WorldWideScience

Sample records for understand promotion effect

  1. Effectiveness of Dry Cell Microscopic Simulation (DCMS) to Promote Conceptual Understanding about Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catur Wibowo, Firmanul; Suhandi, Andi; Rusdiana, Dadi; Samsudin, Achmad; Rahmi Darman, Dina; Faizin, M. Noor; Wiyanto; Supriyatman; Permanasari, Anna; Kaniawati, Ida; Setiawan, Wawan; Karyanto, Yudi; Linuwih, Suharto; Fatah, Abdul; Subali, Bambang; Hasani, Aceng; Hidayat, Sholeh

    2017-07-01

    Electricity is a concept that is abstract and difficult to see by eye directly, one example electric shock, but cannot see the movement of electric current so that students have difficulty by students. A computer simulation designed to improve the understanding of the concept of the workings of the dry cell (battery). This study was conducted to 82 students (aged 18-20 years) in the experimental group by learning to use the Dry Cell Microscopic Simulation (DCMS). The result shows the improving of students’ conceptual understanding scores from post test were statistically significantly of the workings of batteries. The implication using computer simulations designed to overcome the difficulties of conceptual understanding, can effectively help students in facilitating conceptual change.

  2. Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect Using Theory-Based Learning Materials that Promote Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfried, Sibylle; Aeschbacher, Urs; Rottermann, Benno

    2012-01-01

    Students' everyday ideas of the greenhouse effect are difficult to change. Environmental education faces the challenge of developing instructional settings that foster students' conceptual understanding concept of the greenhouse effect in order to understand global warming. To facilitate students' conceptual development with regard to the…

  3. Understanding the molecular basis of plant growth promotional effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rice through protein profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiruvengadam Raguchander

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KH-1 was found to exhibit plant growth promotional activity in rice under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. But the mechanism underlying such promotional activity of P. fluorescens is not yet understood clearly. In this study, efforts were made to elucidate the molecular responses of rice plants to P. fluorescens treatment through protein profiling. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis strategy was adopted to identify the PGPR responsive proteins and the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Results Priming of P. fluorescens, 23 different proteins found to be differentially expressed in rice leaf sheaths and MS analysis revealed the differential expression of some important proteins namely putative p23 co-chaperone, Thioredoxin h- rice, Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large chain precursor, Nucleotide diPhosphate kinase, Proteosome sub unit protein and putative glutathione S-transferase protein. Conclusion Functional analyses of the differential proteins were reported to be directly or indirectly involved in growth promotion in plants. Thus, this study confirms the primary role of PGPR strain KH-1 in rice plant growth promotion.

  4. Understanding the molecular basis of plant growth promotional effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rice through protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Saveetha; Loganathan, Karthiba; Muthuraj, Raveendran; Duraisamy, Saravanakumar; Seetharaman, Suresh; Thiruvengadam, Raguchander; Ponnusamy, Balasubramanian; Ramasamy, Samiyappan

    2009-12-24

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KH-1 was found to exhibit plant growth promotional activity in rice under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. But the mechanism underlying such promotional activity of P. fluorescens is not yet understood clearly. In this study, efforts were made to elucidate the molecular responses of rice plants to P. fluorescens treatment through protein profiling. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis strategy was adopted to identify the PGPR responsive proteins and the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Priming of P. fluorescens, 23 different proteins found to be differentially expressed in rice leaf sheaths and MS analysis revealed the differential expression of some important proteins namely putative p23 co-chaperone, Thioredoxin h- rice, Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large chain precursor, Nucleotide diPhosphate kinase, Proteosome sub unit protein and putative glutathione S-transferase protein. Functional analyses of the differential proteins were reported to be directly or indirectly involved in growth promotion in plants. Thus, this study confirms the primary role of PGPR strain KH-1 in rice plant growth promotion.

  5. Promoting Physical Understanding through Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossal, S. M.; Huesmann, A.; Hooper, E.; Moore, C.; Watson, L.; Trestrail, A.; Weber, J.; Timbie, P.; Jacob, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Physics Learning Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides a supportive learning community for students studying introductory physics, as well as teaching and leadership experience for undergraduate Peer Mentor Tutors who receive extensive training and supervision. Many of our Peer Tutors were former Physics Learning Center participants. A central goal of the Physics Learning Center is to address achievement/equity gaps (e.g. race, gender, socio-economic status, disability, age, transfer status, etc.) for undergraduate students pursuing majors and coursework in STEM fields. Students meet twice a week in small learning teams of 3-8 students, facilitated by a trained Peer Mentor Tutor or staff member. These active learning teams focus on discussing core physical concepts and practicing problem-solving. The weekly training of the tutors addresses both teaching and mentoring issues in science education such as helping students to build confidence, strategies for assessing student understanding, and fostering a growth mindset. A second weekly training meeting addresses common misconceptions and strategies for teaching specific physics topics. For non-science majors we have a small Peer Mentor Tutor program for Physics in the Arts. We will discuss the Physics Learning Center's approaches to promoting inclusion, understanding, and confidence for both our participants and Peer Mentor Tutors, as well as examples from the geosciences that can be used to illustrate introductory physics concepts.

  6. Promoting Conceptual Change in First Year Students' Understanding of Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor

    2010-01-01

    We constructed the PDEODE (Predict-Discuss-Explain-Observe-Discuss-Explain) teaching strategy, a variant of the classical POE (Predict-Observe-Explain) activity, to promote conceptual change, and investigated its effectiveness on student understanding of the evaporation concept. The sample consisted of 52 first year students in a primary science…

  7. Promoting a Better Understanding of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotchmoor, J. G.; Lindberg, D. R.; Caldwell, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    A recent informal survey by the National Science Teachers Association revealed that more than 30 percent of teachers feel pressure to omit or downplay evolution in their teaching and to include nonscientific alternatives. Bruce Alberts, past president of the National Academy of Sciences, called upon the NAS to confront those challenges, telling ``USA Today'' that teachers ``need more support from scientists -- one of the foundations of modern science is being neglected or banished outright from science classrooms in many parts of the United States.'' It was in response to teachers' needs that the UC Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed what has become an award-winning website, ``Understanding Evolution.'' As successful as this site has become, it is not sufficient. As a result, UCMP expanded the site to include resources appropriate for K-16 students and the general audience that highlight numerous aspects of evolution science and emphasize the importance of evolution both to our understanding of the world around us and to our health and economy. These resources include Research Profiles that focus on three components: the principles of evolution on which the research is based, how the science was done, and the broader impact of the study to additional areas of research and/or to society. Also included in the expanded site is an ``Evo in the News'' feature, FAQs about the teaching controversy, and even comic strips -- something for everybody. However, this too appears to be insufficient. The attack on evolution is symptomatic of a growing mistrust, misconception, and misrepresentation of science. There are even attempts to re-define science. To combat this assault, there is a collaborative effort underway to examine and implement effective strategies for increasing the public understanding of science.

  8. Designing Graphs that Promote Both Risk Understanding and Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okan, Yasmina; Stone, Eric R; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2017-10-03

    Graphs show promise for improving communications about different types of risks, including health risks, financial risks, and climate risks. However, graph designs that are effective at meeting one important risk communication goal (promoting risk-avoidant behaviors) can at the same time compromise another key goal (improving risk understanding). We developed and tested simple bar graphs aimed at accomplishing these two goals simultaneously. We manipulated two design features in graphs, namely, whether graphs depicted the number of people affected by a risk and those at risk of harm ("foreground+background") versus only those affected ("foreground-only"), and the presence versus absence of simple numerical labels above bars. Foreground-only displays were associated with larger risk perceptions and risk-avoidant behavior (i.e., willingness to take a drug for heart attack prevention) than foreground+background displays, regardless of the presence of labels. Foreground-only graphs also hindered risk understanding when labels were not present. However, the presence of labels significantly improved understanding, eliminating the detrimental effect of foreground-only displays. Labels also led to more positive user evaluations of the graphs, but did not affect risk-avoidant behavior. Using process modeling we identified mediators (risk perceptions, understanding, user evaluations) that explained the effect of display type on risk-avoidant behavior. Our findings contribute new evidence to the graph design literature: unlike what was previously feared, we demonstrate that it is possible to design foreground-only graphs that promote intentions for behavior change without a detrimental effect on risk understanding. Implications for the design of graphical risk communications and decision support are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Promoting Understanding and Cooperation in the West African Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article examines the role of teachers of language and literature and institutions. The role of the individual appears to be greater in the matter of promoting understanding and cooperation only to the extent that he can wield the two languages. Nevertheless, understanding and cooperation in West Africa requires the ...

  10. A Guide for Understanding Health Education and Promotion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Richard W; Nahar, Vinayak K

    2018-03-01

    Planning, Implementing & Evaluating Health Promotion Programs: A Primer is a versatile and comprehensive resource on the theoretical and practical underpinnings of successful health promotion programs. The requirements for effective health promotion program development are presented with frequent use of practical planning examples, pedagogical devices, and expert rationale. Ideal for undergraduate and graduate students in health education, promotion, and planning courses, this 15-chapter textbook is organized in a manner that specifically addresses the responsibilities and competencies required of health education specialists as published in the Health Education Specialist Practice Analysis of 2015. The authors of this textbook are leaders in the field and provide readers with the skills necessary to carry out the full process of health promotion program execution, while also offering direct preparation for CHES and MCHES licensing exams.

  11. A Combined Impact-Process Evaluation of a Program Promoting Active Transport to School: Understanding the Factors That Shaped Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S.; Garrard, J.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study was a comprehensive impact-process evaluation of the Ride2School program in metropolitan and regional areas in Victoria, Australia. The program aimed to promote transport to school for primary school children. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected at baseline and followup from two primary schools involved in the pilot phase of the program and two matched comparison schools, and a further 13 primary schools that participated in the implementation phase of the program. Classroom surveys, structured and unstructured observations, and interviews with Ride2School program staff were used to evaluate the pilot program. For the 13 schools in the second phase of the program, parents and students completed questionnaires at baseline (N = 889) and followup (N = 761). Based on the quantitative data, there was little evidence of an overall increase in active transport to school across participating schools, although impacts varied among individual schools. Qualitative data in the form of observations, interviews, and focus group discussions with students, school staff, and program staff provided insight into the reasons for variable program impacts. This paper highlights the benefits of undertaking a mixed methods approach to evaluating active transport to school programs that enables both measurement and understanding of program impacts. PMID:23606865

  12. Positive Technologies for Understanding and Promoting Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa María; Carrillo, Alba; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Botella, Cristina

    2017-10-26

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become increasingly present in our lives, and their use has spread considerably. This paper presents a review of the way ICTs can help practitioners and researchers to study, promote, and train positive emotions. It is framed within the field of Positive Technologies: the applied scientific approach to the study of the use of technology to improve the quality of personal experience, with the goal of increasing wellbeing. First, the article presents an introduction to the topic of technologies and positive emotions. Then, it describes how ICTs can aid in monitoring, assessing, promoting, modifying, and training positive emotions. Finally, implications and future directions of the role of Positive Technologies in positive emotions are discussed. The authors conclude that, in the near future, Positive Technologies and the field of positive emotions will interact synergistically, producing an exponential growth in the understanding and promotion of positive emotions.

  13. Understanding narrative effects in physical activity promotion: the influence of breast cancer survivor testimony on exercise beliefs, self-efficacy, and intention in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, Charlène; Radel, Rémi; Cantor, Ambre; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne

    2015-03-01

    Research in health communication has shown that narratives contribute more positively to changing health behaviors than informational messages. The main purposes of this study were to examine and to compare the effects of two messages promoting physical activity, one narrative and the other informational, on the perceptions and behavioral intentions of cancer patients. A total of 158 women with breast cancer, undergoing chemotherapy and sedentary, were assigned to read the testimony of a breast cancer survivor who had been physically active during and after treatment (TE group), a content-equivalent message composed of expert recommendations about physical activity in breast cancer patients (RE group), or no message (control group). Source trust was higher in TE group than RE group (p self-efficacy and exercise intention were higher in TE group than RE and control groups (p self-efficacy, and beliefs about exercise benefits and risks mediated the relationship between the message and exercise intention. The results suggest that narratives may be more effective in improving perceived physical abilities and involvement in physical activity, whereas informational messages seem to be more appropriate to convey the benefits and the absence of risks related to physical activity.

  14. Understanding health food messages on Twitter for health literacy promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Liu, F; Zhou, H

    2018-03-01

    With the popularity of social media, Twitter has become an important tool to promote health literacy. However, many health-related messages on Twitter are dead-ended and cannot reach many people. This is unhelpful for health literacy promotion. This article aims to examine the features of online health food messages that people like to retweet. We adopted rumour theory as our theoretical foundation and extracted seven characteristics (i.e. emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, external evidence, argument length, hashtags, and direct messages). A total of 10,025 health-related messages on Twitter were collected, and 1496 messages were randomly selected for further analysis. Each message was treated as one unit and then coded. All the hypotheses were tested with logistic regression. Emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, argument length, and direct messages in a Twitter message had positive effects on people's retweet behaviour. The effect of external evidence was negative. Hashtags had no significant effect after consideration of other variables. Online health food messages containing positive emotions, including pictures, containing direct messages, having an authoritative sender, having longer arguments, or not containing external URLs are more likely to be retweeted. However, a message only containing positive or negative emotions or including direct messages without any support information will not be retweeted.

  15. The importance of social context in understanding and promoting low-income immigrant women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the social context and realities of Cape Verdean women in the U.S. as well as other immigrant and ethnic/racial groups is important to promote their overall health and well-being more effectively. The aim of this study was to gain a contextual understanding from the perspectives of health promoters who work with marginalized women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters about their perspectives and experiences of health promotion practice with immigrant women in their community. Using a Glaserian grounded theory approach to analysis, six salient themes describing women's social context emerged: community and domestic violence, loss and isolation, economic injustice, immigration-related issues and abuse, unequal gender-based power relations, and cultural taboos. These findings challenge health researchers and practitioners to understand health problems and health promotion not only at an individual level, but at multiple levels of influence including interpersonal, family, neighborhood, and structural levels.

  16. Promoting Global Initiatives and Cross-Cultural Understanding in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Snodgress, Faye

    2012-01-01

    As an "international" honor society in education, Kappa Delta Pi (KDP) recognizes the importance of encouraging and promoting education internationally in the 21st century. The challenge shared by educators in many countries is to achieve higher levels of learning for all students. Committed educators around the globe are already working…

  17. A Framework for Understanding Teachers' Promotion of Students' Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ader, Engin

    2013-01-01

    This is an ethnographic study of promotion of metacognition, focusing on the teaching practices in secondary mathematics classrooms of three teachers in the UK. With all three teachers, observations of their teaching and interviews regarding their teaching were conducted. The main aim was analysing and substantiating the parallels and differences…

  18. Understanding dyadic promoter-stakeholder relations in complex projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Janita F.J.; Boonstra, Albert; Achterkamp, Marjolein C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a Bilateral Double Motive framework of stakeholder cooperation in complex projects. The framework analyses and explains dyadic promoter-stakeholder relationships at a micro level by acknowledging both transactional and relational motives. We demonstrate the framework’s

  19. Effects of growth-promoting factors on proliferation of mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-02-16

    SSCs) in vitro are critical to our understanding of male infertility, genetic resources and endangered species conservation. To investigate the effects of growth-promoting factors, epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth.

  20. Understanding dyadic promoter-stakeholder relations in complex projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janita Vos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a Bilateral Double Motive framework of stakeholder cooperation in complex projects. The framework analyses and explains dyadic promoter-stakeholder relationships at a micro level by acknowledging both transactional and relational motives. We demonstrate the framework’s usefulness by illustrating its explanatory power in two instances of cooperation and two of non-cooperation within two health information technology projects. The study contributes to project management theory through its combined focus on transactional and relational motives. Further, the study contributes to practice by providing a tool for planning and evaluating cooperation in health Information Technology projects and similar complex multi-stakeholder environments.

  1. Metaphorical bridge-building for promoting understanding and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proposed 'fl yover' consists of three sub-structures or 'bridges', namely social capital, spirituality and education. A discussion of each of these sub-structures is followed by a discussion of the combination of all three in a virtual fl yover that could contribute to a world characterised by greater understanding, respect, tolerance ...

  2. Promoting the Understanding of Mathematics in Physics at Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alaric

    2016-01-01

    This article explores some of the common mathematical difficulties that 11- to 16-year-old students experience with respect to their learning of physics. The definition of "understanding" expressed in the article is in the sense of transferability of mathematical skills from topic to topic within physics as well as between the separate…

  3. Using Meaningful Contexts to Promote Understanding of Pronumerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsell, Chris; Cavanagh, Michael; Tahir, Salma

    2013-01-01

    Developing a conceptual understanding of elementary algebra has been the focus of a number of recent articles in this journal. Baroudi (2006) advocated problem solving to assist students' transition from arithmetic to algebra, and Shield (2008) described the use of meaningful contexts for developing the concept of function. Samson (2011, 2012)…

  4. Frameworks for Understanding and Promoting Solar Energy Technology Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Schelly

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the contrasting theories of metabolic rift and ecological modernization theory (EMT are applied to the same empirical phenomenon. Metabolic rift argues that the natural metabolic relationship between humans and nature has been fractured through modernization, industrialization and urbanization. EMT, in contrast, argues that societies in an advanced state of industrialization adopt ecologically benign production technologies and political policies, suggesting that modern societies could be on course to alleviate the ecological damage caused by capitalism. These two theories are fundamentally different in their assumptions about modern economies and technologies, yet both can be used as a theoretical lens to examine the phenomenon of solar energy technology adoption. Furthermore, both theories shed light on the increasing adoption of solar energy technologies in both “developing” and “developed” regions and the potential social conditions for promoting renewable energy technology adoption.

  5. Understanding Generation Z Students to Promote a Contemporary Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; mohr, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    University faculty predominantly represent the Baby Boomer and Baby Buster (Gen X) Generations, but, university students are largely iYs Millenials and Generation Z Digital Natives. These groups have been characterized both positively and negatively in the popular press. A fresh understanding of the newer generations can help instructors better meet current students’ educational needs. This article shares brief generational profiles based on recent research and then presents questions and rec...

  6. The Tiger’s Wife – Promoting Intercultural Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Milosevic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a small case study that recorded developing intercultural understanding amongst advanced EFL students in a high school in Serbia as a result of studying The Tiger’s Wife by Tea Obreht. The novel deals with the recent Balkan war and captures the mindset of people who live in the Balkans. The novel was studied over three months with a group of eight 17- to 18-year-old students of different nationalities. It provided a starting point for students in the class to come together and re-examine their views and feelings. Because the group was small, the main instructional format was classroom discussion with open-ended prompts. Host country students had stronger views on the war in their region and reacted with more intense emotion compared to their foreign peers. The host country students benefited from sharing their views, and the foreign students were motivated to explore the story through the eyes of their peers. Thus, this work of literature allowed for social constructivist negotiation. This reinforces the premise that learning takes place because of interaction in a group and highlights the potential for literature to act as a bridge for intercultural understanding.

  7. Promoting Internal Civility: Understanding Our Beliefs About Teaching and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlenschmidt, Sally L.

    1999-01-01

    A common variable in uncivil behavior is strong emotional reaction. If distressing emotion in the college classroom could be moderated, inappropriate behaviors might be reduced. One model of rational emotive behavior therapy offers insights into the sources of teachers' and students' emotional responses and the effects on the learning and teaching…

  8. Promoting Optimal Native Outcomes (PONO) by Understanding Women's Stress Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okihiro, May; Duke, Lisa; Goebert, Deborah; Ampolos, Lauren; Camacho, Casandra; Shanahan, Natasha; Hishinuma, Earl; Kaholokula, J Keawe

    2017-04-01

    A growing body of evidence links stress with mental illness and chronic disease. Existing scales of women's stress fail to capture the daily stressors of low-income, rural women. We explored the psychosocial stressors of local women residing in a rural Hawaii community with a large Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population. We recruited women, aged 18-35 years, at a community health center. We convened four focus groups to elicit information about women's stress. We identified key themes from the focus group data to generate questions that target concerns raised by participants. These were corroborated by additional focus groups. Thirty-six women participated in the study. Seven stressor themes emerged: intimate relationships-limited partner assistance, gender stereotype; family and home life-feeling like an outsider, lack of respect; childrearing-quality and affordable childcare, conflicting discipline styles; time for self-never-ending duties, being too tired to relax; neighborhood environment-safety concerns, not feeling part of the community; workplace-workload and transportation obstacles; and finances-making ends meet and arguments about money. Women in this study articulated a broad range of daily stressors. Sociocultural factors leading to feeling like an outsider within their own family, intercultural marriage conflicts, and perceptions of community discrimination are not included in other published scales. Our focus group investigations thus provided critical knowledge for developing a community-relevant scale. This is a prerequisite for developing and testing innovative intervention strategies designed to reduce stress in this population. We believe that reducing stress is necessary to mitigate the negative effects of stressors on physical and mental health among women in this rural community.

  9. Using SOA Patterns to promote understanding across disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, A.

    2012-04-01

    The NETMAR consortium is building an open service network for marine environmental data by combining expertise from Ireland, France, the UK and Norway in disciplines such as Semantics, Software Engineering, UI Programming and Service Orchestration. Through the International Coastal Atlas Network, it engages user groups from Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas. In doing so, it faces challenges in bringing these disciplines and groups together in a way that makes them greater than the sum of their parts. Service Oriented Architecture has been successfully applied in many cases to help build useful systems across organisational and geographic boundaries in order to expose diverse capabilities which can function together through a mutual exchange of value. This should make it ideally suited to a distributed decision making environment without centralised command and control. In theory, SOA should facilitate the building of global and complex infrastructures and the integration of information systems characterized by diverse protocols and interfaces,and with different data policies and security levels. The presentation will discuss a number of approaches used by NETMAR to bring the theory of SOA to bear in a useful way while maintaining the emphasis on keeping multi-disciplinary domain expertise as the primary driver of the project. It will discuss three approaches used: . Populating one or more standard reference models . Trade-off analysis based on business drivers and quality attributes . Documenting design reuse in the form of patterns. The three approaches will be compared in terms of how they succeed in bringing 'just enough' service architecture knowledge into the project. We discuss how the approaches can interact and complement each other. Finally, we present a number of SOA patterns identified as being relevant to NETMAR and explain why they are felt to be particularly effective in gaining consensus on how to build the NETMAR system of systems.

  10. An Explanation for the Use of Arrays to Promote the Understanding of Mental Strategies for Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Lorraine; Hurrell, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Lorraine Day and Derek Hurrell provide a convincing argument for using arrays to promote students' understandings of mental computation strategies for multiplication. They also provide a range of different examples that illustrate the benefits of arrays in the primary classroom.

  11. Cardiovascular effects of microgravity: evolution of understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, H. D.

    1998-01-01

    The understanding of cardiovascular effects of spaceflight has evolved throughout the course of the American manned spaceflight program. Originally descriptive in nature, the present understanding is based on empiric measurements of vascular volume, cardiac output, vascular reflexes, and peripheral and central autonomic control. More detailed understanding of cardiovascular effects has allowed us to separate those symptoms from symptoms caused by musculoskeletal or neurovestibular abnormalities.

  12. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  13. West meets East: psychophysics studies for understanding mysterious Oriental health promoting practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen

    2008-04-01

    Based on his early graduated studies in psychophysics, the author has, in recent years, applied psychophysics for studying organic and motor senses (the two sensory systems deeply embedded inside of human body), and tried to understand the scientific foundation of the oriental health promoting practices. The preliminary results are promising and are discussed in detail in this paper. Psychophysics studies of organic and motor senses may be the tool to provide the connection between Western and Eastern medicines to form a balanced holistic medicine approach, and may help us to understand the scientific foundation of mysterious oriental health Promoting practices that serve as alternative medicines for promoting human wellness against illness.

  14. Scientific Thinking in Elementary School: Children's Social Cognition and Their Epistemological Understanding Promote Experimentation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding…

  15. Review of the Evidence for Oral Health Promotion Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and oral cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. Oral health promotion is a key approach to addressing these conditions endorsed as part of the National Oral Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…

  16. Understanding the Effectiveness of Performance Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Stragetic human resource management at Praxair. Human Resources Management , 38 (4), 315-320. Heathfield, S. (2007). Performance appraisals. The...UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES THESIS Ross T. Johnston, Major...M07 UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AFIT-GRD-ENV-10-M07 Presented to the Faculty

  17. Understanding Self-Effects in Social Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to improve understanding of self-effects in social media, and to compare self-effects with reception effects. Self-effects are the effects of messages the cognitions, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors of the message creators/senders themselves. A total of 4 theories have

  18. [The understanding and implementation of health promotion at higher education institutions in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Cuervo, Clara Y

    2015-12-01

    Objective To characterize the implementation and understanding of health promotion at higher education institutions in Colombia. Methods A qualitative study with an ethnographic approach was carried out at eleven institutions selected in five cities. It was conducted through research tools such as an exploratory survey, interviews, direct observation and review of documents. The information was analyzed considering conceptualizations about health promotion, health settings, and health-promoting universities. Results These institutions have implemented policies and programs and have undertaken actions like education, reorientation of health services, participation and intervention on the environment, as well as research and activities with family and community outreach. Conclusion At these institutions, different scopes related to the development of health promotion were found, i.e. there was a preventive approach along with an inter-sectorial outlook with broad extent. Some of the main challenges for institutions are the training of professionals as agents of change, and fostering health promotion as a process of organizational change.

  19. Effects of growth-promoting factors on proliferation of mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SSCs) in vitro are critical to our understanding of male infertility, genetic resources and endangered species conservation. To investigate the effects of growth-promoting factors, epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and ...

  20. Professional Development Aligned with AP Chemistry Curriculum: Promoting Science Practices and Facilitating Enduring Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Deborah G.; Yezierski, Ellen J.

    2014-01-01

    The recent revisions to the advanced placement (AP) chemistry curriculum promote deep conceptual understanding of chemistry content over more rote memorization of facts and algorithmic problem solving. For many teachers, this will mean moving away from traditional worksheets and verification lab activities that they have used to address the vast…

  1. Visualizing the Cardiac Cycle: A Useful Tool to Promote Student Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Shun Ho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The cardiac cycle is an important concept presented in human anatomy and physiology courses. At Kingsborough Community College, all Allied Health majors taking Anatomy & Physiology must understand the cardiac cycle to grasp more advanced concepts. Contemporary textbooks illustrate the cardiac cycle’s concurrent events via linear models with overlapping line segments as physiological readouts. This presentation is appropriate for reference but, in the interactive classroom the promotion of understanding through clear, concise visual cues is essential. Muzio and Pilchman created a diagram to summarize events of the cardiac cycle. After discussions with one of the authors, I modified the diagram to aid visualization of the cycle and emphasize it as a repetitive, continuous process. A flow diagram presenting the portions of the cycle individually and progressively was also constructed. Three labeled phases are made from the diagram, based on grouped events occurring at different points. The simple, compartmentalized, cyclical diagram presented here promotes understanding of the cardiac cycle visually.

  2. Research implications of the Institute of Medicine Report, Epilepsy Across the Spectrum: Promoting Health and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Beck, Vicki; Begley, Charles E.; Bishop, Malachy L.; Cushner-Weinstein, Sandra; Holmes, Gregory L.; Shafer, Patricia O.; Sirven, Joseph I.; Austin, Joan K.

    2012-01-01

    In March 2012 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released the report, Epilepsy Across The Spectrum: Promoting Health And Understanding. This report examined the public health dimensions of the epilepsies with a focus on four areas: public health surveillance and data collection and integration; population and public health research; health policy, health care, and human services; and education for providers, people with epilepsy and their families, and the public. The report provided recommendations and research priorities for future work in the field of epilepsy that relate to: increasing the power of data on epilepsy; prevention of epilepsy; improving health care for people with epilepsy; improving health professional education about epilepsy; improving quality of life for people with epilepsy; improving education about epilepsy for people with epilepsy and families; and raising public awareness about epilepsy. For this article, the authors selected one research priority from each of the major chapter themes in the IOM report: expanding and improving the quality of epidemiological surveillance in epilepsy; developing improved interventions for people with epilepsy and depression; expanding early identification/screening for learning impairments in children with epilepsy; evaluating and promoting effective innovative teaching strategies; accelerating research on the identification of risk factors and interventions that increase employment and improve quality of life for people with epilepsy and their families; assessing the information needs of people with epilepsy and their families associated with epilepsy-related risks, specifically sudden unexpected death in epilepsy; and developing and conducting surveys to capture trends in knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy over time and in specific population subgroups. For each research priority selected, examples of research are provided that will advance the field of epilepsy and improve the lives

  3. Scientific thinking in elementary school: Children's social cognition and their epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2017-03-01

    Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding the nature of science), and general information-processing skills (inhibition, intelligence, and language abilities) in a whole-class testing procedure. A multiple indicators multiple causes model revealed a significant influence of social cognition (AToM) on epistemological understanding, and a McNemar test suggested that children's development of AToM is an important precursor for the emergence of an advanced, mature epistemological understanding. Children's epistemological understanding, in turn, predicted their experimentation skills. Importantly, this relation was independent of the common influences of general information processing. Significant relations between experimentation skills and inhibition, and between epistemological understanding, intelligence, and language abilities emerged, suggesting that general information processing contributes to the conceptual development that is involved in scientific thinking. The model of scientific thinking that was tested in this study (social cognition and epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills) fitted the data significantly better than 2 alternative models, which assumed nonspecific, equally strong relations between all constructs under investigation. Our results support the conclusion that social cognition plays a foundational role in the emergence of children's epistemological understanding, which in turn is closely related to the development of experimentation skills. Our findings have significant implications for the teaching of scientific thinking in elementary school and they stress the importance of children's epistemological understanding in

  4. Moderating Effects of Sales Promotion Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Oliveira Santini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the influence sales promotion types have on the relationship between perception of financial risk and perception of utilitarian and hedonic value on consumer purchase intentions. To this end, an experiment was conducted involving 589 participants divided into two groups defined by distinct scenarios in which the sales promotion type (monetary vs. non-monetary was manipulated. The working hypotheses predicted a direct and positive relationship between the perception of (hedonic and utilitarian consumption value and purchase intention for a promoted product and a negative relationship between the perception of consumption value and the perception of financial risk. In addition, it was supposed that the sales promotion type would moderate these direct relationships and that a monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the relationship between purchase intention and perceived product utility, whereas a non-monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the other relationships (hedonic value and financial risk perceptions. Analysis of the outcomes supported the proposed hypotheses.

