to understand the minority shareholders‟ perceptions pertaining to certain corpora...

  17. Russian space meets western business practices: Understanding the law in the petroleum sector in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Goes


    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between the private international oil company (IOC Royal Dutch Shell and Russia as an oil producing and oil exporting state during a period when oil prices were moving towards unforeseen heights (2005-2007. By examining this dynamic relationship, this study aims to contribute to an understanding of Russia’s discursive and culturally produced history. The history of a state-oil company interaction has shown that the use of legal instruments is a good indicator to determine the nature of the relationship between oil-producing states and IOCs – a relationship that often has been characterized by periods of cooperation or conflict.At the centre of inquiry is how the oil major understands the law in Russia, and in particular the enforcement of the country’s formal written rules during legal conflicts over the development of the Sakhalin-II oil and gas fields (in which Shell until December 2006 controlled a majority stake. After identifying the violations of formal laws, I conclude that Shell understands that the formal rules of the game are subordinate to the unwritten laws of energy politics and in particular the informal demands of contemporary Russian society. The article also illustrates that oil-producing states have the upper hand in conflicts over the development of oil and gas resources.

  18. Practical web analytics for user experience how analytics can help you understand your users

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, Michael


    Practical Web Analytics for User Experience teaches you how to use web analytics to help answer the complicated questions facing UX professionals. Within this book, you'll find a quantitative approach for measuring a website's effectiveness and the methods for posing and answering specific questions about how users navigate a website. The book is organized according to the concerns UX practitioners face. Chapters are devoted to traffic, clickpath, and content use analysis, measuring the effectiveness of design changes, including A/B testing, building user profiles based on search hab

  19. Living with Invasive Plants in the Anthropocene: The Importance of Understanding Practice and Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Head


    Full Text Available The role of humans in facilitating the rapid spread of plants at a scale that is considered invasive is one manifestation of the Anthropocene, now framed as a geological period in which humans are the dominant force in landscape transformation. Invasive plant management faces intensified challenges, and can no longer be viewed in terms of ′eradication′ or ′restoration of original landscapes′. In this perspectives piece, we focus on the practice and experience of people engaged in invasive plant management, using examples from Australia and Canada. We show how managers 1 face several pragmatic trade-offs; 2 must reconcile diverse views, even within stakeholder groups; 3 must balance competing temporal scales; 4 encounter tensions with policy; and 5 face critical and under-acknowledged labour challenges. These themes show the variety of considerations based on which invasive plant managers make complex decisions about when, where, and how to intervene. Their widespread pragmatic acceptance of small, situated gains (as well as losses combines with impressive long-term commitments to the task of invasives management. We suggest that the actual practice of weed management challenges those academic perspectives that still aspire to attain pristine nature.

  20. Theory and practice in interprofessional ethics: a framework for understanding ethical issues in health care teams. (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G; Cott, Cheryl; Drinka, Theresa J K


    Interprofessional teamwork is an essential and expanding form of health care practice. While moral issues arising in teamwork relative to the patient have been explored, the analysis of ethical issues regarding the function of the team itself is limited. This paper develops a conceptual framework for organizing and analyzing the different types of ethical issues in interprofessional teamwork. This framework is a matrix that maps the elements of principles, structures, and processes against individual, team, and organizational levels. A case study is presented that illustrates different dimensions of these topics, based on the application of this framework. Finally, a set of conclusions and recommendations is presented to summarize the integration of theory and practice in interprofessional ethics, including: (i) importance of a framework, (ii) interprofessional ethics discourse, and (iii) interprofessional ethics as an emerging field. The goal of this paper is to begin a dialogue and discussion on the ethical issues confronting interprofessional teams and to lay the foundation for an expanding discourse on interprofessional ethics.

  1. Understanding the Development of a Hybrid Practice of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction and Language Development: A Case Study of One Teacher's Journey Through Reflections on Classroom Practice (United States)

    Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer


    This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study examines the teacher's reflections on her teaching and her students' learning as she engaged her students in science learning and supported their developing language skills. It explicates the professional learning experiences that supported the development of this hybrid practice. Closely examining the pedagogical practice and reflections of a teacher who is developing an inquiry-based approach to both science learning and language development can provide insights into how teachers come to integrate their professional development experiences with their classroom expertise in order to create a hybrid inquiry-based science ELD practice. This qualitative case study contributes to the emerging scholarship on the development of teacher practice of inquiry-based science instruction as a vehicle for both science instruction and ELD for ELLs. This study demonstrates how an effective teaching practice that supports both the science and language learning of students can develop from ongoing professional learning experiences that are grounded in current perspectives about language development and that immerse teachers in an inquiry-based approach to learning and instruction. Additionally, this case study also underscores the important role that professional learning opportunities can play in supporting teachers in developing a deeper understanding of the affordances that inquiry-based science can provide for language development.

  2. The basics of cloud computing understanding the fundamentals of cloud computing in theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rountree, Derrick


    As part of the Syngress Basics series, The Basics of Cloud Computing provides readers with an overview of the cloud and how to implement cloud computing in their organizations. Cloud computing continues to grow in popularity, and while many people hear the term and use it in conversation, many are confused by it or unaware of what it really means. This book helps readers understand what the cloud is and how to work with it, even if it isn't a part of their day-to-day responsibility. Authors Derrick Rountree and Ileana Castrillo explains the concepts of cloud computing in prac

  3. Development of clinical process measures for pediatric burn care: Understanding variation in practice patterns. (United States)

    Kazis, Lewis E; Sheridan, Robert L; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Lee, Austin F; Liang, Matthew H; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Lydon, Martha; Soley-Bori, Marina; Sonis, Lily A; Dore, Emily C; Palmieri, Tina; Herndon, David; Meyer, Walter; Warner, Petra; Kagan, Richard; Stoddard, Frederick J; Murphy, Michael; Tompkins, Ronald G


