WorldWideScience

Sample records for understand property land

  1. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...

  2. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  3. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration...

  4. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...

  5. Land degradation and property regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Beaumont; Robert T. Walker

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common property and open access. To assess this we implement optimization algorithms on a supercomputer to address resource...

  6. Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils under Contrasting Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils under Contrasting Land Use ... the aim of understanding the response of the soil to different management practices over time. ... The soil chemical properties studied were soil pH, organic carbon, total ...

  7. Understanding Informal Urban Land Market Functioning in Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding Informal Urban Land Market Functioning in Peri-urban Areas of Secondary Towns of Rwanda: Case Study of Tumba Sector, Butare Town. ... Land price is negotiable and varies greatly based on the land size and its specific location and is higher than the reference land price. Land right transfer is evidenced ...

  8. Authoritative land information and Australian property markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambuwala, Nilofer; Rajabifard, Abbas; Bennett, Rohan; Wallace, Jude; Williamson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Land information has an important role to play in informing macroeconomic policy. In particular, timely and accurate market information relating to land tenure and value is essential for evidence-based fiscal and monetary decisions, such as interest rates on dept financing and assessing property

  9. Polyrational property: rules for the many uses of land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Davy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Land uses are what land users do. When spatial planners and other policymakers promote or preclude certain land uses, they interfere with the rights of the users of land, most notably with property. The technical term for what connects land uses, planning, and property is land policy. My paper has a simple message: Good land policy provides a diversity of land uses with plural property relations. No single kind of property rules fits the purposes of all types of land uses. A detached single family house is not like a community garden, nor a highway like a retail chain. Each land use needs its own property “fingerprint.” In everyday practice, private and common property relations often accommodate a wide variety of demands made by the owners and users of land. Many theories of property and land policy, however, fail to recognize plural property relations. The simple message of my paper seeks to reconcile practice and theory. A polyrational theory of planning and property identifies eight types of land uses, each type needing its own kind of property rules. The eight types of land uses are: insular, opportunistic, kinship, collaborative, corporate, structural, container, and environmental uses of land. Polyrational land policy makes sure that desirable land uses are enveloped by appropriate property relations.

  10. Land, power and conflict in Afghanistan: seeking to understand complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Pain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the diverse links between land and power under conditions of conflict in Afghanistan, taking into account the complexities of Afghan society. These complexities are structured around interconnecting informal institutions and personalised relationships, culturally specific, diverse and shifting patterns of social relations, and spatially specific patterns of land ownership inequalities. The paper draws on a decade of empirical fieldwork in Afghanistan and recent work on livelihood trajectories and the opium economy. An understanding of the evolution of land ownership and access issues needs to be associated with an appreciation of diverse and potentially contradictory long-term drivers of change in the rural economy. The first of these long-term drivers of change relates to the effects of conflict, not only on land but also of water access under conditions of an increasingly scarce water supply. The second driver relates both to the roles played by village elites and to the structural contrasts between villages located in the mountains and in the plains, with the latter displaying major inequalities in land ownership. The third driver relates to the declining economic role of land in rural livelihoods, given long-term agrarian change and falling farm sizes. An understanding of history is fundamental to explaining these phenomena. How such conflicts play out, and which social groups or individuals they involve, also depend to a large degree on spatial positioning.

  11. Understanding Land Use and Land Cover Dynamics from 1976 to 2014 in Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term intensive land use/cover changes (LUCCs of the Yellow River Delta (YRD have been happening since the 1960s. The land use patterns of the LUCCs are crucial for bio-diversity conservation and/or sustainable development. This study quantified patterns of the LUCCs, explored the systematic transitions, and identified wetland change trajectory for the period 1976–2014 in the YRD. Landsat imageries of 1976, 1984, 1995, 2006, and 2014 were used to derive nine land use classes. Post classification change detection analysis based on enhanced transition matrix was applied to identify land use dynamics and trajectory of wetland change. The five cartographic outputs for changes in land use underlined major decreases in natural wetland areas and increases in artificial wetland and non-wetland, especially aquafarms, salt pans and construction lands. The systematic transitions in the YRD were wetland degradation, wetland artificialization, and urbanization. Wetland change trajectory results demonstrated that the main wetland changes were wetland degradation and wetland artificialization. Coastline change is the subordinate reason for natural wetland degradation in comparison with human activities. The results of this study allowed for an improvement in the understanding of the LUCC processes and enabled researchers and planners to focus on the most important signals of systematic landscape transitions while also allowing for a better understanding of the proximate causes of changes.

  12. Land use and land cover change in the Western Cape Province: quantification of changes & understanding of driving factors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tizora, P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available changes in land use and land cover (LULC) and incited issues such as urban sprawl, marginalization of the poor, limited public access to resources, land degradation and climate change. This paper seeks to understand the most significant drivers of LULC...

  13. Understanding land acquisitions in West Africa: A community-based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... AMINE BOULHIAN Large-scale land acquisitions of traditional rice paddies such as ... Women are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of large-scale land ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and ...

  14. Understanding Informal Urban Land Market Functioning in Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rapid urbansisation that requires huge land for various purposes including housing, industry ... domain. In Rwandan urban areas, as observed by many scholars (Sagashya, ... demand to the offer perspectives, analysing drivers of informal land market ... Desk study was used to collect secondary data on urban land market.

  15. Mongolia - Property Rights - Land Registration System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IPA: Evaluation design: Impact Evaluation 1. Pre-post comparison of time and cost involving in select land-based transactions 2. Involve two main instruments of...

  16. Development of spatial heterogeneity in vegetation and soil properties after land abandonment in a semi-arid ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Kooijman, A.M.; van Wesemael, B.

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate erosion on abandoned fields in semi-arid ecosystems, it is important to understand how vegetation and soil properties and patterns develop after land abandonment. Our objective was to investigate the development of spatial heterogeneity in vegetation and soil properties after land

  17. Variation of surficial soil hydraulic properties across land uses in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Price; C. Rhett Jackson; Albert J. Parker

    2010-01-01

    A full understanding of hydrologic response to human impact requires assessment of land-use impacts on key soil physical properties such as saturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, and moisture retention. Such properties have been shown to affect watershed hydrology by influencing pathways and transmission rates of precipitation to stream networks. Human land...

  18. Determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Leeuw, G. de

    2009-01-01

    Mostly, aerosol properties are poorly understood because the aerosol properties are very sparse. The first workshop on the determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements is convened in Bremen, Germany. In this workshop, the topics of discussions included a

  19. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, S.K.; Morris, J.K.; Sanders, J.S.; Wiley, E.N.; Brooks, M.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.; Marynowski, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  20. Understanding Mesoscale Land-Atmosphere Interactions in Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, X.; Wang, S.; Nachamkin, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Land-atmosphere interactions in Arctic region are examined using the U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS©*) with the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM). Initial land surface variables in COAMPS are interpolated from the real-time NASA Land Information System (LIS). The model simulations are configured for three nest grids with 27-9-3 km horizontal resolutions. The simulation period is set for October 2015 with 12-h data assimilation update cycle and 24-h integration length. The results are compared with those simulated without using LSM and evaluated with observations from ONR Sea State R/V Sikuliaq cruise and the North Slope of Alaska (NSA). There are complex soil and vegetation types over the surface for simulation with LSM, compared to without LSM simulation. The results show substantial differences in surface heat fluxes between bulk surface scheme and LSM, which may have an important impact on the sea ice evolution over the Arctic region. Evaluations from station data show surface air temperature and relative humidity have smaller biases for simulation using LSM. Diurnal variation of land surface temperature, which is necessary for physical processes of land-atmosphere, is also better captured than without LSM.

  1. Root for rain : Towards understanding land-use change impacts on the water cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang-Erlandsson, L.

    2017-01-01

    We live today on a human-dominated planet under unprecedented pressure on both land and water. The water cycle is intrinsically linked to vegetation and land use, and anticipating the consequences of simultaneous changes in land and water systems requires a thorough understanding of their

  2. Urban Property Taxation: II. Land and Location. Exchange Bibliography 480.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Anthony G.

    This is one of three related bibliographies listing publications dealing with the broad topic of property taxation. This particular volume concerns some specialized fields of study, including locational theory, land use and taxation, property markets and valuation, housing, and urban renewal and redevelopment. Citations are listed alphabetically…

  3. Urban Ecological Stewardship: Understanding the Structure, Function and Network of Community-based Urban Land Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay K. Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban environmental stewardship activities are on the rise in cities throughout the Northeast. Groups participating in stewardship activities range in age, size, and geography and represent an increasingly complex and dynamic arrangement of civil society, government and business sectors. To better understand the structure, function and network of these community-based urban land managers, an assessment was conducted in 2004 by the research subcommittee of the Urban Ecology Collaborative. The goal of the assessment was to better understand the role of stewardship organizations engaged in urban ecology initiatives in selected major cities in the Northeastern U.S.: Boston, New Haven, New York City, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C. A total of 135 active organizations participated in this assessment. Findings include the discovery of a dynamic social network operating within cities, and a reserve of social capital and expertise that could be better utilized. Although often not the primary land owner, stewardship groups take an increasingly significant responsibility for a wide range of land use types including street and riparian corridors, vacant lots, public parks and gardens, green roofs, etc. Responsibilities include the delivery of public programs as well as daily maintenance and fundraising support. While most of the environmental stewardship organizations operate on staffs of zero or fewer than ten, with small cohorts of community volunteers, there is a significant difference in the total amount of program funding. Nearly all respondents agree that committed resources are scarce and insufficient with stewards relying upon and potentially competing for individual donations, local foundations, and municipal support. This makes it a challenge for the groups to grow beyond their current capacity and to develop long-term programs critical to resource management and education. It also fragments groups, making it difficult for planners and

  4. Thermophysical Properties of the Phoenix Mars Landing Site Study Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzig, N. E.; Mellon, M. T.; Golombek, M. P.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-03-01

    Analysis of Phoenix Mars study regions places 4 of 5 in a previously-identified duricrust-dominated thermophysical unit which also contains the Viking and Spirit landing sites. Extrapolation of lander-observed properties to the study regions may be complicated by surface heterogeneity.

  5. 217 THE LAND USE ACT AND EQUITY FACTOR IN PROPERTY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    discretion in tax management, provides harsh and inequitable penalties on tax defaulters, does not provide any .... remains one of the fundamental pillars of taxation guideline globally. ..... expense of the land owner and a disincentive to property investments. It is an .... establishing clear indices for tax valuation and review.

  6. Understanding Land Use Impacts on Groundwater Quality Using Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitka, A.; Masarik, K.; Masterpole, D.; Johnson, B.; Piette, S.

    2017-12-01

    Chippewa County, in western Wisconsin, has a unique historical set of groundwater quality data. The county conducted extensive groundwater sampling of private wells in 1985 (715 wells) and 2007 (800 wells). In 2016, they collaborated with UW-Extension and UW-Stevens Point to evaluate the current status of groundwater quality in Chippewa County by sampling of as many of the previously studied wells as possible. Nitrate was a primary focus of this groundwater quality inventory. Of the 744 samples collected, 60 were further analyzed for chemical indicators of agricultural and septic waste, two major sources of nitrate contamination. Wells for nitrate source analysis were selected from the 2016 participants based upon certain criteria. Only wells with a Wisconsin Unique Well Number were considered to ensure well construction information was available. Next, an Inverse Distance Weighting tool in ESRI ArcMap was used to assign values categorizing septic density. Two-thirds of the wells were selected in higher density areas and one-third in lower density areas. Equally prioritized was an even distribution of nitrate - N concentrations, with 28 of the wells having nitrate - N concentrations higher than the drinking water standard of 10 mg/L and 32 wells with concentrations between 2 and 10 mg/L. All wells with WUWN and nitrate - N concentrations greater than 20 mg/L were selected. The results of the nitrate source analyses will aid in determining temporal changes and spatial relationships of groundwater quality to soils, geology and land use in Chippewa County.

  7. Local understanding of forest conservation in land use change dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaleh, Muhammad Adha; Guth, Miriam Karen; Rahman, Syed Ajijur

    2016-01-01

    Forest (SEPPSF), Malaysia. Nine in-depth interviews were conducted with Orang Asli Jakun living in SEPPSF using open-ended questions. Local communities have positive perspectives toward the forest conservation program, despite massive environmental changes in their living landscape. This study suggests......The success of local forest conservation program depends on a critical appreciation of local communities. Based on this understanding, the present study aims to explore people’s perspective of forest conservation in a context of changes in their living landscape at South East Pahang Peat Swamp...

  8. Impacts of land leveling on lowland soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of land leveling alters the soil surface to create a uniform slope to improve land conditions for the application of all agricultural practices. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impacts of land leveling through the magnitudes, variances and spatial distributions of selected soil physical properties of a lowland area in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; the relationships between the magnitude of cuts and/or fills and soil physical properties after the leveling process; and evaluation of the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. In the 0-0.20 m layer, a 100-point geo-referenced grid covering two taxonomic soil classes was used in assessment of the following soil properties: soil particle density (Pd and bulk density (Bd; total porosity (Tp, macroporosity (Macro and microporosity (Micro; available water capacity (AWC; sand, silt, clay, and dispersed clay in water (Disp clay contents; electrical conductivity (EC; and weighted average diameter of aggregates (WAD. Soil depth to the top of the B horizon was also measured before leveling. The overall effect of leveling on selected soil physical properties was evaluated by paired "t" tests. The effect on the variability of each property was evaluated through the homogeneity of variance test. The thematic maps constructed by kriging or by the inverse of the square of the distances were visually analyzed to evaluate the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the properties and of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. Linear regression models were fitted with the aim of evaluating the relationship between soil properties and the magnitude of cuts and fills. Leveling altered the mean value of several soil properties and the agronomic effect was negative. The mean values of Bd and Disp clay increased and Tp, Macro and Micro, WAD, AWC and EC decreased. Spatial distributions of all

  9. Soil chemical and physical properties that differentiate urban land-use and cover types

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.V. Pouyat; I.D. Yesilonis; J. Russell-Anelli; N.K. Neerchal

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of land use and cover and surface geology on soil properties in Baltimore, MD, with the objectives to: (i) measure the physical and chemical properties of surface soils (0?10 cm) by land use and cover; and (ii) ascertain whether land use and cover explain differences in these properties relative to surface geology. Mean and median values of...

  10. Grand challenges in understanding the interplay of climate and land changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Boysen, Lena R.; Ford, James D.; Fox, Andrew; Gallo, Kevin; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Henebry, Geoffrey M.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Liu, Zhihua; Loveland, Thomas R.; Norby, Richard J.; Sohl, Terry L.; Steiner, Allison L.; Yuan, Wenping; Zhang, Zhao; Zhao, Shuqing

    2017-01-01

    Half of Earth’s land surface has been altered by human activities, creating various consequences on the climate and weather systems at local to global scales, which in turn affect a myriad of land surface processes and the adaptation behaviors. This study reviews the status and major knowledge gaps in the interactions of land and atmospheric changes and present 11 grand challenge areas for the scientific research and adaptation community in the coming decade. These land-cover and land-use change (LCLUC)-related areas include 1) impacts on weather and climate, 2) carbon and other biogeochemical cycles, 3) biospheric emissions, 4) the water cycle, 5) agriculture, 6) urbanization, 7) acclimation of biogeochemical processes to climate change, 8) plant migration, 9) land-use projections, 10) model and data uncertainties, and, finally, 11) adaptation strategies. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effects of LCLUC on local to global climate and weather systems, but these putative effects vary greatly in magnitude and even sign across space, time, and scale and thus remain highly uncertain. At the same time, many challenges exist toward improved understanding of the consequences of atmospheric and climate change on land process dynamics and services. Future effort must improve the understanding of the scale-dependent, multifaceted perturbations and feedbacks between land and climate changes in both reality and models. To this end, one critical cross-disciplinary need is to systematically quantify and better understand measurement and model uncertainties. Finally, LCLUC mitigation and adaptation assessments must be strengthened to identify implementation barriers, evaluate and prioritize opportunities, and examine how decision-making processes work in specific contexts.

  11. Mapping out the regulatory environment and its interaction with land and property markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how the regulatory environment created by planning and building regulations interacts with land and property markets. Since this regulatory environment operates as a form of intervention within property markets in general and the development process in particular, it is essential first to understand the nature, structure and operation of land and property markets. These are covered in the first section. The second section identifies the aims and components of the planning system and building regulations. From this basis, four broad types of policy intervention are reviewed in the third section. These cover policies that seek to shape, regulate or stimulate market activity, and those that aim to build state or market capacity to produce desired outcomes. The final section uses the private residential development process as a case study to explore the extent to which state intervention can influence producer-consumer relationships in one important market sector. The paper argues that effective intervention in land and property markets requires the creation of a broad range of policy tools and their appropriate deployment to suit particular market circumstances. (author)

  12. Tools to Understand Structural Property Relationships for Wood Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Jakes; Daniel J. Yelle; Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    Understanding structure-property relationships for wood cell walls has been hindered by the complex polymeric structures comprising these cell walls and the difficulty in assessing meaningful mechanical property measurements of individual cell walls. To help overcome these hindrances, we have developed two experimental methods: 1) two-dimensional solution state nuclear...

  13. Selected Physical Properties of Andisols under Different Land Use Condition in Gunung Kerinci Subdistrict, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endriani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the research was to study the effect of different land use at some land slopecondition on some physical properties of Andisols in Gunung Kerinci Subdistrict, Jambi.. The research was conductusing field survey and purposive random sampling methods to collect soil. The land use which was using in this studywere: forest, cultivation, cinnamon, and coffee plantation, while land slope level weres: 3-8%, 8-15%, 15-25 %, and> 25%. The results showed that among land use types, the rank of soil physical properties, such as: soil organicmatter, bulk density, porosity, percentage of agregation, stability of agregate, pore distribution and permeability werein order of : forest > cultivation > cinnamon > coffee. Land conversion from forest to agricultural land causeddecreasing in the soil physical properties. The higher level of land slope caused the decreasing of soil physicalproperties at all type of land use.

  14. Conceptual Understanding of Multiplicative Properties through Endogenous Digital Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Andre

    2012-01-01

    This study purposed to determine the effect of an endogenously designed instructional game on conceptual understanding of the associative and distributive properties of multiplication. Additional this study sought to investigate if performance on measures of conceptual understanding taken prior to and after game play could serve as predictors of…

  15. Improving the Understanding and Model Representation of Processes that Couple Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, J. D.; Berg, L. K.; Schmid, B.; Alexander, M. L. L.; Bell, D.; D'Ambro, E.; Hubbe, J. M.; Liu, J.; Mei, F.; Pekour, M. S.; Pinterich, T.; Schobesberger, S.; Shilling, J.; Springston, S. R.; Thornton, J. A.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Wang, J.; Zelenyuk, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cumulus convection is an important component in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle over the southern Great Plains and over many regions of the world, particularly during the summertime growing season when intense turbulence induced by surface radiation couples the land surface to clouds. Current convective cloud parameterizations, however, contain uncertainties resulting from insufficient coincident data that couples cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to inhomogeneity in surface layer, boundary layer, and aerosol properties. We describe the measurement strategy and preliminary findings from the recent Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) campaign conducted in May and September of 2016 in the vicinity of the DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site located in Oklahoma. The goal of the HI-SCALE campaign is to provide a detailed set of aircraft and surface measurements needed to obtain a more complete understanding and improved parameterizations of the lifecycle of shallow clouds. The sampling is done in two periods, one in the spring and the other in the late summer to take advantage of variations in the "greenness" for various types of vegetation, new particle formation, anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and other aerosol properties. The aircraft measurements will be coupled with extensive routine ARM SGP measurements as well as Large Eddy Simulation (LES), cloud resolving, and cloud-system resolving models. Through these integrated analyses and modeling studies, the affects of inhomogeneity in land use, vegetation, soil moisture, convective eddies, and aerosol properties on the evolution of shallow clouds will be determined, including the feedbacks of cloud radiative effects.

  16. Effect of land use change on soil properties and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Kõlli, Raimo; Köster, Tiina; Rannik, Kaire; Szajdak, Lech; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2014-05-01

    For good base of sustainable land management and ecologically sound protection of soils are researches on soil properties and functioning. Ecosystem approach to soil properties and functioning is equally important in both natural and cultivated land use conditions. Comparative analysis of natural and agro-ecosystems formed on similar soil types enables to elucidate principal changes caused by land use change (LUC) and to elaborate the best land use practices for local pedo-ecological conditions. Taken for actual analysis mineral soils' catena - rendzina → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols - represent ca 1/3 of total area of Estonian normal mineral soils. All soils of this catena differ substantially each from other by calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, fabric and humus cover type. This catena (representative to Estonian pedo-ecological conditions) starts with drought-prone calcareous soils. Brown (distributed in northern and central Estonia) and pseudopodzolic soils (in southern Estonia) are the most broadly acknowledged for agricultural use medium-textured high-quality automorphic soils. Dispersedly distributed gley-podzols are permanently wet and strongly acid, low-productivity sandy soils. In presentation four complex functions of soils are treated: (1) being a suitable soil environment for plant cover productivity (expressed by annual increment, Mg ha-1 yr-1); (2) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of fresh falling litter (characterized by humus cover type); (3) deposition of humus, individual organic compounds, plant nutrition elements, air and water, and (4) forming (bio)chemically variegated active space for soil type specific edaphon. Capacity of soil cover as depositor (3) depends on it thickness, texture, calcareousness and moisture conditions. Biological activity of soil (4) is determined by fresh organic matter influx, quality and quantity of biochemical substances and humus

  17. Biomechanical approaches to understanding the potentially injurious demands of gymnastic-style impact landings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gittoes Marianne JR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gymnasts are exposed to a high incidence of impact landings due to the execution of repeated dismount performances. Biomechanical research can help inform recent discussions surrounding a proposed rule change in potentially injurious gymnastic dismounting. The review examines existing understanding of the mechanisms influencing the impact loads incurred in gymnastic-style landings achieved using biomechanical approaches. Laboratory-based and theoretical modelling research of inherent and regulatory mechanisms is appraised. The integration of the existing insights into injury prevention interventions studies is further considered in the appraisals. While laboratory-based studies have traditionally been favoured, the difficulty in controlling and isolating mechanisms of interest has partially restricted the understanding gained. An increase in the use of theoretical approaches has been evident over the past two decades, which has successfully enhanced insight into less readily modified mechanisms. For example, the important contribution of mass compositions and 'tuned' mass coupling responses to impact loading has been evidenced. While theoretical studies have advanced knowledge in impact landing mechanics, restrictions in the availability of laboratory-based input data have suppressed the benefits gained. The advantages of integrating laboratory-based and theoretical approaches in furthering scientific understanding of loading mechanisms have been recognised in the literature. Since a multi-mechanism contribution to impact loading has been evident, a deviation away from studies examining isolated mechanisms may be supported for the future. A further scientific understanding of the use of regulatory mechanisms in alleviating a performer's inherent injury predisposition may subsequently be gained and used to inform potential rule changes in gymnastics. While the use of controlled studies for providing scientific evidence for the

  18. Effect of land use on some soil chemical properties and P fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land use directly or indirectly affects the soil chemical properties and phosphorus fractions. Two different land use types were studied. Soil chemical analysis and phosphorus fractionation of the soils was then done and the results were highly significant (p<0.001). Total C, N and P were low under the arable land use as ...

  19. Understanding the Shape of the Land and Watersheds Using Simple Models in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, L.; Johnson, R.; Russell, R.; Bergman, J.; Genyuk, J.; Lagrave, M.

    2006-12-01

    Middle school students can gain essential understandings of the Earth and its processes in the classroom by making and manipulating simple models. While no substitute for field experiences, simple models made of easily-obtained materials can foster student understanding of natural environments. Through this collection of hands-on activities, students build and manipulate simple models that demonstrate (1) tectonic processes that shape the land, (2) the shape of the land surface, (3) how the shape of the land influences the distribution of waterways and watersheds, and (4) how the human communities within a watershed are interconnected through use of surface water. The classroom activities described in this presentation are available on Windows to the Universe (www.windows.ucar.edu), a project of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Office of Education and Outreach. Windows to the Universe, a long-standing Web resource supporting Earth and space science education, provides users with content about the Earth and space sciences at three levels (beginner, intermediate, and advanced) in English and Spanish. Approximately 80 hands-on classroom activities appropriate for K-12 classrooms are available within the teacher resources section of the Windows to the Universe.

  20. Current Challenges in Understanding and Forecasting Stable Boundary Layers over Land and Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert-Jan eSteeneveld

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is challenging. Many physical processes come into play in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling and heterogeneity, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag. The development of robust stable boundary-layer parameterizations for weather and climate models is difficult because of the multiplicity of processes and their complex interactions. As a result, these models suffer from biases in key variables, such as the 2-m temperature, boundary-layer depth and wind speed. This short paper briefly summarizes the state-of-the-art of stable boundary layer research, and highlights physical processes that received only limited attention so far, in particular orographically-induced gravity wave drag, longwave radiation divergence, and the land-atmosphere coupling over a snow-covered surface. Finally, a conceptual framework with relevant processes and particularly their interactions is proposed.

  1. The effects of land use types and soil depth on soil properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of land use types and soil depth on soil properties of Agedit watershed, Northwest Ethiopia. ... immediate intervention to protect the remnant forests and to replenish the degraded soil properties for sustainable agricultural productivity. Keywords: cultivation, deforestation, grazing, land management, soil fertility ...

  2. Understanding Changes in Modeled Land Surface Characteristics Prior to Lightning-Initiated Holdover Fire Breakout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Case, Jonathan L.; Hain, Christopher R.; White, Kristopher; Wachter, J. Brent; Nauslar, Nicholas; MacNamara, Brittany

    2018-01-01

    Lightning initiated wildfires are only 16% of the total number of wildfires within the United States, but account for 56% of the acreage burned. One of the challenges with lightning-initiated wildfires is their ability to "holdover" which means smolder for up to 2+ weeks before breaking out into a full fledged fire. This work helps characterize the percentage of holdover events due to lightning, and helps quantify changes in the land surface characteristics to help understand trends in soil moisture and vegetation stress that potentially contribute to the fire breaking out into a full wildfire.

  3. Accounting for heterogeneity of public lands in hedonic property models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlotte Ham; Patricia A. Champ; John B. Loomis; Robin M. Reich

    2012-01-01

    Open space lands, national forests in particular, are usually treated as homogeneous entities in hedonic price studies. Failure to account for the heterogeneous nature of public open spaces may result in inappropriate inferences about the benefits of proximate location to such lands. In this study the hedonic price method is used to estimate the marginal values for...

  4. Impacts of Land use on Selected Physicochemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the present study, it could be concluded that the soil quality and health were maintained relatively under the forest land, whereas the influence on most soil parameters were negative on the cultivated land, indicating the need for employing integrated soil fertility management in sustainable manner to optimize and ...

  5. Understanding the Socioeconomic Effects of Wildfires on Western U.S. Public Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J. J.; Srivastava, L.; Marcos-Martinez, R.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has resulted in the increased severity and frequency of forest disturbances due to wildfires, droughts, pests and diseases that compromise the sustainable provision of forest ecosystem services (e.g., water quantity and quality, carbon sequestration, recreation). A better understanding of the environmental and socioeconomic consequences of forest disturbances (i.e., wildfires) could improve the management and protection of public lands. We used a single-site benefit transfer function and spatially explicit information for demographic, socioeconomic, and site-specific characteristics to estimate the monetized value of market and non-market ecosystem services provided by forests on Western US public lands. These estimates are then used to approximate the costs of forest disturbances caused by wildfires of varying frequency and intensity, and across sites with heterogeneous characteristics and protection and management strategies. Our analysis provides credible estimates of the benefits of the forest for land management by the United States Forest Service, thereby assisting forest managers in planning resourcing and budgeting priorities.

  6. Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Hunsberger (Carol); Tom P. Evans

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPressure on land resources has increased during recent years despite international goals to improve their management. The fourth Global Environment Outlook (UNEP 2007) highlighted the unprecedented land-use changes created by a burgeoning population, economic development and

  7. Effects of land-use changes on soil properties : volcano watershed in Quito, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Podwojewski, Pascal; Poulenard, J.; Janeau, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    In the highlands of southern Colombia and northern Ecuador, soils developed on volcanic ash deposits have specific properties: high water retention, high hydraulic conductivity and high carbon (C) contents. The main role of the soils is to regulate the water available for the dense population living in the valleys. Soil properties and land use depend on their altitudes. Any important modification of land-use change has a serious effect on soil properties and consequently the ecosystem propert...

  8. Understanding Climate Adaptation on Public Lands in the Upper Midwest: Implications for Monitoring and Tracking Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhalt-Depies, Christine M.; Knoot, Tricia Gorby; Rissman, Adena R.; Sharp, Anthony K.; Martin, Karl J.

    2016-05-01

    There are limited examples of efforts to systematically monitor and track climate change adaptation progress in the context of natural resource management, despite substantial investments in adaptation initiatives. To better understand the status of adaptation within state natural resource agencies, we utilized and problematized a rational decision-making framework to characterize adaptation at the level of public land managers in the Upper Midwest. We conducted in-depth interviews with 29 biologists and foresters to provide an understanding of managers' experiences with, and perceptions of, climate change impacts, efforts towards planning for climate change, and a full range of actions implemented to address climate change. While the majority of managers identified climate change impacts affecting their region, they expressed significant uncertainty in interpreting those signals. Just under half of managers indicated planning efforts are underway, although most planning is remote from local management. Actions already implemented include both forward-looking measures and those aimed at coping with current impacts. In addition, cross-scale dynamics emerged as an important theme related to the overall adaptation process. The results hold implications for tracking future progress on climate change adaptation. Common definitions or measures of adaptation (e.g., presence of planning documents) may need to be reassessed for applicability at the level of public land managers.

  9. Properties Analysis on Travel Intensity of Land Use Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantization of the relationship between travel intensity and land use patterns is still a critical problem in urban transportation planning. Achieved researches on land use patterns are restricted to macrodata such as population and area, which failed to provide detail travel information for transportation planners. There is still problem on how to reflect the relationship between transport and land use accurately. This paper presents a study that is reflective of such an effort. A data extraction method is developed to get the travel origin and destination (OD between traffic zones based on the mobile data of 100,000 residents in Beijing. Then Point of Interests (POIs data in typical traffic zones was analyzed combined with construction area investigation. Based on the analysis of travel OD and POI data, the average travel intensity of each land use pattern is quantified. Research results could provide a quantitative basis for the optimization of urban transportation planning.

  10. Understanding quantum mechanics by measuring the properties of mesoscopic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical transport and magnetic properties of micron-size scale insulators, metals, semi-metals, and semiconductors at low temperatures have uncovered a wealth of unexpected phenomena. The only way to understand these new properties is by invoking many of the postulates of quantum mechanics. The author has confirmed that the electron acts as a long-range phase-coherent wave and conventional classical forces are not as important as scalar and vector potentials in determining the response of the electron as it moves through its environment. This talk will focus on the measurement of the Aharonov-Bohm self-interference effects, nonlocal transport phenomena, and persistent currents in normal metal ring structures that have been observed in these nanostructures

  11. Understanding Materials Science History · Properties · Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, Rolf E

    2005-01-01

    This introduction to materials science both for students of engineering and physics and for the interested general public examines not only the physical and engineering properties of virtually all kinds of materials, but also their history, uses, development, and some of the implications of resource depletion and recycling. It covers all topics on materials from an entirely novel perspective: the role materials have played throughout history in the development of humankind and technologies. Specifically, it shows the connection between the technical and the cultural, economic, ecological, and societal aspects of materials science. It aims to whet the appetite of its readers and inspire them to further explore the properties and applications of metals, alloys, ceramics, plastics, and electronic materials by presenting easily understandable explanations and entertaining historical facts. It is also intended to raise the reader’s awareness of their obligations to society as practicing engineers and scientists....

  12. Land-use and land-management change: relationships with earthworm and fungi communities and soil structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, David J; Keith, Aidan M; Schmidt, Olaf; Lammertsma, Dennis R; Faber, Jack H

    2013-12-01

    Change in land use and management can impact massively on soil ecosystems. Ecosystem engineers and other functional biodiversity in soils can be influenced directly by such change and this in turn can affect key soil functions. Here, we employ meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of the effects of changes in land use and land management across a range of successional/extensification transitions (conventional arable → no or reduced tillage → grassland → wooded land) on community metrics for two functionally important soil taxa, earthworms and fungi. An analysis of the relationships between community change and soil structural properties was also included. Meta-analysis highlighted a consistent trend of increased earthworm and fungal community abundances and complexity following transitions to lower intensity and later successional land uses. The greatest changes were seen for early stage transitions, such as introduction of reduced tillage regimes and conversion to grassland from arable land. Not all changes, however, result in positive effects on the assessed community metrics. For example, whether woodland conversion positively or negatively affects community size and complexity depends on woodland type and, potentially, the changes in soil properties, such as pH, that may occur during conversion. Alterations in soil communities tended to facilitate subsequent changes in soil structure and hydrology. For example, increasing earthworm abundances and functional group composition were shown to be positively correlated with water infiltration rate (dependent on tillage regime and habitat characteristics); while positive changes in fungal biomass measures were positively associated with soil microaggregate stability. These findings raise the potential to manage landscapes to increase ecosystem service provision from soil biota in relation to regulation of soil structure and water flow.

  13. Understanding Reef Flat Sediment Regimes and Hydrodynamics can Inform Erosion Mitigation on Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Tenkova Teneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs worldwide are affected by excessive sediment and nutrient delivery from adjacent watersheds. Land cover and land use changes contribute to reef ecosystem degradation, which in turn, diminish many ecosystem services, including coastal protection, recreation, and food provisioning. The objectives of this work were to understand the role of coastal oceanic and biophysical processes in mediating the effects of sedimentation in shallow reef environments, and to assess the efficacy of land-based sediment remediation in the coastal areas near Maunalei reef, Lāna’i Island, Hawai’i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of sediment dynamics on an east-facing (i.e., facing the trade winds reef in the Hawaiian Islands. We developed ridge-to-reef monitoring systems at two paired stream bed-to-reef sites, where one of the reef sites was adjacent to a community stream sediment remediation project. We found that the two reef sites were characterized by different processes that affected the sediment removal rates; the two sites were also exposed to different amounts of sediment runoff. The community stream sediment remediation project appeared to keep at least 77 tonnes of sediment off the reef flat in one wet season. We found that resuspension of sediments on this reef was similar to that on north-facing and south-facing reefs that also are exposed to the trade winds. We posit that sites with slower sediment removal rates due to slower current velocities or high resuspension rates will require more-robust sediment capture systems on land to reduce sediment input rates and maximize potential for reef health recovery. This suggests that interventions such as local sediment remediation and watershed restoration may mitigate sediment delivery to coral reefs, but these interventions are more likely to be effective if they account for how adjacent coastal oceanographic processes distribute, accumulate, or advect sediment away from

  14. Studies of land-cover, land-use, and biophysical properties of vegetation in the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar A. Robertsa; Michael Keller; Joao Vianei Soares

    2003-01-01

    We summarize early research on land-cover, land-use, and biophysical properties of vegetation from the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere (LBA) experiment in Amazoˆnia. LBA is an international research program developed to evaluate regional function and to determine how land-use and climate modify biological, chemical and physical processes there. Remote sensing has...

  15. lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. O'Geen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pumping chronically exceeds natural recharge in many agricultural regions in California. A common method of recharging groundwater — when surface water is available — is to deliberately flood an open area, allowing water to percolate into an aquifer. However, open land suitable for this type of recharge is scarce. Flooding agricultural land during fallow or dormant periods has the potential to increase groundwater recharge substantially, but this approach has not been well studied. Using data on soils, topography and crop type, we developed a spatially explicit index of the suitability for groundwater recharge of land in all agricultural regions in California. We identified 3.6 million acres of agricultural land statewide as having Excellent or Good potential for groundwater recharge. The index provides preliminary guidance about the locations where groundwater recharge on agricultural land is likely to be feasible. A variety of institutional, infrastructure and other issues must also be addressed before this practice can be implemented widely.

  16. Land-Use Change and the Billion Ton 2016 Resource Assessment: Understanding the Effects of Land Management on Environmental Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, K. L.; Eaton, L. M.; Efroymson, R.; Davis, M. R.; Dunn, J.; Langholtz, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The federal government, led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), quantified potential U.S. biomass resources for expanded production of renewable energy and bioproducts in the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy (BT16) (DOE 2016). Volume 1 of the report provides analysis of projected supplies from 2015 to2040. Volume 2 (forthcoming) evaluates changes in environmental indicators for water quality and quantity, carbon, air quality, and biodiversity associated with production scenarios in BT16 volume 1. This presentation will review land-use allocations under the projected biomass production scenarios and the changes in land management that are implied, including drivers of direct and indirect LUC. National and global concerns such as deforestation and displacement of food production are addressed. The choice of reference scenario, input parameters and constraints (e.g., regarding land classes, availability, and productivity) drive LUC results in any model simulation and are reviewed to put BT16 impacts into context. The principal LUC implied in BT16 supply scenarios involves the transition of 25-to-47 million acres (net) from annual crops in 2015 baseline to perennial cover by 2040 under the base case and 3% yield growth case, respectively. We conclude that clear definitions of land parameters and effects are essential to assess LUC. A lack of consistency in parameters and outcomes of historic LUC analysis in the U.S. underscores the need for science-based approaches.

  17. Characterizing and Understanding Aerosol Optical Properties: CARES - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, Christopher D [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Atkinson, Dean B [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-12-17

    The scientific focus of this study was to use ambient measurements to develop new insights into the understanding of the direct radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosol particles. The study used data collected by the PI’s and others as part of both the 2010 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), which took place in and around Sacramento, CA, and the 2012 Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) study. We focus on measurements that were made of aerosol particle optical properties, namely the wavelength-dependent light absorption, scattering and extinction. Interpretation of these optical property measurements is facilitated through consideration of complementary measurements of the aerosol particle chemical composition and size distributions. With these measurements, we addressed the following general scientific questions: 1. How does light scattering and extinction by atmospheric aerosol particles depend on particle composition, water uptake, and size? 2. To what extent is light absorption by aerosol particles enhanced through the mixing of black carbon with other particulate components? 3. What relationships exist between intensive aerosol particle optical properties, and how do these depend on particle source and photochemical aging? 4. How well do spectral deconvolution methods, which are commonly used in remote sensing, retrieve information about particle size distributions?

  18. Perspectives on the Land Use History of North America: A Context for Understanding Our Changing Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sisk, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    ... between land use and landcover change. The authors provide the historical context for interpreting recent landcover change in several regions of North America and articulate the value of a comprehensive, continental land use history...

  19. Between two hypes: Will big data help unravel blind spots in understanding the global land rush?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, M.T.; Zoomers, E.B.; Gekker, A.

    2016-01-01

    The past several years have seen a huge number of publications, conferences and campaigns on “land grabbing” or large-scale acquisition of land, most often in Africa. Land-grabbing became a fiercely debated issue and the attention rapidly evolved into a real hype which has generated a wealth of

  20. Slope and Land Use Changing Effects on Soil Properties and Magnetic Susceptibility in Hilly Lands, Yasouj Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rouhollaah vafaeezadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Land use changes are the most reasons which affect natural ecosystem protection. Forest soils have high organic matter and suitable structure, but their land use management change usually affects soil properties and decreases soil quality. There are several outcomes of such land use changes and intensification: accelerated soil erosion and decline of soil nutrient conditions, change of hydrological regimes and sedimentation and loss of primary forests and their biodiversity. Establishing effects of land use and land cover changes on soil properties have implications for devising management strategies for sustainable use. Forest land use change in Yasouj caused soil losses and decreased soil quality. The objectives of this study were to assess some soil physical and chemical properties and soil magnetic susceptibility changes in different land uses and slope position. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were taken from natural forest, degraded forest and dryland farm from different slops (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 percent in sout east of Yasouj. They were from 0–10 cm depth in a completely randomized design with five replications. Soil moisture and temperature regimes in the study area are xeric and mesic, respectively. Particle size distribution was determined by the hydrometer method and soil organic matter, CaCO3 equivalent and bulk density was determined using standard procedures described in Methods of Soil Analysis book. Magnetic susceptibility was measured at low and high frequency of 0.46 kHz (χlf and 4.6 kHz (χHf respectively with a Bartington MS2D meter using approximately 20 g of soil held in a four-dram clear plastic vial. Frequency dependent susceptibility (χfd is expressed as the difference between the high and the low frequency measurements as a percentage of χ at low frequency. Results and Discussion: Soil texture was affected by land use change from silty clay loam in forest to silty loam in dry land farm

  1. The ways to improve state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and municipal property in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Serdyuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After comprehensive scientific exploration the ways of improvement of state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and state municipal property in Ukraine have been identified. Also it was proposed and justified the conceptual bases of strategy in development of state regulation. As a result of scientific exploration the directions of improvement of organizational mechanism have been formed also and wich a viev to improve legal mechanism of state regulation of land turnover it was suggested the modern approach of it. The main problem that constrains mechanical development of state regulation is non-compliance with legal principles, corruption and low motivation of officials. Approach to improvement is necessity of strategic development by the way of compliance law principles, realization of identified steps in development, using the practice of international regulation in land turnover. Strategic goals are in improvement of procedure of land turnover in public property by the way of advance mechanisms of state regulation; in a finding of effective approaches to improvement components of the legal mechanism; to produce and to offer propositions about development of components legal mechanism; to create clear and understandable procedure of land turnover for all participants in relationships in accordance with European legal traditions etc.Scenario of development that was elected is strategic and directed to solve the problems, perfection of economic, organizational and legal mechanisms of land turnover and also system development. But there are some risks that can interfere realization of strategic priorities. They are in outside threat, political instability, the economic downturn and corruption. We have chosen the next evaluation criteria: the level of investment attractiveness; the level of perception corruption in the society; the level of rating and satisfying quality of in land turnover process by the market participants with

  2. Understanding the physical properties of hybrid perovskites for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinsong; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; Yan, Yanfa

    2017-07-01

    New photovoltaic materials have been searched for in the past decades for clean and renewable solar energy conversion with an objective of reducing the levelized cost of electricity (that is, the unit price of electricity over the course of the device lifetime). An emerging family of semiconductor materials — organic-inorganic halide perovskites (OIHPs) — are the focus of the photovoltaic research community owing to their use of low cost, nature-abundant raw materials, low-temperature and scalable solution fabrication processes, and, in particular, the very high power conversion efficiencies that have been achieved within the short time of their development. In this Review, we summarize and critically assess the most recent advances in understanding the physical properties of both 3D and low-dimensional OIHPs that favour a small open-circuit voltage deficit and high power conversion efficiency. Several prominent topics in this field on the unique properties of OIHPs are surveyed, including defect physics, ferroelectricity, exciton dissociation processes, carrier recombination lifetime and photon recycling. The impact of ion migration on solar cell efficiency and stability are also critically analysed. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges in the commercialization of OIHP photovoltaics.

  3. Understanding the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarathi, R.; Sahu, R.K.; Rajeshkumar, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy nanocomposite materials were studied. The electrical insulation characteristics were analyzed through short time breakdown voltage test, accelerated electrical ageing test, and by tracking test. The breakdown voltage increases with increase in nano-clay content up to 5 wt%, under AC and DC voltages. The volume resistivity, permittivity and tan(δ) of the epoxy nanocomposites were measured. The Weibull studies indicate that addition of nanoclay upto 5 wt% enhances the characteristic life of epoxy nanocomposite insulation material. The tracking test results indicate that the tracking time is high with epoxy nanocomposites as compared to pure epoxy. Ageing studies were carried out to understand the surface characteristic variation through contact angle measurement. The hydrophobicity of the insulating material was analysed through contact angle measurement. The diffusion coefficients of the material with different percentage of clay in epoxy nanocomposites were calculated. The exfoliation characteristics in epoxy nanocomposites were analyzed through wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) studies. The thermal behaviour of the epoxy nanocomposites was analyzed by carrying out thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) studies. Heat deflection temperature of the material was measured to understand the stability of the material for intermittent temperature variation. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results indicated that storage modulus of the material increases with small amount of clay in epoxy resin. The activation energy of the material was calculated from the DMA results

  4. Predicting plant diversity patterns in Madagascar: understanding the effects of climate and land cover change in a biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry A Brown

    Full Text Available Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence records for 828 plant genera and 2186 plant species. We developed three scenarios, (i.e., climate only, land cover only and combined climate-land cover based on recent and future climate and land cover variables. We used this modelling framework to investigate how the impacts of changes to climate and land cover influenced biodiversity across ecoregions and elevation bands. There were large-scale climate- and land cover-driven changes in plant biodiversity across Madagascar, including both losses and gains in diversity. The sharpest declines in biodiversity were projected for the eastern escarpment and high elevation ecosystems. Sharp declines in diversity were driven by the combined climate-land cover scenarios; however, there were subtle, region-specific differences in model outputs for each scenario, where certain regions experienced relatively higher species loss under climate or land cover only models. We strongly caution that predicted future gains in plant diversity will depend on the development and maintenance of dispersal pathways that connect current and future suitable habitats. The forecast for Madagascar's plant diversity in the face of future environmental change is worrying: regional diversity will continue to decrease in response to the combined effects of climate and land cover change, with habitats such as ericoid thickets and eastern lowland and sub-humid forests particularly vulnerable into the future.

  5. The importance of Soil Science to understand and remediate Land Degradation and Desertification processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Documentation is abundantly available to demonstrate the devastating effect of Land degradation and desertification on sustainable development in many countries. This present a major barrier to achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, as agreed upon at the General Assembly of the UN in September 2015. Research has certainly been successful in reversing these two processes in many case studies but persistant problems remain not only in developing countries but also in developed countries where, for example, soil compaction and loss of soil organic matter due to the industrialization of agriculture, result in a structural decline of agricultural productivity and environmental quality. The problems are quite complex because not only technical matters play a role but also, and often quite prominantly, socio-economic factors. What turn out to be successful remediation procedures at a given location or region, based on the characterization of underlying soil processes, will most likely not work in other regions inhibiting the extrapolation of local research results to areas elsewhere. One important reason for location specificity of research is the variation of soil properties in combination with the location of soils in a given landscape which governs its water, energy and nutrient dynamics, also considering the climate. Different soils are characterized by different natural riks for degradation and , in arid regions, deserticification and their particular remediation potential differs widely as well. Such risks can sometimes be overcome by innovative soil management and knowing the soil type, the climate and landscape processes, extrapolation of such types of innovative management to comparable soils and landscapes elsewhere may be feasible and effective , provided that socio-economic conditions allow the required risk-reducing measures to be realized in practice. More cooperation between soil scientists and physical geographers, familiar with landscape

  6. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available the factors contributing to desertification and practical measures necessary to combat desertification and mitigate the effect of drought. The priority issues reported on in this chapter are soil and veld degradation, and the loss of land for agricultural use....

  7. Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C; d'Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W H Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-08-27

    Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world.

  8. Stacked law : land, property and conflict in Honduras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roquas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Property conflicts have an enormous impact on relations between the members of farm households and their families. Given the long duration, frequency and intensity of these conflicts an investigation of how they arise and how they affect the daily lives

  9. A novel understanding of land use characteristics caused by mining activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Rao, Yongheng; Geng, Yuhuan

    2017-01-01

    An idea that which zones are the main disturbed areas in mining cities and what are the exact impacts in space concerns re-use and optimal allocation of land. Current research mostly concludes that mining activities impact land use greatly, but there is no definite spatial range of disturbance. T...

  10. Understanding formality and informality in land and housing exchanges in African cities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, Mark

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available in developing countries and between 40% and 53% of their rural land parcels are held in such a way that they cannot be used to create capital. Suggested solutions to these problems is to extend secure tenure; formalize land markets; extend bank and formal micro...

  11. Understanding land use change impacts on microclimate using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Mitra, Chandana; Dong, Li; Yang, Qichun

    2018-02-01

    To explore potential climatic consequences of land cover change in the Kolkata Metropolitan Development area, we projected microclimate conditions in this area using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model driven by future land use scenarios. Specifically, we considered two land conversion scenarios including an urbanization scenario that all the wetlands and croplands would be converted to built-up areas, and an irrigation expansion scenario in which all wetlands and dry croplands would be replaced by irrigated croplands. Results indicated that land use and land cover (LULC) change would dramatically increase regional temperature in this area under the urbanization scenario, but expanded irrigation tended to have a cooling effect. In the urbanization scenario, precipitation center tended to move eastward and lead to increased rainfall in eastern parts of this region. Increased irrigation stimulated rainfall in central and eastern areas but reduced rainfall in southwestern and northwestern parts of the study area. This study also demonstrated that urbanization significantly reduced latent heat fluxes and albedo of land surface; while increased sensible heat flux changes following urbanization suggested that developed land surfaces mainly acted as heat sources. In this study, climate change projection not only predicts future spatiotemporal patterns of multiple climate factors, but also provides valuable insights into policy making related to land use management, water resource management, and agriculture management to adapt and mitigate future climate changes in this populous region.

  12. Grand challenges in understanding the interplay of climate and land changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Half of the Earth’s land surface has been altered by human activities, creating various consequences on the climate and weather systems at local to global scales, which in turn affects a myriad of land surface processes and our adaptation behaviors. After reviewing the status and major knowledge gap...

  13. Intelligent Data Understanding for Architecture Analysis of Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Because Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) system validations are limited in Earth environments, these technologies rely heavily on models and analysis tools to...

  14. Ecologization of water-land property matters on the territory of the Tom lower course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. K.; Kozina, M. V.; Levak, Yu Yu; Shvagrukova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper the water-land property complex is considered as a strategic resource of the city development. The formulated question is expounded through the example of water-land property complex usage on the territory of the Tom lower course for land-use planning and developing the systems of water recourses management and land tenure. Consequences of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) landfilling are investigated in terms of arable farming. Also, forming a water budget of the soils spread on the area of the Tomsk underground water supply cone of depression and its role in the development of agricultural industry are studied. The main aspect of the analysis is the incorporation of social, economic, and ecological requirements for the system of life-supporting branches of municipal economy and social services. As far as the system of land tax payments plays an important role in land property complex management, the common issues and tendencies are specified in the paper. These problems are concerned with the inadequate incorporation of an ecological constituent in the methods of cadastral valuation of lands, as well as the situation of the narrow area of its results usage in the Russian Federation. Natural factors (hydrological, territorial, geological (geomorphologic) territory conditions) are combined by the authors into a special group. These factors should be reflected in the results of cadastral valuation. Also, in order to protect the interests of water consumers, it is offered to establish the Water Consumers Association based on the international experience of such countries as Spain and Uzbekistan.