  5. Promoting students' conceptual understanding using STEM-based e-book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarudin, U.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Hasanah, L.

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) based e-book in promoting students'conceptual understanding on lever system in human body. The E-book used was the e-book published by National Ministry of Science Education. The research was conducted by a quasi experimental with pretest and posttest design. The subjects consist of two classes of 8th grade junior high school in Pangkalpinang, Indonesia, which were devided into experimental group (n=34) and control group (n=32). The students in experimental group was taught by STEM-based e-book, while the control group learned by non STEM-based e-book. The data was collected by an instrument pretest and postest. Pretest and posttest scored, thenanalyzed using descriptive statistics and independent t-test. The result of independent sample t-test shows that no significant differenceson students' pretest score between control and experimental group. However, there were significant differences on students posttest score and N-gain score between control and experimental group with sig = 0.000(pscience.

  6. An Approach for Understanding and Promoting Coal Mine Safety by Exploring Coal Mine Risk Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Capturing the interrelations among risks is essential to thoroughly understand and promote coal mining safety. From this standpoint, 105 risks and 135 interrelations among risks had been identified from 126 typical accidents, which were also the foundation of constructing coal mine risk network (CMRN. Based on the complex network theory and Pajek, six parameters (i.e., network diameter, network density, average path length, degree, betweenness, and clustering coefficient were employed to reveal the topological properties of CMRN. As indicated by the results, CMRN possesses scale-free network property because its cumulative degree distribution obeys power-law distribution. This means that CMRN is robust to random hazard and vulnerable to deliberate attack. CMRN is also a small-world network due to its relatively small average path length as well as high clustering coefficient, implying that accident propagation in CMRN is faster than regular network. Furthermore, the effect of risk control is explored. According to the result, it shows that roof collapse, fire, and gas concentration exceeding limit refer to three most valuable targets for risk control among all the risks. This study will help offer recommendations and proposals for making beforehand strategies that can restrain original risks and reduce accidents.

  7. Effect of matrix metalloproteinase promoter polymorphisms on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large-scale studies regarding gene–gene and gene–environment interactions are needed in the future. [Ye H., He Y., Wang J., Song T., Lan Z., Zhao Y. and Xi M. 2016 Effect of matrix metalloproteinase promoter polymorphisms on endometriosis and adenomyosis risk: evidence from a meta-analysis. J. Genet. 95, 611–619].

  8. Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... genera displayed a growth-promoting effect that was comparable to control diet and also decreased the cholesterol and ... Key words: Probiotic, enterococcus faecium and bifidobacterium genera, cholesterol, triglyceride, performance, .... and product quality (Wood et al., 2004; Muchenje et al.,. 2009).

  9. Promoting Transfer and an Integrated Understanding for Pre Service Teachers of Technology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrison-Love

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of students to transfer learning between subjects and contexts when problem solving is critical for developing their capability as Technologists and teachers of Technology. However, a growing body of literature suggests this ability is often assumed or over-estimated, and rarely developed explicitly within courses or degree programs. The nature of the problems tackled within technology are such that solutions draw upon knowledge from a wide range of contexts and subjects, however, the internal organisation and structure of institutions and schools tends to compartmentalise rather integrate these. Providing a knowledge base and range of strategies that enhance students’ awareness of and skills in transferring learning may allow for a more integrated understanding to develop. The importance of developing this in a more explicit manner is heightened as trainee teachers will, in turn, be responsible for developing the similar capabilities of the children they go on to work with as professional teachers. This paper begins by considering problem solving in technology education and some of the issues associated with learning transfer. Thereafter, a framework and strategy for better integrating learning between courses is described and forms the basis for developments in an Initial Teacher Education degree program for Technology Education. Provisional data from evaluations and student work indicated a positive effect in enhancing trainee teachers’ thinking and additional data in the form of questionnaires, interviews and student work help to explore this further. Finally, it is argued that the development framework and approach enhances their mental models of teaching and offers a significant step forward in promoting student teachers’ transfer of future learning between subjects; something increasingly critical for 21st century STEM Education.

  10. Conceptualizing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers' Knowledge Base for Promoting Understanding about the Science of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Devarati

    Efforts to adapt and mitigate the effects of global climate change (GCC) have been ongoing for the past two decades and have become a major global concern. However, research and practice for promoting climate literacy and understanding about GCC have only recently become a national priority. The National Research Council (NRC), has recently emphasized upon the importance of developing learners' capacity of reasoning, their argumentation skills and understanding of GCC (Framework for K-12 Science Education, National Research Council, 2012). This framework focuses on fostering conceptual clarity about GCC to promote innovation, resilience, and readiness in students as a response towards the threat of a changing environment. Previous research about teacher understanding of GCC describes that in spite of the prevalent frameworks like the AAAS Science Literacy Atlas (AAAS, 2007) and the Essential Principles for Climate Literacy (United States Global Climate Research Program, 2009; Bardsley, 2007), most learners are challenged in understanding the science of GCC (Michail et al., 2007) and misinformed perceptions about basic climate science content and the role of human activities in changing climate remain persistent (Reibich and Gautier, 2006). Our teacher participants had a rather simplistic knowledge structure. While aware of climate change, teacher participants lacked in depth understanding of how change in climate can impact various ecosystems on the Earth. Furthermore, they felt overwhelmed with the extensive amount of information needed to comprehend the complexity in GCC. Hence, extensive efforts not only focused on assessing conceptual understanding of GCC but also for teaching complex science topics like GCC are essential. This dissertation explains concept mapping, and the photo elicitation method for assessing teachers' understanding of GCC and the use of metacognitive scaffolding in instruction of GCC for developing competence of learners in this complex

  11. Promoting Pre-Service Elementary Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium through Discussions in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81…

  12. A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

  13. Understanding dementia: effective information access from the Deaf community's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alys; Ferguson-Coleman, Emma; Keady, John

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns older Deaf sign language users in the UK. Its aim was to explore how to enable effective information access and promote awareness and understanding of dementia from a culturally Deaf perspective. A purposive sample of 26 Deaf people without dementia participated in one of three focus groups facilitated directly in British Sign Language (BSL) without an intermediate interpreter. The sample was differentiated by age, role in the Deaf community, and diversity of educational attainment and professional experience. A phenomenological approach underpinned the thematic analysis of data. The findings demonstrate: (i) translation into (BSL) is a necessary but not sufficient condition to support understanding. Attention to culturally preferred means of engagement with information is vital; (ii) the content of information is best presented utilising structures and formats which cohere with Deaf people's visual cognitive strengths; and (iii) the importance of cultural values and cultural practices in raising awareness and building understanding of dementia. These include collective rather than individual responsibility for knowledge transfer and the pan-national nature of knowledge transfer among Deaf people(s). The discussion demonstrates how these specific features of effective information access and awareness building have universal implications relevant to public engagement and the promotion of general knowledge consistent with the National Dementia Strategy (England). © 2014 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Understanding Citizenship, Understanding Social Media? The effects of digital media on citizenship understanding and political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik

    Is there a connection between increased use of digital media and changing patterns of political participation? This study tests how use of online media for different purposes (social interaction, creative expression, online news use, social media news use) is related to three types of political...... online survey waves and a smartphone-based media diary that documents respondents’ social media use. Results indicate support for a new pathway to participation, but the relationship depends on whether citizens are socialized in a digital media environment....... participation. It examines whether mobilizing effects are partly indirect due to different understandings of citizenship (dutiful, optional, individual, collective) that may be fostered by digital media use. The study is based on a survey of a sample of the Danish population (n=1322), including data from two...

  15. 100 commonly asked questions in math class answers that promote mathematical understanding, grades 6-12

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S (Steven); Germain-Williams, Terri L (Lynn); Paris, Elaine S; Lehmann, Ingmar H (Horst)

    2013-01-01

    100 ways to get students hooked on math! That one question got you stumped? Or maybe you have the answer, but it's not all that compelling. Al Posamentier and his coauthors to the rescue with this handy reference containing fun answers to students'100 most frequently asked math questions. Even if you already have the answers, Al's explanations are certain to keep kids hooked. The big benefits? You'll discover high-interest ways to Teach to the Common Core's math content standards Promote inquiry and process in mathematical thinking Build procedural skills and conceptual understanding Encourage

  16. Promoting effective teamwork in the healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sarah

    2017-03-22

    Patients require access to various healthcare professionals to manage their healthcare needs. Most nurses work in a team established to provide optimum care for patients. This article explores the stages necessary to develop an effective healthcare team and identifies the attributes required for effective teamwork. These include: effective leadership, a shared mental approach (a common understanding of the roles and responsibilities of all members of the team), respect among team members and shared training. Scenarios involving a rheumatology team that includes the author are used to demonstrate how effective teams can be established in practice, and the benefits of effective healthcare teams to staff well-being and patient care.

  17. Is renewable energy effective in promoting growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, António Cardoso; Fuinhas, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies panel data techniques to analyze the role of the various energy sources in economic growth, for a set of 24 European countries (1990–2007), controlling for energy consumption and energy dependency. The results suggest that the negative effect of the use of renewables supplants the positive effect of creating income by exploiting a natural resource locally, and thus growth does not appear to improve with the change towards renewables. The high costs of promoting renewables are probably being placed excessively upon the economy, namely by increasing the costs of electricity tariffs, thus inducing a deceleration in economic activity. Fossil fuels lead to dissimilar effects on growth while natural gas does not appear to be relevant in explaining growth. Coal hampers the capacity for growth, whereas the use of oil stimulates that growth. This is in line with productive structures that are deeply grounded in fossil fuels, particularly oil. - Highlights: ► We empirically test the distinct effects of decomposing energy by source on growth. ► We focus on 24 European Countries (1990–1907) by applying a panel data approach. ► Fossil fuels lead to dissimilar effects on growth. Coal hampers and oil stimulates it. ► Economic growth does not appear to improve with the paradigm change to renewable. ► High costs of promotion of renewables are being placed excessively upon the economy.

  18. The impact of the distance-dependent promotional effect on the promotion cost sharing decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Gwo-Ji; Wang, Shih-Yen; Yeh, Yingchieh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the promotion cost sharing decision between a supplier and a retailer. The customer demand is affected by both national and local promotional effects while the local promotional effect on a customer is dependent on the distance between the retailer and this customer. We propose a continuous approximation approach to modelling the sum of the customer demand in the whole market area served by the retailer. A model is provided to help managers decide on the retail price, the local advertising expenditure, the national advertising expenditure, and the supplier participation rate, with consideration of the influence of distance on the promotional effect. We also find that the supplier's promotion cost sharing rate increases as the market size increases or the influence of distance on the promotional effect decreases. A numerical example is given to show that the nature of distance-dependent promotional effect has a significant impact on the decisions and profits.

  19. Understanding the factors which promote registered nurses' intent to stay in emergency and critical care areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Osch, Mary; Scarborough, Kathy; Crowe, Sarah; Wolff, Angela C; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl

    2018-03-01

    To explore the influential factors and strategies that promote an experienced nurse's intent to stay in their emergency or critical care area. Turnover among registered nurses (herein referred to as nurses) working in specialty areas of practice can result in a range of negative outcomes. The retention of specialty nurses at the unit level has important implications for hospital and health systems. These implications include lost knowledge and experience which may in turn impact staff performance levels, patient outcomes, hiring, orientating, development of clinical competence and other aspects of organizational performance. This qualitative study used an interpretive descriptive design to understand nurses' perceptions of the current factors and strategies that promote them staying in emergency or critical care settings for two or more years. Focus groups were conducted with 13 emergency and critical care nurses. Data analysis involved thematic analysis that evolved from codes to categories to themes. Four themes were identified: leadership, interprofessional relationships, job fit and practice environment. In addition, the ideas of feeling valued, respected and acknowledged were woven throughout. Factors often associated with nurse attrition such as burnout and job stresses were not emphasised by the respondents in our study as critical to their intent to stay in their area of practice. This study has highlighted positive aspects that motivate nurses to stay in their specialty areas. To ensure quality care for patients, retention of experienced emergency and critical care nurses is essential to maintaining specialty expertise in these practice settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Embedded Formative Assessment and Classroom Process Quality: How Do They Interact in Promoting Science Understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristan, Jasmin; Klieme, Eckhard; Kunter, Mareike; Hochweber, Jan; Büttner, Gerhard; Fauth, Benjamin; Hondrich, A. Lena; Rieser, Svenja; Hertel, Silke; Hardy, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the interplay between curriculum-embedded formative assessment--a well-known teaching practice--and general features of classroom process quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, classroom management) and their combined effect on elementary school students' understanding of the scientific concepts of…

  1. Analogy for Drude’s free electron model to promote students’ understanding of electric circuits in lower secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José BM de Almeida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at a deep understanding of some basic concepts of electric circuits in lower secondary schools, this work introduces an analogy between the behavior of children playing in a school yard with a central lake, subject to different conditions, rules, and stimuli, and Drude’s free electron model of metals. Using this analogy from the first school contacts with electric phenomena, one can promote students’ understanding of concepts such as electric current, the role of generators, potential difference effects, energy transfer, open and closed circuits, resistances, and their combinations in series and parallel. One believes that through this analogy well-known previous misconceptions of young students about electric circuit behaviors can be overcome. Furthermore, students’ understanding will enable them to predict, and justify with self-constructed arguments, the behavior of different elementary circuits. The students’ predictions can be verified—as a challenge of self-produced understanding schemes—using laboratory experiments. At a preliminary stage, our previsions were confirmed through a pilot study with three classrooms of 9th level Portuguese students.

  2. Promoting Intercultural Understanding among School Students through an English Language Based Reading Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian intercultural society is typified by three major ethnic groups mainly Malays, Chinese and Indians.  Although education system is the best tool for these three major ethnic groups to work together, contemporary research reveals that there is still lack of intercultural embedding education context and national schools are seen as breeding grounds of racial polarisation.  In Malaysian context, there is a gap in research that focuses on the design of a proper intercultural reading framework for national integration and such initiatives are viable through schools.  The main objective of this conceptual paper is to introduce the English Language Intercultural Reading Programme (ELIRP in secondary schools to promote intercultural understanding among secondary school students.  The proposed framework will facilitate the acquisition of intercultural inputs without being constrained by ideological, political, or psychological demands.  This article will focus on elucidating how ELIRP could affect cognitive (knowledge and behavioural transformations to intercultural perceptions harboured by selected Form 4 students of 20 national schools in Malaysia. Keywords: behavior, knowledge, intercultural reading framework, intercultural understanding, English Language Intercultural Reading Programme, secondary school students

  3. Putting the Mind in the Brain: Promoting an Appreciation of the Biological Basis to Understanding Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A surprising number of students in psychology, behavioral science, and related social science classes fail to appreciate the importance of biological mechanisms to understanding behavior. To help teachers promote this understanding, this paper outlines six sources of evidence. These are (a) phylogenetic, (b) genetic/developmental, (c) clinical,…

  4. Embedded formative assessment and classroom process quality. How do they interact in promoting students' science understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Decristan, Jasmin; Klieme, Eckhard; Kunter, Mareike; Hochweber, Jan; Büttner, Gerhard; Fauth, Benjamin; Hondrich, Anna Lena; Rieser, Svenja; Hertel, Silke; Hardy, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the interplay between curriculum-embedded formative assessment-a well-known teaching practice-and general features of classroom process quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, classroom management) and their combined effect on elementary school students' understanding of the scientific concepts of floating and sinking. We used data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial and compared curriculum-embedded formative assessment (17 classes) with a cont...

  5. Sensor-Augmented Virtual Labs: Using Physical Interactions with Science Simulations to Promote Understanding of Gas Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Chiu, Jennifer L.; DeJaegher, Crystal J.; Pan, Edward A.

    2016-02-01

    Deep learning of science involves integration of existing knowledge and normative science concepts. Past research demonstrates that combining physical and virtual labs sequentially or side by side can take advantage of the unique affordances each provides for helping students learn science concepts. However, providing simultaneously connected physical and virtual experiences has the potential to promote connections among ideas. This paper explores the effect of augmenting a virtual lab with physical controls on high school chemistry students' understanding of gas laws. We compared students using the augmented virtual lab to students using a similar sensor-based physical lab with teacher-led discussions. Results demonstrate that students in the augmented virtual lab condition made significant gains from pretest and posttest and outperformed traditional students on some but not all concepts. Results provide insight into incorporating mixed-reality technologies into authentic classroom settings.

  6. Do iPads promote symbolic understanding and word learning in children with autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa L; Hartley, Calum; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The use of the Apple iPad has skyrocketed in educational settings, along with largely unsubstantiated claims of its efficacy for learning and communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we examine whether children with ASD are better able to learn new word-referent relations using an iPad or a traditional picture book. We also examine the hypothesis that presenting multiple, differently colored, exemplars of a target referent will promote adaptive label generalization compared to the use of a single exemplar. Sixteen minimally verbal children with ASD were taught a new word in four within-subjects conditions, which varied by media (iPad vs. book) and content (single vs. multiple exemplar presentation). Children were then tested on the ability to symbolically relate the word to a 3-D referent (real-life depicted object) and generalize it to a differently colored category member (another similarly shaped object). The extent of symbolic understanding did not differ between the two media, and levels of generalization did not differ across conditions. However, presentation of multiple exemplars increased the rate that children with ASD extended labels from pictures to depicted objects. Our findings are discussed in terms of the importance of content to picture-based learning and the potential benefits and challenges of using the Apple iPad as an educational resource for children with ASD.

  7. Do iPads promote symbolic understanding and word learning in children with autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eAllen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Apple iPad has skyrocketed in educational settings, along with largely unsubstantiated claims of its efficacy for learning and communication in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Here we examine whether children with ASD are better able to learn new word-referent relations using an iPad or a traditional picture book. We also examine the hypothesis that presenting multiple, differently-coloured, exemplars of a target referent will promote adaptive label generalisation compared to the use of a single exemplar. Sixteen minimally-verbal children with ASD were taught a new word in 4 within-subjects conditions, which varied by media (iPad vs. book and content (single vs. multiple exemplar presentation. Children were then tested on the ability to symbolically relate the word to a 3-D referent (real-life depicted object and generalise it to a differently-coloured category member (another similarly-shaped object. The extent of symbolic understanding did not differ between the two media, and levels of generalisation did not differ across conditions. However, presentation of multiple exemplars increased the rate that children with ASD extended labels from pictures to depicted objects. Our findings are discussed in terms of the importance of content to picture-based learning and the potential benefits and challenges of using the Apple iPad as an educational resource for children with ASD.

  8. Rice tissue-specific promoters and condition-dependent promoters for effective translational application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hee-Jeong; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2015-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important staple food crops for more than half of the world's population. The demand is increasing for food security because of population growth and environmental challenges triggered by climate changes. This scenario has led to more interest in developing crops with greater productivity and sustainability. The process of genetic transformation, a major tool for crop improvement, utilizes promoters as one of its key elements. Those promoters are generally divided into three types: constitutive, spatiotemporal, and condition-dependent. Transcriptional control of a constitutive promoter often leads to reduced plant growth, due to a negative effect of accumulated molecules during cellular functions or energy consumption. To maximize the effect of a transgene on transgenic plants, it is better to use condition-dependent or tissue-specific promoters. However, until now, those types have not been as widely applied in crop biotechnology. In this review, we introduce and discuss four groups of tissue-specific promoters (50 promoters in total) and six groups of condition-dependent promoters (27 promoters). These promoters can be utilized to fine-tune desirable agronomic traits and develop crops with tolerance to various stresses, enhanced nutritional value, and advanced productivity. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Potential effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damping off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on cowpea results in yield losses with serious socioeconomic implication. Induction of defense responses by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is largely associated with the production of defense enzyme phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL) and oxidative enzymes like ...

  10. Strengthen Context To Enhance Health Promotion Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofian, Neal; Newton, Daniel; DeClaire, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Highlights one strategy to improve health promotion delivery and generate better outcomes by creating "Microcultures of Meaning" (MOMs), which are intended to provide a context to help people learn and take action. The issue introduces key theoretical concepts associated with the MOM methodology, describes the scientific rationale, discusses…

  11. An investigation of the use of microcomputer-based laboratory simulations in promoting conceptual understanding in secondary physics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomshaw, Stephen G.

    Physics education research has shown that students bring alternate conceptions to the classroom which can be quite resistant to traditional instruction methods (Clement, 1982; Halloun & Hestenes, 1985; McDermott, 1991). Microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) experiments that employ an active-engagement strategy have been shown to improve student conceptual understanding in high school and introductory university physics courses (Thornton & Sokoloff, 1998). These (MBL) experiments require a specialized computer interface, type-specific sensors (e.g. motion detectors, force probes, accelerometers), and specialized software in addition to the standard physics experimental apparatus. Tao and Gunstone (1997) have shown that computer simulations used in an active engagement environment can also lead to conceptual change. This study investigated 69 secondary physics students' use of computer simulations of MBL activities in place of the hands-on MBL laboratory activities. The average normalized gain in students' conceptual understanding was measured using the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE). Student attitudes towards physics and computers were probed using the Views About Science Survey (VASS) and the Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). While it may be possible to obtain an equivalent level of conceptual understanding using computer simulations in combination with an active-engagement environment, this study found no significant gains in students' conceptual understanding ( = -0.02) after they completed a series of nine simulated experiments from the Tools for Scientific Thinking curriculum (Thornton & Sokoloff, 1990). The absence of gains in conceptual understanding may indicate that either the simulations were ineffective in promoting conceptual change or problems with the implementation of the treatment inhibited its effectiveness. There was a positive shift in students' attitudes towards physics in the VASS dimensions of structure and reflective thinking, while

  12. Developmental song learning as a model to understand neural mechanisms that limit and promote the ability to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Sarah E

    2017-11-20

    Songbirds famously learn their vocalizations. Some species can learn continuously, others seasonally, and still others just once. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) learns to sing during a single developmental "Critical Period," a restricted phase during which a specific experience has profound and permanent effects on brain function and behavioral patterns. The zebra finch can therefore provide fundamental insight into features that promote and limit the ability to acquire complex learned behaviors. For example, what properties permit the brain to come "on-line" for learning? How does experience become encoded to prevent future learning? What features define the brain in receptive compared to closed learning states? This piece will focus on epigenomic, genomic, and molecular levels of analysis that operate on the timescales of development and complex behavioral learning. Existing data will be discussed as they relate to Critical Period learning, and strategies for future studies to more directly address these questions will be considered. Birdsong learning is a powerful model for advancing knowledge of the biological intersections of maturation and experience. Lessons from its study not only have implications for understanding developmental song learning, but also broader questions of learning potential and the enduring effects of early life experience on neural systems and behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effectiveness of CAM therapy: understanding the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staud, Roland

    2011-02-01

    By definition, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) attempts to diagnose and treat illnesses in unconventional ways. CAM has been classified as: (1) alternative medical systems (eg, traditional Chinese medicine [including acupuncture], naturopathic medicine, ayurvedic medicine, and homeopathy); (2) biologic-based therapies (eg, herbal, special dietary, and individual biologic treatments); (3) energy therapies (eg, Reiki, therapeutic touch, magnet therapy, Qi Gong, and intercessory prayer); (4) manipulative and body-based systems (eg, chiropractic, osteopathy, and massage); and (5) mind-body interventions (eg, meditation, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, and the relaxation response). This review focuses on how to assess the effectiveness of CAM therapies for chronic musculoskeletal pains, emphasizing the role of specific and nonspecific analgesic mechanisms, including placebo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantum effects in the understanding of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameroff, Stuart R; Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective on the development and application of quantum physics methodology beyond physics, especially in biology and in the area of consciousness studies. Quantum physics provides a conceptual framework for the structural aspects of biological systems and processes via quantum chemistry. In recent years individual biological phenomena such as photosynthesis and bird navigation have been experimentally and theoretically analyzed using quantum methods building conceptual foundations for quantum biology. Since consciousness is attributed to human (and possibly animal) mind, quantum underpinnings of cognitive processes are a logical extension. Several proposals, especially the Orch OR hypothesis, have been put forth in an effort to introduce a scientific basis to the theory of consciousness. At the center of these approaches are microtubules as the substrate on which conscious processes in terms of quantum coherence and entanglement can be built. Additionally, Quantum Metabolism, quantum processes in ion channels and quantum effects in sensory stimulation are discussed in this connection. We discuss the challenges and merits related to quantum consciousness approaches as well as their potential extensions.

  15. Understanding Digital Learning and Its Variable Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, B.

    2016-12-01

    An increasing proportion of undergraduate courses use an online or blended learning format. This trend signals major changes in the kind of instruction students receive in their STEM courses, yet evidence about the effectiveness of these new approaches is sparse. Existing syntheses and meta-analyses summarize outcomes from experimental or quasi-experimental studies of online and blended courses and document how few studies incorporate proper controls for differences in student characteristics, instructor behaviors, and other course conditions. The evidence that is available suggests that on average blended courses are equal to or better than traditional face-to-face courses and that online courses are equivalent in terms of learning outcomes. But these averages conceal a tremendous underlying variability. Results vary markedly from course to course, even when the same technology is used in both. Some research suggests that online instruction puts lower-achieving students at a disadvantage. It is clear that introducing digital learning per se is no guarantee that student engagement and learning will be enhanced. Getting more consistently positive impacts out of learning technologies is going to require systematic characterization of the features of learning technologies and associated instructional practices as well as attention to context and student characteristics. This presentation will present a framework for characterizing essential features of digital learning resources, implementation practices, and conditions. It will also summarize the research evidence with respect to the learning impacts of specific technology features including spaced practice, immediate feedback, mastery learning based pacing, visualizations and simulations, gaming features, prompts for explanations and reflection, and tools for online collaboration.

  16. Promoting the Understanding of Photosynthesis among Elementary School Student Teachers through Text Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södervik, Ilona; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Vilppu, Henna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary school pre-service teachers' understanding of photosynthesis and to examine if a refutational text can support understanding of photosynthesis better than a non-refutational text. A total of 91 elementary school pre-service teachers read either a refutational or a non-refutational text…

  17. Understanding the Pathogenicity of Noncoding Mismatch Repair Gene Promoter Variants in Lynch Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Thompson, Bryony A; Ward, Robyn L; Hesson, Luke B; Sloane, Mathew A

    2016-05-01

    Lynch syndrome is the most common familial cancer condition that mainly predisposes to tumors of the colon and endometrium. Cancer susceptibility is caused by the autosomal dominant inheritance of a loss-of-function mutation or epimutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Cancer risk assessment is often possible with nonsynonymous coding region mutations, but in many cases patients present with DNA sequence changes within noncoding regions, including the promoters, of MMR genes. The pathogenic role of promoter variants, and hence clinical significance, is unclear and this hinders the clinical management of carriers. In this review, we provide an overview of the classification of MMR gene variants, outline the laboratory assays and online resources that can be used to assess the causality of promoter variants in Lynch syndrome, and highlight some of the practical challenges of demonstrating the pathogenicity of these variants. In conclusion, we propose a guide that could be integrated into the current InSiGHT classification scheme to help determine if a MMR gene promoter variant is pathogenic. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  18. Understanding and Promoting Thinking about Knowledge: Origins, Issues, and Future Directions of Research on Epistemic Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, William A.; Greene, Jeffrey A.; Bråten, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Epistemic cognition is the thinking that people do about what and how they know. Education has long been concerned with promoting reflection on knowledge and processes of knowing, but research into epistemic cognition began really in the past half century, with a tremendous expansion in the past 20 years. This review summarizes the broad range of…

  19. Consumer choice models on the effect of promotions in retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guyt, Jonne

    2015-01-01

    This doctoral thesis contains three empirical essays regarding the effect of promotions on consumer choices in a retailing context. The first essay studies the scheduling of featured price cuts for national brands, across retail chains. It shows that coordinating promotions across chains influences

  20. Wage structure and the incentive effects of promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, M.; Cools, C.; van Praag, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their incentive effects within one firm. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. We furthermore show that a promotion

  1. [Factors effecting health promoting behaviors in middle-aged women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Ja; Chang, Chun-Ja; Yoo, Jae-Hee; Yi, Yeo-Jin

    2005-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the casual relationship between the factors in the Pender's model and to explain health promoting behaviors among middle-aged women in order to facilitate nursing interventions for this population group. 116 women between 40-60 years old living in Incheon were asked to complete a questionnaire about their health. The data was collected between March and November, 2003. The data was analyzed by descriptive statistics and the correctional analysis SPSSWIN 11.5 program. The LISREL 8.12 program was used to find the best fit model which explained a causal relationship of the variables. The climacteric symptoms of middle-aged women negatively correlated with health promoting behaviors. However, marital satisfaction positively correlated with health promoting behaviors. Marital satisfaction and climacteric symptoms had an effect on health promoting behaviors. Therefore, based on this study, we plan to develop a health education program to decrease climacteric symptoms and to promote marital satisfaction for health promotion.