    There has been little systematic examination of variation in pediatric burn care clinical practices and its effect on outcomes. As a first step, current clinical care processes need to be operationally defined. The highly specialized burn care units of the Shriners Hospitals for Children system present an opportunity to describe the processes of care. The aim of this study was to develop a set of process-based measures for pediatric burn care and examine adherence to them by providers in a cohort of pediatric burn patients. We conducted a systematic literature review to compile a set of process-based indicators. These measures were refined by an expert panel of burn care providers, yielding 36 process-based indicators in four clinical areas: initial evaluation and resuscitation, acute excisional surgery and critical care, psychosocial and pain control, and reconstruction and aftercare. We assessed variability in adherence to the indicators in a cohort of 1,076 children with burns at four regional pediatric burn programs in the Shriners Hospital system. The percentages of the cohort at each of the four sites were as follows: Boston, 20.8%; Cincinnati, 21.1%; Galveston, 36.0%; and Sacramento, 22.1%. The cohort included children who received care between 2006 and 2010. Adherence to the process indicators varied both across sites and by clinical area. Adherence was lowest for the clinical areas of acute excisional surgery and critical care, with a range of 35% to 48% across sites, followed by initial evaluation and resuscitation (range, 34%-60%). In contrast, the clinical areas of psychosocial and pain control and reconstruction and aftercare had relatively high adherence across sites, with ranges of 62% to 93% and 71% to 87%, respectively. Of the 36 process indicators, 89% differed significantly in adherence between clinical sites (p measures represents an important step in the assessment of clinical practice in pediatric burn care. Substantial variation was observed


    Sparrow, Joshua


    The infant mental health field can amplify its effects when it extends its purview beyond the dyad to the larger contexts in which infants and adult caregivers interact and develop over time. Within health, mental health, education, and other human service organizations, the quality of relationships is a critical variable in the individual-level outcomes that such organizations seek. The goals of this work and the means for accomplishing them are highly dependent on human qualities and interactions that are shaped by organizational processes. In communities, too, processes that shape relationships also strongly influence child-, family-, and community-level outcomes. The Touchpoints approach to reflective practice can guide relational processes among professionals, parents, and infants in organizations and communities that influence these outcomes. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Understanding Supply Chain Management Practices for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (United States)

    Thoo, AC; Sulaiman, Z.; Choi, SL; Kohar, UHA


    Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are a major source of dynamism, innovation and flexibility for emerging and developing countries, as well as for the economies of the most industrialised nations. However, the survival and growth of SMEs can be difficult in the current competitive business environment and global marketplace. It can be a real challenge to deliver the right product and service at the most opportune time and at the lowest possible cost to the right customer. The challenge stresses the importance of managing cross-boundary relationships between business partners. For gaining a competitive advantage, supply chain management (SCM) is an effective tool to SMEs. Therefore, this paper aims to review the tenet of SCM, its benefits and practices to SMEs.

  6. Fundamental understanding and practical challenges of anionic redox activity in Li-ion batteries (United States)

    Assat, Gaurav; Tarascon, Jean-Marie


    Our increasing dependence on lithium-ion batteries for energy storage calls for continual improvements in the performance of their positive electrodes, which have so far relied solely on cationic redox of transition-metal ions for driving the electrochemical reactions. Great hopes have recently been placed on the emergence of anionic redox—a transformational approach for designing positive electrodes as it leads to a near-doubling of capacity. But questions have been raised about the fundamental origins of anionic redox and whether its full potential can be realized in applications. In this Review, we discuss the underlying science that triggers a reversible and stable anionic redox activity. Furthermore, we highlight its practical limitations and outline possible approaches for improving such materials and designing new ones. We also summarize their chances for market implementation in the face of the competing nickel-based layered cathodes that are prevalent today.

  7. Applying a perceptions and practicalities approach to understanding nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs. (United States)

    Chapman, Sarah C E; Horne, Rob; Eade, Rona; Balestrini, Simona; Rush, Jennifer; Sisodiya, Sanjay M


    Nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a common cause of poor seizure control. This study examines whether reported adherence to AEDs is related to variables identified in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Medicines Adherence Guidelines as being important to adherence: perceptual factors (AED necessity beliefs and concerns), practical factors (limitations in capability and resources), and perceptions of involvement in treatment decisions. This was a cross-sectional study of people with epilepsy receiving AEDs. Participants completed an online survey hosted by the Epilepsy Society (n = 1,010), or as an audit during inpatient admission (n = 118). Validated questionnaires, adapted for epilepsy, assessed reported adherence to AEDs (Medication Adherence Report Scale [MARS]), perceptions of AEDs (Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire [BMQ]), and patient perceptions of involvement in treatment decisions (Treatment Empowerment Scale [TES]). Low adherence was related to AED beliefs (doubts about necessity: t(577) = 3.90, p < 0.001; and concerns: t(995) = 3.45, p = 0.001), reported limitations in capability and resources (t(589) = 7.78, p < 0.001), and to perceptions of a lack of involvement in treatment decisions (t(623) = 4.48, p < 0.001). In multiple logistic regression analyses, these factors significantly (p < 0.001) increased variance in reported adherence, above that which could be explained by age and clinical variables (seizure frequency, type, epilepsy duration, number of AEDs prescribed). Variables identified in the NICE Medicines Adherence Guidelines as potentially important factors for adherence were found to be related to adherence to AEDs. These factors are potentially modifiable. Interventions to support optimal adherence to AEDs should be tailored to address doubts about AED necessity and concerns about harm, and to overcome practical difficulties, while engaging patients in treatment decisions. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Understanding and estimating effective population size for practical application in marine species management. (United States)

    Hare, Matthew P; Nunney, Leonard; Schwartz, Michael K; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Burford, Martha; Waples, Robin S; Ruegg, Kristen; Palstra, Friso


    Effective population size (N(e)) determines the strength of genetic drift in a population and has long been recognized as an important parameter for evaluating conservation status and threats to genetic health of populations. Specifically, an estimate of N(e) is crucial to management because it integrates genetic effects with the life history of the species, allowing for predictions of a population's current and future viability. Nevertheless, compared with ecological and demographic parameters, N(e) has had limited influence on species management, beyond its application in very small populations. Recent developments have substantially improved N(e) estimation; however, some obstacles remain for the practical application of N(e) estimates. For example, the need to define the spatial and temporal scale of measurement makes the concept complex and sometimes difficult to interpret. We reviewed approaches to estimation of N(e) over both long-term and contemporary time frames, clarifying their interpretations with respect to local populations and the global metapopulation. We describe multiple experimental factors affecting robustness of contemporary N(e) estimates and suggest that different sampling designs can be combined to compare largely independent measures of N(e) for improved confidence in the result. Large populations with moderate gene flow pose the greatest challenges to robust estimation of contemporary N(e) and require careful consideration of sampling and analysis to minimize estimator bias. We emphasize the practical utility of estimating N(e) by highlighting its relevance to the adaptive potential of a population and describing applications in management of marine populations, where the focus is not always on critically endangered populations. Two cases discussed include the mechanisms generating N(e) estimates many orders of magnitude lower than census N in harvested marine fishes and the predicted reduction in N(e) from hatchery-based population