  15. Analysis of soil hydraulic and thermal properties for land surface modeling over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Zeng, Yijian; Lv, Shaoning; Su, Zhongbo

    2018-06-01

    Soil information (e.g., soil texture and porosity) from existing soil datasets over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is claimed to be inadequate and even inaccurate for determining soil hydraulic properties (SHP) and soil thermal properties (STP), hampering the understanding of the land surface process over TP. As the soil varies across three dominant climate zones (i.e., arid, semi-arid and subhumid) over the TP, the associated SHP and STP are expected to vary correspondingly. To obtain an explicit insight into the soil hydrothermal properties over the TP, in situ and laboratory measurements of over 30 soil property profiles were obtained across the climate zones. Results show that porosity and SHP and STP differ across the climate zones and strongly depend on soil texture. In particular, it is proposed that gravel impact on porosity and SHP and STP are both considered in the arid zone and in deep layers of the semi-arid zone. Parameterization schemes for porosity, SHP and STP are investigated and compared with measurements taken. To determine the SHP, including soil water retention curves (SWRCs) and hydraulic conductivities, the pedotransfer functions (PTFs) developed by Cosby et al. (1984) (for the Clapp-Hornberger model) and the continuous PTFs given by Wösten et al. (1999) (for the Van Genuchten-Mualem model) are recommended. The STP parameterization scheme proposed by Farouki (1981) based on the model of De Vries (1963) performed better across the TP than other schemes. Using the parameterization schemes mentioned above, the uncertainties of five existing regional and global soil datasets and their derived SHP and STP over the TP are quantified through comparison with in situ and laboratory measurements. The measured soil physical properties dataset is available at https://data.4tu.nl/repository/uuid:c712717c-6ac0-47ff-9d58-97f88082ddc0" target="_blank">https://data.4tu.nl/repository/uuid:c712717c-6ac0-47ff-9d58-97f88082ddc0.

  16. Progress in Understanding Land-Surface-Atmosphere Coupling from LBA Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K Betts

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available LBA research has deepened our understanding of the role of soil water storage, clouds and aerosols in land-atmosphere coupling. We show how the reformulation of cloud forcing in terms of an effective cloud albedo per unit area of surface gives a useful measure of the role of clouds in the surface energy budget over the Amazon. We show that the diurnal temperature range has a quasi-linear relation to the daily mean longwave cooling; and to effective cloud albedo because of the tight coupling between the near-surface climate, the boundary layer and the cloud field. The coupling of surface and atmospheric processes is critical to the seasonal cycle: deep forest rooting systems make water available throughout the year, whereas in the dry season the shortwave cloud forcing is reduced by regional scale subsidence, so that more light is available for photosynthesis. At sites with an annual precipitation above 1900 mm and a dry season length less than 4 months, evaporation rates increased in the dry season, coincident with increased radiation. In contrast, ecosystems with precipitation less than 1700 mm and a longer dry season showed clear evidence of reduced evaporation in the dry season coming from water stress. In all these sites, the seasonal variation of the effective cloud albedo is a major factor in determining the surface available energy. Dry season fires add substantial aerosol to the atmosphere. Aerosol scattering and absorption both reduce the total downward surface radiative flux, but increase the diffuse/direct flux ratio, which increases photosynthetic efficiency. Convective plumes produced by fires enhance the vertical transport of aerosols over the Amazon, and effectively inject smoke aerosol and gases directly into the middle troposphere with substantial impacts on mid- tropospheric dispersion. In the rainy season in Rondônia, convection in low-level westerly flows with low aerosol content resembles oceanic convection with

  17. Impact of land management on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Jirků, V.; Nikodem, A.; Mühlhanselová, M.; Žigová, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010) ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : land management * soil structure * soil hydraulic properties * micromorphology Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  18. Mass Claims in Land and Property Following the Arab Spring: Lessons from Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon D Unruh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Spring uprisings have released a flood of land and property conflicts, brought about by decades of autocratic rule. Expropriations, corruption, poor performance of the rule of law, patronage and sectarian discrimination built up a wide variety of land and property transgressions over approximately 30 years. The result has been the creation of longstanding, acute grievances among large components of national populations who now seek to act on them. If new, transitional or reforming governments and their international partners fail to effectively attend to such grievances, the populations concerned may act on them in ways that detract from stability. This article critiques the case of Yemen, whose transitional government, with international support, initiated a land and property mass claims process in the South in order to address a primary grievance of the southern population as part of the National Dialogue transition. A series of techniques are described that would greatly improve the mass claims process once it inevitably recommences after the Houthi conflict comes to an end. These improvements would attach more importance to socio-political realities and how to quickly attend to them, as opposed to an over-reliance on specific legalities. Such an approach could have wider utility among Arab Spring states seeking to address similar land and property grievances.

  19. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  20. Protocol for Appraisal of Petroleum Producing Properties on Native American Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-27

    Petroleum is currently produced on Native American Tribal Lands and has been produced on some of these lands for approximately 100 years. As these properties are abandoned at a production level that is considered the economic limit by the operator, Native American Tribes are considering this an opportunity to assume operator status to keep the properties producing. In addition to operating properties as they are abandoned, Native American Tribes also are assuming liabilities of the former operator(s) and ownership of equipment left upon abandonment. Often, operators are assumed by Native American Tribes without consideration of the liabilities left by the former operators. The purpose of this report is to provide protocols for the appraisal of petroleum producing properties and analysis of the petroleum resource to be produced after assuming operations. The appraisal protocols provide a spreadsheet for analysis of the producing property and a checklist of items to bring along before entering the property for onsite appraisal of the property. The report will provide examples of some environmental flags that may indicate potential liabilities remaining on the property left unaddressed by previous operators. It provides a starting point for appraisal and analysis of a property with a basis to make the decision to assume operations or to pursue remediation and/or closure of the liabilities of previous operators.

  1. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    Land abandonment and subsequent revegetation processes (due to secondary succession and afforestation practices) are global issues with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Moreover, the effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions, and afforestation practices are increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and are considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. The MED-AFFOREST project aims to gain more insight into the discussion by exploring the following central research questions: (i) what is the impact of land abandonment on soil properties? and (ii) how do soil organic carbon change after land abandonment? The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil properties and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, meadows, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees were analysed. Results showed that changes in soil properties after land abandonment were limited, even if afforestation practices were carried out and no differences were observed between natural succession and afforestation. The results on SOC dynamics showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10 cm), (ii) when all the profile was considered no significant differences were observed between meadows and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) meadows should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration

  2. Understanding successful and unsuccessful landings of aerial maneuver variations in professional surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, J R; Riddiford-Harland, D L; Whitting, J W; Sheppard, J M; Steele, J R

    2018-05-01

    Although performing aerial maneuvers can increase wave score and winning potential in competitive surfing, the critical features underlying successful aerial performance have not been systematically investigated. This study aimed to analyze highly skilled aerial maneuver performance and to identify the critical features associated with successful or unsuccessful landing. Using video recordings of the World Surf League's Championship Tour, every aerial performed during the quarterfinal, semifinal, and final heats from the 11 events in the 2015 season was viewed. From this, 121 aerials were identified with the Frontside Air (n = 15) and Frontside Air Reverse (n = 67) being selected to be qualitatively assessed. Using chi-squared analyses, a series of key critical features, including landing over the center of the surfboard (FS Air χ 2  = 14.00, FS Air Reverse χ 2  = 26.61; P < .001) and landing with the lead ankle in dorsiflexion (FS Air χ 2  = 3.90, FS Air Reverse χ 2  = 13.64; P < .05), were found to be associated with successful landings. These critical features help surfers land in a stable position, while maintaining contact with the surfboard. The results of this study provide coaches with evidence to adjust the technique of their athletes to improve their winning potential. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Novel experiments for understanding the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    Data on the basic processes that occur in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes are needed to engineer facilities with guaranteed performance, to validate models for system predictions, and to provide input to models that consider contaminant pathways out of the facility. Two types of novel experiments that will provide experimental data on the basic processes in shallow land burial facilities are described in this paper. Generic experiments that give data on the movement of water and radionuclides and an experiment that is particularly important for semi-arid sites are described

  4. The legacy of social conflicts over property rights in rural Brazil and Mexico : Current land struggles in historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergara-Camus, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an approach to the agrarian question that focuses on the establishment of absolute private property rights over land in Brazil and Mexico. The author argues that current land struggles are conditioned by the property regimes inherited from past struggles. The author examines

  5. Understanding the life cycle surface land requirements of natural gas-fired electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Sarah M.; Heath, Garvin A.; Macknick, Jordan; Bush, Brian W.; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Ben-Horin, Dan; Urrea, Victoria; Marceau, Danielle

    2017-10-01

    The surface land use of fossil fuel acquisition and utilization has not been well characterized, inhibiting consistent comparisons of different electricity generation technologies. Here we present a method for robust estimation of the life cycle land use of electricity generated from natural gas through a case study that includes inventories of infrastructure, satellite imagery and well-level production. Approximately 500 sites in the Barnett Shale of Texas were sampled across five life cycle stages (production, gathering, processing, transmission and power generation). Total land use (0.62 m2 MWh-1, 95% confidence intervals ±0.01 m2 MWh-1) was dominated by midstream infrastructure, particularly pipelines (74%). Our results were sensitive to power plant heat rate (85-190% of the base case), facility lifetime (89-169%), number of wells per site (16-100%), well lifetime (92-154%) and pipeline right of way (58-142%). When replicated for other gas-producing regions and different fuels, our approach offers a route to enable empirically grounded comparisons of the land footprint of energy choices.

  6. Urban development, and emerging relations of informal property and land based authority in Accra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Paul Austin

    2018-01-01

    Rural–urban migration leads to ever increasing numbers of Africans living in informal settlements. In Accra's largest informal settlement, Old Fadama, residents by definition have no statutory rights to the land and their building activities undermine formal state law and state-recognized customary......, building and development in the settlement that involve a variety of local, national and global actors. Their actions show the contemporaneous making and unmaking of different relations of property and land-based control and authority in the densely populated urban site. Important features of urban...

  7. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  8. Physical Properties of the MER and Beagle II Landing Sites on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Pelkey, S. M.; Mellon, M. T.; Putzig, N.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Murphy, N.; Hynek, B.

    2003-12-01

    The ESA Beagle II and the NASA Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft are scheduled to land on the martian surface in December 2003 and January 2004, respectively. Mission operations and success depends on the physical properties of the surfaces on which they land. Surface structural characteristics such as the abundances of loose, unconsolidated fine material, of fine material that has been cemented into a duricrust, and of rocks affect the ability to safely land and to successfully sample and traverse the surface. Also, physical properties affect surface and atmospheric temperatures, which affect lander and rover functionality. We are in the process of analyzing surface temperature information for these sites, derived from MGS TES and Odyssey THEMIS daytime and nighttime measurements. Our approach is to: (i) remap thermal inertia using TES data at ~3-km resolution, to obtain the most complete coverage possible; (ii) interpret physical properties from TES coverage in conjunction with other remote-sensing data sets; (iii) map infrared brightness using daytime and nighttime THEMIS data at 100-m resolution, and do qualitative analysis of physical properties and processes; and (iv) derive thermal inertia from THEMIS nighttime data in conjunction with daytime albedo measurements derived from TES, THEMIS, and MOC observations. In addition, we will use measured temperatures and derived thermal inertia to predict surface temperatures for the periods of the missions.

  9. The Examination of Real Property Tax Exemptions: An Example of Land Use Planning for Fiscal Gain. Exchange Bibliography No. 172.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Larry R. G.

    This selected bibliography focuses on property tax exemptions in urban areas and on the ability of cities to generate property tax revenues. It begins with a review of some relationships between the property tax and land use planning. Then, the role of the property tax as one of several devices employed in fiscally-oriented planning is examined.…

  10. Property rights and hierarchies of power: a critical evaluation of land-reform policy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André van der Walt

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The programme of land reform laws introduced in South Africa since 1991 is often seen and discussed as nothing more than a highly technical, black-letter aspect of South African law. In this article, the author directs attention to the policies that underly the land reform laws, and discusses the transformative potential and effect of land reform laws in view of these policies. The main question is whether the land reform programme has succeeded in breaking away from or undermining the hierarchies of power that were inherent in traditional common-law property relationships and, particularly, in the politically sanctioned and statutorily entrenched system of apartheid land law. Through the analysis of the most important land reform laws the author concludes that the land reform programme is only partially successful in this regard, since many of the new laws still uphold or entrench the underlying hierarchies o f power that characterised apartheid land law.

  11. Understanding the Impact of Intensive Horticulture Land-Use Practices on Surface Water Quality in Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith K. Muriithi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid expansion of commercial horticulture production and related activities contribute to declining surface water quality. The study sought to understand the impacts on select rivers in Laikipia and Meru, production hotspots. The specific aims were (1 to identify prevailing surface water quality by examining variations of 14 physico-chemical parameters, and (2 to categorize measured surface water quality parameters into land use types highlighting potential pollutant source processes. Water samples were collected in July and August 2013 along 14 rivers in the study area. The data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant analysis (DA. Principal components (PCs explained 70% of the observed total variability of water quality, indicating a prevalence of heavy metal traces (cadmium, phosphate, and zinc. These were linked to the rigorous use of phosphate fertilizers and copper-based agrochemicals in intensive farming. DA provided four significant (p < 0.05 discriminant functions, with 89.5% correct assignment enabling the association of land use with observed water quality. Concentrations of dissolved solids, electro-conductivity, and salinity spiked at locations with intensive small-scale and large-scale horticulture. Understanding the impacts of intensive commercial horticulture and land use practices on water quality is critical to formulating ecologically sound watershed management and pollution abatement plans.

  12. Impact attenuation properties of jazz shoes alter lower limb joint stiffness during jump landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong Yan, Alycia; Smith, Richard M; Hiller, Claire E; Sinclair, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    To quantify the impact attenuation properties of the jazz shoes, and to investigate the in-vivo effect of four jazz shoe designs on lower limb joint stiffness during a dance-specific jump. Repeated measures. A custom-built mechanical shoe tester similar to that used by athletic shoe companies was used to vertically impact the forefoot and heel region of four different jazz shoe designs. Additionally, dancers performed eight sautés in second position in bare feet and the shoe conditions. Force platforms and 3D-motion capture were used to analyse the joint stiffness of the midfoot, ankle, knee and hip during the jump landings. Mechanical testing of the jazz shoes revealed significant differences in impact attenuation characteristics among each of the jazz shoe designs. Gross knee and midfoot joint stiffness were significantly affected by the jazz shoe designs in the dancers' jump landings. The tested jazz shoe designs altered the impact attenuating capacity of jump landing technique in dancers. The cushioned jazz shoes are recommended particularly for injured dancers to reduce impact on the lower limb. Jazz shoe design should consider the impact attenuation properties of the forefoot region, due to the toe-strike landing technique in dance movement. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coupling environmental, social and economic models to understand land-use change dynamics in the Mekong Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eDrogoul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Vietnamese Mekong Delta has undergone in recent years a considerable transformation in agricultural land-use, fueled by a boom of the exportation, an increase of population, a focus on intensive crops, but also environmental factors like sea level rise or the progression of soil salinity. These transformations have been, however, largely misestimated by the ten-year agricultural plans designed at the provincial levels, on the predictions of which, though, most of the large-scale investments (irrigation infrastructures, protection against flooding or salinity intrusion, and so on are normally planned. This situation raises the question of how to explain the divergence between the predictions used as a basis for these plans and the actual situation. Answering it could, as a matter of fact, offer some insights on the dynamics at play and hopefully allow designing them more accurately.The dynamics of land-use change at a scale of a region results from the interactions between heterogeneous actors and factors at different scales, among them institutional policies, individual farming choices, land-cover and environmental changes, economic conditions, social dynamics, just to name a few. Understanding its evolution, for example, in this case, to better support agricultural planning, therefore requires the use of models that can represent the individual contributions of each actor or factor, and of course their interactions.We address this question through the design of an integrated hybrid model of land-use change in a specific and carefully chosen case study, which relies on the central hypothesis that the main force driving land-use change is actually the individual choices made by farmers at their local level. Farmers are the actors who decide (or not to switch from one culture to another and the shifts observed at more global levels (village, district, province, region are considered, in this model, as a consequence of the aggregation of these

  14. Understanding the Synthesis and Properties of Molecular Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, Brian A.

    Molecular nanoparticles have emerged as an interesting class of materials whose atomically precise structures and discrete properties set them apart from their larger counterparts. Molecular silver nanoparticles are of particular interest because they provide a host of advantages as optical materials for possible use in sensing and imaging applications. However, relatively little is known about molecular silver nanoparticles including the details of their formation and their optical and mechanical properties. Size control remains a longstanding challenge in the production of glutathionate (SG) protected silver nanoparticles. Singular Ag:SG nanoparticle products have been difficult to obtain directly, but size focusing of larger distributions through attrition has been found to lead to useful isolation of particular species. Here, we present a methodology for controlling the size of Ag:SG molecular nanoparticles that leverages the stability of the most robust species. These results were then used to develop a facile approach for achieving two of the most stable species in the Ag:SG system. Molecular metal nanoparticles are known to be much more fluorescent than larger plasmonic nanoparticles, however the nature and origin of this fluorescence are not fully understood. Fluorescence can originate from either the quantum states within the metal core or mixed ligand states at the inorganic-organic interface. We have presented compelling evidence that fluorescence from molecular silver glutathionate nanoparticles has its origin in interfacial electronic states. Fluorescence spectra were found to be independent of size, with very similar wavelength and bandwidth, although the quantum yield was not. Excitation spectra indicated that the strongest fluorescence had its origin in that part of the spectrum that is dominated by ligand-related states. Further, excitations to strictly core states and to higher lying d-band states had little to no contribution to the fluorescence

  15. Statistical thermodynamics understanding the properties of macroscopic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fai, Lukong Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    Basic Principles of Statistical PhysicsMicroscopic and Macroscopic Description of StatesBasic PostulatesGibbs Ergodic AssumptionGibbsian EnsemblesExperimental Basis of Statistical MechanicsDefinition of Expectation ValuesErgodic Principle and Expectation ValuesProperties of Distribution FunctionRelative Fluctuation of an Additive Macroscopic ParameterLiouville TheoremGibbs Microcanonical EnsembleMicrocanonical Distribution in Quantum MechanicsDensity MatrixDensity Matrix in Energy RepresentationEntropyThermodynamic FunctionsTemperatureAdiabatic ProcessesPressureThermodynamic IdentityLaws of Th

  16. RIGHT TO PROPERTY: THE LAND ACQUISITION ACT 1960 AND THE SHARIAH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Asiah Mohamad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Islamic law recognizes both private and community property. This community rights are manifested in forms of entitlement for charitable purposes, known as waqf or trusts,  sadaqah as well as  zakat. Under the Sha‘riah, however, ownership of all property ultimately rests with God. Though individual property rights are upheld, there is a corresponding obligation to share, particularly with those in need. In Malaysia, the right to property is a constitutional right and thus, the acquiring authority cannot deprive a person of his land in an arbitrary manner. This paper discusses the extent of which the acquisition law falls in line with Shari‘ah thus preserving the right to property as determined by Shari‘ah to individuals. Similarly, the paper also looks at some basic principles sustained by the court in determining whether the working of the acquisition law falls within the constitutional guarantee provided under Article 13 of the Federal Constitution and the Sha‘riah. A study of the case law reveals that human errors due to greediness and lack of responsibility have contributed to some of the problems in land acquisition.

  17. Understanding the role of land use in urban stormwater quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Thomas, Evan; Ginn, Simon; Gilbert, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Urbanisation significantly impacts water environments with increased runoff and the degradation of water quality. The management of quantity impacts are straight forward, but quality impacts are far more complex. Current approaches to safeguard water quality are largely ineffective and guided by entrenched misconceptions with a primary focus on 'end-of-pipe' solutions. The outcomes of a research study presented in the paper, which investigated relationships between water quality and six different land uses offer practical guidance in the planning of future urban developments. In terms of safeguarding water quality, high-density residential development which results in a relatively smaller footprint would be the preferred option. The research study outcomes bring into question a number of fundamental concepts and misconceptions routinely accepted in stormwater quality management. The research findings confirmed the need to move beyond customary structural measures and identified the key role that urban planning can play in safeguarding urban water environments.

  18. How important is the land use mix measure in understanding walking behaviour? Results from the RESIDE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooper Paula

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the relationship between urban design and physical activity is a high priority. Different representations of land use diversity may impact the association between neighbourhood design and specific walking behaviours. This study examined different entropy based computations of land use mix (LUM used in the development of walkability indices (WIs and their association with walking behaviour. Methods Participants in the RESIDential Environments project (RESIDE self-reported mins/week of recreational, transport and total walking using the Neighbourhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (n = 1798. Land use categories were incrementally added to test five different LUM models to identify the strongest associations with recreational, transport and total walking. Logistic regression was used to analyse associations between WIs and walking behaviour using three cut points: any (> 0 mins, ≥ 60 mins and ≥ 150 mins walking/week. Results Participants in high (vs. low walkable neighbourhoods reported up to almost twice the amount of walking, irrespective of the LUM measure used. However, different computations of LUM were found to be relevant for different types and amounts of walking (i.e., > 0, ≥ 60 or ≥ 150 mins/week. Transport walking (≥ 60 mins/week had the strongest and most significant association (OR = 2.24; 95% CI:1.58-3.18 with the WI when the LUM included 'residential', 'retail', 'office', 'health, welfare and community', and 'entertainment, culture and recreation'. However, any (> 0 mins/week recreational walking was more strongly associated with the WI (OR = 1.36; 95% CI:1.04-1.78 when land use categories included 'public open space', 'sporting infrastructure' and 'primary and rural' land uses. The observed associations were generally stronger for ≥ 60 mins/week compared with > 0 mins/week of transport walking and total walking but this relationship was not seen for recreational walking. Conclusions

  19. Surface Properties and Characteristics of Mars Landing Sites from Remote Sensing Data and Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F.; Simpson, R. A.; Furgason, R. L.; Putzig, N. E.; Huertas, A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Heet, T.; Bell, J. F.; Mellon, M. T.; McEwen, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    Surface characteristics at the six sites where spacecraft have successfully landed on Mars can be related favorably to their signatures in remotely sensed data from orbit and from the Earth. Comparisons of the rock abundance, types and coverage of soils (and their physical properties), thermal inertia, albedo, and topographic slope all agree with orbital remote sensing estimates and show that the materials at the landing sites can be used as ground truth for the materials that make up most of the equatorial and mid- to moderately high-latitude regions of Mars. The six landing sites sample two of the three dominant global thermal inertia and albedo units that cover ~80% of the surface of Mars. The Viking, Spirit, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix landing sites are representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and intermediate to high albedo unit that is dominated by crusty, cloddy, blocky or frozen soils (duricrust that may be layered) with various abundances of rocks and bright dust. The Opportunity landing site is representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and low albedo surface unit that is relatively dust free and composed of dark eolian sand and/or increased abundance of rocks. Rock abundance derived from orbital thermal differencing techniques in the equatorial regions agrees with that determined from rock counts at the surface and varies from ~3-20% at the landing sites. The size-frequency distributions of rocks >1.5 m diameter fully resolvable in HiRISE images of the landing sites follow exponential models developed from lander measurements of smaller rocks and are continuous with these rock distributions indicating both are part of the same population. Interpretation of radar data confirms the presence of load bearing, relatively dense surfaces controlled by the soil type at the landing sites, regional rock populations from diffuse scattering similar to those observed directly at the sites, and root-mean-squared slopes that compare favorably

  20. Mitigating climate change through the understanding of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) consumption processes in peat lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, N.; Barker, X. Z.; Horwath, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous Oxide (N2O) with global warming potential of 298 over a 100-year horizon is one of the most potent green house gases. In the United States, agriculture share to N2O emissions is over 70%. Peat lands, however, are being considered as both sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. N2O emissions are a product of both production and consumption processes. However, there is still a lack of understanding of N2O consumption processes in soils. In this work, the potential of re-wetted peat lands planted to rice in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, to act as a potential sink for N2O is being evaluated. Four peat land soils with 1%, 5%, 11% and 23% of organic carbon have been anaerobically incubated with different water contents (15%, 30%, 50%, 75% and 100% of their water holding capacity). 15N-N2O gas has been injected to the headspace of experiment jars and the production and consumption rate of 15N-N2O, 15N-N2 and production rate of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Methane (CH4) along with dissolved Nitrate (NO3-), Nitrite (NO2-), Ammonium (NH4+), Iron (II) and Iron (III) concentration has been quantified. Our results show promising N2O consumption rates under high carbon content and relatively high water content treatments. This research introduces organic carbon and water content as two major criteria in N2O consumption processes in peat lands that make it a potential hotspot for climate changes mitigation through adopting effective management practices to decrease greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Is Hunting Still Healthy? Understanding the Interrelationships between Indigenous Participation in Land-Based Practices and Human-Environmental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically.

  2. Is hunting still healthy? Understanding the interrelationships between indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

    2014-05-28

    Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically.

  3. Effects of different land use on soil chemical properties, decomposition rate and earthworm communities in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Peña-Peña, K.; Huerta, E.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of land use on soil chemical properties were evaluated, and earthworm communities and the decomposition rate of three typical land use systems in tropical Mexico, namely banana plantations (B), agroforestry systems (AF) and a successional forest (S) were compared. The study was carried

  4. Historical land use and stand age effects on forest soil properties in the Mid-Atlantic US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian Yesilonis; K. Szlavecz; Richard Pouyat; D. Whigham; L. Xia

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of agriculture lands to forest has been occurring in parts of North America for decades. The legacy of management activity during this transition is reflected in soil physical and chemical properties years after abandonment. This study was conducted at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Maryland, USA, to determine land-use history and forest...

  5. Urban ecological stewardship: understanding the structure, function and network of community-based urban land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika s. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Urban environmental stewardship activities are on the rise in cities throughout the Northeast. Groups participating in stewardship activities range in age, size, and geography and represent an increasingly complex and dynamic arrangement of civil society, government and business sectors. To better understand the structure, function and network of these community-based...

  6. The need for speed: informed land acquisitions for conservation in a dynamic property market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald-Madden, Eve; Bode, Michael; Game, Edward T; Grantham, Hedley; Possingham, Hugh P

    2008-11-01

    Land acquisition is a common approach to biodiversity conservation but is typically subject to property availability on the public market. Consequently, conservation plans are often unable to be implemented as intended. When properties come on the market, conservation agencies must make a choice: purchase immediately, often without a detailed knowledge of its biodiversity value; survey the parcel and accept the risk that it may be removed from the market during this process; or not purchase and hope a better parcel comes on the market at a later date. We describe both an optimal method, using stochastic dynamic programming, and a simple rule of thumb for making such decisions. The solutions to this problem illustrate how optimal conservation is necessarily dynamic and requires explicit consideration of both the time period allowed for implementation and the availability of properties.

  7. Furthering our Understanding of Land Surface Interactions using SVAT modelling: Results from SimSphere's Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Matt; Petropoulos, George; Ireland, Gareth; Rendal, Daisy; Carlson, Toby

    2015-04-01

    demonstrated greatest simulation accuracies within ecologically stable sites, where low inter-annual change in vegetation phenology was exhibited, such as open woodland savannah, shrub land and mulga woodland, whereas poorer simulation accuracies were attained in cropland and grazing pasture sites. This study results present its first comprehensive validation. It is also very timely due to the rapidly expanding global use of the model, both as a standalone tool used for research, education and training in several institutions worldwide, but also for its synergistic applications to Earth Observation data. Currently, several space agencies are evaluating the model 's use synergistically with Earth Observation data in providing spatio-temporal estimates of energy fluxes and / or soil moisture at operational level. Key Words: SimSphere, Validation, FLUXNET, SVAT, Shortwave Incoming Solar Radiation, Net Radiation, Latent Heat, Sensible Heat, Air Temperature

  8. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    for comprehensive information about environmental conditions in combination with other land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction. Finally, the paper......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  9. Indigenous systems of forest classification: understanding land use patterns and the role of NTFPs in shifting cultivators' subsistence economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delang, Claudio O

    2006-04-01

    This article discusses the system of classification of forest types used by the Pwo Karen in Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary in western Thailand and the role of nontimber forest products (NTFPs), focusing on wild food plants, in Karen livelihoods. The article argues that the Pwo Karen have two methods of forest classification, closely related to their swidden farming practices. The first is used for forest land that has been, or can be, swiddened, and classifies forest types according to growth conditions. The second system is used for land that is not suitable for cultivation and looks at soil properties and slope. The article estimates the relative importance of each forest type in what concerns the collection of wild food plants. A total of 134 wild food plant species were recorded in December 2004. They account for some 80-90% of the amount of edible plants consumed by the Pwo Karen, and have a base value of Baht 11,505 per year, comparable to the cash incomes of many households. The article argues that the Pwo Karen reliance on NTFPs has influenced their land-use and forest management practices. However, by restricting the length of the fallow period, the Thai government has caused ecological changes that are challenging the ability of the Karen to remain subsistence oriented. By ignoring shifting cultivators' dependence on such products, the involvement of governments in forest management, especially through restrictions imposed on swidden farming practices, is likely to have a considerable impact on the livelihood strategies of these communities.

  10. General Relationships between Abiotic Soil Properties and Soil Biota across Spatial Scales and Different Land-Use Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Schöning, Ingo; Alt, Fabian; Herold, Nadine; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Marhan, Sven; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wubet, Tesfaye; Yurkov, Andrey; Begerow, Dominik; Berner, Doreen; Buscot, François; Daniel, Rolf; Diekötter, Tim; Ehnes, Roswitha B.; Erdmann, Georgia; Fischer, Christiane; Foesel, Bärbel; Groh, Janine; Gutknecht, Jessica; Kandeler, Ellen; Lang, Christa; Lohaus, Gertrud; Meyer, Annabel; Nacke, Heiko; Näther, Astrid; Overmann, Jörg; Polle, Andrea; Pollierer, Melanie M.; Scheu, Stefan; Schloter, Michael; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Schulze, Waltraud; Weinert, Jan; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Wolters, Volkmar; Schrumpf, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Very few principles have been unraveled that explain the relationship between soil properties and soil biota across large spatial scales and different land-use types. Here, we seek these general relationships using data from 52 differently managed grassland and forest soils in three study regions spanning a latitudinal gradient in Germany. We hypothesize that, after extraction of variation that is explained by location and land-use type, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in the abundance and diversity of soil biota. If the relationships between predictors and soil organisms were analyzed individually for each predictor group, soil properties explained the highest amount of variation in soil biota abundance and diversity, followed by land-use type and sampling location. After extraction of variation that originated from location or land-use, abiotic soil properties explained significant amounts of variation in fungal, meso- and macrofauna, but not in yeast or bacterial biomass or diversity. Nitrate or nitrogen concentration and fungal biomass were positively related, but nitrate concentration was negatively related to the abundances of Collembola and mites and to the myriapod species richness across a range of forest and grassland soils. The species richness of earthworms was positively correlated with clay content of soils independent of sample location and land-use type. Our study indicates that after accounting for heterogeneity resulting from large scale differences among sampling locations and land-use types, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in fungal and soil fauna abundance or diversity. However, soil biota was also related to processes that act at larger spatial scales and bacteria or soil yeasts only showed weak relationships to soil properties. We therefore argue that more general relationships between soil properties and soil biota can only be derived from future studies that consider

  11. Near-saturated surface soil hydraulic properties under different land uses in the St Denis National Wildlife Area, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodhinayake, Waduwawatte; Si, Bing Cheng

    2004-10-01

    Surface soil hydraulic properties are key factors controlling the partition of rainfall and snowmelt into runoff and soil water storage, and their knowledge is needed for sound land management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of three land uses (native grass, brome grass and cultivated) on surface soil hydraulic properties under near-saturated conditions at the St Denis National Wildlife Area, Saskatchewan, Canada. For each land use, water infiltration rates were measured using double-ring and tension infiltrometers at -0.3, -0.7, -1.5 and -2.2 kPa pressure heads. Macroporosity and unsaturated hydraulic properties of the surface soil were estimated. Mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs), unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at -0.3 kPa pressure head, inverse capillary length scale () and water-conducting macroporosity were compared for different land uses. These parameters of the native grass and brome grass sites were significantly (p 1.36 × 10-4 m in diameter in the three land uses. Land use modified near-saturated hydraulic properties of surface soil and consequently may alter the water balance of the area by changing the amount of surface runoff and soil water storage.

  12. Soil Properties in Natural Forest Destruction and Conversion to Agricultural Land,in Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Wasis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Destruction of the Gunung Leuser National Park area of North Sumatera Province through land clearing and land cover change from natural forest to agricultural land. Less attention to land use and ecosystem carrying capacity of the soil can cause soil degradation and destruction of flora, fauna, and wildlife habitat destruction. Environmental damage will result in a national park wild life will come out of the conservation area and would damage the agricultural community. Soil sampling conducted in purposive sampling in natural forest and agricultural areas.  Observation suggest that damage to the natural forest vegetation has caused the soil is not protected so that erosion has occurred. Destruction of natural forest into agricultural are as has caused damage to soil physical properties, soil chemical properties, and biological soil properties significantly. Forms of soil degradation caused by the destruction of natural forests, which is an increase in soil density (density Limbak by 103%, a decrease of 93% organic C and soil nitrogen decreased by 81%. The main factors causing soil degradation is the reduction of organic matter and soil erosion due to loss of natural forest vegetation.  Criteria for soil degradation in Governance Regulation Number 150/2000 can be used to determine the extent of soil degradation in natural forest ecosystems.Keywords: Gunung Leuser National Park, natural forest, agricultural land, land damage, soil properties

  13. Land management on soil physical properties and maize (Zea mays L. var. BIMA) growth (An adaptation strategy of climate change)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M. K.; Komariah; Pujiasmanto, B.; Noda, K.

    2018-03-01

    Water deficit is a problem on rainfed maize production but can be solved by proper land management. The objective of the study to determine the soil physical properties and maize yield affected by land management to adapt to drought. The experimental design was a randomized complete block using 5 treatments with 4 repetitions, including: (i) Control (KO), (ii) Rice Straw Mulched (MC), (iii) Compost Fertilizer (CF), (iv) In-Organic Fertilizer (AF), (v) Legume Cover crop (CC). Soil physical and maize growth properties namely soil moisture, soil texture, soil bulk density, plant height, biomass, and yield were investigated. The results showed that composting land increased soil water availability and provided nutrient to crops and thus increase soil physical properties, maize growth and yield. Although inorganic fertilizer also increased plant growth and yield, but it did not improve soil physical properties.

  14. Viking landing sites, remote-sensing observations, and physical properties of Martian surface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Jakosky, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Important problems that confront future scientific exploration of Mars include the physical properties of Martian surface materials and the geologic processes that formed the materials. The design of landing spacecraft, roving vehicles, and sampling devices and the selection of landing sites, vehicle traverses, and sample sites will be, in part, guided by the physical properties of the materials. Four materials occur in the sample fields of the Viking landers: (1) drift, (2) crusty to cloddy, (3) blocky, and (4) rock. The first three are soillike. Drift materials is weak, loose, and porous. We estimate that it has a dielectric constant near 2.4 and a thermal inertia near 1 ?? 10-3 to 3 ?? 10-3 (cal cm-2 sec 1 2 K-1) because of its low bulk density, fine grain size, and small cohesion. Crusty to cloddy material is expected to have a dielectric constant near 2.8 and a thermal inertia near 4 ?? 10-3 to 7 ?? 10-3 because of its moderate bulk density and cementation of grains. Blocky material should have a dielectric constant near 3.3 and a thermal inertia near 7 ?? 10-3 to 9 ?? 10-3 because of its moderate bulk density and cementation. Common basaltic rocks have dielectric constans near 8 and thermal inertias near 30 ?? 10-3 to 60 ?? 10-3. Comparisons of estimated dielectric constants and thermal inertias of the materials at the landing sites with those obtained remotely by Earth-based radars and Viking Orbiter thermal sensors suggest that the materials at the landing sites are good analogs for materials elsewhere on Mars. Correlation of remotely estimated dielectric constant and thermal inertias indicates two modal values for paired values of dielectric constants and thermal inertias near (A) 2 and 2 ?? 10-3 and (B) 3 and 6 ?? 10-3, respectively. These two modes are comparable to the dielectric constants and thermal inertias for drift and crusty to cloddy material, respectively. Dielectric constants and thermal inertias for blocky material are larger but conistent

  15. Land-Use and Land-Management Change: Relationships with Earthworm and Fungi Communities and Soil Structural Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spurgeon, D.J.; Keith, A.M.; Schmidt, O.; Lammertsma, D.R.; Faber, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Change in land use and management can impact massively on soil ecosystems. Ecosystem engineers and other functional biodiversity in soils can be influenced directly by such change and this in turn can affect key soil functions. Here, we employ meta-analysis to provide a quantitative

  16. Combined impacts of land use and soil property changes on soil erosion in a mollisol area under long-term agricultural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Wu, Yuyang; Hao, Zengchao; Zhang, Qi; Bu, Qingwei; Gao, Xiang

    2018-02-01

    Soil erosion exhibits special characteristics in the process of agricultural development. Understanding the combined impacts of land use and soil property changes on soil erosion, especially in the area under long-term agricultural cultivations, is vital to watershed agricultural and soil management. This study investigated the temporal-spatial patterns of the soil erosion based on a modified version of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and conducted a soil erosion contribution analysis. The land use data were interpreted from Landsat series images, and soil properties were obtained from field sampling, laboratory tests and SPAW (Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Water) model calculations. Over a long period of agricultural development, the average erosion modulus decreased from 187.7tkm -2 a -1 in 1979 to 158.4tkm -2 a -1 in 2014. The land use types were transformed mainly in the reclamation of paddy fields and the shrinking of wetlands on a large scale. Most of the soils were converted to loam from silty or clay loam and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (K s ) of most soil types decreased by 1.11% to 43.6%. The rapidly increasing area of 49.8km 2 of paddy fields together with the moderate decrease of 14.0km 2 of forests, as well as K s values explained 87.4% of the total variance in soil erosion. Although changes in soil physical and water characteristics indicated that soil erosion loads should have become higher, the upsurge in paddy fields played an important role in mitigating soil erosion in this study area. These results demonstrated that land use changes had more significant impacts than soil property changes on soil erosion. This study suggested that rational measures should be taken to extend paddy fields and control the dry land farming. These findings will benefit watershed agricultural targeting and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating Historic Parcel Changes to Understand Land Use Trends: A Methodology and Application for the San Pedro River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term land use and land cover change, and the associated impacts, pose critical challenges to sustaining healthy communities and ecosystems. In this study, a methodology was developed to use parcel data to evaluate land use trends in southeast Arizona’s San Pedro River Water...

  18. Alberta's Industrial Heartland Land Trust Society : voluntary property purchase program information booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Alberta's industrial heartland is home to one of Canada's largest concentrations of petroleum, refining, petrochemical and chemical production facilities. To date, more than $25 billion has been invested in major industrial plants in the heartland and adjacent Strathcona industrial regions by major corporations, and more investment is expected in the future. The Industrial Heartland Collaboration to Address Resident Interests is a process in which area residents, municipalities, industries and the provincial government are working collaboratively to resolve concerns related to the cumulative operations and expansion of industry. This paper presented details of the Alberta Industrial Heartland Land Trust Society's voluntary purchase program, which was initiated to provide an equitable, efficient and economical process of acquiring properties of rural landowners currently located within region who voluntarily wish to relocate outside of the policy area. Application and eligibility details were presented, as well as an outline of the property appraisal process. Details of the compliance and real property report required by the program were presented. Issues concerning relocation and moving expenses were discussed, as well as details of the program's flat rate inconvenience payment.

  19. Thermophysical properties of the MER and Beagle II landing site regions on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Hynek, Brian M.; Pelkey, Shannon M.; Mellon, Michael T.; Martínez-Alonso, Sara; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Murphy, Nate; Christensen, Philip R.

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed remote-sensing observations of the Isidis Basin, Gusev Crater, and Meridiani Planum landing sites for Beagle II, MER-A Spirit, and MER-B Opportunity spacecraft, respectively. We emphasized the thermophysical properties using daytime and nighttime radiance measurements from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer and Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and thermal inertias derived from nighttime data sets. THEMIS visible images, MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow-angle images, and MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data are incorporated as well. Additionally, the remote-sensing data were compared with ground-truth at the MER sites. The Isidis Basin surface layer has been shaped by aeolian processes and erosion by slope winds coming off of the southern highlands and funneling through notches between massifs. In the Gusev region, surface materials of contrasting thermophysical properties have been interpreted as rocks or bedrock, duricrust, and dust deposits; these are consistent with a complex geological history dominated by volcanic and aeolian processes. At Meridiani Planum the many layers having different thermophysical and erosional properties suggest periodic deposition of differing sedimentological facies possibly related to clast size, grain orientation and packing, or mineralogy.

  20. Alberta's Industrial Heartland Land Trust Society : voluntary property purchase program information booklet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Alberta's industrial heartland is home to one of Canada's largest concentrations of petroleum, refining, petrochemical and chemical production facilities. To date, more than $25 billion has been invested in major industrial plants in the heartland and adjacent Strathcona industrial regions by major corporations, and more investment is expected in the future. The Industrial Heartland Collaboration to Address Resident Interests is a process in which area residents, municipalities, industries and the provincial government are working collaboratively to resolve concerns related to the cumulative operations and expansion of industry. This paper presented details of the Alberta Industrial Heartland Land Trust Society's voluntary purchase program, which was initiated to provide an equitable, efficient and economical process of acquiring properties of rural landowners currently located within region who voluntarily wish to relocate outside of the policy area. Application and eligibility details were presented, as well as an outline of the property appraisal process. Details of the compliance and real property report required by the program were presented. Issues concerning relocation and moving expenses were discussed, as well as details of the program's flat rate inconvenience payment

  1. Understanding the Concept of Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration in Support of the Post 2015 Global Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2015-01-01

    on top-end technical solutions and high accuracy surveys. Of course, such flexibility allows for land administration systems to be incrementally improved over time. This paper unfolds the Fit-For-Purpose concept by analysing the three core components: • The spatial framework (large scale land parcel......This paper argues that the fit-for-purpose approach to building land administration systems in less developed countries will enable provision of the basic administrative frameworks for managing the people to land relationship that is fundamental for meeting the upcoming post 2015 global agenda....... The term “Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration” indicates that the approach used for building land administration systems in less developed countries should be flexible and focused on serving the purpose of the systems (such as providing security of tenure and control of land use) rather than focusing...

  2. Land-estimation questions in improvement of the Trazzera’s regional property in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Giuffrida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The “demanio trazzerale” (herd way regional property in Sicily constitutes a significant quota of the territorial social capital, due to its historical and cultural origin.A recent law draft considers its new and diverse potentiality to be assumed in the re-planning of the territory at inter-municipal scale, but some criticalities concern the calculation of the legitimization corresponding sale price.The contribution provides appraisal tools for: the legitimizations in urban areas, with a valuation model of the fair market value; b the valuation of the territorial value of a “trazzera”, in order to select the ones more suitable to be included within a recovery land plan for a new and different territorial policy, which the administration will have to undertake if the law draft is validated.

  3. Mathematical Modeling the Hydrological Properties of Soil for Practical Use in the Land Ecological Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terleev Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An original and convenient (from a practical point of view method to estimate the supply of productive moisture in the soil is offered. The method is based on a physically adequate mathematical model of the soil hydrological properties considering the hysteresis of the water-retention capacity. The computation of the irrigation rates, which is based on such estimates, minimizes the water wastage if the excess of the gravitational water is formed and this water percolates out of the moisturized soil profile under watering conditions. The practical applying of the method is able to optimize the crop irrigation techniques, eliminates any inefficient losses of irrigation water and nutrients (and other agricultural chemicals, promotes the rational usage of the water resources as well as provides developing effective solutions of urgent problems of the land ecological management.

  4. Flooding of property by runoff from agricultural land in northwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, John; Ligneau, Laurence; de Roo, Ad; Vandaele, Karel

    1994-08-01

    In the last twenty years there has been an increase in the incidence of flooding of property by runoff from agricultural land in many areas of northwestern Europe. These events take the form of inundations by soil-laden water associated with erision and the formation of ephemeral or talweg gullies developed in normally dry valley bottoms. Costs of such events may be considerable e.g. almost US$2M at Rottingdean, southern England, in 1987. These costs are largely borne by individual house occupants, insurance companies and local councils. The distribution of flooding is widespread but areas of high risk can be identified: the hilly area of central Belgium, parts of northern France, the South Downs in southern England and South-Limburg (the Netherlands). All these areas have silty, more or less loessial soils. Two types of flooding may be distinguished: winter flooding associated with wet soils and the cultivation of winter cereals, and summer flooding due to thunderstorm activity and runoff particularly from sugar beet, maize and potato crops. The distribution of these types of erosion varies in relation to the interaction between physical characteristics (soils and topography), climatic conditions and land use across the region. The reason for the recent increase in flooding events appears to be changes in land use, in the area of arable cropping, and the continued intensification of farming such as the use of chemical fertilizers, the decline in aggregate stability, the increase in the size of fields and compaction by farm vehicles. In some regions the risk of flooding has also increased because of expansion of urban areas in valley bottom locations. Communities have responded to the flooding hazard with emergency or protective measures usually involving engineered structures rather than land use change. The policy response to the increased risk of flooding has been very limited especially at the national and provincial level, the exception being plans developed

  5. Material properties of biofilms – key methods for understanding permeability and mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Nicole; Birjiniuk, Alona; Samad, Tahoura S.; Doyle, Patrick S.; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms can form biofilms, which are multicellular communities surrounded by a hydrated extracellular matrix of polymers. Central properties of the biofilm are governed by this extracellular matrix, which provides mechanical stability to the three-dimensional biofilm structure, regulates the ability of the biofilm to adhere to surfaces, and determines the ability of the biofilm to adsorb gasses, solutes, and foreign cells. Despite their critical relevance for understanding and eliminating of biofilms, the materials properties of the extracellular matrix are understudied. Here, we offer the reader a guide to current technologies that can be utilized to specifically assess the permeability and mechanical properties of the biofilm matrix and its interacting components. In particular, we highlight technological advances in instrumentation and interactions between multiple disciplines that have broadened the spectrum of methods available to conduct these studies. We review pioneering work that furthers our understanding of the material properties of biofilms. PMID:25719969

  6. EFFECTS OF LAND-USE CHANGE ON THE PROPERTIES OF TOP SOIL OF DECIDUOUS SAL FOREST IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kashem

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of land use change on the physico-chemical properties of top soil in the deciduous Sal forest of Bangladesh. Relatively less disturbed Sal (Shorea robusta Roxb. Ex Gaertn. forest stands and the nearby stands those were converted into Acacia (Acacia auriculiformis Benth. plantation and pineapple (Ananus comosus (L. Merr. cultivation were selected to examine the effects of land use change on soil properties. For each land use type, soil samples were collected from 4 locations, 50m distant from each other, as replicates. Soil samples were collected at 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm depths. Soil moisture content, conductivity, pH organic C, total N and total P were determined as soil properties. Leaf litter of Sal, Acacia and pineapple was incubation for 90 and 180 days in independent identical soil in order to examine the effects of plant species through leaf litter on the soil chemical nutrient (N and P status. Data showed that soil moisture content, conductivity and pH were significantly affected by land use but not by depth. However, soil organic C was affected by both land-use type (P< 0.02 and soil depth (P< 0.003, although no significant interactions appeared between these two factors. Soil total N and P did not differ between land use types but by depth and, N and P contents decreased with the increase of depth. Rates of nutrients (N and P released from Sal, Acacia and pineapple did not differ significantly among them during incubation. Results of the present study reveal that properties of the top soil of the Madhupur Sal forest are different in their responses to the varying land uses. The findings of this study are thus relevant for the sustainable management of the deciduous Sal forest ecosystems.

  7. An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Some Martian Regolith Simulants with Respect to the Surface Properties at the InSight Mission Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delage, Pierre; Karakostas, Foivos; Dhemaied, Amine; Belmokhtar, Malik; Lognonné, Philippe; Golombek, Matt; De Laure, Emmanuel; Hurst, Ken; Dupla, Jean-Claude; Kedar, Sharon; Cui, Yu Jun; Banerdt, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    In support of the InSight mission in which two instruments (the SEIS seismometer and the HP3 heat flow probe) will interact directly with the regolith on the surface of Mars, a series of mechanical tests were conducted on three different regolith simulants to better understand the observations of the physical and mechanical parameters that will be derived from InSight. The mechanical data obtained were also compared to data on terrestrial sands. The density of the regolith strongly influences its mechanical properties, as determined from the data on terrestrial sands. The elastoplastic compression volume changes were investigated through oedometer tests that also provided estimates of possible changes in density with depth. The results of direct shear tests provided values of friction angles that were compared with that of a terrestrial sand, and an extrapolation to lower density provided a friction angle compatible with that estimated from previous observations on the surface of Mars. The importance of the contracting/dilating shear volume changes of sands on the dynamic penetration of the mole was determined, with penetration facilitated by the ˜1.3 Mg/m3 density estimated at the landing site. Seismic velocities, measured by means of piezoelectric bender elements in triaxial specimens submitted to various isotropic confining stresses, show the importance of the confining stress, with lesser influence of density changes under compression. A power law relation of velocity as a function of confining stress with an exponent of 0.3 was identified from the tests, allowing an estimate of the surface seismic velocity of 150 m/s. The effect on the seismic velocity of a 10% proportion of rock in the regolith was also studied. These data will be compared with in situ data measured by InSight after landing.

  8. Biophysical-and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation in the Guadalentin (SE-Spain): towards understanding and effective soil conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vente, J. de; Sole-Benet, A.; Boix-Fayos, C.; Nainggolan, D.; Romero-Diaz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Desertification and land degradation have been widely studied in the Guadalentin basin (SE Spain) through various national and international research projects. Most important identified degradation types are due to soil erosion, soil surface crusting, aridity, soil organic matter decline and salinisation. On the one hand, political and socioeconomic drivers have caused important land use and management changes, which have formed an important driver for further land degradation. On the other hand, soil conservation practice were initiated by the government and by individual land users, although there is very limited knowledge on their effectiveness. the objective of this work is to provide and overview of previous studies that addressed land degradation in the Guadalentin and to present an integrated synthesis of the main biophysical and socioeconomic factors identifies in these studies as being responsible for land degradation, with a focus on feasible soil conservation strategies. (Author) 18 refs.

  9. Biophysical-and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation in the Guadalentin (SE-Spain): towards understanding and effective soil conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vente, J. de; Sole-Benet, A.; Boix-Fayos, C.; Nainggolan, D.; Romero-Diaz, A.

    2009-07-01

    Desertification and land degradation have been widely studied in the Guadalentin basin (SE Spain) through various national and international research projects. Most important identified degradation types are due to soil erosion, soil surface crusting, aridity, soil organic matter decline and salinisation. On the one hand, political and socioeconomic drivers have caused important land use and management changes, which have formed an important driver for further land degradation. On the other hand, soil conservation practice were initiated by the government and by individual land users, although there is very limited knowledge on their effectiveness. the objective of this work is to provide and overview of previous studies that addressed land degradation in the Guadalentin and to present an integrated synthesis of the main biophysical and socioeconomic factors identifies in these studies as being responsible for land degradation, with a focus on feasible soil conservation strategies. (Author) 18 refs.