  2. The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the viability of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the impact on the productivity of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa l.)

  3. Understanding the role of cigarette promotion and youth smoking in a changing marketing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Dean M; Quinn, William H; Sung, Yongjun; Morrison, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, $11.21 billion was spent on domestic cigarette advertising and promotion, an increase of 16.9% over 2000. This article explains how cigarette industry efforts stimulate demand and encourage smoking within the context of recent changes, including the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) and resulting litigation, and variations in tobacco marketing policies. Communication concepts are combined with adolescent development concepts to explain how youth are impacted. Industry documents and current syndicated research data are used to reveal and explain key concepts.

  4. Teaching with Procedural Variation: A Chinese Way of Promoting Deep Understanding of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mun Yee; Murray, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In mathematics education, there has been tension between deep learning and repetitive learning. Western educators often emphasize the need for students to construct a conceptual understanding of mathematical symbols and rules before they practise the rules (Li, 2006). On the other hand, Chinese learners tend to be oriented towards rote learning…

  5. Implementation of health promotion programmes in schools: an approach to understand the influence of contextual factors on the process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Emily Joan; Violon, Nolwenn; Jourdan, Didier

    2018-01-22

    Implementing complex and multi-level public health programmes is challenging in school settings. Discrepancies between expected and actual programme outcomes are often reported. Such discrepancies are due to complex interactions between contextual factors. Contextual factors relate to the setting, the community, in which implementation occurs, the stakeholders involved, and the characteristics of the programme itself. This work uses realist evaluation to understand how contextual factors influence the implementation process, to result in variable programme outcomes. This study focuses on identifying contextual factors, pinpointing combinations of contextual factors, and understanding interactions and effects of such factors and combinations on programme outcomes on different levels of the implementation process. Schools which had participated in a school-based health promotion programme between 2012 and 2015 were included. Two sets of qualitative data were collected: semi-structured interviews with school staff and programme coordinators; and written documents about the actions implemented in a selection of four schools. Quantitative data included 1553 questionnaires targeting pupils aged 8 to 11 in 14 schools to describe the different school contexts. The comparison between what was expected from the programme (programme theory) and the outcomes identified in the field data, showed that some of the mechanisms expected to support the implementation of the programme, did not operate as anticipated (e.g. inclusion of training, initiation by decision-maker). Key factors which influenced the implementation process included, amongst other factors, the mode of introduction of the programme, home/school relationship, leadership of the management team, and the level of delegated power. Five types of interactions between contextual factors were put forward: enabling, hindering, neutral, counterbalancing and moderating effects. Recurrent combinations of factors were

  6. Effect of Linked Rules on Business Process Model Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Indulska, Marta; Sadiq, Shazia

    2017-01-01

    of business processes has not been empirically evaluated. In this paper, we report on an experiment that investigates the effect of linked rules, a specific rule integration approach, on business process model understanding. Our results indicate that linked rules are associated with better time efficiency......Business process models are widely used in organizations by information systems analysts to represent complex business requirements and by business users to understand business operations and constraints. This understanding is extracted from graphical process models as well as business rules. Prior...... research advocated integrating business rules into business process models to improve the effectiveness of important organizational activities, such as developing shared understanding, effective communication, and process improvement. However, whether such integrated modeling can improve the understanding...

  7. Promoting nursing students' understanding and reflection on cultural awareness with older adults in home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Diana R; Grossman, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    It is important for nursing programs to use culturally focused activities to increase student preparation in caring for diverse older adults in their homes. The purpose of this study was to examine strategies that promote students' reflection on cultural awareness using home care-focused case studies, simulations, and self-reflective writing activities. Cases and simulations were designed to depict diverse patients living at home with a variety of demographic characteristics, such as health history, age, culture, religion, dietary preferences, marital status, family involvement, and socioeconomic status. Qualitative data regarding student perceptions of cultural awareness was gathered via written surveys, and findings suggest that junior- and senior-year nursing students enhanced the depth and breadth of how they defined "cultural competence" after participating in culturally focused classroom and clinical laboratory activities. Levels of reflective writing using framework also improved by the semester's end for both groups of students.

  8. Effective communication and teamwork promotes patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, Heather

    2015-08-05

    Teamwork requires co-operation, co-ordination and communication between members of a team to achieve desired outcomes. In industries with a high degree of risk, such as health care, effective teamwork has been shown to achieve team goals successfully and efficiently, with fewer errors. This article introduces behaviours that support communication, co-operation and co-ordination in teams. The central role of communication in enabling co-operation and co-ordination is explored. A human factors perspective is used to examine tools to improve communication and identify barriers to effective team communication in health care.

  9. Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two commercially-available probiotics, based on Enterococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium genera on performance and cholesterol and triglyceride amounts of broiler chicks' sera. One hundred and fifty-six (156), day-old, Ross chicks were randomly divided into groups A, ...

  10. Assessing Teacher Quality: Understanding Teacher Effects on Instruction and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Recent educational reforms have promoted accountability systems which attempt to identify "teacher effects" on student outcomes and hold teachers accountable for producing learning gains. But in the complex world of classrooms, it may be difficult to attribute "success" or "failure" to teachers. In this timely…

  11. Genomic Instability Promoted by Overexpression of Mismatch Repair Factors in Yeast: A Model for Understanding Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ujani; Dinh, Timothy A; Alani, Eric

    2018-04-13

    Mismatch repair (MMR) proteins act in spellchecker roles to excise misincorporation errors that occur during DNA replication. Curiously, large-scale analyses of a variety of cancers showed that increased expression of MMR proteins often correlated with tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, and early recurrence. To better understand these observations, we used the TCGA and GENT databases to analyze MMR protein expression in cancers. We found that the MMR genes MSH2 and MSH6 are overexpressed more frequently than MSH3 , and that MSH2 and MSH6 are often co-overexpressed as a result of copy number amplifications of these genes. These observations encouraged us to test the effects of upregulating MMR protein levels in baker's yeast, where we can sensitively monitor genome instability phenotypes associated with cancer initiation and progression. Msh6 overexpression (2 to 4-fold) almost completely disrupted mechanisms that prevent recombination between divergent DNA sequences by interacting with the DNA polymerase processivity clamp PCNA and by sequestering the Sgs1 helicase. Importantly, co-overexpression of Msh2 and Msh6 (∼8-fold) conferred, in a PCNA interaction dependent manner, several genome instability phenotypes including increased mutation rate, increased sensitivity to the DNA replication inhibitor hydroxyurea and the DNA damaging agents methyl methanesulfonate and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide, and elevated loss of heterozygosity. Msh2 and Msh6 co-overexpression also altered the cell cycle distribution of exponentially growing cells, resulting in an increased fraction of unbudded cells, consistent with a larger percentage of cells in G1. These novel observations suggested that overexpression of MSH factors affected the integrity of the DNA replication fork, causing genome instability phenotypes that could be important for promoting cancer progression. Copyright © 2018, Genetics.

  12. Teaching for conceptual change: An intervention to promote deeper understanding of diffusion and osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Cheryl

    Emergent processes are distinguished from non-emergent processes on the basis of the qualitative relationships among the agents' interactions and the causal relationships between the agents' interactions and the pattern. Research suggests students often have robust misconceptions about emergent processes (such as diffusion) because they do not have the mental model to interpret these processes This study investigates the extent to which a domain-general understanding of emergent processes can help provide students with an enhanced understanding of diffusion and osmosis This is a quasi-experimental study using non-equivalent groups design to compare the treatment and control groups. Sixty-six community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course comprised the participants. Students' prior knowledge about emergent processes, diffusion, and osmosis were assessed by pre-tests. The treatment group received the intervention -- an instructional module about the differences between scientific processes that are emergent versus processes that are non-emergent. The control group did not receive the intervention but received the process assessment to determine incoming knowledge about scientific processes and any gains in knowledge about scientific processes. Both groups received the same specific content instruction about diffusion and osmosis, which was derived from the regular and established curriculum for the course. Both groups were given post-tests to assess whether they learned the concepts, and whether they were able to achieve a deep understanding that resulted in a comprehension of the transport of substances across cell membranes and how that might be applied in particular health-related situations. Data were analyzed using t-tests and analysis of variance. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups based on the learning measures Limitations include sample restrictions and not taking into account individual ability

  13. Understanding How Domestic Violence Support Services Promote Survivor Well-being: A Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Cris M

    2018-01-01

    Domestic violence (DV) victim service programs have been increasingly expected by legislators and funders to demonstrate that they are making a significant difference in the lives of those using their services. Alongside this expectation, they are being asked to describe the Theory of Change guiding how they believe their practices lead to positive results for survivors and their children. Having a widely accepted conceptual model is not just potentially useful to funders and policy makers as they help shape policy and practice -- it can also help programs continually reflect upon and improve their work. This paper describes the iterative and collaborative process undertaken to generate a conceptual model describing how DV victim services are expected to improve survivors' lives. The Social and Emotional Well-Being Framework guiding the model is an ideal structure to use to describe the goals and practices of DV programs because this framework: (1) accurately represents DV programs' goal of helping survivors and their children thrive; and (2) recognizes the importance of community, social, and societal context in influencing individuals' social and emotional well-being. The model was designed to guide practice and to generate new questions for research and evaluation that address individual, community, and systems factors that promote or hinder survivor safety and well-being.

  14. Computational Approaches to Understand Transcriptional Regulation and Alternative Promoter Usage in Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette

    understand and cure diseases. The focus of this thesis is transcriptional regulation. The main aim was to gain new insight into transcriptional regulation but a secondary goal was to develop new bioinformatic methods to facilitate future research. Three di erent studies are presented each focusing on di...... into proteins. All cells need di erent proteins in di erent amounts to function properly. The transcription and translation are therefore highly regulated and the regulation is not fully understood. It is important to learn as much as possible about both transcriptional and translational regulation to better...... erent aspects of transcriptional regulation. In the rst study we develop a machine learning framework to predict mRNA production, stalling and elongation of RNA polymerase II using publicly available histone modi cation data. The study reveals new pieces of information about the histone code. Besides...

  15. Undergraduate Writing Promotes Student’s Understanding of International Sustainable Development in Horticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil O. Anderson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of undergraduate student thinking and learning in the realm of sustainable production is a new focus for horticulture curricula. In a writing intensive course, Greenhouse Management (Hort 3002W; University of Minnesota, students focus their learning of sustainability by writing peer-reviewed, 3-phase ‘Worldwide Sustainable Horticultural Crop Production Papers’ on past, present, and future prospects for sustainability. The USA is used as an in-class example throughout the semester while each student focuses their writing on a specific country of their choosing. Their papers focus on eight goals for each country across the three Phases: I—their choice of a country, definition of sustainability, identification of historical production practices, current production statistics; II—current production practices and integration of historical/current practices (ranked strategies; III—finalized sustainable development strategy, design of a future sustainable, controlled-environment production facility. The last two goals (Phase III provide plant breeders with potential breeding objectives for country-specific cultivar development within a sustainable production framework. Completed papers are web-published for global availability to enable each country’s researchers and policy makers to access sustainable ideas for future development. In 2009–2010, ‘Worldwide Sustainable Horticultural Crop Production Papers’ were published for 41 countries which were downloaded 3900 times in 19 months through April 2011. This large readership indicates such an assignment can generate interest in either undergraduate writing about developing sustainable horticulture and/or the topic area itself, although the exact purpose of the downloads or the location of the users could not be determined.

  16. Generalizations on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical promotional expenditures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.T.M.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wieringa, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    We perform a meta-analysis to formulate generalizations on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical promotional instruments. A literature search on this topic yields 58 usable (published and unpublished) sources documenting 781 effects. We investigate different direct-to-physician (DTP) and

  17. Effectiveness of Social Marketing Interventions to Promote Physical Activity Among Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuan; Deshpande, Sameer; Bonates, Tiberius

    2016-11-01

    Social marketing managers promote desired behaviors to an audience by making them tangible in the form of environmental opportunities to enhance benefits and reduce barriers. This study proposed "benchmarks," modified from those found in the past literature, that would match important concepts of the social marketing framework and the inclusion of which would ensure behavior change effectiveness. In addition, we analyzed behavior change interventions on a "social marketing continuum" to assess whether the number of benchmarks and the role of specific benchmarks influence the effectiveness of physical activity promotion efforts. A systematic review of social marketing interventions available in academic studies published between 1997 and 2013 revealed 173 conditions in 92 interventions. Findings based on χ 2 , Mallows' Cp, and Logical Analysis of Data tests revealed that the presence of more benchmarks in interventions increased the likelihood of success in promoting physical activity. The presence of more than 3 benchmarks improved the success of the interventions; specifically, all interventions were successful when more than 7.5 benchmarks were present. Further, primary formative research, core product, actual product, augmented product, promotion, and behavioral competition all had a significant influence on the effectiveness of interventions. Social marketing is an effective approach in promoting physical activity among adults when a substantial number of benchmarks are used and when managers understand the audience, make the desired behavior tangible, and promote the desired behavior persuasively.

  18. Teaching Games for Understanding: A Comprehensive Approach to Promote Student's Motivation in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortigüela Alcalá, David; Hernando Garijo, Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    It seems important to consider students' attitudes towards physical education (PE), and the way they learn sports. The present study examines students' perceptions of motivation and achievement in PE after experiencing three consecutive sport units. Two hundred and thirty seven students from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade in a high school in Burgos (Spain) and two teachers agreed to participate. They were divided into two groups in order to compare two instructional approaches. The experimental group (A), 128 students, experienced Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), while the control group (B), 109 students, experienced a technical-traditional approach. Each group was taught by a different teacher. The study followed a mixed-method research design with quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) data. Results revealed that group A showed greater motivation and achievement in PE than group B. Significant differences were found in achievement. Participants with better academic results in group A were more positive in sport participation. Meanwhile, students who practiced more extracurricular sports in group B were more actively involved in sport. Teachers disagreed greatly on the way sport should be taught in PE.

  19. An Inquiry-Based Laboratory Module to Promote Understanding of the Scientific Method and Bacterial Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie B. Berkmen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Students are engaged and improve their critical thinking skills in laboratory courses when they have the opportunity to design and conduct inquiry-based experiments that generate novel results. A discovery-driven project for a microbiology, genetics, or multidisciplinary research laboratory course was developed to familiarize students with the scientific method. In this multi-lab module, students determine whether their chosen stress conditions induce conjugation and/or cell death of the model BSL-1 Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Through consultation of the primary literature, students identify conditions or chemicals that can elicit DNA damage, the SOS response, and/or cellular stress.  In groups, students discuss their selected conditions, develop their hypotheses and experimental plans, and formulate their positive and negative controls. Students then subject the B. subtilis donor cells to the stress conditions, mix donors with recipients to allow mating, and plate serial dilutions of the mixtures on selective plates to measure how the treatments affect conjugation frequency and donor cell viability.  Finally, students analyze and discuss their collective data in light of their controls. The goals of this module are to encourage students to be actively involved in the scientific process while contributing to our understanding of the conditions that stimulate horizontal gene transfer in bacteria.

  20. Understanding and Promoting Stress Management Practices among College Students through an Integrated Health Behavior Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistricky, Steven L.; Harper, Kristina L.; Roberts, Caroline M.; Cook, Diana M.; Schield, Staci L.; Bui, Jennifer; Short, Mary B.

    2018-01-01

    Background: College students are susceptible to undermanaged stress and its detrimental effects, and though they could use evidence-based stress reduction techniques (SRTs) to remedy this, many do not. Unfortunately, little is known about what might encourage greater use. Purpose: This study examined to what extent a framework integrating…

  1. Promoting Honesty: The Influence of Stories on Children's Lie-Telling Behaviours and Moral Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Yachison, Sarah; Leduc, Karissa

    2016-01-01

    Moral stories are a means of communicating the consequences of our actions and emphasizing virtuous behaviour, such as honesty. However, the effect of these stories on children's lie-telling has yet to be thoroughly explored. The current study investigated the influence of moral stories on children's willingness to lie for another individual.…

  2. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    students' understanding of their subject matter.

  3. Leaf-litter leachate concentration promotes heterotrophy in freshwater biofilms: Understanding consequences of water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Aingeru; Kominoski, John Stephen; Larrañaga, Aitor

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is increasing overall temporal variability in precipitation resulting in a seasonal water availability, both increasing periods of flooding and water scarcity. During low water availability periods, the concentration of leachates from riparian vegetation increases, subsequently increasing dissolved organic matter (DOM). Moreover, shifts in riparian vegetation by land use changes impact the quantity and quality of DOM. Our objective was to test effects of increasing DOM concentrations from Eucalyptus grandis (one of the most cultivated tree species in the world) leachates on the metabolism (respiration, R; gross primary productivity, GPP) and extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) of freshwater biofilms. To test effects of DOM concentrations on freshwater biofilm functions, we incubated commercial cellulose sponges in a freshwater pond to allow biofilm colonization, and then exposed biofilms to five different concentrations of leaf-litter leachates of E. grandis for five days. To test if responses to DOM concentrations varied with colonization stage of biofilms, we measured treatment effects on biofilms colonizing standard substrates after one, two, three and four weeks of colonization. Increases in leachates concentrations enhanced biofilm heterotrophy, increasing R rates and decreasing GPP. Leachate concentrations did not affect biofilm EEAs, and changes in biofilm metabolism were not explained by treatment-induced changes in biofilm biomass or stoichiometry. We detected the lowest production:respiration ratios, i.e. more heterotrophic assemblages, with the most concentrated leachate solution and the most advanced biofilm colonization stages. Shifts in quantity of dissolved organic matter in freshwaters may further influence ecosystem metabolism and carbon processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Relatively effortless listening promotes understanding and recall of medical instructions in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Roberta M.; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Communication success under adverse conditions requires efficient and effective recruitment of both bottom-up (sensori-perceptual) and top-down (cognitive-linguistic) resources to decode the intended auditory-verbal message. Employing these limited capacity resources has been shown to vary across the lifespan, with evidence indicating that younger adults out-perform older adults for both comprehension and memory of the message. This study examined how sources of interference arising from the speaker (message spoken with conversational vs. clear speech technique), the listener (hearing-listening and cognitive-linguistic factors), and the environment (in competing speech babble noise vs. quiet) interact and influence learning and memory performance using more ecologically valid methods than has been done previously. The results suggest that when older adults listened to complex medical prescription instructions with “clear speech,” (presented at audible levels through insertion earphones) their learning efficiency, immediate, and delayed memory performance improved relative to their performance when they listened with a normal conversational speech rate (presented at audible levels in sound field). This better learning and memory performance for clear speech listening was maintained even in the presence of speech babble noise. The finding that there was the largest learning-practice effect on 2nd trial performance in the conversational speech when the clear speech listening condition was first is suggestive of greater experience-dependent perceptual learning or adaptation to the speaker's speech and voice pattern in clear speech. This suggests that experience-dependent perceptual learning plays a role in facilitating the language processing and comprehension of a message and subsequent memory encoding. PMID:26106353

  5. Relatively effortless listening promotes understanding and recall of medical instructions in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maria DiDonato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication success under adverse conditions requires efficient and effective recruitment of both bottom-up (sensori-perceptual and top-down (cognitive-linguistic resources to decode the intended auditory-verbal message. Employing these limited capacity resources has been shown to vary across the lifespan, with evidence indicating that younger adults out-perform older adults for both comprehension and memory of the message. This study examined how sources of interference arising from the speaker (message spoken with conversational versus clear speech technique, the listener (hearing-listening and cognitive-linguistic factors, and the environment (in competing speech babble noise versus quiet interact and influence learning and memory performance using more ecologically valid methods than has been done previously. The results suggest that when older adults listened to complex medical prescription instructions with ‘clear speech,’ (presented at audible levels through insertion earphones their learning efficiency, immediate and delayed memory performance improved relative to their performance when they listened with a normal conversational speech rate (presented at audible levels in sound field. This better learning and memory performance for clear speech listening was maintained even in the presence of speech babble noise. The finding that there was the largest learning-practice effect on 2nd trial performance in the conversational speech when the clear speech listening condition was first is suggestive of greater experience-dependent perceptual learning or adaptation to the speaker’s speech and voice pattern in clear speech. This suggests that experience-dependent perceptual learning plays a role in facilitating the language processing and comprehension of a message and subsequent memory encoding.

  6. Polyphenol-Rich Lentils and Their Health Promoting Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ganesan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris; Family: Fabaceae is a potential functional dietary ingredient which has polyphenol-rich content. Several studies have demonstrated that the consumption of lentil is immensely connected to the reduction in the incidence of diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancers and cardiovascular diseases due to its bioactive compounds. There has been increasing scientific interest in the study area of lentils as the functional food due to its high nutritive value, polyphenols, and other bioactive compounds. These polyphenols and the bioactive compounds found in lentil play an important role in the prevention of those degenerative diseases in humans. Besides that, it has health-promoting effects. Based on the in vitro, in-vivo and clinical studies, the present review focuses to provide more information on the nutritional compositions, bioactive compounds including polyphenols and health-promoting effects of lentils. Health-promoting information was gathered and orchestrated at a suitable place in the review.

  7. The effect of hydrate promoters on gas uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun-Gang; Yu, Yi-Song; Ding, Ya-Long; Cai, Jing; Li, Xiao-Sen

    2017-08-16

    Gas hydrate technology is considered as a promising technology in the fields of gas storage and transportation, gas separation and purification, seawater desalination, and phase-change thermal energy storage. However, to date, the technology is still not commercially used mainly due to the low gas hydrate formation rate and the low gas uptake. In this study, the effect of hydrate promoters on gas uptake was systematically studied and analyzed based on hydrate-based CH 4 storage and CO 2 capture from CO 2 /H 2 gas mixture experiments. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography (GC) were employed to analyze the microstructures and gas compositions. The results indicate that the effect of the hydrate promoter on the gas uptake depends on the physical and chemical properties of the promoter and gas. A strong polar ionic promoter is not helpful towards obtaining the ideal gas uptake because a dense hydrate layer is easily formed at the gas-liquid interface, which hinders gas diffusion from the gas phase to the bulk solution. For a weak polar or non-polar promoter, the gas uptake depends on the dissolution characteristics among the different substances in the system. The lower the mutual solubility among the substances co-existing in the system, the higher the independence among the substances in the system; this is so that each phase has an equal chance to occupy the hydrate cages without or with small interactions, finally leading to a relatively high gas uptake.

  8. Understanding and engineering beneficial plant-microbe interactions: plant growth promotion in energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Kerrie; Bryant, David; Cope-Selby, Naomi

    2014-12-01

    Plant production systems globally must be optimized to produce stable high yields from limited land under changing and variable climates. Demands for food, animal feed, and feedstocks for bioenergy and biorefining applications, are increasing with population growth, urbanization and affluence. Low-input, sustainable, alternatives to petrochemical-derived fertilizers and pesticides are required to reduce input costs and maintain or increase yields, with potential biological solutions having an important role to play. In contrast to crops that have been bred for food, many bioenergy crops are largely undomesticated, and so there is an opportunity to harness beneficial plant-microbe relationships which may have been inadvertently lost through intensive crop breeding. Plant-microbe interactions span a wide range of relationships in which one or both of the organisms may have a beneficial, neutral or negative effect on the other partner. A relatively small number of beneficial plant-microbe interactions are well understood and already exploited; however, others remain understudied and represent an untapped reservoir for optimizing plant production. There may be near-term applications for bacterial strains as microbial biopesticides and biofertilizers to increase biomass yield from energy crops grown on land unsuitable for food production. Longer term aims involve the design of synthetic genetic circuits within and between the host and microbes to optimize plant production. A highly exciting prospect is that endosymbionts comprise a unique resource of reduced complexity microbial genomes with adaptive traits of great interest for a wide variety of applications. © 2014 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    behaviours over and above the effects of the behaviour-specific thinking and ii the relationship between adherence to exercise and to medical treatment is stronger among those with more favourable views about the goal. Results from this study should identify the key contributing factors to inform subsequent adherence research and afford a more streamlined assessment matrix. The project also aims to inform patient care practices. UK Clinical Research Network registration number UKCRN 7842.

  10. Promoting effective use of library resources and services at Kwame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This explains why various library services have been developed to promote and facilitate effective use of recorded information in all formats by users. This paper examines the resources available and services offered by the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Library. The methodology used ...

  11. Effective Techniques for the Promotion of Library Services and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhixian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines how Australian academic librarians perceive techniques for promoting services and resources, and the factors affecting the perceptions regarding effectiveness of techniques used. Method: Data were collected from an online survey that was sent to 400 academic librarians in thirty-seven Australian universities. The…

  12. Wage structure and the incentive effect of promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, M.; Cools, K.; van Praag, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their consequent incentive effects empirically. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. Our findings indicate

  13. STAS and Logit Modeling of Advertising and Promotion Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Yssing Hansen, Lotte; Grønholdt, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary studies of the effect of advertising and promotion on purchases using the British single-source database Adlab. STAS and logit modeling are the two measures studied. Results from the two measures have been compared to determine the extent to which, they give...

  14. Effective services promotion management in Far North (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabar Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the effective management of services promotion in the Far North (Russia is topical due to the severe weather and climatic conditions and the high price barrier in this industry. The objective of the article is the analysis of consumer market characteristics and the formation of specific recommendations on services promotion for the industries. Statistical methods and methods of analysis, synthesis, decomposition and expert assessments used in the study revealed the features of the consumer market. The article highlights the factors and patterns of communication services market functioning and its development dynamics. Specific recommendations on the actions in competitive market are given to the companies providing communications services.

  15. Promoting Climate Literacy and Conceptual Understanding among In-service Secondary Science Teachers requires an Epistemological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Forbes, C.; Roehrig, G.; Chandler, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Promoting climate literacy among in-service science teachers necessitates an understanding of fundamental concepts about the Earth's climate System (USGCRP, 2009). Very few teachers report having any formal instruction in climate science (Plutzer et al., 2016), therefore, rather simple conceptions of climate systems and their variability exist, which has implications for students' science learning (Francies et al., 1993; Libarkin, 2005; Rebich, 2005). This study uses the inferences from a NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) teacher professional development program (CYCLES) to establish the necessity for developing an epistemological perspective among teachers. In CYCLES, 19 middle and high school (male=8, female=11) teachers were assessed for their understanding of global climate change (GCC). A qualitative analysis of their concept maps and an alignment of their conceptions with the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy (NOAA, 2009) demonstrated that participants emphasized on EPCL 1, 3, 6, 7 focusing on the Earth system, atmospheric, social and ecological impacts of GCC. However, EPCL 4 (variability in climate) and 5 (data-based observations and modeling) were least represented and emphasized upon. Thus, participants' descriptions about global climatic patterns were often factual rather than incorporating causation (why the temperatures are increasing) and/or correlation (describing what other factors might influence global temperatures). Therefore, engaging with epistemic dimensions of climate science to understand the processes, tools, and norms through which climate scientists study the Earth's climate system (Huxter et al., 2013) is critical for developing an in-depth conceptual understanding of climate. CLiMES (Climate Modeling and Epistemology of Science), a NSF initiative proposes to use EzGCM (EzGlobal Climate Model) to engage students and teachers in designing and running simulations, performing data processing activities, and analyzing

  16. Health promotion in nursing and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadelhack, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Close examination of the different healthcare systems and the present economic crisis worldwide suggests that all health organizations should re-evaluate the concept of health promotion and its relationship to cost-effectiveness. When choosing the most efficient and cost-effective system, each nation's healthcare system must seriously start to implement strategies for the change. Health professions, including nursing, must change their vision of education both in academic and practice settings, to focus on health promotion and illness prevention. The key principle underlying this paper is to illustrate the importance of health promotion and cost-effectiveness being adopted by all health organizations worldwide, as well as to observe the experiences of selected counties in developing a health policy related to education in primary healthcare. The paper will include a plan adopted by the General Nursing Directorate (GND) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA), which contains a health promotion policy for the nursing administrations in all governmental primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Are the arts an effective setting for promoting health messages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christina; Knuiman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Michael; Wood, Lisa; Ferguson, Renee

    2013-03-01

    Individuals can contribute to their own well-being through the adoption of positive health behaviours and the avoidance of negative health behaviours. The promotion of health messages is a cognitive strategy used to influence the adoption of health-enhancing behaviours. Since 1991, arts organizations have been sponsored by the Western Australian Health Promotion Foundation (Healthway) to promote anti-smoking, safe alcohol consumption, physical activity, sun protection and nutrition messages to the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of arts sponsorship to promote health messages and therefore gauge the effectiveness of the arts as a communication channel to promote health to the general population. A secondary analysis of the Healthway Survey of Community Recreation and Health data was conducted. The data were collected via a telephone survey of Western Australian adults aged 16-69 years. Overall, 1997 respondents participated in this study, a response rate of 59%. The analysis included a descriptive investigation, followed by logistic regression analyses of message awareness by those engaged and not engaged in the arts for sponsored anti-smoking, safe alcohol consumption, physical activity, sun protection and nutrition messages. Overall, 68% of those surveyed were classified as engaged in the arts, either as a participant, attendee or member of an arts organization. In general, those engaged in the arts were significantly more likely to recall health messages relating to physical activity (adjusted OR = 1.9), sun protection (OR = 1.8) nutrition (OR = 1.5), safe alcohol consumption (OR = 1.5) and anti-smoking (adjusted OR = 1.3) than those not engaged in the arts. Findings from this study suggest the arts have merit beyond intrinsic artistic value and are a viable means of promoting health messages to the general population.