  9. Managing a new collaborative entity in business organizations: understanding organizational communities of practice effectiveness. (United States)

    Kirkman, Bradley L; Mathieu, John E; Cordery, John L; Rosen, Benson; Kukenberger, Michael


    Companies worldwide are turning to organizational communities of practice (OCoPs) as vehicles to generate learning and enhance organizational performance. OCoPs are defined as groups of employees who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic and who strengthen their knowledge and expertise by interacting on a consistent basis. To date, OCoP research has drawn almost exclusively from the community of practice (CoP) literature, even though the organizational form of CoPs shares attributes of traditional CoPs and of organizational teams. Drawing on Lave and Wenger's (1991) original theory of legitimate peripheral participation, we integrate theory and research from CoPs and organizational teams to develop and empirically examine a model of OCoP effectiveness that includes constructs such as leadership, empowerment, the structure of tasks, and OCoP relevance to organizational effectiveness. Using data from 32 OCoPs in a U.S.-based multinational mining and minerals processing firm, we found that external community leaders play an important role in enhancing OCoP empowerment, particularly to the extent that task interdependence is high. Empowerment, in turn, was positively related to OCoP effectiveness. We also found that OCoPs designated as "core" by the organization (e.g., working on critical issues) were more effective than those that were noncore. Task interdependence also was positively related to OCoP effectiveness. We provide scholars and practitioners with insights on how to effectively manage OCoPs in today's organizations. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Understanding Unix/Linux programming a guide to theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Molay, Bruce


    This book explains in a clear and coherent manner how Unix works, how to understand existing Unix programs, and how to design and create new Unix programs. The book is organized by subsystem, each presented in visual terms and explained using vivid metaphors. It breaks the information into manageable parts that can be presented, explained, and mastered. By using case studies and an extremely reader-friendly manner to illustrate complex ideas and concepts, the book covers the basics of systems programming, users, files and manuals, how to read a directory, using 1S, writing PWD, studying STTY, writing a video game, studying SH, environment and shell variables, I/O redirection and pipes, servers and sockets, writing a web server, license servers, and concurrent functions. For Unix system administrators and programmers, network programmers, and others who have used other operating systems and need to learn Unix programming to expand their skill sets.

  11. The role of Philosophical Hermeneutics in contributing to an understanding of physiotherapy practice: a reflexive illustration. (United States)

    Stenner, Rob; Mitchell, Theresa; Palmer, Shea


    This paper provides an overview of Philosophical Hermeneutics based on the work of German philosopher Hans Georg Gadamer. The concepts of the 'hermeneutic circle' as a vehicle for interpretation, management of the researcher's pre-understandings (prejudices), and the 'fusion of horizons' are introduced and illustrated by examples from the first author's research, before considering how rigour can be achieved in this type of research. The actual research study which aimed to explore how shared decision making and patient partnership are addressed by physiotherapists in the process of exercise prescription for patients with low back pain (LBP) is not the focus of this paper. However short descriptions of the study are used to explore issues surrounding a hermeneutic inquiry. For physiotherapists interested in research or considering undertaking an interpretive phenomenological inquiry, this theoretical discussion paper explores how Gadamer's philosophy offers a credible framework for undertaking such research. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation measurement practice for understanding statistical fluctuation of radiation count using natural radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao


    It is known that radiation is detected at random and the radiation counts fluctuate statistically. In the present study, a radiation measurement experiment was performed to understand the randomness and statistical fluctuation of radiation counts. In the measurement, three natural radiation sources were used. The sources were fabricated from potassium chloride chemicals, chemical fertilizers and kelps. These materials contain naturally occurring potassium-40 that is a radionuclide. From high schools, junior high schools and elementary schools, nine teachers participated to the radiation measurement experiment. Each participant measured the 1-min integration counts of radiation five times using GM survey meters, and 45 sets of data were obtained for the respective natural radiation sources. It was found that the frequency of occurrence of radiation counts was distributed according to a Gaussian distribution curve, although the obtained 45 data sets of radiation counts superficially looked to be fluctuating meaninglessly. (author)

  13. The Aysen Glacier Trail (AGT): Fostering leadership and personal growth towards understanding our place in the environment through experiential learning and scientific inquiry in northern Patagonia, Chile (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Chambers, F. B.; Leidich, J.


    The Colonia Glacier, a low elevation mid-latitude glacier, drains the lee side of the central division of the Northern Patagonian Ice Field (NPI). As such, it serves as a microcosm of conditions on the NPI as a whole. Glaciers of this type have experienced extreme variability in Holocene thickness and extent, making them excellent indicators of local and regional climate conditions. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) originating in the remote Cachet Basin, dammed by the Colonia Glacier, have increased in frequency from once every 10 years to 3 times annually since 2008. These flood events are important in that they 1.) directly impact the livelihoods of downstream residents, 2.) may be linked to the overall health of the Colonia Glacier and, to a larger extent, the NPI, 3.) provide a natural laboratory for studying the dynamics of large flood events, and 4.) have downcut the sediments sequestered in the upper basin, revealing a rich Holocene sedimentologic and climate record. With improved access to this remote region through local partners in recent years, outstanding opportunities for scientific discovery, education, and outreach exist in one of the most beautiful and least-studied glacial regions on Earth. We propose establishing an NSF REU site here to further develop the abundant educational and research opportunities in this spectacular locale. We envision students participating under the REU will receive a broad-based background in glaciology and sedimentology prior to the field experience, and then participate in basic field research led by the PIs into understanding recent and Holocene linkages between climate change and the glacio-fluvio geomorphology of the NPI. A pilot program of 13 U.S. and Chilean students with wide-ranging backgrounds and degree levels was conducted in the winter of 2015-16. A two week backcountry trek across rocky terrain, mountain streams, active glaciers, and proglacial lakes in this seldom-visited region immersed the students