  10. The Effect of Land Cover Change on Soil Properties around Kibale National Park in South Western Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majaliwa, J.G.M.; Twongyirwe, R.; Nyenje, R.; Oluka, M.; Ongom, B.; Sirike, J.; Mfitumukiza, D.; Azanga, E.; Natumanya, R.; Mwerera, R.; Barasa, B.

    2010-01-01

    The change from natural forest cover to tea and Eucalyptus is rampant in protected areas of western Uganda. The objectives were; to examine the trend in land-use /cover change and determine the effect of these changes on the physico-chemical properties of soils around Kibale National Park. The trend in land use/cover change was assessed by analyzing a series of Landsat images. Focused group discussions and key informant interviews were used for land-use/cover reconstruction. Three major land uses were included; wood lot (Eucalyptus grandis; 5 years old) ), tea (57 years old) and natural forest used as a control. Each of these land-uses were selected at two different North facing landscape positions and were replicated three times. A total of 36 composite soil samples were taken at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depth from natural forest, Tea plantation and eucalyptus on three ridges. Results showed that small scale farming, tea and eucalyptus plantation and built up area have increased over time, to the expense of wood lot and forest cover. Tea and Eucalyptus have induced changes in: exchangeable Mg and Ca, available P, SOM, ph, and bulk density of sub soil (P<.05). Landscape positions within land use also significantly influenced most soil properties (P<.05). Similar findings were observed by Wang et al. (2006) in commercial tea plantations in China that received nitrogen fertilizers.

  11. Effect of biochar on reclaimed tidal land soil properties and maize (Zea mays L.) response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuck-Soo; Kim, Kwon-Rae; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik; Owens, Gary; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd; Kim, Kye-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Reclaimed tidal land soil (RTLS) often contains high levels of soluble salts and exchangeable Na that can adversely affect plant growth. The current study examined the effect of biochar on the physicochemical properties of RTLS and subsequently the influence on plant growth performance. Rice hull derived biochar (BC) was applied to RTLS at three different rates (1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w)) and maize (Zea mays L.) subsequently cultivated for 6weeks. While maize was cultivated, 0.1% NaCl solution was supplied from the bottom of the pots to simulate the natural RTLS conditions. Biochar induced changes in soil properties were evaluated by the water stable aggregate (WSA) percentage, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), soil organic carbon contents, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable cations. Plant response was measured by growth rate, nutrient contents, and antioxidant enzyme activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). Application of rice hull derived biochar increased the soil organic carbon content and the percentage of WSA by 36-69%, while decreasing the ESP. The highest dry weight maize yield was observed from soil which received 5% BC (w/w), which was attributed to increased stability of water-stable aggregates and elevated levels of phosphate in BC incorporated soils. Moreover, increased potassium, sourced from the BC, induced mitigation of Na uptake by maize and consequently, reduced the impact of salt stress as evidenced by overall declines in the antioxidant activities of APX and GR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced understanding of the relationship between chemical modification and mechanical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Robert J. Moon; Donald S. Stone; Joseph E. Jakes

    2008-01-01

    Chemical additions to wood often change its bulk properties, which can be determined using conventional macroscopic mechanical tests. However, the controlling interactions between chemicals and wood take place at and below the scale of individual cells and cell walls. To better understand the effects of chemical additions to wood, we have adapted and extended two...

  13. Paraguay - Real Property Tax : Key to Fiscal Decentralization and Better Land Use, Volume 2. Technical Anneses

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This study has at its origin the land question in Paraguay, namely that land ownership is highly concentrated and has become a source of social conflict in the rural areas where one-half of the population lives. A central thesis of the study is that the existing patterns of land use and ownership, in particular, the very large land holdings (Zatifundio), are a reflection in part of the alm...

  14. Understanding the Spatial Scale of Genetic Connectivity at Sea: Unique Insights from a Land Fish and a Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina M Cooke

    Full Text Available Quantifying the spatial scale of population connectivity is important for understanding the evolutionary potential of ecologically divergent populations and for designing conservation strategies to preserve those populations. For marine organisms like fish, the spatial scale of connectivity is generally set by a pelagic larval phase. This has complicated past estimates of connectivity because detailed information on larval movements are difficult to obtain. Genetic approaches provide a tractable alternative and have the added benefit of estimating directly the reproductive isolation of populations. In this study, we leveraged empirical estimates of genetic differentiation among populations with simulations and a meta-analysis to provide a general estimate of the spatial scale of genetic connectivity in marine environments. We used neutral genetic markers to first quantify the genetic differentiation of ecologically-isolated adult populations of a land dwelling fish, the Pacific leaping blenny (Alticus arnoldorum, where marine larval dispersal is the only probable means of connectivity among populations. We then compared these estimates to simulations of a range of marine dispersal scenarios and to collated FST and distance data from the literature for marine fish across diverse spatial scales. We found genetic connectivity at sea was extensive among marine populations and in the case of A. arnoldorum, apparently little affected by the presence of ecological barriers. We estimated that ~5000 km (with broad confidence intervals ranging from 810-11,692 km was the spatial scale at which evolutionarily meaningful barriers to gene flow start to occur at sea, although substantially shorter distances are also possible for some taxa. In general, however, such a large estimate of connectivity has important implications for the evolutionary and conservation potential of many marine fish communities.

  15. Critical Zone Co-dynamics: Quantifying Interactions between Subsurface, Land Surface, and Vegetation Properties Using UAV and Geophysical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Peterson, J.; Falco, N.; Wainwright, H. M.; Wu, Y.; Tran, A. P.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.; Versteeg, R.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Improving understanding and modelling of terrestrial systems requires advances in measuring and quantifying interactions among subsurface, land surface and vegetation processes over relevant spatiotemporal scales. Such advances are important to quantify natural and managed ecosystem behaviors, as well as to predict how watershed systems respond to increasingly frequent hydrological perturbations, such as droughts, floods and early snowmelt. Our study focuses on the joint use of UAV-based multi-spectral aerial imaging, ground-based geophysical tomographic monitoring (incl., electrical and electromagnetic imaging) and point-scale sensing (soil moisture sensors and soil sampling) to quantify interactions between above and below ground compartments of the East River Watershed in the Upper Colorado River Basin. We evaluate linkages between physical properties (incl. soil composition, soil electrical conductivity, soil water content), metrics extracted from digital surface and terrain elevation models (incl., slope, wetness index) and vegetation properties (incl., greenness, plant type) in a 500 x 500 m hillslope-floodplain subsystem of the watershed. Data integration and analysis is supported by numerical approaches that simulate the control of soil and geomorphic characteristic on hydrological processes. Results provide an unprecedented window into critical zone interactions, revealing significant below- and above-ground co-dynamics. Baseline geophysical datasets provide lithological structure along the hillslope, which includes a surface soil horizon, underlain by a saprolite layer and the fractured Mancos shale. Time-lapse geophysical data show very different moisture dynamics in various compartments and locations during the winter and growing season. Integration with aerial imaging reveals a significant linkage between plant growth and the subsurface wetness, soil characteristics and the topographic gradient. The obtained information about the organization and

  16. Meteorological and Land Surface Properties Impacting Sea Breeze Extent and Aerosol Distribution in a Dry Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Adele L.; van den Heever, Susan C.; Johnson, Jill S.

    2018-01-01

    The properties of sea breeze circulations are influenced by a variety of meteorological and geophysical factors that interact with one another. These circulations can redistribute aerosol particles and pollution and therefore can play an important role in local air quality, as well as impact remote sensing. In this study, we select 11 factors that have the potential to impact either the sea breeze circulation properties and/or the spatial distribution of aerosols. Simulations are run to identify which of the 11 factors have the largest influence on the sea breeze properties and aerosol concentrations and to subsequently understand the mean response of these variables to the selected factors. All simulations are designed to be representative of conditions in coastal sub tropical environments and are thus relatively dry, as such they do not support deep convection associated with the sea breeze front. For this dry sea breeze regime, we find that the background wind speed was the most influential factor for the sea breeze propagation, with the soil saturation fraction also being important. For the spatial aerosol distribution, the most important factors were the soil moisture, sea-air temperature difference, and the initial boundary layer height. The importance of these factors seems to be strongly tied to the development of the surface-based mixed layer both ahead of and behind the sea breeze front. This study highlights potential avenues for further research regarding sea breeze dynamics and the impact of sea breeze circulations on pollution dispersion and remote sensing algorithms.

  17. Selection of soil hydraulic properties in a land surface model using remotely-sensed soil moisture and surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellito, P. J.; Small, E. E.; Gutmann, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    Synoptic-scale weather is heavily influenced by latent and sensible heating from the land surface. The partitioning of available energy between these two fluxes as well as the distribution of moisture throughout the soil column is controlled by a unique set of soil hydraulic properties (SHPs) at every location. Weather prediction systems, which use coupled land surface and atmospheric models in their forecasts, must therefore be parameterized with estimates of SHPs. Currently, land surface models (LSMs) obtain SHP values by assuming a correlation exists between SHPs and the soil type, which the USDA maps in 12 classes. This method is spurious because texture is only one control of many that affects SHPs. Alternatively, SHPs can be obtained by calibrating them within the framework of an LSM. Because remotely-sensed data have the potential for continent-wide application, there is a critical need to understand their specific role in calibration efforts and the extent to which such calibrated SHPs can improve model simulations. This study focuses on SHP calibration with soil moisture content (SMC) and land surface temperature (Ts), data that are available from the SMOS and MODIS satellite missions, respectively. The scientific goals of this study are: (1) What is the model performance tradeoff between weighting SMC and Ts differently during the calibration process? (2) What can the tradeoff between calibration using in-situ and remotely-sensed SMC reveal about SHP scaling? (3) How are these relationships influenced by climatic regime and vegetation type? (4) To what extent can calibrated SHPs improve model performance over that of texture-based SHPs? Model calibrations are carried out within the framework of the Noah LSM using the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis (SCEM-UA) algorithm in five different climatic regimes. At each site, a five-dimensional parameter space of SHPs is searched to find the location that minimizes the difference between observed and

  18. Land Right Registration and Property Development for Poverty Eradication and Slum Clearance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Olaopin Olanrele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to unfold the implication of non-registration of land rights on the achievement of the poverty eradication and slum clearance targets of the United Nation's Millennium development goals in Nigeria. The paper is based on empirical survey of land holding in the outskirts of Ibadan city and the rural areas in Oyo State, of Nigeria. A case study research method was adopted and data were collected with the use of questionnaire survey and secondary data was also extracted from the state land registry office in respect of total cost of documentation of subsequent transaction on titled/registered land. The study found that ignorance and government insensitivity in addition to high cost and delay are among major constraints to land titling. Only a few opportune people can afford the land right formalization process and they do so when it becomes necessary. These unequivocally militate against the achievement of the poverty and slum eradication goals of the UN. The paper suggested simplification of the titling procedure, cost reduction, computerization and public enlightenment on the benefits of registered land right to facilitate efficient land right registration towards adequate housing for the citizenry.

  19. THE DEMAND FOR PRIVATE PROPERTY RIGHTS: LAND TITLING, CREDIT, AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Nancy L.

    1998-01-01

    Land titles can increase agricultural productivity by increasing access to collateralized credit. However, increased credit use depends on the assumption that farmers face asset-based credit rationing. This assumption is tested using data from Mexico's voluntary land titling program. The results do not support the existence of widespread credit rationing.

  20. High-frequency HYDRO-geophysical observations for an advanced understanding of clayey landSLIDES: the HYDROSLIDE research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malet, Jean-Philippe; Supper, Robert; Flores-Orozco, Adrian; Gautier, Stéphanie; Bogaard, Thom

    2017-04-01

    resistivity is difficult to identify. Therefore the extension of the concept of resistivity to Induced Polarization (IP) (both in the time and spectral domains) is proposed in order to better understand the relationships between physical and hydro(geo)logical properties of the slope material. To understand the landslide triggering mechanisms, surface and in-depth deformation have to be monitored. Up to now, most of the landslides monitoring sites are equipped with GNSS receivers and total station benchmarks at the surface or inclinometers at depths, which provide only point (1D) information and/or have limitations at high displacement rates. To solve interpretation ambiguities and to account for spatial changes, not only point information, but also horizontally and vertically (borehole) distributed displacement/strain observations are necessary. New approaches are suggested in the project, namely temperature and strain monitoring at high frequency with Fiber-Optic (FO) cables both at the surface and in boreholes, sensing of surface deformation with Ultra-High Resolution (UHR, 20 cm) optical images (time-lapse ground based cameras). The combined application of these methods for landslide monitoring is very rare and has not been tested rigorously. Further, the joint interpretation of electrical resistivity, soil temperature, hydrological and strain data need to be supported by coupled multi-physical modelling in order to quantitatively establish petrophysical relationships for several slope configurations, material properties and groundwater conditions. The applicability of the approach is discussed for landslide sites representative of different hydrological forcings: La Valette (South French Alps; Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) and Lodève (South Central Massif, Hérault).

  1. The land management paradigm for institutional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  2. Net land-atmosphere flows of biogenic carbon related to bioenergy: towards an understanding of systemic feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut

    2013-07-01

    The notion that biomass combustion is carbon neutral vis-a-vis the atmosphere because carbon released during biomass combustion is absorbed during plant regrowth is inherent in the greenhouse gas accounting rules in many regulations and conventions. But this 'carbon neutrality' assumption of bioenergy is an oversimplification that can result in major flaws in emission accounting; it may even result in policies that increase, instead of reduce, overall greenhouse gas emissions. This commentary discusses the systemic feedbacks and ecosystem succession/land-use history issues ignored by the carbon neutrality assumption. Based on recent literature, three cases are elaborated which show that the C balance of bioenergy may range from highly beneficial to strongly detrimental, depending on the plants grown, the land used (including its land-use history) as well as the fossil energy replaced. The article concludes by proposing the concept of GHG cost curves of bioenergy as a means for optimizing the climate benefits of bioenergy policies.

  3. Disentangling privacy from property: toward a deeper understanding of genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Sonia M

    2004-04-01

    With the mapping of the human genome, genetic privacy has become a concern to many. People care about genetic privacy because genes play an important role in shaping us--our genetic information is about us, and it is deeply connected to our sense of ourselves. In addition, unwanted disclosure of our genetic information, like a great deal of other personal information, makes us vulnerable to unwanted exposure, stigmatization, and discrimination. One recent approach to protecting genetic privacy is to create property rights in genetic information. This Article argues against that approach. Privacy and property are fundamentally different concepts. At heart, the term "property" connotes control within the marketplace and over something that is disaggregated or alienable from the self. "Privacy," in contrast, connotes control over access to the self as well as things close to, intimately connected to, and about the self. Given these different meanings, a regime of property rights in genetic information would impoverish our understanding of that information, ourselves, and the relationships we hope will be built around and through its disclosure. This Article explores our interests in genetic information in order to deepen our understanding of the ongoing discourse about the distinction between property and privacy. It develops a conception of genetic privacy with a strong relational component. We ordinarily share genetic information in the context of relationships in which disclosure is important to the relationship--family, intimate, doctor-patient, researcher-participant, employer-employee, and insurer-insured relationships. Such disclosure makes us vulnerable to and dependent on the person to whom we disclose it. As a result, trust is essential to the integrity of these relationships and our sharing of genetic information. Genetic privacy can protect our vulnerability in these relationships and enhance the trust we hope to have in them. Property, in contrast, by

  4. MEDOKADS - A 20 Year's Daily AVHRR Data Series for Analysis of Land Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslowsky, D.; Billing, H.; Bolle, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    To derive primary data products from raw AVHRR data, like spectral reflectances or temperatures, it is necessary to correct for sensor degradation and changing hardware specifications, to re-sample the data into a grid of equal pixel size, to perform geographical registration, cloud-screening and normalization for illumination and observation geometry. A data set which resulted from the application of these corrections is the top of the atmosphere Mediterranean Extended One-Km AVHRR Data Set (MEDOKADS) which now covers a period of 20 years. To study land surface processes, the obtained spectral data have to be combined, radiometric corrections for atmospheric effects, emissivity corrections in the case of temperature measurements have to be applied, and the variable over-flight times have to be accounted for. By application of complex evaluation schemes then higher level products are generated, like vegetation indices, surface albedo, and surface energy fluxes. The ultimate goal is to provide the users community with problem-related information. This includes the quantification of changes and the determination of trends. Methods and tools to reach this goal as well as their limitations are discussed. To validate the data, extended field measurements have been performed in which the scaling between local ground measurements and large scale satellite data play a major role. A major problem remains the application of atmospheric corrections because of the not well known variable aerosol content. The supervision of the quality of the derived information leads to the concept of anchor stations at which surface and atmospheric properties should permanently be measured.

  5. Natural and human impact on the land use and soil properties of the Sikkim Himalayas piedmont in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, P; Płoskonka, D

    2014-06-01

    Natural and human causes of change in land use and soil properties were studied in the Sikkim Himalayas piedmont over the last 150 years, with a special emphasis on the period 1930-2010. Analysis of historical reports, combined with the visual interpretation of topographic maps and satellite images, indicates that the land reforms related to the location of tea gardens caused rapid deforestation of the higher elevated terraces in the late 19th century. Continuous population growth between 1930 and 2010 caused a shift in the major land use changes from the terraces to the floodplains. As a consequence, a gradual extension of tea plantation and forestry development helped in stabilizing the land use of the terraces, while the parallel deforestation of mountain catchments and floodplains for rice cultivation intensified fluvial activity. The enlargement of river-channel area by about 42% between 1930 and 2010 excluded a large part of the floodplains from cultivation and increased risk of soil degradation. The replacement of natural forest by monocultural tea and rice cultivation influenced the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Statistically significant changes were observed only in some chemical properties of the topsoil. Tea cultivation reduced the total carbon content by 26% and total nitrogen content by 33% in the surface soil horizon. The influence of rice tillage on the soil properties is masked by the fluvial activity. The combined effect of flooding and rice cultivation is reflected in the lower content of total carbon and nitrogen in the surface of the soil, namely, 76% and 77% respectively. Taking into account the long-term nature of the plantation, the soil still has the capability to support tea production. The productivity of rice depends partly on fertilization levels and partly on the natural deposition of fresh sediment eroded from mountains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding the costs and benefits of land development : An empirical analysis into the financial effects of location features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, E.; Witte, P.A.; Spit, T.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    As a means to sustainable urban development, redeveloping brownfield sites is advocated over greenfield development in most Western countries. There is much case study research into the factors that influence the (financial) costs, revenues and results of land development. What is virtually absent

  7. From Outreach to Engaged Placemaking: Understanding Public Land-Grant University Involvement with Tourism Planning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herts, Rolando D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research project aimed to identify benefits and drawbacks of public land-grant university involvement with tourism planning and development, an emergent form of university-community engagement. Using qualitative methodology, the study's findings led to the codification of levels of university tourism planning and development…

  8. How to understand, evaluate and influence efficient progress in South Africa’s land reform process: A typology from historical lessons from selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhlanhla C. Mbatha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With reports of widespread failures in South Africa’s land reform programmes, the levels of policy uncertainty in the political rhetoric that influences land reform have been increasing. Since 1994 policy targets to transfer land to black farmers have not been met. Of the 2005 target to transfer about 25 million ha of commercial farmland to black farmers by 2014, less than 5 million ha. have been transferred for commercial use. Some studies report failure rates in resettlement projects of up to 90%. To account for the failures, revisions of policies and amendments to legislations have been proposed within a political environment that is becoming increasingly intolerant to slow progress in land transfers and to resettlement failures. Aim: Against this environment, this paper presents a typology for understanding and evaluating important elements of the land reform project in order to influence progress in the process. Setting: The study adopts a historical review of land reform processes in post-colonial Kenya and Zimbabwe in order to identify potential challenges and key lessons for South Africa. Methods: Hence, using institutional and historical analytical lenses in exploring different narratives, the paper reviews reported failures and successes in land reform policy cases from the selected countries. From an institutional framework, prevalent social institutions and key lessons from Kenya, Zimbabwe and South Africa, a typology for evaluating important elements of the land reform process in South Africa is developed and discussed. Additionally, a review of global data collected on average sizes of farms in different regions of the world is provided as evidence to support propositions of what would constitute efficient farmland size ranges for small to medium commercial farms in South Africa. Results and conclusion: A proposition is made on how to use the typology to guide policy and research interventions to reduce failures

  9. Role of the Land Valuation Division in Property Rating by District Assemblies in Ghana's Upper East Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Kwotua Petio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available District Assemblies in Ghana are charged with the responsibility of developing their areas of jurisdiction mainly through internally mobilised revenue. As a consequence, the assemblies are empowered by various pieces of legislation to impose local taxes within their jurisdiction. The local taxes include property rates which are a form of tax that only the District Assemblies may levy. The study therefore looked at the levying of property rates in the Upper East Region and assessed the role and institutional capacity of the Land Valuation Division of the Lands Commission in the tax administration. Findings included limited coverage of the tax, use of flat rates due to absence of up-to-date property values, inadequate technical personnel and logistics for the Land Valuation Division (LVD and lack of political will to levy the rates fully. Relevant suggestions are made, such as the need to introduce mass valuation, widen the tax coverage, establish a fund for revaluation and revive the Valuation Training School, as well as provide requisite logistics for efficient performance of the LVD.

  10. Effects of Land Use Changes on Some Soil Chemical Properties in Khoy, West Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Taghipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intensified agriculture over a long-term is an important factor in soil change phenomena that can cause some unwanted effects on soil properties. To examine this hypothesis, chemical properties of the soils under sunflower cultivation over five decades and adjoining virgin lands were investigated in order to monitor changes caused by long-term cropping. The studied soils are influenced by continuous sunflower cultivation along with flooding irrigation and using chemical fertilizers for over five decades Materials and Methods: This research was undertaken at Khoy area (38o 10′ to 38o 40′ N latitude and 44o 15′ to 45o 10′ E latitude as the northern part of western-Azarbaijan province in the north-west Iran. The Khoy area is characterized by a semi-arid climate (mean annual rainfall of 300 mm linked with soil moisture and temperature regimes of xeric and mesic, respectively. Agriculturally, the studied area is cropped continuously by sunflower-wheat or barley rotations for over five decades and has received irrigation water from rainfall, groundwater, or seasonal river water. Forty soil surface samples (0-30 cm belonging to 10 soil series from the cultivated soils and the adjoining uncultivated soils were samplied and analyzed for the different chemical properties. In each soil serie, the samples (cultivated soil and adjacent virgin land were selected in similar slope, aspect, drainage condition, and parent materials. Soil analyses were involved soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC, soil organic carbon (SOC, Calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE, cation exchange capacity (CEC, total N, soluble K, exchangeable K, and available K. Potassium absorption ration (PAR was calculated by the concentration of solution K, Ca, Mg and exchangeable potassium percentage (EPP was calculated by exchangeable Na and CEC values Results and Discussion: This study illustrate that long-term continuous sunflower cropping had considerable effects on

  11. Understanding Regolith Physical Properties of Atmosphereless Solar System Bodies Based on Remote Sensing Photopolarimetric Observations: Evidence for Europa's Porous Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. M.; Boryta, M. D.; Hapke, B. W.; Manatt, K. S.; Shkuratov, Y.; Psarev, V.; Vandervoort, K.; Kroner, D. O.; Nebedum, A.; Vides, C.; Quinones, J.

    2017-12-01

    We studied the polarization and reflective properties of a suite of planetary regolith analogues with physical characteristics that might be expected to be found on a high albedo atmosphereless solar system body (ASSB). The angular scattering properties of thirteen well-sorted particle size fractions of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were measured in the laboratory with a goniometric photopolarimeter (GPP) of unique design. Our results provide insight in support of efforts to understand the unusual reflectance and negative polarization behavior observed near small phase angles that has been reported over several decades on highly reflective ASSBs such as the asteroids 44 Nysa, 64 Angelina (Harris et al., 1989) and the Galilean satellites Io, Europa and Ganymede (Rosenbush et al., 1997; Mishchenko et al., 2006). Our measurements are consistent with the hypothesis that the surfaces of these ASSBs effectively scatter electromagnetic radiation as if they were extremely fine grained with void space > 95%, and grain sizes of the order landing on Europa's surface would require wheel or footpads that would protect it from settling deeply into the surface. These results also have relevance to the field of terrestrial geo-engineering particularly to proposals for modifying Earth's radiation balance by injecting high albedo Al2O3 particulates into Earth's atmosphere for the purpose of Solar Radiation Management by reflecting sunlight back into space hence, offsetting the global warming effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide(Teller et al., 1997). This work partially supported by the Cassini Saturn Orbiter Progrem Harris et al., 1989 . Icarus 81, 365-374. Mishchenko et al., 2006 Applied Optics, 45, 4459-4463. Rosenbush et al, 1997, Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414. Teller et al., 1997. UCRL-JC-128715.

  12. Women and landed property in urban India: Negotiating closed doors and windows of opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Baruah, Bipasha

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines land tenure in informal urban settlements in India from a gender perspective through field research conducted in Ahmedabad in collaboration with the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA). The author describes the formal and informal tenure arrangements that were in place in these settlements and analyses their implications for women. She proceeds to raise key issues that need consideration in developing a gender-equitable vision of urban land rights, tenure and reform. ...

  13. Soil properties relevant to land degradation in abandoned sloping fields in Aisa valley, Central Pyrenees (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardini, G.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-approach characterization of soil properties in abandoned fields in the Aisa valley, at mid mountain in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, demonstrated that the soil's own peculiar characteristics are concerned with conservation problems. Aggregate stability and shrinkage tests pointed to a relatively good soil performance due to the aggregating role of organic matter and calcium carbonates, although calcium ions, in some instances, may exert and additional antagonistic role for a sealed surface, increasing runoff. On the other hand, soil micromorphology suggests that the poor condition of the soils is in some contradiction to paedogenic activity. These findings, together with the presence of ashes, support the hypothesis that land degradation in these areas is mainly related to human activity thought unsuitable management after land abandonment.

    [es] La caracterización de diversas propiedades del suelo en campos abandonados del valle de Aisa, montaña media del Pirineo Central, ha mostrado que dichos suelos presentan algunos caracteres de interés desde el punto de vista de la conservación. La estabilidad de los agregados y los test de agrietamiento evidencian un comportamiento aceptable, gracias al papel agregante de la materia orgánica y carbonatos de calcio, a pesar que los iones calcio, en algunas ocasiones, pueden ejercer un papel antagonista adicional y favorecer el sellado de la superficie del suelo, aumentando la escorrentía superficial. Por otra parte, la micromorfología sugiere que el estado de degradación de los suelos contrasta con la actividad pedogénica. Estos resultados, juntamente con la presencia de cenizas, apoyan la hipótesis de que el estado de degradación en estas áreas es consecuencia principalmente de una utilización incorrecta después del abandono de los cultivos.
    [fr] Un étude des propriétés des sois dans une zone à cultures en pente abandonnées dans la vallée d'Aisa (Pyr

  14. Understanding Service Composition with Non-functional Properties Using Declarative Model-to-model Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Mäuhlhäuser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing applications comprising service composition is a complex task. Therefore, to lower the skill barrier for developers, it is important to describe the problem at hand on an abstract level and not to focus on implementation details. This can be done using declarative programming which allows to describe only the result of the problem (which is what the developer wants rather than the description of the implementation. We therefore use purely declarative model-to-model transformations written in a universal model transformation language which is capable of handling even non functional properties using optimization and mathematical programming. This makes it easier to understand and describe service composition and non-functional properties for the developer.

  15. Understanding Land Cover Changes in the Italian Alps and Romanian Carpathians Combining Remote Sensing and Stakeholder Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Malek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, socio-economic changes in Europe have had a significant effect on land cover changes, but it is unclear how this has affected mountain areas. We focus on two mountain areas: the eastern Italian Alps and the Romanian Curvature Carpathians. We classified land cover from Earth observation data after 1989 by using applied remote sensing techniques. We also analyzed socio-economic data and conducted semi-structured interviews with local stakeholders. In Italy, most of the land conversion processes followed long-term trends. In Romania, they took off with the sudden political changes after 1989. In both areas, forest expansion was the biggest, but potentially not the most consequential change. More consequential changes were urbanization in Italy and small-scale deforestation in Romania, since both increased the risk of hydro-meteorological hazards. Stakeholders’ views were an added value to the spatial analysis and vice versa. For example, stakeholders’ explanations resolved the seeming contradiction of decreased economic activity and increased urbanization (Italian site, as a consequence of secondary home building. Furthermore, spatial analysis revealed that urbanization in Romania was less significant with regard to consequences for the wider human-environment system than many stakeholders thought.

  16. Experimental Watershed Study Designs: A Tool for Advancing Process Understanding and Management of Mixed-Land-Use Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Kellner, R. E.; Zeiger, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Advancements in watershed management are both a major challenge, and urgent need of this century. The experimental watershed study (EWS) approach provides critical baseline and long-term information that can improve decision-making, and reduce misallocation of mitigation investments. Historically, the EWS approach was used in wildland watersheds to quantitatively characterize basic landscape alterations (e.g. forest harvest, road building). However, in recent years, EWS is being repurposed in contemporary multiple-land-use watersheds comprising a mosaic of land use practices such as urbanizing centers, industry, agriculture, and rural development. The EWS method provides scalable and transferrable results that address the uncertainties of development, while providing a scientific basis for total maximum daily load (TMDL) targets in increasing numbers of Clean Water Act 303(d) listed waters. Collaborative adaptive management (CAM) programs, designed to consider the needs of many stakeholders, can also benefit from EWS-generated information, which can be used for best decision making, and serve as a guidance tool throughout the CAM program duration. Of similar importance, long-term EWS monitoring programs create a model system to show stakeholders how investing in rigorous scientific research initiatives improves decision-making, thereby increasing management efficiencies through more focused investments. The evolution from classic wildland EWS designs to contemporary EWS designs in multiple-land-use watersheds will be presented while illustrating how such an approach can encourage innovation, cooperation, and trust among watershed stakeholders working to reach the common goal of improving and sustaining hydrologic regimes and water quality.

  17. Particle Engineering of Excipients for Direct Compression: Understanding the Role of Material Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Sharad; Meiser, Felix; Morton, David; Larson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Tablets represent the preferred and most commonly dispensed pharmaceutical dosage form for administering active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Minimizing the cost of goods and improving manufacturing output efficiency has motivated companies to use direct compression as a preferred method of tablet manufacturing. Excipients dictate the success of direct compression, notably by optimizing powder formulation compactability and flow, thus there has been a surge in creating excipients specifically designed to meet these needs for direct compression. Greater scientific understanding of tablet manufacturing coupled with effective application of the principles of material science and particle engineering has resulted in a number of improved direct compression excipients. Despite this, significant practical disadvantages of direct compression remain relative to granulation, and this is partly due to the limitations of direct compression excipients. For instance, in formulating high-dose APIs, a much higher level of excipient is required relative to wet or dry granulation and so tablets are much bigger. Creating excipients to enable direct compression of high-dose APIs requires the knowledge of the relationship between fundamental material properties and excipient functionalities. In this paper, we review the current understanding of the relationship between fundamental material properties and excipient functionality for direct compression.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey climate and land use change science strategy: a framework for understanding and responding to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Kirtland, David A.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; ,; ,; ,; Robert, S.; Maule, Alec G.; McMahon, Gerard; Striegl, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a nonregulatory Federal science agency with national scope and responsibilities, is uniquely positioned to serve the Nation’s needs in understanding and responding to global change, including changes in climate, water availability, sea level, land use and land cover, ecosystems, and global biogeochemical cycles. Global change is among the most challenging and formidable issues confronting our Nation and society. Scientists agree that global environmental changes during this century will have far-reaching societal implications (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007; U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009). In the face of these challenges, the Nation can benefit greatly by using natural science information in decisionmaking.

  19. Understanding the Physicochemical Properties of Mitragynine, a Principal Alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa, for Preclinical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surash Ramanathan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Varied pharmacological responses have been reported for mitragynine in the literature, but no supportive scientific explanations have been given for this. These studies have been undertaken without a sufficient understanding of the physicochemical properties of mitragynine. In this work a UV spectrophotometer approach and HPLC-UV method were employed to ascertain the physicochemical properties of mitragynine. The pKa of mitragynine measured by conventional UV (8.11 ± 0.11 was in agreement with the microplate reader determination (8.08 ± 0.04. Mitragynine is a lipophilic alkaloid, as indicated by a logP value of 1.73. Mitragynine had poor solubility in water and basic media, and conversely in acidic environments, but it is acid labile. In an in vitro dissolution the total drug release was higher for the simulated gastric fluid but was prolonged and incomplete for the simulated intestinal fluid. The hydrophobicity, poor water solubility, high variability of drug release in simulated biological fluids and acid degradable characteristics of mitragynine probably explain the large variability of its pharmacological responses reported in the literature. The determined physicochemical properties of mitragynine will provide a basis for developing a suitable formulation to further improve its solubility, stability and oral absorption for better assessment of this compound in preclinical studies.

  20. Micro morphological and Chemical Approaches to Understand Changes in Ecological Functions of Metal-Impacted Soils under Various Land Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, J.A; Martinez, S.M; Faz, A; Van Mourik, J.M; Arocena, J.M

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the changes in faunal activities as measures of the ecological functions of soils impacted by potentially toxic metals (PTMs) under urban, industrial, agricultural, and natural uses. Concentrations and distributions of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Fe were estimated by sequential chemical extractions, while relicts and present faunal activities were studied by micro morphological analyses. Urban and natural lands were contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Zn. Micro arthropods and fungi are observed to be active in the litter decomposition in natural, agricultural and urban lands which indicates that total concentration of PTMs in soils is not a good indicator to evaluate the limitations of PTMs to fauna activity. Metals immobilization on carbonates and Fe/Mn oxides, and fertilizations reduced the negative effects of metals on faunal activity. Micro morphological analyses showed the impacts of metal on soil ecological functions in industrial site, where the surface soils are devoid of any evidence of faunal activity; likely due to high proportion of Pb and Zn in organic components. Therefore, the impacts of metals in soil fauna activities, hence ecological functions of soils, are best evaluated by the knowledge of metal partitioning on solid phases in combination with observations of fauna activities using micro morphological techniques.

  1. Understanding the Effect of Land Cover Classification on Model Estimates of Regional Carbon Cycling in the Boreal Forest Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, John; Kang, Sinkyu

    2003-01-01

    The original objectives of this proposed 3-year project were to: 1) quantify the respective contributions of land cover and disturbance (i.e., wild fire) to uncertainty associated with regional carbon source/sink estimates produced by a variety of boreal ecosystem models; 2) identify the model processes responsible for differences in simulated carbon source/sink patterns for the boreal forest; 3) validate model outputs using tower and field- based estimates of NEP and NPP; and 4) recommend/prioritize improvements to boreal ecosystem carbon models, which will better constrain regional source/sink estimates for atmospheric C02. These original objectives were subsequently distilled to fit within the constraints of a 1 -year study. This revised study involved a regional model intercomparison over the BOREAS study region involving Biome-BGC, and TEM (A.D. McGuire, UAF) ecosystem models. The major focus of these revised activities involved quantifying the sensitivity of regional model predictions associated with land cover classification uncertainties. We also evaluated the individual and combined effects of historical fire activity, historical atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and climate change on carbon and water flux simulations within the BOREAS study region.

  2. Micromorphological and Chemical Approaches to Understand Changes in Ecological Functions of Metal-Impacted Soils under Various Land Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the changes in faunal activities as measures of the ecological functions of soils impacted by potentially toxic metals (PTMs under urban, industrial, agricultural, and natural uses. Concentrations and distributions of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Fe were estimated by sequential chemical extractions, while relicts and present faunal activities were studied by micromorphological analyses. Urban and natural lands were contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Zn. Microarthropods and fungi are observed to be active in the litter decomposition in natural, agricultural and urban lands which indicates that total concentration of PTMs in soils is not a good indicator to evaluate the limitations of PTMs to fauna activity. Metals immobilization on carbonates and Fe/Mn oxides, and fertilizations reduced the negative effects of metals on faunal activity. Micromorphological analyses showed the impacts of metal on soil ecological functions in industrial site, where the surface soils are devoid of any evidence of faunal activity; likely due to high proportion of Pb and Zn in organic components. Therefore, the impacts of metals in soil fauna activities, hence ecological functions of soils, are best evaluated by the knowledge of metal partitioning on solid phases in combination with observations of fauna activities using micromorphological techniques.

  3. Multilayered phantoms with tunable optical properties for a better understanding of light/tissue interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Blandine; Koenig, Anne; Perraut, François; Piot, Olivier; Vignoud, Séverine; Lavaud, Jonathan; Manfait, Michel; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2015-03-01

    Light/tissue interactions, like diffuse reflectance, endogenous fluorescence and Raman scattering, are a powerful means for providing skin diagnosis. Instrument calibration is an important step. We thus developed multilayered phantoms for calibration of optical systems. These phantoms mimic the optical properties of biological tissues such as skin. Our final objective is to better understand light/tissue interactions especially in the case of confocal Raman spectroscopy. The phantom preparation procedure is described, including the employed method to obtain a stratified object. PDMS was chosen as the bulk material. TiO2 was used as light scattering agent. Dye and ink were adopted to mimic, respectively, oxy-hemoglobin and melanin absorption spectra. By varying the amount of the incorporated components, we created a material with tunable optical properties. Monolayer and multilayered phantoms were designed to allow several characterization methods. Among them, we can name: X-ray tomography for structural information; Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) with a homemade fibered bundle system for optical characterization; and Raman depth profiling with a commercial confocal Raman microscope for structural information and for our final objective. For each technique, the obtained results are presented and correlated when possible. A few words are said on our final objective. Raman depth profiles of the multilayered phantoms are distorted by elastic scattering. The signal attenuation through each single layer is directly dependent on its own scattering property. Therefore, determining the optical properties, obtained here with DRS, is crucial to properly correct Raman depth profiles. Thus, it would be permitted to consider quantitative studies on skin for drug permeation follow-up or hydration assessment, for instance.

  4. Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, F.T.; Thébault, E.; Liiri, M.; Birkhofer, K.; Tsiafouli, M.A.; Bjørnlund, L.; Jørgensen, H.B.; Brady, M.V.; Christensen, S.; De Ruiter, P.C.; D'Hertefeldt, T.; Frouz, J.; Hedlund, K.; Hemerik, L.; Hol, W.H.G.; Hotes, S.; Mortimer, S.R.; Setälä, H.; Sgardelis, S.P.; Uteseny, K.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Wolters, V.; Bardget, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and

  5. Erodibility of calcareous soils as influenced by land use and intrinsic soil properties in a semiarid region of central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Mokhtari, Javad; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Zeraatpisheh, Mojtaba

    2018-03-06

    The most important properties affecting the soil loss and runoff were investigated, and the effects of land use on the soil properties, together with the erodibility indices in a semiarid zone, central Iran, were evaluated. The locations of 100 positions were acquired by cLHS and 0-5-cm surface soil layer samples were used for laboratory analyses from the Borujen Region, Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari Province, central Iran. To measure in situ runoff and soil erodibility of three different land uses comprising dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland, a portable rainfall simulator was used. The results showed that the high variations (coefficient of variation, CV) were obtained for electrical conductivity (EC), mean weight diameter (MWD), soil organic carbon (SOC), and soil erodibility indices including runoff volume, soil loss, and sediment concentration (CV ~ 43.6-77.4%). Soil erodibility indices showed positive and significant correlations with bulk density and negative correlations with SOC, MWD, clay content, and soil shear strength in the area under investigation. The values of runoff in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were found 1.5, 28.9, and 58.7 cm 3 ; soil loss in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were observed 0.25, 2.96, and 76.8 g; and the amount of sediment concentration in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were found 0.01, 0.11, and 0.15 g cm -3 . It is suggested that further investigations should be carried out on soil erodibility and the potential of sediment yield in various land uses with varying topography and soil properties in semiarid regions of Iran facing the high risk of soil loss.

  6. Merging Land Use Change Trends and Insecticide Application to Understand Multiple Threats to Honey Bees in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D.; Zheng, H.; Otto, C.

    2017-12-01

    US beekeepers have historically relied on North Dakota for its rich floral grasslands and mild climate to harvest honey and maintain colony growth from May to September. Over 40% of registered apiaries used for crop pollination across the United States pass through the Northern Great Plains region for this reason. However, increased land use change from grassland to row crops has decreased available forage for honey bees and shrunken the already finite landscape suitable for apiary sites. Alongside the introduction of cropland followed the application of insecticides known to impact colony health. While landscape composition is one of the driving factors influencing honey bee productivity and overall health, the further application of insecticides adds an additional threat layer to the changing landscape. USGS E-pest estimates suggest an increasing application per cropland area over the past 10 years for harmful insecticidees including neonicotinoids, organophosphates and pyrethroids. This research aims to capture these trends by utilizing a spatially explicit habitat quality model from InVEST to integrate the following annual data in North Dakota from 2006-2014: (1) habitat suitability basemaps derived from the Cropland Data Layer (CDL); and (2) assign stacked layers of weighted values to those land covers based on estimated insecticide applications on individual crop types within each county year combination. We aim to utilize model outputs to learn where in time and space registered apiaries have experienced this double sided threat of decreased foraged and increased exposure to insecticides, but also ask further questions about how to improve the landscape with different scenarios.

  7. THE DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES UNDER THE EFECT OF LAND RECLAMATION WORKS, FROM BAIA DRAINAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moca

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pedo-climatic conditions of Suceava County that extends on a total surface of 855 300 ha, the balance of agricultural land affected by humidity excess with temporar or permanent character is differenciated from south to north and from east to west, between 30 % till 40%, which means almost 100 000 ha. On these soils with underground water or pluvial excess hydro ameliorative drainage systems have been installed, associated to a complex agroameliorative works. For long effect estimation of the underground drainage asociated with the agropedoameliorative works upon the some chemical properties, there were analyzed the soil and the environment conditions from Baia field.

  8. The Historical or the Contemporary Context: Which of the Two Ensures a Deeper Understanding of Gas Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Vesna D.; Trivic, Dragica D.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the effects of two approaches, designated as the historical and the contemporary one, on the level of students' understanding of the properties and the practical use of gases. Our research hypothesis was that the historical context of the discovery of gases and the study of their properties would deepen…

  9. Understanding and Improving High-Temperature Structural Properties of Metal-Silicide Intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce S. Kang

    2005-10-10

    The objective of this project was to understand and improve high-temperature structural properties of metal-silicide intermetallic alloys. Through research collaboration between the research team at West Virginia University (WVU) and Dr. J.H. Schneibel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), molybdenum silicide alloys were developed at ORNL and evaluated at WVU through atomistic modeling analyses, thermo-mechanical tests, and metallurgical studies. In this study, molybdenum-based alloys were ductilized by dispersing MgAl2O4 or MgO spinel particles. The addition of spinel particles is hypothesized to getter impurities such as oxygen and nitrogen from the alloy matrix with the result of ductility improvement. The introduction of fine dispersions has also been postulated to improve ductility by acting as a dislocation source or reducing dislocation pile-ups at grain boundaries. The spinel particles, on the other hand, can also act as local notches or crack initiation sites, which is detrimental to the alloy mechanical properties. Optimization of material processing condition is important to develop the desirable molybdenum alloys with sufficient room-temperature ductility. Atomistic analyses were conducted to further understand the mechanism of ductility improvement of the molybdenum alloys and the results showed that trace amount of residual oxygen may be responsible for the brittle behavior of the as-cast Mo alloys. For the alloys studied, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at different loading rates, and at room and elevated temperatures. Thermal cycling effect on the mechanical properties was also studied. Tensile tests for specimens subjected to either ten or twenty thermal cycles were conducted. For each test, a follow-up detailed fractography and microstructural analysis were carried out. The test results were correlated to the size, density, distribution of the spinel particles and processing time. Thermal expansion tests were carried out using thermo

  10. Sensory properties of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) processed from raw material from commercial landings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Durita; Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Jette

    2005-01-01

    Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile of marina......Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile...

  11. Photometric Properties of Soils at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Preliminary Analysis from CRISM EPF Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, S. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Seelos, F.; Wolff, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    Using data from CRISM's Emission Phase Function observations, we attempt to constrain Phoenix soil scattering properties, including soil grain size, single-scattering albedo, and surface phase function.

  12. USGS global change science strategy: A framework for understanding and responding to climate and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Kirtland, David A.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; O'Malley, Robin; Thompson, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Change Science Strategy expands on the Climate Variability and Change science component of the USGS 2007 Science Strategy, “Facing Tomorrow’s Challenges: USGS Science in the Coming Decade” (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). Here we embrace the broad definition of global change provided in the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–606,104 Stat. 3096–3104)—“Changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life”—with a focus on climate and land-use change.There are three major characteristics of this science strategy. First, it addresses the science required to broadly inform global change policy, while emphasizing the needs of natural-resource managers and reflecting the role of the USGS as the science provider for the Department of the Interior and other resource-management agencies. Second, the strategy identifies core competencies, noting 10 critical capabilities and strengths the USGS uses to overcome key problem areas. We highlight those areas in which the USGS is a science leader, recognizing the strong partnerships and effective collaboration that are essential to address complex global environmental challenges. Third, it uses a query-based approach listing key research questions that need to be addressed to create an agenda for hypothesis-driven global change science organized under six strategic goals. Overall, the strategy starts from where we are, provides a vision for where we want to go, and then describes high-priority strategic actions, including outcomes, products, and partnerships that can get us there. Global change science is a well-defined research field with strong linkages to the ecosystems, water, energy and minerals, natural hazards, and environmental health components of the USGS Science Strategy

  13. Permafrost thaw and fire history: implications of boreal tree cover changes on land surface properties and turbulent energy fluxes in the Taiga Plains, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Oliver; Helbig, Manuel; Payette, Fanny; Wischnewski, Karoline; Kljun, Natascha; Chasmer, Laura; Pappas, Christoforos; Detto, Matteo; Baltzer, Jennifer; Quinton, William; Marsh, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Given their large areal coverage, high carbon densities, and unique land surface properties and disturbance regimes (e.g., wildfires), the world's boreal forests are integral components of the global and regional climate systems. A large portion of boreal forests contain permafrost, i.e., perennially cryotic ground. In the Taiga Plains ecozone in northwestern Canada, the northernmost boreal forests grow on cold (100 m) continuous permafrost (>90 % in areal extent). More southerly boreal forests occur in areas with discontinuous (>50 - 90 % in areal extent), sporadic (>10 - 50 % in areal extent) and isolated permafrost (<10 % in areal extent). Using annual MODIS Percent Tree Cover (PTC) data from the MOD44B product in combination with spatial information on fire history, and permafrost and drainage characteristics, we show that in low-lying, poorly-drained areas along the southern fringe of permafrost, thawing induces widespread decreases in PTC and dominates over PTC increases due to post-fire regrowth. In contrast, PTC appears to be slightly increasing in the central and northern Taiga Plains with more stable discontinuous and continuous permafrost, respectively. While these increases are partly explained by post-fire regrowth, more favourable growing conditions may also contribute to increasing PTC. To better understand the implications of permafrost thaw on land surface properties (e.g., aerodynamic conductance for heat [ga] and surface conductance for water vapour [gs]), and the turbulent fluxes of latent (LE) and sensible heat (H) along the southern fringe of permafrost, we examined nested eddy covariance flux measurements made at two nearby locations at Scotty Creek (61°18' N; 121°18' W) starting May 2013. The low-lying, poorly-drained southern portion of this 152 km2-watershed contains rapidly thawing sporadic permafrost resulting in a highly dynamic mosaic dominated by decreasing forested permafrost peat plateaus, and increasing permafrost-free wetlands

  14. 24 CFR 1710.109 - Title to the property and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the authority of title IV of the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968.) ... title to property generally has the right to own, use and enjoy the property. A contract to buy a lot... affect your title.” “Here we will discuss the sales contract you will sign and the deed you will receive...

  15. Investigation of Carbonaceous Aerosol Optical Properties to Understand Impacts on Air Quality and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael R.

    The optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols were investigated to understand the impact source emissions and ambient particulate matter (PM) have on atmospheric radiative forcing. Black carbon (BC) is a strong absorber of visible light and contributes highly to atmospheric radiative forcing, therefore it is important to link BC properties to combustion emission sources. Brown carbon (BrC) is poorly understood and may be an important contributor to both positive and negative radiative forcing. The research investigates these primary knowledge gaps. The optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols were investigated to understand the impact source emissions and ambient particulate matter (PM) have on atmospheric radiative forcing. Black carbon (BC) is a strong absorber of visible light and contributes highly to atmospheric radiative forcing, therefore it is important to link BC properties to combustion emission sources. Brown carbon (BrC) is poorly understood and may be an important contributor to both positive and negative radiative forcing. The research investigates these primary knowledge gaps. Multiple methods were developed and applied to quantify the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) at multiple wavelengths of source and ambient samples. The MAC of BC was determined to be approximately 7.5 m2g-1 at 520nm. However, the MAC was highly variable with OC fraction and wavelength. The BrC MAC was similar for all sources, with the highest absorption in the UV at 370nm; the MAC quickly decreases at larger wavelengths. In the UV, the light absorption by BrC could exceed BC contribution by over 100 times, but only when the OC fraction is large (>90%) as compared to the total carbon. BrC was investigated by measuring the light absorption of solvent extracted fractions in water, dichloromethane, and methanol. Source emissions exhibited greater light absorption in methanol extractions as compared to water and DCM extracts. The BrC MAC was 2.4 to 3.7 m2g-1 at 370nm in

  16. Modeling relationship between runoff and soil properties in dry-farming lands, NW Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Vaezi, A. R.; Bahrami, H. A.; Sadeghi, S. H. R.; Mahdian, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The process of transformation of rainfall into runoff over a catchment is very complex and exhibits both temporal and spatial variability. However, in a semi-arid area this variability is mainly controlled by the physical and chemical properties of the soil surface. Developing an accurate and easily-used model that can appropriately determine the runoff generation value is of strong demand. In this study a simple, an empirically based model developed to explore effect of soil properties on ru...

  17. The properties of the lunar regolith at Chang'e-3 landing site: A study based on LPR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J.; Su, Y.; Xing, S.; Ding, C.; Li, C.