  18. An Investigation into Chemical Engineering Students' Understanding of the Mole and the Use of Concrete Activities To Promote Conceptual Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jennifer M.; Fraser, Duncan M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an investigation of first-year chemical engineering students' understanding of the mole concept. Finds that a series of activities designed to provide students with visual or experiential points of reference for the mole concept had a strong positive effect on student misconceptions. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

  19. Effects of student participation in school health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griebler, Ursula; Rojatz, Daniela; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    , and interactions and social relations at school. Almost all included studies showed personal effects on students referring to an increased satisfaction, motivation and ownership, an increase in skills, competencies and knowledge, personal development, health-related effects and influence on student perspective...... rather than on student involvement at school in general. Participation is a core value for health promotion but empirical evidence of its outcomes is scarce. We searched major bibliographic databases (including ASSIA, ERIC, PsycINFO, Scopus, PubMed and the Social Sciences Citation Index). Two reviewers....... Given that student participation has more been discussed as a value, or ideal of health promotion in schools, these findings documenting its effectiveness are important. However, further research is needed to consider the level or intensity of involvement, different approaches and stages...

  20. Hair growth-promoting effect of Carthamus tinctorius floret extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junlatat, Jintana; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2014-07-01

    The florets of Carthamus tinctorius L. have traditionally been used for hair growth promotion. This study aimed to examine the potential of hydroxysafflor yellow A-rich C. tinctorius extract (CTE) on hair growth both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of CTE on cell proliferation and hair growth-associated gene expression in dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes (HaCaT) was determined. In addition, hair follicles from mouse neonates were isolated and cultured in media supplemented with CTE. Moreover, CTE was applied topically on the hair-shaved skin of female C57BL/6 mice, and the histological profile of the skin was investigated. C. tinctorius floret ethanolic extract promoted the proliferation of both dermal papilla cells and HaCaT and significantly stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor. In contrast, CTE suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 that is the hair loss-related gene. Furthermore, CTE treatment resulted in a significant increase in the length of cultured hair follicles and stimulated the growth of hair with local effects in mice. The results provided the preclinical data to support the potential use of CTE as a hair growth-promoting agent. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Photoelectric effect experiment for understanding the concept of quantization of radiation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimy Gerardine Berrios Saavedra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study forms part of research on the teaching of physics. The question that directed it was: How a proposed classroom, based on the photoelectric effect experiment helps pres-service teachers of physics of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional to expand their understanding of the concept of quantization energy of radiation? The construction of the theoretical framework developed on the one hand, with scientific ideas about the quantization of energy, and moreover, with the educational proposals of teaching for understanding. This pedagogical approach was guided by the investigative gaze of the study methodology based on design, taking as main element the use of learning tools such as the task to Predict, Experiment and Explain (PEE. It was found that these tasks fomented the initial understandings of students about the concept, while they enriched and transformed progressively their models and scientific ideas, promoting aspects of scientific work in developing curiosity, imagination and motivation.

  2. People Create Health: Effective Health Promotion is a Creative Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M

    Effective health promotion involves the creative cultivation of physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. Efforts at health promotion produce weak and inconsistent benefits when it does not engage people to express their own goals and values. Likewise, health promotion has been ineffective when it relies only on instruction about facts regarding a healthy lifestyle, or focuses on reduction of disease rather than the cultivation of well-being. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies and experimental interventions shows that improvements in subjective well-being lead to short-term and long-term reductions in medical morbidity and mortality, as well as to healthier functioning and longevity. However, these effects are inconsistent and weak (correlations of about 0.15). The most consistent and strong predictor of both subjective well-being and objective health status in longitudinal studies is a creative personality profile characterized by being highly self-directed, cooperative, and self-transcendent. There is a synergy among these personality traits that enhances all aspects of the health and happiness of people. Experimental interventions to cultivate this natural creative potential of people are now just beginning, but available exploratory research has shown that creativity can be enhanced and the changes are associated with widespread and profound benefits, including greater physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. In addition to benefits mediated by choice of diet, physical activity, and health care utilization, the effect of a creative personality on health may be partly mediated by effects on the regulation of heart rate variability. Creativity promotes autonomic balance with parasympathetic dominance leading to a calm alert state that promotes an awakening of plasticities and intelligences that stress inhibits. We suggest that health, happiness, and meaning can be cultivated by a complex adaptive process that enhances healthy functioning

  3. The interaction effects of gender within the health promotion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, P A; Bottorff, J L; Johnson, J L; Hayduk, L A

    1994-10-01

    A male-female stacked version of Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM) was used to evaluate whether the causal mechanisms underlying health promotion behaviors are the same for men and women. Indicators of the conceptual variables in the HPM were obtained from the National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences, 1979-1980--a telephone sample survey of 3,025 noninstitutionalized adults. All coefficients to be estimated were initially constrained to be equal for men and women, except for six direct effects originating from marital status. The estimates obtained via the LISREL VI program indicated that the stacked model did not fit the data and that additional gender interactions were required between gender and other concepts within the HPM. Based on model diagnostics and with the relaxation of some equality constraints, a modified stacked model was constructed that fit the data. The explanatory power of the model was poor, calling into question the validity of the HPM. Theorists and researchers of health promotion should not assume that the causal mechanisms underlying health promotion behaviors in men and women are identical, but must forge ahead with an exploration and clarification of possible differences.

  4. An application of AHP approach to investigate tourism promotional effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Wen-Hsiang; Vinh, Nguyen Quang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The tourism industry service network (TISN) is considered to be one of the largest components of tourism in the modern Vietnamese economy. The Vietnam National Administration of Tourism (VNAT) is currently developing a long-term plan to diversify the country’s tourism industry and to improve the destination image of Vietnam. To successfully implement this plan, the Vietnamese tourism industry must employ effective promotional strategies. Design – This study designs to determine the ...

  5. Understanding the edge effect in wetting: a thermodynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guoping; Amirfazli, A

    2012-06-26

    Edge effect is known to hinder spreading of a sessile drop. However, the underlying thermodynamic mechanisms responsible for the edge effect still is not well-understood. In this study, a free energy model has been developed to investigate the energetic state of drops on a single pillar (from upright frustum to inverted frustum geometries). An analysis of drop free energy levels before and after crossing the edge allows us to understand the thermodynamic origin of the edge effect. In particular, four wetting cases for a drop on a single pillar with different edge angles have been determined by understanding the characteristics of FE plots. A wetting map describing the four wetting cases is given in terms of edge angle and intrinsic contact angle. The results show that the free energy barrier observed near the edge plays an important role in determining the drop states, i.e., (1) stable or metastable drop states at the pillar's edge, and (2) drop collapse by liquid spilling over the edge completely or staying at an intermediate sidewall position of the pillar. This thermodynamic model presents an energetic framework to describe the functioning of the so-called "re-entrant" structures. Results show good consistency with the literature and expand the current understanding of Gibbs' inequality condition.

  6. Lay understandings of the effects of poverty: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Linda I; Veenstra, Gerry; Stewart, Miriam J; Raphael, Dennis; Love, Rhonda; Makwarimba, Edward; McMurray, Susan

    2005-11-01

    Although there is a large body of research dedicated to exploring public attributions for poverty, considerably less attention has been directed to public understandings about the effects of poverty. In this paper, we describe lay understandings of the effects of poverty and the factors that potentially influence these perceptions, using data from a telephone survey conducted in 2002 on a random sample (n=1671) of adults from eight neighbourhoods in two large Canadian cities (Edmonton and Toronto). These data were supplemented with interview data obtained from 153 people living in these same neighbourhoods. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to determine the effects of basic demographic variables, exposure to poverty and attribution for poverty on three dependent variables relating to the effects of poverty: participation in community life, the relationship between poverty and health and challenges facing low-income people. Ninety-one per cent of survey respondents agreed that poverty is linked to health, while 68% agreed that low-income people are less likely to participate in community life. Affordable housing was deemed especially difficult to obtain by 96%, but other resources (obtaining healthy food, giving children a good start in life, and engaging in healthy behaviours) were also viewed as challenging by at least 70% of respondents. The regression models revealed that when controlling for demographics, exposure to poverty explained some of the variance in recognising the effects of poverty. Media exposure positively influenced recognition of the poverty-health link, and attending formal talks was strongly related to understanding challenges of poverty. Attributions for poverty accounted for slightly more of the variance in the dependent variables. Specifically, structural and sociocultural attributions predicted greater recognition of the effects of poverty, in particular the challenges of poverty, while individualistic attributions

  7. The Effectiveness of the Geospatial Curriculum Approach on Urban Middle-Level Students' Climate Change Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change science is a challenging topic for student learning. This quantitative study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial curriculum approach to promote climate change science understandings in an urban school district with eighth-grade students and investigated whether teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students'…

  8. Data describing the effect of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms on promoter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoin Tei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article tested whether polymorphisms within the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 gene promoter can lead to differences in the promoter activity. The variants, a 120-bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR, −906 T/C, −809 G/A, −616G/C, and −521C/T, were introduced into the DRD4 promoter and the promoter activity was measured in a neural cell line using the luciferase assay. However, no differences were detected among the haplotypes investigated, and the in vitro data obtained from our protocol could not support the involvement of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms in heritable human traits.

  9. Using Social Media Data to Understand the Impact of Promotional Information on Laypeople's Discussions: A Case Study of Lynch Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jiang; Zhao, Yunpeng; Salloum, Ramzi G; Guo, Yi; Wang, Mo; Prosperi, Mattia; Zhang, Hansi; Du, Xinsong; Ramirez-Diaz, Laura J; He, Zhe; Sun, Yuan

    2017-12-13

    Social media is being used by various stakeholders among pharmaceutical companies, government agencies, health care organizations, professionals, and news media as a way of engaging audiences to raise disease awareness and ultimately to improve public health. Nevertheless, it is unclear what effects this health information has on laypeople. This study aimed to provide a detailed examination of how promotional health information related to Lynch syndrome impacts laypeople's discussions on a social media platform (Twitter) in terms of topic awareness and attitudes. We used topic modeling and sentiment analysis techniques on Lynch syndrome-related tweets to answer the following research questions (RQs): (1) what are the most discussed topics in Lynch syndrome-related tweets?; (2) how promotional Lynch syndrome-related information on Twitter affects laypeople's discussions?; and (3) what impact do the Lynch syndrome awareness activities in the Colon Cancer Awareness Month and Lynch Syndrome Awareness Day have on laypeople's discussions and their attitudes? In particular, we used a set of keywords to collect Lynch syndrome-related tweets from October 26, 2016 to August 11, 2017 (289 days) through the Twitter public search application programming interface (API). We experimented with two different classification methods to categorize tweets into the following three classes: (1) irrelevant, (2) promotional health information, and (3) laypeople's discussions. We applied a topic modeling method to discover the themes in these Lynch syndrome-related tweets and conducted sentiment analysis on each layperson's tweet to gauge the writer's attitude (ie, positive, negative, and neutral) toward Lynch syndrome. The topic modeling and sentiment analysis results were elaborated to answer the three RQs. Of all tweets (N=16,667), 87.38% (14,564/16,667) were related to Lynch syndrome. Of the Lynch syndrome-related tweets, 81.43% (11,860/14,564) were classified as promotional and 18

  10. The effect of sales promotions characteristics on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jabarzadeh Karbasi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, retail industry in Iran has faced an increasing competition and this has encouraged the managers of chain stores to find ways to differentiate their own companies. One of the influential factors in this field is brand equity. Concerning this issue, the aim of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of sale promotions on the brand equity of ETKA chain stores. Therefore, a sample of 500 people among the customers of these stores in Tehran was examined. The achieved information obtained from the questionnaire was analyzed through structural equation modeling. The results showed that monetary and non-monetary promotions could influence on brand association, brand awareness and the perceived quality. On the other hand, it came out that brand association and the perceived quality are influential on brand loyalty. At last, a few suggestions were presented based on the results of this research.

  11. Use of information technology by adolescents and young people and its effect on health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria Lotrean

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effects of the use of information technology by adolescents and young people and its effect on health promotion among them. The data are based on literature review. The threats posed by the use of these technologies include increasing risk for sedentary behavior in combination with inappropriate alimentary habits, risk for bulling, risk of exposure to advertisement for tobacco and alcohol products. On the other hand, information technologies have the potential to help and boost the implementation of effective, accessible and sustainable health education programs, but there are several research questions and challenges which should be addressed, such as a. type of theoretical concepts, educational strategies and materials which stimulates self-directed, curiosity-based learning and development of skills and increase confidence for adopting healthy lifestyle b. finding ways to improve teachers’ skills or formal education they need to empower learners to pursue their own interests and free class time for more experiential forms of learning c. understanding how social media can be used for healthy lifestyle promotion and how to avoid missteps is very important d. the challenge to enable pupils to work in collaboration with classmates and teachers to create environments which stimulates education for healthy lifestyle promotion. e. creating authentic learning environment stimulated through games, discussions, and group tasks. In the present, in Romania it is under development an educational program for healthy lifestyle promotion for pupils with hearing disabilities using communication networks, information technology and media.

  12. Toward Better Understanding of Turbulence Effects on Bridge Aerodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyang Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the trend of variable cross-sections for long-span bridges from truss-stiffened to quasi-streamlined, and then to multiple-box cross-section geometries, the importance of aeroelastic performance is becoming increasingly significant in wind-resistant design. This article shows that there is clearly insufficient qualitative as well as quantitative understanding of turbulence effects on bridge aerodynamics, particularly the mechanisms behind them. Although turbulence might help the stabilization of long-span bridges, and is thus not a conclusive parameter in wind-resistant design, turbulence effects on the aerodynamic and aeroelastic behaviors of a bridge need to be better understood because interaction between a bridge and turbulence always exists. This article also briefly introduces a newly developed multiple-fan wind tunnel that is designed to control turbulence to assist the study of turbulence effects.

  13. Understanding local residents of Korea using nuclear effective safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yun Hyung; Lee, Gey Hwi; Hah, Yeonhee; Kim, Beom Jun

    2010-01-01

    The risk perception gap between experts and lay people is based on the use of different concept on risk. It is getting increasingly important for nuclear practitioners to understand the lay people's subjective perception on nuclear safety. We proposed the nuclear effective safety index (NESI) which is based on data of the public survey of local inhabitants. We extracted the four factors for effective safety indicators; communication, trust, plant emergency response capability, and personal emergency coping skills. The latest NESI was 41.54, which was increased from 38.22 but still low. The three-year data of NESI showed the differences between genders and between sites as well as trend. The survey of antecedents of effective safety showed some meaningful events and profound differences between plant employees and local inhabitants. The NESI can be utilized as useful communication tool between the local inhabitants and nuclear practitioners. (authors)

  14. When a promotion is denied: the effects of decision stage on perceptions of promotion and price fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kukar-Kinney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketers frequently use promotions to enhance sales and increase consumers’ perceptions of value. However, most promotions usually come with restrictions, such as time expiration, quantity or product model restriction, etc. In the present research, the effect of the stage in the purchase process when the consumer finds out about the restriction is investigated. The findings indicate that the later in the purchase process the consumer discovers the restriction, the greater is the perception that the effort invested into the purchase is wasted, consequently resulting in lower promotion and price fairness. This effect is mediated through the feeling of entitlement to the promotional price and the inferred negative retailer’s motive for the promotion. Theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed.

  15. On the Conceptual Understanding of the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, S. K.; Lee, P.; Wong, D.; Chee, Y. P.

    2010-07-01

    We attempt an in-depth literature review that focuses on some finer aspects of the photoelectric effect that will help build a more coherent understanding of the phenomenon. These include the angular distribution of photoelectrons, multi-photon photoelectron emission and the work function in the photoelectric equation as being that associated with the collector rather than the emitter. We attempt to explain the intricacies of the related concepts in a way that is accessible to teachers and students at the Singapore GCE A-level or pre-university level.

  16. Attributes of system testing which promote cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    A brief overview of conventional EMP testing activity examines attributes of overall systems tests which promote cost-effectiveness. The general framework represents an EMP-oriented systems test as a portion of a planned program to design, produce, and field system elements. As such, all so-called system tests should play appropriate cost-effective roles in this program, and the objective here is to disclose such roles. The intrinsic worth of such tests depends not only upon placing proper values on the outcomes, but also upon the possible eventual consequences of not doing tests. A relative worth measure is required. Attributes of EMP system testing over the range of potential activity which encompasses research and development, production, field handling, verification, evaluation, and others are reviewed and examined. Thus, the relative worth, in a cost-effective sense, is provided by relating such attributes to the overall program objectives so that values can be placed on the outcomes for tradeoff purposes

  17. Promotional effects of new types of additives on fat crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shinichi; Kida, Haruyasu; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2014-01-01

    We examined the promotional effects of additives on fat crystallization, such as inorganic (talc, carbon nanotube (CNT), and graphite) and organic (theobromine, ellagic acid dihydrate (EAD), and terephthalic acid) materials. The triacylglycerols (TAGs) of trilauroylglycerol (LLL), trimyristoylglycerol (MMM), and tripalmitoylglycerol (PPP) were employed as the fats. The additives (1 wt%) were added to the molten TAGs, and then the mixtures were cooled at a rate of 1°C/min followed by heating at a rate of 5°C/min. The crystallization and melting properties were observed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and polarized optical microscope (POM). Consequently, we found that the above six additives remarkably increased the initial temperatures of crystallization (Ti) on cooling without changing the melting temperatures. For example, in the case of LLL, the increases in Ti were 2.6°C (talc), 3.9°C (CNT), 8.1°C (graphite), 1.1°C (theobromine), 2.0°C (EAD), and 6.8°C (terephthalic acid). Very similar effects were observed for the crystallization of MMM and PPP with the six additives. Furthermore, the polymorphs of the first occurring crystals were changed from metastable to more stable forms by many of these additives. The POM observation revealed that the crystallization was initiated at the surfaces of additive particles. This study has shown for the first time that the heterogeneous nucleation of fat crystals can be greatly promoted by new types of additives. Such additives have great potential to promote fat crystallization by not only hydrophobic but also hydrophilic molecular interactions between the fats and additives.

  18. Effect of a Diagram on Primary Students' Understanding About Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine Margaret

    2017-09-01

    This article reports on the effect of using a diagram to develop primary students' conceptual understanding about electric circuits. Diagrammatic representations of electric circuits are used for teaching and assessment despite the absence of research on their pedagogical effectiveness with young learners. Individual interviews were used to closely analyse Years 3 and 5 (8-11-year-old) students' explanations about electric circuits. Data was collected from 20 students in the same school providing pre-, post- and delayed post-test dialogue. Students' thinking about electric circuits and changes in their explanations provide insights into the role of diagrams in understanding science concepts. Findings indicate that diagram interaction positively enhanced understanding, challenged non-scientific views and promoted scientific models of electric circuits. Differences in students' understanding about electric circuits were influenced by prior knowledge, meta-conceptual awareness and diagram conventions including a stylistic feature of the diagram used. A significant finding that students' conceptual models of electric circuits were energy rather than current based has implications for electricity instruction at the primary level.

  19. Growth promotion effect of steelmaking slag on Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, R.; Tam, L. T.; Anh, H. T. L.; Quynh, H. T. H.; Thom, L. T.; Nhat, P. V.; Thu, N. T. H.; Hong, D. D.; Wakisaka, M.

    2016-04-01

    A growth promotion effect of steelmaking slag on Spirulina platensis M135 was investigated. The growth promotion effect was obtained that was 1.27 times greater than that obtained by the control by adding 500 mg L-1 of steelmaking slag and culturing for 60 days. The lipid content decreased in a concentration-dependent manner with steelmaking slag, whereas the carbohydrate content remained constant. The protein content of S. platensis M135 increased in a concentration-dependent manner with steelmaking slag when cultured at day 45. The superoxide dismutase activity of S. platensis M135 exhibited a decreasing trend in a time-dependent manner and an increasing trend in the control. The superoxide dismutase activity was lower than that of the control at day 1 but was higher at day 30. No genetic damage was observed up to 500 mg L-1 of steelmaking slag at 30 days of culture. Recovery from genetic damage was observed at 1,000 mg L-1 of steelmaking slag but not at higher concentrations.

  20. Effect of parity on healthy promotion lifestyle behavior in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Hakan; Nazik, Evşen; Özdemir, Funda; Gül, Şule; Tezel, Ayfer; Narin, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors are not only for the prevention of a disease or discomfort, but are also behaviors that aim to improve the individual's general health and well-being. Nurses have an important position in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviors in women. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parity on health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in women. This descriptive and cross-sectional survey was performed in Adana, Turkey. This study was conducted with 352 women. The questionnaire consisted of two parts; the first part consisted of questions that assessed the socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics, and the second part employed the "Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale" (HPLP). Data analysis included percentage, arithmetic average, and ANOVA tests. The results revealed that 24.1% of the women had no parity, 13.6% had one parity, 30.7% had two parities, 14.6% had three parities, and 17% had four and above parities. The mean total HPLP was 126.66±18.12 (interpersonal support subscale, 24.46±4.02; nutrition subscale, 21.59±3.92; self-actualization subscale, 24.42±4.30; stress management subscale, 18.73±3.81; health responsibility subscale, 21.75±4.31; and exercise subscale, 15.71±4.22). The health behavior of women was moderate. A statistically significant correlation was found between the number of parities and the Health Responsibility, Nutrition, Interpersonal Support, which is the subscale of the HPLP Scale.

  1. A workshop report on promoting HIV/AIDS understanding through a capacity building train-the-trainer educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Holly J; Nsagha, Dickson S; Sab, Clement M; Taliaferro, Donna; Rosenburg, Neal S

    2011-01-01

    Nursing educators are frequently confronted with challenges that bring about innovation and transition to new ways of transferring knowledge in their home environments. These challenges are magnified when approached from an international perspective. Optimal implementation of knowledge transfer incorporates choosing models that promote local initiatives in line with increasingly decentralized educational structures. These decentralized models are a means to foster ongoing participation for both educators and students in their own professional development. Innovative education stems from creativity in approaching the need with formats and activities to meet a specific challenge. This experimental study builds upon previous study by the authors which was conducted in March, 2009, based upon the qualitative open focus forum at each of the five nursing programs. Overwhelmingly, the Cameroonian nursing students expressed a keen desire to study the HIV infected pregnant woman and the feeding options of the newborn. The study team developed the train-the-trainer program which was delivered at the University of Buea in the Southwest region of Cameroon in March, 2011. TTT is particularly effective for reaching large audiences and also permits a degree of sustainability such that the Cameroonian students will be trainers for subsequent cohorts of their peers. This study continues to strengthen the collaborative endeavors between the two nursing schools; the University of Buea (UB) and Goldfarb School of Nursing (GSON) at Barnes Jewish College in Saint Louis, Missouri, USA. The final aim of the intervention was the initiation of collaborative relationships between the faculty members of the two educational organizations.

  2. Understanding noise suppression in heterojunction field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, F.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The enhanced transport properties displayed by quantum-well-confined, two-dimensional, electron systems underpin the success of heterojunction, field-effect transistors. At cryogenic temperatures, these devices exhibit impressive mobilities and, as a result, high signal gain and low noise. Conventional wisdom has it that the same favourable conditions also hold for normal room-temperature operation. In that case, however, high mobilities are precluded by abundant electron-phonon scattering. Our recent study of nonequilibrium current noise shows that quantum confinement, not high mobility, is the principal source of noise in these devices; this opens up new and exciting opportunities in low-noise transistor design. As trends in millimetre-wave technology push frequencies beyond 100 GHz, it is essential to develop a genuine understanding of noise processes in heterojunction devices

  3. Global health promotion: how can we strengthen governance and build effective strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley

    2006-12-01

    This paper discusses what is meant by 'global health promotion' and the extent to which global governance architecture is emerging, enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health within an increasingly global context. A review of selected initiatives on breast-milk substitutes, healthy cities, tobacco control and diet and nutrition suggests that existing institutions are uneven in their capacity to tackle global health issues. The strategic building of a global approach to health promotion will draw on a broad range of governance instruments, give careful attention to implementation in the medium to longer term, reflect on the nature and appropriateness of partnerships and develop fuller understanding of effective policies for harnessing the positive influences of globalization and countering the negatives.

  4. [Effect of the school health promotion strategy "Forma Joven"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador

    2017-02-22

    To evaluate the impact of the Youth Form Strategy (EFJ, Estrategia Forma Joven) on the attitudes and behaviours of students in the fourth year of compulsory secondary school in Seville, Spain. A longitudinal observational design was used with two groups; one received the EFJ (EFJ group) and other did not (non-EFJ group). In the initial evaluation, 402 participants were randomly selected and, in the follow-up at 6 months, 322 participants were evaluated (161 per group). Validated data collection tools were used, and 2×2 tables, odds ratio (OR) and general ANOVA for 2×2 mixed factorial design (p<0.05) were calculated. Favourable effects of the EFJ were found: in the area of sexuality, the percentage of participants who had sexual intercourse in the final assessment was lower in the EFJ group (14.9% vs 23.4%; OR=0.57), as were counter-effects: start of tobacco use was higher in the EFJ group (19.5% vs 9.1%; OR=2.43). However, these differences were not statistically significant. The similarities in the school health promotion programme in centres with and without EFJ may have influenced the lack of conclusive results. Individual and/or group counselling at schools, a distinguishing feature of the EFJ, could have delayed sexual intercourse in the EFJ group. Based on the studies on school health promotion activities, good practices that could help to improve the effectiveness of the EFJ are recommended. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Compreendendo o Efeito Placebo / Understanding the Placebo Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayne Vieira Dias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Placebo é definido em termos farmacológicos como uma substância inerte, sem propriedades farmacológicas intrínsecas. No entanto, essa definição é superficial, visto que o placebo pode gerar efeitos terapêuticos que dependem de diversos fatores como palavras, rituais, símbolos e significados que acompanham seu uso. Assim, o efeito placebo não diz respeito apenas a uma substância, mas, envolve fatores cognitivos, genéticos e mecanismos de aprendizagem implícita e explícita. Nessa revisão nós abordamos os aspectos gerais do efeito placebo apoiados em diversos estudos com diferentes enfoques, visando uma melhor compreensão desse fenômeno que pode se somar ao tratamento ativo e otimizar os resultados na prática médica. Placebo is pharmacologically defined as an inert substance, with nointrinsic pharmacological properties. However, this is a superficial definition, since placebo may trigger therapeutic effects and its effectiveness depends on various factors such as words, rituals, symbols and meanings following its use. Thus, placebo effect does not refer just to the substance, but it also involves cognitive and genetic factors and learning mechanisms. Here, we review general aspects of the placebo effect supported by several studies with different approaches, to better understand this phenomenon which may contribute to active treatment as well as optimize the results in the clinical practice.

  6. Measuring the Effectiveness of Sales Promotion Activities on Brand Loyalty: A Study on COCA COLA

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Shankar Singh; Osman Sahin

    2017-01-01

    The study is descriptive in nature measuring the effect and relationship in between sales promotion activities and brand loyalty. The study is done on COCA COLA brand in the open market. The research problem observed here as to measure the efficiency of sales promotion and brand loyalty to get the real effectiveness on sales promotion activities. The research objectives formulated are to know the importance of component of sales promotion activities, to know the effect of advertising on sales...

  7. Dietary inclusion effects of phytochemicals as growth promoters in animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Grijalva, Nidia Vanessa; Pinelli-Saavedra, Araceli; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Domínguez-Díaz, David; González-Ríos, Humberto

    2017-01-01

    Growth promoters have been widely used as a strategy to improve productivity, and great benefits have been observed throughout the meat production chain. However, the prohibition of growth promoters in several countries, as well as consumer rejection, has led industry and the academy to search for alternatives. For decades, the inclusion of phytochemicals in animal feed has been proposed as a replacement for traditional growth promoters. However, there are many concerns about the application of phytochemicals and their impact on the various links in the meat production chain (productive performance, carcass and meat quality). Therefore, the effects of these feed additives are reviewed in this article, along with their potential safety and consumer benefits, to understand the current state of their use. In summary, the replacement of traditional growth promoters in experiments with broilers yielded benefits in all aspects of the meat production chain, such as improvements in productive performance and carcass and meat quality. Although the effects in pigs have been similar to those observed in broilers, fewer studies have been carried out in pigs, and there is a need to define the types of phytochemicals to be used and the appropriate stages for adding such compounds. In regard to ruminant diets, few studies have been conducted, and their results have been inconclusive. Therefore, it is necessary to propose more in vivo studies to determine other strategies for phytochemical inclusion in the production phases and to select the appropriate types of compounds. It is also necessary to define the variables that will best elucidate the mechanism(s) of action that will enable the future replacement of synthetic growth promoters with phytochemical feed additives.