  14. Understanding time use, stress and recovery practices among early career physicians: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Cranley, Nicole M; Cunningham, Christopher J L; Panda, Mukta


    Early career physicians (ECPs) work an average of 80 h per week, and at times may approach 24 continuous hours working. These hours, combined with a stressful work environment, and an inability to physically and psychologically detach from work make ECPs likely to experience burnout and other negative health-related consequences. This study provides insight into the stress and recovery challenges faced by ECPs in a typical hospital environment. Rich qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from participants regarding daily time usage, and recovery practices and needs. ECPs report longer working hours, less leisure time and shorter amounts of sleep than average working adults. ECPs do not participate in many resource-replenishing activities while at work, and when out of work, they tend to participate in more passive than active forms of recovery. Resource-draining activities were identified as requiring much of ECP's nonwork time, further limiting recovery. The prevention of burnout and other negative health consequences among ECPs requires the building of a workplace and educational culture that supports regular resource replenishment. This includes the need for a curriculum of medical education that teaches ECPs to identify the signs of stress and recovery needs, and how to effectively address these needs.

  15. Understanding and meeting injection device needs in multiple sclerosis: a survey of patient attitudes and practices (United States)

    Verdun di Cantogno, Elisabetta; Russell, Susan; Snow, Tom


    Background: All established disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis require parenteral administration, which can cause difficulties for some patients, sometimes leading to suboptimal adherence. A new electronic autoinjection device has been designed to address these issues. Methods: Patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis currently receiving subcutaneous or intramuscular interferon beta-1a, interferon beta-1b, or glatiramer acetate completed an online questionnaire (July 4–25, 2008) that surveyed current injection practices, experiences with current injection methods, and impressions and appeal of the new device. Results: In total, 422 patients completed the survey, of whom 44% used autoinjectors, 43% prefilled syringes, and 13% syringes and vials; overall, 66% currently self-injected. Physical and psychological barriers to self-injection included difficulty with injections, needle phobia, and concerns over correct injection technique. Only 40% of respondents were “very satisfied” with their current injection method. The new electronic autoinjector was rated as “very appealing” by 65% of patients. The benefits of the new device included the ability to customize injection settings and to review dosing history. Conclusion: New technologies may help patients overcome physical and psychological barriers to self-injection. The combination of a reliable and flexible autoinjection device with dose-monitoring technology may improve communication between health care professionals and patients, and improve treatment adherence. PMID:21573048

  16. Frameworks for Understanding the Nature of Interactions, Networking, and Community in a Social Networking Site for Academic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grainne Conole


    Full Text Available This paper describes a new social networking site, Cloudworks, which has been developed to enable discussion and sharing of learning and teaching ideas/designs and to promote reflective academic practice. The site aims to foster new forms of social and participatory practices (peer critiquing, sharing, user-generated content, aggregation, and personalisation within an educational context. One of the key challenges in the development of the site has been to understand the user interactions and the changing patterns of user behaviour as it evolves. The paper explores the extent to which four frameworks that have been used in researching networked learning contexts can provide insights into the patterns of user behaviour that we see in Cloudworks. The paper considers this within the current debate about the new types of interactions, networking, and community being observed as users adapt to and appropriate new technologies.

  17. Perfectly Reasonable in a Practical World: Understanding Chemistry Teacher Responses to a Change Proposal (United States)

    Westbroek, Hanna; Janssen, Fred; Doyle, Walter


    Curriculum ideals often get compromised as a curriculum moves through its various levels of representation. Across the different science reforms, this process of slippage is clearly present. Research shows that teacher subject matter knowledge, PCK, beliefs and context factors all influence implementation. Professional development arrangements focus on fixing deficiencies in teachers' knowledge, beliefs or work context. This approach has not solved the problem of slippage, as we still do not understand what mechanisms operate when teachers make decisions about change proposals. In this study, we unpacked the decision mechanisms of three highly qualified chemistry teachers who subsequently adapted an innovative context-based chemistry unit. In spite of a state of the art professional development arrangement and the teachers being highly qualified, slippage occurred. The teachers' goal systems were used to interpret their reasoning. A goal system is a context-dependent, within-person mental construct that consists of a hierarchy of a person's goals and means in pursuit of a task. We showed that all three teachers adopted or redesigned elements of the change proposals to meet their core goals, i.e., goals that had multiple connections with other goals. This indicated that the adaptations teachers made were perfectly reasonable ways to serve their professional goals. For change to happen, we contend that one should begin with ways to connect teachers' core goals with the lesson or unit goal demands of a proposed innovation. Change emerges from the adaptions teachers make in the service of their core goals.

  18. Understanding Teen Dating Violence: Practical screening and intervention strategies for pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers (United States)

    Cutter-Wilson, Elizabeth; Richmond, Tracy


    Purpose of Review Teen Dating Violence (TDV) is a serious and potentially lethal form of relationship violence in adolescence. TDV is highly correlated with several outcomes related to poor physical and mental health. Although incidence and prevalence data indicates high rates of exposure to TDV among adolescents throughout the United States, significant confusion remains in healthcare communities concerning the definition and implications of TDV. Additionally, healthcare providers are uncertain about effective screening and intervention methods. The article will review the definition and epidemiology of TDV and discuss possible screening and intervention strategies. Recent Findings TDV research is a relatively new addition to the field of relationship violence. Although some confusion remains, the definition and epidemiology of TDV is better understood which has greatly lead to effective ways in which to screen and intervene when such violence is detected. Universal screening with a focus on high risk subgroups combined with referrals to local and national support services are key steps in reducing both primary and secondary exposure. Summary TDV is a widespread public health crisis with serious short and long-term implications. It is necessary for pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers to be aware of TDV, its potential repercussions, as well as possible methods for screening and intervention. More research is needed to better understand TDV as well as to further define effective screening and intervention protocol for the clinical environment. PMID:21670679