    2015-12-01

    In situ sampling from surface is difficult in the exploration of planets and sometimes radar sensing is a better choice. The properties of the surface material such as permittivity, density and depth can be obtained by a surface penetrating radar. The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landed in the northern Mare Imbrium and a Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) is carried on the Yutu rover to detect the shallow structure of the lunar crust and the properties of the lunar regolith, which will give us a close look at the lunar subsurface. We process the radar data in a way which consist two steps: the regular preprocessing step and migration step. The preprocessing part includes zero time correction, de-wow, gain compensation, DC removal, geometric positioning. Then we combine all radar data obtained at the time the rover was moving, and use FIR filter to reduce the noise in the radar image with a pass band frequency range 200MHz-600MHz. A normal radar image is obtained after the preprocessing step. Using a nonlinear least squares fitting method, we fit the most hyperbolas in the radar image which are caused by the buried objects or rocks in the regolith and estimate the EM wave propagation velocity and the permittivity of the regolith. For there is a fixed mathematical relationship between dielectric constant and density, the density profile of the lunar regolith is also calculated. It seems that the permittivity and density at the landing site is larger than we thought before. Finally with a model of variable velocities, we apply the Kirchhoff migration method widely used in the seismology to transform the the unfocused space-time LPR image to a focused one showing the object's (most are stones) true location and size. From the migrated image, we find that the regolith depth in the landing site is smaller than previous study and the stone content rises rapidly with depth. Our study suggests that the landing site is a young region and the reworked history of the surface is short, which is

  18. Wettability, soil organic matter and structure-properties of typical chernozems under the forest and under the arable land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Galina; Umarova, Aminat; Tyugai, Zemfira; Milanovskiy, Evgeny; Shein, Evgeny

    2017-04-01

    Intensive tillage affects the properties of soil: decrease in content of soil organic matter and in hydrophobicity of the soil's solid phase, the reduction of amount of water stable aggregates - all this leads to deterioration of the structure of the soil and affects the process of movement of moisture in the soil profile. One of the hypotheses of soil's structure formation ascribes the formation of water stable aggregates with the presence of hydrophobic organic substances on the surface of the soil's solid phase. The aim of this work is to study the effect of tillage on properties of typical chernozems (pachic Voronic Chernozems, Haplic Chernozems) (Russia, Kursk region), located under the forest and under the arable land. The determination of soil-water contact angle was performed by a Drop Shape Analyzer DSA100 (Krüss GmbH, Germany) by the static sessile drop method. For all samples the content of total and organic carbon by dry combustion in oxygen flow and the particle size distribution by the laser diffraction method on the device Analysette 22 comfort, FRITCH, Germany were determined. The estimation of aggregate composition was performed by dry sieving (AS 200, Retsch, Germany), the content of water stable aggregates was estimated by the Savvinov method. There was a positive correlation between the content of organic matter and soil's wettability in studied soils, a growth of contact angle with the increasing the content of organic matter. Under the forest the content of soil organic matter was changed from 6,41% on the surface up to 1,9% at the depth of 100 cm. In the Chernozem under the arable land the organic carbon content in arable horizon is almost two times less. The maximum of hydrophobicity (78.1o) was observed at the depth of 5 cm under the forest. In the profile under the arable land the contact angle value at the same depth was 50o. The results of the structure analysis has shown a decrease in the content of agronomically valuable and water

  19. The Effect of Three-Dimensional Simulations on the Understanding of Chemical Structures and Their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhahne, Detlef; Nick, Sabine; Schanze, Sascha

    2009-08-01

    In a series of three experimental studies, the effectiveness of three-dimensional computer simulations to aid the understanding of chemical structures and their properties was investigated. Arguments for the usefulness of three-dimensional simulations were derived from Mayer’s generative theory of multimedia learning. Simulations might lead to a decrease in cognitive load and thus support active learning. In our studies, the learning effectiveness of three-dimensional simulations was compared to two-dimensional illustrations by use of different versions of a computer programme concerning the modifications of carbon. The first and third study with freshman students of chemistry and biochemistry show that no more knowledge was acquired when participants learnt with three-dimensional simulations than with two-dimensional figures. In the second study with 16-year old secondary school students, use of simulations facilitated the acquisition of conceptual knowledge. It was concluded that three-dimensional simulations are more effective for younger students who lack the experience of learning with different visual representation formats in chemistry. In all three studies, a significant relationship between spatial ability and conceptual knowledge about the modifications of carbon was detected.

  20. Moving research to patient applications through commercialization: understanding and evaluating the role of intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare.

  1. Using Whole Stream {delta}{sup 15}N Additions to Understand the Effects of Land Use Change on Stream Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, L. A.; Neill, C.; Thomas, S.; Haupert, C. [Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Victoria, R. L.; Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.R. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we introduce an emerging new technique; the use of {delta}{sup 15}N stable isotope tracers to understand both short term and long term alterations in stream ecosystem nitrogen biogeochemistry and food web dynamics. The use of {delta}{sup 15}N isotopes to determine stream nitrogen cycling was developed in small tundra streams in Alaska (USA), but a network of researchers using similar technique has rapidly grown to answer questions about nitrogen cycling and stream food webs in a variety of ecosystem types and subject to human modifications. Here we provide an overview of some of the information that can be provided using stable isotope additions and describe the general approach of an isotope addition experiment. To illustrate the scope of isotope applicability some examples are provided of work undertaken in the Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  2. Sensitivity of airborne radio occultation to tropospheric properties over ocean and land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne radio occultation (ARO measurements collected during a ferry flight at the end of the PRE-Depression Investigation of Cloud-systems in the Tropics (PREDICT field campaign from the Virgin Islands to Colorado are analyzed. The large contrast in atmospheric conditions along the flight path from the warm and moist Caribbean Sea to the much drier and cooler continental conditions provides a unique opportunity to address the sensitivity of ARO measurements to the tropospheric temperature and moisture changes. This long flight at nearly constant altitude (∼ 13 km provided an optimal configuration for simultaneous high-quality ARO measurements from two high-gain side-looking antennas, as well as one relatively lower gain zenith (top antenna. The omnidirectional top antenna has the advantage of tracking robustly more occulting satellites in all direction as compared to the limited-azimuth tracking of the side-looking antennas. Two well-adapted radio-holographic bending angle retrieval methods, full-spectrum inversion (FSI and phase matching (PM, were compared with the standard geometric-optics (GO retrieval method. Comparison of the ARO retrievals from the top antenna with the near-coincident ECMWF reanalysis-interim (ERA-I profiles shows only a small root-mean-square (RMS refractivity difference of ∼ 0.3 % in the drier upper troposphere from ∼ 5 to ∼ 11.5 km over both land and ocean. Both the FSI and PM methods improve the ARO retrievals in the moist lower troposphere and reduce the negative bias found in the GO retrieval due to atmospheric multipath. In the lowest layer of the troposphere, the ARO refractivity derived using FSI shows a negative bias of about −2 %. The increase of the refractivity bias occurs below 5 km over the ocean and below 3.5 km over land, corresponding to the approximate altitude of large vertical moisture gradients above the ocean and land surface, respectively. In comparisons to

  3. The Essence of Equivalent Markets in Determining the Market Value of Land Property for Variable Planning Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójciak Ewelina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The leading local legislation act defining the spatial policy is the local development plan, the financing of which is the commune’s responsibility. The beneficiary of activities aimed at the transformation of the intended property use is its owner or its perpetual lessee – with lessees incurring the costs of adopting the local development plans through so-called zoning fees, the amount of which, often controversial, has become the source of numerous lawsuits. The presented problem of an outside-business and often radical change of land value corresponds to the market dilemmas in determining equivalent markets, and establishing price-setting factors and their impact on the value of real estate.

  4. The Changes of Earthworm Population and Chemical Properties of Tropical Soils under Different Land Use Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yusnaini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Hilly area Sumberjaya, West Lampung Province, South Sumatra, Indonesia, is one of the Province where deforestation increasing in the past 30 years as a result of the implementation of agricultural systems, especially coffee plantation. it is important to study the soil fauna in these natural relicts. Six sites (3 naturals and 3 managed systems were studied in order to identify earthworm species communities, using the hand sorting method and soil chemical parameters (pH, avail-P, org-C., tot-N, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. Two species were found (Pheretima sp. and Pontoscolex sp.. All land use systems had very similar soil chemical characteristics, there can be characterised as acidic (pH between 3.6 and 5.0. A high content of organic carbon was in natural sites (bush 4.0% and primary forest 3.9%, and a low content was in managed sites (coffee plantation 2.1%. Total nitrogen (0.37% and CEC (21.84 Cmol-c kg-1 was in primary forest. However, the earthworm densities were significantly lower under primary forest than in the other sites. The acidity component explained mainly the lowest earthworm population at the primary forest (soil pH 3.6. The use of succession forest (bush and mix farming showed a positive effect on soil fertility.

  5. Litter Production and Decomposition Rate in the Reclaimed Mined Land under Albizia and Sesbania Stands and Their Effects on some Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Suhartoyo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation establishment is considered as a critical step of mined land rehabilitation. The growing plants do not only prevent soil erosion, but also play important roles in soil ecosystem development. Their litterfall is the main process of transferring organic matter and nutrients from aboveground tree biomass to soil. Thus, its quantification would aid in understanding biomass and nutrient dynamics of the ecosystem. This study was aimed to investigate the litter production and its decomposition rate in a reclaimed mined land using albizia and sesbania, and their effects on some soil properties. The litter under each stand was biweekly collected for four months. At the same time litter samples were decomposed in mesh nylon bags in soils and the remaining litters were biweekly measured. Soil samples were taken from 0-15 cm depths from each stand for analyses of soil organic C, total N, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. The results demonstrated that total litter production under albizia (10.58 t ha-1 yr-1 was almost twice as much as that under sesbania stands (5.43 t ha-1 yr-1. Albizia litter was dominated by leaf litter (49.26% and least as understory vegetation (23.31%, whereas sesbania litter was more evenly distributed among litter types. Decomposition rates of all litters were fastest in the initial stage and then gradually decreased. Sesbania leaf litters decomposed fastest, while albizia twigs slowest. Differences in the litter production and decomposition rates of the two species had not sufficiently caused significant effects on organic-C, total N, and CEC of the soils after one year of revegetation.

  6. Effects of changes in soil properties derived from land levelling on grape quality and yield in the Priorat (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Soil characteristics together with topography and climate influence on the suitability of the environment for grapevine growing and wine production grapevine growth and fruit qualities. Thus, changes in soil properties derived from field works and agricultural activities may influence grape production and quality. This work focuses on the effects of land terracing on soil properties, and the changes in grape quality and production. The study was conducted in the Priorat region, where old vineyards planted in steep slopes have been adapted for the labour mechanization with the construction of terraces. Changes in soil properties, such as organic matter, infiltration, water retention capacity were analysed in both old and transformed vineyards. Grape yield, pH, acidity and the likely alcohol content were evaluated in a sample of 80 plots planted with Grenache and Carignan. The soil surface alterations produced by the terrace construction affected some hydrological properties, such as texture and bulk density, and they also gave rise to lower soil organic matter content (up to 40%), lower available water capacity (up to 25%)and hydraulic (up to 55%). For the evaluated varieties, there were differences in yield between both new and old vineyards: 2.18 vs 0.68 kg/vine for Carignan and 2.34 vs 1.64 kg/vine for Grenache. For Carignan, pH was on average lower in the new than in the old vineyards (3.46 vs. and 3.51) and higher differences were observed in the acidity (5.29 vs. 4.22). Similarly for Grenache, pH values were 3.3 vs 3.24 and acidity 5.18 vs 4.69. Smaller differences were found in the likely alcohol content although it was always higher in the old vineyards (14.5 and 14.9 for Carignan and Grenache, respectively) than in the new vineyards (13.7 and 14.5 for Carignan and Grenache, respectively).

  7. Evolution and current state of our understanding of the role played in the climate system by land surface processes in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Sharon E.

    2015-10-01

    The role of the land surface in climate and weather has been a major research focus since the 1970s. Since that time our understanding of the issue has greatly changed and many new themes in several disciplines are being considered. This article summarizes the changes in our understanding that have taken place in research on this topic and reviews principally papers that have appeared in the last two decades. Several other papers provide comprehensive reviews of literature that appeared prior to that time. The major changes that have occurred include 1) more sophisticated and rigorous analysis of desertification, 2) increased emphasis on hydrological processes, including the role of groundwater, 3) use of multi-model ensembles and regional models, 4) the emergence of the domain of ecohydrology, with emphasis on detailed feedbacks between water availability and vegetation, 5) examination of the hypothesis that vegetation feedback can produce abrupt climate change, 6) emphasis on the impacts on convective or synoptic-scale systems, and 7) consideration of the impact of aerosols, including the Saharan Air Layer. With the exception of desertification, each of these topics is reviewed.

  8. Understanding the Properties of Arithmetic: A Prerequisite for Success in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tent, Margaret W.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the role of the commutative, associative, distributive, and identity properties of addition and multiplication in preparing children for future success in algebra. (Contains 3 figures.)

  9. Soil erosion at agricultural land in Moravia loess region estimated by using magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapicka, Ales; Dlouha, Sarka; Petrovsky, Eduard; Jaksik, Ondrej; Grison, Hana; Kodesova, Radka

    2014-05-01

    A detailed field study on a small test site of agricultural land situated in loess region in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic) and subsequent laboratory analyses have been carried out in order to test the applicability of magnetic methods for the estimation of soil erosion. Chernozem, the original dominant soil unit in the wider area, is nowadays progressively transformed into different soil units along with intensive soil erosion. As a result, an extremely diversified soil cover structure has resulted from the erosion. The site was characterized by a flat upper part while the middle part, formed by a substantive side valley, is steeper (up to 15°). We carried out field measurements of magnetic susceptibility on a regular grid, resulting in 101 data points. The bulk soil material for laboratory investigation was gathered from all the grid points. We found a strong correlation between the volume magnetic susceptibility (field measurement) and mass specific magnetic susceptibility measured in the laboratory (R2 = 0.80). Values of the magnetic susceptibility are spatially distributed depending on the terrain. Higher values were measured in the flat upper part (where the original top horizon remained). The lowest values of magnetic susceptibility were obtained on the steep valley sides. Here the original topsoil was eroded and mixed by tillage with the soil substrate (loess). The soil profile that was unaffected by erosion was investigated in detail. The vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility along this "virgin" profile was measured in laboratory on the samples from layers along the whole profile with 2-cm spacing. The undisturbed profile shows several soil horizons. Horizons Ac and A show a slight increase in magnetic susceptibility up to a depth of about 70 cm. Horizon A/Ck is characterized by a decrease in susceptibility, and the underlying C horizon (h > 103 cm) has a very low value of magnetic susceptibility. The differences between the values of

  10. Impact of long-term land application of broiler litter on environmentally related soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingery, W.L. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States); Wood, C.W.; Mullins, G.L. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)] [and others

    1994-01-01

    The largest portion of Alabama`s rapidly growing poultry industry is geographically concentrated in the Sand Mountain region of northern Alabama. The result is that large amounts of waste are applied to relatively small areas of agricultural soils. A study was conducted to determine the effects of long-term broiler waste (litter) application on environmentally related soil conditions in the region. The region has an average annual rainfall of 1325 mm, which is evenly distributed throughout the year, a thermic temperature regime, and soils in the region are of the Ultisol order. In each of four major broiler-producing counties, three pairs of sites consisting of long-term (15-28 yr) littered and nonlittered fields on matching soil series and maintained under perennial tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were sampled. Soil cores were taken to 3 m or lithic contact and depth-incremented samples (0-15, 15-30, and each subsequent 30-cm interval) were analyzed for organic C, total N, NO{sub 3}-N, pH, electrical conductivity, and acid-extractable P, K, Ca, Mg, Co, and Zn. Litter application increased organic C and total N to depths of 15 and 30 cm, respectively, as compared with nonlittered soils, whereas pH was 0.5 units higher to a depth of 60 cm under littered soils. Significant accumulation of NO{sub 3}N was found in littered soils to or near bedrock. Extractable P concentrations in littered soils were more than six times greater than in nonlittered soils to a depth of 60 cm. Elevated levels of extractable K, Ca, and Mg to depths greater than 60 cm also were found as a result of long-term litter use. Extractable Cu and Zn had accumulated in littered soils to a depth of 45 cm. These findings indicate that long-term land application of broiler litter, at present rates, has altered soil chemical conditions and has created a potential for adverse environmental impacts in the Sand Mountain region of Alabama. 43 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Understanding the Consequences of Property Rights Mismatches: a Case Study of New Zealand's Marine Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Yandle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Within fisheries and natural resource management literature, there is considerable discussion about the key roles that property rights can play in building biologically and socially sustainable resource management regimes. A key point of agreement is that secure long-term property rights provide an incentive for resource users to manage the resource sustainably. However, property rights mismatches create ambiguity and conflict in resource use. Though the term mismatches is usually associated with problems in matching temporal and spatial resource characteristics with institutional characteristics, I expand it here to include problems that can arise when property rights are incompletely defined or incompletely distributed. Property rights mismatches are particularly likely to occur over marine resources, for which multiple types of resource and resource user can be engaged and managed under a variety of regulatory regimes. I used New Zealand's marine resources to examine the causes and consequences of these property rights mismatches. New Zealand is particularly interesting because its property-rights-based commercial fishing regime, in the form of individual transferable quotas, has attracted considerable positive attention. However, my review of the marine natural resource management regime from a broader property rights perspective highlights a series of problems caused by property rights mismatches, including competition for resources among commercial, customary, and recreational fishers; spatial conflict among many marine resource users; and conflicting incentives and objectives for the management of resources over time. The use of a property rights perspective also highlights some potential solutions such as the layering of institutional arrangements and the improvement of how property rights are defined to encourage long-term sustainability.

  12. Understanding the Relationship between Social Change and Its Impacts: The Experience of Rural Land Use Change in South-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn J. H.; Schirmer, Jacki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated socio-economic impacts of land use change, giving explicit attention to the relationships between independently observed land use change and associated socio-economic changes, perceived land use change and socio-economic change, attributed cause of change, and experienced impacts of change. Using a case study region in…

  13. The Effects of Zoning Regulations along Fault Zone Areas on Land Development and Property Values after the 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ling Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes are widely recognized as unpredictable and infrequent disasters that result in serious impacts on human settlements. Land use planning is one non-structural measure used to eliminate disaster risk by steering future development away from the existing built environment and enforcing particular structural engineering measures according to the disaster risk. However, arguments have arisen about applying land use planning to earthquake risk areas, as this serves as a type of disaster risk information disclosure that might impact the willingness to develop land or property value. Therefore, this study uses the spatial autocorrelation coefficient to examine the impact of land use planning on both land use and property transactions in the Chelungpu fault zone area (15 m from each side of the fault line in Taiwan. The overall impacts with and without zoning regulation in the fault zone area are explored. The results demonstrate that parcels that changed to building use in the earlier time period (1995–2008 are located distant from those maintaining the same building use, whereas, later, building use (2008–2014 is located on or nearby the fault zone area. In addition, the most recently constructed buildings are located in or close to the fault zone area and have a relatively higher property price. The legal zoning regulation along the fault zone for building use requires lower height and less intensive building, which might help mitigate the potential impact of future earthquakes.

  14. Understanding Structure-Property Relations of Compressed Glasses through Relaxation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Svenson, Mouritz Nolsøe; Youngman, Randall E.

    under high pressure from both scientific and technological perspectives, since the glass structures frozen-in under elevated pressure may give rise to properties unattainable under ambient pressure. However, the structural and topological origins of the pressure-induced changes in macroscopic properties...

  15. Preschoolers' Understanding of the Role of Communication and Cooperation in Establishing Property Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Federico; Fiedler, Lydia; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Property as a social "agreement" comprises both a communicative component, in which someone makes a claim that she is entitled to some piece of property, and a cooperative component, in which others in the community respect that claim as legitimate. In the current study, preschool children were (a) given the opportunity to mark some…

  16. Understanding the Role of the Co-Play between Land Use and Climate on Sediment Flux Laws in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abban, B. K.; Papanicolaou, T.; Wilson, C. G.; Giannopoulos, C.; Sivapalan, M.

    2017-12-01

    In intensively managed landscapes (IMLs), changes in the land cover from what were previously grasslands, and their associated management practices, have led to a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability in landscape processes that were absent pre-settlement. This has fundamentally altered terrestrial and instream sediment flux characteristics in regards to net amounts and proportions of source contributions, at shorter time scales. Sediment flux laws are now highly impacted by event-based dynamics. Whereas some events result in highly intermittent fluxes, others result in fluxes that largely propagate in the form of waves. This behavior is governed by the extent of land cover at the given time of the season, as well as the magnitude of the storm event. In addition, flux behavior changes as one moves from the plot scale to the watershed scale, and also with crop rotation. Thus, fluxes are now non-stationary due to continued human activity and its co-play with climate. The goal of this study is to develop a better understanding of the non-stationarity in sediment flux laws that arise from the co-play between land use and climate. Our approach involves the development of a modeling framework that considers all the exchanges between terrestrial and instream sources and addresses the issue of equifinality regarding terrestrial and instream source contributions on net sediment fluxes. The modeling framework couples an established terrestrial erosion model with an established in-stream sediment transport model. As a first step, our study focuses on the Clear Creek Watershed, IA, which is part of the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes. We complement our modeling efforts with extensive terrestrial and instream field observations gathered at different times of the growing season, and in different years. We also used Bayesian sediment sourcing techniques to determine the provenance of transported material as well as the

  17. State property tax incentives for promoting ecosystem goods and services from private forest land in the United States: a review and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; Paul B. Ellefson; Travis J. Funk; Gregory E. Frey

    2017-01-01

    Financial incentives provided by State property tax programs are a means of promoting ecosystem services from private forest land. Identified by this 50-State 2015 review, categories of ecosystem services frequently promoted by such programs are open space and scenic resources, conservation of...

  18. Dielectric and Radiative Properties of Sea Foam at Microwave Frequencies: Conceptual Understanding of Foam Emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Peter W. Gaiser; Magdalena D. Anguelova

    2012-01-01

    Foam fraction can be retrieved from space-based microwave radiometric data at frequencies from 1 to 37 GHz. The retrievals require modeling of ocean surface emissivity fully covered with sea foam. To model foam emissivity well, knowledge of foam properties, both mechanical and dielectric, is necessary because these control the radiative processes in foam. We present a physical description of foam dielectric properties obtained from the foam dielectric constant including foam skin depth; foam ...

  19. Land use impacts of bus rapid transit : phase II -- effects of BRT station proximity on property values along the Boston silver line Washington Street Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems is relatively recent in the U.S.; however, several systems are operating and many : more are being planned. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between land uses and BRT systems is need...

  20. Towards Improving our Understanding on the Retrievals of Key Parameters Characterising Land Surface Interactions from Space: Introduction & First Results from the PREMIER-EO Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Gareth; North, Matthew R.; Petropoulos, George P.; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Hodges, Crona

    2015-04-01

    Acquiring accurate information on the spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture content (SM) and evapotranspiration (ET) is of key importance to extend our understanding of the Earth system's physical processes, and is also required in a wide range of multi-disciplinary research studies and applications. The utility and applicability of Earth Observation (EO) technology provides an economically feasible solution to derive continuous spatio-temporal estimates of key parameters characterising land surface interactions, including ET as well as SM. Such information is of key value to practitioners, decision makers and scientists alike. The PREMIER-EO project recently funded by High Performance Computing Wales (HPCW) is a research initiative directed towards the development of a better understanding of EO technology's present ability to derive operational estimations of surface fluxes and SM. Moreover, the project aims at addressing knowledge gaps related to the operational estimation of such parameters, and thus contribute towards current ongoing global efforts towards enhancing the accuracy of those products. In this presentation we introduce the PREMIER-EO project, providing a detailed overview of the research aims and objectives for the 1 year duration of the project's implementation. Subsequently, we make available the initial results of the work carried out herein, in particular, related to an all-inclusive and robust evaluation of the accuracy of existing operational products of ET and SM from different ecosystems globally. The research outcomes of this project, once completed, will provide an important contribution towards addressing the knowledge gaps related to the operational estimation of ET and SM. This project results will also support efforts ongoing globally towards the operational development of related products using technologically advanced EO instruments which were launched recently or planned be launched in the next 1-2 years. Key Words: PREMIER

  1. Effect of Chemical Remediation of Crude-Oil-Polluted Agricultural Land on Soil Properties and Crop Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Essien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical degreaser with detergent was used to wash crude-oil-polluted agricultural soil and restore it to 83% -93% of the unpolluted soil's status for sustainable productivity. Comparison of reclaimed soil's properties with unpolluted soil sample of the significant differences (p=0.05 between their values for soil moisture content, soil pH, evapotranspiration, root elongation and soil fertility. Root elongation at 1.1 cm/day in the reclaimed soil compared with 1.29 cm/day in unpolluted soil indicated 83% recovery. Saturated hydraulic conductivity also had 83% recovery. However, infiltration rate showed a low recovery of 30%, perhaps, due to the wetness of the reclaimed soil's surface prior to the reclamation process. The soil macro/microspores were unblocked by the degreaser enabling the root pores to overcome the osmotic problem caused by oil-molecules' blockade and conduct moisture through to the phloem and leaves to sustain evapotranspiration, leaves turgidity chemical reclamation by degreaser with detergent is highly recommended for short-duration in-situ remediation of crude-oil-polluted agricultural land.

  2. Understanding the wetting properties of nanostructured selenium coatings: the role of nanostructured surface roughness and air-pocket formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran PA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phong A Tran,1,2 Thomas J Webster31Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2The Particulate Fluid Processing Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Wetting properties of biomaterials, in particular nanomaterials, play an important role, as these influence interactions with biological elements, such as proteins, bacteria, and cells. In this study, the wetting phenomenon of titanium substrates coated with selenium nanoparticles was studied using experimental and mathematical modeling tools. Importantly, these selenium-coated titanium substrates were previously reported to increase select protein adsorption (such as vitronectin and fibronectin, to decrease bacteria growth, and increase bone cell growth. Increased selenium nanoparticle coating density resulted in higher contact angles but remained within the hydrophilic regime. This trend was found in disagreement with the Wenzel model, which is widely used to understand the wetting properties of rough surfaces. The trend also did not fit well with the Cassie–Baxter model, which was developed to understand the wetting properties of composite surfaces. A modified wetting model was thus proposed in this study, to understand the contributing factors of material properties to the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of these nanostructured selenium-coated surfaces. The analysis and model created in this study can be useful in designing and/or understanding the wetting behavior of numerous biomedical materials and in turn, biological events (such as protein adsorption as well as bacteria and mammalian cell functions.Keywords: hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, Wenzel model, Cassie–Baxter model, free energy, implant material, proteins, cells, bacteria

  3. Understanding the effect of flower extracts on the photoconducting properties of nanostructured TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S G; Bhayana, Laitka; Umar, Ahmad; Al-Hajry, A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Ansari, Z A

    2012-10-01

    Here we report an easy method to improve the optoelectronic properties of commercially available TiO2 nanopowder using extracts of various flowers viz. Calendula Orange (CO), Calendula Yellow (CY), Dahlia Violet (DV), Dahlia Yellow (DY), Rabbit flower (RF), Sweet Poppy (SP), Sweet Williams (SW) and their Mixed Extracts (ME). Various analysis techniques such as UV-Vis, FTIR, FESEM, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize for elemental, structural and morphological properties of the unmixed/mixed TiO2 nanopowder. TiO2 nanopowder was also calcined at 550 degrees C. Thick films of the these unmixed/mixed powder were printed, using conventional screen printing method, on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with organic binders and dried at 45 degrees C. The photoconducting properties are investigated as a function of wavelength from ultra-violet (UV) to infra-red (IR) region at a constant illumination intensity. Photocurrent gradually decreases when irradiated from UV to IR region. In case of unmixed and uncalcined TiO2, conductance decreased continuously whereas when extracts are added, a flat region of conductance is observed. The overall effect of extracts (colour pigments) is seen as an increase in the photoconductance. Highest photoconductance is observed in case of DY flower extract. Anthocyanins, present in flowers are known to have antioxidative properties and hence can contribute in photoconduction by reducing the surface adsorbed oxygen. This investigation indicates the potential use of flower extracts for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC).

  4. Understanding Microstructural Properties of Perovskite Ceramics through Their Wet-Chemical Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stawski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    This thesis comprises of seven full research chapters on the morphology, properties and processing of sol-gel precursor systems of barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate thin films and powders. In all the considered problems, the synthesis leading to nano-sized perovskite ceramics constitutes

  5. Understanding and exploiting optical properties in semiconductor nanowires for solar energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frau, Eleonora; Tutuncuoglu, Gozde; Matteini, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are promising building blocks for next generation solar energy conversion at low cost, due to their large absorption cross-sections. Here, the understanding of their absorption power is explored via computational and experimental methods as well as its use in other fields...

  6. Use of carbon isotope analysis to understand semi-arid erosion dynamics and long-term semi-arid land degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Laura; Brazier, Richard E; Wainwright, John; Dixon, Liz; Bol, Roland

    2008-06-01

    Many semi-arid areas worldwide are becoming degraded, in the form of C(4) grasslands being replaced by C(3) shrublands, which causes an increase in surface runoff and erosion, and altered nutrient cycling, which may affect global biogeochemical cycling. The prevention or control of vegetation transitions is hindered by a lack of understanding of their temporal and spatial dynamics, particularly in terms of interactions between biotic and abiotic processes. This research investigates (1) the effects of soil erosion on the delta(13)C values of soil organic matter (SOM) throughout the soil profile and its implications for reconstructing vegetation change using carbon-isotope analysis and (2) the spatial properties of erosion over a grass-shrub transition to increase understanding of biotic-abiotic interactions by using delta(13)C signals of eroded material as a sediment tracer. Results demonstrate that the soils over grass-shrub transitions are not in steady state. A complex interplay of factors determines the input of SOM to the surface horizon of the soil and its subsequent retention and turnover through the soil profile. A positive correlation between event runoff and delta(13)C signatures of eroded sediment was found in all plots. This indicates that the delta(13)C signatures of eroded sediment may provide a means of distinguishing between changes in erosion dynamics over runoff events of different magnitudes and over different vegetation types. The development of this technique using delta(13)C signatures of eroded sediment provides a new means of furthering existing understanding of erosion dynamics over vegetation transitions. This is critical in terms of understanding biotic-abiotic feedbacks and the evolution of areas subject to vegetation change in semi-arid environments. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  7. Towards a Spatial Understanding of Trade-Offs in Sustainable Development: A Meso-Scale Analysis of the Nexus between Land Use, Poverty, and Environment in the Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerli, Peter; Bader, Christoph; Hett, Cornelia; Epprecht, Michael; Heinimann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    effective development interventions. At the same time, they point to the need in land change science to better integrate the understanding of place-based land indicators with process-based drivers of land use change. PMID:26218646

  8. Understanding nanocellulose chirality and structure–properties relationship at the single fibril level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Ivan; Nyström, Gustav; Adamcik, Jozef; Handschin, Stephan; Schütz, Christina; Fall, Andreas; Bergström, Lennart; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Nanocellulose fibrils are ubiquitous in nature and nanotechnologies but their mesoscopic structural assembly is not yet fully understood. Here we study the structural features of rod-like cellulose nanoparticles on a single particle level, by applying statistical polymer physics concepts on electron and atomic force microscopy images, and we assess their physical properties via quantitative nanomechanical mapping. We show evidence of right-handed chirality, observed on both bundles and on single fibrils. Statistical analysis of contours from microscopy images shows a non-Gaussian kink angle distribution. This is inconsistent with a structure consisting of alternating amorphous and crystalline domains along the contour and supports process-induced kink formation. The intrinsic mechanical properties of nanocellulose are extracted from nanoindentation and persistence length method for transversal and longitudinal directions, respectively. The structural analysis is pushed to the level of single cellulose polymer chains, and their smallest associated unit with a proposed 2 × 2 chain-packing arrangement. PMID:26108282

  9. Understanding nanocellulose chirality and structure-properties relationship at the single fibril level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Ivan; Nyström, Gustav; Adamcik, Jozef; Handschin, Stephan; Schütz, Christina; Fall, Andreas; Bergström, Lennart; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2015-06-01

    Nanocellulose fibrils are ubiquitous in nature and nanotechnologies but their mesoscopic structural assembly is not yet fully understood. Here we study the structural features of rod-like cellulose nanoparticles on a single particle level, by applying statistical polymer physics concepts on electron and atomic force microscopy images, and we assess their physical properties via quantitative nanomechanical mapping. We show evidence of right-handed chirality, observed on both bundles and on single fibrils. Statistical analysis of contours from microscopy images shows a non-Gaussian kink angle distribution. This is inconsistent with a structure consisting of alternating amorphous and crystalline domains along the contour and supports process-induced kink formation. The intrinsic mechanical properties of nanocellulose are extracted from nanoindentation and persistence length method for transversal and longitudinal directions, respectively. The structural analysis is pushed to the level of single cellulose polymer chains, and their smallest associated unit with a proposed 2 × 2 chain-packing arrangement.

  10. Understanding of mechanical properties of graphite on the basis of mesoscopic microstructure (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, M.; Shibata, T.; Takahashi, T.; Baba, S.; Hoshiya, T.

    2002-01-01

    With the aim of nuclear application of ceramics in the high-temperature engineering field, the authors have investigated the mesoscopic microstructure related to the mechanical and thermal properties of ceramics. In this paper, recent activities concerning mechanical properties, strength and Young's modulus are presented. In the strength research field, the brittle fracture model considering pore/grain mesoscopic microstructure was expanded so as to render possible an estimation of the strength under stress gradient conditions. Furthermore, the model was expanded to treat the pore/crack interaction effect. The performance of the developed model was investigated from a comparison with experimental data and the Weibull strength theory. In the field of Young's modulus research, ultrasonic wave propagation was investigated using the pore/wave interaction model. Three kinds of interaction modes are treated in the model. The model was applied to the graphite, and its applicability was investigated through comparison with experimental data. (authors)

  11. Improved understanding of the relationship between hydraulic properties and streaming potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiani, G.; Brovelli, A.

    2009-12-01

    Streaming potential (SP) measurements have been satisfactorily used in a number of recent studies as a non-invasive tool to monitor fluid movement in both the vadose and the saturated zone. SPs are generated from the coupling between two independent physical processes oc-curring at the pore-level, namely water flow and excess of ions at the negatively charged solid matrix-water interface. The intensity of the measured potentials depends on physical proper-ties of the medium, including the internal micro-geometry of the system, the charge density of the interface and the composition of the pore fluid, which affects its ionic strength, pH and redox potential. The goal of this work is to investigate whether a relationship between the intensity of the SPs and the saturated hydraulic conductivity can be identified. Both properties are - at least to some extent - dependent on the pore-size distribution and connectivity of the pores, and there-fore some degree of correlation is expected. We used a pore-scale numerical model previously developed to simulate both the bulk hydraulic conductivity and the intensity of the SPs gener-ated in a three-dimensional pore-network. The chemical-physical properties of both the inter-face (Zeta-potential) and of the aqueous phase are computed using an analytical, physically based model that has shown good agreement with experimental data. Modelling results were satisfactorily compared with experimental data, showing that the model, although simplified retains the key properties and mechanisms that control SP generation. A sensitivity analysis with respect to the key geometrical and chemical parameters was conducted to evaluate how the correlation between the two studied variables changes and to ascertain whether the bulk hydraulic conductivity can be estimated from SP measurements alone.

  12. Multivariate data analysis approach to understand magnetic properties of perovskite manganese oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, N.; Mizoguchi, T.; Yamauchi, H.; Karppinen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Here we apply statistical multivariate data analysis techniques to obtain some insights into the complex structure-property relations in antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) manganese perovskite systems, AMnO 3 . The 131 samples included in the present analyses are described by 21 crystal-structure or crystal-chemical (CS/CC) parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA), carried out separately for the AFM and FM compounds, is used to model and evaluate the various relationships among the magnetic properties and the various CS/CC parameters. Moreover, for the AFM compounds, PLS (partial least squares projections to latent structures) analysis is performed so as to predict the magnitude of the Neel temperature on the bases of the CS/CC parameters. Finally, so-called PLS-DA (PLS discriminant analysis) method is employed to find out the most influential/characteristic CS/CC parameters that differentiate the two classes of compounds from each other. - Graphical abstract: Statistical multivariate data analysis techniques are applied to detect structure-property relations in antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) manganese perovskites. For AFM compounds, partial least squares projections to latent structures analysis predict the magnitude of the Neel temperature on the bases of structural parameters only. Moreover, AFM and FM compounds are well separated by means of so-called partial least squares discriminant analysis method

  13. An overview of 3D cadastre from a physical land parcel and a legal property object perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karki, S.; McDougall, K.; Thompson, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The physical land parcel based model of representing, storing and manipulating cadastral data, which includes two-dimensional geometry as well as the rights, restrictions and responsibilities attached to it, has largely been very successful in dealing with the present needs of land administration.

  14. Understanding interface properties from high kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy and first principles theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granroth, Sari; Olovsson, Weine; Holmstroem, Erik; Knut, Ronny; Gorgoi, Mihaela; Svensson, Svante; Karis, Olof

    2011-01-01

    Advances in instrumentation regarding 3rd generation synchrotron light sources and electron spectrometers has enabled the field of high kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy (HIKE) (also often denoted hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES or HAXPES)). Over the last years, the amount of investigations that relies on the HIKE method has increased dramatically and can arguably be said to have given a rebirth of the interest in photoelectron spectroscopy in many areas. It is in particular the much increased mean free path at higher kinetic energies in combination with the elemental selectivity of the core level spectroscopies in general that has lead to this fact, as it makes it possible to investigate the electronic structure of materials with a substantially reduced surface sensitivity. In this review we demonstrate how HIKE can be used to investigate the interface properties in multilayer systems. Relative intensities of the core level photoelectron peaks and their chemical shifts derived from binding energy changes are found to give precise information on physico-chemical properties and quality of the buried layers. Interface roughening, including kinetic properties such as the rate of alloying, and temperature effects on the processes can be analyzed quantitatively. We will also provide an outline of the theoretical framework that is used to support the interpretation of data. We provide examples from our own investigations of multilayer systems which comprises both systems of more model character and a multilayer system very close to real applications in devices that are considered to be viable alternative to the present read head technology. The experimental data presented in this review is exclusively recorded at the BESSY-II synchrotron at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie. This HIKE facility is placed at the bending magnet beamline KMC-1, which makes it different from several other facilities which relies on undulators as

  15. Understanding the Fundamental Properties of Dark Matter and Dark Energy in Structure formation and Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    This program is concerned with developing and verifying the validity of observational methods for constraining the properties of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Excellent progress has been made in comparing observational projects involving weak gravitational lensing using both ground and space-based instruments, in further constraining the nature of dark matter via precise measures of its distribution in clusters of galaxies using strong gravitational lensing, in demonstrating the possible limitations of using distant supernovae in future dark energy missions, and in investigating the requirement for ground-based surveys of baryonic acoustic oscillations.

  16. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally......Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...

  17. Land Management and Means of Planning Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an overall understanding of the Land Management Paradigm for Sustainable Development. It is argued that such an understanding is important for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land, properties, and natural resources being the key assets of any nation...... the historical and cultural developments of the European countries. Finally, the paper presents a short overview of the Danish approach to planning and landuse management as an example of a planning led approach placing the decision-making power especially at the local level. This concept of decentralization...

  18. How granular vortices can help understanding rheological and mixing properties of dense granular flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense granular flows exhibit fascinating kinematic patterns characterised by strong fluctuations in grain velocities. In this paper, we analyse these fluctuations and discuss their possible role on macroscopic properties such as effective viscosity, non-locality and shear-induced diffusion. The analysis is based on 2D experimental granular flows performed with the stadium shear device and DEM simulations. We first show that, when subjected to shear, grains self-organised into clusters rotating like rigid bodies. The average size of these so-called granular vortices is found to increase and diverge for lower inertial numbers, when flows decelerate and stop. We then discuss how such a microstructural entity and its associated internal length scale, possibly much larger than a grain, may be used to explain two important properties of dense granular flows: (i the existence of shear-induced diffusion of grains characterised by a shear-rate independent diffusivity and (ii the development of boundary layers near walls, where the viscosity is seemingly lower than the viscosity far from walls.

  19. Better safe than sorry: Understanding the toxicological properties of inorganic nanoparticles manufactured for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeel, Bengt; Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E

    2010-03-08

    The development of nanoparticles for biomedical applications including medical imaging and drug delivery is currently undergoing a dramatic expansion. However, as the range of nanoparticle types and applications increases, it is also clear that the potential toxicities of these novel materials and the properties driving such toxic responses must also be understood. Indeed, a detailed assessment of the factors that influence the biocompatibility and/or toxicity of nanoparticles is crucial for the safe and sustainable development of the emerging nanotechnologies. This review summarizes some of the recent developments in the field of nanomedicine with particular emphasis on inorganic nanoparticles for drug delivery. The synthesis routes, physico-chemical characteristics, and cytotoxic properties of inorganic nanoparticles are thus explored and lessons learned from the toxicological investigation of three common types of engineered nanomaterials of titania, gold, and mesoporous silica are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the recognition versus non-recognition of engineered nanomaterials by the immune system, the primary surveillance system against microorganisms and particles, which, in turn, is intimately linked to the issue of targeted drug delivery using such nanomaterials as carrier systems. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding the structural properties and thermal stabilities of Au–Pd–Pt trimetallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zheng; Li, Mingjiang; Cheng, Daojian; Zhu, Jiqin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Structural properties of Au–Pd–Pt clusters are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. • Melting of Au–Pd–Pt clusters is studied by molecular dynamics simulation. • Au atoms are systematically segregated on the surface of the Au–Pd–Pt clusters. • Linear decrease in cluster melting point with the inverse cluster diameter. - Abstract: In this work, surface segregation phenomena of Au–Pd–Pt trimetallic clusters are investigated by using semi-grand Monte Carlo simulations based on the Gupta potential. It is found that Au atoms are systematically segregated on the surface of the Au–Pd–Pt clusters (6–24 at.% higher than the overall Au concentration), due to the competition among the surface energies of Au, Pd, and Pt. The melting properties of Au–Pd–Pt trimetallic clusters with different composition and size are investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations, based on the same Gupta potential. It is found that the Au–Pd–Pt trimetallic cluster with the highest melting point corresponds to the one with the most stable structure. In addition, linear decrease in cluster melting point with the inverse cluster diameter is predicted for both pure and trimetallic clusters, which is well-known as the Pawlow’s law

  1. Electrical Properties of Tholins and Derived Constraints on the Huygens Landing Site Composition at the Surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethuillier, A.; Le Gall, A.; Hamelin, M.; Caujolle-Bert, S.; Schreiber, F.; Carrasco, N.; Cernogora, G.; Szopa, C.; Brouet, Y.; Simões, F.; Correia, J. J.; Ruffié, G.

    2018-04-01

    In 2005, the complex permittivity of the surface of Saturn's moon Titan was measured by the PWA-MIP/HASI (Permittivity Wave Altimetry-Mutual Impedance Probe/Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument) experiment on board the Huygens probe. The analysis of these measurements was recently refined but could not be interpreted in terms of composition due to the lack of knowledge on the low-frequency/low-temperature electrical properties of Titan's organic material, a likely key ingredient of the surface composition. In order to fill that gap, we developed a dedicated measurement bench and investigated the complex permittivity of analogs of Titan's organic aerosols called "tholins." These laboratory measurements, together with those performed in the microwave domain, are then used to derive constraints on the composition of Titan's first meter below the surface based on both the PWA-MIP/HASI and the Cassini Radar observations. Assuming a ternary mixture of water ice, tholin-like dust and pores (filled or not with liquid methane), we find that at least 10% of water ice and 15% of porosity are required to explain observations. On the other hand, there should be at most 50-60% of organic dust. PWA-MIP/HASI measurements also suggest the presence of a thin conductive superficial layer at the Huygens landing site. Using accurate numerical simulations, we put constraints on the electrical conductivity of this layer as a function of its thickness (e.g., in the range 7-40 nS/m for a 7-mm thick layer). Potential candidates for the composition of this layer are discussed.

  2. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA): Development and Psychometric Properties of a Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E.; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child’s anxiety, parents’ perceived ability to cope with their child’s anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents’ understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child’s anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N = 192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach’s alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children’s anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n = 83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged. PMID:26970877

  3. Space-based monitoring of land-use/land-cover in the Upper Rio Grande Basin: An opportunity for understanding urbanization trends in a water-scarce transboundary river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Hargrove, W. L.; Heyman, J. M.; Reyes, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Urbanization is an area of growing interest in assessing the impact of human activities on water resources in arid regions. Remote sensing techniques provide an opportunity to analyze land cover change over time, and are useful in monitoring areas undergoing rapid urban growth. This case study for the water-scarce Upper Rio Grande River Basin uses a supervised classification algorithm to quantify the rate and evaluate the pattern of urban sprawl. A focus is made on the fast growing El-Paso-Juarez metropolitan area on the US-Mexico border and the City of Las Cruces in New Mexico, areas where environmental challenges and loss of agricultural and native land to urban development are major concerns. Preliminary results show that the land cover is dominantly native with some significant agriculture along the Rio Grande River valley. Urban development across the whole study area expanded from just under 3 percent in 1990, to more than 11 percent in 2015. The urban expansion is occurring mainly around the major urban areas of El Paso, Ciudad Juarez, and Las Cruces, although there is visible growth of smaller urban settlements scattered along the Rio Grande River valley during the same analysis period. The proportion of native land cover fluctuates slightly depending on how much land is under crops each analysis year, but there is a decreasing agricultural land cover trend suggesting that land from this sector is being lost to urban development. This analysis can be useful in planning to protect the environment, preparing for growth in infrastructure such as schools, increased traffic demands, and monitoring availability of resources such as groundwater as the urban population grows.

  4. Effects of land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties of wetland catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Wetland restoration has been suggested as policy goal with multiple environmental benefits including enhancement of atmospheric carbon sequestration. However, there are concerns that increased methane (CH4) emissions associated with restoration may outweigh potential benefits. A comprehensive, 4-year study of 119 wetland catchments was conducted in the Prairie Pothole Region of the north-central U.S. to assess the effects of land use on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil properties.

  5. Understanding performance properties of chemical engines under a trade-off optimization: Low-dissipation versus endoreversible model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F. R.; Zhang, Rong; Li, Huichao; Li, C. N.; Liu, Wei; Bai, Long

    2018-05-01

    The trade-off criterion is used to systemically investigate the performance features of two chemical engine models (the low-dissipation model and the endoreversible model). The optimal efficiencies, the dissipation ratios, and the corresponding ratios of the dissipation rates for two models are analytically determined. Furthermore, the performance properties of two kinds of chemical engines are precisely compared and analyzed, and some interesting physics is revealed. Our investigations show that the certain universal equivalence between two models is within the framework of the linear irreversible thermodynamics, and their differences are rooted in the different physical contexts. Our results can contribute to a precise understanding of the general features of chemical engines.

  6. Understanding the doping effects on the structural and electrical properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ying; Shimada, Satoru; Azumi, Reiko; Saito, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other semiconductor technology, doping of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film is of great significance for performance improvement or modification. However, it still remains a challenge to seek a stable and effective dopant. In this paper, we unitize several spectroscopic techniques and electrical characterizations under various conditions to investigate the effects of typical dopants and related methods. Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) solution, I 2 vapor, and CuI nanoparticles are used to modify a series of ultrathin CNT networks. Although efficient charge transfer is achieved initially after doping, HNO 3 is not applicable because it suffers from severe reliability problems in structural and electrical properties, and it also causes a number of undesired structural defects. I 2 vapor doping at 150 °C can form some stable C-I bonding structures, resulting in relatively more stable but less efficient electrical performances. CuI nanoparticles seem to be an ideal dopant. Photonic curing enables the manipulation of CuI, which not only results in the construction of novel CNT-CuI hybrid structures but also encourages the deepest level of charge transfer doping. The excellent reliability as well as processing feasibility identify the bright perspective of CNT-CuI hybrid film for practical applications

  7. Understanding the doping effects on the structural and electrical properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying, E-mail: y-shuu@aist.go.jp; Shimada, Satoru; Azumi, Reiko [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, 305-8565 Tsukuba (Japan); Saito, Takeshi [Nanomaterials Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, 305-8565 Tsukuba (Japan)

    2015-12-07

    Similar to other semiconductor technology, doping of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film is of great significance for performance improvement or modification. However, it still remains a challenge to seek a stable and effective dopant. In this paper, we unitize several spectroscopic techniques and electrical characterizations under various conditions to investigate the effects of typical dopants and related methods. Nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution, I{sub 2} vapor, and CuI nanoparticles are used to modify a series of ultrathin CNT networks. Although efficient charge transfer is achieved initially after doping, HNO{sub 3} is not applicable because it suffers from severe reliability problems in structural and electrical properties, and it also causes a number of undesired structural defects. I{sub 2} vapor doping at 150 °C can form some stable C-I bonding structures, resulting in relatively more stable but less efficient electrical performances. CuI nanoparticles seem to be an ideal dopant. Photonic curing enables the manipulation of CuI, which not only results in the construction of novel CNT-CuI hybrid structures but also encourages the deepest level of charge transfer doping. The excellent reliability as well as processing feasibility identify the bright perspective of CNT-CuI hybrid film for practical applications.

  8. The Urban Land Question, Land Reform and the Spectre of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The country's urban land reform mechanism, that is, land restitution, has so far been very marginal in making urban land or property available to the landless and/or homeless people. As a result, since 2014, the country is facing new aggressive extrajudicial land occupations in urban areas spearheaded by the ultra-left ...

  9. Agriculture and Rural Development on Fort Hood Lands, 1849-1942: National Register Assessments of 710 Historic Archeological Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Martha

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, historians consulting with Prewitt & Associates, Inc., conducted archival research for the purpose of developing historic contexts relevant to the Fort Hood lands taken during the 1940s acquisition...

  10. Understanding the gas sensing properties of polypyrrole coated tin oxide nanofiber mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Sudeshna; Ghanshyam, C.

    2017-03-01

    Tin oxide-polypyrrole composites have been widely studied for their enhanced sensing performance towards ammonia vapours, but further investigations are required for an understanding of the interaction mechanisms with different target analytes. In this work, polypyrrole coated tin oxide fibers have been synthesized using a two-step approach of electrospinning and vapour phase polymerization for the sensing of ammonia, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol and acetone vapours. The resistance variation in the presence of these vapours of different nature and concentration is investigated for the determination of sensor response. A decrease in resistance occurred on interaction of tin oxide-polypyrrole with ammonia, as opposed to previous reported works. Partial reduction of polypyrrole due to interfacial interaction with tin oxide has been proposed to explain this behavior. High sensitivity of 7.45 is achieved for 1 ppm ammonia concentration. Furthermore, the sensor exhibited high sensitivity and a faster response towards ethanol vapours although methanol has the highest electron donating capability. The catalytic mechanism has been discussed to explain this interesting behavior. The results reveal that interaction between tin oxide and polypyrrole is crucial to control the predominant sensing mechanism.