  8. Effective self-regulation change techniques to promote mental wellbeing among adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genugten, Lenneke; Dusseldorp, Elise; Massey, Emma K; van Empelen, Pepijn

    2017-03-01

    Mental wellbeing is influenced by self-regulation processes. However, little is known on the efficacy of change techniques based on self-regulation to promote mental wellbeing. The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify effective self-regulation techniques (SRTs) in primary and secondary prevention interventions on mental wellbeing in adolescents. Forty interventions were included in the analyses. Techniques were coded into nine categories of SRTs. Meta-analyses were conducted to identify the effectiveness of SRTs, examining three different outcomes: internalising behaviour, externalising behaviour, and self-esteem. Primary interventions had a small-to-medium ([Formula: see text] = 0.16-0.29) on self-esteem and internalising behaviour. Secondary interventions had a medium-to-large short-term effect (average [Formula: see text] = 0.56) on internalising behaviour and self-esteem. In secondary interventions, interventions including asking for social support [Formula: see text] 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.11-1.98) had a great effect on internalising behaviour. Interventions including monitoring and evaluation had a greater effect on self-esteem [Formula: see text] 95% CI = 0.21-0.57). For primary interventions, there was not a single SRT that was associated with a greater intervention effect on internalising behaviour or self-esteem. No effects were found for externalising behaviours. Self-regulation interventions are moderately effective at improving mental wellbeing among adolescents. Secondary interventions promoting 'asking for social support' and promoting 'monitoring and evaluation' were associated with improved outcomes. More research is needed to identify other SRTs or combinations of SRTs that could improve understanding or optimise mental wellbeing interventions.

  9. Effectiveness of fast mapping to promote learning in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Korenic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast mapping (FM, a process that promotes the expeditious incidental learning of information, is thought to support rapid vocabulary acquisition in young children through extra-medial temporal lobe (MTL regions. A recent study suggested that patients with MTL damage resulting in profound amnesia were able to learn novel word–image associations using an FM paradigm. The present study investigated whether FM would be an effective strategy to promote learning for individuals with schizophrenia, a severe mental illness associated with compromised MTL functionality. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy control subjects completed trials of incidental FM encoding (experimental condition and explicit encoding (EE, control condition over the course of three visits spaced one week (±2 days apart. All participants were evaluated for recognition 10 min after each encoding condition was presented, and again one week (±2 days later. Results indicate that both groups performed better on the EE recognition trials when compared to FM (p's < 0.05. For the FM recognition trials, both groups performed similarly. However, participants with schizophrenia performed significantly worse on the EE recognition trials than healthy control participants (p's < 0.05. While participants with schizophrenia did not perform significantly worse when assessed for FM recognition, these results do not provide enough evidence to suggest that FM facilitates learning to a greater extent in schizophrenia when compared to EE. Whether FM may benefit a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia remains a focus of further investigation.

  10. Promoting effects of the adipokine, apelin, on diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-hai Zhang

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis, increased glomerular permeability, and albuminuria are thought to contribute to the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Apelin receptor (APLNR and the endogenous ligand of APLNR, apelin, induce the sprouting of endothelial cells in an autocrine or paracrine manner, which may be one of the mechanisms of DN. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of apelin in the pathogenesis of DN. Therefore, we observed apelin/APLNR expression in kidneys from patients with type 2 diabetes as well as the correlation between albuminuria and serum apelin in patients with type 2 diabetes. We also measured the proliferating, migrating, and chemotactic effects of apelin on glomerular endothelial cells. To measure the permeability of apelin in glomerular endothelial cells, we used transwells to detect FITC-BSA penetration through monolayered glomerular endothelial cells. The results showed that serum apelin was significantly higher in the patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy people (p<0.05, Fig. 1B and that urinary albumin was positively correlated with serum apelin (R = 0.78, p<0.05. Apelin enhanced the migration, proliferation, and chemotaxis of glomerular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Apelin also promoted the permeability of glomerular endothelial cells (p<0.05 and upregulated the expression of VEGFR2 and Tie2 in glomerular endothelial cells (p<0.05. These results indicated that upregulated apelin in type 2 diabetes, which may be attributed to increased fat mass, promotes angiogenesis in glomeruli to form abnormal vessels and that enhanced apelin increases permeability via upregulating the expression of VEGFR2 and Tie2 in glomerular endothelial cells.

  11. Effect of fenbendazole on growth promotion in Mecheri lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranganathan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to find out the effect of fenbendazole on the growth promotion in stunted mecheri lambs. Materials and methods: The study was conducted with three groups of ten mecheri lambs each. Group I served as untreated control and group II and III were treated with fenbendazole @ 5 mg/kg body weight and 7.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All the lambs were subjected to haemato-biochemical observations, body weight recording and collection of faeces for egg counting before and after the treatment. Results: Fenbendazole in both the doses had beneficial effect on haemato-biochemical observations like haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase besides showing efficacy as an anthelmintic. The drug also increased body weight gain significantly at higher dose as compared to untreated control. Conclusion: The results support that fenbendazole has the potential for modulating growth of stunted mecheri lambs. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 113-115

  12. Oral Health Promotion and Homelessness: A Theory-Based Approach to Understanding Processes of Implementation and Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Laura; Freeman, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use the Theory of Diffusion of Innovations as a framework to explore the qualitative data gleaned from a process evaluation of the Smile4life intervention across Scottish National Health Service (NHS) Boards and to inform future oral health promotion and homelessness. Design: A qualitative exploration. Setting: In 2012, the…

  13. Oral Health Promotion for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Populations: Understanding the Local Non-English-Speaking Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Wendy; Periam, Catherine; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the prevalence of oral diseases and the funding of National Health Service Dentistry in the United Kingdom have combined to emphasize the role of the dental team in the prevention of disease. As part of this, oral health promotion plays a vital role in local communities and educational settings. Like many other inner-city London…

  14. The Exposure Advantage: Early Exposure to a Multilingual Environment Promotes Effective Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Samantha P; Liberman, Zoe; Keysar, Boaz; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2015-07-01

    Early language exposure is essential to developing a formal language system, but may not be sufficient for communicating effectively. To understand a speaker's intention, one must take the speaker's perspective. Multilingual exposure may promote effective communication by enhancing perspective taking. We tested children on a task that required perspective taking to interpret a speaker's intended meaning. Monolingual children failed to interpret the speaker's meaning dramatically more often than both bilingual children and children who were exposed to a multilingual environment but were not bilingual themselves. Children who were merely exposed to a second language performed as well as bilingual children, despite having lower executive-function scores. Thus, the communicative advantages demonstrated by the bilinguals may be social in origin, and not due to enhanced executive control. For millennia, multilingual exposure has been the norm. Our study shows that such an environment may facilitate the development of perspective-taking tools that are critical for effective communication. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. The effectiveness of a pregnancy leaflet to promote health in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-21

    Nov 21, 2014 ... Background: Pregnancy-related health education conveys basic information regarding healthy lifestyle choices and preventive healthcare in order to promote the health of the mother and foetus. Verbal education is supplemented frequently by means of health- promotion leaflets. A pregnancy-related leaflet ...

  16. Fitness Promotion for Adolescent Girls: The Impact and Effectiveness of Promotional Material which Emphasizes the Slim Ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Susan M.; Kemeny, Lidia

    1989-01-01

    Looked at techniques for promoting fitness participation among adolescent girls, in particular those which emphasize the slim ideal. Relative effectiveness of posters using different models (slim, average, overweight) and different messages (slimness, activity, health) was tested using 627 female high school students. Found slim model to be most…

  17. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  18. Promoting the Synthesis of Methanol: Understanding the Requirements for an Industrial Catalyst for the Conversion of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Malte

    2016-11-21

    The hydrogenation of CO 2 to methanol is a potential process for the sustainable production of synthetic liquid fuels. The Cu/ZnO catalyst employed for this reaction has been studied extensively for many years, and recent progress now has the potential to turn it into a prototype for complex promotional interactions in heterogeneous catalysis. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The Promoting Effect of Ishige sinicola on Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Kyoung Kang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3β level, β-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of β-catenin pathway, and the 5α-reductase inhibition.

  20. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and their effect on maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrkovački Nastasija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living soil bacteria beneficial to plant growth are usually referred to as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, capable of promoting plant growth by colonizing the plant root. Application of PGPR to increase the yield is limited by variability among the results obtained in the laboratory, in greenhouse and field. Rhizobacteria that promote plant growth (PGPR participate in interactions with plants (rice, wheat, maize, sugarcane, sugar beet, cotton and significantly increase their vegetative growth and yield. Apart from Azotobacter and Azospirillum, PGPR also include Acetobacter, Azoarcus and several species of Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, and Pseudomonas. PGPR represent an alternative to plant growth enhancement chemicals.

  1. Direct and indirect effects in the regulation of overlapping promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Erdossy, Janos; Csiszovski, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    Optimal response to environmental stimuli often requires activation of certain genes and repression of others. Dual function regulatory proteins play a key role in the differential regulation of gene expression. While repression can be achieved by any DNA binding protein through steric occlusion...... of RNA polymerase in the promoter region, activation often requires a surface on the regulatory protein to contact RNAP and thus facilitate transcription initiation. RNAP itself is also a DNA binding protein, therefore it can function as a transcriptional repressor. Searching the Escherichia coli...... that promoter interference depends on the characteristics of overlapping promoters. The model predicts that promoter strength and interference can be regulated separately, which provides unique opportunities for regulation. Our experimental data suggest that in principle any DNA binding protein can be used...

  2. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-03-27

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  3. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT and construal level theory (CLT. We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  4. Dynamic cross-sales effects of price promotions: Empirical generalizations

    OpenAIRE

    B. VINDEVOGEL; D. VAN DEN POEL; G. WETS

    2004-01-01

    In this research we use the framework of market-basket analysis and techniques from modern multivariate time-series analysis to measure and explain the dynamic impact of a price promotion on the sales of a complementary product. The large scale of this research enables us to derive empirical generalizations. We contribute to the literature in drawing the following conclusions: Firstly, we illustrate that using an intense promotion strategy, characterized by deeper and more frequent price prom...

  5. Effect of promoter strength and signal sequence on the periplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two plasmids, pFLAG-ATS and pET 26b(+), were studied for the periplasmic expression of recombinant human interferon-2b (IFN-2b) in Escherichia coli. The pFLAG-ATS contains ompA signal sequence and tac promoter while pET 26b(+) contains pelB signal sequence and T7lac promoter. It was observed that periplasmic ...

  6. Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting progr...

  7. A Life Course Approach to Understanding Neighbourhood Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vuijst, E.; van Ham, M.; Kleinhans, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Many theories on so-called neighbourhood effectseffects of the residential context on individual outcomes such as employment, education, and health – implicitly, or explicitly suggest lagged effects, duration effects, or for example, intergenerational effects of neighbourhoods. However, these

  8. Two Daddy Tigers and a Baby Tiger: Promoting Understandings about Same Gender Parented Families Using Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janette

    2012-01-01

    There is a small body of work examining how picture books can be used with young children and their families to develop understandings of contemporary issues including diversity and practices towards inclusion. This article describes a study in one New Zealand kindergarten that explored teachers' interpretations of children's responses to a…

  9. How Secondary History Teachers Use and Think about Museums: Current Practices and Untapped Promise for Promoting Historical Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alan S.; Levine, Thomas H.; Grenier, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    Museums have great potential to help secondary students develop a deep understanding of the past; however, we know little about what history teachers actually do or want to accomplish when they utilize museums. In this study, the authors draw on questionnaire and interview data from 94 secondary history teachers in Connecticut in an effort to…

  10. Effectiveness of B-actin promoter on driving target gene expression in common carp transgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Aliah Hidayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoter in transgene construct plays an important role on regulating of transgene expression level in transgenic fish. In fish transgenesis, researcher convinced that use all-fish gene construct is safety and prospective. This study was performed to compare effectiveness b-actin promoter, - the promoter which has ubiquitous, constitutive, housekeeping characteristics, from common carp (homologous and from tilapia and medaka b-actin promoters (heterologous in driving of green fluorescent protein (GFP expression as a model of target gene on common carp transgenesis. These gene constructs were separately microinjected into cytoplasm of 60 one-cell-stage common carp embryos. The results suggested that 70% survival rate at embryo stage and 45% hatching rate values showed that the microinjection was performed successfully. Percentage of embryos expressing GFP gene were slightly higher when injected using common carp and medaka promoters than those of using tilapia promoter. Percentage of larvae expressing GFP using common carp promoter was similar with medaka promoter. Furthermore, GFP expression using common carp b-actin promoter could be detected at one-week-old larvae, while GFP expressing using medaka b-actin promoter was lasted at 2-day-old larvae. The results demonstrated that homologous promoter more effective in driving of a target gene expression than that of heterologous promoter.  Key words: homologous promoter, GFP, transgenesis, common carp   ABSTRAK Promoter dalam konstruksi transgen berperan penting dalam pengaturan tingkat ekspresi transgen pada ikan transgenik. Dalam transgenesis ikan, peneliti meyakini bahwa penggunaan konstruksi gen "all-fish" adalah aman dan prospektif.  Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membandingkan efektivitas promoter β-aktin, - promoter yang memiliki ciri ubiquitous, constitutive, dan housekeeping, dari ikan dari ikan mas (homolog dan ikan nila dan ikan medaka (heterolog dalam mengendalikan ekspresi gen GFP

  11. Effects of Spatial Distance and Paid Card on Price Promotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Dazhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paid card is an important mean of companies to maintain the customers and increase gain. It is applied extensively in retailing, fitness center, and by other service delivers. However, there is lack of studies focused on promotion mechanisms of paid card in the literature. In this paper, the promotion mechanisms of paid card based on the theories of mental accounting, construal level, and customer’s perceived value. The study has the results that the intention to purchase of paid card holders is higher than that of the consumers without payment in advance in the same discount rate. When there is large spatial distance between paid card holder and the target store, the traffic mode will impact on the purchase intention of paid card holders. Finally, the study has provided the corresponding suggestions for companies’ promotion management.

  12. Understanding the inverse magnetocaloric effect in antiferro- and ferrimagnetic arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Ranke, P J; De Oliveira, N A; Alho, B P; Plaza, E J R; De Sousa, V S R; Caron, L; Reis, M S

    2009-01-01

    The inverse magnetocaloric effect occurs when a magnetic material cools down under applied magnetic field in an adiabatic process. Although the existence of the inverse magnetocaloric effect was recently reported experimentally, a theoretical microscopic description is almost nonexistent. In this paper we theoretically describe the inverse magnetocaloric effect in antiferro- and ferrimagnetic systems. The inverse magnetocaloric effects were systematically investigated as a function of the model parameters. The influence of the Neel and the compensation temperature on the magnetocaloric effect is also analyzed using a microscopic model.

  13. Understanding the inverse magnetocaloric effect in antiferro- and ferrimagnetic arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ranke, P J; De Oliveira, N A; Alho, B P; Plaza, E J R; De Sousa, V S R [Instituto de Fisica ' Armando Dias Tavares' , Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro-UERJ, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013, RJ (Brazil); Caron, L [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Reis, M S [CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br

    2009-02-04

    The inverse magnetocaloric effect occurs when a magnetic material cools down under applied magnetic field in an adiabatic process. Although the existence of the inverse magnetocaloric effect was recently reported experimentally, a theoretical microscopic description is almost nonexistent. In this paper we theoretically describe the inverse magnetocaloric effect in antiferro- and ferrimagnetic systems. The inverse magnetocaloric effects were systematically investigated as a function of the model parameters. The influence of the Neel and the compensation temperature on the magnetocaloric effect is also analyzed using a microscopic model.

  14. Understanding and Utilizing the Effectiveness of e‐Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    . At the same time, learning and development professionals within public and private organizations are increasingly met with a demand to prove the effectiveness of their learning and development initiatives. This paper investigates the concepts of effectiveness in e-Learning. It broadens the definition......A structured search of librarian databases revealed that the research into the effectiveness of e-Learning has heavily increased within the last 5 years. Taking a closer look at the search results, the authors discovered that researchers define and investigate effectiveness in multiple ways...... of effectiveness and qualifies certain measurements of same. Preliminary results from a literature study and an empirical investigation of ‘the effectiveness of e-Learning’ for science teachers (K12) are combined. The paper discusses the following research questions: How is the effectiveness of e-Learning defined...

  15. Effect of Ultrasonic Frequency on Lactic Acid Fermentation Promotion by Ultrasonic Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tadayuki; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi

    2004-05-01

    The authors have been researching the promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation. In the past research, it was proven that ultrasonic irradiation is effective in the process of fermentation, and the production of yoghurt and kefir was promoted. In this study, the effect of the ultrasonic frequency in this fermentation process was examined. In the frequency range of this study, it was found that the action of fermentation promotion was exponentially proportionate to the irradiated ultrasonic frequency.

  16. Effect of Sales Promotion Costs Yamaha Motorcycle Brand in Scorpio CV. Jadi Cemerlang Jaya Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Rikson, Andi; ', Jushermi; Nursanti, Aida

    2014-01-01

    This research is conducted to determine the effect of Promotion Cost (CostAdvertising, Sales Promotion Costs, and Cost Personal Selling) Motorcycles for Sale Yamaha Scorpio Brands at CV. Jadi Cemerlang Jaya Pekanbaru and promotion costs to determine which is the most dominant effect on the Yamaha Motorcycle Sales BrandScorpio at CV. Jadi Cemerlang Jaya Pekanbaru. To analyze the data, in this study used linear regression test is to prove the direction of the influence of service as an independ...

  17. Effects of Message Framing on Influenza Vaccination: Understanding the Role of Risk Disclosure, Perceived Vaccine Efficacy, and Felt Ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsu; Pjesivac, Ivanka; Jin, Yan

    2017-10-20

    The current study examined the effects of framing in promotional health messages on intention to vaccinate against seasonal influenza virus. The findings of an experimental study (N = 86) indicated that exposure to both benefits and side effects of vaccination (gain-framed with risk disclosure message) led to lower intention to receive the flu vaccine. This relationship was mediated by both perceived vaccine efficacy and felt ambivalence in a serial order, revealing the underlying psychological mechanisms important for understanding health-related behaviors. Theoretical implications of constructing sub-framed messages are discussed and the concept of second-order framing is introduced.

  18. Product's promotion patterns and their effects on consumers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following timed viewing of the product's promotions on television, participants completed a structured questionnaire that tapped information on four key areas, namely, socio-demographics, consumer attitude, purchase intentions and brand loyalty. A one-way analysis of variance tested each of three hypotheses.

  19. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on root morphology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rooting characteristics significantly affect the water-use patterns and acquirement of nutrient for any plant species. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria improve the plant growth by a variety of ways like the production of phytohormones, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization and improvement in root morphology etc, ...

  20. Effective Ninth-Grade Transition Programs Can Promote Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, Victoria; Thornton, Bill; Usinger, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The transition from middle into high school can be perilous for some students. High school freshmen fail at an alarming rate. In a general sense, the environment, expectations, structure, and culture of high schools are different from middle schools. However, school leaders can implement transition programs that may promote success of 9th graders.…

  1. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Beneficial effects for healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is unanimously admitted that the chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in modern agriculture create a real environmental and public health problems. One of the promising solutions to substitute these agrochemicals products is the use of bio-resources, including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR ...

  2. Assessing the Effectiveness of the Promotion and Tenure Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed A.

    2015-01-01

    Promotion and tenure considerations are equally important steps both for the faculty and institution. For faculty, it's a matter of being able to exercise academic freedom without the fear of repercussion and potentially losing the job. For institutions, it's a matter of how to keep and nourish the best candidates and avoid making a lifetime…

  3. Modelling effective and simultaneous promotion of food security and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This ineffectiveness extends to promoting household food security within the context of encouraging biodiversity conservation on farm lands. To examine this, this paper draws on recently conducted research to sketch the current model within which extension pursues these seemingly dichotomous objectives and identifies ...

  4. The effect of a physical and a combined health promotion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many countries the focus of the employer's health policy has shifted from the emphasis of treating the disease to the preventative paradigm, which focuses more on the promotion of employees' health. Various ramifications of wellness strategies, claiming positive results can be found in the literature. The purpose of this ...

  5. The Effect of Guided Note Taking during Lectures on Thai University Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narjaikaew, Pattawan; Emarat, Narumon; Cowie, Bronwen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a guided note taking strategy to promote Thai students' understanding of electromagnetism during a lecture course. The aim of the study was to enhance student learning of electromagnetism concepts. The developed guided notes contain quotations, diagrams, pictures, problems, and blank spaces to encourage…

  6. Fetal Microchimerism in Cancer Protection and Promotion: Current Understanding in Dogs and the Implications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jeffrey N

    2015-05-01

    Fetal microchimerism is the co-existence of small numbers of cells from genetically distinct individuals living within a mother's body following pregnancy. During pregnancy, bi-directional exchange of cells occurs resulting in maternal microchimerism and even sibling microchimerism in offspring. The presence of fetal microchimerism has been identified with lower frequency in patients with cancers such as breast and lymphoma and with higher frequency in patients with colon cancer and autoimmune diseases. Microchimeric cells have been identified in healing and healed tissues as well as normal and tumor tissues. This has led to the hypothesis that fetal microchimerism may play a protective role in some cancers and may provoke other cancers or autoimmune disease. The long periods of risk for these diseases make it a challenge to prospectively study this phenomenon in human populations. Dogs get similar cancers as humans, share our homes and environmental exposures, and live compressed life-spans, allowing easier prospective study of disease development. This review describes the current state of understanding of fetal microchimerism in humans and dogs and highlights the similarities of the common cancers mammary carcinoma, lymphoma, and colon cancer between the two species. Study of fetal microchimerism in dogs might hold the key to characterization of the type and function of microchimeric cells and their role in health and disease. Such an understanding could then be applied to preventing and treating disease in humans.

  7. Incorporating modeling and simulations in undergraduate biophysical chemistry course to promote understanding of structure-dynamics-function relationships in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hati, Sanchita; Bhattacharyya, Sudeep

    2016-01-01

    A project-based biophysical chemistry laboratory course, which is offered to the biochemistry and molecular biology majors in their senior year, is described. In this course, the classroom study of the structure-function of biomolecules is integrated with the discovery-guided laboratory study of these molecules using computer modeling and simulations. In particular, modern computational tools are employed to elucidate the relationship between structure, dynamics, and function in proteins. Computer-based laboratory protocols that we introduced in three modules allow students to visualize the secondary, super-secondary, and tertiary structures of proteins, analyze non-covalent interactions in protein-ligand complexes, develop three-dimensional structural models (homology model) for new protein sequences and evaluate their structural qualities, and study proteins' intrinsic dynamics to understand their functions. In the fourth module, students are assigned to an authentic research problem, where they apply their laboratory skills (acquired in modules 1-3) to answer conceptual biophysical questions. Through this process, students gain in-depth understanding of protein dynamics-the missing link between structure and function. Additionally, the requirement of term papers sharpens students' writing and communication skills. Finally, these projects result in new findings that are communicated in peer-reviewed journals. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. The discovery of X-rays diffraction: From crystals to DNA. A case study to promote understanding of the nature of science and of its interdisciplinary character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2016-05-01

    The advantages of introducing history of science topics into the teaching of science has been advocated by a large number of scholars within the science education community. One of the main reasons given for using history of science in teaching is its power to promote understanding of the nature of science (NOS). In this respect, the historical case of X-rays diffraction, from the discovery of Max von Laue (1912) to the first X-rays diffraction photographs of DNA (1953), is a case in point for showing that a correct experimental strategy and a favourable theoretical context are not enough to make a scientific discovery.

  9. The discovery of X-rays diffraction: From crystals to DNA. A case study to promote understanding of the nature of science and of its interdisciplinary character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of introducing history of science topics into the teaching of science has been advocated by a large number of scholars within the science education community. One of the main reasons given for using history of science in teaching is its power to promote understanding of the nature of science (NOS). In this respect, the historical case of X-rays diffraction, from the discovery of Max von Laue (1912) to the first X-rays diffraction photographs of DNA (1953), is a case in point for showing that a correct experimental strategy and a favourable theoretical context are not enough to make a scientific discovery.

  10. From intermediate to final behavioral endpoints; Modeling cognitions in (cost-)effectiveness analyses in health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) are considered an increasingly important tool in health promotion and psychology. In health promotion adequate effectiveness data of innovative interventions are often lacking. In case of many promising interventions the available data are inadequate for CEAs due

  11. Towards an understanding of staggering effects in dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Raduta, Ad.R.

    2012-01-01

    The reactions 32 S+ 58,64 Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for important odd–even effects in isotopic observables of selected peripheral collisions corresponding to the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique. It is shown that this method is a powerful tool to get experimental information on the evaporation chain, in order to constrain model calculations. Specifically, we show that odd–even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.

  12. Using identity and recognition as a framework to understand and promote the resilience of caregiving children in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten; Andreouli, E.

    2011-01-01

    children from Western Kenya who through individual interviews, photography and draw-and-write compositions articulated their experiences. The views of ten local adults have also been included. A thematic analysis revealed that caregiving children in Kenya are active participants in community life......Children around the world have been observed to assume caregiving responsibilities when a parent or other family members fall ill. Whilst the circumstances surrounding caregiving children in Anglophone countries have been looked at in detail, we know relatively little about how children in Africa...... experience young caregiving. This paper seeks to further our understanding of caregiving children in Africa by looking at how local constructions of childhood can facilitate their agency and resilience, paying particular attention to the role of identity and recognition. The study involved 48 caregiving...

  13. Understanding and Applying the Cognitive Foundations of Effective Teamwork

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noble, David

    2004-01-01

    .... It reviews a theory describing the knowledge that teams need to work together effectively and summarizing how teams use this knowledge when making decisions about collecting and sharing information...

  14. Understanding the inverse magnetocaloric effect through a simple theoretical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P.J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.b [Instituto de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares-Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, Rio de Janeiro 20550-013 (Brazil); Alho, B.P.; Nobrega, E.P.; Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares-Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, Rio de Janeiro 20550-013 (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    We investigated the inverse magnetocaloric effect using a theoretical magnetic model formed by two coupled magnetic lattices to describe a ferrimagnetic system. The influence of the compensation temperature, and the ferrimagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition on the magnetocaloric effect was analyzed. Also, a relation between the area under the magnetocaloric curve and the net magnetic moment of a ferrimagnetic system was established in this work.

  15. The Effectiveness of Prompts to Promote Engagement With Digital Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaldi, Ghadah; Hamilton, Fiona L; Lau, Rosa; Webster, Rosie; Michie, Susan; Murray, Elizabeth

    2016-01-08

    to be included in the meta-analyses. The meta-analyses suggested that technology-based strategies can potentially promote engagement compared to no strategy for dichotomous outcomes (relative risk [RR] 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60, I(2)=71%), but due to considerable heterogeneity and the small sample sizes in most studies, this result should be treated with caution. No studies reported adverse or economic outcomes. Only one study with a small sample size compared different characteristics; the study found that strategies promoting new digital intervention content and those sent to users shortly after they started using the digital intervention were more likely to engage users. Overall, studies reported borderline positive effects of technology-based strategies on engagement compared to no strategy. However, the results have to be interpreted with caution. More research is needed to replicate findings and understand which characteristics of the strategies are effective in promoting engagement and how cost-effective they are.

  16. The Placebo Effect in Cardiology: Understanding and Using It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Robert; Opie-Moran, Morwenna

    2017-12-01

    The placebo effect is the clinical benefit caused by interaction with a caregiver and health care system in the absence of a biologically active intervention and has been used successfully for millennia. The placebo response results from the interaction of psychosocial mechanisms, human relationships, and preconceptions functioning in specific neuroanatomic locations with known genes and neurotransmitters. It occurs with or without the administration of an inactive substance to deliberately deceive patients. Our purpose is to review the history, benefits, and mechanisms of the placebo effect. The placebo response results from classic conditioning and positive expectations about outcome expressed by the caregiver. The outcomes are usually symptoms such as pain rather than biological outcomes such as death, and the powerful placebo may account for more than half the effect of treatment in many situations. The placebo effect results from activation of opioid, cannabinoid, and dopaminergic pathways involved in reward, expectancy, conditioning, and pain modulation. Eleven specific anatomic features in the brain identified by positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are involved. Polymorphisms in the structural genes for catecholamine O-methyltransferase and fatty acid amide oxidase significantly influence the placebo response. The placebo effect may be important in symptom suppression in angina, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure. In the absence of deliberate deception, there are no ethical issues and given its potency, the time has come to consider how best to use the placebo in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Organizational change--key to capacity building and effective health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heward, Sue; Hutchins, Cheryl; Keleher, Helen

    2007-06-01

    Contemporary health promotion is now a well-defined discipline with a strong (albeit diverse) theoretical base, proven technologies (based on program planning) for addressing complex social problems, processes to guide practice and a body of evidence of efficacy and increasingly, effectiveness. Health promotion has evolved principally within the health sector where it is frequently considered optional rather than core business. To maximize effectiveness, quality health promotion technologies and practices need to be adopted as core business by the health sector and by organizations in other sectors. It has proven difficult to develop the infrastructure, workforce and resource base needed to ensure the routine introduction of high-quality health promotion into organizations. Recognizing these problems, this paper explores the use of organizational theory and practice in building the capacity of organizations to design, deliver and evaluate health promotion effectively and efficiently. The paper argues that organizational change is an essential but under-recognized function for the sustainability of health promotion practice and a necessary component of capacity-building frameworks. The interdependence of quality health promotion with organizational change is discussed in this paper through three case studies. While each focused on different aspects of health promotion development, the centrality of organizational change in each of them was striking. This paper draws out elements of organizational change to demonstrate that health promotion specialists and practitioners, wherever they are located, should be building organizational change into both their practice and capacity-building frameworks because without it, effectiveness and sustainability are at risk.