  19. Studying work practices: a key factor in understanding accidents on the level triggered by a balance disturbance. (United States)

    Derosier, C; Leclercq, S; Rabardel, P; Langa, P


    Accidents on the level (AOL) rank second amongst the most numerous and serious occupational accidents with days lost in France and are a major health and safety problem in every sector of activity. The case study described in this paper was conducted at a metallurgical company with 300 employees. The aims of this work were dual: 1) to extend the general knowledge required for preventing these accidents; 2) to propose prevention measures to this company. Existing data on company occupational accidents were gathered and analysed to identify a work situation that appeared likely to cause AOL. This work situation was analysed in detail. Several risk factors were identified within this work situation, by way of interviews with 12 operators. These risk factors concerned various dimensions of the work situation, particularly its physical dimension (e.g. templates structure) and organisational dimension (e.g. parts availability). Interviews were conducted, focusing on risk factors perceived by operators and involving allo-confrontations based on accounts of four AOL occurring in this situation. Allo-confrontations were interviews confronting operators with a risk occupational situation that was accidental for one of their colleagues, the latter being absent from the interview. Results highlighted the fact that the work practices implemented are key factors in understanding these accidents. This study underlines the role of work practices in AOL causality and prevention. It also provides explanations associated with various work situation dimensions involving adoption of more or less safe work practices. AOL are serious and frequent in occupational situations. Injury claims analysis and interviews in an industrial company emphasise the specific characteristics of an occupational situation and of prevention actions forming the basis of an intervention. The need for a better understanding of factors affecting work practice is highlighted in relation to research.

  20. From Scientific Management to Social Justice...and Back Again? Pedagogical Shifts in the Study and Practice of Educational Leadership (United States)

    Brooks, Jeffrey S.; Miles, Mark


    This article presents an historical overview of pedagogical orientations of school leadership in the United States, and then considers issues facing contemporary educational leaders in this context. Our survey begins with a consideration of the early influence of Frederick Taylor and ends in the present day, a time when the fields of practice and…

  1. The Mianhuakeng deposit no. 9 with -50 m to -150 m middle production prospecting practice some understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Yide; Tan Zhongyin; Kuang Zhengping; Hou Zhiyong; Qiu Huiyuan


    The production prospecting is an extension of prospecting, it can identify deposits occurrence conditions in the main deposits mined, geological factors, ore grade distribution characteristics of type and So on, it can provide a reliable geological data for the development plan of the section and the quasi - Design in order to reduce mining costs and improve economic benef. This article through to the Mianhuakeng Deposit No. 9 with -50 m to -150 m middle production prospecting practice some understanding, sum up the metallogenic conditions, ore controlling factors, ore characteristics, to realize the optimization of production prospecting, so as to lower the cost for the better prospecting effect. (authors)

  2. Understanding Positive Play: An Exploration of Playing Experiences and Responsible Gambling Practices. (United States)

    Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D


    This study is one of the first to explore in detail the behaviors, attitudes and motivations of players that show no signs of at-risk or problem gambling behavior (so-called 'positive players'). Via an online survey, 1484 positive players were compared with 209 problem players identified using the Lie/Bet screen. The study identified two distinct groups of positive players defined according to their motivations to play and their engagement with responsible gambling (RG) practices. Those positive players that played most frequently employed the most personal RG strategies. Reasons that positive players gave for gambling were focused on leisure (e.g., playing for fun, being entertained, and/or winning a prize). By contrast, problem gamblers were much more focused upon modifying mood states (e.g., excitement, relaxation, depression and playing when bored or upset). The present study also suggests that online gambling is not, by default, inherently riskier than gambling in more traditional ways, as online gambling was the most popular media by which positive players gambled. Furthermore, most positive players reported that it was easier to stick to their limits when playing the National Lottery online compared to traditional retail purchasing of tickets. Problem players were significantly more likely than positive players to gamble with family and friends, suggesting that, contrary to a popular RG message, social play may not be inherently safer than gambling alone. It is proposed that players (generally) may identify more with the term 'positive play' than the term 'RG' which is frequently interpreted as being aimed at people with gambling problems, rather than all players.

  3. Practical implications of understanding the influence of motivations on commitment to voluntary urban conservation stewardship. (United States)

    Asah, Stanley T; Blahna, Dale J


    Although the word commitment is prevalent in conservation biology literature and despite the importance of people's commitment to the success of conservation initiatives, commitment as a psychological phenomenon and its operation in specific conservation behaviors remains unexplored. Despite increasing calls for conservation psychology to play a greater role in meeting conservation goals, applications of the psychological sciences to specific conservation behaviors, illustrating their utility to conservation practice, are rare. We examined conservation volunteers' motivations and commitment to urban conservation volunteering. We interviewed key informant volunteers and used interview findings to develop psychometric scales that we used to assess motivations and commitment to volunteer. We surveyed 322 urban conservation volunteers and used factor analysis to reveal how volunteers structure their motivations and commitment to volunteer for urban conservation activities. Six categories of motivations and 2 categories of commitment emerged from factor analysis. Volunteers were motivated by desires to help the environment, defend and enhance the ego, career and learning opportunities, escape and exercise, social interactions, and community building. Two forms of commitment, affective and normative commitment, psychologically bind people to urban conservation volunteerism. We used linear-regression models to examine how these categories of motivations influence volunteers' commitment to conservation volunteerism. Volunteers' tendency to continue to volunteer for urban conservation, even in the face of fluctuating counter urges, was motivated by personal, social, and community functions more than environmental motivations. The environment, otherwise marginally important, was a significant motivator of volunteers' commitment only when volunteering met volunteers' personal, social, and community-building goals. Attention to these personal, social, and community

  4. Understanding and meeting injection device needs in multiple sclerosis: a survey of patient attitudes and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell S