  11. Understanding the Role of Physical Properties of Cellulose on Its Hydrolyzability by Cellulases

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Patrick Jonathan

    Cellulose has long been explored as a potential feedstock for biofuel, however the recalcitrance of cellulose makes its conversion into biofuel much more challenging and economically unfavorable compared to well-established processes for converting starch or sugar feedstocks into biofuel. Enzymes capable of hydrolyzing cellulose into soluble sugars, glucose and cellobiose, have been found to work processively along cellulose microfibrils starting from reducing end groups. For this study, cellulose was produced and purified in-house from Gluconacetobacter xylinum cultures, and characterized by quantifying functional groups (aldehyde, ketone, and carboxyl groups) to determine the extent of oxidation of cellulose due to the processing steps. The main goal of this study was to look at the impacts of ultrasonication on cellulose's structure and the enzymatic hydrolyzability of cellulose. A completely randomized experimental design was used to test the effect of ultrasonication time and amplitude (intensity) on changes in cellulose fibril length, degree of polymerization, and rates and extents of hydrolysis. Results indicated that sonication time does significantly impact both the fibril length and average degree of polymerization of cellulose. The impact of ultrasonication on the hydrolyzability of cellulose by commercial cellulase and beta-glucosidase preparations could not be effectively resolved due to high variability in the experimental results. These studies serve as a basis for future studies understanding the role of cellulose microstructure in the mechanism of cellulase hydrolysis of cellulose.

  12. Understanding the Relationship between Red Wine Matrix, Tannin Activity, and Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrelot, Aude A; Byrnes, Nadia K; Heymann, Hildegarde; Kennedy, James A

    2016-11-30

    One major red wine mouthfeel characteristic, astringency, is derived from grape-extracted tannins and is considered to be a result of interaction with salivary proteins and the oral mucosa. To improve our understanding of the role that the enthalpy of interaction of tannin with a hydrophobic surface (tannin activity) has in astringency perception, a chromatographic method was used to determine the tannin concentration and activity of 34 Cabernet Sauvignon wines, as well as sensory analysis done on 13 of those wines. In addition, astringency-relevant matrix parameters (pH, titratable acidity, ethanol, glucose, and fructose) were measured across all wines. Tannin activity was not significantly correlated with any matrix variables, and the perception of drying and grippy was not correlated with tannin concentration and activity. However, ethanol content was well related to mouthfeel attributes and appeared to drive perceived drying. Although fructose and glucose content were well correlated, they did not drive the perception of sweetness, which is explained by the well-known mixture suppression effect.

  13. Understanding the interfacial properties of graphene-based materials/BiOI heterostructures by DFT calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Wen-Wu [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhao, Zong-Yan, E-mail: zzy@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Heterostructure constructing is an effective way to enhance the photocatalytic performance. • Graphene-like materials and BiOI were in contact and formed van der Waals heterostructures. • Band edge positions of GO/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and BiOI changed to form standard type-II heterojunction. • 2D materials can promote the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs in BiOI. - Abstract: Heterostructure constructing is a feasible and powerful strategy to enhance the performance of photocatalysts, because they can be tailored to have desirable photo-electronics properties and couple distinct advantageous of components. As a novel layered photocatalyst, the main drawback of BiOI is the low edge position of the conduction band. To address this problem, it is meaningful to find materials that possess suitable band gap, proper band edge position, and high mobility of carrier to combine with BiOI to form hetertrostructure. In this study, graphene-based materials (including: graphene, graphene oxide, and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) were chosen as candidates to achieve this purpose. The charge transfer, interface interaction, and band offsets are focused on and analyzed in detail by DFT calculations. Results indicated that graphene-based materials and BiOI were in contact and formed van der Waals heterostructures. The valence and conduction band edge positions of graphene oxide, g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and BiOI changed with the Fermi level and formed the standard type-II heterojunction. In addition, the overall analysis of charge density difference, Mulliken population, and band offsets indicated that the internal electric field is facilitate for the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, which means these heterostructures can enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of BiOI. Thus, BiOI combines with 2D materials to construct heterostructure not only make use of the unique high electron mobility, but also can adjust the position of energy bands and

  14. Laboratory experiments for understanding mechanical properties of fractured granite under supercritical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, M.; Takahashi, M.; Takagi, K.; Hirano, N.; Tsuchiya, N.

    2017-12-01

    To extract geothermal energy effectively and safely from magma and/or adjacent hot rock, we need to tackle many issues which require new technology development, such as a technique to control a risk from induced-earthquakes. On a development of induced-earthquake mitigation technology, it is required to understand roles of factors on occurrences of the induced-earthquake (e.g., strength, crack density, and fluid-rock reaction) and their intercorrelations (e.g., Asanuma et al., 2012). Our purpose of this series of experiments is to clarify a relationship between the rock strength and the crack density under supercritical conditions. We conducted triaxial deformation test on intact granite rock strength under high-temperature (250 - 750°C), high-pressure (104 MPa) condition at a constant load velocity (0.1 μm/sec) using a gas-rig at AIST. We used Oshima granite, which has initially Young's modulus increased with decreasing the temperature from 32.3 GPa at 750°C to 57.4 GPa at 250°C. At 400 °C, the stress drop accelerated the deformation with 98 times faster velocity than that at load-point. In contrast, at 650°C and 750°C, the velocity during stress drop kept the same order of the load-point velocity. Therefore, the deformation mechanism may start to be changed from brittle to ductile when the temperature exceeds 650°C. Highly dense cracked granite specimens were formed by a rapid decompression test (RDT) using an autoclave settled at Tohoku University (Hirano et al., 2016JpGU), caused by a reduction of fluid pressure within 1-2 sec from vapor/supercritical state (10 - 48 MPa, 550 °C) to ambient pressure. The specimens after RDT show numerous microcracks on X-ray CT images. The RDT imposed the porosity increasing towards 3.75 % and Vp and Vs decreasing towards 1.37±0.52 km/s and 0.97±0.25 km/s. The Poisson's ratio shows the negative values in dry and 0.5 in wet. In the meeting, we will present results of triaxial deformation test on such cracked granites

  15. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...... and personal level.    (4) To establish appropriate institutional and organisational infrastructures to manage the integration of topographic mapping and cadastral information into a coherent land administration system for sustainable development. The paper aims to establish the basic understanding for dealing...

  16. Understanding the Impacts of Land-Use Policies on a Threatened Species: Is There a Future for the Bornean Orang-utan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A.; Gaveau, David; Abram, Nicola; Ancrenaz, Marc; Baccini, Alessandro; Brend, Stephen; Curran, Lisa; Delgado, Roberto A.; Erman, Andi; Fredriksson, Gabriella M.; Goossens, Benoit; Husson, Simon J.; Lackman, Isabelle; Marshall, Andrew J.; Naomi, Anita; Molidena, Elis; Nardiyono; Nurcahyo, Anton; Odom, Kisar; Panda, Adventus; Purnomo; Rafiastanto, Andjar; Ratnasari, Dessy; Santana, Adi H.; Sapari, Imam; van Schaik, Carel P.; Sihite, Jamartin; Spehar, Stephanie; Santoso, Eddy; Suyoko, Amat; Tiju, Albertus; Usher, Graham; Atmoko, Sri Suci Utami; Willems, Erik P.; Meijaard, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions) is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km2 (21% of Borneo's landmass) and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic gains, rather than by

  17. Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km(2 (21% of Borneo's landmass and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic

  18. Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12 year crop succession: impact of the soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Moulin, S.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Renard, D.

    2014-10-01

    Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain term in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at local scale over a 12 year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil properties. The originality of this work consists in explicitly representing the succession of crop cycles and inter-crop bare soil periods in the simulations and assessing its impact on the dynamic of simulated and measured evapotranspiration over a long period of time. The analysis focuses on key soil parameters which drive the simulation of evapotranspiration, namely the rooting depth, the soil moisture at saturation, the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at wilting point. The simulations achieved with the standard values of these parameters are compared to those achieved with the in situ values. The portability of the ISBA pedotransfer functions is evaluated over a typical Mediterranean crop site. Various in situ estimates of the soil parameters are considered and distinct parametrization strategies are tested to represent the evapotranspiration dynamic over the crop succession. This work shows that evapotranspiration mainly results from the soil evaporation when it is continuously simulated over a Mediterranean crop succession. The evapotranspiration simulated with the standard surface and soil parameters of the model is largely underestimated. The deficit in cumulative evapotranspiration amounts to 24% over 12 years. The bias in daily daytime evapotranspiration is -0.24 mm day-1. The ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil moisture at saturation and at wilting point are overestimated which explains most of the evapotranspiration underestimation. The overestimation of the soil moisture at wilting point causes the underestimation of

  19. Antarctic surface temperature and sea ice biases in coupled climate models linked with cloud and land surface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, M.; Painter, T. H.; Marks, D. G.; Hedrick, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2013 the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) has been measuring spatial and temporal distribution of both snow water equivalent and snow albedo, the two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing, across key basins in the Western US. It is generally understood that net solar radiation (as controlled by variations in snow albedo and irradiance) provides the energy available for melt in almost all snow-covered environments. Until now, sparse measurements have restricted the ability to utilize measured net solar radiation in energy balance models, and current process simulations and model prediction of albedo evolution rely on oversimplifications of the processes. Data from ASO offers the unprecedented opportunity to utilize weekly measurements of spatially extensive spectral snow albedo to constrain and update snow albedo in a distributed snowmelt model for the first time. Here, we first investigate the sensitivity of the snow energy balance model SNOBAL to prescribed changes in snow albedo at two instrumented alpine catchments: at the point scale across 10 years at Senator Beck Basin Study Area in the San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, and at the distributed scale across 25 years at Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, Idaho. We then compare distributed energy balance and snowmelt results across the ASO measurement record in the Tuolumne Basin in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, for model runs with and without integrated snow albedo from ASO.

  20. Tilts, dopants, vacancies and non-stoichiometry: Understanding and designing the properties of complex solid oxide perovskites from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joseph W.

    Perovskite oxides of formula ABO3 have a wide range of structural, electrical and mechanical properties, making them vital materials for many applications, such as catalysis, ultrasound machines and communication devices. Perovskite solid solutions with high piezoelectric response, such as ferroelectrics, are of particular interest as they can be employed as sensors in SONAR devices. Ferroelectric materials are unique in that their chemical and electrical properties can be non-invasively and reversibly changed, by switching the bulk polarization. This makes ferroelectrics useful for applications in non-volatile random access memory (NVRAM) devices. Perovskite solid solutions with a lower piezoelectric response than ferroelectrics are important for communication technology, as they function well as electroceramic capacitors. Also of interest is how these materials act as a component in a solid oxide fuel cell, as they can function as an efficient source of energy. Altering the chemical composition of these solid oxide materials offers an opportunity to change the desired properties of the final ceramic, adding a degree of flexibility that is advantageous for a variety of applications. These solid oxides are complex, sometimes disordered systems that are a challenge to study experimentally. However, as it is their complexity which produces favorable properties, highly accurate modeling which captures the essential features of the disordered structure is necessary to explain the behavior of current materials and predict favorable compositions for new materials. Methodological improvements and faster computer speeds have made first-principles and atomistic calculations a viable tool for understanding these complex systems. Offering a combination of accuracy and computational speed, the density functional theory (DFT) approach can reveal details about the microscopic structure and interactions of complex systems. Using DFT and a combination of principles from both

  1. Land associations in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bandlerová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The land fragmentation is one of the serious problems in Slovakia which is given by the historical development of the land law. In the past, landowners tried to solve this problem by creation of various forms of land associations oriented to the common cultivation of agricultural land and forest land. Nowadays, the Slovak lawmaker decided to regulate the institute of land associations by the law. Land associations in Slovakia are legal entities conducting agricultural business on agricultural land, forest land or in water areas; moreover, they can provide also other business activities according to particular legal regulations. Land associations conduct business on real estate property or, more commonly, properties, which are usually owned by many co-owners, because the individual cultivation of small part of land plots would not be effective. However, the law is a subject of legal amendments more often than necessary in order to ensure the legal certainty. This paper introduces this recondite legal entity, its activities, its internal government and the ownership rights of its members. A pre-emption right that has a special legal regulation different from the general legal regulations of the pre-emption rights in the Civil Code is one of the special issues.

  2. Land Politics in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamgir, Fariba

    migrated through government initiated settlement program in 1979) in CHT. By understanding identity, authority and property in land as processes, the study explores how these processes influence each other through claim-making and practices. The study employs ethnographic methods to investigate......-colonial period, I argue that frontier lives on in CHT, by showing reconfiguration of institutional arrangements and institutional contestations in different regimes, and by outlining territorial strategies to control population and land. In institutionally pluralistic context, institutions compete in recognizing...... invoke multiple as well as shifting identities to make claim over land as property and as territory. Land politics in CHT is ethnicised. Besides, religious identities of Chakmas and Bengalis are increasingly strengthened and mobilized in relation to contestation over land. Working across two communities...

  3. Soil quality changes in land degradation as indicated by soil chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties in a karst area of southwest Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingjiu; Li, Lianqing; Pan, Genxing; Ren, Jingchen

    2006-12-01

    Not only the nutritional status and biological activity but also the soil ecological functioning or soil health has been impacted profoundly by land degradation in the karst area of southwest China where the karst ecosystems are generally considered as extremely vulnerable to land degradation under intensified land-use changes. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the changes in overall soil quality by a holistic approach of soil nutritional, biological activity, and soil health indicators in the karst area as impacted by intense cultivation and vegetation degradation. Topsoil samples were collected on selected eco-tesserae in a sequence of land degradation in a karst area of southwest Guizhou in 2004. The soil nutrient pools of organic carbon (Corg), extractable extracellular carbon (Cext), total soil nitrogen (Nt), alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen (Nah), total phosphorus (Pt), available phosphorus (Pa) were analyzed by wet soil chemistry. The soil biological properties were studied by means of measurements of microbial biomass carbon (both by fumigation-extraction, FE-Cmic, and by calculation from substrate-incubation respiration, SIR-Cmic) of respiration [respiration without addition of substrates, basal respiration (BR), and potential respiration (PR) with substrate-incubation] and of soil enzyme activities (invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase). Soil health status was assessed by simple indices of Cmic/Corg and BR/Cmic in conjunction with bacterial community structures determined by polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. While the nutritional pool parameters, such as Corg and Cext, described basically the changes in soil life-supporting capacity with cultivation interference and vegetation declined, those parameters of biological activity such as FE-Cmic, SIR, and SIR-Cmic as well as bacterial community structures measured by molecular method evidenced well the changes in soil functioning for ecosystem health with

  4. Reforestation Effects on Carbon Stocks in the Northeast USA: Interactions among Earthworms, Land-Use History and Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. S.; Görres, J. H.; Knowles, M.; Cogbill, C. V.

    2017-12-01

    Reforestation has occurred in many areas of the northeastern USA that were cleared for agriculture in the 1700s and 1800s. Net gains in carbon have occurred but these gains may be affected by earthworm invasions. All earthworm species common to New England were introduced from either Europe or, more recently, Asia. We have been monitoring 18 managed forest stands in Vermont to be able to determine long-term changes in carbon stores. In addition to measuring carbon with depth into the C horizon, we have documented land use history dating back to colonial times, determined earthworm species and density, measured tree species and site metrics, and measured a suite of soil chemical parameters. We also determined carbon distribution in soil microaggregates in a subset of sites. Prior land use in the 18 monitored plots included cultivation, pasture, farm woodlot and possibly iron mining. Higher earthworm species diversity correlated with reduced forest floor depth, higher mineral soil carbon, and greater stability (microaggregate-protected) of that carbon. Sites with the highest worm density and species richness had a history of more intense agricultural land use (although not all former agricultural sites had earthworms). There were also positive interactions between exchangeable calcium pools and earthworm density, and between elevation and carbon in the forest floor. With only 18 sites, it is difficult to establish statistically robust relationships. The effect of reforestation on present-day carbon stores appears to be a complex interaction of land-use history, site location, earthworm history and soil chemistry.

  5. NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX 2002/03): Field measurements of snowpack properties and soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Elder; Don Cline; Glen E. Liston; Richard Armstrong

    2009-01-01

    A field measurement program was undertaken as part NASA's Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX). Extensive snowpack and soil measurements were taken at field sites in Colorado over four study periods during the two study years (2002 and 2003). Measurements included snow depth, density, temperature, grain type and size, surface wetness, surface roughness, and...

  6. Magnetic Properties of the Rivers Feeding the South China Sea: a Critical Step for Understanding the Paleo-Marine Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, C.; Liu, Z.; Wandres, C.

    2014-12-01

    In order to use the magnetic properties of marine sediments as a tracer for past changes in the precipitation rate on land and in oceanic water masses transport and exchanges in the South China Sea, we identify and characterize the different sources of the detrital fraction among which the magnetic particles. This work is presently conducted in the framework of the Franco-Chinese LIA-MONOCL Thanks to the Westpac project, we had access to sediments collected in the deltas of the main rivers feeding the South China Sea from about 25°N to the equator. This is represented on the Asian continent by the Pearl river, the Red River, the Mekong river, by Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo regions with minor rivers but also contributing to the South China Sea, and finally by Luzon and Taiwan. The geological formations contributing to the river sediment discharges are different from one catchment basin to another as well as the present climatic conditions. The magnetic analyses consist in the analysis of low-field magnetic susceptibility, ARM acquisition and decay, IRM acquisition and decay, back-field acquisition, thermal demagnetization of 3-axes IRM, hysteresis parameters, and FORC diagrams. The obtained parameters all together allow us to define the nature of the magnetic grains and their grain size distribution when magnetite is dominant. Some degree of variability is observed at the river mouths, illustrating different geological sources at the local/regional scale. As an average, it appears that the Southern basin of the South China Sea is surrounded by regions richer in high coercivity magnetic minerals than the northern basin. This mineral is identified as hematite while magnetites (and sulfides) are more abundant in the north. These results are complementary to the clay mineral assemblages previously determined on the same samples. The first steps of a similar study conducted on marine core-tops well distributed in the South China Sea will also be illustrated.

  7. Understanding the influence of biofilm accumulation on the hydraulic properties of soils: a mechanistic approach based on experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles Brangarí, Albert; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Freixa, Anna; Romaní, Anna M.; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The distribution, amount, and characteristics of biofilms and its components govern the capacity of soils to let water through, to transport solutes, and the reactions occurring. Therefore, unraveling the relationship between microbial dynamics and the hydraulic properties of soils is of concern for the management of natural systems and many technological applications. However, the increased complexity of both the microbial communities and the geochemical processes entailed by them causes that the phenomenon of bioclogging remains poorly understood. This highlights the need for a better understanding of the microbial components such as live and dead bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), as well as of their spatial distribution. This work tries to shed some light on these issues, providing experimental data and a new mechanistic model that predicts the variably saturated hydraulic properties of bio-amended soils based on these data. We first present a long-term laboratory infiltration experiment that aims at studying the temporal variation of selected biogeochemical parameters along the infiltration path. The setup consists of a 120-cm-high soil tank instrumented with an array of sensors plus soil and liquid samplers. Sensors measured a wide range of parameters in continuous, such as volumetric water content, electrical conductivity, temperature, water pressure, soil suction, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Samples were kept for chemical and biological analyses. Results indicate that: i) biofilm is present at all depths, denoting the potential for deep bioclogging, ii) the redox conditions profile shows different stages, indicating that the community was adapted to changing redox conditions, iii) bacterial activity, richness and diversity also exhibit zonation with depth, and iv) the hydraulic properties of the soil experienced significant changes as biofilm proliferated. Based on experimental evidences, we propose a tool to predict changes in the

  8. Development of an Operational System for the Retrieval of Aerosol and Land Surface Properties from the Terra Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Kathleen A.

    2003-01-01

    An operational system to retrieve atmospheric aerosol and land surface properties using data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument, currently flying onboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, has been deployed. The system is in full operation, with new data products generated daily and distributed to science users worldwide. This paper describes the evolution of the system, from initial requirements definition and prototyping through design, implementation, testing, operational deployment, checkout and maintenance activities. The current status of the system and future plans for enhancement are described. Major challenges encountered during implementation are detailed.

  9. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  10. Ecological effects of soil properties and metal concentrations on the composition and diversity of microbial communities associated with land use patterns in an electronic waste recycling region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wencheng; Dong, Changxun; Wu, Jiahui; Liu, Xiaowen; Wu, Yingxin; Chen, Xianbin; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-12-01

    Soil microbes play vital roles in ecosystem functions, and soil microbial communities may be strongly structured by land use patterns associated with electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities, which can increase the heavy metal concentration in soils. In this study, a suite of soils from five land use types (paddy field, vegetable field, dry field, forest field, and e-waste recycling site) were collected in Longtang Town, Guangdong Province, South China. Soil physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were measured, and the indigenous microbial assemblages were profiled using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and clone library analyses. The results showed that mercury concentration was positively correlated with both Faith's PD and Chao1 estimates, suggesting that the soil microbial alpha diversity was predominantly regulated by mercury. In addition, redundancy analysis indicated that available phosphorus, soil moisture, and mercury were the three major drivers affecting the microbial assemblages. Overall, the microbial composition was determined primarily by land use patterns, and this study provides a novel insight on the composition and diversity of microbial communities in soils associated with e-waste recycling activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Theoretical concepts "land management process", "land management procedure" and their relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiak A.M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The state significance of land management activities is manifested in those legal consequences that arise after the issuance of land management documentation and are conditioned by the need to secure unsupported land rights and the use and protection of land in a state-guaranteed manner. The procedural activity of land surveyors and other persons authorized by the state to commit land management operations must be carried out in a certain order established by the state and obey the rights and obligations of the persons specified by the legislation at each stage of the development of such relations.The main goal of applying to land management organizations and land surveyors is landuse documentation, which is made in accordance with the requirements of the law and with which the relevant legal properties of the land management procedure are associated. First of all, let's dwell on such basic concepts as "land management process" and "land management procedure". Consideration of the term "land management process" implies a preliminary analysis of the category "process". At the same time, it must be admitted that the development of the procedural form of this category has not been paid attention. Considering the concept of "land management process", its place and role in the system of social relations, emphasis will be placed on the concept of a broad understanding of the legal process, the problem of which exists for decades.Thus, the legal process is a regulated by the procedural rules procedure for the activities of competent state bodies, consisting of the preparation, adoption and documentary consolidation of legal decisions of a general and individual nature. In the land law, the category "process" is specific and serves to designate relationships that provide regulatory and security land-property relationships. Particularly difficult today is the question of the delimitation of the concepts of "process" and "procedure" in general. Regarding

  12. Biological soil crust formation under artificial vegetation effect and its properties in the Mugetan sandy land, northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. W.; Jia, Y. H.; Zhang, K.

    2016-08-01

    Mugetan sandy land is an inland desertification area of about 2,065 km2 in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In the ecological restoration region of the Mugetan sandy land, different crusts have formed under the action of vegetation in three types of sandy soil (i.e. semi-fixed sand dune, fixed sand dune and ancient fixed aeolian sandy soil). The surface sand particle distribution, mineral component and vegetation composition of moving sand dunes and three types of sandy soil were studied in 2010-2014 to analyze the biological crust formation properties in the Mugetan sandy land and the effects of artificial vegetation. Results from this study revealed that artificial vegetation increases the clay content and encourages the development of biological curst. The fine particles (i.e. clay and humus) of the surface layer of the sand dunes increased more than 15% ten years after the artificial vegetation planting, and further increased up to 20% after one hundred years. The interaction of clay, humus, and other fine particles formed the soil aggregate structure. Meanwhile, under the vegetation effect from the microbes, algae, and moss, the sand particles stuck together and a biological crust formed. The interconnection of the partial crusts caused the sand dunes to gradually be fixed as a whole. Maintaining the integrity of the biological crust plays a vital role in fixing the sand under the crust. The precipitation and temperature conditions in the Mugetan sandy land could satisfy the demand of biological crust formation and development. If rational vegetation measures are adopted in the region with moving sand dunes, the lichen-moss-algae biological curst will form after ten years, but it still takes more time for the sand dunes to reach the nutrient enrichment state. If the biological curst is partly broken due to human activities, reasonable closure and restoration measures can shorten the restoration time of the biological crust.

  13. Understanding the Impacts of Land Use, Climate, and Population Change on Blue-Green Water Flows in the Olifants Watershed, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, H. B.; Wagener, T.; van Werkhoven, K.

    2008-12-01

    Both green and blue water flows are of vital importance to the ability of a watershed to sustain the natural environment and to promote sustainable industrial and agricultural development. Green water flow refers to evapotranspirative fluxes, while blue water refers to water available in rivers, groundwater etc. for human use. This poster investigates how population growth, land use change and climate change alter the ability of the Olifants catchment in southern Africa to provide adequate green and blue water flows to support the developing population and the surrounding ecosystem. We compare a control period (1961-2000) with two future periods (2045-2065 and 2081-2100).

  14. Land values and planning: a common interest of land policy and land taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichfield, N

    1979-06-01

    This paper focuses on a relatively neglected area of land policy: the relation between land use and land value as influenced by land-use planning. It discusses the need for and nature of land-use planning, the relationship of planning and land value, the compensation-betterment problem, and some particular issues of current relevance. It concludes that there is a need to ensure that valuation officers and planners complement each other in their respective tasks rather than undermine each other as happens when they do not understand the interaction of land values and planning.

  15. Understanding the mechanical properties of DNA origami tiles and controlling the kinetics of their folding and unfolding reconfiguration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haorong; Weng, Te-Wei; Riccitelli, Molly M; Cui, Yi; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2014-05-14

    DNA origami represents a class of highly programmable macromolecules that can go through conformational changes in response to external signals. Here we show that a two-dimensional origami rectangle can be effectively folded into a short, cylindrical tube by connecting the two opposite edges through the hybridization of linker strands and that this process can be efficiently reversed via toehold-mediated strand displacement. The reconfiguration kinetics was experimentally studied as a function of incubation temperature, initial origami concentration, missing staples, and origami geometry. A kinetic model was developed by introducing the j factor to describe the reaction rates in the cyclization process. We found that the cyclization efficiency (j factor) increases sharply with temperature and depends strongly on the structural flexibility and geometry. A simple mechanical model was used to correlate the observed cyclization efficiency with origami structure details. The mechanical analysis suggests two sources of the energy barrier for DNA origami folding: overcoming global twisting and bending the structure into a circular conformation. It also provides the first semiquantitative estimation of the rigidity of DNA interhelix crossovers, an essential element in structural DNA nanotechnology. This work demonstrates efficient DNA origami reconfiguration, advances our understanding of the dynamics and mechanical properties of self-assembled DNA structures, and should be valuable to the field of DNA nanotechnology.

  16. Using spatial-stream-network models and long-term data to understand and predict dynamics of faecal contamination in a mixed land-use catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Aaron James; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Strachan, Norval James Colin; Hough, Rupert Lloyd; Avery, Lisa Marie; Watson, Helen; Soulsby, Chris

    2018-01-15

    An 11year dataset of concentrations of E. coli at 10 spatially-distributed sites in a mixed land-use catchment in NE Scotland (52km 2 ) revealed that concentrations were not clearly associated with flow or season. The lack of a clear flow-concentration relationship may have been due to greater water fluxes from less-contaminated headwaters during high flows diluting downstream concentrations, the importance of persistent point sources of E. coli both anthropogenic and agricultural, and possibly the temporal resolution of the dataset. Point sources and year-round grazing of livestock probably obscured clear seasonality in concentrations. Multiple linear regression models identified potential for contamination by anthropogenic point sources as a significant predictor of long-term spatial patterns of low, average and high concentrations of E. coli. Neither arable nor pasture land was significant, even when accounting for hydrological connectivity with a topographic-index method. However, this may have reflected coarse-scale land-cover data inadequately representing "point sources" of agricultural contamination (e.g. direct defecation of livestock into the stream) and temporal changes in availability of E. coli from diffuse sources. Spatial-stream-network models (SSNMs) were applied in a novel context, and had value in making more robust catchment-scale predictions of concentrations of E. coli with estimates of uncertainty, and in enabling identification of potential "hot spots" of faecal contamination. Successfully managing faecal contamination of surface waters is vital for safeguarding public health. Our finding that concentrations of E. coli could not clearly be associated with flow or season may suggest that management strategies should not necessarily target only high flow events or summer when faecal contamination risk is often assumed to be greatest. Furthermore, we identified SSNMs as valuable tools for identifying possible "hot spots" of contamination which

  17. Combined Observational and Modeling Efforts to Better Understand Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions Over Land: Preliminary Results from 7-SEAS/BASELInE 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Adrian M.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents some of the detailed observations of low-level stratocumulus over northern Vietnam during 7-SEASBASELInE 2013 by SMARTLabs' ACHIEVE W-band cloud radar and other remote sensing instruments. These observations are the first of their kind for this region and will aid in ongoing studies of biomass-burning aerosol impacts on local and regional weather and climate. Preliminary results from simulations using the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) with recently implemented triple-moment bulk microphysics to examine the sensitivity of low-level stratocumulus over land to aerosols are also presented. Recommendations for future observational activities in the 7-SEAS northern region in collaboration with international partners will also be discussed.

  18. Understanding the land-atmospheric interaction in drought forecast from CFSv2 for the 2011 Texas and 2012 Upper Midwest US droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Roundy, J. K.; Ek, M. B.; Wood, E. F.

    2015-12-01

    Prediction and thus preparedness in advance of hydrological extremes, such as drought and flood events, is crucial for proactively reducing their social and economic impacts. In the summers of 2011 Texas, and 2012 the Upper Midwest, experienced intense droughts that affected crops and the food market in the US. It is expected that seasonal forecasts with sufficient skill would reduce the negative impacts through planning and preparation. However, the forecast skill from models such as Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is low over the US, especially during the warm season (Jun - Sep), which restricts their practical use for drought prediction. This study analyzes the processes that lead to premature termination of 2011 and 2012 US summer droughts in CFSv2 forecast resulting in its low forecast skill. Using the North American Land Data Assimilation System version 2 (NLDAS2) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) as references, this study investigates the forecast skills of CFSv2 initialized at 00, 06, 12, 18z from May 15 - 31 (leads out to September) for each event in terms of land-atmosphere interaction, through a recently developed Coupling Drought Index (CDI), which is based on the Convective Triggering Potential-Humidity Index-soil moisture (CTP-HI-SM) classification of four climate regimes: wet coupling, dry coupling, transitional and atmospherically controlled. A recycling model is used to trace the moisture sources in the CFSv2 forecasts of anomalous precipitation, which lead to the breakdown of drought conditions and a lack of drought forecasting skills. This is then compared with tracing the moisture source in CFSR with the same recycling model, which is used as the verification for the same periods. This helps to identify the parameterization that triggered precipitation in CFSv2 during 2011 and 2012 summer in the US thus has the potential to improve the forecast skill of CSFv2.

  19. The Role of Subsurface Properties on Transport of Water and Trace Gases: 1D Simulations at Selected Mars Landing Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, O.; Gloesener, E.; Dehant, V. M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, water ice stability and water vapour transport through porous martian subsurface are studied using a 1D diffusive model. The role of adsorption on water transfer in martian conditions is investigated as well as the range of parameters that have the largest effect on gas transport. In addition, adsorption kinetics is considered to examine its influence on the water vapor exchange between the subsurface and the atmosphere. As methane has been detected in the martian atmosphere, the subsurface model is then used to study methane diffusion in the CH4/CO2/H2O system from variable depths under the surface. The results of subsurface gas transport at selected locations/landing sites are shown and implications for present/future observations are discussed.

  20. Effects of land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties of wetland catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangen, Brian A., E-mail: btangen@usgs.gov; Finocchiaro, Raymond G., E-mail: rfinocchiaro@usgs.gov; Gleason, Robert A., E-mail: rgleason@usgs.gov

    2015-11-15

    Wetland restoration has been suggested as policy goal with multiple environmental benefits including enhancement of atmospheric carbon sequestration. However, there are concerns that increased methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions associated with restoration may outweigh potential benefits. A comprehensive, 4-year study of 119 wetland catchments was conducted in the Prairie Pothole Region of the north-central U.S. to assess the effects of land use on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil properties. Results showed that the effects of land use on GHG fluxes and abiotic soil properties differed with respect to catchment zone (upland, wetland), wetland classification, geographic location, and year. Mean CH{sub 4} fluxes from the uplands were predictably low (< 0.02 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2} day{sup −1}), while wetland zone CH{sub 4} fluxes were much greater (< 0.001–3.9 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2} day{sup −1}). Mean cumulative seasonal CH{sub 4} fluxes ranged from roughly 0–650 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2}, with an overall mean of approximately 160 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2}. These maximum cumulative CH{sub 4} fluxes were nearly 3 times as high as previously reported in North America. The overall magnitude and variability of N{sub 2}O fluxes from this study (< 0.0001–0.0023 g N{sub 2}O m{sup −2} day{sup −1}) were comparable to previously reported values. Results suggest that soil organic carbon is lost when relatively undisturbed catchments are converted for agriculture, and that when non-drained cropland catchments are restored, CH{sub 4} fluxes generally are not different than the pre-restoration baseline. Conversely, when drained cropland catchments are restored, CH{sub 4} fluxes are noticeably higher. Consequently, it is important to consider the type of wetland restoration (drained, non-drained) when assessing restoration benefits. Results also suggest that elevated N{sub 2}O fluxes from cropland catchments likely would be reduced through restoration. The overall

  1. Effects of land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties of wetland catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Wetland restoration has been suggested as policy goal with multiple environmental benefits including enhancement of atmospheric carbon sequestration. However, there are concerns that increased methane (CH 4 ) emissions associated with restoration may outweigh potential benefits. A comprehensive, 4-year study of 119 wetland catchments was conducted in the Prairie Pothole Region of the north-central U.S. to assess the effects of land use on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil properties. Results showed that the effects of land use on GHG fluxes and abiotic soil properties differed with respect to catchment zone (upland, wetland), wetland classification, geographic location, and year. Mean CH 4 fluxes from the uplands were predictably low (< 0.02 g CH 4 m −2 day −1 ), while wetland zone CH 4 fluxes were much greater (< 0.001–3.9 g CH 4 m −2 day −1 ). Mean cumulative seasonal CH 4 fluxes ranged from roughly 0–650 g CH 4 m −2 , with an overall mean of approximately 160 g CH 4 m −2 . These maximum cumulative CH 4 fluxes were nearly 3 times as high as previously reported in North America. The overall magnitude and variability of N 2 O fluxes from this study (< 0.0001–0.0023 g N 2 O m −2 day −1 ) were comparable to previously reported values. Results suggest that soil organic carbon is lost when relatively undisturbed catchments are converted for agriculture, and that when non-drained cropland catchments are restored, CH 4 fluxes generally are not different than the pre-restoration baseline. Conversely, when drained cropland catchments are restored, CH 4 fluxes are noticeably higher. Consequently, it is important to consider the type of wetland restoration (drained, non-drained) when assessing restoration benefits. Results also suggest that elevated N 2 O fluxes from cropland catchments likely would be reduced through restoration. The overall variability demonstrated by this study was consistent with findings of other wetland investigations and

  2. Understanding How Participants Become Champions and Succeed in Adopting Healthy Lifestyles: A Storytelling of a Community Health and Nutrition Program at a Land-Grant University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo, Phalla Duong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and understand the experiences of participants who become champions and succeed in adopting healthy lifestyles. The setting was a health and nutrition educational program at University of Minnesota Extension. The main research questions were: How do participants in the Community Health Education Program…

  3. India: A Land of Contrasts. How to Develop Pro-Active Action Student Awareness and Understanding about the Third World in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard O.

    This document presents a critical thinking/decision-making model to help students in grades K-12 understand East Indian culture. It is divided into three sections. Section 1 provides background information about India from the 15th century BC to the present. It briefly discusses religion, independence, political organization, social institutions,…

  4. Mechanical properties of wool and cotton yarns used in twenty-first century tapestry: preparing for the future by understanding the present

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Margaret J.; Flowers, Thomas Hugh; Lennard, Frances J.

    2015-01-01

    The conservation of historic tapestries is a complex and highly skilled task. Tapestries now being woven will need conservation in years to come. Can we, by understanding the properties of these contemporary works, assist the conservators of the future? The recreation of the Hunt of the Unicorn tapestries being undertaken by the West Dean Tapestry Studio offers a unique opportunity to access the materials being used and to create a body of data on their initial properties. This study uses ten...

  5. Magnetic and optical properties of airborne dust and settling rates of dust at the Phoenix landing site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drube...[], Line; Leer, Kristoffer; Madsen, Morten Bo

    2010-01-01

    The Magnetic Properties Experiment (referred to as iSweep or Caltarget) onboard the Phoenix lander was executed in the arctic region of Mars during the mission's 152 sols lifetime. The iSweep experiment involved periodic multispectral imaging of a series of permanent ring magnets. It was designed...

  6. Spatiotemporal variability of hydrologic soil properties and the implications for overland flow and land management in a peri-urban Mediterranean catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C. S. S.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Shakesby, R. A.; Nunes, J. P. N.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Ferreira, A. J. D.

    2015-06-01

    Planning of semi-urban developments is often hindered by a lack of knowledge on how changes in land-use affect catchment hydrological response. The temporal and spatial patterns of overland flow source areas and their connectivity in the landscape, particularly in a seasonal climate, remain comparatively poorly understood. This study investigates seasonal variations in factors influencing runoff response to rainfall in a peri-urban catchment in Portugal characterized by a mosaic of landscape units and a humid Mediterranean climate. Variations in surface soil moisture, hydrophobicity and infiltration capacity were measured in six different landscape units (defined by land-use on either sandstone or limestone) in nine monitoring campaigns at key times over a one-year period. Spatiotemporal patterns in overland flow mechanisms were found. Infiltration-excess overland flow was generated in rainfalls during the dry summer season in woodland on both sandstone and limestone and on agricultural soils on limestone due probably in large part to soil hydrophobicity. In wet periods, saturation overland flow occurred on urban and agricultural soils located in valley bottoms and on shallow soils upslope. Topography, water table rise and soil depth determined the location and extent of saturated areas. Overland flow generated in upslope source areas potentially can infiltrate in other landscape units downslope where infiltration capacity exceeds rainfall intensity. Hydrophilic urban and agricultural-sandstone soils were characterized by increased infiltration capacity during dry periods, while forest soils provided potential sinks for overland flow when hydrophilic in the winter wet season. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of overland flow sources and sinks is an important step in understanding and modeling flow connectivity and catchment hydrologic response. Such information is important for land managers in order to improve urban planning to minimize flood risk.

  7. Exploiting MISR products at the full spatial resolution (275m) to document changes in land properties in and around the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, M. M.; Hunt, L. A.; Pinty, B.; Clerici, M.; Scholes, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    The MISR instrument on NASA's Terra platform has been acquiring data globally and continuously for almost 10 years. A wide range of atmospheric and land products are operationally generated at the LaRC ASDC, at spatial resolutions of 1.1 km or coarser. Yet, the intrinsic spatial resolution of that sensor is 275m and 12 out of the 36 spectro-directional data channels are transmitted to the ground segment at that resolution. Recent algorithmic developments have permitted us to reconstruct reasonable estimates of the other 24 channels and to account for atmospheric effects at the full original spatial resolution. Spectro-directional reflectances have been processed to characterize the anisotropy of observed land surfaces and then optimally estimate various geophysical properties of the environment such as the fluxes of radiation in and out of plant canopies, the albedo, FAPAR, etc. These detailed products allow us to investigate ecological and environmental changes in much greater spatial and thematic detail than was previously possible. The paper outlines the various methodological steps implemented and exhibits concrete results for a region of moderate size (280 by 380 km) in South Africa. Practical downstream applications of this approach include monitoring desertification and biomass burning, documenting urbanization or characterizing the phenology of vegetation.

  8. Ground-based observations of cloud properties, precipitation and meteorological conditions at Princess Elisabeth station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.; Gorodetskaya, I.V.; van Lipzig, N.P.M.; Boot, W.; Reijmer, C.H.; Mangold, A.; Kneifel, S.; Crewell, S.; Schween, J.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the current and future evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet, a good knowledge of the surface mass balance is essential. Regional climate models have proven to be suitable tools for this purpose, but only if they realistically represent the meteorological conditions in the region of

  9. Medieval land use management and geochemistry - spatial analyses on scales from households properties to whole fields systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horák, Jan; Janovský, Martin; Klír, Tomáš; Šmejda, Ladislav; Legut-Pintal, Maria

    2017-04-01

    We present the final or preliminary results of our researches of five villages: Spindelbach (Ore Mountains, North-Western Bohemia), Hol (near Prague, Central Bohemia), Lovětín and Regenholz (near Třešť, Czech-Moravian Upland) and Goschwitz (near Wroclaw, Poland). Our research is methodically based on broad spatial sampling of soil samples and mapping of basic soil conditions. We use XRF spectrometry as a main tool for multi-elemental analyses and as a tool for first step screening of large areas. The crucial factor of our methods is also a design of sampling based on a respect to historical land and land use features like parts of village field system or possesions of the households. Also macroscopic visual method of getting data and knowledge of the site is crucial. It was revealed that generally used and acknowledged human indicator - Phosphorus - can be present at only very low levels of concentration, or undetectable, even in the nearness of households. The natural conditions cannot be the causing factor at all cases. This situation is caused also by last human activity intensity and by its spatial manifestation. In such cases, multi-elemental analysis is very useful. Zinc is usually correlated with Phosphorus, which is also connected to Lead. The past human activity indicators are spatially usually connected to modern pollution indicators. These two inputs can be sometimes distinguished by statistical analyses and by spatial visualisation of data. Working with just concentrations can be misleading. Past land use management and its strategies were important for spatial distribution of soil geochemical indicators. Therefore, we can use them not only as quantifiers of human impact on nature, but we can also detect different management or knowledge and experience. As it was revealed e. g. by analyses of households` possessions differences. For example, generally presumed decreasing gradient of management intensity (e.g. manuring) along the distance from

  10. Dielectric properties estimation of the lunar regolith at CE-3 landing site using lunar penetrating radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianqing; Su, Yan; Ding, Chunyu; Xing, Shuguo; Dai, Shun; Zou, Yongliao

    2017-03-01

    The second channel (CH2) of the Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) carried on the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) Yutu Rover was used to determine the thickness and structure of the lunar regolith. Accurately revealing the true structure beneath the surface requires knowledge of the dielectric permittivity of the regolith, which allows one to properly apply migration to the radar image. In contrast to simple assumptions in previous studies, this paper takes account of heterogeneity of the regolith and derives regolith's permittivity distribution laterally and vertically by a method widely used in data processing of terrestrial Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). We find that regolith permittivity at the landing site increases with depth more quickly than previously recognized. At a depth of ∼2.5-3 m, the dielectric constant reaches the value of solid basalt. The radar image was migrated on the basis of the permittivity profile. We do not find any continuous distinct layers or an apparent regolith/rock interface in the migrated radargram, which implies that this area is covered by relatively young, poorly layered deposits.

  11. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  12. NEMS Oscillators as Sensors and Actuators: Understanding the Mechanical Properties of Nanoresonators and Their Applications for Molecular Sensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of nanotechnology and enhancement of nanostructures for future applications requires a good understanding of a material's behavior at the nanoscale, as...

  13. Mulighedernes land?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark.......Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark....

  14. Rehabilitation of disturbed land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, L.C. [Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This chapter discusses the objectives of rehabilitation of lands in Australian disturbed by mining. It gives advice on rehabilitation planning and outlines the factors influencing post-mining land use and rehabilitation strategies, including climate, topography, hydrology, properties of soils, overburden and mineral processing wastes, flora and fauna and social considerations. Finally, the key elements of a rehabilitation plan are discussed, namely: landscape reconstruction; selective handling of overburden; and establishment and maintenance of a vegetative cover. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Land use change in a temperate grassland soil: Afforestation effects on chemical properties and their ecological and mineralogical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cespedes-Payret, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.cespedespayret@gmail.com [UNCIEP, Instituto de Ecologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IECA), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, C.P. 11.400, Montevideo (Uruguay); Pineiro, Gustavo, E-mail: estudiosgeologicos@gmail.com [Departamento de Evolucion de Cuencas, Instituto de Ciencias Geologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, C.P. 11.400, Montevideo (Uruguay); Gutierrez, Ofelia, E-mail: gutierrez.ofelia@gmail.com [UNCIEP, Instituto de Ecologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IECA), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, C.P. 11.400, Montevideo (Uruguay); Panario, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.panario@gmail.com [UNCIEP, Instituto de Ecologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IECA), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, C.P. 11.400, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-11-01

    The current change in land use of grassland in the temperate region of South America is a process associated with the worldwide expansion of annual crops and afforestation with fast growing exotic species. This last cultivation has particularly been the subject of numerous studies showing its negative effects on soil (acidification, loss of organic matter and base cations, among others). However its effects on the mineral fraction are not yet known, as it is generally considered as one of the slowest responses to changes. This stimulated the present study in order to assess whether the composition of clay minerals could be altered together with some of the physicochemical parameters affected by afforestation. This study compares the mineralogical composition of clays by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in a grassland soil (Argiudolls) under natural coverage and under Eucalyptus grandis cultivation implanted 25 years ago in a sector of the same grassland. The tendency of some physicochemical parameters, common to other studies was also compared. XRD results showed, as a most noticeable difference in A{sub 11} and A{sub 12} subhorizons ({approx} 20 cm) under eucalyptus, the fall of the 10 A spectrum minerals (illite-like minerals), which are the main reservoir of K in the soil. Meanwhile, the physicochemical parameters showed significant changes (p < 0.01) to highly significant ones under eucalyptus, particularly in these subhorizons, where on average soil organic matter decreased by 43%; K{sup +} by 34%; Ca{sup 2+} by 44%, while the pH dropped to this level by half a point. Our results show that the exportation of some nutrients is not compensated due to the turnover of organic forestry debris; the process of soil acidification was not directly associated with the redistribution of cations, but with an incipient podzolization process; the loss of potassium together with soil acidification, leads to a drastic change in clay mineralogy, which would be irreversible. Highlights

  16. Land use change in a temperate grassland soil: Afforestation effects on chemical properties and their ecological and mineralogical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Céspedes-Payret, Carlos; Piñeiro, Gustavo; Gutiérrez, Ofelia; Panario, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The current change in land use of grassland in the temperate region of South America is a process associated with the worldwide expansion of annual crops and afforestation with fast growing exotic species. This last cultivation has particularly been the subject of numerous studies showing its negative effects on soil (acidification, loss of organic matter and base cations, among others). However its effects on the mineral fraction are not yet known, as it is generally considered as one of the slowest responses to changes. This stimulated the present study in order to assess whether the composition of clay minerals could be altered together with some of the physicochemical parameters affected by afforestation. This study compares the mineralogical composition of clays by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in a grassland soil (Argiudolls) under natural coverage and under Eucalyptus grandis cultivation implanted 25 years ago in a sector of the same grassland. The tendency of some physicochemical parameters, common to other studies was also compared. XRD results showed, as a most noticeable difference in A 11 and A 12 subhorizons (∼ 20 cm) under eucalyptus, the fall of the 10 Å spectrum minerals (illite-like minerals), which are the main reservoir of K in the soil. Meanwhile, the physicochemical parameters showed significant changes (p + by 34%; Ca 2+ by 44%, while the pH dropped to this level by half a point. Our results show that the exportation of some nutrients is not compensated due to the turnover of organic forestry debris; the process of soil acidification was not directly associated with the redistribution of cations, but with an incipient podzolization process; the loss of potassium together with soil acidification, leads to a drastic change in clay mineralogy, which would be irreversible. Highlights: ► Eucalyptus afforestation in a grassland soil causes a loss in fertility. ► Potassium capture by trees irreversibly affects the mineral structure of illites.

  17. [Relationships between vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunan Province, South-central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Zou, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Man-Yuan; Hu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Fang-Ping; Song, Guang-Tao; Lin, Zhong-Gui

    2013-01-01

    By using space series to replace time series, this paper studied the relationships between the vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on the slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunnan Province South-central China. There existed obvious differences in the soil physical and chemical properties at different restoration stages. From grassplot, grass-shrub, shrub to shrub-arbor, the soil organic matter, total and available N, and moisture contents increased markedly, soil bulk density had an obvious decrease, soil total and available P contents changed little, and soil pH decreased gradually, but no significant differences were observed among different restoration stages. At different restoration stages, the biomass of plant community had effects on the quantity and composition of soil microbes. The quantities of soil bacteria and fungi had significant positive correlations with the aboveground biomass of plant community, but the quantity of soil actinomycetes had less correlation with plant community's aboveground biomass. At different restoration stages, the activities of soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, cellulase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase decreased with increasing soil layer, and had significant positive correlations with plant community's richness and aboveground biomass.

  18. Understanding the role of soil erosion on co{sub 2}-c loss using {sup 13}c isotopic signatures in abandoned Mediterranean agricultural land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novara, Agata, E-mail: agata.novara@unipa.it [Department of Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, University of Palermo, viale delle Scienze, ed.4, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Keesstra, Saskia, E-mail: saskia.keesstra@wur.nl [Soil Physics and Land Management Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, 6708PB Wageningen (Netherlands); Cerdà, Artemio, E-mail: artemio.cerda@uv.es [Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group, Department of Geography, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Pereira, Paulo, E-mail: paulo@mruni.eu [Environmental Management Centre, Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius (Lithuania); Gristina, Luciano [Department of Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, University of Palermo, viale delle Scienze, ed.4, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Understanding soil water erosion processes is essential to evaluate the redistribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) within a landscape and is fundamental to assess the role of soil erosion in the global carbon (C) budget. The main aim of this study was to estimate the C redistribution and losses using {sup 13}C natural abundance. Carbon losses in soil sediment, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and CO{sub 2} emission were determined. Four bounded parallel plots were installed on a 10% slope. In the upper part of the plots, C{sub 3}soil was replaced with C{sub 4}soil. The SOC and δ{sup 13}C were measured after 145.2 mm rainfall in the upper (2 m far from C{sub 4}strip), middle (4 m far from C{sub 4}strip) lower (6 m far from C{sub 4}strip) trams of the plot and in the sediments collected in the Gerlach collector at the lower part of the plot. A laboratory incubation experiment was performed to evaluate the CO{sub 2} emission rate of soils in each area. OC was mainly lost in the sediments as 2.08 g{sup −2} of C was lost after 145.2 mm rainfall. DOC losses were only 5.61% of off-site OC loss. Three months after the beginning of the experiment, 15.90% of SOC in the upper tram of the plot had a C{sub 4} origin. The C{sub 4}-SOC content decreased along the 6 m length of the plot, and in the sediments collected by the Gerlach collector. CO{sub 2} emission rate was high in the upper plot tram due to the high SOC content. The discrimination of CO{sub 2} in C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} portion permitted to increase our level of understanding on the stability of SOC and its resilience to decomposition. The transport of sediments along the plot increased SOC mineralization by 43%. Our study underlined the impact of rainfall in C losses in soil and water in abandoned Mediterranean agriculture fields and the consequent implications on the C balance. - Highlights: • The soil C isotopic difference is a useful tracer for erosion processes studies. • The main loss of Carbon was

  19. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... and professionals for implementing the new land policy. The curriculum combines the diploma and the bachelor level and it combines the key areas of land surveying, land management and physical planning....