  18. Understanding Graduate School Aspirations: The Effect of Good Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jana M.; Paulsen, Michael B.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of good teaching practices on post-baccalaureate degree aspirations using logistic regression techniques on a multi-institutional, longitudinal sample of students at 4-year colleges and universities in the USA. We examined whether eight good teaching practices (non-classroom interactions with faculty, prompt…

  19. Understanding the stabilizing effects of IT on organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Martin; Huysman, Marleen H.

    1994-01-01

    In the literature, two distinct ways in which the application of IT stabilizes organizations are indicated. The first stabilizing effect concerns the difficult, time-consuming, and costly adjustments of existing ISs when changes to ISs have to be made. Consequently, when circumstances change

  20. Understanding the Effects of Climate on Airfield Pavement Deterioration Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    eliminating frost susceptible materials frost heave effects can be minimized. Using properly designed asphalt binders that perform well in cold...processes that operate on or near the surface of our planet ” (de Smith, Goodchild, & Longley, 2007). Spatial interpolation is a spatial analysis

  1. Understanding why probiotic therapies can be effective in treating IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorak, Richard N

    2008-09-01

    Probiotics, for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, are a group of specific nonpathogenic bacteria that are functionally and genetically defined by their ability to reduce inflammation in the intestine. Although probiotics also seem to have broad beneficial effects in humans, both as a food and as a therapeutic agent, there are specific identified mechanisms in some, but not all, of these bacteria that are important relative to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, studies relative to the mechanism of action of probiotics have identified that these organisms can have a direct effect on epithelial cell function and intestinal health, including enhancing epithelial barrier function, modulating epithelial cytokine secretion into an anti-inflammatory dominant profile, altering mucus production, changing bacterial luminal flora, modifying the innate and systemic immune system, and inducing regulatory T-cell effects. For probiotics to have a therapeutic role in the management of clinical inflammatory bowel disease, their therapeutic mechanism of action must be aligned with the pathogenic mechanism of action of the disease. In this regard, the role of probiotics for the clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease is emerging as the mechanisms and pathogenesis are being unraveled. It remains clear that probiotics are able to reduce gastrointestinal inflammation by exerting positive effects on epithelial cell and mucosal immune dysfunction.

  2. Improving Food Production by Understanding the Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper quantifies the effects of population density and intercropping on the development and growth of nitrogen fixing attributes of soybean and explains how these attributes influence food through yielding process. Information for this study was obtained from a field study conducted over two rainy seasons comprising of ...

  3. Understanding Effectiveness in School Administration: A Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükgöze, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    The current paper primarily aims to investigate and interpret the observations, perceptions, and experiences of an effective school's principal through a qualitative approach. The study was designed as a case study. The participant of the study was a primary science education teacher with 17 years of experience in the profession who has been a…

  4. Understanding electromagnetic effects using printed circuit board demos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields are considered by many students as a difficult subject. Unwanted electromagnetic fields are even tougher for students. We have developed many experiments as demonstrations (demos) to show the effect of electromagnetic fields in real life products. This paper gives a brief

  5. Understanding the “black box” of a health-promotion program: Keys to enable health among older persons aging in the context of migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelie Barenfeld

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the need to make health services more accessible to persons who have migrated has been identified, knowledge about health-promotion programs (HPPs from the perspective of older persons born abroad is lacking. This study explores the design experiences and content implemented in an adapted version of a group-based HPP developed in a researcher–community partnership. Fourteen persons aged 70–83 years or older who had migrated to Sweden from Finland or the Balkan Peninsula were included. A grounded theory approach guided the data collection and analysis. The findings showed how participants and personnel jointly helped raise awareness. The participants experienced three key processes that could open doors to awareness: enabling community, providing opportunities to understand and be understood, and confirming human values and abilities. Depending on how the HPP content and design are being shaped by the group, the key processes could both inhibit or encourage opening doors to awareness. Therefore, this study provides key insights into how to enable health by deepening the understanding of how the exchange of health-promoting messages is experienced to be facilitated or hindered. This study adds to the scientific knowledge base of how the design and content of HPP may support and recognize the capabilities of persons aging in the context of migration.

  6. Promoting Cross-Cultural Understanding and Language Use in Research-Oriented Internet-Mediated Intercultural Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jen Jun; Yang, Shu Ching

    2016-01-01

    This case study investigated the effectiveness of the United Beyond Our Diversity (UBOD) project for the development of language skills and intercultural communicative competence (including attitudes, knowledge, skills, and critical intercultural awareness) in Taiwanese seventh grade learners. The learners' attitudes and evaluations of UBOD were…

  7. Understanding the effects of end-loss on linear Fresnelcollectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Chang, Zheng

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the end loss effect of linear Fresnel collector was analyzed. The aim of this work was to investigate the seasonal effects of end losses on the linear Fresnel collectors deployed, and analyze the change of the month average for end loss at different locations. Furthermore, a end loss compensated approach is proposed, and the increased instantaneous thermal efficiency of the experimental system is measured. A two-meter long linear Fresnel collector experimental system with horizontal north-south axis is performed, The result that compensation of the end loss of the linear Fresnel reflector system stands a good improvement for thermal performance. Meanwhile, in comparison with the reflector field prior to the change, an instantaneous thermal efficiency has increased by approximately 50%, and it increased by almost 20% at the afternoon time. All this work can offer some valuable references to the further study on high-efficiency linear Fresnel concentrating system.

  8. Understanding substituent effects in noncovalent interactions involving aromatic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Steven E

    2013-04-16

    Noncovalent interactions involving aromatic rings such as π-stacking, cation/π, and anion/π interactions are central to many areas of modern chemistry. Decades of experimental studies have provided key insights into the impact of substituents on these interactions, leading to the development of simple intuitive models. However, gas-phase computational studies have raised some doubts about the physical underpinnings of these widespread models. In this Account we review our recent efforts to unravel the origin of substituent effects in π-stacking and ion/π interactions through computational studies of model noncovalent dimers. First, however, we dispel the notion that so-called aromatic interactions depend on the aromaticity of the interacting rings by studying model π-stacked dimers in which the aromaticity of one of the monomers can be "switched off". Somewhat surprisingly, the results show that not only is aromaticity unnecessary for π-stacking interactions, but it actually hinders these interactions to some extent. Consequently, when thinking about π-stacking interactions, researchers should consider broader classes of planar molecules, not just aromatic systems. Conventional models maintain that substituent effects in π-stacking interactions result from changes in the aryl π-system. This view suggests that π-stacking interactions are maximized when one ring is substituted with electron-withdrawing groups and the other with electron donors. In contrast to these prevailing models, we have shown that substituent effects in π-stacking interactions can be described in terms of direct, local interactions between the substituents and the nearby vertex of the other arene. As a result, in polysubstituted π-stacked dimers the substituents operate independently unless they are in each other's local environment. This means that in π-stacked dimers in which one arene is substituted with electron donors and the other with electron acceptors the interactions will

  9. Understanding the effects of violent video games on violent crime

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, A. Scott; Engelstätter, Benjamin; Ward, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychological studies invariably find a positive relationship between violent video game play and aggression. However, these studies cannot account for either aggressive effects of alternative activities video game playing substitutes for or the possible selection of relatively violent people into playing violent video games. That is, they lack external validity. We investigate the relationship between the prevalence of violent video games and violent crimes. Our results are consistent with t...

  10. Retention in STEM: Understanding the Effectiveness of Science Posse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsoe, Kimberly

    One of the major areas of debate in higher education is how to best support underrepresented racial minority students in their study of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. In 2008, Brandeis University began a new program in conjunction with the Posse Foundation for students interested in studying science at the college-level. The research used a mixed methods design. A detailed quantitative analysis was conducted to understand how being part of Science Posse impacted the probability of doing well in initial science classes, influenced perceptions of the difficulty of studying science, and predicted the probability of majoring in STEM at Brandeis. The qualitative data was drawn from 89 student interviews, including 38 Science Posse Scholars, 24 students from backgrounds similar to the Scholars, and 25 students from well-resourced families. The qualitative analysis demonstrated how students had been exposed to the sciences prior to enrollment, how they navigated the sciences at Brandeis, and how they demonstrated resilience when science becomes challenging. This research study had four key findings. The first was in the quantitative analysis which demonstrated that Science Posse Scholars experience strong feelings of doubt about their academic abilities; based on previous research, this should have resulted in their not declaring majors in STEM disciplines. Instead, Science Posse Scholars were more likely to earn a B+ or above in their entry level science courses and declare a major in a STEM discipline, even when factors such as math and verbal SAT scores were included in the analysis. The second finding was in the qualitative analysis, which demonstrated that the cohort model in which Science Posse Scholars participate was instrumental to their success. The third finding was that students who attended academically less rigorous high schools could succeed in the sciences at a highly selective research institution such as Brandeis without academic remediation

  11. Understanding the physiology of sleep and promoting effective routines with infants in hospital and at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Doreen

    2017-05-09

    Sleep is a biological necessity. Infants are unique individuals and what can be regarded as normal for one infant and his or her family may be considered a problem for another. Genetics, lifestyles, roles and responsibilities all influence sleep. This article explores the physiology of infant sleep and reviews how sleep is influenced by culture, events such as a hospital admission and parenting styles. It considers how the children's nurse can help and support a family who may feel that they have infant sleep-related issues. A good sleep pattern is essential for a child to succeed at school, reach their full potential and maintain their health and well-being.

  12. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A; MacKinnon, David P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to 20 years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs: (a) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy, and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; (b) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and (c) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions.

  13. Understanding the Effects of Marriage and Divorce on Financial Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how changes in marital status affect financial investments and how these effects vary with background risk. We use detailed register-based panel data and difference-in-differences estimators to benchmark common unobserved influences on financial investments. Women increase...... is important for financial risk taking and investment responses to marital transitions....... the fraction of wealth invested in stocks after marriage and decrease it after divorce, whereas men show the opposite behavior. Households whose joint labor income risk is reduced more by marriage have a higher increase in their exposure to risky assets in marriage. Thus income risk sharing in the household...

  14. Understanding cavity QED effects from cavity classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, M.M.; Kort-Kamp, W.J.M.; Farina, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Our work intends to show how cavity classical electrodynamics can be used for achieving results with direct quantum analogues. It is shown how the classical interaction between a real radiating electric dipole and a perfectly-conducting surface can be used to obtain information about some cavity quantum electrodynamics effects related to radiative properties of atomic systems. Based on the case of an oscillating electric dipole (a classical representation of an excited atom) in front of a perfectly-conducting sphere, two main physical quantities can be computed, the classical dipole frequency shift and the change in the rate of energy loss from radiation reaction, both due to the presence of the sphere. The link from classical to quantum can be made via interpreting, for example, the dipole frequency as the atom's dominant transition frequency. The frequency shift due to the sphere can be related through E = (h/2π) to the energy shift of the system, i.e., the dispersive interaction between the atom and the sphere; while the change in energy loss can be related to the alteration of the atom's spontaneous emission due to the sphere. The amazing result is that this classical method, once corresponded classical quantities to quantum ones such as exemplified above with frequency, can predict the two above-mentioned quantum effects analytically with the correct functional dependencies on all geometric and atomic parameters, being off only by a constant pre factor. (author)

  15. Understanding the "Weekend Effect" for Emergency General Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Richard S; Go, Derek E; Dhar, Vikrom K; Kim, Young; Hanseman, Dennis J; Wima, Koffi; Shah, Shimul A

    2018-02-01

    Several studies have identified a "weekend effect" for surgical outcomes, but definitions vary and the cause is unclear. Our aim was to better characterize the weekend effect for emergency general surgery using mortality as a primary endpoint. Using data from the University HealthSystem Consortium from 2009 to 2013, we identified urgent/emergent hospital admissions for seven procedures representing 80% of the national burden of emergency general surgery. Patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were compared between cases that were performed on weekdays vs weekends. Hospitals varied widely in the proportion of procedures performed on the weekend. Of the procedures examined, four had higher mortality for weekend cases (laparotomy, lysis of adhesions, partial colectomy, and small bowel resection; p surgery (p surgery procedures that incur higher mortality when performed on weekends. This may be due to acute changes in patient status that require weekend surgery or indications for urgent procedures (ischemia, obstruction) compared to those without a weekend mortality difference (infection). Hospitals that perform weekend surgery must acknowledge and identify ways to manage this increased risk.

  16. Current Understanding of the Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Tayaba; Kamat, Deepak

    2017-04-01

    There has been an exponential increase in the use of electronic devices over the past few decades. This has led to increased exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Electric fields result from differences in voltage, whereas magnetic fields result from the flow of electric current. Higher-frequency waves of EMF have more energy than lower-frequency waves, and thus generally tend to be more harmful. An EMF activates cellular stress response and also causes breaks in DNA strands. There are many methodological barriers to effectively measuring the associations of EMF and childhood cancers. The consensus from multiple studies is that there is no causal role of extremely low-frequency EMFs in childhood cancers, including brain cancer. A recent study showed a link between EMF radiation and the development of malignant tumors in rats. In light of that study, the American Academy of Pediatrics set out new recommendations to decrease the adverse effects of cellphone exposure on children. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(4):e172-e174.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Understanding Soliton Spectral Tunneling as a Spectral Coupling Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Soliton eigenstate is found corresponding to a dispersive phase profile under which the soliton phase changes induced by the dispersion and nonlinearity are instantaneously counterbalanced. Much like a waveguide coupler relying on a spatial refractive index profile that supports mode coupling...... between channels, here we suggest that the soliton spectral tunneling effect can be understood supported by a spectral phase coupler. The dispersive wave number in the spectral domain must have a coupler-like symmetric profile for soliton spectral tunneling to occur. We show that such a spectral coupler...... exactly implies phase as well as group-velocity matching between the input soliton and tunneled soliton, namely a soliton phase matching condition. Examples in realistic photonic crystal fibers are also presented....

  18. Molecular Modeling of Enzyme Dynamics Towards Understanding Solvent Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar

    ) in water and organic solvents. The effects of solvent on structural and dynamical enzyme properties are studied, and special attention is given to how enzyme properties in organic solvents are affected by the hydration level, which is shown to be related to the water activity. In experimental studies...... of enzyme kinetics in non-aqueous media, it has been a fruitful approach to fix the enzyme hydration level by controlling the water activity of the medium. In this work, a protocol is therefore developed for determining the water activity in non-aqueous protein simulations. The method relies on determining......This thesis describes the development of a molecular simulation methodology to study properties of enzymes in non-aqueous media at fixed thermodynamic water activities. The methodology is applied in a molecular dynamics study of the industrially important enzyme Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB...

  19. Electronic factors in catalysis: the volcano curve and the effect of promotion in catalytic ammonia synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren; Logadottir, Ashildur; Jacobsen, C.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    to calculate how these two factors affect the energies of the intermediates and transition states in the ammonia synthesis reaction. We show that a linear relationship exists between the activation energy for N-2 dissociation and the binding energy of adsorbed nitrogen. The ammonia synthesis activity under...... promoted transition metals. We conclude that promotion is most effective for the best non-promoted catalysts and that promotion will always be essential for obtaining an optimal ammonia synthesis catalyst. Analysis of the micro-kinetic model show that the best catalysts are those with the lowest apparent...

  20. Measuring Short- and Long-run Promotional Effectiveness on Scanner Data Using Persistence Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); D.M. Hanssens (Dominique); V.R. Nijs; J-B.E.M. Steenkamp (Jan-Benedict)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe use of price promotions to stimulate brand and firm performance is increasing. We discuss how (i) the availability of longer scanner data time series, and (ii) persistence modeling, have lead to greater insights into the dynamic effects of price promotions, as one can now quantify

  1. Effectiveness of workplace interventions in Europe promoting healthy eating: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, L.; Van Cauwenberghe, E.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Spittaels, H.; De Pauw, E.; Oppert, J.M.; van Lenthe, F.; Brug, J.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The worksite is a promising setting for health promotion. This review summarizes the evidence of effect of intervention studies in European countries promoting a healthy diet solely and in combination with increasing physical activity at the workplace. Methods: A systematic review of

  2. Health promoting effects of phytonutrients found in palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, R; Selvaduray, K R; Nesaretnam, K; Radhakrishnan, A K

    2010-08-01

    The oil palm tree, Elaeis guineesis, is the source of palm oil, otherwise known as the "tropical golden oil". To date, Malaysia and Indonesia are the leading producers of palm oil. Palm oil is widely used for domestic cooking in Malaysia. Palm oil is a rich source of phytonutrients such as tocotrienols, tocopherol, carotene, phytosterols, squalene, coenzyme Q10, polyphenols, and phospholipids. Although the phytonutrients constitute only about 1% of its weight in crude palm oil, these are the main constituents through which palm oil exhibits its nutritional properties. Among the major health promoting properties shown to be associated with the various types of phytonutrients present in palm oil are anti-cancer, cardio-protection and anti-angiogenesis, cholesterol inhibition, brain development and neuro protective properties, antioxidative defence mechanisms, provitamin A activity and anti-diabetes.

  3. Understanding ligand effects in gold clusters using mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes recent research on the influence of phosphine ligands on the size, stability, and reactivity of gold clusters synthesized in solution. Sub-nanometer clusters exhibit size- and composition-dependent properties that are unique from those of larger nanoparticles. The highly tunable properties of clusters and their high surface-to-volume ratio make them promising candidates for a variety of technological applications. However, because “each-atom-counts” toward defining cluster properties it is critically important to develop robust synthesis methods to efficiently prepare clusters of predetermined size. For decades phosphines have been known to direct the size-selected synthesis of gold clusters. Despite the preparation of numerous species it is still not understood how different functional groups at phosphine centers affect the size and properties of gold clusters. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) it is possible to characterize the effect of ligand substitution on the distribution of clusters formed in solution at defined reaction conditions. In addition, ligand exchange reactions on preformed clusters may be monitored using ESI-MS. Collision induced dissociation (CID) may also be employed to obtain qualitative insight into the fragmentation of mixed ligand clusters and the relative binding energies of differently substituted phosphines. Quantitative ligand binding energies and cluster stability may be determined employing surface induced dissociation (SID) in a custom-built Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) based modeling of the SID data allows dissociation energies and entropy values to be extracted that may be compared with the results of high-level theoretical calculations. The charge reduction and reactivity of atomically precise gold clusters, including partially ligated species generated in the gas-phase by in source CID, on well

  4. Understanding ligand effects in gold clusters using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant E; Laskin, Julia

    2016-06-21

    This review summarizes recent research on the influence of phosphine ligands on the size, stability, and reactivity of gold clusters synthesized in solution. Sub-nanometer clusters exhibit size- and composition-dependent properties that are unique from those of larger nanoparticles. The highly tunable properties of clusters and their high surface-to-volume ratio make them promising candidates for a variety of technological applications. However, because "each-atom-counts" toward defining cluster properties it is critically important to develop robust synthesis methods to efficiently prepare clusters of predetermined size. For decades phosphines have been known to direct the size-selected synthesis of gold clusters. Despite the preparation of numerous species it is still not understood how different functional groups at phosphine centers affect the size and properties of gold clusters. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) it is possible to characterize the effect of ligand substitution on the distribution of clusters formed in solution at defined reaction conditions. In addition, ligand exchange reactions on preformed clusters may be monitored using ESI-MS. Collision induced dissociation (CID) may also be employed to obtain qualitative insight into the fragmentation of mixed ligand clusters and the relative binding energies of differently substituted phosphines. Quantitative ligand binding energies and cluster stability may be determined employing surface induced dissociation (SID) in a custom-built Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) based modeling of the SID data allows dissociation energies and entropy values to be extracted. The charge reduction and reactivity of atomically precise gold clusters, including partially ligated species generated in the gas-phase by in source CID, on well-defined surfaces may be explored using ion soft landing (SL) in a custom

  5. Translating Research Findings Into a Hmong American Children’s Book to Promote Understanding of Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda A. Gerdner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings from an ethnographic study identified dementia (i.e., Alzheimer’s disease as an important but often overlooked issue within the Hmong American community. Elders with dementia often lived in the home of a married son who had children of his own. Children were reported to have difficulty understanding the memory and behavioral changes associated with the progressive disease. This lack of understanding adversely affected the relationship between the child and elder. A bilingual illustrated children’s book entitled Grandfather’s Story Cloth has been developed to address this issue. General themes from the life experiences of family caregivers were used to provide a culturally meaningful storyline. The book introduces the idea of using a story cloth to stimulate Grandfather’s remote memory thereby enhancing communication and understanding between Grandson and Grandfather. The educational value of the book is augmented with discussion questions and answers that support a family based approach to learning. To promote access, the Extendicare Foundation provided funds for the purchase and distribution of 1000 copies of this book to select organizations that serve the Hmong-American community. Initial feedback regarding the educational value and cultural appropriateness of Grandfather’s Story Cloth by members of the Hmong American community, educators, elementary students, librarians, and health care professionals is presented.

  6. Understanding the Effects of Host Evolution and Skin Bacteria Composition on Disease Vector Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 14-04-2016 1-Sep-2014 31-Dec-2015 Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria...reviewed journals: Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria composition on disease vector choices Report Title Here...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Here we sought to understand how host biology influences the composition of skin microbes, how skin microbes influence

  7. The promotional effects of cesium promoter on higher alcohol synthesis from syngas over cesium-promoted Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jie; Cai, Qiuxia; Wan, Yan; Wan, Shaolong; Wang, Li; Lin, Jingdong; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Yong

    2016-09-02

    In this study, the promotional effects of cesium promoter on higher alcohol (C2+OH) synthesis from syngas over Cs-Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts were investigated using a combined experimental and theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculation method. In the presence of cesium, the C2+OH productivity increases from 77.1 g•kgcat-1•h-1 to 157.3 g•kgcat-1•h-1 at 583 K due to the enhancement of the initial C–C bond formation. Detailed analysis of chain growth probabilities (CGPs) confirms that initial C–C bond formation is the rate-determining step in the temperature range of 543-583 K. Addition of cesium promoter significantly increases the productivities of 2-methyl-1-propanol, while the CGPs values (C3* to 2-methyl-C3*) is almost unaffected. With the assistance of cesium promoter, the CGPs of the initial C–C bond formation step (C1* to C2*) could be increased from 0.13 to 0.25 at 583 K. DFT calculations indicate that the initial C–C bond formation is mainly contributed by the HCO+HCO coupling reaction over the ZnCu(211) model surface. In the presence of the Cs2O, the stabilities of key reaction intermediates such as HCO and H2CO are enhanced which facilitates both HCO+HCO and HCO+H2CO coupling reaction steps with lower activation barriers over the Cs2O-ZnCu(211) surface. The promotional effects of cesium on the C2+OH productivity are also benefited from the competitive CH+HCO coupling reaction over CH hydrogenation that leads to lower alkane formation. In addition, Bader charge analysis suggests that the presence of cesium ions would facilitate the nucleophilic reaction between HCO and H2CO for initial C–C bond formation. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91545114 and No. 91545203). We appreciate the joint PhD scholarship support from the China Scholarship Council. The authors would also like to thank the support from Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (2011-iChEM). DM

  8. Identification of tumor promoters by their inhibitory effect on intercellular transfer of lucifer yellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budunova, I V; Mittelman, L A; Belitsky, G A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the tumor promoters 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), mezerein, teleocidin, anthralin, the Ca2+-ionophore A23187, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and phenobarbital (PB) on lucifer yellow transfer in cultures of SV-40-transformed Djungarian hamster fibroblasts was studied. TPA, mezerein, teleocidin, A23187, DDT and BHT exerted a strong inhibitory effect on cell-to-cell dye transfer. Anthralin uncoupled cells in 3 experiments out of 6. PB appeared to enhance lucifer yellow transfer. Sodium nitrite, a substance with unknown promoting activity, effectively uncoupled cells. All the promoters investigated had a reversible effect on the dye transfer. The value of the dye transfer method for promoter screening is discussed.

  9. Effects of anticoccidial and antibiotic growth promoter programs on broiler performance and immune status

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of various coccidiosis control programs in combination with antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on growth performance and host immune responses in broiler chickens. The coccidiosis programs that were investigated include in ovo coccidiosis vaccination (CVAC) with ...

  10. Osteoprotegerin mediates tumor-promoting effects of Interleukin-1beta in breast cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, S.T.M. (Stephanie Tsang Mui); D. Geerts (Dirk); Roseman, K. (Kim); Renaud, A. (Ashleigh); Connelly, L. (Linda)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ It is widely recognized that inflammation promotes breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Given the complex nature of the breast tumor inflammatory microenvironment, much remains to be understood of the molecular mechanisms that govern these effects. We have

  11. Is experience on a farm an effective approach to understanding animal products and the management of dairy farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Osada, Masahiro; Ishioka, Katsumi; Matsubara, Takako; Momota, Yutaka; Yumoto, Norio; Sako, Toshinori; Kamiya, Shinji; Yoshimura, Itaru

    2014-03-01

    The understanding of animal products and dairy farming is important for the promotion of dairy farming. Thus, to examine the effects of farm experience on the understanding of animal products and the management of dairy farming, the interaction between students and dairy cows was investigated in groups of first-year veterinary nursing students in 2011 and 2012 (n = 201). These students included 181 women and 20 men. Nine items about dairy cows were presented in a questionnaire. The survey was performed before and after praxis on the educational farm attached to the authors' university. After praxis on the farm, increases occurred in the number of positive responses to the items involving the price of milk, dairy farming and the taste of milk. For these items, a significant difference (P animal products and dairy farming. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. The effect of transformational leadership and job autonomy on promotive and prohibitive voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mari; Unterrainer, Christine; Jønsson, Thomas Faurholt

    2018-01-01

    medical technology company, investigating the relationship among employees’ perceived transformational leadership behaviors, job autonomy, and promotive and prohibitive voice. Testing our results cross-lagged, we demonstrate that perceived transformational leadership is significantly related...... to prohibitive voice over time, whereas this effect worked in the opposite direction for promotive voice. We also explore the boundary conditions of transformational leadership, demonstrating that perceived job autonomy strengthens the effect of transformational leadership on prohibitive voice. Implications...

  13. The Effectiveness of a Geospatial Technologies-Integrated Curriculum to Promote Climate Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A. M.; Peffer, T.; Sahagian, D. L.; Cirucci, L.

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial technologies - integrated climate change curriculum (http://www.ei.lehigh.edu/eli/cc/) to promote climate literacy in an urban school district. Five 8th grade Earth and Space Science classes in an urban middle school (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) consisting of three different ability level tracks participated in the study. Data gathering methods included pre/posttest assessments, daily classroom observations, daily teacher meetings, and examination of student produced artifacts. Data was gathered using a climate change literacy assessment instrument designed to measure students' climate change content knowledge. The items included distractors that address misunderstandings and knowledge deficits about climate change from the existing literature. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to compare the pre- and post-test assessment results. The results of these analyses were used to compare overall gains as well as ability level track groups. Overall results regarding the use of the climate change curriculum showed significant improvement in urban middle school students' understanding of climate change concepts. Effect sizes were large (ES>0.8) and significant (pmiddle school students to improve their knowledge of climate change and improve their spatial thinking and reasoning skills.

  14. A multilevel model of organizational health culture and the effectiveness of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yea-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Ysen

    2014-01-01

    Organizational health culture is a health-oriented core characteristic of the organization that is shared by all members. It is effective in regulating health-related behavior for employees and could therefore influence the effectiveness of health promotion efforts among organizations and employees. This study applied a multilevel analysis to verify the effects of organizational health culture on the organizational and individual effectiveness of health promotion. At the organizational level, we investigated the effect of organizational health culture on the organizational effectiveness of health promotion. At the individual level, we adopted a cross-level analysis to determine if organizational health culture affects employee effectiveness through the mediating effect of employee health behavior. The study setting consisted of the workplaces of various enterprises. We selected 54 enterprises in Taiwan and surveyed 20 full-time employees from each organization, for a total sample of 1011 employees. We developed the Organizational Health Culture Scale to measure employee perceptions and aggregated the individual data to formulate organization-level data. Organizational effectiveness of health promotion included four dimensions: planning effectiveness, production, outcome, and quality, which were measured by scale or objective indicators. The Health Promotion Lifestyle Scale was adopted for the measurement of health behavior. Employee effectiveness was measured subjectively in three dimensions: self-evaluated performance, altruism, and happiness. Following the calculation of descriptive statistics, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to test the multilevel hypotheses. Organizational health culture had a significant effect on the planning effectiveness (β = .356, p organizational health culture on three dimensions of employee effectiveness were completely mediated by health behavior. The construct connections established in this multilevel model will help in

  15. Effects of anthropomorphic images and narration styles in promotional messages for generic prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzumdar, Jagannath M; Schommer, Jon C; Hadsall, Ronald S; Huh, Jisu

    2013-01-01

    Anthropomorphism is attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman objects or events. Marketers have used anthropomorphized characters to promote products and services. To promote use of generic drugs to save on prescription drug costs, health systems are in the process of developing informational materials to influence consumer's perceptions about generic prescription drugs. To evaluate the effects of anthropomorphic images (control vs caring vs authoritative) and information narration styles (first person vs third person) on (1) social presence, (2) attitude toward the overall promotional message, (3) perceived informativeness of the message content, (4) attitude toward specific message, (5) intent to seek information, and (6) intention to switch to a generic prescription drug. A 3×2 between-subject factorial design was used. Student participants were administered a mock promotional message regarding generic prescription drugs. Following the promotional message, they were asked to respond to items developed to measure the effects of the promotional message. Manipulation checks were conducted to test the desired effects of the independent variables. Pilot testing, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability testing of the item measures were conducted before their use in the study. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the data and test the proposed effects of the independent variables. Anthropomorphic images showed a positive effect on social presence and attitude toward the specific message. Narration styles had a positive effect on attitude toward the overall promotional message. Neither anthropomorphic images nor narration styles had a significant effect on perceived informativeness, intent to seek information, and intention to switch to a generic prescription drug. This research reveals that anthropomorphism of medications and narration styles could play a significant role in promotional messages for generic prescription drugs. These findings provide a

  16. Effect of dietary antioxidants on the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauert, H.; Tharappel, J.; Stemm, D.; Spear, B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lehmler, H.J.; Robertson, L. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Mixtures of halogenated biphenyls as well as many individual congeners have been reported to be promoters of carcinogenesis in various liver tumor models. However, their mechanism of action is not known. A number of mechanisms have been investigated, including direct effects on signal transduction pathways, induction of oxidative stress, effects on vitamin A metabolism, and effects on intercellular communication. One mechanism by which PCBs may promote hepatic tumors is by inducing oxidative damage in the liver. Forms of oxidative damage that may be important are the induction of lipid peroxidation, the induction of oxidative DNA damage, and the alteration of gene expression. One possible mechanism for inhibiting the promoting activity of PCBs may be to increase the concentration of antioxidants in the diet. In this study, we examined if dietary selenium or antioxidant phytochemicals could inhibit the hepatic promoting activity of PCBs in rats.