    Full Text Available Elisabetta Verdun di Cantogno1, Susan Russell2, Tom Snow21Global Clinical Development Unit, Merck Serono S.A. – Geneva, Switzerland; 2Global Marketing, Merck Serono S.A. – Geneva, SwitzerlandBackground: All established disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis require parenteral administration, which can cause difficulties for some patients, sometimes leading to suboptimal adherence. A new electronic autoinjection device has been designed to address these issues.Methods: Patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis currently receiving subcutaneous or intramuscular interferon beta-1a, interferon beta-1b, or glatiramer acetate completed an online questionnaire (July 4–25, 2008 that surveyed current injection practices, experiences with current injection methods, and impressions and appeal of the new device.Results: In total, 422 patients completed the survey, of whom 44% used autoinjectors, 43% prefilled syringes, and 13% syringes and vials; overall, 66% currently self-injected. Physical and psychological barriers to self-injection included difficulty with injections, needle phobia, and concerns over correct injection technique. Only 40% of respondents were “very satisfied” with their current injection method. The new electronic autoinjector was rated as “very appealing” by 65% of patients. The benefits of the new device included the ability to customize injection settings and to review dosing history.Conclusion: New technologies may help patients overcome physical and psychological barriers to self-injection. The combination of a reliable and flexible autoinjection device with dose-monitoring technology may improve communication between health care professionals and patients, and improve treatment adherence.Keywords: adherence, autoinjection, subcutaneous interferon beta-1a, multiple sclerosis 

  5. Understanding the mental health consequences of family separation for refugees: Implications for policy and practice. (United States)

    Miller, Alexander; Hess, Julia Meredith; Bybee, Deborah; Goodkind, Jessica R


    Consistent evidence documents the negative impacts of family separation on refugee mental health and concerns for the welfare of distant family members and desire to reunite with family members as priorities for refugees postmigration. Less is known about refugees' emic perspectives on their experiences of family separation. Using mixed methods data from a community-based mental health intervention study, we found that family separation was a major source of distress for refugees and that it was experienced in a range of ways: as fear for family still in harm's way, as a feeling of helplessness, as cultural disruption, as the greatest source of distress since resettlement, and contributing to mixed emotions around resettlement. In addition to these qualitative findings, we used quantitative data to test the relative contribution of family separation to refugees' depression/anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and psychological quality of life. Separation from a family member was significantly related to all 3 measures of mental health, and it explained significant additional variance in all 3 measures even after accounting for participants' overall level of trauma exposure. Relative to 26 other types of trauma exposure, family separation was 1 of only 2 traumatic experiences that explained additional variance in all 3 measures of mental health. Given the current global refugee crisis and the need for policies to address this large and growing issue, this research highlights the importance of considering the ways in which family separation impacts refugee mental health and policies and practices that could help ameliorate this ongoing stressor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. An assessment of the Bhutanese traditional medicine for its ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany and ethnoquality: Textual understanding and the current practices. (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Pyne, Stephen G; Keller, Paul A


    : This study involves the assessment of the Bhutanese traditional medicine (BTM) which was integrated with the mainstream biomedicine in 1967 to provide primary health care services in the country. It caters to 20-30% of the daily out-patients within 49 traditional medicine units attached to 20 district modern hospitals and 29 Basic Health Units in the country. : This study presents the ethnopharmacological, ethnobotanical and the ethnoquality concepts in relation to mainstream Tibetan medicine and describes the current practices of BTM. : Experienced BTM practitioners (Drung-tshos and Smen-pas) were selected using a convenience sampling method and were interviewed using an open questionnaire followed by informal discussions. The corpus of BTM, Tibetan and scientific literature was obtained and the information on ethnopharmacological, ethnoquality and ethnobotanical concepts and current practices of BTM was extracted. : This study found that the BTM shares many similarities in terms of materia medica, pharmacopoeia and the principles and concepts of ethnopharmacology and ethnobotany with its mainstream Tibetan medicine. However, the resourceful Bhutanese Drung-tshos and Smen-pas have adapted this medical system based on the local language, culture, disease trend, health care needs and their familiarity with the locally available medicinal ingredients making it particular to the country. A number of notable distinctions observed in the current practices include a code of classification of diseases (only 79 of 404 types of disorders recognized), formulations (currently used only 103 of thousands formulation types), usage of medicinal plants (only 229 species of thousands described) and selected treatment procedures (golden needle and water therapy). This BTM was found to cater to 20-30% of daily out-patients visiting 49 modern hospitals and basic health units in the country. : The BTM has been evolved from the Tibetan medicine. While the pharmacopoeia

  7. Exploring the practicing-connections hypothesis: using gesture to support coordination of ideas in understanding a complex statistical concept. (United States)

    Son, Ji Y; Ramos, Priscilla; DeWolf, Melissa; Loftus, William; Stigler, James W


    In this article, we begin to lay out a framework and approach for studying how students come to understand complex concepts in rich domains. Grounded in theories of embodied cognition, we advance the view that understanding of complex concepts requires students to practice, over time, the coordination of multiple concepts, and the connection of this system of concepts to situations in the world. Specifically, we explore the role that a teacher's gesture might play in supporting students' coordination of two concepts central to understanding in the domain of statistics: mean and standard deviation. In Study 1 we show that university students who have just taken a statistics course nevertheless have difficulty taking both mean and standard deviation into account when thinking about a statistical scenario. In Study 2 we show that presenting the same scenario with an accompanying gesture to represent variation significantly impacts students' interpretation of the scenario. Finally, in Study 3 we present evidence that instructional videos on the internet fail to leverage gesture as a means of facilitating understanding of complex concepts. Taken together, these studies illustrate an approach to translating current theories of cognition into principles that can guide instructional design.