  20. Historical Land Use Dynamics in the Highly Degraded Landscape of the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Coughlan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Processes of land degradation and regeneration display fine scale heterogeneity often intimately linked with land use. Yet, examinations of the relationships between land use and land degradation often lack the resolution necessary to understand how local institutions differentially modulate feedback between individual farmers and the spatially heterogeneous effects of land use on soils. In this paper, we examine an historical example of a transition from agriculture to forest dominated land use (c. 1933–1941 in a highly degraded landscape on the Piedmont of South Carolina. Our landscape-scale approach examines land use and tenure at the level that individuals enact management decisions. We used logistic regression techniques to examine associations between land use, land tenure, topography, and market cost-distance. Our findings suggest that farmer responses to changing market and policy conditions were influenced by topographic characteristics associated with productivity and long-term viability of agricultural land use. Further, although local environmental feedbacks help to explain spatial patterning of land use, property regime and land tenure arrangements also significantly constrained the ability of farmers to adapt to changing socioeconomic and environmental conditions.

  1. Using Remote Sensing and Field Observations of Colored Dissolved Organic Material (CDOM) to Improve Understanding of Carbon Dynamics at the Land-Ocean Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, L.; Tzortziou, M.; Gilerson, A.; Foster, R.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) and its colored component, (CDOM) are sensitive indicators of environmental pollution, nutrient enrichment, water quality and plays a key role in a broad range of processes and climate-related biogeochemical cycles in estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Because of its strong influence on how ocean color is viewed, CDOM can provide an invaluable optical tool for coastal zone environmental assessment and from space. There is a continuous cycle of sources and sinks of CDOM from terrestrial sources to the wetlands to the estuaries and to the ocean waters. Terrestrial inputs from natural processes, anthropogenic activities, exchanges with the atmosphere, rich biodiversity and high primary productivity, physical, photochemical and microbial processes affect not only the amount but also the quality and optical signature of CDOM in near-shore waters. In this study, new measurements are presented of the optical characteristics of CDOM collected from the Chesapeake Bay estuarine environment. Measured parameters include absorption spectra, estimated spectral slopes, slope ratios, DOC-specific CDOM absorption as well as 3D CDOM fluorescence emission-excitation matrices. Such results will provide insight of the measured CDOM in this complex environment and the complex process that affect CDOM quality and amount during transport to the estuary and coastal ocean. New field campaigns will be conducted in August and September in the Chesapeake Bay estuary and the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to collect more samples for analysis of CDOM dynamics and link field observations and measurements to satellite ocean color retrievals of estuarine biogeochemical processes. In addition, advanced satellite CDOM data distribution and usage is discussed as it has considerable operational value and practical application beyond the scientific community and research. Keywords: CDOM, carbon dynamics, estuaries, coastal ecosystems, optical properties, satellite applications

  2. Progress in Understanding the Impacts of 3-D Cloud Structure on MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals for Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Werner, Frank; Miller, Daniel; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Andrew; DiGirolamo, Larry; Meyer, Kerry; Marshak, Alexander; Wind, Galina; Zhao, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    Theory: A novel framework based on 2-D Tayler expansion for quantifying the uncertainty in MODIS retrievals caused by sub-pixel reflectance inhomogeneity. (Zhang et al. 2016). How cloud vertical structure influences MODIS LWP retrievals. (Miller et al. 2016). Observation: Analysis of failed MODIS cloud property retrievals. (Cho et al. 2015). Cloud property retrievals from 15m resolution ASTER observations. (Werner et al. 2016). Modeling: LES-Satellite observation simulator (Zhang et al. 2012, Miller et al. 2016).

  3. Identification of Soil Properties and Organophosphate Residues From Agricultural Land in Wanasari Sub-District, Brebes, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joko, Tri; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Rachmawati, Savitri

    2018-02-01

    Organophosphates have been used to eradicate pests and prevent losses from harvest failures caused by pest attack. It is undeniable that the organophosphate persist in soil. This study aims to identify the organophosphate residue and soil properties include pH, soil texture, and permeability. The soil samples were taken from cropland in 10 villages, Wanasari sub-district, Brebes, Indonesia. Organophosphate residue determined by gas chromatography using Flame Photometric Detector. Soil texture was determined by soil texture triangle from NRCS USDA, and the permeability value was determined by falling head method. The mean value of chlorpyrifos, profenofos, diazinon were 0.0078; 0.0388; 0.2271 mg/l respectively. The soil texture varies from clay, silt clay, loam, silt loam, and silt clay loam with permeability value at 10-7 with the soil pH value between 6.4 - 8.1. The results showed that organophosphate residues found in the soil and its potential affect the soil fertility decline. We recommend to conduct routine soil quality analysis to prevent soil damage in the agricultural environment.

  4. Combined effects of climate, restoration measures and slope position in change in soil chemical properties and nutrient loss across lands affected by the Wenchuan Earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongming; Deng, Haojun; Du, Kun; Rafay, Loretta; Zhang, Guang-Shuai; Li, Jian; Chen, Can; Wu, Chengzhen; Lin, Han; Yu, Wei; Fan, Hailan; Ge, Yonggang

    2017-10-15

    The MS 8.0Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008 caused huge damage to land cover in the northwest of China's Sichuan province. In order to determine the nutrient loss and short term characteristics of change in soil chemical properties, we established an experiment with three treatments ('undestroyed', 'destroyed and treated', and 'destroyed and untreated'), two climate types (semi-arid hot climate and subtropical monsoon climate), and three slope positions (upslope, mid-slope, and bottom-slope) in 2011. Ten soil properties-including pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium-were measured in surface soil samples in December 2014. Analyses were performed to compare the characteristics of 3-year change in soil chemical properties in two climate zones. This study revealed that soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, Ca 2+ content, alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium were significantly higher in subtropical monsoon climate zones than in semi-arid hot climate zones. However, subtropical monsoon climate zones had a higher decrease in soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen in 'destroyed and untreated' sites than in semi-arid hot climate zones. Most soil chemical properties exhibited significant interactions, indicating that they may degrade or develop concomitantly. 'Destroyed and treated' sites in both climate types had lower C:P and N:P ratios than 'destroyed and untreated' sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first, second, and third principal components explained 76.53% of the variation and might be interpreted as structural integrity, nutrient supply availability, and efficiency of soil; the difference of soil parent material; as well as weathering and leaching effects. Our study indicated that the characteristics of short term

  5. Measurement of semantic similarity for land use and land cover classification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dongpo

    2008-12-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) data is essential to environmental and ecological research. However, semantic heterogeneous of land use and land cover classification are often resulted from different data resources, different cultural contexts, and different utilities. Therefore, there is need to develop a method to measure, compare and integrate between land cover categories. To understand the meaning and the use of terminology from different domains, the common ontology approach is used to acquire information regarding the meaning of terms, and to compare two terms to determine how they might be related. Ontology is a formal specification of a shared conceptualization of a domain of interest. LULC classification system is a ontology. The semantic similarity method is used to compare to entities of three LULC classification systems: CORINE (European Environmental Agency), Oregon State, USA), and Taiwan. The semantic properties and relations firstly have been extracted from their definitions of LULC classification systems. Then semantic properties and relations of categories in three LULC classification systems are mutually compared. The visualization of semantic proximity is finally presented to explore the similarity or dissimilarity of data. This study shows the semantic similarity method efficiently detect semantic distance in three LULC classification systems and find out the semantic similar objects.

  6. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  7. MODERN LAND MANAGEMENT UKRAINE: CONCEPT, ESSENCE, TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiak Anton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern transformations prevailing inUkrainein the sphere of land relations and the use and protection of land are critical and require changes without final rozrushennya existing system of land management, the reform and a new understanding of the nature and forms of modern land management. Given that land management is a fundamental mechanism for land management and land use, in our opinion its reform and development should be seen in close relationship with the development of management system. Problems in the theory of management of land resources, especially its main land managers in different socio-economic communities is extremely important because the efficiency of its operation is not the most important in the economic relations of land ownership. However, for more than 25 years the implementation of land reform inUkrainegovernment has not decided as of model management and land management systems. Functioning system of land management and land use inUkraineon a "top - down" is derived from the authoritarian system of the state, theSoviet Unionand there is not a market. Similarly unchanged system of land management, which is why the task was made research its current state for further scientific studies integrated management system. It is studied modern land management in Ukraine and proved the concept and essence of contemporary land in Ukraine as a multifunctional system, which requires besides the concepts of "social land management", "economy of land", "legal land management", "technical land management", such as "environmental land management", " innovation in land management", "cadastral land management", "ecological and economic land management". A new concept of land as the overall socio-economic, environmental measures and organizational, legal and technical actions aimed at regulating land relations and rational organization of the territory of the administrative-territorial entities, entities committed under the influence of

  8. The Effects of Land Configuration and Wood-Shavings Mulch on the Properties of a Sandy Loam Soil in Northeast Nigeria. 2. Changes in Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiroma, AM.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulching and ridge tillage are proven technologies for improving soil productivity in semi-arid regions. Yet data quantifying the combined influences of these practices are limited. Our objectives were to determine the changes in selected physical properties of a sandy loam after 4-years of annual tillage and wood-shavings mulching. The tillage and wood-shavings treatments consisted of: Flat bed (FB, Open ridge (OR, Tiedridge (TR, FBM, ORM and TRM were same as FB, OR and TR, respectively except that wood-shavings at a rate of 10 t/ha were surface applied ≈ 2 weeks after sowing each year to serve as both a mulch and an organic amendment. At the end of the trial in 2002, bulk density, penetration resistance, total porosity and soil water content from each of 0-0.075, 0.075-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m depths were determined. Composite samples from the surface (0.075 and 0.075-0.15 m layers from 3 replicates of each treatment were also collected for the determination of wet aggregate stability and from 0-0.15 m and 0.15-0.30 m layers for determination of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat. After 4 years of annual tillage and addition of woodshavings, soil bulk density and penetration resistance were consistently lower and total porosity higher in the FBM, ORM and TRM treatments than in the FB, OR and TR treatments. Penetration resistance in all treatments was strongly related to soil water content. A 'hoe pan' was established below 0.15 m depth beneath the furrows of the ridged treatments. This could be attributed to human traffic during field operations and ponding of water, which occurred in the furrows following heavy rains. Wet aggregate stability estimated as the proportion of aggregates of size > 0.25 mm (macro-aggregates in the 0-0.15 m layer were significantly (P< 0.05 higher under FBM, ORM and TRM than under FB, OR or TR treatments. Ksat was not influenced by either tillage or wood-shavings treatments but were higher for the mulched plots

  9. The Olivo-cerebellar System: A Key to understanding the functional significance of intrinsic oscillatory brain properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo R Llinas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reflexological view of brain function (Sherrington 1906 has played a crucial role in defining both the nature of connectivity and the role of the synaptic interactions among neuronal circuits. One implicit assumption of this view, however, has been that CNS function is fundamentally driven by sensory input. This view was questioned as early as the beginning of the last century when a possible role for intrinsic activity in CNS function was proposed by Thomas Graham Brow (Brown 1911; Brown 1914. However, little progress was made in addressing intrinsic neuronal properties in vertebrates until the discovery of calcium conductances in vertebrate central neurons leading dendritic electroresponsiveness (Llinas and Hess 1976, Llinas and Sugimori 1980a and b and subthreshold neuronal oscillation in mammalian inferior olive (IO neurons (Llinas and Yarom 1981; Llinas and Yarom 1981.This happened in parallel with a similar set of findings concerning invertebrate neuronal system (Marder and Bucher 2001. The generalization into a more global view of intrinsic rhythmicity, at forebrain level, occurred initially with the demonstration that the thalamus has similar oscillatory properties (Llinas and Jahnsen 1982 and the ionic properties responsible for some oscillatory activity were, in fact, similar to those in the IO (Jahnsen and Llinas 1984; Llinas 1988. Thus lending support to the view that not only motricity, but cognitive properties, are organized as coherent oscillatory states (Pare, deCurtis et al. 1992; Singer 1993; Hardcastle 1997; Llinas, Ribary et al. 1998; Varela, Lachaux et al. 2001.

  10. Fully Atomistic Understanding of the Electronic and Optical Properties of a Prototypical Doped Charge-Transfer Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brivio, Gian Paolo; Baby, Anu; Gruenewald, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The current study generates profound atomistic insights into doping-induced changes of the optical and electronic properties of the prototypical PTCDA/Ag(111) interface. For doping K atoms are used, as KxPTCDA/Ag(111) has the distinct advantage of forming well-defined stoichiometric phases...

  11. Observations of NEAs at Arecibo Observatory and NASA's IRTF: Combining Radar and Thermal Measurements to Better Understand NEA Physical Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, Michael C.; Vervack, R. J.; Howell, E. S.; Magri, C.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Taylor, P. A.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Benner, L. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    As we sample ever-smaller sizes of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), we see an increasing variation in the range of physical properties. Radar experiments show a diverse range of shapes, surface features, and rotation states among NEAs. Infrared observations of these objects are equally varied,

  12. Atmospheric sensitivity to land surface changes: comparing the impact of albedo, roughness, and evaporative resistance on near-surface air temperature using an idealized land model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lague, M. M.; Swann, A. L. S.; Bonan, G. B.

    2017-12-01

    Past studies have demonstrated how changes in vegetation can impact the atmosphere; however, it is often difficult to identify the exact physical pathway through which vegetation changes drive an atmospheric response. Surface properties (such as vegetation color, or height) control surface energy fluxes, which feed back on the atmosphere on both local and global scales by modifying temperatures, cloud cover, and energy gradients. Understanding how land surface properties influence energy fluxes is crucial for improving our understanding of how vegetation change - past, present, and future - impacts the atmosphere, global climate, and people. We explore the sensitivity of the atmosphere to perturbations of three land surface properties - albedo, roughness, and evaporative resistance - using an idealized land model coupled to an Earth System Model. We derive a relationship telling us how large a change in each surface property is required to drive a local 0.1 K change in 2m air temperature. Using this idealized framework, we are able to separate the influence on the atmosphere of each individual surface property. We demonstrate that the impact of each surface property on the atmosphere is spatially variable - that is, a similar change in vegetation can have different climate impacts if made in different locations. This analysis not only improves our understanding of how the land system can influence climate, but also provides us with a set of theoretical limits on the potential climate impact of arbitrary vegetation change (natural or anthropogenic).

  13. African Indigenous Land Rights in a Private Ownership Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WJ Du Plessis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often stated that indigenous law confers no property rights in land. Okoth-Ogenda reconceptualised indigenous land rights by debunking the myth that indige-nous land rights systems are necessarily "communal" in nature, that "ownership" is collective and that the community as an entity makes collective decisions about the access and use of land.1 He offers a different understanding of indigenous land rights systems by looking at the social order of communities that create "reciprocal rights and obligations that this binds together, and vests power in the community members over land". To determine who will be granted access to or exercise control over land and the resources, one needs to look at these rights and obligations and the performances that arise from them. This will leave only two distinct questions: who may have access to the land (and what type of access2 and who may control and manage the land resources on behalf of those who have access to it?3There is a link with this reconceptualisation and the discourse of the commons. Os-trom's classification of goods leads to a definition of the commons (or common pool of resources as "a class of resources for which exclusion is difficult and joint use in-volves subtractablity".4 The questions this article wishes to answer are: would it firstly be possible to classify the indigenous land rights system as a commons, and sec-ondly would it provide a useful analytical framework in which to solve the problem of securing land tenure in South Africa?

  14. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  15. Dynamical symmetry as a tool to understanding properties of supersymmetric partner potentials. Example of so(2,1) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrhahn, R.F.; Cooper, I.L.

    1992-05-01

    Analysis of the dynamical symmetry of a system is used to predict properties arising from its supersymmetric quantum mechanical treatment. Two applications of the so(2,1) algebra, the Coulomb potential and Morse oscillator potential which display different structure with respect to the dynamical symmetry, are studied. This difference is shown to be responsible for the behaviour of the respective supersymmetric partner potentials. (orig.)

  16. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of Community Paralegals in Addressing Impacts of Land Use Change in Asia. This project addresses the ... Pays d' institution. United States. Site internet.

  17. Statistical Monitoring of Changes to Land Cover

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Accurate detection of changes in land cover leads to better understanding of the dynamics of landscapes. This letter reports the development of a reliable approach to detecting changes in land cover based on remote sensing and radiometric data

  18. Land, Structure & Depreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.; van de Minne, A.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a hedonic price model which enables us to disentangle the value of a residential property into the value of land and the value of structure, while controlling for depreciation and vintage effects. For given reconstruction costs we are able to estimate the impact of physical

  19. Land, structure and depreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.K.; van de Minne, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a hedonic price model that enables us to disentangle the value of a property into the value of land and the value of structure. For given reconstruction costs, we are able to estimate the impact of physical deterioration, functional obsolescence and vintage effects on the structure and

  20. Land governance and land deals in Africa: opportunities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the converging focus on “governance” by those donors and scholars who promote investment in land in Africa as well as by scholars and activists who criticize what they call “land grabs.” This focus on governance is particularly found in terms of understanding and assessing socio-economic ...

  1. Shallow land burial handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    The facility development phases (preliminary analysis, site selection, facility design and construction, facility operation, and facility closure/post-closure) are systematically integrated into a logical plan for developing near surface disposal plans. The Shallow Land Burial Handbook provides initial guidance and concepts for understanding the magnitude and the complexity of developing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

  2. Underpinning Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Further, the paper presents the role of FIG with regard to building the capacity in this area and responding...

  3. Advances in U.S. Land Imaging Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    Advancements in Earth observations, cloud computing, and data science are improving everyday life. Information from land-imaging satellites, such as the U.S. Landsat system, helps us to better understand the changing landscapes where we live, work, and play. This understanding builds capacity for improved decision-making about our lands, waters, and resources, driving economic growth, protecting lives and property, and safeguarding the environment. The USGS is fostering the use of land remote sensing technology to meet local, national, and global challenges. A key dimension to meeting these challenges is the full, free, and open provision of land remote sensing observations for both public and private sector applications. To achieve maximum impact, these data must also be easily discoverable, accessible, and usable. The presenter will describe the USGS Land Remote Sensing Program's current capabilities and future plans to collect and deliver land remote sensing information for societal benefit. He will discuss these capabilities in the context of national plans and policies, domestic partnerships, and international collaboration. The presenter will conclude with examples of how Landsat data is being used on a daily basis to improve lives and livelihoods.

  4. Ukraine Agricultural Land Market Formation Preconditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgen Dankevych

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical land relations reforming principles were reviewed.Land relations in agriculture transformation process was studied. The land use features were detected and agricultural land use efficiency analysis was conducted.Ukraine land market formation research problems results have been shown. It was established that private land ownership institution ambiguous attitude, rent relations deformation, lack of the property rights ensure mechanism inhibit the land market development. Sociological research of Ukrainian Polesie region to determine the prerequisites for agricultural land marketformation preconditions has been conducted. 787 respondents from Zhytomyr, Rivne and Volyn regions were interviewed. Land shares owners age structure, their distribution by education level, their employment, land shares owners and agricultural enterprises executives to the agricultural land sale moratorium cancellation attitudes, land purchase financial resources, directions of Ukrainian Polissya region land shares use, shares owners land issues level of awareness have been determined during the research. Was substantiated that agricultural land market turnover includes not only land sale moratorium cancellation but also the adoption of the legislative framework and the appropriate infrastructure development, one of the key elements of which is land relations regulation specialized state agency – State Land Bank.

  5. Land use and land tenure in Mongolia: A brief history and current issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria E. Fernandez-Gimenez

    2006-01-01

    This essay argues that an awareness of the historical relationships among land use, land tenure, and the political economy of Mongolia is essential to understanding current pastoral land use patterns and policies in Mongolia. Although pastoral land use patterns have altered over time in response to the changing political economy, mobility and flexibility remain...

  6. Understanding hydrologic budgets, dynamics in an arid basin and explore spatial scaling properties using Process-based Adaptive Watershed Simulator (PAWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, K.; Shen, C.; Salve, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Southern California hot desert hosts a fragile ecosystem as well as a range of human economic activities, primarily mining, energy production and recreation. This inland arid landscape is characterized by occasional intensive precipitation events and year-round strong potential evapotranspiration. In this landscape, water and especially groundwater is vital for ecosystem functions and human use. However, the impact of recent development on the sustainability of groundwater resources in the area has not been thoroughly investigated. We apply an integrated, physically-based hydrologic-land surface model, the Process-based Adaptive Watershed Simulator + Community Land Model (PAWS+CLM) to evaluate the sustainability of the groundwater resources in the area. We elucidate the spatio-temporal patterns of hydrologic fluxes and budgets. The modeling results indicate that mountain front recharge is the essential recharging mechanism for the alluvial aquifer. Although pumping activities do not exceed annual-average recharge values, they are still expected to contribute significantly to groundwater drawdown in business-as-usual scenario. The impact of groundwater withdrawals is significant on the desert ecosystem. The relative importance of groundwater flow on NPP rises significantly as compared to other ecosystems. We further evaluate the fractal scaling properties of soil moisture in this very arid system and found the relationship to be much more static in time than that found in a humid continental climate system. The scaling exponents can be predicted using simple functions of the mean. Therefore, multi-scale model based on coarse-resolution surrogate model is expected to perform well in this system. The modeling result is also important for assessing the groundwater sustainability and impact of human activities in the desert environment.

  7. Land and building valuation in Cuba: from land without value to land as financial asset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Femández (Ricardo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn Cuba, the government authorities define the priorities for land and property distribution. One might expect that those official development programs would take account of the value of land and buildings. But that is not so, although there is a growing awareness of its importance. When

  8. How the rock fabrics can control the physical properties - A contribution to the understanding of carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerrast, H.; Siegesmund, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The correlation between microfabrics and physical properties will be illustrated in detail on three dolomitic carbonate reservoir rocks with different porosity. For this study core segments from the Zechstein Ca2-layer (Permian) of the Northwest German Basin were kindly provided by the Preussag Energie GmbH, Lingen. The mineral composition was determined by using the X-ray diffraction method. Petrographic and detailed investigation of the microfabrics, including the distribution and orientation of the cracks were done macroscopally (core segments) and microscopally with the optical microscope and the Scanning Electron Microscope (thin sections in three orthogonally to each other oriented directions). Different kinds of petrophysical measurements were carried out, e.g. porosity, permeability, electrical conductivity, seismic velocities. (orig.)

  9. The effects of Ta on the stress rupture properties and microstructural stability of a novel Ni-base superalloy for land-based high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Liang; Zhang, Guoqing; Lee, Tung L.; Gorley, Michael J.; Wang, Yue; Xiao, Chengbo; Li, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An equiaxed superalloy has high rupture life equivalent to single crystal alloy DD3. • Low Cr and high W superalloys possess good microstructrual stability at 850–1100 °C. • Tantalum promotes, strengthens and stabilizes the eutectic γ′ and MC carbides. • Excessive Ta leads to form harmful abnormal primary α and plate-like M 6 C phases. • Proper Ta can improve the stress rupture life at intermediate and high temperatures. - Abstract: A novel polycrystalline Ni-base superalloy was developed for land-based high temperature applications, such as isothermal forging dies and industrial gas turbines. The alloy possessed surprisingly high stress rupture life of 52 h at 1100 °C/118 MPa which is comparable to the first generation single crystal (SC) superalloy and exhibited good microstructural stability. The effects of Ta addition on the phase change, stress rupture properties and microstructural stability of the alloy were investigated. The results indicated that Ta is a γ′-former and promotes the formation of eutectic γ′. The alloys with ∼7 vol.% eutectic γ′ possess higher stress rupture life at 1100 °C/118 MPa than the alloys with higher ∼20 vol.% eutectic. However, ∼20 vol.% excessive eutectic phases will enhance the stress rupture life at intermediate temperature of 760 °C for 686 MPa but weaken high temperature stress rupture properties. The (Al + Ta) content over 14.4 at.% led to the formation of large amounts of eutectic γ′ and exceeded the solubility of W and Mo in the residue liquid pool, which then promoted the precipitation of primary α-(W,Mo) and M 6 C phases. Tantalum was also found as a strong MC carbides forming element. The order of ability to form monocarbide decreased from NbC to TaC to TiC. 6Al–0Ta (wt.%) alloys possessed good microstructural stability with no harmful topologically close-packed (TCP) phases being observed after thermal exposure at 850 °C/3000 h, 900 °C/1000 h. Only trace amounts of

  10. Multi-Functional Lands Facing Oil Palm Monocultures: A Case Study of a Land Conflict in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanne E. de Vos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ethnographic case study of a palm oil land conflict in a Malay community in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The conflict occurred in the preparatory phase of a large-scale plantation, before any oil palms were planted. After protest from local communities, the project was abolished. This case enables an empirical enquiry of land tenure as well as the meaning of land and associated resources for people’s livelihoods in a pre-plantation situation. The article aims to understand how people’s responses to the oil palm plantation project are rooted in the way they give meaning to the land that is targeted for conversion. Using a functional analysis of property relations, the article shows that people value multiple functions of land, including food security, income security over generations, flexibility to respond to crises and opportunity, and the ability to retain autonomy and identity as farmers. One of the factors that contributed to the conflict was the expectation that a conversion of diversified agricultural land and forest into a monoculture plantation, run by a company, would change the functionality of land and associated resources in a way that would negatively impact livelihood opportunities, lifestyles, and identity.

  11. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  12. Land Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  13. Report on Understanding and Predicting Effects of Thermal Aging on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Grade 91 Steel for Structural Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meimei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Weiying [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report provides an update on understanding and predicting the effects of long-term thermal aging on microstructure and tensile properties of G91 to corroborate the ASME Code rules in strength reduction due to elevated temperature service. The research is to support the design and long-term operation of G91 structural components in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). The report is a Level 2 deliverable in FY17 (M2AT-17AN1602017), under the Work Package AT-17AN160201, “SFR Materials Testing” performed by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies Program.

  14. A novel approach to support formulation design on twin screw wet granulation technology: Understanding the impact of overarching excipient properties on drug product quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willecke, N; Szepes, A; Wunderlich, M; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2018-04-21

    The overall objective of this work is to understand how excipient characteristics influence the drug product quality attributes and process performance of a continuous twin screw wet granulation process. The knowledge gained in this study is intended to be used for Quality by Design (QbD)-based formulation design and formulation optimization. Three principal components which represent the overarching properties of 8 selected pharmaceutical fillers were used as factors, whereas factors 4 and 5 represented binder type and binder concentration in a design of experiments (DoE). The majority of process parameters were kept constant to minimize their influence on the granule and drug product quality. 27 DoE batches consisting of binary filler/binder mixtures were processed via continuous twin screw wet granulation followed by tablet compression. Multiple linear regression models were built providing understanding of the impact of filler and binder properties on granule and tablet quality attributes (i.e. 16 DoE responses). The impact of fillers on the granule and tablet responses was more dominant compared to the impact of binder type and concentration. The filler properties had a relevant effect on granule characteristics, such as particle size, friability and specific surface area. Binder type and concentration revealed a relevant influence on granule flowability and friability as well as on the compactability (required compression force during tableting to obtain target hardness). In order to evaluate the DoE models' validity, a verification of the DoE models was performed with new formulations (i.e. a new combination of filler, binder type and binder concentration) which were initially not included in the dataset used to build the DoE models. The combined PCA (principle component analysis)/DoE approach allowed to link the excipient properties with the drug product quality attributes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ghana - Land Tenure Facilitation Impact Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The MCC-supported Land Title Facilitation Activity (LTF) in Ghana was designed to increase investment and productivity by strengthening property rights. In Ghana,...

  16. Understanding the drivers of marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties with global observations using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Andersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of aerosols, clouds and their interactions with radiation remain among the largest unknowns in the climate system. Even though the processes involved are complex, aerosol–cloud interactions are often analyzed by means of bivariate relationships. In this study, 15 years (2001–2015 of monthly satellite-retrieved near-global aerosol products are combined with reanalysis data of various meteorological parameters to predict satellite-derived marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties by means of region-specific artificial neural networks. The statistical models used are shown to be capable of predicting clouds, especially in regions of high cloud variability. On this monthly scale, lower-tropospheric stability is shown to be the main determinant of cloud fraction and droplet size, especially in stratocumulus regions, while boundary layer height controls the liquid-water amount and thus the optical thickness of clouds. While aerosols show the expected impact on clouds, at this scale they are less relevant than some meteorological factors. Global patterns of the derived sensitivities point to regional characteristics of aerosol and cloud processes.

  17. Understanding the Thermal Properties of Precursor-Ionomers to Optimize Fabrication Processes for Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Trabia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs are one of many smart materials and have ionomer bases with a noble metal plated on the surface. The ionomer is usually Nafion, but recently Aquivion has been shown to be a promising alternative. Ionomers are available in the form of precursor pellets. This is an un-activated form that is able to melt, unlike the activated form. However, there is little study on the thermal characteristics of these precursor ionomers. This lack of knowledge causes issues when trying to fabricate ionomer shapes using methods such as extrusion, hot-pressing, and more recently, injection molding and 3D printing. To understand the two precursor-ionomers, a set of tests were conducted to measure the thermal degradation temperature, viscosity, melting temperature, and glass transition. The results have shown that the precursor Aquivion has a higher melting temperature (240 °C than precursor Nafion (200 °C and a larger glass transition range (32–65°C compared with 21–45 °C. The two have the same thermal degradation temperature (~400 °C. Precursor Aquivion is more viscous than precursor Nafion as temperature increases. Based on the results gathered, it seems that the precursor Aquivion is more stable as temperature increases, facilitating the manufacturing processes. This paper presents the data collected to assist researchers in thermal-based fabrication processes.

  18. Experimental study on tissue phantoms to understand the effect of injury and suturing on human skin mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Arnab; Unnikrishnan, Vinu; Flynn, Zachary; Lackey, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Skin injuries are the most common type of injuries occurring in day-to-day life. A skin injury usually manifests itself in the form of a wound or a cut. While a shallow wound may heal by itself within a short time, deep wounds require surgical interventions such as suturing for timely healing. To date, suturing practices are based on a surgeon's experience and may vary widely from one situation to another. Understanding the mechanics of wound closure and suturing of the skin is crucial to improve clinical suturing practices and also to plan automated robotic surgeries. In the literature, phenomenological two-dimensional computational skin models have been developed to study the mechanics of wound closure. Additionally, the effect of skin pre-stress (due to the natural tension of the skin) on wound closure mechanics has been studied. However, in most of these analyses, idealistic two-dimensional skin geometries, materials and loads have been assumed, which are far from reality, and would clearly generate inaccurate quantitative results. In this work, for the first time, a biofidelic human skin tissue phantom was developed using a two-part silicone material. A wound was created on the phantom material and sutures were placed to close the wound. Uniaxial mechanical tests were carried out on the phantom specimens to study the effect of varying wound size, quantity, suture and pre-stress on the mechanical behavior of human skin. Also, the average mechanical behavior of the human skin surrogate was characterized using hyperelastic material models, in the presence of a wound and sutures. To date, such a robust experimental study on the effect of injury and sutures on human skin mechanics has not been attempted. The results of this novel investigation will provide important guidelines for surgical planning and validation of results from computational models in the future.

  19. Recent progress to understand stress corrosion cracking in sodium borosilicate glasses: linking the chemical composition to structural, physical and fracture properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Cindy L.

    2017-08-01

    This topical review is dedicated to understanding stress corrosion cracking in oxide glasses and specifically the SiO_2{\\text-B_2O_3{\\text-}Na_2O} (SBN) ternary glass systems. Many review papers already exist on the topic of stress corrosion cracking in complex oxide glasses or overly simplified glasses (pure silica). These papers look at how systematically controlling environmental factors (pH, temperature...) alter stress corrosion cracking, while maintaining the same type of glass sample. Many questions still exist, including: What sets the environmental limit? What sets the velocity versus stress intensity factor in the slow stress corrosion regime (Region I)? Can researchers optimize these two effects to enhance a glass’ resistance to failure? To help answer these questions, this review takes a different approach. It looks at how systemically controlling the glass’ chemical composition alters the structure and physical properties. These changes are then compared and contrasted to the fracture toughness and the stress corrosion cracking properties. By taking this holistic approach, researchers can begin to understand the controlling factors in stress corrosion cracking and how to optimize glasses via the initial chemical composition.

  20. Granting Land for Construction by Local Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepomnyaschaya A. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of the necessity and obligation of local authorities to ensure the choice of land in the procedure of granting land areas of state and municipal property for construction. The theme is relevant, since in practice the situation when local authorities refuse to provide the choice of land leads to adverse consequences for the builder

  1. Namibian women and land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andima, J J

    1994-03-01

    More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest

  2. Land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Justification for large land holdings at the Hanford Reservation has centered around a need for security and also as a buffer zone in the event of accidents. In recent years the importance of these large land holdings have become nationally recognized as highly desirable locations for ecological research concerning the function and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and as places to investigate the response of terrestrial ecosystems to long-term man-imposed environmental stresses. Carefully selected and protected land areas exist on the 110 square mile Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE) at Hanford. The projects described here provide supporting research for several applied projects that deal with environmental impact and land restoration. Information gained from this research has wide use and applicability to all kinds of energy technologies centered in the semi-arid shrub-steppe region of the northwestern United States. Ecological information reported includes: biotic characterization, including description of major habitats and endangered or threatened species; performances of native plant species, including determination of growth habits, nutrient requirements, and productivity; and, mineral cycling, including particularly the estimation of availability and behavior of airborne deposits to green plants

  3. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  4. TRENDS OF LAND SYSTEM IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tretiak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The organization of land use in different countries is characterized by a variety of land system types, those proved their effectiveness in certain countries, but not are necessarily as effective in others. The objective factors that led to the emergence of various models of the land system, include socio-economic, historical, ethnic, cultural, natural and other features of different countries and peoples that inhabit them. During 1991-2016 years,Ukraineestablished basics of a new land order and the respective land relations and the system of market-oriented land use, especially in agriculture. It is characterized by: a new legal and regulatory framework, different types of ownership of land and other natural resources, a multi-structure and paid land use, providing public with land parcels, initiated the establishment of a market-oriented system of state land cadastre, including registration of land parcels and rights to them. So, modern land transformations in Ukraine, which laid the basics of a new land order, requires the development of new approaches to land use management at different hierarchical levels of general land planning throughout the country. It caused by many reasons. Primarily: setting the state boundaries and bounds of administrative units; development of different types of land ownership; increased numbers of new landowning and land tenure of citizens, enterprises, institutions and associations up to more than 23 million; need for separation of state and municipal property for land; establishment of payment for land use; specification of legal and functional status of land and of various restrictions, encumbrances and easements to each individual land parcel. It is hard to overemphasize the importance of work on land-use planning at different hierarchical levels and general land management in modern conditions. Particularly acute need of land planning in urban and agricultural land use sectors of the country. Thus, the

  5. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2015-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... to grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part...

  6. Diferenças de gênero em relação a bens: a propriedade fundiária na América Latina Gender differences regarding assets: land property in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Diana Deere

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A diferença de gênero em relação à propriedade fundiária, na América Latina, é significativa. São poucos os países nos quais as mulheres constituem sequer um quarto dos proprietários. A desigualdade de gênero na posse de terras é relacionada à preferência masculina no momento da herança, ao privilégio masculino no casamento, ao viés masculino em programas comunitários e estatais de distribuição de terras, bem como ao viés de gênero no mercado fundiário, sendo que as mulheres têm menor probabilidade do que os homens de serem compradoras bem sucedidas. Mas também existem diferenças importantes por gênero na forma pela qual são adquiridas terras. A herança é o principal meio pelo qual a maioria das mulheres se torna proprietária, enquanto que os homens têm muito maior probabilidade do que as mulheres de adquirirem terras através da sua distribuição por comunidades ou pelo Estado, e por meio do mercado. São destacados os fatores que contribuem para uma tendência no sentido de maior igualdade de gênero na herança de terras e em programas públicos recentes.Gender difference regarding land property in Latin America is significant. There are few countries in which women make up even a fourth of the owners. Gender inequality in land property is related to male preference at the moment of inheritance, to male privilege in marriage, to male bias in community and state land distribution programs as well as gender bias in the land market, women having less probability than men of being successful buyers. But there are also important gender differences in the way land is acquired. Inheritance is the main way by which women become owners, while men have much more probability to acquire land through their communities and the state as well as in the market. The article underlines the factors contributing to the tendency towards higher gender equality in land inheritance and recent state programs.

  7. Tenure, tourism and timber in Quintana Roo, Mexico: Land tenure changes in forest Ejidos after agrarian reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Barsimantov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present and apply an analytical framework for understanding land tenure change in the wake of radical land policy modifications in Mexico’s communal tenure system. We posit that the changes in land tenure vary as a result of a complex interplay of drivers external and internal to the land tenure unit. Using interview and socio-economic data, we apply this framework to six ejidos in Quintana Roo, Mexico in order to understand the extent to which these ejidos have shifted towards private individual property as promoted in the 1992 amendment of Article 27 of the Mexican Constitution. In our case study ejidos, we conclude that external factors, including community forestry, tourism, and urbanization, have synergized with factors internal to the ejido, such as ethnicity, livelihood strategies, migration, and attitudes, leading to different trajectories in land tenure arrangements.

  8. Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12-year crop succession: impact of soil hydraulic and vegetation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J. C.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Moulin, S.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Buis, S.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Renard, D.

    2015-07-01

    Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain terms in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs (Interaction Sol-Biosphere-Atmosphere) simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at the field scale over a 12-year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil properties. The originality of this work consists in explicitly representing the succession of crop cycles and inter-crop bare soil periods in the simulations and assessing its impact on the dynamics of simulated and measured evapotranspiration over a long period of time. The analysis focuses on key parameters which drive the simulation of ET, namely the rooting depth, the soil moisture at saturation, the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at wilting point. A sensitivity analysis is first conducted to quantify the relative contribution of each parameter on ET simulation over 12 years. The impact of the estimation method used to retrieve the soil parameters (pedotransfer function, laboratory and field methods) on ET is then analysed. The benefit of representing the variations in time of the rooting depth and wilting point is evaluated. Finally, the propagation of uncertainties in the soil parameters on ET simulations is quantified through a Monte Carlo analysis and compared with the uncertainties triggered by the mesophyll conductance which is a key above-ground driver of the stomatal conductance. This work shows that evapotranspiration mainly results from the soil evaporation when it is continuously simulated over a Mediterranean crop succession. This results in a high sensitivity of simulated evapotranspiration to uncertainties in the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at saturation, both of which drive the simulation of soil evaporation. Field capacity was proved to be the most

  9. Saving Soil for Sustainable Land Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo M. Torre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper experiments with some costs-benefit analyses, seeking a balance between soil-take and buildability due to land policy and management. The activities have been carried out inside the MITO lab (Lab for Multimedia Information for Territorial Objects of the Polytechnic University of Bari. Reports have been produced about the Southern Italian Apulia Region, which is rich in farmland and coastline, often invaded by construction, with a severe loss of nature, a degradation of the soil, landscape, and ecosystem services. A methodological approach to the assessment of sustainability of urban expansion related, on one hand, to “plus values” deriving from the transformation of urban fringes and, on the other hand to the analysis of the transition of land-use, with the aim of “saving soil” against urban sprawl. The loss of natural and agricultural surfaces due to the expanding artificial lands is an unsustainable character of urban development, especially in the manner in which it was carried out in past decades. We try to assess how plus value can be considered “unearned”, and to understand if the “land value recapture” can compensate for the negative environmental effects of urban expansion. We measured the transition from farmlands and natural habitat to urbanization with the support of the use of some Geographic Information Systems (GIS tools, in favor of a new artificial land cover in the region of Apulia, Southern Italy. Data have been collected at the regional scale and at the local level, producing information about land use change and increases of property values due to improvements, referring to the 258 municipalities of the region. Looking at the results of our measurements, we started an interpretation of the driving forces that favor the plus values due to the transition of land-use. Compensation, easements, recapture of plus value, and improvement are, nowadays in Italy, discussed as major land-policy tools for

  10. PUBLIC ACCESS TO PRIVATE LAND IN SCOTLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Carey Miller

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to understand the radical reform of Scottish land law in its provision for a general right of public access to private land introduced in 2003 as part of land reform legislation, an important aspect of the initial agenda of the Scottish Parliament revived in 1999. The right is to recreational access for a limited period and the right to cross land. Access can be taken only on foot or by horse or bicycle. As a starting point clarification of the misunderstood pre-reform position is attempted. The essential point is that Scots common law does not give civil damages for a simple act of trespass (as English law does but only a right to obtain removal of the trespasser. Under the reforms the longstanding Scottish position of landowners allowing walkers access to the hills and mountains becomes a legal right. A critical aspect of the new right is that it is one of responsible access; provided a landowner co-operates with the spirit and system of the Act access can be denied on the basis that it is not being exercised responsibly. But the onus is on the landowner to show that the exercise of the right is not responsible.Although the right applies to all land a general exception protects the privacy of a domestic dwelling. Early case law suggests that the scope of this limit depends upon particular circumstances although reasonable 'garden ground' is likely to be protected. There are various particular limits such as school land.Compliance with the protection of property under the European Convention on Human Rights is discussed. The article emphasises the latitude, open to nations, for limitations to the right of ownership in land in the public interest. The extent of the Scottish access inroad illustrates this. This leads to the conclusion that 'land governance' – the subject of the Potchefstroom Conference at which the paper was initially presented – largely remains a matter for domestic law; the lex situs concept is alive

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, The Tax Parcel shows the area and boundary of each property in a seamless layer covering the whole county along with the ability to connect to other matching tables., Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2011. The Tax Parcel shows the area and boundary of each property in a seamless layer covering the whole county...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Square-mile, section-wide, property ownerhip parcel and lot-block boundaries. Includes original platted lot lines. These coverages are maintained interactively by GIS staff. Primary attributes include Parcel IDS (Control, Key, and PIN), platted lot and, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2008. Square-mile, section-wide, property ownerhip parcel and lot-block boundaries. Includes original platted lot...

  13. Studies and researches regarding the urban policies impact on land valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Barbu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors develop a concept paper on the economic valuation of land. They detail the basic principles corroborated with the direct factors that modify the mathematical parameters and also the impact of construction on the land. Starting from the principles of Darin Drabkin, the authors develop, within the concept of a market economy, an urban land sale procedure by optimizing the control of land instruments. This study asks about the expected consequences of increasing the tax rate on the land component of real estate while reducing the rate at which the improvement is taxed. The first part briefly presents the consequences that land taxes are expected to produce given our theoretical understanding of land markets. These conclusions are blind to the planning and the institutional context of the development process. The consequences of moving from a general property tax to a land value tax in the Toronto and Ottawa regions are assessed by interviewing developers, planners and municipal finance officers. The conclusions summarise the main concerns that would be raised by moving toward land value taxation in the context of a growth management strategy that would make cities more compact.

  14. A Graph Theory Approach for Geovisualization of Anthropogenic Land Use Change: An application to Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Vaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban sprawl and growth has experienced increased concern in geographic and environmental literature. Preceding the existence of robust frameworks found in regional and urban planning, as well as urban geography and economics, the spatial properties of allocation of urban land use are still far from being completely understood. This is largely due to the underlying complexity of the change found at the spatial level of urban land use, merging social, economic and natural drivers. The spatial patterns formed, and the connectivity established among the different subsets of land-use types, becomes a complex network of interactions over time, helping to shape the structure of the city. The possibility to merge the configuration of land-use with complex networks may be assessed elegantly through graph theory. Nodes and edges can become abstract representations of typologies of space and are represented into a topological space of different land use types which traditionally share common spatial boundaries. Within a regional framework, the links between adjacent and neighboring urban land use types become better understood, by means of a KamadaKawai algorithm. This study uses land use in Lisbon over three years, 1990, 2000 and 2006, to develop a Kamada-Kawai graph interpretation of land-use as a result of neighboring power. The rapid change witnessed in Lisbon since the nineties, as well as the availability of CORINE Land Cover data in these three time stamps, permits a reflection on anthropogenic land-use change in urban and semi-urban areas in Portugal’s capital. This paper responds to (1 the structure and connectivity of urban land use over time, demonstrating that most of the agricultural land is stressed to transform to urban, gaining a central role in future. (2 Offer a systemic approach to land-use transitions generating what we call spatial memory, where land use change is often unpredictable over space, but becomes evident in a graph theory

  15. Land change monitoring, assessment, and projection (LCMAP) revolutionizes land cover and land change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven

    2017-05-02

    When nature and humanity change Earth’s landscapes - through flood or fire, public policy, natural resources management, or economic development - the results are often dramatic and lasting.Wildfires can reshape ecosystems. Hurricanes with names like Sandy or Katrina will howl for days while altering the landscape for years. One growing season in the evolution of drought-resistant genetics can transform semiarid landscapes into farm fields.In the past, valuable land cover maps created for understanding the effects of those events - whether changes in wildlife habitat, water-quality impacts, or the role land use and land cover play in affecting weather and climate - came out at best every 5 to 7 years. Those high quality, high resolution maps were good, but users always craved more: even higher quality data, additional land cover and land change variables, more detailed legends, and most importantly, more frequent land change information.Now a bold new initiative called Land Change Monitoring, Assessment, and Projection (LCMAP) promises to fulfill that demand.Developed at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, LCMAP provides definitive, timely information on how, why, and where the planet is changing. LCMAP’s continuous monitoring process can detect changes as they happen every day that Landsat satellites acquire clear observations. The result will be to place near real-time information in the hands of land and resource managers who need to understand the effects these changes have on landscapes.

  16. Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  17. ANALYSING THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LAND COVER TYPES ON LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE USING SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Şekertekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST via remote sensing images is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and it also helps us to understand the behavior of urban heat islands. There are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image acquired on 28.08.2011. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Moreover, high resolution Geoeye-1 and Worldview-2 images acquired on 29.08.2011 and 12.07.2013 respectively were used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of the analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperatures than the city center and arid land., LST values change about 10 ºC in the city center because of different surface properties such as reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region (ÇATES and ZETES Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature due to the land cover structure.

  18. Analysing the Effects of Different Land Cover Types on Land Surface Temperature Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şekertekin, A.; Kutoglu, Ş. H.; Kaya, S.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST) via remote sensing images is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and it also helps us to understand the behavior of urban heat islands. There are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image acquired on 28.08.2011. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Moreover, high resolution Geoeye-1 and Worldview-2 images acquired on 29.08.2011 and 12.07.2013 respectively were used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of the analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperatures than the city center and arid land., LST values change about 10 ºC in the city center because of different surface properties such as reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region (ÇATES and ZETES) Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature due to the land cover structure.

  19. Anisotropic magnetization and transport properties of RAgSb2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Kenneth D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-11-08

    This study of the RAgSb2 series of compounds arose as part of an investigation of rare earth intermetallic compounds containing antimony with the rare earth in a position with tetragonal point symmetry. Materials with the rare earth in a position with tetragonal point symmetry frequently manifest strong anisotropies and rich complexity in the magnetic properties, and yet are simple enough to analyze. Antimony containing intermetallic compounds commonly possess low carrier densities and have only recently been the subject of study. Large single grain crystals were grown of the RAgSb2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm) series of compounds out of a high temperature solution. This method of crystal growth, commonly known as flux growth is a versatile method which takes advantage of the decreasing solubility of the target compound with decreasing temperature. Overall, the results of the crystal growth were impressive with the synthesis of single crystals of LaAgSb2 approaching one gram. However, the sample yield diminishes as the rare earth elements become smaller and heavier. Consequently, no crystals could be grown with R=Yb or Lu. Furthermore, EuAgSb2 could not be synthesized, likely due to the divalency of the Eu ion. For most of the RAgSb2 compounds, strong magnetic anisotropies are created by the crystal electric field splitting of the Hund's rule ground state. This splitting confines the local moments to lie in the basal plane (easy plane) for the majority of the members of the series. Exceptions to this include ErAgSb2 and TmAgSb2, which have moments along the c-axis (easy axis) and CeAgSb2, which at intermediate temperatures has an easy plane, but exchange coupling at low temperatures is anisotropic with an easy axis. Additional anisotropy is also observed within the basal plane of DyAgSb2, where the moments are restricted to align along one of the <110> axes. Most of

  20. Digital mapping of soil properties in Zala County, Hungary for the support of county-level spatial planning and land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Szatmári, Gábor; Fodor, Nándor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József; Illés, Gábor

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project is to significantly extend the potential, how demands on spatial soil related information could be satisfied in Hungary. Although a great amount of soil information is available due to former mappings and surveys, there are more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data. The gaps are planned to be filled with optimized DSM products heavily based on legacy soil data, which still represent a valuable treasure of soil information at the present time. Impact assessment of the forecasted climate change and the analysis of the possibilities of the adaptation in the agriculture and forestry can be supported by scenario based land management modelling, whose results can be incorporated in spatial planning. This framework requires adequate, preferably timely and spatially detailed knowledge of the soil cover. For the satisfaction of these demands in Zala County (one of the nineteen counties of Hungary), the soil conditions of the agricultural areas were digitally mapped based on the most detailed, available recent and legacy soil data. The agri-environmental conditions were characterized according to the 1:10,000 scale genetic soil mapping methodology and the category system applied in the Hungarian soil-agricultural chemistry practice. The factors constraining the fertility of soils were featured according to the biophysical criteria system elaborated for the delimitation of naturally handicapped areas in the EU. Production related soil functions were regionalized incorporating agro-meteorological modelling. The appropriate derivatives of a 20m digital elevation model were used in the analysis. Multitemporal MODIS products were selected from the period of 2009-2011 representing different parts of the growing season and years with various climatic conditions. Additionally two climatic data layers, the 1

  1. Synthesis in land change science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Rudel, Thomas K.; Verburg, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences...... of these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic research...... based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena...

  2. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  3. “Using Statistical Comparisons between SPartICus Cirrus Microphysical Measurements, Detailed Cloud Models, and GCM Cloud Parameterizations to Understand Physical Processes Controlling Cirrus Properties and to Improve the Cloud Parameterizations”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Sarah [SPEC Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The dual objectives of this project were improving our basic understanding of processes that control cirrus microphysical properties and improvement of the representation of these processes in the parameterizations. A major effort in the proposed research was to integrate, calibrate, and better understand the uncertainties in all of these measurements.