  17. Understanding implementation and change in complex interventions. From single- to multi-methodological research on the promotion of youths’ participation in physical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine; Dankers, Silke; Munk, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Existing studies on complex interventions aiming to promote youths’ participation in physical education (PE) appear to be predominantly single-methodological. The aim of this article is to examine the benefits and challenges of evaluating an intervention to increase youths’ participation...... and experiences of social inclusion in the PE context using a multi-method approach integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches. The multi-method approach allowed an integration of the findings with regard to the implementation as well as the effect of the intervention. First of all, standardized...

  18. A DFT study of the transition metal promotion effect on ethylene chemisorption on Co(0 0 0 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Hu, P.; Ellis, Peter; French, Sam; Kelly, Gordon; Lok, C. Martin

    2009-09-01

    Transition metals are often introduced to a catalyst as promoters to improve catalytic performance. In this work, we study the promotion effect of transition metals on Co, the preferred catalytic metal for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis because of its good compromise of activity, selectivity and stability, for ethylene chemisorption using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, aiming to provide some insight into improving the α-olefin selectivity. In order to obtain the general trend of influence on ethylene chemisorption, twelve transition metals (Zr, Mn, Re, Ru, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag and Au) are calculated. We find that the late transition metals (e.g. Pd and Cu) can decrease ethylene chemisorption energy. These results suggest that the addition of the late transition metals may improve α-olefin selectivity. Electronic structure analyses (both charge density distributions and density of states) are also performed and the understanding of calculated results is presented.

  19. Modelling the effects of promotion expenditures on sales of pharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Jaap E.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    2013-01-01

    The successful innovation of pharmaceuticals requires a substantial amount of marketing support, despite concerns about the effects of these marketing efforts. This study considers prior findings that indicate that higher marketing expenditures for a brand reduce its price elasticity of demand,

  20. Effects of rhizobia and plant growth promoting bacteria inoculation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to observe the effect of PGPR and Rhizobial inoculation on seed germination, seedling emergence, growth and development of lowland rice variety MR219. The experiment was conducted under laboratory condition using filter paper in Petri dish. The design of the experiment was ...

  1. Moderating factors of immediate, gross, and net cross-brand effects of price promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Horváth (Csilla); D. Fok (Dennis)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines cross-price promotional effects in a dynamic context. Among other things, we investigate whether previously established findings hold when consumer and competitive dynamics are taken into account. Five main influential effects (asymmetric price effect, neighborhood

  2. Understanding the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equitable impact in maternal and child mortality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Mickey; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2012-06-01

    One of the most unexpected outcomes arising from the efforts towards maternal and child mortality reduction is that all too often the objective success has been coupled with increased inequity in the population. The aim of this study is to analyze the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equity and suggest strategies that will promote an impact on mortality that reduce population child health inequities. We developed a conceptual framework that exposes the nature of the links between the five key determinants that need to be taken into account when planning equitable impact. These determinants are: (i) efficiency of intervention scale-up (requires knowledge of differential increase in cost of intervention scale-up by equity strata in the population); (ii) effectiveness of intervention (requires understanding of differential effectiveness of interventions by equity strata in the population); (iii) the impact on mortality (requires knowledge of differential mortality levels by equity strata, and understanding the differences in cause composition of overall mortality in different equity strata); (iv) cost-effectiveness (compares the initial cost and the resulting impact on mortality); (v) equity structure of the population. The framework is presented visually as a four-quadrant graph. We use the proposed framework to demonstrate why the relationship between cost-effectiveness and equitable impact of an intervention cannot be intuitively predicted or easily planned. The relationships between the five determinants are complex, often nonlinear, context-specific and intervention-specific. We demonstrate that there will be instances when an equity-promoting approach, ie, trying to reach for the poorest and excluded in the population with health interventions, will also be the most cost-effective approach. However, there will be cases in which this will be entirely unfeasible, and where equity-neutral or even inequity-promoting approaches may

  3. Promote customer perceptions of value: the ladder of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, S

    1998-01-01

    Seven categories of measures are typically used by managed care organizations (MCOs) in monitoring and evaluating the effects of demand improvement efforts on their own performance: (1) member participation in specific initiatives, (2) changes in member mind-states, (3) member behavior, (4) member health status, (5) member service use, and (6) health care expenditures, as well as (7) a variety of value-adding side effects. These same seven can be even more useful to MCOs in monitoring and demonstrating the value they are delivering to their customers. The potential for the MCOs to extend the use of these parameters and gain added value for themselves thereby are discussed, and specific examples are offered to illustrate this potential.

  4. The effect of education of health-promoting behaviors on lifestyle in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Borzou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Today improve lifestyle and health promotion is a basic requirement for human society and the need for more tangible factor in the increase in chronic diseases such as chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis process is followed. As life expectancy increases, due to the importance of promoting behavior change. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of health promoting behaviors was on the lifestyle of patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this study, 70 patients undergoing hemodialysis training centers - medical Hamadan were selected. That is because Hamedan only two dialysis centers, randomly one of them was selected as a test group and a control group. Of the patients referred to the center for sampling in each group 35 patients were studied. For groups of six 30-minute sessions on an individual basis during hemodialysis, held over three weeks in a row. Data analysis using descriptive statistics and statistical tests of Kolmogorov - Smirnov, T and T were analyzed with SPSS version 16. In the experimental group, health-promoting lifestyle scores before and after intervention showed significant statistical differences (001 / 0 < p. The mean scores of health-promoting lifestyle intervention and control groups after the intervention, there was a significant difference (p<0.05. Teaching with an emphasis on health-promoting behaviors, hemodialysis patients was improved lifestyle. Develop and implement training programs to improve lifestyle behaviors and health promoting effective step is hemodialysis patients.

  5. Measuring the Effectiveness of Sales Promotion Activities on Brand Loyalty: A Study on COCA COLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shankar Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is descriptive in nature measuring the effect and relationship in between sales promotion activities and brand loyalty. The study is done on COCA COLA brand in the open market. The research problem observed here as to measure the efficiency of sales promotion and brand loyalty to get the real effectiveness on sales promotion activities. The research objectives formulated are to know the importance of component of sales promotion activities, to know the effect of advertising on sales promotion activities, to realize the importance of brand loyalty on sales promotion activities. A quantitative method was used to accomplish the purpose of the study. A survey instrument developed taking items to measure all variables with five points likert scale. A sample size of 159 (from 210 incorporated in the study having the reliability of 0.851(more than 0.7. The data analyzed using SPSS for descriptive statistics and regression to measure the effect of independent variable on dependent variable. It is recommend that COCA COLA should improve more on its different activities and produce different product and with tasty fast food or build up different production of equipment to expand its business in the whole world’s market .

  6. [Evaluating quality and effectiveness in the promotion of health: approaches and methods of public health and social sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deccache, A

    1997-06-01

    Health promotion and health education have often been limited to evaluation of the effectiveness of actions and programmes. However, since 1996 with the Third European Conference on Health Promotion and Education Effectiveness, many researchers have become interested in "quality assessment" and new ways of thinking have emerged. Quality assurance is a concept and activity developed in industry with the objective of increasing production efficiency. There are two distinct approaches: External Standard Inspection (ESI) and Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI). ESI involves establishing criteria of quality, evaluating them and improving whatever needs improvement. CQI views the activity or service as a process and includes the quality assessment as part of the process. This article attempts to answer the questions of whether these methods are sufficient and suitable for operationalising the concepts of evaluation, effectiveness and quality in health promotion and education, whether it is necessary to complement them with other methods, and whether the ESI approach is appropriate. The first section of the article explains that health promotion is based on various paradigms from epidemiology to psychology and anthropology. Many authors warn against the exclusive use of public health disciplines for understanding, implementing and evaluating health promotion. The author argues that in practice, health promotion: -integrates preventive actions with those aiming to maintain and improve health, a characteristic which widens the actions of health promotion from those of classic public health which include essentially an epidemiological or "risk" focus; -aims to replace vertical approaches to prevention with a global approach based on educational sciences; -involves a community approach which includes the individual in a "central position of power" as much in the definition of needs as in the evaluation of services; -includes the participation and socio-political actions

  7. Primary Student-Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: A mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratinen, Ilkka Johannes

    2013-04-01

    The greenhouse effect is a reasonably complex scientific phenomenon which can be used as a model to examine students' conceptual understanding in science. Primary student-teachers' understanding of global environmental problems, such as climate change and ozone depletion, indicates that they have many misconceptions. The present mixed method study examines Finnish primary student-teachers' understanding of the greenhouse effect based on the results obtained via open-ended and closed-form questionnaires. The open-ended questionnaire considers primary student-teachers' spontaneous ideas about the greenhouse effect depicted by concept maps. The present study also uses statistical analysis to reveal respondents' conceptualization of the greenhouse effect. The concept maps and statistical analysis reveal that the primary student-teachers' factual knowledge and their conceptual understanding of the greenhouse effect are incomplete and even misleading. In the light of the results of the present study, proposals for modifying the instruction of climate change in science, especially in geography, are presented.

  8. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    generating less external effects, and (3) Modifying road user behaviour in a way that will reduce external effects of transport. External effects include accidents, congestion, traffic noise and emissions to air. Four economic policy instruments are compared: (1) Prices of motor fuel; (2) Congestion charges......; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally......This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport. Promoting environmentally sustainable transport is defined as follows: (1) Reducing the volume of motorised travel; (2) Transferring travel to modes...

  9. Effective messages in vaccine promotion: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, Brendan; Reifler, Jason; Richey, Sean; Freed, Gary L

    2014-04-01

    To test the effectiveness of messages designed to reduce vaccine misperceptions and increase vaccination rates for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR). A Web-based nationally representative 2-wave survey experiment was conducted with 1759 parents age 18 years and older residing in the United States who have children in their household age 17 years or younger (conducted June-July 2011). Parents were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 interventions: (1) information explaining the lack of evidence that MMR causes autism from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; (2) textual information about the dangers of the diseases prevented by MMR from the Vaccine Information Statement; (3) images of children who have diseases prevented by the MMR vaccine; (4) a dramatic narrative about an infant who almost died of measles from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention fact sheet; or to a control group. None of the interventions increased parental intent to vaccinate a future child. Refuting claims of an MMR/autism link successfully reduced misperceptions that vaccines cause autism but nonetheless decreased intent to vaccinate among parents who had the least favorable vaccine attitudes. In addition, images of sick children increased expressed belief in a vaccine/autism link and a dramatic narrative about an infant in danger increased self-reported belief in serious vaccine side effects. Current public health communications about vaccines may not be effective. For some parents, they may actually increase misperceptions or reduce vaccination intention. Attempts to increase concerns about communicable diseases or correct false claims about vaccines may be especially likely to be counterproductive. More study of pro-vaccine messaging is needed.

  10. The subchronic toxic effects of plant growth promoters in mice

    OpenAIRE

    YAZAR, Selma; BAYDAN, Emine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was conducted to subchronic toxic effects separate and combined using of maleic hydrazide and ethephon in female mice. Treatment group divided into 9 groups according to chemicals’ doses and compared with controls. Three separate maleic hydrazide doses (100-200-400 mg/kg/day, in feed) and ethephon (50-100-150 mg/kg/day, in water) were given alone and in combination during 45 days. At the end of the study, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea and cre...

  11. Bernoulli's Principle: The Effects of Instruction on Young Children's Understanding of Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleege, Pamela O.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of hands-on instruction on young children's understanding of an aspect of flight, specifically Bernoulli's principle. First, 137 public school children, ages 5 through 8 years, were interviewed about their understanding of how an airplane flies. Two weeks later, the subjects participated in two hands-on…

  12. Improving Elementary School Students' Understanding of Historical Time: Effects of Teaching with "Timewise"

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot-Reuvekamp, Marjan; Ros, Anje; van Boxtel, Carla

    2018-01-01

    The teaching of historical time is an important aspect in elementary school curricula. This study focuses on the effects of a curriculum intervention with "Timewise," a teaching approach developed to improve students' understanding of historical time using timelines as a basis with which students can develop their understanding of…

  13. The Effect of High-Performing Mentors on Junior Officer Promotion in the US Army

    OpenAIRE

    David S. Lyle; John Z. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Military assignment mechanisms provide a unique opportunity to estimate the impact of high-performing mentors on job advancement of their subordinates. Combining US Army administrative data with officer evaluation reports, we find that high-performing mentors positively affect early junior officer promotion and that early promotion probabilities rise as the duration of the high-quality mentorship increases. These effects are largest for high-ability protégés. Junior officers who were exposed ...

  14. Effectiveness of a universal health-promoting parenting program: a randomized waitlist-controlled trial of All Children in Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfsdotter, Malin; Enebrink, Pia; Lindberg, Lene

    2014-10-18

    Parenting programs have been highlighted as a way of supporting and empowering parents. As programs designed to promote children's health and well-being are scarce, a new health-promotion program, All Children in Focus, has been developed. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the program in promoting parental self-efficacy and child health and development, as well as to investigate possible moderators of these outcomes. A multicenter randomized waitlist-controlled trial was conducted. The trial included 621 parents with children aged 3-12 years. Parents were randomized to receive the intervention directly or to join a waitlist control group. Parents completed questionnaires at baseline, 2 weeks after the intervention, and 6 months post-baseline. To evaluate potential effects of the program, as well as any moderating variables, multilevel modeling with a repeated-measures design was applied. Parents in the intervention group reported that their self-efficacy (p parents in the control group. One variable was found to moderate both outcomes: parents' positive mental health. Furthermore, parents' educational level and number of children moderated parental self-efficacy, while the children's age moderated child health and development. Having a poor positive mental health, a university-level education, more than one child in the family, and older children, made the families benefit more. In the first randomized controlled trial of All Children in Focus, we found that the program appears to promote both parental self-efficacy and children's health and development in a general population. Additionally, we found that families may benefit differently depending on their baseline characteristics. This contributes to an existing understanding of the advantages of offering universal parenting programs as a public health approach to strengthening families. However, further research is needed to investigate long-term effects and mediating

  15. Adverse effect of the CCR5 promoter -2459A allele on HIV-1 disease progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T B; Kristiansen, T B; Katzenstein, T L

    2001-01-01

    HIV positive individuals heterozygous for a 32 basepair deletion in the CCR5 encoding gene (CCR5 Delta32) have a reduced number of CCR5 receptors on the cell surface and a slower progression towards AIDS and death. Other human polymorphisms, such as the CCR2 64I and the CCR5 promoter -2459 A....... Genotypes were determined in 119 individuals enrolled in the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. When including the concurrent effects of the CCR5 Delta32 and CCR2 64I mutations, homozygous carriers of the CCR5 promoter -2459A allele had a significantly faster progression towards death than heterozygous A/G individuals...... (P = 0.03), whereas this adverse effect was not significant when comparing A/A and G/G individuals. However, independent analysis revealed a significant adverse effect of the CCR5 promoter -2459A allele. Homozygous carriers of the -2459A allele that lack the protective effects of the CCR5 Delta32...

  16. Prediction/discussion-based learning cycle versus conceptual change text: comparative effects on students' understanding of genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    khawaldeh, Salem A. Al

    2013-07-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparative effects of a prediction/discussion-based learning cycle (HPD-LC), conceptual change text (CCT) and traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of genetics concepts. Sample: Participants were 112 10th basic grade male students in three classes of the same school located in an urban area. The three classes taught by the same biology teacher were randomly assigned as a prediction/discussion-based learning cycle class (n = 39), conceptual change text class (n = 37) and traditional class (n = 36). Design and method: A quasi-experimental research design of pre-test-post-test non-equivalent control group was adopted. Participants completed the Genetics Concept Test as pre-test-post-test, to examine the effects of instructional strategies on their genetics understanding. Pre-test scores and Test of Logical Thinking scores were used as covariates. Results: The analysis of covariance showed a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the favor of experimental groups after treatment. However, no statistically significant difference between the experimental groups (HPD-LC versus CCT instruction) was found. Conclusions: Overall, the findings of this study support the use of the prediction/discussion-based learning cycle and conceptual change text in both research and teaching. The findings may be useful for improving classroom practices in teaching science concepts and for the development of suitable materials promoting students' understanding of science.

  17. Effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program on depression and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miran; Han, Kuemsun

    2017-01-01

    Gratitude intervention is expectedly an effective intervention to reduce depression and improve the quality of life in schizophrenic patients, but there is a lack of literature on it. We attempted to develop and test the effectiveness of the gratitude disposition promotion program for chronic schizophrenic patients in Korea. Nonequivalent control group pre- and post-test design was used in two mental health centers located at Gyeonggi-do in South Korea. This paper was a quasi-experimental study and the participants who took part in the gratitude disposition promotion program were 17 of experimental group and 15 of control group. Gratitude disposition (the short gratitude, resentment, and appreciation test), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (developed by Kook) of chronic schizophrenic patients were measured before and after an intervention, as compared to the control. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t -test were performed for prehomogeneity testing for variables related to the general characteristics. Testing for the effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program and hypothesis testing for its effect on depression and quality of life were by ANCOVA and t -test, as verified to significance level of P gratitude disposition promotion program showed significant improvements in gratitude disposition ( F = 18.740, P gratitude disposition promotion program was an effective clinical intervention program for enhancing gratitude disposition and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients in community.

  18. HCV tumor promoting effect is dependent on host genetic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama Klopstock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the major risk factors for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Nevertheless, transgenic mice which express the whole HCV polyprotein (HCV-Tg do not develop HCC. Whereas chronic HCV infection causes inflammation in patients, in HCV-Tg mice, the host immune reaction against viral proteins is lacking. We aimed to test the role of HCV proteins in HCC development on the background of chronic inflammation in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We crossed HCV-Tg mice that do not develop HCC with the Mdr2-knockout (Mdr2-KO mice which develop inflammation-associated HCC, to generate Mdr2-KO/HCV-Tg mice. We studied the effect of the HCV transgene on tumor incidence, hepatocyte mitosis and apoptosis, and investigated the potential contributing factors for the generated phenotype by gene expression and protein analyses. The Mdr2-KO/HCV-Tg females from the N2 generation of this breeding (having 75% of the FVB/N genome and 25% of the C57BL/6 genome produced significantly larger tumors in comparison with Mdr2-KO mice. In parallel, the Mdr2-KO/HCV-Tg females had an enhanced inflammatory gene expression signature. However, in the N7 generation (having 99.2% of the FVB/N genome and 0.8% of the C57BL/6 genome there was no difference in tumor development between Mdr2-KO/HCV-Tg and Mdr2-KO animals of both sexes. The HCV transgene was similarly expressed in the livers of Mdr2-KO/HCV-Tg females of both generations, as revealed by detection of the HCV transcript and the core protein. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the HCV transgene accelerated inflammation-associated hepatocarcinogenesis in a host genetic background-dependent manner.

  19. Decomposing the sales promotion bump accounting for cross-category effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Selva, Josefa Parreno; Wittink, Dick R.; Dijk, Albertus Alard van

    Extant research on the decomposition of unit sales bumps due to price promotions considers these effects only within a single product category. This article introduces a framework that accommodates specific cross-category effects. Empirical results based on daily data measured at the item/SKU level

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of a New Nordic Diet as a Strategy for Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Saxe, Henrik; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    . This study assesses whether a large-scale introduction of NND is a cost-effective health promotion strategy by combining an economic model for estimating the utility-maximizing composition of NND, a life cycle assessment model to assess environmental effects of the dietary change, and a health impact model...

  1. Promotions Effectiveness of Kawah Putih Ecotourism by Perhutani’s Independenly Bussines Unit I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menak Aryananda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to measure the effectiveness of the promotion of Wana Wisata Kawah Putih and the calculation of satisfaction, expectation and pereferensi of tourists managed KBM WIJAS 1 Perhutani. Campaign effectiveness can be measured using the EPIC model method. Epic model developed by AC Nielsen, measurement in terms of dimension, empathy, persuasion, impact and communication. Using quantitative methods, and using a sample of 100 respondents taken at random in Wana Wisata Kawah Putih Ciwidey Bandung. Respons to assess promotion of empathy, persuasion, impact and communication dimensions, satisfaction, expectations and preferences. The result of this research is the promotion of KBM Wijas 1 Perhutani rather effective in representing Wana Wisata Kawah Putih in Ciwidey. Satisfaction, expectation, and level of information preferences are very high on the promotion made by KBM WIJAS 1 Perhutani. Thus the results of the study is expected to be a reference for the development of KBM Wijas 1 Perhutani in Ciwidey to increase the number of visitors.Keywords: ciwidey, effective, epic, Perhutani, promotion

  2. The effect of Phet Simulation media for physics teacher candidate understanding on photoelectric effect concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supurwoko Supurwoko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian new Curriculum for senior high school students required student-centered learning. One of the curriculum implementation constraint was the difficulty of providing learning media. PhET simulations media is one of the options that can help implementation of new curriculum on learning. However, the use of this media in Indonesia still needs to be studied comprehensively. The learning was conducted on students of physics education Study Program in sebelas maret university in 2013. The sample consisted of 62 students that was taking quantum physics course. The method that was used in the research was descriptive qualitative.  The method that was used in learning was demonstration’s method that used PhET media and accompanied by a question and answer and groups discussion. The data was collected using multiple choice test and interview through email. We found that any students still did not understand about photoelectric effect concept. They were confused when asked about the thick material and cross section of the targets as related with the regardless of electrons in the photoelectric effect event. Other than that, the concept of the waves as a particle and its relation with the kinetic energy of the electrons was not understood by most students.

  3. Promotion time cure rate model with nonparametric form of covariate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianlei; Du, Pang

    2018-05-10

    Survival data with a cured portion are commonly seen in clinical trials. Motivated from a biological interpretation of cancer metastasis, promotion time cure model is a popular alternative to the mixture cure rate model for analyzing such data. The existing promotion cure models all assume a restrictive parametric form of covariate effects, which can be incorrectly specified especially at the exploratory stage. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric approach to modeling the covariate effects under the framework of promotion time cure model. The covariate effect function is estimated by smoothing splines via the optimization of a penalized profile likelihood. Point-wise interval estimates are also derived from the Bayesian interpretation of the penalized profile likelihood. Asymptotic convergence rates are established for the proposed estimates. Simulations show excellent performance of the proposed nonparametric method, which is then applied to a melanoma study. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. An efficient approach to understanding and predicting the effects of multiple task characteristics on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Miles

    2017-04-01

    In ergonomics there is often a need to identify and predict the separate effects of multiple factors on performance. A cost-effective fractional factorial approach to understanding the relationship between task characteristics and task performance is presented. The method has been shown to provide sufficient independent variability to reveal and predict the effects of task characteristics on performance in two domains. The five steps outlined are: selection of performance measure, task characteristic identification, task design for user trials, data collection, regression model development and task characteristic analysis. The approach can be used for furthering knowledge of task performance, theoretical understanding, experimental control and prediction of task performance. Practitioner Summary: A cost-effective method to identify and predict the separate effects of multiple factors on performance is presented. The five steps allow a better understanding of task factors during the design process.

  5. Cost-effectiveness and incidence of renewable energy promotion in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Landis, Florian [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Tovar Reanos, Miguel Angel [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Over the last decade Germany has boosted renewable energy in power production by means of massive subsidies. The flip side are very high electricity prices which raises concerns that the transition cost towards a renewable energy system will be mainly borne by poor households. In this paper, we combine computable general equilibrium and microsimulation analysis to investigate the cost-effectiveness and incidence of Germany's renewable energy promotion. We find that the regressive effects of renewable energy promotion could be ameliorated by alternative subsidy financing mechanisms which achieve the same level of electricity generation from renewable energy sources.

  6. Promoting walking in older adults: Perceived neighborhood walkability influences the effectiveness of motivational messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2017-06-01

    Positively framed messages seem to promote walking in older adults better than negatively framed messages. This study targeted elderly people in communities unfavorable to walking. Walking was measured with pedometers during baseline (1 week) and intervention (4 weeks). Participants ( n = 74) were informed about either the benefits of walking or the negative consequences of not walking. Perceived neighborhood walkability was assessed with a modified version of the Neighborhood Walkability Scale. When perceived walkability was high, positively framed messages were more effective than negatively framed messages in promoting walking; when perceived walkability was low, negatively framed messages were comparably effective to positively framed messages.

  7. Sleep-Promoting Effects and Possible Mechanisms of Action Associated with a Standardized Rice Bran Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejin Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sleep aids are becoming more popular due to the widespread occurrence of sleep disorders. The objective of this study was to assess the sleep-promoting effects of rice bran—a product that is considered as a functional ingredient. To evaluate the sleep-promoting effects of a standardized rice bran supplement (RBS, we employed a pentobarbital-induced sleep test and conducted analyses of sleep architecture. In addition, the effect of RBS on a caffeine-induced sleep disturbance was investigated. Oral administration of RBS (500 and 1000 mg/kg produced a significant decrease in sleep latency and increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. Moreover, both RBS (1000 mg/kg and doxepin hydrochloride (histamine H1 receptor antagonist, 30 mg/kg counteracted a caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice. In terms of sleep phases, RBS (500 mg/kg promoted non-rapid eye movement sleep for the first 3 h following its administration. Lastly, we unveiled a possible mechanism for RBS action as the hypnotic effect of RBS was blocked by a histamine H1 receptor agonist. The present study revealed sleep-promoting effects of RBS using various animal assays. Such effects seem to be mediated through the histaminergic system. Our findings suggest that RBS may be a promising natural aid for relieving sleep problems.

  8. Sleep-Promoting Effects and Possible Mechanisms of Action Associated with a Standardized Rice Bran Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyejin; Yoon, Minseok; Um, Min Young; Lee, Jaekwang; Jung, Jonghoon; Lee, Changho; Kim, Yun-Tai; Kwon, Sangoh; Kim, Boknam; Cho, Suengmok

    2017-05-18

    Natural sleep aids are becoming more popular due to the widespread occurrence of sleep disorders. The objective of this study was to assess the sleep-promoting effects of rice bran-a product that is considered as a functional ingredient. To evaluate the sleep-promoting effects of a standardized rice bran supplement (RBS), we employed a pentobarbital-induced sleep test and conducted analyses of sleep architecture. In addition, the effect of RBS on a caffeine-induced sleep disturbance was investigated. Oral administration of RBS (500 and 1000 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease in sleep latency and increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. Moreover, both RBS (1000 mg/kg) and doxepin hydrochloride (histamine H₁ receptor antagonist, 30 mg/kg) counteracted a caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice. In terms of sleep phases, RBS (500 mg/kg) promoted non-rapid eye movement sleep for the first 3 h following its administration. Lastly, we unveiled a possible mechanism for RBS action as the hypnotic effect of RBS was blocked by a histamine H₁ receptor agonist. The present study revealed sleep-promoting effects of RBS using various animal assays. Such effects seem to be mediated through the histaminergic system. Our findings suggest that RBS may be a promising natural aid for relieving sleep problems.

  9. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment - Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding climate change. In our study, we interviewed 35 secondary school students on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and analysed the conceptions of climate scientists as drawn from textbooks and research reports. We analysed all data by metaphor analysis and qualitative content analysis to gain insight into students' and scientists' resources for understanding. In our analysis, we found that students and scientists refer to the same schemata to understand the greenhouse effect. We categorised their conceptions into three different principles the conceptions are based on: warming by more input, warming by less output, and warming by a new equilibrium. By interrelating students' and scientists' conceptions, we identified the students' learning demand: First, our students were afforded with experiences regarding the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and CO2. Second, our students reflected about the experience-based schemata they use as source domains for metaphorical understanding of the greenhouse effect. By uncovering the-mostly unconscious-deployed schemata, we gave students access to their source domains. We implemented these teaching guidelines in interventions and evaluated them in teaching experiments to develop evidence-based and theory-guided learning activities on the greenhouse effect.