  8. The Oak Ridge Field Research Center : Advancing Scientific Understanding of the Transportation, Fate, and Remediation of Subsurface Contamination Sources and Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Watson


    Historical research, development, and testing of nuclear materials across this country resulted in subsurface contamination that has been identified at over 7,000 discrete sites across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. With the end of the Cold War threat, DOE has shifted its emphasis to remediation, decommissioning, and decontamination of the immense volumes of contaminated groundwater, sediments, and structures at its sites. DOE currently is responsible for remediating 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, an amount equal to approximately four times the daily U.S. water consumption, and 40 million cubic meters of contaminated soil, enough to fill approximately 17 professional sports stadiums.* DOE also sponsors research intended to improve or develop remediation technologies, especially for difficult, currently intractable contaminants or conditions. The Oak Ridge FRC is representative of some difficult sites, contaminants, and conditions. Buried wastes in contact with a shallow water table have created huge reservoirs of contamination. Rainfall patterns affect the water table level seasonally and over time. Further, the hydrogeology of the area, with its fractures and karst geology, affects the movement of contaminant plumes. Plumes have migrated long distances and to surface discharge points through ill-defined preferred flowpaths created by the fractures and karst conditions. From the standpoint of technical effectiveness, remediation options are limited, especially for contaminated groundwater. Moreover, current remediation practices for the source areas, such as capping, can affect coupled processes that, in turn, may affect the movement of subsurface contaminants in unknown ways. Research conducted at the FRC or with FRC samples therefore promotes understanding of the processes that influence the transport and fate of subsurface contaminants, the effectiveness and long-term consequences of extant remediation options, and the

  9. The Circulation of Scientific Articles in the Sphere of Web-Based Media: Citation Practices, Communities of Interests and Local Ties. (United States)

    Lefebvre, Muriel; Renard, Julie


    On 5th December 2012, a scientific article reviewing a change in the feeding behaviour of the European catfish, one of the largest freshwater fish, was published in the American scientific journal, PLOS ONE, an open access journal, which also allows the mass publication of pictures and videos. Within a few days following the publication of this article, it was relayed by numerous web sites and generated a media craze. In this paper, we analyse the circulation of this scientific information in the sphere of Web-based media during the two months following its publication, by revealing the citation mechanisms of the original article and the logic of the Internet users participating in its diffusion. In addition, since the circulation of its informational content travelled beyond linguistic and geographical boundaries, we chose to compare the citation modalities and intertextual relationships of documents in the three countries where the article spread the most widely, namely: France, the United States and Great Britain. Even though our study shows that the media circulation of scientific papers operates in a traditional way, the intertextual analysis underlines the grand variety of participants (such as journalists, non-scientists, fishermen, technology enthusiasts and Internet users) involved in the diffusion of this information, each of them mobilizing different intertextual strategies, according to their various targets. They all transformed, reformulated and appropriated the scientific information according to their own, unique interests. This study also emphasizes the importance of journalistic websites as opinion relays. They were the first diffusers involved in spreading the information but this role was rarely acknowledged by the Internet users - through citations, for example. In contrast, we observed that amateurs' communities (communities of practices and communities of interest of fishermen or of buzz fans), which only became involved in a second temporal

  10. Therapy by electromagnetic wave of millimeter energy range (EFH-therapy, MRT, IWT). Scientific and practical materials on the use of physical factors in clinical and health resort practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samosyuk, I.Z.; Chukhraev, N.V.; Shimkov, G.E.; Bitson, A.V.


    EHF-therapy method is a principally new method of treatment which is based on the peculiarities in perception by human organism the magnetic radiation of millimeter energy range. Practical use of this method has shown its high therapeutic efficiency at influencing on acupuncture points. This monography is completely devoted to description of EHF-therapy effects on acupuncture points with account of the Chinese reflexotherapy. Apparats of 'MIT' and 'Eleknronika-EHF' series do not provoke any damages in biological structures and refer to the safe class. The proposed scientific and practical materials on the use of physical factors in clinical and health resort practice are edited in addition to the previous monograph under the same title. These materials are of use for physicians of different specializations and listeners of medical advanced courses

  11. Behavioral and Social Sciences at the National Institutes of Health: adoption of research findings in health research and practice as a scientific priority. (United States)

    Riley, William T


    The National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) recently released its Strategic Plan for 2017 to 2021. This plan highlights three scientific priorities: (1) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research, (2) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research, and (3) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice. This commentary focuses on the challenges and opportunities to facilitate the adoption of research findings in health research and in practice. In addition to the ongoing NIH support for dissemination and implementation (D&I) research, we must address transformative challenges and opportunities such as better disseminating and implementing D&I research, merging research and practice, adopting more rigorous and diverse methods and measures for both D&I and clinical trials research, evaluating technological-based delivery of interventions, and transitioning from minimally adaptable intervention packages to planned adaptations rooted in behavior change principles. Beyond translation into practice and policy, the OBSSR Strategic Plan also highlights the need for translation of behavioral and social science findings into the broader biomedical research enterprise.

  12. Software support for students engaging in scientific activity and scientific controversy (United States)

    Cavalli-Sforza, Violetta; Weiner, Arlene W.; Lesgold, Alan M.

    Computer environments could support students in engaging in cognitive activities that are essential to scientific practice and to the understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge, but that are difficult to manage in science classrooms. The authors describe a design for a computer-based environment to assist students in conducting dialectical activities of constructing, comparing, and evaluating arguments for competing scientific theories. Their choice of activities and their design respond to educators' and theorists' criticisms of current science curricula. They give detailed specifications of portions of the environment.

  13. Changing behaviours, pushing social practices towards more sustainability. The contribution of human and social sciences to understand and act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Solange; Gaspard, Albane


    Beyond broad policy declarations, the implementation of ecological transition - which consists mainly in curbing consumption of energy and raw materials in our societies - requires substantial behavioural change at the collective, but also, quite obviously, the individual level. Yet, though there is general consensus around the principle of embarking on the path to transition, things get more complicated when it comes to changing our practices and habits. Can we act on individual behaviour and collective dynamics in respect of this particular aim of ecological transition, and, if so, how are we to go about it? Solange Martin and Albane Gaspard have examined this question for the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and offer us the fruit of their labours here. They show, for example, how the social and human sciences help to understand behaviour both at the individual level and in its collective dimensions, and they outline different possible lines of action to modify it. But, given the entanglement between various levels, it is essential, if we are to act effectively on behaviour, to combine approaches, tools and actors, and to analyse and understand social practices thoroughly before implementing political projects or measures

  14. Developing the critical thinking skills of astrobiology students through creative and scientific inquiry. (United States)

    Foster, Jamie S; Lemus, Judith D


    Scientific inquiry represents a multifaceted approach to explore and understand the natural world. Training students in the principles of scientific inquiry can help promote the scientific learning process as well as help students enhance their understanding of scientific research. Here, we report on the development and implementation of a learning module that introduces astrobiology students to the concepts of creative and scientific inquiry, as well as provide practical exercises to build critical thinking skills. The module contained three distinct components: (1) a creative inquiry activity designed to introduce concepts regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry; (2) guidelines to help astrobiology students formulate and self-assess questions regarding various scientific content and imagery; and (3) a practical exercise where students were allowed to watch a scientific presentation and practice their analytical skills. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to assess the students' perceptions regarding creative and scientific inquiry and whether this activity impacted their understanding of the scientific process. Survey results indicate that the exercise helped improve students' science skills by promoting awareness regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry and building their confidence in formulating and assessing scientific questions. Together, the module and survey results confirm the need to include such inquiry-based activities into the higher education classroom, thereby helping students hone their critical thinking and question asking skill set and facilitating their professional development in astrobiology.