  4. BEFORE THE SALE RIGHTS TO AGRICULTURAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSTOVSKA О.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems of the Ukrainian economy is the formation of a civilized land market. We have to admit that the process of formation of private ownership of land in Ukraine entered into a protracted and uncertain nature. Another introduction in Ukraine of the moratorium on sale of agricultural land due to the lack of resolution of many land issues and not sformovat market infrastructure. Because for the majority of producers of agricultural products the sale of lease rights is an innovation. On the sale of lease rights still they are almost not heard, and especially not used in practice, although the possibility of disposal of property rights, which is owned and leasehold, provided by norms of the Civil code of Ukraine. The issue of land bidding (auction is relevant, because the law of Ukraine set the priority of this method of trading in the sale or lease of land. The auction is open and transparent way the exclusion of land resources of the territorial community, that is, eliminates the influence of corruption and receipt of funds in local budgets adds the ability to invest in the economy of human settlements and agriculture. Among the economic benefits to the development industry is not only improving the investment climate, replenishment of budgets of all levels and approaching the level of EU countries in matters of land. Holding of auctions is very attractive from the point of view of filling the local budget, the sale of land has its advantages, namely a quick and significant revenue. The lease right may be alienated in accordance with the current legislation of Ukraine and some legislative solution is not needed. The procedure of land auctions includes the following steps: 1. The organizer of land sales (public authority or local authority determines the list of land plots of state or municipal property and rights thereto, which are exposed at the land auction as separate lots. 2. The decision of a public authority or

  5. Understanding the roles of ligand promoted dissolution, water column saturation and hydrological properties on intense basalt weathering using reactive transport and watershed-scale hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Fodich, A.; Walter, M. T.; Derry, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    The interaction of rocks with rainwater generates physical and chemical changes, which ultimately culminates in soil development. The addition of catalyzers such as plants, atmospheric gases and hydrological properties will result in more intense and/or faster weathering transformations. The intensity of weathering across the Island of Hawaii is strongly correlated with exposure age and time-integrated precipitation. Intense weathering has resulted from interaction between a thermodynamically unstable lithology, high water/rock ratios, atmospheric gases (O2, CO2) and biota as an organic acid and CO2 producer. To further investigate the role of different weathering agents we have developed 1-D reactive transport models (RTM) to understand mineralogical and fluid chemistry changes in the initially basaltic porous media. The initial meso-scale heterogeneity of porosity makes it difficult for RTMs to capture changes in runoff/groundwater partitioning. Therefore, hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and aquifer depth) are modeled as a watershed parameter appropriate for this system where sub-surface hydraulic data is scarce(1). Initial results agree with field data in a broad sense: different rainfall regimes and timescales show depletion of mobile cations, increasingly low pH, congruent dissolution of olivine and pyroxene, incongruent dissolution of plagioclase and basaltic glass, precipitation of non-crystalline allophane and ferrihydrite, and porosity changes due to dissolution and precipitation of minerals; ultimately Al and Fe are also exported from the system. RTM is used to examine the roles of unsaturation in the soil profile, ligand promoted dissolution of Al- and Fe-bearing phases, and Fe-oxide precipitation at the outcrop scale. Also, we aim to test the use of recession flow analysis to model watershed-scale hydrological properties to extrapolate changes in the runoff/groundwater partitioning. The coupling between weathering processes and hydrologic

  6. The causes of land-use and land-cover change : moving beyond the myths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambin, E.F.; Turner, B.L.; Geist, H.J.; Agbola, S.B.; Angelsen, A.; Bruce, J.W.; Coomes, O.T.; Dirzo, R.; Fischer, G.; Folke, C.; George, P.S.; Homewood, K.; Imbernon, J.; Leemans, R.; Xiubin Li,; Moran, E.F.; Mortimore, M.; Ramakrishnan, P.S.; Richards, J.F.; Skanes, H.; Steffen, W.; Stone, G.D.; Svedin, U.; Veldkamp, A.; Vogel, C.; Jianchu Xu,

    2001-01-01

    Common understanding of the causes of land-use and land-cover change is dominated by simplifications which, in turn, underlie many environment-development policies. This article tracks some of the major myths on driving forces of land-cover change and proposes alternative pathways of change that are

  7. Interim Report on the Investigation of the Fresh Properties of Synthetic Fiber-Reinforced Concrete for the Richardson Landing Casting Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Geotechnical ...2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the...the Richardson Landing Casting Field Wendy R. Long, Kirk E. Walker, and Brian H. Green Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer

  8. PENGARUH SIFAT FISIK TANAH PADA KONDUKTIVITAS HIDROLIK JENUH DI 5 PENGGUNAAN LAHAN (STUDI KASUS DI KELURAHAN SUMBERSARI MALANG Effect of Soil Physical Properties on Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in The 5 Land Use (A Case Study in Sumbersari Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Rosyidah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Water movement in saturated soil will affect runoff and infiltration in an area, while water movement in soil processes influenced by soil physical properties. Changes in land use affect the soil physical properties. Changes in land use and differences in the nature of land which includes land use previously existing vegetation into land that does not exist or lack of vegetation resulted in infiltration and percolation rate be changed on the ground and allow the process of infiltration of large, causing the decrease in recharge areas direct rainwater and decrease the availability of ground water. Measurement of water movement in saturated soil conditions or soil Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity (SHC is very important because SHC role in determining water runoff, infiltration and percolation. The research aimed to know the value of saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil in different land use by using the constant head method and the physical properties of soil including soil texture, weight, density, and porosity in the five land use on three different soil depths. Research conducted in the area Sumbersari in December 2008 until October 2009. Research effect of soil physical properties on using constant head method on five land use is residential population (T1, field (T2, garden tomatoes (T3, shrubs (T4, irrigated rice field (T5 at three different depths ie 0-15 cm (K1, 15-30 cm (K2, and 30-45 cm (K3. The physical properties of soil analyzed include soil texture, weight, density, porosity, and soil moisture content. Results showed that the highest SHC value at all points of location is the location of irrigated rice fields with a depth of 30-45 cm. The main factor affecting the value of SHC is the weight value. Soil physical properties that influence the value of SHC is the soil texture and soil porosity. The results SHC recommended as a reference for land use conditions and other locations with similar soil physical properties. Keywords: Soil

  9. Urban land planning in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Slavka L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the capitalization, urban land management and planning routine have been explored. The focus dwells on the praxis and urban planning perspectives as a link and means for realizing the public interest in space and the role of 'urban transplants' as a lever of urban development. It has also been pointed to a certain discrimination of the property status and property rights through the category of 'public interest', which is articulated by way of urban planning. The unfairness of the existing planning system towards private property and 'taxation' of entrepreneurial activities is evident, especially in urban land use i.e. installing the height of the land rent. It is expected that urban planning is competent upon the background of societal democratization, privatization and introduction of market institutions where the perspectives shift towards democratic transformation, the regulatory role and protection of property rights and different actors’ interests in using urban land. The conclusion is that changes in the management of urban land are required with recommendations to consider public-private sector partnerships.

  10. Does Climate Care about Land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, E.; Lague, M. M.; Swann, A. L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Everyone knows that plants are influenced by the climate they live in. However, the reverse is also true: plants can influence climate both locally and globally by changing atmospheric circulation. Uncovering the role that plants play in climate has been challenging—the interactions are complex and vary greatly in different regions of the world. We lack a systematic understanding of the role of vegetation in the climate system. Using a new simplified land model coupled to a modern Earth System Model (ESM), we are able to separate the individual influences of the land system in the context of modern ESMs. For example, with our model we are able to test how the capacity of the land to hold water influences the atmosphere. If less water is able to evaporate, this could lead to substantial warming, and could even influence clouds. Understanding specifically where and how the atmosphere is influenced by the land surface improves our understanding of how future changes in the land surface will in turn feedback on climate, and how that will impact people. This improved understanding also advances our knowledge of the key role biology plays in driving the global climate system.

  11. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an

  12. Mastering the land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    and physically. With this perspective in mind the chapter outlines the history of production of spatial knowledge about the environments of New Zealand. This is not only to provide an overview of understandings of the environment, but also to investigate and illustrate the close ties between knowledge......The environmental history of New Zealand is one of the clearest and most recent examples of the way humans make a home for themselves in newly explored territory. New Zealand was the last major land area in the world to be colonised by people and, given its extraordinary natural history, the first...... settlers could hardly have been more surprised when they arrived in the thirteenth century. At the time of this first Polynesian settlement, New Zealand was a land not only without humans, but without any terrestrial mammals except for a few species of bats. In their absence the avifauna had proliferated...

  13. SOIL PROPERTIES OF EIGHT FOREST STANDS RESULTED FROM REHABILITATION OF DEGRADED LAND ON THE TROPICAL AREA FOR ALMOST A HALF CENTURY (Sifat-sifat Tanah Delapan Tegakan Hutan Hasil Rehabilitasi Lahan Terdegradasi pada Daerah Tropika Selama Setengah Abad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Supriyo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physical, chemical and biological properties of soil are influenced by vegetation types which grow above it. Different tree species of stands will produce difference litter quantity, litter quality and also plants’ root system. Therefore quantifying physical and chemical soil properties in several stands after rehabilitation of degraded land will increase the understanding of forest soil characteristics. The research was conducted in 8 forest stands in Wanagama I, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta. Collection of soil samples was done at the depth of 0-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm by making soil profile. The result showed that the textural classes were from sandy clay loam to clay. The content of clay increased with increasing soil depth. Bulk density did not differ much among the profiles and soil depth, ranging from 0.90 to 1.28 g/cm3, and so were particle density ranged from 2.19 to 2.55 g/cm3 and pore space ranged from 47.89 to 58.08 %. pH H2O ranging from 5.81 to 7.49 (slightly acid to neutral, meanwhile  pH KCl ranging from 4.44 to 6.37. C-organic content varied widely among the vegetations and soil depth ranged between 0.11 and 5.17 %. Available P and total P varied widely from 1 to 104 ppm and from 20 to 390 ppm, respectively. CEC were not much different among the profiles and soil depths, ranging from 19.80 to 38.06 cmol (+/kg and base saturation in all samples were very high i.e. > 100 %.   ABSTRAK Sifat-sifat fisik, kimia dan biologi tanah dipengaruhi oleh tipe vegetasi yang tumbuh di atasnya. Perbedaan spesies pohon suatu tegakan akan menghasilkan perbedaan jumlah seresah, kualitas seresah dan juga sistem perakaran. Kuantifikasi sifat-sifat fisik dan kimia tanah pada beberapa tegakan hutan pada lahan terdegradasi setelah direhabilitasi akan meningkatkan pemahaman mengenai sifat-sifat tanah hutan. Penelitian dilakukan pada I jenis tegakan hutan di Hutan Pendidikan Wanagama, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta. Pengambilan sampel tanah dilakukan pada

  14. Land Suitability Evaluation for Blueberry Crop by Determining the Qualitative Properties of the Identified Soil Type Related with the Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Ioana BOT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic forms of nitrogen and carbon were measured in order to determine soil fertility. The amount of total nitrogen ranged between 0.849 g/kg and 1.755 g/kg in the samples gathered from soil in modified state and between 0.961 k/kg and 2.427 g/kg in the samples collected from the soil in natural state. Based on these results it could be concluded that in comparing with the previous year, plants used the soil nutrients for their development. The activities of different enzymes were measured as well. Nitrate reductase activity was also higher in samples collected from soil in modified state (from bilon than in the samples collected near plantations (control samples and the values ranged between 0.055 ± 0.012 μmol⋅h-1⋅g-1 and 1.018 ± 0.117 μmol⋅h-1⋅g-1 in samples from soil in natural state and between 0.013 ± 0.002 μmol⋅h-1⋅g-1 and 0.447 ± 0.083 μmol⋅h-1⋅g-1 in bilons. Using GIS techniques of spatial analysis to determine the exact type of soil from each studied blueberry plantation from the Northwest Region of Development and also based on the soil bio-chemical analyses, it was possible to achieve a qualitative characterization of the territory, taking into account the requirements of blueberries for cultivation and to achieve a land suitability for blueberry crop. Combining laboratory approach, consisting from soil bio-chemical and physico-chemical analyses and chemical analyses of blueberry fruits, with the techniques used in order to determine the soil type and land suitability, the study conducted in the Northwest Region of Development identified the best conditions for blueberry crop, based on the qualitative characterization of land.

  15. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    OpenAIRE

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere through sequestration and storage. This requires land use, land use change and forestry to be managed with respect to climate change goals. Carbon storage has ...

  16. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  17. Achieving compliance with environmental health-related land use planning conditions in Hong Kong: perspectives from traditional motivation theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Rita Li Yi

    2009-11-01

    Environmental health-related land use planning conditions can enhance the environment in Hong Kong. Previous research by others has shown, however, that a lack of compliance with planning conditions often occurs. And as no direct enforcement of planning conditions exists in Hong Kong, it is of interest to understand possible ways in which to increase the motivation of land developers and property owners to comply with planning conditions. The author looked at motivation from the perspective of three traditional motivation theories: Theory X, Theory Y, and incentive theory. While the majority of this article focuses on the enforcement and the legal tests in land use planning conditions, it also presents the results of the first study of the motivations behind Hong Kong land developers to comply with land use planning conditions.

  18. Are land use and short time climate change effective on soil carbon compositions and their relationships with soil properties in alpine grassland ecosystems on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhen; Dong, Shikui; Jiang, Xiaoman; Zhao, Jinbo; Liu, Shiliang; Yang, Mingyue; Han, Yuhui; Sha, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Fencing and grass plantation are two key interventions to preserve the degraded grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Climate warming and N deposition have substantially affected the alpine grassland ecosystems. However, molecular composition of soil organic carbon (SOC), the indicator of degradation of SOC, and its responses to climate change are still largely unclear. In this study, we conducted the experiments in three types of land use on the QTP: alpine meadow (AM), alpine steppe (AS), and cultivated grassland (CG) under 2°C climatic warming, 5 levels of nitrogen deposition rates at 8, 24, 40, 56, and 72kg N ha -1 year -1 , as well as a combination of climatic warming and N deposition (8kg N ha -1 year -1 ). Our findings indicate that all three types of land use were dominated by O-alkyl carbon. The alkyl/O-alkyl ratio, aromaticity and hydrophobicity index of the CG were larger than those of the AM and AS, and this difference was generally stable under different treatments. Most of the SOC in the alpine grasslands was derived from fresh plants, and the carbon in the CG was more stable than that in the AM and AS. The compositions of all the alpine ecosystems were stable under short-term climatic changes, suggesting the short-term climate warming and nitrogen deposition likely did not affect the molecular composition of the SOC in the restored grasslands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Land-use regime shifts: an analytical framework and agenda for future land-use research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Ramankutty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A key research frontier in global change research lies in understanding processes of land change to inform predictive models of future land states. We believe that significant advances in the field are hampered by limited attention being paid to critical points of change termed land-use regime shifts. We present an analytical framework for understanding land-use regime shifts. We survey historical events of land change and perform in-depth case studies of soy and shrimp development in Latin America to demonstrate the role of preconditions, triggers, and self-reinforcing processes in driving land-use regime shifts. Whereas the land-use literature demonstrates a good understanding of within-regime dynamics, our understanding of the drivers of land-use regime shifts is limited to ex post facto explications. Theoretical and empirical advances are needed to better understand the dynamics and implications of land-use regime shifts. We draw insights from the regime-shifts literature to propose a research agenda for studying land change.

  20. Taxation of forest and associated land in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Baumgartner; Ronald I. Beazley

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the operation and impact of the property tax on forest and associated land in Illinois and evaluates the potential of adjustments in the tax as an incentive to better management of forest and associated land.

  1. Air pollution, land price development and assessment of immission control needs in urban development plans. The impact of immission pollution by sulphur dioxide and dust precipitation on property prices in residential areas of Dortmund and Duisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chenjai.

    1993-01-01

    Air pollution, land price development and assessment of immission control needs in urban development plans. The impact of immission pollution by sulphur dioxide and dust precipitation on property prices in residential areas of Dortmund and Duisburg. The focus of this thesis is on studying the links between property prices and air pollution. The ground rent theory which goes back to the 16th century provides the theoretical basis for this work. RICARDO put forward the theory, that air may, under certain circumstances, - as for instance different local air pollution levels or sensitivity of locals to air quality -, which did not apply 200 years ago actually produce rent. These circumstances do indeed apply widely today - different air pollution levels in urban areas are just a case in point. Various empiricial studies in the U.S. proved that air pollution with different substances does actually influence the value of property. The ground rent influenced by air pollution is called ''air rent''. This study contains empirical studies on the influence of air pollution by sulphur dioxide SO 2 and dust precipitation on general property prices in residential areas of Dortmund between 1979 and 1989 and Duisburg between 1981 and 1989. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Interim Report on the Investigation of the Fresh Properties of Synthetic Fiber-Reinforced Concrete for the Richardson Landing Casting Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    ER D C/ G SL S R- 17 -1 Interim Report on the Investigation of the Fresh Properties of Synthetic Fiber - Reinforced Concrete for the...default. ERDC/GSL SR-17-1 April 2017 Interim Report on the Investigation of the Fresh Properties of Synthetic Fiber - Reinforced Concrete for... reinforced concrete mixtures containing 3-, 2-, and 1-lb(s)/yd3, respectively, of synthetic (polypropylene) fiber into the current mixture proportion

  3. Survey of land subsidence – case study: The land subsidence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is a new phenomenon and in this research the geometrical properties of the fissures of recharge ... by ground water, the creation of small sinkholes followed ... Figure 1. The location of artificial recharge plan in. Hamadan. The Gharechai River is a source of artificial .... land subsidence and shape the cracks and fissures.

  4. Understanding the electric field control of the electronic and optical properties of strongly-coupled multi-layered quantum dot molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad

    2015-10-21

    Strongly-coupled quantum dot molecules (QDMs) are widely employed in the design of a variety of optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and quantum information devices. An efficient and optimized performance of these devices demands engineering of the electronic and optical properties of the underlying QDMs. The application of electric fields offers a way to realise such a control over the QDM characteristics for a desired device operation. We performed multi-million-atom atomistic tight-binding calculations to study the influence of electric fields on the electron and hole wave function confinements and symmetries, the ground-state transition energies, the band-gap wavelengths, and the optical transition modes. Electrical fields parallel (Ep) and anti-parallel (Ea) to the growth direction were investigated to provide a comprehensive guide for understanding the electric field effects. The strain-induced asymmetry of the hybridized electron states is found to be weak and can be balanced by applying a small Ea electric field, of the order of 1 kV cm(-1). The strong interdot couplings completely break down at large electric fields, leading to single QD states confined at the opposite edges of the QDM. This mimics a transformation from a type-I band structure to a type-II band structure for the QDMs, which is a critical requirement for the design of intermediate-band solar cells (IBSCs). The analysis of the field-dependent ground-state transition energies reveals that the QDM can be operated both as a high dipole moment device by applying large electric fields and as a high polarizability device under the application of small electric field magnitudes. The quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) red shifts the band-gap wavelength to 1.3 μm at the 15 kV cm(-1) electric field; however the reduced electron-hole wave function overlaps lead to a decrease in the interband optical transition strengths by roughly three orders of magnitude. The study of the polarisation-resolved optical

  5. Land system science and sustainable development of the earth system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Crossman, Neville; Ellis, Erle C.

    2015-01-01

    Land systems are the result of human interactions with the natural environment. Understanding the drivers, state, trends and impacts of different land systems on social and natural processes helps to reveal how changes in the land system affect the functioning of the socio-ecological system...... as a whole and the tradeoff these changes may represent. The Global Land Project has led advances by synthesizing land systems research across different scales and providing concepts to further understand the feedbacks between social-and environmental systems, between urban and rural environments and between...... distant world regions. Land system science has moved from a focus on observation of change and understanding the drivers of these changes to a focus on using this understanding to design sustainable transformations through stakeholder engagement and through the concept of land governance. As land use can...

  6. Land cover change in coastal watersheds 1996 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nate Herold

    2016-01-01

    Land use and land cover play a significant role as drivers of environmental change. Information on what is changing and where those changes are occurring is essential if we are to improve our understanding of...

  7. Land use change from rainforests to oil palm plantations and food gardens in Papua New Guinea: Effects on soil properties and S fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Alepa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in soil sulfur (S fractions were assessed in oil palm and food garden land use systems developed on forest vegetation in humid tropical areas of Popondetta in northern Province. The study tested a hypothesis that S in food gardens are limiting nutrient factor and are significantly lower than in plantations and forests. Subsistence food gardens are under long-term slash and burn practice of cropping and such practice is expected to accelerate loss of biomass S from the ecosystem. From each land use, surface soil (0–15 cm samples were characterised and further pseudocomplete fractionated for S. Conversion of forest to oil palm production decreased (p<0.001 soil pH and electrical conductivity values. The reserve S fraction in soil increased significantly (p<0.05 due to oil palm production (∼ 28 % and food gardening activity (∼ 54 %. However, plant available SO_4^(2--S was below 15 mg kg^(−1 in the food garden soils and foliar samples of sweet potato crop indicating deficiency of plant available S. Soil organic carbon content (OC was positively and significantly correlated to total S content (r=0.533; p<0.001 among the land use systems. Thus, crop management practices that affect OC status of the soils would potentially affect the S availability in soils. The possible changes in the chemical nature of mineralisable organic S compounds leading to enhanced mineralisation and leaching losses could be the reasons for the deficiency of S in the food garden soils. The results of this study conclude that long-term subsistence food gardening activity enriched top soils with reserve S or total S content at the expense of soluble S fraction. The subsistence cropping practices such as biomass burning in food gardens and reduced fallow periods are apparently threatening food security of oil palm households. Improved soil OC management strategies such as avoiding burning of fallow vegetation, improved fallows, mulching with fallow biomass, use of

  8. The transcriptome of the developing grain: a resource for understanding seed development and the molecular control of the functional and nutritional properties of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2017-10-11

    Wheat is one of the three major cereals that have been domesticated to feed human populations. The composition of the wheat grain determines the functional properties of wheat including milling efficiency, bread making, and nutritional value. Transcriptome analysis of the developing wheat grain provides key insights into the molecular basis for grain development and quality. The transcriptome of 35 genotypes was analysed by RNA-Seq at two development stages (14 and 30 days-post-anthesis, dpa) corresponding to the mid stage of development (stage Z75) and the almost mature seed (stage Z85). At 14dpa, most of the transcripts were associated with the synthesis of the major seed components including storage proteins and starch. At 30dpa, a diverse range of genes were expressed at low levels with a predominance of genes associated with seed defence and stress tolerance. RNA-Seq analysis of changes in expression between 14dpa and 30dpa stages revealed 26,477 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed at a FDR corrected p-value cut-off at ≤0.01. Functional annotation and gene ontology mapping was performed and KEGG pathway mapping allowed grouping based upon biochemical linkages. This analysis demonstrated that photosynthesis associated with the pericarp was very active at 14dpa but had ceased by 30dpa. Recently reported genes for flour yield in milling and bread quality were found to influence wheat quality largely due to expression patterns at the earlier seed development stage. This study serves as a resource providing an overview of gene expression during wheat grain development at the early (14dpa) and late (30dpa) grain filling stages for use in studies of grain quality and nutritional value and in understanding seed biology.

  9. Property rights, productivity and common property resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 2003/04 Cambodia Household Socioeconomic Survey to investigate the effects of property rights to land. Plots held with a paper documenting ownership in rural Cambodia are found to have higher productivity and land values than other plots, while property rights have...

  10. Conceptualizing distal drivers in land use competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niewhöner, Jörg; Nielsen, Jonas Ø; Gasparri, Gasparri

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter explores the notion of ‘distal drivers’ in land use competition. Research has moved beyond proximate causes of land cover and land use change to focus on the underlying drivers of these dynamics. We discuss the framework of telecoupling within human–environment systems...... as a first step to come to terms with the increasingly distal nature of driving forces behind land use practices. We then expand the notion of distal as mainly a measure of Euclidian space to include temporal, social, and institutional dimensions. This understanding of distal widens our analytical scope...... for the analysis of land use competition as a distributed process to consider the role of knowledge and power, technology, and different temporalities within a relational or systemic analysis of practices of land use competition. We conclude by pointing toward the historical and social contingency of land use...

  11. A place of her own: women and land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogana, W; Seaforth, W

    1995-12-01

    This article discusses the gender issue of access to land and property by women. Women experience constraints to owning, inheriting, and using land. Laws, customs, and economics are factors that interfere with women's access to land and property. Women are forming groups and pooling their savings in order to buy land, or start an income generation project. In Kenya, women's groups have names that reflect women's situations. Under customary law, women frequently are unable to own land except through husbands or other male relatives. Widows without sons or unmarried women are denied access. In some legal systems, women are treated as minors and cannot make business transactions without a male relative's consent. Even in countries where women have the right to land ownership and property, women have little chance for ownership due to high costs and women's lack of business practices or knowledge of their rights. In a subsistence economy, land offers a place to live and to grow food. Pressure on the land in subsistence economies erodes women's ability to maintain shelters and feed their families. Women pushed onto marginal lands must struggle for survival and face eviction. Town planners ignore people's need to grow food for survival. Groups fight eviction based on protection of human rights. Community land trusts remove land from speculation. Gaining title to land may be a complicated process. Land delivery systems need to be more efficient. New ways of obtaining credit not tied to land ownership are needed. Governments need to remove constraints to land for all, particularly the disadvantaged.

  12. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  13. Gender and access to land in Senegal

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    bequests, gifts and loans emerge as the principal means of access to land. These types of access prior to the law on state land property (assignment) still retain a large social legitimacy. Often, these forms of access (family allowance, legacy) in which men are privileged, serve as reference for local officials who administer ...

  14. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advertise the sale of the property in farm journals and in newspapers within the county in which the land...; (ii) A recordable contract is amended to remove excess land when the landowner's entitlement increases... eligible buyer at a price and on terms approved by Reclamation; (C) The sale from the previous landowner is...

  15. Impacts of historic and projected land-cover, land-use, and land-management change on carbon and water fluxes: The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D. M.; Lombardozzi, D. L.; Lawrence, P.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human land-use activities have resulted in large changes to the Earth surface, with resulting implications for climate. In the future, land-use activities are likely to intensify to meet growing demands for food, fiber, and energy. The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) aims to further advance understanding of the broad question of impacts of land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) as well as more detailed science questions to get at process-level attribution, uncertainty, and data requirements in more depth and sophistication than possible in a multi-model context to date. LUMIP is multi-faceted and aims to advance our understanding of land-use change from several perspectives. In particular, LUMIP includes a factorial set of land-only simulations that differ from each other with respect to the specific treatment of land use or land management (e.g., irrigation active or not, crop fertilization active or not, wood harvest on or not), or in terms of prescribed climate. This factorial series of experiments serves several purposes and is designed to provide a detailed assessment of how the specification of land-cover change and land management affects the carbon, water, and energy cycle response to land-use change. The potential analyses that are possible through this set of experiments are vast. For example, comparing a control experiment with all land management active to an experiment with no irrigation allows a multi-model assessment of whether or not the increasing use of irrigation during the 20th century is likely to have significantly altered trends of regional water and energy fluxes (and therefore climate) and/or crop yield and carbon fluxes in agricultural regions. Here, we will present preliminary results from the factorial set of experiments utilizing the Community Land Model (CLM5). The analyses presented here will help guide multi-model analyses once the full set of LUMIP simulations are available.

  16. Practical Approaches to the Numerus Clausus of Land Rights : How Legal Professionals in South Africa and the Netherlands deal with Certainty and Flexibility in Property Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, Leonardus; Mostert, Hanri; Barr, Warren

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the application of the numerus clausus in respect of types and content of rights in two jurisdictions strongly subscribing to the civil law tradition of property, the Netherlands and South Africa. In categorising real rights according to content and type, these two systems

  17. The Public Value of Urban Vacant Land: Social Responses and Ecological Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunwoo Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews scholarly papers and case studies on urban vacant land to gain a stronger understanding of its public value in terms of the ecological and social benefits it can bring. This literature review offers a conceptual overview of the potential benefits of vacant land with the goal of addressing gaps in knowledge about vacant land and to provide suggestions to planners and designers on how vacant properties can be integrated with other green infrastructure in cities. There are many opportunities to redevelop vacant land to enhance its ecological and social value, and many design professionals and scholars are becoming interested in finding new ways to exploit this potential, especially with regard to planning and design. A better appreciation of the public value of urban vacant land is vital for any effort to identify alternative strategies to optimize the way these spaces are utilized for both short-term and long-term uses to support urban regeneration and renewal. This study will help planners and designers to understand and plan for urban vacant land, leading to better utilization of these spaces and opening up alternative creative approaches to envisioning space and landscape design in our urban environments.

  18. Surface Characterization for Land-Atmosphere Studies of CLASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. J.; Kustas, W.; Torn, M. S.; Meyers, T.; Prueger, J.; Fischer, M. L.; Avissar, R.; Yueh, S.; Anderson, M.; Miller, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign will focus on interactions between the land surface, convective boundary layer, and cumulus clouds. It will take place in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) area of the U.S, specifically within the US DOE ARM Climate Research Facility. The intensive observing period will be June of 2007, which typically covers the winter wheat harvest in the region. This region has been the focus of several related experiments that include SGP97, SGP99, and SMEX03. For the land surface, some of the specific science questions include 1) how do spatial variations in land cover along this trajectory modulate the cloud structure and the low-level water vapor budget, 2) what are the relationships between land surface characteristics (i.e., soil texture, vegetation type and fractional cover) and states (particularly soil moisture and surface temperature) and the resulting impact of the surface energy balance on boundary layer and cloud structure and dynamics and aerosol loading; and 3) what is the interplay between cumulus cloud development and surface energy balance partitioning between latent and sensible heat, and implications for the carbon flux? Most of these objectives will require flux and state measurements throughout the dominant land covers and distributed over the geographic domain. These observations would allow determining the level of up- scaling/aggregation required in order to understand the impact of landscape changes affecting energy balance/flux partitioning and impact on cloud/atmospheric dynamics. Specific contributions that are planned to be added to CLASIC include continuous tower-based monitoring of surface fluxes for key land cover types prior to, during, and post-IOP, replicate towers to quantify flux variance within each land cover, boundary layer properties and fluxes from a helicopter-based system, airplane- and satellite-based flux products throughout the region, aircraft- and tower-based concentration data for

  19. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  20. Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Erb, Karlheinz; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Future increases in land-based production will need to focus more on sustainably intensifying existing production systems. Unfortunately, our understanding of the global patterns of land use intensity is weak, partly because land use intensity is a complex, multidimensional term, and partly becau...... challenges and opportunities for mapping land use intensity for cropland, grazing, and forestry systems, and identify key issues for future research....... we lack appropriate datasets to assess land use intensity across broad geographic extents. Here, we review the state of the art regarding approaches for mapping land use intensity and provide a comprehensive overview of available global-scale datasets on land use intensity. We also outline major...

  1. Influence of land development on stormwater runoff from a mixed land use and land cover catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule-Mercado, M A; Lee, B Y; Memon, S A; Umer, S R; Salim, I; Lee, C-H

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating for the negative impacts of stormwater runoff is becoming a concern due to increased land development. Understanding how land development influences stormwater runoff is essential for sustainably managing water resources. In recent years, aggregate low impact development-best management practices (LID-BMPs) have been implemented to reduce the negative impacts of stormwater runoff on receiving water bodies. This study used an integrated approach to determine the influence of land development and assess the ecological benefits of four aggregate LID-BMPs in stormwater runoff from a mixed land use and land cover (LULC) catchment with ongoing land development. It used data from 2011 to 2015 that monitored 41 storm events and monthly LULC, and a Personalized Computer Storm Water Management Model (PCSWMM). The four aggregate LID-BMPs are: ecological (S1), utilizing pervious covers (S2), and multi-control (S3) and (S4). These LID-BMPs were designed and distributed in the study area based on catchment characteristics, cost, and effectiveness. PCSWMM was used to simulate the monitored storm events from 2014 (calibration: R 2 and NSE>0.5; RMSE 0.5; RMSE runoff data and LULC change patterns (only 2015 for LID-BMPs) were used. Results show that the expansion of bare land and impervious cover, soil alteration, and high amount of precipitation influenced the stormwater runoff variability during different phases of land development. The four aggregate LID-BMPs reduced runoff volume (34%-61%), peak flow (6%-19%), and pollutant concentrations (53%-83%). The results of this study, in addition to supporting local LULC planning and land development activities, also could be applied to input data for empirical modeling, and designing sustainable stormwater management guidelines and monitoring strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. New Land valuation criteria after the spanish 2011 valuation of land regulation: the objectivation of building expectations in rural land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria De La Encarnación Valcárcel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The land valuation regime has undergone one of its most important modifications at the hands of the 2008 Land Act and its 2011 Regulation. According to the so-called objectivity principle - which defines all established methods for the new basic situations of land - and according to the stated prohibition of taking into consideration building expectations arising from granted planning permission, the fact is that the existence of circumstances that are not a natural consequence of landowner investments made on the property is easily deducible. This is inconsistent with the spirit of the Land Act in force contained in its Explanatory Memorandum.

  3. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove

  4. Assessing Lightning and Wildfire Hazard by Land Properties and Cloud to Ground Lightning Data with Association Rule Mining in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, DongHwan; Wang, Xin; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2017-10-23

    Hotspot analysis was implemented to find regions in the province of Alberta (Canada) with high frequency Cloud to Ground (CG) lightning strikes clustered together. Generally, hotspot regions are located in the central, central east, and south central regions of the study region. About 94% of annual lightning occurred during warm months (June to August) and the daily lightning frequency was influenced by the diurnal heating cycle. The association rule mining technique was used to investigate frequent CG lightning patterns, which were verified by similarity measurement to check the patterns' consistency. The similarity coefficient values indicated that there were high correlations throughout the entire study period. Most wildfires (about 93%) in Alberta occurred in forests, wetland forests, and wetland shrub areas. It was also found that lightning and wildfires occur in two distinct areas: frequent wildfire regions with a high frequency of lightning, and frequent wild-fire regions with a low frequency of lightning. Further, the preference index (PI) revealed locations where the wildfires occurred more frequently than in other class regions. The wildfire hazard area was estimated with the CG lightning hazard map and specific land use types.

  5. Properties of the surface snow in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica - climate and non-climate dependent variability of the surface mass balance and stable water isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, D.; Ekaykin, A.; Lipenkov, V.; Popov, S. V.; Petit, J. R.; Masson-Delmotte, V.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciological and meteorological observations conducted during the past four decades in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, are compiled. The database is used to investigate spatial patterns of surface snow isotopic composition and surface mass balance, including detailed information near subglacial lake Vostok. We show diverse relationships between snow isotopic composition and surface temperature. In the most inland part (elevation 3200-3400 m a.s.l.), surface snow isotopic composition varies independently from surface temperature, and is closely related to the distance to the open water source (with a slope of 0.98±0.17 ‰ per 100 km). Surface mass balance values are higher along the ice sheet slope, and relatively evenly distributed inland. The minimum values of snow isotopic composition and surface mass balance are identified in an area XX km southwestward from Vostok station. The spatial distribution of deuterium excess delineates regions influenced by the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean air masses, with Vostok area being situated close to their boundary. Anomalously high deuterium excess values are observed near Dome A, suggesting high kinetic fractionation for its moisture source, or specifically high post-deposition artifacts. The dataset is available for further studies such as the assessment of skills of general circulation or regional atmospheric models, and the search for the oldest ice.

  6. Soils of the Pacific Northwest shrub-steppe. Occurrence and properties of soils on the Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.

    1977-07-01

    The soils of the Arid Land Ecology Reserve, encompassing the IBP Grassland Biome intensive study site on the ERDA Hanford Reservation, are representative of a larger geographical region including much of the Columbia Plateau and Pacific Northwest shrub-steppe. This results from a unique diversity in parent materials of mixed origin derived from the loess eolian, lacustrine and stream-laid material including glacial outwashes, river terraces, flood plains and alluvial fans and meteorological factors accompanying a marked change in altitude within the Reserve resulting in development of soils over a range in temperature, moisture and vegetative regimes. The Reserve and the IBP Grassland Biome intensive study site serve as valuable, representative areas for the study of soil genesis and morphology in the shrub-steppe. The role of soils can be determined in basic environmental processes involving the flow of energy, cyclization of nutrients or the fate and behavior of pollutants. These processes may be examined to provide baseline information for comparison to other, more disturbed areas. Or, for investigative purposes, processes may be systematically altered to determine the influence of soil-perturbing activities such as agriculture, mining and industry on the terrestrial ecosystem

  7. Extended calculations of energy levels, radiative properties, AJ, BJ hyperfine interaction constants, and Landé gJ-factors for nitrogen-like Ge XXVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Zhang, C. Y.; Jönsson, P.; Si, R.; Zhao, X. H.; Chen, Z. B.; Guo, X. L.; Chen, C. Y.; Yan, J.

    2018-03-01

    Employing two state-of-the-art methods, multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and second-order many-body perturbation theory, highly accurate calculations are performed for the lowest 272 fine-structure levels arising from the 2s22p3, 2s2p4, 2p5, 2s22p23l (l = s , p , d), 2s2p33l (l = s , p , d), and 2p43l (l = s , p , d) configurations in nitrogen-like Ge XXVI. Complete and consistent atomic data, including excitation energies, lifetimes, wavelengths, hyperfine structures, Landé gJ-factors, and E1, E2, M1, M2 line strengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates among these 272 levels are provided. Comparisons are made between the present two data sets, as well as with other available experimental and theoretical values. The present data are accurate enough for identification and deblending of emission lines involving the n = 3 levels, and are also useful for modeling and diagnosing fusion plasmas.

  8. Understanding the Effects of Defect Modification on the Structure and Properties of Fluorinated Polymers and Implications for Capacitive Energy Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadinski, Matthew R.

    As the world begins to turn to alternative energy technologies and our electronic devices have become more both mobile and integral to everyday life, increasing interest has been focused on energy storage technologies. Capacitors are one of these energy storage technologies that utilize the polarization of an insulating material sandwiched by two electrodes as a means to store electric charge. Polymers are a preferred dielectric material for capacitors because of both their performance and practicality. However, polymer dielectrics are limited in energy density by low dielectric constant, and high loss at elevated temperature. This work aims to address these issues in order to enable polymer dielectrics for future applications and demands. As most polymer tend to have low dielectric constants (˜2-3), but impressive breakdown strengths, only a moderate improvement in dielectric constant has the potential to vastly improve the energy density of polymer capacitors. As such tremendous interest has been placed on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) which has a dielectric of 10+ due to the highly polar C-F bonds of its backbone. To improve PVDF's performance defect monomers have been introduced to tailor the polymorphic crystalline phase to tune its properties. Additionally, this defect modification has implications for piezoelectric, electrocaloric, and thermoelectric applications of PVDF. In Chapter 2 a copolymer of VDF and bromotrifluoroethylene (BTFE) was produced. The effect of BTFE on the structure and dielectric properties of the resulting copolymer had not been previously evaluated, and its synthesis allowed for the comparison to previously reported VDF based copolymers including P(VDF-CTFE) and P(VDF-HFP). Through 19F NMR it was determined due to reactivity ratio differences of BTFE in comparison to previously explored copolymers, BTFE during synthesis is much more likely to link with itself. This results in long runs of BTFE-BTFE defects along with isolated

  9. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of ... There is a recognized need for intermediary institutions, such as media, ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.

  10. FORMS OF DEVELOPMENT AND LAND TENURE AS IMPROVEMENT TOOLS OF land use planning IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretyak A.M.

    2016-05-01

    relations and cadastral accounting taken land plot, made sharing of agricultural land, where the owners of land shares allocated of land ownership, land use system, especially agricultural enterprises, significantly changed. All this has caused the emergence of a new type of territorial land management, which is aimed, especially in agriculture and environmental protection, on the organization of land use of legal entities and citizens, on the basis of combining of land plots, that being at different property rights. Therefore, should provide as a type of land management territorial planning of land ownership, land use, whose task is the formation of their territory, as is the case in developed foreign countries. Concerning intraeconomic land management, that under current conditions it’s explanation is somewhat different in new approaches to the regulation of land relations and the introduction of land use administration. Introduction of notion of land management forms will help to improve the structure and content of land management documents, and therefore the quality of tools of improvement of land-use planning at different hierarchical levels.

  11. Land-cover change and avian diversity in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Anna M. Pidgeon; Thomas P. Albright; Patrick D. Culbert; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Jeffrey G. Masek; Volker C. Radeloff

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use and land cover have affected and will continue to affect biological diversity worldwide. Yet, understanding the spatially extensive effects of land-cover change has been challenging because data that are consistent over space and time are lacking. We used the U.S. National Land Cover Dataset Land Cover Change Retrofit Product and North American...

  12. Land Administration and Spatial Data Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, John R.; Enemark, Stig

    2005-01-01

    of developing land policies that effectively and efficiently incorporate appropriate spatial data infrastructures, including an understanding of the value of integrating the land administration/cadastre/land registration function with the topographic mapping function. This paper presents an overview...... of “The Development of Land Information Policies in the Americas”. FIG was tasked with taking the lead role in planning and arranging the Special Forum. The objective of this inter-regional forum was to establish an awareness of the economic and social value for decision makers, of the importance...

  13. Mineralogical, chemical, organic and microbial properties of subsurface soil cores from Mars Desert Research Station (Utah, USA): Phyllosilicate and sulfate analogues to Mars mission landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Clarke, Jonathan; Direito, Susana O. L.; Blake, David; Martin, Kevin R.; Zavaleta, Jhony; Foing, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    We collected and analysed soil cores from four geologic units surrounding Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) Utah, USA, including Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison formation (Brushy Basin member) and Summerville formation. The area is an important geochemical and morphological analogue to terrains on Mars. Soils were analysed for mineralogy by a Terra X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a field version of the CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission (2012 landing). Soluble ion chemistry, total organic content and identity and distribution of microbial populations were also determined. The Terra data reveal that Mancos and Morrison soils are rich in phyllosilicates similar to those observed on Mars from orbital measurements (montmorillonite, nontronite and illite). Evaporite minerals observed include gypsum, thenardite, polyhalite and calcite. Soil chemical analysis shows sulfate the dominant anion in all soils and SO4>>CO3, as on Mars. The cation pattern Na>Ca>Mg is seen in all soils except for the Summerville where Ca>Na. In all soils, SO4 correlates with Na, suggesting sodium sulfates are the dominant phase. Oxidizable organics are low in all soils and range from a high of 0.7% in the Mancos samples to undetectable at a detection limit of 0.1% in the Morrison soils. Minerals rich in chromium and vanadium were identified in Morrison soils that result from diagenetic replacement of organic compounds. Depositional environment, geologic history and mineralogy all affect the ability to preserve and detect organic compounds. Subsurface biosphere populations were revealed to contain organisms from all three domains (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya) with cell density between 3.0×106 and 1.8×107 cells ml-1 at the deepest depth. These measurements are analogous to data that could be obtained on future robotic or human Mars missions and results are relevant to the MSL mission that will investigate phyllosilicates on Mars.

  14. Effect of Synthesis Temperature on Structure and Magnetic Properties of (La,Nd)0.7Sr0.3MnO3 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlapa, Yulia; Solopan, Sergii; Bodnaruk, Andrii; Kulyk, Mykola; Kalita, Viktor; Tykhonenko-Polishchuk, Yulia; Tovstolytkin, Alexandr; Belous, Anatolii

    2017-12-01

    Two sets of Nd-doped La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel method with further heat treatment at 1073 and 1573 K, respectively. Crystallographic and magnetic properties of obtained nanoparticles were studied, and the effect of synthesis conditions on these properties was investigated. According to X-ray data, all particles crystallized in the distorted perovskite structure. Magnetic parameters, such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, Curie temperature, and specific loss power, which is released on the exposure of an ensemble of nanoparticles to AC magnetic field, were determined for both sets of samples. The correlation between the values of Curie temperature and maximal heating temperature under AC magnetic field was found. It was revealed that for the samples synthesized at 1573 K, the dependences of crystallographic and magnetic parameters on Nd content were monotonous, while for the samples synthesized at 1073 K, they were non-monotonous. It was concluded that Nd-doped La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 nanoparticles are promising materials for self-controlled magnetic hyperthermia applications, but the researchers should be aware of the unusual behavior of the particles synthesized at relatively low temperatures.

  15. Land Regularisation in Vidigal, Rio de Janeiro - Was de Soto right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Emily Deagle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based largely on economist, Hernando de Soto’s, work many developing countries have implemented programmes of formalisation of property in order to unleash capital located within informal settlements and to promote wider economic growth. Although many authors have illustrated that legalised property alone does not necessarily lead to these economic advantages, Brazil’s government has sought to create other mechanisms that should help the production of such benefits. For this reason, this paper, drawn from my Masters dissertation, explores land regularisation in the informal settlement, Vidigal, in Rio de Janeiro. It aims to understand the economic impact of land regularisation in Vidigal and if the benefits of legalised property, proposed by de Soto, have actually materialised there. By looking at one community, it hopes to highlight some of the shortcomings of the programme that still persist, which should be considered during the design and implementation of future programmes.

  16. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  17. Communicating why land surface heterogeneity matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, C.; Burke, W.; Bart, R. R.; Turpin, E.; Wood, T.; Gordon, D.

    2017-12-01

    As hydrologic scientists, we know that land surface heterogeneity can have nuanced and sometimes dramatic impacts on the water cycle. Land surface characteristics, including the structure and composition of vegetation and soil storage and drainage properties, alter how incoming precipitation is translated into streamflow and evapotranspiration. Land surface heterogeneity can explain why this partitioning of incoming precipitation cannot always be computed by a simple water budget calculation. We also know that land surface characteristics are dynamic - vegetation grows and changes with fire, disease and human actions and these changes will alter the partitioning of water - how much so, however depends itself on other site characteristics - soil water storage and the timing and magnitude of precipitation. This complex impact of space-time dynamics on the water cycle is something we need to effectively communicate to non-experts. For example, we may want to explain why sometimes forest management practices increase water availability but sometimes they don't - or why the impacts of urbanization or fire are location specific. If we do not communicate these dependencies we risk over-simplifying and eroding scientific credibility when observed effects don't match simple generalizations. On the other hand excessive detail can overwhelm and disengage audiences. So how do we help different communities public, private landowners, other scientists, NGOs, governments to better understand the role of space-time heterogeneity. To address this issue, we present some results from ongoing work that looks at the impact of fuel treatment of forest ecohydrology. This work stem from a collaboration between an ecohydrologic modeling team, social-scientists, a visual artist and compute graphics students. We use a coupled model, validated with field measurements, to show why spatial heterogeneity matters for understanding the impact of fuel treatments on the water cycle for the Sierra

  18. Land grabbing and formalization in Africa : a critical inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, H.; Cunningham, S.

    2015-01-01

    Two developments in Africa have generated an extensive literature. The first focuses on investment and land grabbing and the second on the formalization of rural property rights. Less has been written on the impact of formalization on land grabbing and of land grabbing on formalization. Recently,

  19. Land acquisition problems in China ' adopting land acquisition act 1960 of Malaysia as an alternative procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Land is scarce and it is the most important resource that humans rely on. Therefore, the protection of land interests is extremely important. Land acquisition deprives the owner's interest on land. A fair and adequate compensation as well as transparent procedures are crucial for land acquisition. The aims of this study are to investigate the adequacy of compensation for land acquisition in China as compared to the Malaysian framework, and to enhance the understanding of land acquisition procedures and determination of compensation in both China and Malaysia. A case study was conducted to investigate whether the compensation for land acquisition in China is adequate and equitable. Two sets of compensation have been calculated, one based on the current compensation standard executed in China; and the other, calculated based on the market value of the land. The finding reveals that the compensation based on the current compensation standard in China is inadequate. The compensation determined by compensation standard executed varied with the market value of the land. In order to better protect the dispossessed owners in China, the compensation for land acquisition should be based on the market value of the land and other related matters such as betterment, severance, injurious affection, incidental expenses and accommodation works should be given due consideration.

  20. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    Land competition and land-use changes are taking place in many developing countries as the demand for land increases. These changes are leading to changes in the livelihood conditions of rural people. The Government of Laos (GoL), on the one hand, aims to increase forest protection. On the other...... hand, the government is also working to increase national economic growth by promoting private-sector investment in both agriculture and forest resources – two sectors that compete for the same areas intended for protection. This thesis explores how these contradictory drivers of land-use changes...... software. Quantitative data was compiled in a Microsoft Access database and analyzed in Excel. Land-use and livelihood changes are taking place rapidly in the study sites. Overall, land-use change underwent transformation away from subsistence shifting cultivation to cash crops, intensive agriculture...

  1. Public access to private land in Scotland | Miller | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article attempts to understand the radical reform of Scottish land law in its provision for a general right of public access to private land introduced in 2003 as part of land reform legislation, an important aspect of the initial agenda of the Scottish Parliament revived in 1999. The right is to recreational access for a limited ...

  2. Estimation of land surface temperature of Kaduna metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of land surface temperature of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria using landsat images. Isa Zaharaddeen, Ibrahim I. Baba, Ayuba Zachariah. Abstract. Understanding the spatial variation of Land Surface Temperature (LST), will be helpful in urban micro climate studies. This study estimates the land surface temperature ...

  3. SOME ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT AGRICULTURAL LAND USE AREAS WITHIN THE TERRITORIAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapinos N.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Land Fund in Ukraine is experiencing excessive human impact, which is reflected in its performance exceeding the allowable agricultural development and land structure imbalance. The environmental condition of land resources close to critical. Among the largest land area occupied by agricultural land (71% of which - 76% is arable land. Violation environmentally acceptable ratio of arable land, natural grasslands and forests negatively affected the sustainability of agricultural landscapes. Throughout the widespread land degradation processes, among which the most ambitious is the erosion (about 57.5% of the territory, pollution (20% of the territory, flooding (about 12% of the territory. Sustainable (balanced land is one of the key factors of sustainable nature of territorial entities and may be formed of a priority, taking into account environmental factors. In ecological optimization based on value criteria ekolohostabilizuyuchyh and anthropogenic pressures lands should necessarily provide for withdrawal of intensive land use, which in its modal properties can not ensure sustainability of land use. However, today in Ukraine within the territories of communities no project development to optimize land use on the basis of sustainable development. Accordingly, the purpose of the article was the study of certain aspects of Land Management sustainable development of agricultural land within the territories of local communities. The current structure of the land fund of Ukraine was actually formed in the Soviet period, under the influence of policies of extensive agricultural development. Violation environmentally acceptable ratio of arable land, natural grasslands and forests negatively affected the stability and condition of land, which is confirmed by relevant research. In such circumstances, balancing the land proposed to carry out in two stages - the ecological and economic. In ecological optimization criteria based on land value necessarily

  4. A GIS-based hedonic price model for agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Demetris

    2015-06-01

    Land consolidation is a very effective land management planning approach that aims towards rural/agricultural sustainable development. Land reallocation which involves land tenure restructuring is the most important, complex and time consuming component of land consolidation. Land reallocation relies on land valuation since its fundamental principle provides that after consolidation, each landowner shall be granted a property of an aggregate value that is approximately the same as the value of the property owned prior to consolidation. Therefore, land value is the crucial factor for the land reallocation process and hence for the success and acceptance of the final land consolidation plan. Land valuation is a process of assigning values to all parcels (and its contents) and it is usually carried out by an ad-hoc committee. However, the process faces some problems such as it is time consuming hence costly, outcomes may present inconsistency since it is carried out manually and empirically without employing systematic analytical tools and in particular spatial analysis tools and techniques such as statistical/mathematical. A solution to these problems can be the employment of mass appraisal land valuation methods using automated valuation models (AVM) based on international standards. In this context, this paper presents a spatial based linear hedonic price model which has been developed and tested in a case study land consolidation area in Cyprus. Results showed that the AVM is capable to produce acceptable in terms of accuracy and reliability land values and to reduce time hence cost required by around 80%.

  5. Earth land landing alternatives: Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) develop a landing option such that it is a viable trade option for future NASA missions; (2) provide NASA programs with solid technical support in the landing systems area; (3) develop the technical staff; and (4) advance the state of landing systems technology to apply to future NASA missions. All results are presented in viewgraph format.

  6. Adsorption properties of the soils of the Ranger uranium mine land application area for solutes in water from Retention Pond 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, I.R.; Bond, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The research reported here aimed to describe the adsorption properties of the soils of Ranger's irrigation area for important constituents of RP2 water. Three kinds of experiments were conducted. For the major ions (Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , K + , SO 4 2-, and Cl - ) measurements were made of cation and anion exchange capacities. For the minor solutes (MN 2+ , U 238 , and Ra 226 ) which undergo more specific, inner-sphere reactions with soil surfaces, the retention capacities were determined by batch adsorption isotherm methods. Lastly, column experiments were conducted to determine whether the soils could retain U 238 , Ra 226 and Pb 210 when the quantities of each radionuclide were applied in much greater quantities than was possible in the batch adsorption studies, or during the field experiment described earlier at this Workshop (Bond and Willett 1992). It was aimed to obtain information on the retention capacity of the three main soil types of the irrigation area; Unit I, II and III, respectively red earths, yellow earths and siliceous sands, in relation to soil pH. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs

  7. Understanding the Effect of Ni on Mechanical and Wear Properties of Low-Carbon Steel from a View-Point of Electron Work Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Huang, Xiaochen; Hou, Runfang; Li, D. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Electron work function (EWF) is correlated to intrinsic properties of metallic materials and can be an alternative parameter to obtain supplementary clues for guiding material design and modification. A higher EWF corresponds to a more stable electronic state, leading to higher resistance to any attempt to change the material structure and properties. In this study, effects of Ni as a solute with a higher EWF on mechanical, electrochemical, and tribological properties of low-carbon steel were investigated. Added Ni, which has more valence electrons, enhanced the electrons-nuclei interaction in the steel, corresponding to higher EWF. As a result, the Ni-added steel showed increased mechanical strength and corrosion resistance, resulting in higher resistances to wear and corrosive wear. Mechanism for the improvements is elucidated through analyzing EWF-related variations in Young's modulus, hardness, corrosion potential, and tribological behavior.

  8. The Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS): mobile apps and collaboration for optimizing climate change investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massive investments in climate change mitigation and adaptation are projected during coming decades. Many of these investments will seek to modify how land is managed. The return on both types of investments can be increased through an understanding of land potential: the potential of the land to s...

  9. Deep Percolation in Arid Piedmont Slopes: Multiple Lines of Evidence Show How Land Use Change and Ecohydrological Properties Affect Groundwater Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner-McGraw, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Browning, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    A critical hydrologic process in arid regions is the contribution of episodic streamflow in ephemeral channels to groundwater recharge. This process has traditionally been studied in channels that drain large watersheds (10s to 100s km2). In this study, we aim to characterize the provision of the ecosystem services of surface and groundwater supply in a first-order watershed (4.6 ha) in an arid piedmont slope of the Jornada Experimental Range (JER). We use an observational and modeling approach to estimate deep percolation. During a 6 year study period, we observed 428 mm of percolation (P) and 39 mm of runoff (Q); ratios of P to rainfall (R) of P/R = 0.27 and Q/R = 0.02. Utilizing an instrument network and site measurements, we determine that percolation occurs primarily inside channel reaches when these receive runoff from upland hillslopes and find that a monthly rainfall threshold of 62 mm is needed for significant percolation to be generated. In order to quantify the mechanisms leading to this threshold response, we develop a channel transmission loss module for the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) and test the model thoroughly against the available observations over the study period. For these purposes, we make use of image classifications from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flights, a ground-based phenocam, and species-level measurements to parameterize vegetation processes in the model. We then conduct an extensive set of sensitivity experiments to determine the relative roles of channel, soil, and vegetation properties on modifying the relation between monthly rainfall and percolation. Additionally, we test how the observed vegetation transitions in the JER over the last 150 years affect the deep percolation and runoff estimates. By quantifying mechanisms through which vegetation changes affect water resource provision, this work provides new insights on the ecohydrological controls on the water yield of arid piedmont slopes.

  10. Understanding changes in water availability in the Rio Grande/Río Bravo del Norte basin under the influence of large-scale circulation indices using the Noah land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedun, C. Prakash; Mishra, Ashok K.; Bolten, John D.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Kaiser, Ronald A.; Giardino, J. Richard; Singh, Vijay P.

    2012-03-01

    Water availability plays an important role in the socio-economic development of a region. It is however, subject to the influence of large-scale circulation indices, resulting in periodic excesses and deficits. An assessment of the degree of correlation between climate indices and water availability, and the quantification of changes with respect to major climate events is important for long-term water resources planning and management, especially in transboundary basins as it can help in conflict avoidance. In this study we first establish the correlation of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with gauged precipitation in the Rio Grande basin, and then quantify the changes in water availability using runoff generated from the Noah land surface model. Both spatial and temporal variations are noted, with winter and spring being most influenced by conditions in the Pacific Ocean. Negative correlation is observed at the headwaters and positive correlation across the rest of the basin. The influence of individual ENSO events, classified using four different criteria, is also examined. El Niños (La Niñas) generally cause an increase (decrease) in runoff, but the pattern is not consistent; percentage change in water availability varies across events. Further, positive PDO enhances the effect of El Niño and dampens that of La Niña, but during neutral/transitioning PDO, La Niña dominates meteorological conditions. Long El Niños have more influence on water availability than short duration high intensity events. We also note that the percentage increase during El Niños significantly offsets the drought-causing effect of La Niñas.

  11. Understanding Changes in Water Availability in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte Basin Under the Influence of Large-Scale Circulation Indices Using the Noah Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedun, C. Prakash; Mishra, Ashok K.; Bolten, John D.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Kaiser, Ronald A.; Giardino, J. Richard; Singh, Vijay P.

    2012-01-01

    Water availability plays an important role in the socio-economic development of a region. It is however, subject to the influence of large-scale circulation indices, resulting in periodic excesses and deficits. An assessment of the degree of correlation between climate indices and water availability, and the quantification of changes with respect to major climate events is important for long-term water resources planning and management, especially in transboundary basins as it can help in conflict avoidance. In this study we first establish the correlation of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with gauged precipitation in the Rio Grande basin, and quantify the changes in water availability using runoff generated from the Noah land surface model. Both spatial and temporal variations are noted, with winter and spring being most influenced by conditions in the Pacific Ocean. Negative correlation is observed at the headwaters and positive correlation across the rest of the basin. The influence of individual ENSO events, classified using four different criteria, is also examined. El Ninos (La Ninas) generally cause an increase (decrease) in runoff, but the pattern is not consistent; percentage change in water availability varies across events. Further, positive PDO enhances the effect of El Nino and dampens that of La Nina, but during neutral/transitioning PDO, La Nina dominates meteorological conditions. Long El Ninos have more influence on water availability than short duration high intensity events. We also note that the percentage increase during El Ninos significantly offsets the drought-causing effect of La Ninas.

  12. Understanding the synergistic effects, optical and electronic properties of ternary Fe/C/S-doped TiO2 anatase within the DFT 1 U approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Opoku, F

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available property of TiO2doped with Fe, C, and S are investigated in detail using the density functional theory + U method. The calculated band gap (3.21 eV) of TiO2anatase agree well with the experimental band gap (3.20 eV). The defect formation energy shows...

  13. Urban land takeup and the potential for a crisis in the real estate regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Giaretto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban land takeups have become one of the main problems in Latin American cities within the last twenty years. From a social and critical perspective, the task at hand is double: to discredit common sense views considering take ups are crime offences and fostering poverty criminalization and, at the same time, to critically analyze the relations between the State and the individuals involved in land take ups, so that we may understand the complexity of this problem.By analysing some interviews to individuals involved in social conflicts in the framework of urban land take ups —both by grassroots sectors and municipal officers, and by secondary sources—, to review varied concrete experiences in the city of Cipolletti (Argentina is proposed, focusing in State intervention forms and discussing whether they are or they are not the sign of a structural crisis within the capitalist property regime under new accumulation conditions.

  14. METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF LAND USE PLANNING LOCALLY IN TERMS OF NEW LAND RELATIONS AND DECENTRALIZATION OF POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapinos

    2017-05-01

    land documents. For a reasonable solution for the sustainable development of land use in rural areas must both technologically interconnected circuits develop spatial planning, land management schemes and schemes establishing an ecological network within the area councils. In this regard, we propose to change the ideology (concept, spatial planning for land development, directing it to priority land use tasks as part of the documentation for land management on the territory of the councils, including the consolidated territorial communities, which needs to assess the land resource and other natural resource potential of the territory, to reconcile and harmonize territorial and land-property interests of the state and territorial communities, citizens and businesses, to give proposals for improving local systems and land use patterns; to establish a balanced use of the properties of the earth as a natural object, natural resource and real estate.

  15. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  16. Understanding Soil Erosion in Irrigated Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    O' Schwankl, Lawrence J

    2006-01-01

    A soil's physical and chemical properties determine whether it is vulnerable to erosion, which can reduce soil quality and cause other problems besides. Learn the basics of identifying what type of erosion is affecting your land and what's causing it.

  17. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  18. Applying a Problem Based Learning Approach to Land Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    Land management covers a wide range activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to fulfil political objectives and achieve sustainable development. This paper presents an overall understanding of the land management paradigm and the benefits of good...... land governance to society. A land administration system provides a country with the infrastructure to implement land-related policies and land management strategies. By applying this land management profile to surveying education, this paper suggests that there is a need to move away from an exclusive...... engineering focus toward adopting an interdisciplinary and problem-based approach to ensure that academic programmes can cope with the wide range of land administration functions and challenges. An interdisciplinary approach to surveying education calls for the need to address issues and problems in a real...

  19. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Raster-based land cover data set derived from 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source imagery...

  20. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Vector)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Vector-based land cover data set derived from classified 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source...

  1. Global achievements in sustainable land management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Motavalli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification and development of sustainable land management is urgently required because of widespread resource degradation from poor land use practices. In addition, the world will need to increase food production to meet the nutritional needs of a growing global population without major environmental degradation. Ongoing climate change and its impacts on the environment is an additional factor to consider in identifying and developing sustainable land use practices. The objectives of this paper are to: (1 provide a background to the need for sustainable land management, (2 identify some of its major components, and (3 discuss some examples of sustainable land management systems that are being practiced around the world. Some common components of this type of management are: (1 understanding the ecology of land management, (2 maintenance or enhancement of land productivity, (3 maintenance of soil quality, (4 increased diversity for higher stability and resilience, (5 provision of economic and ecosystem service benefits for communities, and (6 social acceptability. Several examples of sustainable land management systems are discussed to illustrate the wide range of systems that have been developed around the world including agroforestry, conservation agriculture, and precision agricultural systems. Improved technology, allowing for geater environmental measurement and for improved access and sharing of information, provides opportunities to identify and develop more sustainable land management practices and systems for the future.

  2. Integrated Vegetation Management Practices Memorandum of Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum of Understanding between EPA and the Edison Electric Institute, U.S. Department of Agriculture (Forest Service), and U.S. Department of the Interior (Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Park Service for IVM.

  3. Embodied Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Leonard Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  4. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  5. Agriculture: Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  6. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded...... as more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights....... This relates to national political arrangements and standards for good governance and land administration systems are highly instrumental in this regard. This paper introduces the relation between land administration and human rights. It is argued that human rights and land administration are closely linked...

  7. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  8. Economics and land-use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of this book is to use the tools developed by modern microeconomics to provide a framework for the analysis of policies towards the allocation of land and the control of activities using land. There has been a traditional conflict between economists and land-use planners. But the new concepts of externalities and public goods have given economists new tools particularly relevant to land-use planning. Developments in planning theory have also tended to make the planners' prime concern the best allocation of total resources: the central problem of economic analysis. The principal focus of the book is the general justification for intervention in the urban land and property markets, the principles for evaluating such intervention and the proper role of the public sector within the urban economy. It also considers in some detail the practical problems involved in putting these principles into effect.

  9. Raw materials from the public lands in century 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Fred Kaiser; James E. Granskog

    1996-01-01

    Forest management on public lands is undergoing fundamental change. To understand forest management on U.S. public lands in the future, an understanding of the concept of ecosystem management will be needed. Ecosystem management is not a goal unto itself, but a means to an endCand that end goal is sustainability of all resources. A number of commitments have been made...

  10. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  11. Theorizing Land Cover and Land Use Change: The Peasant Economy of Colonization in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Marcellus; Walker, Robert; Arima, Eugenio; Perz, Stephen; Aldrich, Stephen; Simmons, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses deforestation processes in the Amazon basin. It deploys a methodology combining remote sensing and survey-based fieldwork to examine, with regression analysis, the impact household structure and economic circumstances on deforestation decisions made by colonist farmers in the forest frontiers of Brazil. Unlike most previous regression-based studies, the methodology implemented analyzes behavior at the level of the individual property. The regressions correct for endogenous relationships between key variables, and spatial autocorrelation, as necessary. Variables used in the analysis are specified, in part, by a theoretical development integrating the Chayanovian concept of the peasant household with spatial considerations stemming from von Thuenen. The results from the empirical model indicate that demographic characteristics of households, as well as market factors, affect deforestation in the Amazon. Thus, statistical results from studies that do not include household-scale information may be subject to error. From a policy perspective, the results suggest that environmental policies in the Amazon based on market incentives to small farmers may not be as effective as hoped, given the importance of household factors in catalyzing the demand for land. The paper concludes by noting that household decisions regarding land use and deforestation are not independent of broader social circumstances, and that a full understanding of Amazonian deforestation will require insight into why poor families find it necessary to settle the frontier in the first place.

  12. Land Prices and Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Nakamura; Yumi Saita

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term relationship between macro economic fundamentals and the weighted-average land price indicators, which are supposed to be more appropriate than the official land price indicators when analyzing their impacts on the macro economy. In many cases, we find the cointegrating relationships between the weighted-average land price indicators and the discounted present value of land calculated based on the macro economic fundamentals indicators. We also find that the ...

  13. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  14. Ab initio understanding of magnetic properties in Zn2+ substitution of Fe3O4 ultra-thin film with dilute Zn substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaocong; Chen, Qian; Jiang, Sheng; Dong, Shuai; Zhai, Ya

    2018-05-01

    The mechanism of the magnetic properties on the Zn2+ substituted Fe3O4 film have been investigated based on first principle calculations. It is found that the surface effect plays an important role in the occupation of Zn ion, and in turn changes the magnetic moment. It may also destroy the half metallic behavior of Fe3O4 film even if the Zn2+ concentration only is one Zn2+ per unit cell (4%), which is different from that in bulk material.

  15. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping.......Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  16. Understanding Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Eugene W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Urges returning to the original federalist debates to understand contemporary federalism. Reviews "The Federalist Papers," how federalism has evolved, and the centralization of the national government through acts of Congress and Supreme Court decisions. Recommends teaching about federalism as part of teaching about U.S. government…

  17. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  18. Innovate the Land Supply Pattern and Stabilize the Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Junjie; Chen haibo

    2015-01-01

    In the process of building a harmonious socialist society, the protection of people' s livelihood is the priority, and to solve the housing problem of over one billion residents is the top priority. The present thesis begins with the land supply mechanism, and do researches on the style, the source and the type of land supply. With the analysis of land finance, the present thesis finally put forward the measures to innovate the land supply pattern, to increase the supply of low-income housing, to reform the way of land supply and to explore the circulating pattern of normative collective construction land that comes to is on the market. Meanwhile, it combines the present house property tax reform, putting forward the idea that imposing land property tax should be a way to inhibit the behavior of speculation. The present thesis aims at keeping the housing price at a reasonable level so that the purpose of stabilizing the housing price can he achieved.

  19. Investigation of the main chemical properties of water-magnesium chloride solutions. Application to the understanding of stress corrosion phenomena in 17.12 Mo stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasni, Abdellatif

    1988-01-01

    This research thesis reports the investigation of the main chemical properties of concentrated aqueous solutions of MgCl 2 and of their influence of stress corrosion of 17Cr-12Ni-2Mo stainless steel. It shows that the most important chemical properties are the equilibrium pH and the acidity range of MgCl 2 aqueous solutions, and that they strongly depend on solution temperature and concentration. The medium pH is governed by the increased acidity of water in presence of Mg ++ ions, while the acidity range is determined by a hydrolysis reaction of these ions which results in a precipitation of magnesium hydroxyl-chlorides. The investigation of stress corrosion behaviour of the steel in MgCl 2 solutions with varying temperature and concentration shows that this behaviour comes down to a prevailing pH effect which results from the variation of these both parameters, with a not negligible but less important effect of temperature. A study of cracking surfaces indicates that it is possible to pass from a transgranular to an intergranular mode by a variation of either media aggressiveness (pH, temperature, voltage) or strain rate. These results are explained by a concept of kinetic factor which limits stress corrosion [fr

  20. Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

    2013-01-15

    How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, This data set consists of digital map files containing parcel-level cadastral information obtained from property descriptions. Cadastral features contained in the data set include real property boundary lines, rights-of-way boundaries, property dimensions, Published in Not Provided, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Racine County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of unknown. This data set consists of digital map files containing parcel-level cadastral information obtained from...

  2. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  3. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    on fieldwork in a village in the new lands; it is inhabited by graduates who have received land under the Mubarak Project. The analysis shows that they move there in hope of making a better life especially for their children. Nevertheless, the settlers have difficulties building a sense of belonging to the new....... This paper examines from a micro-perspective, the life of Egyptians resettled in the new lands. The first part of the paper provides an introduction to the discourses of land reclamation, to the policies of reclaimed land distribution, and to the background of the settlers. The second part is based...

  4. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  5. International Coalition Land Use/Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a product of an effort to update Minnesota's 1969 land use inventory. The project was funded in 1989 by the State Legislature per recommendation...

  6. Bureau of Land Management Land Grant Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data has been collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at the New Mexico State Office. The initial data source is the statewide...

  7. Effect of land use types in Miesa Watershed on soil quality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of land use types on physicochemical and biological properties of soil and hence on soil fertility and soil productivity. In order to investigate soil fertility status, soil samples collected from different land use types (cultivated land, grazing land and natural forest) from the ...

  8. Accessing indigenous land rights through claims in Taroko Area, Eastern Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo, Yung-Ching

    2013-01-01

    The thesis explores how indigenous people access land rights through claims. Land claims happens on the encounters between different regimes of property. The authors found indigenous people have many ways to express their land claims since Japanese time. There are individual claims on lands like

  9. International Land Coalition: Women's access to land

    OpenAIRE

    International Land Coalition (ILC)

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record The International Land Coalition (ILC) started as the Popular Coalition to Eradicate Hunger and Poverty. This is a global alliance of intergovernmental, governmental and civil-society organizations committed to rural poverty eradication. On their website, (on the left click on documents) the link presents a list of resources related to the role of women and access to land. There are case studies and country reports in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Kenya and Nepal, as wel...

  10. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    . Combining the conceptual lenses of land systems and livelihood approaches, this paper demonstrates how the land use system has changed substantially because of the establishment of the rubber plantation by the company, notably in the linkages between livestock rearing, upland shifting cultivation......This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local...... land-based livelihoods. The paper presents an empirical case study of the village of Na Nhang Neua in Nambak District, Luang Prabang Province, using a mixed methods approach to investigate the positive and negative implications for household agricultural strategies, income generation and food security...

  11. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  12. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  13. Land use and energy utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, T.O.; Nathans, R.; Palmedo, P.F.

    1977-06-01

    Land use plays an important role in structuring the basic patterns in which energy is consumed in many areas of the U.S. Thus, in considering policies at a national or local level, which are aimed at either utilizing energy supplies in a more efficient manner, or in establishing the compatibility of new energy supply, conversion, and end use technologies with our existing social patterns of energy use, it is important to understand the interdependencies between land use and energy. The Land Use-Energy Utilization Project initiated in July 1974 was designed to explore the quantitative relationships between alternative regional land-use patterns and their resultant energy and fuel demands and the impacts of these demands on the regional and national energy supply-distribution systems. The project studies and analyses described briefly in this report provide a framework for delineating the energy system impacts of current and projected regional land-use development; a base of information dealing with the energy intensiveness of assorted land-use activities; models that enable Federal and regional planners to estimate the ranges of potential energy savings that could be derived from employing alternative land-use activity configurations; and a user manual for allowing local land use planners to carry out their own land use-energy impact evaluations. Much remains to be done to elucidate the complicated interdependencies between land use and energy utilization: what is accomplished here is an initial structuring of the problem. On the other hand, the recent increase in interest in establishing new ways for the U.S. to achieve energy conservation suggests that actions will be taken in the near future to tie land-use development to national and local targets for conservation.

  14. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  15. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  16. Modelling Participatory Geographic Information System for Customary Land Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamera, E. A.; Arko-Adjei, A.; Duncan, E. E.; Kuma, J. S. Y.

    2017-11-01

    Since land contributes to about 73 % of most countries Gross Domestic Product (GDP), attention on land rights have tremendously increased globally. Conflicts over land have therefore become part of the major problems associated with land administration. However, the conventional mechanisms for land conflict resolution do not provide satisfactory result to disputants due to various factors. This study sought to develop a Framework of using Participatory Geographic Information System (PGIS) for customary land conflict resolution. The framework was modelled using Unified Modelling Language (UML). The PGIS framework, called butterfly model, consists of three units namely, Social Unit (SU), Technical Unit (TU) and Decision Making Unit (DMU). The name butterfly model for land conflict resolution was adopted for the framework based on its features and properties. The framework has therefore been recommended to be adopted for land conflict resolution in customary areas.

  17. Impacts of bus rapid transit (BRT) on surrounding residential property values : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    As bus rapid transit (BRT) grows in popularity in the United States, a better understanding of the modes impacts on land uses and property values is needed. Economic theory suggests, and literature has shown, that people are willing to pay higher ...

  18. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  19. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  20. THE VALUE AND ROLE OF LAND MANAGEMENT AT THE LOCAL LEVEL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapinos

    2017-02-01

    (2001 power rural town councils on order, including the management of land use, land narrowed to only settlements. This led to the decline in land management activities performed. Also, due to lack of funding work on complex land use of rational use of land and their health are not implemented. This land use agricultural land use, which functioned until 1990 was destroyed, and new forms of the rational internal build area to date has not been established. According to Art. 130 Land Code of Ukraine emptive right to purchase agricultural land are citizens ofUkraine, permanently residing in the territory of the local council, where the sale of land, as well as relevant local authorities. However, the status of territory of the local council in land law is not defined. No separation of state and municipal property without development of land management projects within the areas of village councils to streamline land farms has created a number of problems of forecasting, planning and organization of rational use and protection of land at local and economic levels, and therefore financially stable communities. Thus, the importance and role of land management at the local level in the development of local communities land use at this stage of development of land relations is growing. But it needs to speed up recovery (existing before the adoption of the Land Code of Ukraine in 2001 the powers of local communities in the sphere of land relations.

  1. Methodology of Prioritization of Land Consolidation and Land Exchange Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Len, Przemyslaw

    2017-12-01

    Land consolidation is one of the basic development activities in rural areas intended to comprehensively improve the organization of agricultural production space. Merging and exchange of parcels are aimed at transforming a fragmented and “checkerboarded” landscape containing excessively long fields into plots as large and regular as possible. Land consolidation decisions are based on detailed analyses of relevant parameters. Properly carried out land consolidation creates an opportunity to organize agricultural holdings in an appropriate way, and, at the same time, to preserve the natural environment. Consolidation provides appropriate conditions for sustainable and multi-functional rural development by limiting the harmful influence of intensive agriculture on the natural environment. It also leads to an improvement in living and working conditions for inhabitants of rural areas. The analysis conducted in this study was aimed at singling out villages in the commune of Paradyż in which consolidation of arable land was required most urgently. Factors describing the investigated villages were selected on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the natural, social, economic and financial conditions found in those localities. The analysis was conducted using data obtained from the Land and Property Register of the District Office in Opoczno and data from the Office of the Commune of Paradyż. The study allowed us to determine which areas required land consolidation and exchange interventions, thus becoming a basis for applying for financial resources necessary to reach the aforementioned goal. A special role in empirical studies, especially comparative studies, of human activity is played by taxonomic methods, which involve linear ordering of items according to a synthetic indicator characterizing those items, which is calculated on the basis of a set of shared features. These methods are widely used in econometrics and socio-economic research to create all

  2. UNDERSTANDING THE UNUSUAL X-RAY EMISSION PROPERTIES OF THE MASSIVE, CLOSE BINARY WR 20a: A HIGH ENERGY WINDOW INTO THE STELLAR WIND INITIATION REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Strickler, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The problem of explaining the X-ray emission properties of the massive, close binary WR 20a is discussed. Located near the cluster core of Westerlund 2, WR 20a is composed of two nearly identical Wolf-Rayet stars of 82 and 83 solar masses orbiting with a period of only 3.7 days. Although Chandra observations were taken during the secondary optical eclipse, the X-ray light curve shows no signs of a flux decrement. In fact, WR 20a appears slightly more X-ray luminous and softer during the optical eclipse, opposite to what has been observed in other binary systems. To aid in our interpretation of the data, we compare with the results of hydrodynamical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Mezcal which includes radiative cooling and a radiative acceleration force term. It is shown that the X-ray emission can be successfully explained in models where the wind-wind collision interface in this system occurs while the outflowing material is still being accelerated. Consequently, WR 20a serves as a critical test-case for how radiatively driven stellar winds are initiated and how they interact. Our models not only procure a robust description of current Chandra data, which cover the orbital phases between 0.3 and 0.6, but also provide detailed predictions over the entire orbit

  3. Understanding the Unusual X-Ray Emission Properties of the Massive, Close Binary WR 20a: A High Energy Window into the Stellar Wind Initiation Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Strickler, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    The problem of explaining the X-ray emission properties of the massive, close binary WR 20a is discussed. Located near the cluster core of Westerlund 2, WR 20a is composed of two nearly identical Wolf-Rayet stars of 82 and 83 solar masses orbiting with a period of only 3.7 days. Although Chandra observations were taken during the secondary optical eclipse, the X-ray light curve shows no signs of a flux decrement. In fact, WR 20a appears slightly more X-ray luminous and softer during the optical eclipse, opposite to what has been observed in other binary systems. To aid in our interpretation of the data, we compare with the results of hydrodynamical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Mezcal which includes radiative cooling and a radiative acceleration force term. It is shown that the X-ray emission can be successfully explained in models where the wind-wind collision interface in this system occurs while the outflowing material is still being accelerated. Consequently, WR 20a serves as a critical test-case for how radiatively driven stellar winds are initiated and how they interact. Our models not only procure a robust description of current Chandra data, which cover the orbital phases between 0.3 and 0.6, but also provide detailed predictions over the entire orbit.

  4. Serish inulin and wheat biopolymers interactions in model systems as a basis for understanding the impact of inulin on bread properties: a FTIR investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourfarzad, Amir; Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Haddad Khodaparast, Mohammad H; Khayyat, Mohammad Hassanzadeh

    2015-12-01

    In this study the interactions between Serish root inulin and the main biopolymer types of wheat flour namely gluten, starch and phospholipid, were investigated in different model systems using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to unravel the underlying physical mechanism by which inulin impacts dough and bread properties. Interactions of inulin with starch and phospholipid were not considerable compared to gluten, but it was also clear that the modes of these interactions varied with the type and the amount of additives used in model formulation. This study revealed that when inulin is added to gluten, water redistribution promotes partial dehydration of gluten and collapse of β-spirals into intermolecular β-sheet structures; this trans-conformations might be due to physical reasons are believed to further impact the poor quality of bread containing added inulin. Upon performing Gaussian-Lorenzian curve fitting, it was observed that by adding of inulin to model systems, the relative contribution of characteristic peaks of β-turn and intramolecular β-sheet was progressively decreased whereas intermolecular β-sheet and α-helix contents were increased.

  5. UNDERSTANDING THE UNUSUAL X-RAY EMISSION PROPERTIES OF THE MASSIVE, CLOSE BINARY WR 20a: A HIGH ENERGY WINDOW INTO THE STELLAR WIND INITIATION REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Strickler, Rachel [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    The problem of explaining the X-ray emission properties of the massive, close binary WR 20a is discussed. Located near the cluster core of Westerlund 2, WR 20a is composed of two nearly identical Wolf-Rayet stars of 82 and 83 solar masses orbiting with a period of only 3.7 days. Although Chandra observations were taken during the secondary optical eclipse, the X-ray light curve shows no signs of a flux decrement. In fact, WR 20a appears slightly more X-ray luminous and softer during the optical eclipse, opposite to what has been observed in other binary systems. To aid in our interpretation of the data, we compare with the results of hydrodynamical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Mezcal which includes radiative cooling and a radiative acceleration force term. It is shown that the X-ray emission can be successfully explained in models where the wind-wind collision interface in this system occurs while the outflowing material is still being accelerated. Consequently, WR 20a serves as a critical test-case for how radiatively driven stellar winds are initiated and how they interact. Our models not only procure a robust description of current Chandra data, which cover the orbital phases between 0.3 and 0.6, but also provide detailed predictions over the entire orbit.

  6. Understanding uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Lindley, Dennis V

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.

  7. Land use and land cover change based on historical space-time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiong; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Min; Zhang, Yongjing

    2016-09-01

    Land use and cover change is a leading edge topic in the current research field of global environmental changes and case study of typical areas is an important approach understanding global environmental changes. Taking the Qiantang River (Zhejiang, China) as an example, this study explores automatic classification of land use using remote sensing technology and analyzes historical space-time change by remote sensing monitoring. This study combines spectral angle mapping (SAM) with multi-source information and creates a convenient and efficient high-precision land use computer automatic classification method which meets the application requirements and is suitable for complex landform of the studied area. This work analyzes the histological space-time characteristics of land use and cover change in the Qiantang River basin in 2001, 2007 and 2014, in order to (i) verify the feasibility of studying land use change with remote sensing technology, (ii) accurately understand the change of land use and cover as well as historical space-time evolution trend, (iii) provide a realistic basis for the sustainable development of the Qiantang River basin and (iv) provide a strong information support and new research method for optimizing the Qiantang River land use structure and achieving optimal allocation of land resources and scientific management.

  8. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  9. Understanding ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  10. Understanding Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya Dilip Gadgil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda′s power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  11. In-situ Monitoring of Plant-microbe Communication to Understand the Influence of Soil Properties on Symbiotic Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, T.; Del Valle, I.; Cheng, H. Y.; Silberg, J. J.; Masiello, C. A.; Lehmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    Plant-microbe signaling is important for many symbiotic and pathogenic interactions. While this signaling often occurs in soils, very little research has evaluated the role that the soil mineral and organic matter matrix plays in plant-microbe communication. One hurdle to these studies is the lack of simple tools for evaluating how soil mineral phases and organic matter influence the availability of plant-produced flavonoids that initiate the symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes. Because of their range of hydrophobic and electrostatic properties, flavonoids represent an informative class of signaling molecules. In this presentation, we will describe studies examining the bioavailable concentrations of flavonoids in soils using traditional techniques, such as high-pressure liquid chromatography and fluorescent microbial biosensors. Additionally, we will describe our progress developing a Rhizobium leguminosarum reporter that can be deployed into soils to report on flavonoid levels. This new microbial reporter is designed so that Rhizobium only generates a volatile gas signal when it encounters a defined concentration of flavonoids. By monitoring the output of this biosensor using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry during real time during soil incubations, we are working to establish the impact of soil organic matter, pH, and mineral phases on the reception of these signaling molecules. We expect that the findings from these studies will be useful for recommending soil management strategies that can enhance the communication between legumes and nitrogen fixing bacteria. This research highlights the importance of studying the role of soil as a mediator of plant-microbe communication.

  12. Development and studies of Cd_1_−_xMg_xTe thin films with varying band gaps to understand the Mg incorporation and the related material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomera, Roger C.; Martínez, Omar S.; Pantoja-Enriquez, J.; Mathews, N.R.; Reyes-Banda, Martín G.; Krishnan, B.; Mathew, X.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd_1_−_xMg_xTe films with band gap in the range 1.47–2.41 eV is obtained. • Cd substitution by Mg was confirmed with SIMS and XPS analysis. • Cd_1_−_xMg_xTe films maintained CdTe structural features but with higher band gap. • Mg incorporation in CdTe inhibited grain growth. - Abstract: In this paper we report a systematic work involving the development of Cd_1_−_xMg_xTe thin films by co-evaporation of CdTe and Mg. The evaporation rate of both materials were adjusted to obtain ternary films of varying stoichiometry and hence the band gap. We have deposited films with band gap ranging from 1.47 to 2.41 eV. The films were characterized for structural, morphological, optical, opto-electronic, and spectroscopic properties. The film stoichiometry was studied across the thickness using SIMS data. SEM images showed that the grain size has a dependence on Mg content in the film, which inhibits the grain growth. The structural parameters showed a systematic dependence on Mg content in the film, however, there was no noticeable change in the XRD reflections with respect that of pure CdTe for lower concentrations of Mg. XPS analysis shed light on the incorporation of Mg further supporting the band gap variations observed with the UV–Vis spectroscopic studies. The photoresponse of the film was affected by Mg incorporation. Prototype devices of the type Cd_1_−_XMg_xTe/CdS were fabricated and the results are discussed.

  13. Challenges in land model representation of heat transfer in snow and frozen soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, K. N.; Clark, M. P.; Nijssen, B.; Arnold, J.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate model simulations of soil thermal and moisture states are critical for realistic estimates of exchanges of energy, water, and biogeochemical fluxes at the land-atmosphere interface. In cold regions, seasonal snow-cover and organic soils form insulating barriers, modifying the heat and moisture exchange that would otherwise occur between mineral soils and the atmosphere. The thermal properties of these media are highly dynamic functions of mass, water and ice content. Land surface models vary in their representation of snow and soil processes, and thus in the treatment of insulation and heat exchange. For some models, recent development efforts have improved representation of heat transfer in cold regions, such as with multi-layer snow treatment, inclusion of soil freezing and organic soil properties, yet model deficiencies remain prevalent. We evaluate models that participated in the Protocol for the Analysis of Land Surface Models (PALS) Land Surface Model Benchmarking Evaluation Project (PLUMBER) experiment for proficiency in simulating heat transfer between the soil through the snowpack to the atmosphere. Using soil observations from cold region sites and a controlled experiment with Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA), we explore the impact of snow and soil model decisions and parameter values on heat transfer model skill. Specifically, we use SUMMA to mimic the spread of behaviors exhibited by the models that participated in PLUMBER. The experiment allows us to isolate relationships between model skill and process representation. The results are aimed to better understand existing model challenges and identify potential advances for cold region models.

  14. Problems of administration of ACCOUNTING OF QUALITY OF LANDs in system of state land of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tykhenko O.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditions of land resources of Ukraine and quality of soil getting worse, increasing areas of technogenic pollution. Uncontrolled land use leads to deterioration of soil fertility. To maintain a high level of natural properties of lands is necessary to monitor over their use, which can be achieved by accounting of land quality. Information about the quantity and quality of lands summarizing by the central executive authority that implements the state policy in the sphere of land relations. Summarized information on the quantity and quality of land on gratis personnel provided to state authorities and local governments according to Order of conducting of State Land Cadastre. One of the main problems of accounting quality of lands is in Ukraine now is not only the absence of regulatory documents, but also the reliability of available information According to it’s providing is necessary of availability of actual information about the status of land resources. The absence of qualitative characteristics land plots in cadastral system complicates state control over land use and protection, because there are no grounds for levy fines for the catastrophic decline of soil fertility. One of the layers of Public Cadastral Map of Ukraine are soils. Nowadays is approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine ( № 1051 nomenclature list of agro-industrial group of soils, which includes 222 of the agro groups with deciphering by granulometric composition. If with soil units identified, so the indicators that characterize them more difficult. That indicators, which were the basis for accounting of the quality of lands should check up to modern realities and condition of soils. According to the Law of Ukraine "On Land Protection", in the field of land protection and restoration of soil fertility establishes the following standards: maximum allowable soil contamination; qualitative condition of soils; the optimum ratio of lands; indicators of land and soils

  15. Mapping Forest Inventory and Analysis forest land use: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; John Vissage

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program produces area estimates of forest land use within three subcategories: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land. Mapping these subcategories of forest land requires the ability to spatially distinguish productive from unproductive land, and reserved from nonreserved land. FIA field data were spatially...

  16. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  17. Lands directorate publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The directorate has a lead role in providing advice to the federal government on land use policy in Canada. The Canada Land Inventory (CLI) Program has produced significant amounts of data pertaining to the capability of Canadian lands to support agriculture, forestry, recreation, wildlife and sport fish. A list of CLI reports is presented in this publication. In addition, and capability maps have been compiled for agricultural, forestry, recreation and wildlife and are listed and described in this publication. (KRM)

  18. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  19. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... tested in library contexts and the aim of this article is to identify the main approaches and to discuss their perspectives, including their strenghts and weaknesses in, especially, public library contexts. The purpose is also to prsent and discuss the results of a recent - 2014 - Danish library user...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  20. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  1. Open land use map

    OpenAIRE

    Mildorf, T.; Charvát, K.; Jezek, J.; Templer, Simon; Malewski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Open Land Use Map is an initiative that has been started by the Plan4business project and that will be extended as part of the SDI4Apps project in the future. This service aims to create an improved worldwide land use map. The initial map will be prepared using the CORINE Land Cover, Global Cover dataset and Open Street Map. Contributors, mainly volunteers, will able to change the geometry and assign up-to-date land use according to the HILUCS specification. For certain regions more detailed ...

  2. Mozambique - Rural Land Regularization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation strategy for the Land Project is comprised of four components-an impact evaluation of the institutional strengthening activity (Activity II),...

  3. Features of the standard evaluation of agricultural land in 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Опара

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Normative pecuniary valuation of land belongs to important economic regulators of land relations in Ukraine. Indicators of monetary valuation of land plots are used to determine the size of the land tax, the State duty at exchange, inheritance and the donation of land rent for land plots of the state and communal property, loss of agricultural and forestry production, as well as in the development of indicators and economic mechanisms to stimulate rational use and protection of lands. Normative monetary valuation of agricultural land is defined according to the standards of capitalized rent income on land for agricultural purposes and indicators of soils bonitet by drafting evaluation scales of agroindustrial groups of soils in natural agricultural areas. Index of standard capitalized rent on income reflects the profitability of a business. The soil differences appear on soil maps and they are the main target of the regulatory evaluation. The main source of information about the soil cover of agricultural land should actually be made by Derzhgeocadastr archives and its subordinate State enterprises according to the results of standard evaluation of a single agricultural land plot under the territorial authority of Derzhgeocadastr through administrative services at the location of the land. An extract from the technical documentation about the regulatory assessments of land must be published in time not exceeding three working days from the date of receipt of the corresponding application. The introduction of new methodological approach to the standard evaluation of agricultural lands involves the simplification of access of landowners and land users to data evaluation, based on possible continuous evaluation of administrative districts and providing information about the assessment of the particular land plot in the form of extract from the technical documentation of the standard evaluation, which will be determined on the basis of standard

  4. Sustainable reclaimation of alkali land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.S.; Khan, A.R.

    2002-05-01

    The development of sodicity in pilot project area is secondary in nature due to high water table. A pilot project for reclamation of 500 ha of alkaline land was taken in Bihar, India. Due to very high content of sodium and other soluble salts physical, chemical and biological environment of soil have deteriorated, which gave poor crop yield. The application of pyrite improved the physical, chemical, biological and soil properties and provided a conducive environment for plant growth and resulted in higher crop yields. For the sustainability of reclamation work apart from other precautions, a well-planned drainage system is a basic requirement for this area. (author)

  5. Synthesis, Crystal Structures, Magnetic Properties, and Theoretical Investigation of a New Series of NiII-LnIII-WV Heterotrimetallics: Understanding the SMM Behavior of Mixed Polynuclear Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieru, Veacheslav; Pasatoiu, Traian D; Ungur, Liviu; Suturina, Elizaveta; Madalan, Augustin M; Duhayon, Carine; Sutter, Jean-Pascal; Andruh, Marius; Chibotaru, Liviu F

    2016-12-05

    site, precluding magnetization blocking in complexes with fewer axial Ln ions. Further analysis has shown that, in the absence of ZFS on Ni ion, all compounds in the two series (except those containing Y and Gd) would be SMMs. The same situation arises for perfectly axial ZFS on Ni(II) with the main anisotropy axis parallel to the main magnetic axis of Ln(III) ions. In all other cases the ZFS on Ni(II) will worsen the SMM properties. The general conclusion is that the design of efficient SMMs on the basis of such complexes should involve isotropic or weekly anisotropic metal ions, such as Mn(II), Fe(III), etc., along with strongly axial lanthanides.

  6. Allegheny County Property Assessments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Real Property parcel characteristics for Allegheny County, PA. Includes information pertaining to land, values, sales, abatements, and building characteristics (if...

  7. Towards an International Data Standard for Immovable Property Valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kara, A.; Çağdaş, Volkan; Işıkdağ, Ümit; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Lemmen, Christiaan; Stubkjær, Erik; Halme, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Immovable property valuation is performed by public sector actors for several land management activities, such as property taxation, expropriation or compulsory purchase of land, land re-adjustment and land consolidation; and private sector actors perform valuation for purchase, real estate

  8. EVALUATION OF SALES VALUE OF OBJECT TAX ON LAND AND BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin RULIANA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax revenue today become the backbone of the State reception in the State Budget ( Budget . One of the tax revenue is land and building tax . Basis of property tax is the Sales Value of Object Tax. Sales Value of Object Tax is the average price obtained from the market price , and the price is based on the Decree of the Mayor [3]. Determination Sales Value of Object Tax based on Laws number 12 of 1985 amended by Laws number 12 of 1994 [1]. Determination Sales Value of Object Tax based Formulation of the problem in this paper is as follows : "Is it the Sales Value of Object Tax on Land and Building Tax in Year 2012 in accordance with Laws number 12 of year 1994". This research used a sample of fifty one taxpayers from Income Tax Payable in 2012. Target of research is Sales Value of Object Tax on land and building by comparing the Sales Value of Object Tax contained in the Notification Letter of Tax Payable to the actual situation. Based on the background and formulation of the problem, that : "Calculation Sales Value of Object Tax on Land and Building of 2012 in the District Palaran of Samarinda City not in accordance with Law Number 12 of 1994" . I was concluded that the calculation Sales Value of Object Tax on Land and Buildings in the District Palaran been calculated in accordance with Law on number 12 of 1994 . Difference in the amount of Land and Building Tax to be paid based on The Notification Letter of Tax Payable with the results of research in the field due to lack of public understanding about The Land and Building Tax, so that the taxpayer did not immediately report the wide changes to the tax object owned by the Office of Tax services

  9. Solar Development on Contaminated and Disturbed Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Courtney [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Land classified as contaminated and disturbed across the United States has the potential to host developments of utility-scale solar power. This report examines the prospect of developing utility- and commercial-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar photovoltaics (PV) technologies on degraded and environmentally contaminated lands. The potential for solar development on contaminated anddisturbed lands was assessed, and for the largest and highest solar resource sites, the economic impacts and feasibility were evaluated. Developing solar power on contaminated and disturbed lands can help create jobs and revitalize local and state economies, and selecting these sites over greenfield sites can potentially have permitting and environmental mitigation advantages. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot goals call for 632 GW of PV and 83 GW of CSP to be deployed by 2050. Conservative land-use estimates of this study (10 acres per megawatt) show that there are disturbed and environmentally contaminated lands throughout the country that could be suitable for utility-scale solar power, and, that there is sufficient land area to meet SunShot solar deployment goals. The purpose of this assessment is to improve the understanding of these sites and facilitate solar developers' selection of contaminated and disturbed sites for development.

  10. Addressing Issues for Land Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimoh, Ademola; Huang, He Qing

    2009-09-01

    Workshop on Vulnerability and Resilience of Land Systems in Asia; Beijing, China, 15-17 June 2009; There is a growing international community of scholars who work within the interdisciplinary field of land change science, a scientific domain that seeks to understand the dynamics of the land system as a coupled human-environment system. A coupled human-environment system is one in which the social and biophysical subsystems are intertwined so that the system's condition and responses to external forcing are based on the synergy of the two subsystems. Research on land system vulnerability, defined as a function of exposure and sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate variability and sudden changes in macroeconomic conditions and the ability to cope with the impacts of those perturbations, is a fundamental component of land change science. To address issues related to land system vulnerability, the Global Land Project (GLP; http://www.glp-beijing.org.cn/index.php and http://www.glp.hokudai.ac.jp) brought together an interdisciplinary group of researchers with backgrounds ranging from environmental to social sciences. Participants came from both developed and developing countries. The workshop sought to (1) improve knowledge of the causal processes that affect a system's vulnerability and capacity to cope with different perturbations and (2) identify factors that hinder the integration of vulnerability assessment into policies and decision making.

  11. Tool development to understand rural resource users' land use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -) ..... is a proxy for soil fertility and water availability. The resource users .... in Montpellier (France), two sessions with conservationists in Ant- ananarivo and .... hood activities within the wetlands of the Alaotra, (ii) living close to Lake Alaotra ...

  12. National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Kelly, Francis P.; Holm, Thomas M.; Nolt, Jenna E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) resides at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Congress directed the Department of the Interior (DOI) to establish a permanent Government archive containing satellite remote sensing data of the Earth's land surface and to make this data easily accessible and readily available. This unique DOI/USGS archive provides a comprehensive, permanent, and impartial observational record of the planet's land surface obtained throughout more than five decades of satellite remote sensing. Satellite-derived data and information products are primary sources used to detect and understand changes such as deforestation, desertification, agricultural crop vigor, water quality, invasive plant species, and certain natural hazards such as flood extent and wildfire scars.

  13. Changing land use intensity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Sluis, Theo; Pedroli, Bas; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades the intensification of agricultural production in many European countries has been one of the key components of land-use change. The impact of agricultural intensification varies according to national and local contexts and a greater understanding of the drivers of intensification...... will help to mitigate against its negative impacts and harness potential benefits. This paper analyses changes in land use intensity in six case studies in Europe. A total of 437 landowners were interviewed and their responses were analysed in relation to changes in land use intensity and agricultural...... use intensity) versus those in the Netherlands, Denmark and Greece (decreasing). In the Mediterranean cases we observe a process where agriculture is becoming increasingly marginalised, at the same time as changes in function with regard to urbanisation and recreational land uses have taken place...

  14. Statistical Monitoring of Changes to Land Cover

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil

    2018-04-06

    Accurate detection of changes in land cover leads to better understanding of the dynamics of landscapes. This letter reports the development of a reliable approach to detecting changes in land cover based on remote sensing and radiometric data. This approach integrates the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) chart with support vector machines (SVMs) for accurate and reliable detection of changes to land cover. Here, we utilize the MEWMA scheme to identify features corresponding to changed regions. Unfortunately, MEWMA schemes cannot discriminate between real changes and false changes. If a change is detected by the MEWMA algorithm, then we execute the SVM algorithm that is based on features corresponding to detected pixels to identify the type of change. We assess the effectiveness of this approach by using the remote-sensing change detection database and the SZTAKI AirChange benchmark data set. Our results show the capacity of our approach to detect changes to land cover.

  15. Accessing indigenous land rights through claims in Taroko Area, Eastern Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Yung-Ching

    2013-01-01

    The thesis explores how indigenous people access land rights through claims. Land claims happens on the encounters between different regimes of property. The authors found indigenous people have many ways to express their land claims since Japanese time. There are individual claims on lands like reservation land that suggests individualism among indigenous communities. There are collective claims on autonomy, co-management of river resources and development projects. Various mapping activitie...

  16. Land Use and Land Cover Change Analysis along the Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    are carried out on the land usually effect changes in its cover. ... The FAO document on land cover classification systems, (2000) partly answers this ... over the surface land, including water, vegetation, bare soils and or artificial structures. ... diseases may occur more readily in areas exposed by Land Use and Land Cover ...

  17. LAND GOVERNANCE AND LAND DEALS IN AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    It starts with an examination of the recent increase in land investments in ... postcolonial name for the former colonial “native reserves” in which the majority of ... in the north-northwest corner of Zimbabwe would receive a proportion of .... 7 See, for example, Hany Besada, Doing Business in Fragile States: The private sector ...

  18. Danish Mortgage Finance, Property Rights Protection and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    of screening methods for assessing the readiness for such transplantation depends on a deeper understanding of three large domains: A) Mortgage Finance, B) Cadastre and Land Registration; and C) Economic Development; and the interrelations between these three areas. In particular the thesis has focused...... formal property rights regimes and real credit with implications for development strategies. The PhD was co-sponsored by VP Securities A/S, www.vp.dk...

  19. Understanding PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen DOWNES

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding PISA Stephen DOWNESMoncton, CANADA ABSTRACT The headline was dramatic enough to cause a ripple in the reading public. "Students who use computers a lot at school have worse maths and reading performance," noted the BBC news article, citing a 2004 study by Ludger Woessmann and Thomas Fuchs (Fuchs and Woessman, 2004. It was not long before the blogosphere took notice. Taking the theme and running with it, Alice and Bill ask, "Computers Make School Kids Dumber?" They theorize, "If you track the admitted decline of education, you'll probably notice that it follows along with the increase of technology in the classroom." In a similar vein, James Bartholomew asks, "Do you think that the government will turn down the volume of its boasting about how it has spent billions introducing computers in schools (while keeping down the pay of teachers so much that there are shortages? Do you think it will stop sending governors of state schools glossy pamphlets about insisting that computers are used in their schools as much as possible?" In this study, therefore, PISA looks well beyond educational attainment, and also includes school demographics, such as whether it is a public or private school, has large or small classes, or has access or not to technological resources. Finally, it does measure student information-their family background, access to books and computers and parental support as well. The PISA survey departs from previous surveys in disregarding the stated curricula of the schools being measured. Therefore, the conclusion is not surprising, nor even wrong for him to consider independently of any parental or teacher support, considered without reference to the software running on it, considered without reference to student attitudes and interests, does not positively impact an education. Finally, he focus on missing the reporting of results

  20. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge....... In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...