  15. Developing a Critical Dialog for Educational Technology: Understanding the Nature of Technology and the Legacy of Scientific Management in Our Schools (United States)

    Frizelle, Thomas Kenneth


    This dissertation examines the legacy of scientific management and the dominance of one-dimensional thinking in the field of educational technology. Through this analysis, I demonstrate that the ways practitioners and policymakers frame educational technology, assess its effectiveness, and make judgments about its potential, often exclude…

  16. Principles and Best Practices Emerging from Data Basin: A Data Platform Supporting Scientific Research and Landscape Conservation Planning (United States)

    Comendant, T.; Strittholt, J. R.; Ward, B. C.; Bachelet, D. M.; Grossman, D.; Stevenson-Molnar, N.; Henifin, K.; Lundin, M.; Marvin, T. S.; Peterman, W. L.; Corrigan, G. N.; O'Connor, K.


    A multi-disciplinary team of scientists, software engineers, and outreach staff at the Conservation Biology Institute launched an open-access, web-based spatial data platform called Data Basin ( in 2010. Primarily built to support research and environmental resource planning, Data Basin provides the capability for individuals and organizations to explore, create, interpret, and collaborate around their priority topics and geographies. We used a stakeholder analysis to assess the needs of data consumers/produces and help prioritize primary and secondary audiences. Data Basin's simple and user-friendly interface makes mapping and geo-processing tools more accessible to less technical audiences. Input from users is considered in system planning, testing, and implementation. The team continually develops using an agile software development approach, which allows new features, improvements, and bug fixes to be deployed to the live system on a frequent basis. The data import process is handled through administrative approval and Data Basin requires spatial data (biological, physical, and socio-economic) to be well-documented. Outreach and training is used to convey the scope and appropriate use of the scientific information and available resources.

  17. What is Proof of Concept Research and how does it Generate Epistemic and Ethical Categories for Future Scientific Practice? (United States)

    Kendig, Catherine Elizabeth


    "Proof of concept" is a phrase frequently used in descriptions of research sought in program announcements, in experimental studies, and in the marketing of new technologies. It is often coupled with either a short definition or none at all, its meaning assumed to be fully understood. This is problematic. As a phrase with potential implications for research and technology, its assumed meaning requires some analysis to avoid it becoming a descriptive category that refers to all things scientifically exciting. I provide a short analysis of proof of concept research and offer an example of it within synthetic biology. I suggest that not only are there activities that circumscribe new epistemological categories but there are also associated normative ethical categories or principles linked to the research. I examine these and provide an outline for an alternative ethical account to describe these activities that I refer to as "extended agency ethics". This view is used to explain how the type of research described as proof of concept also provides an attendant proof of principle that is the result of decision-making that extends across practitioners, their tools, techniques, and the problem solving activities of other research groups.

  18. [Scientific bases of the organization of psychiatric care: the solution of practical problems in the framework of priority research]. (United States)

    Yastrebov, V S; Mitikhin, V G; Solokhina, T A; Mitikhina, I A

    ОBJECTIVE: a system analysis and modeling for important areas of research of the organization of psychiatric services in Russia in the study mental health of the population, identification of factors affecting the formation of the contingent of persons with mental disorders, organizational and functional structure of mental health services and mental health care. The authors analyzed scientific publications on the problems of psychiatric care organization as well as the results of own research over the last 25 years using system analysis. The approach that allows a creation of a range of population models to monitor the status of mental health based on medical, demographic and social factors (more than 60 factors) of life was suggested. The basic models and approaches for the evaluation of activity of divisions of mental health services at the macro and micro-social levels, taking into account expert information and individual characteristics of patients and relatives, were demonstrated. To improve treatment quality, the models of identification of the factors, which positively or negatively influenced the commitment to psychopharmacotherapy of patients with schizophrenia and their families, were developed.

  19. Magneto-laser-ultrasonic therapy. Particular methodic of different diseases treatment. Scientific materials used in practice. V.4(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samosyuk, I.Z.; Chukhraev, N.V.; Myasnikov, V.G.; Samosyuk, N.I.


    Contemporary data about the use of magnetotherapy, ultrasound and magnetolaser therapy in resonance energy ranges are presented in this book. Practical methodics of simultaneous and combined use of these physical factors in different branches of clinical medicine (neurology, cardiology, gastroenterology and others) are described. Modern principles of the sensitive zone choice, bases of biorhythmic and resonance phenomena are presented. Practical uses of them became more and more important in physiotherapy and acupuncture. Diseases of different organs are considered, and magnetic, laser and ultrasound mehtods of their treatment are discussed. Special attention is paid to the use of magneto-laser and low-frequency ultrasonic therapy methods for diabetus melitus and respiratory organ treatment. Diseases of urinary tract, of ischemia, insult, ophthalmological ones and series of surgery profile diseases are considered in connection with different modern treatment methods of them. Review of cardiovascular, skin, digestive system diseases, those of ophtalmology, stomatology, otolaryngology nervous-psychic violations is presented and optimum methods of their treatment are recommended. The most part of magneto-laser-ultrasound therapy uses refers to the new generation of series 'MIT' and 'MIT-11' apparata which combine all three treatment factors

  20. Rediscovering the scientific ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djørup, Stine

    The doctoral dissertation discusses some of the moral standards of good scientific practice that areunderexposed in the literature. In particular, attempts are made to correct the conceptual confusionsurrounding the norm of 'disinterestedness' in science (‘uhildethed’), and the norm of scientific...