  10. Study on effects of turbulence promoter on fluid mixing in T-junction piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Akihiro; Hibara, Hideki; Ochi, Junji; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2004-07-01

    Flows in T-junction piping system with turbulence promoter have been investigated experimentally using flow visualization techniques (the dye injection method) and velocity measurement by LDV. Effects of turbulent promoter on characteristics of fluid mixing and thermal-striping phenomena are examined. From the experiment, following results are obtained. (1) Arch vortex is formed further than the case without promoter in the upstream station and is rapidly transported to the downstream direction. (2) Secondary flow induced in the cross section become stronger and the diffusion of axial momentum is promoted, as the height of turbulence promoter is higher. (3) Main flow deflects towards to the opposite side of branch pipe at the T-junction, as the height of turbulence promoter is higher, and as velocity ratio becomes smaller, and the flow continues to deflect to a considerably downstream station. (4) Velocity fluctuation is observed in the position where the vortex is formed, and it becomes a maximum at z/Dm=2. In the further downstream, velocity fluctuation decreases with the vortex breakdown, and it considerably remains to the downstream. (author)

  11. Effects of K and Pt promoters on the performance of cobalt catalyst supported on CNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd, E-mail: noorasmawati-mzabidi@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Ali, Sardar, E-mail: alikhan-635@yahoo.com [Centralized Analytical Laboratory, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Subbarao, Duvvuri, E-mail: duvvuri-subbarao@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    This paper presents a comparative study on the effects of incorporation of potassium (K) and platinum (Pt) as promoters on the physicochemical properties of cobalt catalyst. The catalyst was prepared by a wet impregnation method on a CNTs support. Samples were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H{sub 2}-temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 543 K and 1 atm, with H{sub 2}/CO = 2v/v and space velocity, SV of 12 L/g.h for 5 hours. The K-promoted and Pt-promoted Co catalysts have different physicochemical properties and catalytic performances compared to that of the un-promoted Co catalyst. XPS analysis revealed that K and Pt promoters induced electronic modifications as exhibited by the shifts in the Co binding energies. Incorporation of 0.06 wt% K and 0.06 wt% Pt in Co/CNTs catalyst resulted in an increase in the CO conversion and C{sub 5+} selectivity and a decrease in methane selectivity. Potassium was found to be a better promoter for Co/CNTs catalyst compared to platinum.

  12. Effect of school eye health promotion on children's eye health literacy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Prakash; Yen, Phung Thi; Kovai, Vilas; Naduvilath, Thomas; Ho, Suit May; Giap, Nguyen Viet; Holden, Brien A

    2017-10-06

    Health promotion intervention in schools is a useful strategy to improve students' health awareness. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of eye health promotion interventions on eye health literacy in school children in Vietnam. A piloted questionnaire was administered to 300 children from five secondary schools in Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Vietnam at baseline and re-administered after the eye health promotion interventions. McNemar chi-square and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. A total of 300 children aged 12-15 years (mean, 13.3 ± 1.3 years; 60% female) participated in the baseline survey. The participation rate in the post-health promotion survey was 94.7%. After the health promotion interventions, number of children who had correct eye health knowledge increased by 10-20% (60-75% to 70-95%), more children reported having had an eye examination (63.3% to 84.7%; p health promotion interventions significantly improve eye health knowledge, attitudes and practices of school children. Additionally, participation of parents and teachers as change agents may further improve children's health literacy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Effects of Promoting Educational Level on the Development of Reading Comprehension Levels in Hearing-Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sarmadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing-impaired students have some delays in learning language skills such as reading because of hearing loss. To study the effect of promoting educational level on the development of reading comprehension, the students of the 4th grade of elementary and last year guidance school were compared based on international test of reading literacy.Methods: The project was cross-sectional and the tool used was the international standard booklet of PIRLS 2001. Thirty-six students selected with moderately severe and severe hearing loss from the 4th grade of elementary and last year guidance school from Shahriar, Robatkarim, Karaj and Hashtgerd, Iran, exceptional schools. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using t-test.Results: The first level (focus on and retrieve explicity information showed a meaningful difference between the last year guidance school and the 4th grade of elementary students (p<0.05, but there were no significant differences in other levels, make straightforward information-interpret and integrate ideas-examine and evaluate content, (p> 0.05.Conclusion: Hearing-impaired students have difficulties in understanding in deep levels of reading despite promoting educational level. Thus, in making policies for special trainings, continuing the rehabilitation in guidance and high school levels to promote the complex levels of comprehension should be taken more into consideration.

  14. Using Interactive Technology to Support Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Keisha; Linn, Marcia C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we examine middle school students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming. We designed and refined a technology-enhanced curriculum module called "Global Warming: Virtual Earth". In the module activities, students conduct virtual experiments with a visualization of the greenhouse effect. They analyze data and draw…

  15. Effect of Technology Enhanced Conceptual Change Texts on Students' Understanding of Buoyant Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of technology enhanced conceptual change texts on elementary school students' understanding of buoyant force was investigated. The conceptual change texts (written forms) used in this study are proven for effectiveness and are enriched by using technology support in this study. These texts were tried out on two groups. A…

  16. The effect of health-promoting lifestyle education on the treatment of unexplained female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yeliz; Kizilkaya Beji, Nezihe; Aydin, Yunus; Hassa, Hikmet

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to reveal the 1) awareness, 2) improvements of a health-promoting lifestyle on women with unexplained infertility having at least one of the risk factors that have been indicated to negatively affect fertility (smoking, body mass index lower than 18.5kg/m 2 and more than 25kg/m 2 , over-exercising or not exercising at all, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption of more than 300mg/day, and high levels of stress) by means of health-promoting lifestyle education, 3) the effect of this improvement on the result of assisted-reproduction treatment in terms of clinical pregnancy. 64 women diagnosed with unexplained infertility were divided into a group receiving Health-Promoting Lifestyle (HPL) education and a control group. 1) Risk Factors Questionnaire (BMI, Smoking, Alcohol, Stress, Exercise, Caffeine), 2) Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, 3) Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. The health promoting lifestyle was given to the education group. The Risk Factors Questionnaire; Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale and Healthcare-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II were also administered after the first-second-third month of education but before ART treatment. A statistically significant decrease was found in the average levels of four variables as; BMI (pfactors that females had between the first and third interview decreased significantly. Clinical pregnancy rate after ART was 12 (46.1%) and 5 (19.2%) in education and control group consequently (p=0.02). Health-promoting lifestyle education was found to be effective in reducing the lifestyle risk factors for infertility and increasing the success rates of assisted reproduction treatment by correcting these risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Aging of the Social Mind - Differential Effects on Components of Social Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Andrea M. F.; Kanske, Philipp; Eppinger, Ben; Li, Shu-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Research in younger adults dissociates cognitive from affective facets of social information processing, rather than promoting a monolithic view of social intelligence. An influential theory on adult development suggests differential effects of aging on cognitive and affective functions. However, this dissociation has not been directly tested in the social domain. Employing a newly developed naturalistic paradigm that disentangles facets of the social mind within an individual, we show multi-...

  18. Not All Promotions are Made Equal: From the Effects of a Price War to Cross-chain Cannibalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sotgiu (Francesca)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDespite the huge amount of money allocated every year to sales promotions, brand managers still do not know how often and in what circumstances promotions are truly effective. This dissertation proposes an approach that allows managers to assess the impact of individual promotion events

  19. Understanding, promoting and protecting geodiversity and geoheritage of the Piemonte region (Italy) through innovative techniques and public engagement in Earth Science studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Lozar, Francesca; Perotti, Luigi; Palomba, Mauro; Groppo, Chiara; Natalicchio, Marcello; Ghiraldi, Luca; Beltramo, Riccardo; Lombardo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The onset of Antropocene demonstrates the importance of considering both 1) geodiversity and 2) geoheritage as parts of the landscape "interfaces" where relationships between natural and socio-economic systems can be studied and interpreted. By definition: 1) is the variety, recognizable in nature ("diversity"), of geological features (rocks, minerals, fossils…), of geomorphological environments (and related forms and processes) and of soil characteristics; 2) is an integral part of the global natural heritage focusing on unique, special and representative sites of geological interests (geosites l.s.). In the Antropocene, both 1) and 2) hold a dynamic character, as the result of actions and interactions of natural and/or human factors. Therefore, geodiversity and geoheritage studies are essential for breaking down geological environments and human territories into their main parts and to understand the variables and mechanisms that control their changes. In this perspective, results of the multidisciplinary project PROGEO-Piemonte ("PROactive management of GEOlogical heritage in the Piemonte Region") are presented here: an innovative approach for assessing geodiversity in order to select areas of high potential value of geoheritage to be enhanced by targeted management actions. Since the geodiversity of Piemonte is materialized by elements of high scientific, educational, tourism, etc. value, the geosites where this geoheritage is preserved have been comprehensively analysed and characterized for encompassing both public and private interests. 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected in the Piemonte Region to test this approach, and to improve social engagement aimed at protecting and promoting geodiversity ad geoheritage. The investigated areas represent the multifaceted geodiversity of Piemonte; each area is characterized by high potential for scientific studies, enhancement of public understanding of science, recreation activities and for economic

  20. Effects of student participation in school health promotion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebler, Ursula; Rojatz, Daniela; Simovska, Venka; Forster, Rudolf

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize systematically the existing evidence for the effects of student participation in designing, planning, implementing and/or evaluating school health promotion measures. The focus was on the effects of participation in school health promotion measures rather than on student involvement at school in general. Participation is a core value for health promotion but empirical evidence of its outcomes is scarce. We searched major bibliographic databases (including ASSIA, ERIC, PsycINFO, Scopus, PubMed and the Social Sciences Citation Index). Two reviewers independently decided about inclusion and exclusion of the identified abstracts (n = 5075) and full text articles. Of the 90 full text articles screened, 26 papers met the inclusion criteria. We identified evidence for positive effects, especially for the students themselves, the school as organization, and interactions and social relations at school. Almost all included studies showed personal effects on students referring to an increased satisfaction, motivation and ownership, an increase in skills, competencies and knowledge, personal development, health-related effects and influence on student perspective. Given that student participation has more been discussed as a value, or ideal of health promotion in schools, these findings documenting its effectiveness are important. However, further research is needed to consider the level or intensity of involvement, different approaches and stages of participation in the health promotion intervention, as well as mediating factors such as gender, socio-cultural background or academic achievement, in a more systematic manner. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The effects of nitrogen fixation and plant growth-promoting in rice-diazotroph association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Fan; Wang Lu

    1999-05-01

    This is a review of studies on applications of the genetic engineered ammonium-tolerant diazotroph as an inoculum with the effects of nitrogen-fixation, plant growth-promoting and yield-increasing on rice and some crops by using 15 N tracer in mini-plot and field experiments in resent years

  2. Authentic Assessment in Business Education: Its Effects on Student Satisfaction and Promoting Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lincoln Then; Casidy, Riza

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of authentic assessment on student satisfaction and promoting behaviour. The sample comprised 120 students enrolled in an undergraduate business programme. A model was proposed and tested using conditional process analysis. It was found that authentic assessments are positively related to…

  3. Effectiveness of a Multilevel Workplace Health Promotion Program on Vitality, Health, and Work-Related Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Snoijer, M.; Kok, B.P. de; Vlisteren, J. van; Hofstetter, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the effectiveness of a workplace health promotion program on employees’ vitality, health, and work-related outcomes, and exploring the influence of organizational support and the supervisors’ role on these outcomes. Methods: The 5-month intervention included activities at

  4. Effect of radiation-degraded chitosan on growth promotion of flower plant in tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Le Quang; Ha, Vo Thi Thu; Hai, Le; Hien, Nguyen Quoc [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Radiation is a useful tool for degradation of polysaccharides, such as starch, carrageenan, alginate and chitin/chitosan. The viscosity molecular weight (Mw) of chitosan with 80% degree of deacetylation was reduced to 1.5 x 10{sup 5} by irradiation of 50kGy in solid phase. The solution of 10% of chitosan with Mw ca. 15 x 10{sup 5} was then irradiated at doses ranging 10-250kGy for further degradation and the products were supplemented into cultural media for testing of plant growth promotion effect. The results indicated that irradiated chitosan showed a strong growth-promotion effect on the increase of the length of shoot, the length of root and fresh biomass for flower plants namely Limonium latifolium, Eustoma grandiflorum and Chrysanthemum morifolium in tissue culture. The growth-promotion effect was obtained by the treatments with 50ppm of chitosan irradiated at the doses of 75-100kGy in 10% solution. The suitable concentrations of chitosan irradiated at 100kGy are ca. 100ppm for C. morifolium, 30ppm for E. grandiflorum and 40ppm for L. latifolium. In addition, our study also indicated that the survival ratio of transferred flower plantlets treated with irradiated chitosan was improved after acclimatizing for 30 days in the greenhouse. Accordingly, it is concluded that degraded chitosan obtained by radiation degradation technique is effective as a plant growth promoter as well as irradiated alginate. (author)

  5. Promotion and Reassignment in Public School Districts: How Do Schools Respond to Differences in Teacher Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    We use a unique administrative database from the state of Florida to provide the first evidence that promotion and other job reassignments within school districts are systematically related to differences in teacher effectiveness in raising student achievement. We follow the career paths of a cohort of almost 25,000 classroom teachers during the…

  6. Prolonged treatment with DNMT inhibitors induces distinct effects in promoters and gene-bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fung Wong

    Full Text Available Treatment with the demethylating drugs 5-azacytidine (AZA and decitabine (DAC is now recognised as an effective therapy for patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS, a range of disorders arising in clones of hematopoietic progenitor cells. A variety of cell models have been used to study the effect of these drugs on the methylation of promoter regions of tumour suppressor genes, with recent efforts focusing on the ability of these drugs to inhibit DNA methylation at low doses. However, it is still not clear how nano-molar drug treatment exerts its effects on the methylome. In this study, we have characterised changes in DNA methylation caused by prolonged low-dose treatment in a leukemic cell model (SKM-1, and present a genome-wide analysis of the effects of AZA and DAC. At nano-molar dosages, a one-month continuous treatment halved the total number of hypermethylated probes in leukemic cells and our analysis identified 803 candidate regions with significant demethylation after treatment. Demethylated regions were enriched in promoter sequences whereas gene-body CGIs were more resistant to the demethylation process. CGI methylation in promoters was strongly correlated with gene expression but this correlation was lost after treatment. Our results indicate that CGI demethylation occurs preferentially at promoters, but that it is not generally sufficient to modify expression patterns, and emphasises the roles of other means of maintaining cell state.

  7. Effect of cholesterol nucleation-promoting activity on cholesterol solubilization in model bile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A. K.; Ottenhoff, R.; Jansen, P. L.; van Marle, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1989-01-01

    Human bile contains a factor with cholesterol nucleation-promoting activity that binds to concanavalin A-Sepharose. In this study we have investigated the effect of this activity on the dynamics of lipid solubilization in supersaturated model bile. A concanavalin A binding protein fraction of human

  8. Effectiveness of Health Promotion Programmes for Truck Drivers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mandy K.; Yousuf, Bilal; Bigelow, Philip Lloyd; Van Eerd, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To review the characteristics of effective health promotion interventions for reducing chronic diseases and their risk factors in truck drivers. Methods: MEDLINE (PubMed), SCOPUS, Web of Science Conference Proceedings, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and the National Transportation Library were…

  9. Effects of a Prosocial Television Soap Opera in Promoting Women's Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William J.; Cody, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the effects of India's first long-running television soap opera that was designed to promote women's status in Indian society. Finds that exposure to the program was positively associated with viewers' involvement with the characters in the program and with viewer's television dependency, but did not make viewers more aware of women's…

  10. Effectiveness of health-promoting media literacy education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsma, Lynda J; Carney, Mary E

    2008-06-01

    Media literacy education to promote health among youth involves them in a critical examination of media messages that promote risky behaviors and influence their perceptions and practices. Research on its effectiveness is in its infancy. Studies to date have been conducted with more or less rigor and achieved differing results, leaving many questions about effectiveness unanswered. To elucidate some of these questions, we conducted a systematic review of selected health-promoting media literacy education evaluation/research studies, guided by the following research question: What are the context and process elements of an effective health-promoting media literacy education intervention? Based on extensive analysis of 28 interventions, our findings provide a detailed picture of a small, 16- to 17-year (1990 to July 2006) body of important research, including citation information, health issue, target population/N/age, research design, intervention length and setting, concepts/skills taught, who delivered the intervention and ratings of effectiveness. The review provides a framework for organizing research about media literacy education which suggests that researchers should be more explicit about the media literacy core concepts/skills they are including in their interventions, and should more carefully address who delivered the intervention with what fidelity, in what setting, for how long and utilizing what pedagogical approach.

  11. [Exploration for effective teaching methods to promote students' learning interest in genetics experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianfu; Shi, Chunhai

    2014-02-01

    The students' interest in genetic experiments was promoted effectively by adding more genetic projects with research or autonomous selections, adopting the vivid and interesting case and problem-based teaching methods, using the teaching philosophy of diversity to design experimental teaching tools, and taking other comprehensive teaching methods.

  12. Effect of Promoters in Co-Mn-Al Mixed Oxide Catalyst on N2O Decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásková, K.; Obalová, L.; Jirátová, Květa; Kovanda, F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 2 (2010), s. 480-487 ISSN 1385-8947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/1664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * catalytic decomposition * promoter effect Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.074, year: 2010

  13. Effect Of Sales Promotion On The Volume Of Sales Of Agroproduct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, efficient marketing of Agro-products will result to increase in demand of farm products and this will serve as a great incentive to increase production in the Agricultural sector. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of sales promotion on the volume of sales of Royco in Onitsha Urban city of ...

  14. Effective self-regulation change techniques to promote mental wellbeing among adolescents: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genugten, L. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Massey, E.K.; Empelen, P. van

    2017-01-01

    Mental wellbeing is influenced by self-regulation processes. However, little is known on the efficacy of change techniques based on self-regulation to promote mental wellbeing. The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify effective self-regulation techniques (SRTs) in primary and secondary

  15. TPR and TPD studies of effects of Cu and Ca promotion on Fe-Zn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jcsc/125/03/0679-0686 ... Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were used to study the effects of Cu and Ca promotion on Fe-Zn-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts.

  16. The Welfare Effects of Price Advertising with Basket Shopping: Structural Estimates from Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines welfare effects of the informative price advertising in the supermarket retail industry, using structural estimation approaches and individual scanner data. Supermarket retailers use promotions (advertised price cuts) to announce sales as a competing instrument. Us...... as a means of business stealing. Finally, a counterfactual experiment of online shopping, in which transportation costs are removed, is found welfare-improving........ Using a spatial model that accounts for consumer shopping behavior and retailer pricing behavior, I structurally estimate consumer demand and the marginal costs of promotion, following the discrete choice literature and moment inequality approach. The simulation results numerically show that the private...

  17. Practical and effective management of libraries integrating case studies, general management theory and self-understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Moniz, Jr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at library science students and librarians with newly assigned administrative duties the book is about improving one's thinking and decision making in a role as a library manager. Most librarians get very little exposure to management issues prior to finding themselves in a management role. Furthermore, most library science students do not expect that they will need to understand management yet they quickly find that there is a need to understand this perspective to be effective at almost any library job. Effective library management is about having some tools to make decisions (such as

  18. The Moderating Effect of Interaction Avoidance Between Abusive Supervision and Subordinates' Job Promotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Vesa

    2017-10-03

    While abusive supervision is shown to have negative stress-related effects on targets, less is known about the factors capable of mitigating these negative effects and their career-related outcomes. In this paper, we drew on the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1986) and the upward mobility theory (Turner, 1960) to explore the moderating effect of subordinates' interaction avoidance between abusive supervision and job promotions. To test this moderating effect, we collected data from 604 full-time employees at three points in time over a 12-month time period in Japan. The findings suggest that interaction avoidance moderates the relationship between abusive supervision and promotions, such that this relationship will be less negative as interaction avoidance increases.

  19. School-based sleep promotion programs: effectiveness, feasibility and insights for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassoff, Jamie; Knäuper, Bärbel; Michaelsen, Sonia; Gruber, Reut

    2013-06-01

    Adolescent sleep restriction is prevalent in today's society and is associated with major negative consequences for adolescent development and well-being. In the present review, we examine efforts to reduce adolescent sleep restriction via school-based sleep promotion programs. Such programs effectively enhance sleep knowledge but usually do not succeed in maintaining sleep behavioral changes. This may be because insufficient consideration is given to the importance of integrating motivational components into the programs. We suggest that future interventions should consider the use of individually tailored approaches to sleep promotion. We recommend the use of motivational interviewing, which can detect individual differences in the degree of willingness to change, thus allowing motivational barriers to be adequately addressed on an individual basis. Furthermore, we suggest that individually tailored sleep promotion strategies could be delivered to a significant proportion of adolescents via internet-based communication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of an irritable bowel syndrome educational class on health-promoting behaviors and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, L J; Prather, C M; Phillips, S F; Zinsmeister, A R

    1998-06-01

    The degree to which patient education in the areas of diet, exercise, and stress management can improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) through healthier lifestyle behaviors is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of outpatient education on the short and long term outcomes, and the association between health-promoting behaviors and symptoms. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the theoretical framework. The study had a prospective longitudinal design. A consecutive sample of 52 adult outpatients with IBS attended a structured class that taught health-promoting modifications of lifestyle. Participants completed the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) and selected items from a Bowel Disease Questionnaire (BDQ) before the class and 1 month and 6 months later. Spearman rank correlations were used to assess the association between HPLP and symptom scores. Wilcoxon rank sum tests compared changes in scores versus their baseline values. Response rates at 1 and 6 months were 75% and 83%, respectively. Results revealed significant 1- and 6 month-improvements in pain and Manning symptoms (p health-promoting behaviors. However, relationships among specific behaviors and specific symptoms did not consistently correspond with this improvement.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of health promotion targeting physical activity and healthy eating in mental health care

    OpenAIRE

    Verhaeghe, Nick; De Smedt, Delphine; De Maeseneer, Jan; Maes, Lea; Van Heeringen, Cornelis; Annemans, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a higher prevalence of obesity in individuals with mental disorders compared to the general population. The results of several studies suggested that weight reduction in this population is possible following psycho-educational and/or behavioural weight management interventions. Evidence of the effectiveness alone is however inadequate for policy making. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a health promotion intervention targeting physica...

  2. The effects of the antecedents of service purchase intention in the context of monetary sales promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Chen Chiang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the correlations among variables for credence service in the context of monetary sales promotion. The findings suggested that perceived price directly affected perceived quality, with a negative effect. Perceived price had a positive effect directly on perceived value. Perceived quality directly affected perceived value. Perceived value was found as a key predictor of purchase intention. In addition, perceived quality had indirect and positive impact on purchase intent...

  3. Comparison of – Mixture and Minoxidil on Hair Growth Promoting Effect in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Soo Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlgae have traditionally been used for promotion of hair growth. Use of hair regrowth drugs, such as minoxidil, is limited due to side effects. The aim of this study was to examine a mixture of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida (L-U mixture on hair growth and to compare the promoting effect of hair growth by a 3% minoxidil and a L-U mixture.MethodsTo evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity, saline, 50% ethanol, 3% minoxidil, and the L-U mixture were applied 2 times a day for a total of 14 days on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice after depilation. Analysis was determined by using a high-resolution hair analysis system, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and H&E staining.ResultsOn day 14, the hair growth effect of the L-U mixture was the same as that of the 3% minoxidil treatment. The L-U mixture significantly (P<0.05 stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and insulin-like growth factor -1. Increase of VEGF was observed in the L-U mixture group compared with minoxidil and the negative control. In contrast, the L-U mixture suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, which is the hair loss-related gene. In histological examination in the L-U mixture and minoxidil groups, the induction of an anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of control groups.ConclusionsThis study provides evidence that the L-U mixture can promote hair growth in mice, similar to the effect from minoxidil, and suggests that there is potential application for hair loss treatments.

  4. [Are Interventions Promoting Physical Activity Cost-Effective? A Systematic Review of Reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionut; Schätzlein, Valentin; Suhrcke, Marc

    2017-03-01

    On the basis of international published reviews, this systematic review aims to determine the health economic benefits of interventions promoting physical activity.This review of reviews is based on a systematic literature research in 10 databases (e. g. PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus) supplemented by hand searches from January 2000 to October 2015. Publications were considered in the English or German language only. Results of identified reviews were derived.In total, 18 reviews were identified that could be attributed to interventions promoting physical activity (2 reviews focusing on population-based physical activity interventions, 10 reviews on individual-based and 6 reviews on both population-based and individual-based physical activity interventions). Results showed that population-based physical activity interventions are of great health economic potential if reaching a wider population at comparably low costs. Outstanding are political and environmental strategies, as well as interventions supporting behavioural change through information. The most comprehensive documentation for interventions promoting physical activity could be found for individual-based strategies (i. e. exercise advice or exercise programs). However, such programs are comparatively less cost-effective due to limited reach and higher utilization of resources.The present study provides an extensive review and analysis of the current international state of research regarding the health economic evaluation of interventions promoting physical activity. Results show favourable cost-effectiveness for interventions promoting physical activity, though significant differences in the effectiveness between various interventions were noticed. The greatest potential for cost-effectiveness can be seen in population-based interventions. At the same time, there is a need to acknowledge the limitations of the economic evidence in this field which are attributable to methodological challenges and

  5. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  6. Effects of Representation Sequences and Spatial Ability on Students' Scientific Understandings about the Mechanism of Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lin, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of representation sequences and spatial ability on students' scientific understandings about the mechanism of breathing in human beings. 130 seventh graders were assigned to two groups with different sequential combinations of static and dynamic representations: SD group (i.e., viewing…

  7. The Effect of Modeling and Visualization Resources on Student Understanding of Physical Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jilll A.; Castillo, Adam J.; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of modeling and visualization resources on upper-division, undergraduate and graduate students' performance on an open-ended assessment of their understanding of physical hydrology. The students were enrolled in one of five sections of a physical hydrology course. In two of the sections, students completed homework…

  8. Understanding Crowdsourcing: Effects of motivation and rewards on participation and performance in voluntary online activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A.M. Borst (Irma)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCompanies increasingly outsource activities to volunteers that they approach via an open call on the internet. The phenomenon is called ‘crowdsourcing’. For an effective use of crowdsourcing it is important to understand what motivated these online volunteers and what is the influence of

  9. The Effect of Using the History of Sciences on Conceptual Understanding and Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizak, Djanette

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of using the history of science in teaching geometrical optics on the motivation and conceptual understanding of first year university students. For this purpose, 54 students were randomly selected, then divided into two groups: the experimental group was taught by using history of science before traditional…

  10. Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students' Understanding of Concepts in Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the degree of effectiveness of cooperative learning instruction over a traditional approach on 11th grade students' understanding of electrochemistry. The study involved forty-one 11th grade students from two science classes with the same teacher. To determine students' misconceptions concerning…

  11. Effectiveness of Instruction Based on the Constructivist Approach on Understanding Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki; Atasoy, Basri; Geban, Omer

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify misconceptions concerning chemical equilibrium concepts and to investigate the effectiveness of instruction based on the constructivist approach over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 71 10th grade…

  12. Effect of Conceptual Change Approach on Students' Understanding of Reaction Rate Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of conceptual change text oriented instruction compared to traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of reaction rate concepts. 45 students from two classes of the same teacher in a public high school participated in this study. Students in the experimental group…

  13. Understanding the effectiveness of vegetated streamside management zones for protecting water quality (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Smethurst; Kevin Petrone; Daniel Neary

    2012-01-01

    We set out to improve understanding of the effectiveness of streamside management zones (SMZs) for protecting water quality in landscapes dominated by agriculture. We conducted a paired-catchment experiment that included water quality monitoring before and after the establishment of a forest plantation as an SMZ on cleared farmland that was used for extensive grazing....

  14. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

  15. The Effects of Swedish Knife Model on Students' Understanding of the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Artun, Huseyin; Unal, Melike

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of Swedish Knife Model on students' understanding of digestive system. A simple experimental design (pretest-treatment-posttest) was used in the study and internal comparison of the results of the one group was made. The sample consisted of 40 7th grade Turkish students whose ages range from 13 to 15.…

  16. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Measurement Error Tutorial in Helping Teachers Understand Score Report Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Zwick, Rebecca; Vezzu, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a short web-based tutorial in helping teachers to better understand the portrayal of measurement error in test score reports. The short video tutorial included both verbal and graphical representations of measurement error. Results showed a significant difference in comprehension scores…

  17. Effectiveness of Understanding Relations between Community, Home, and School for Future Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Claudia; Galaviz, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    As educators committed to preparing teachers to teach effectively across differences and in ways that actively resist perpetuating injustices, we have found that designing opportunities that take teachers into the children's community is the best way to learn about the cultural wealth existing in homes and to understand the importance of including…

  18. Encouraging a "Romantic Understanding" of Science: The Effect of the Nikola Tesla Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Klassen, Stephen; Klassen, Cathrine Froese

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and apply the notion of romantic understanding by outlining its features and its potential role in science education, to identify its features in the story of Nikola Tesla, and to describe an empirical study conducted to determine the effect of telling such a story to Grade 9 students. Elaborated features of…

  19. The Effect of Enriched Learning Environments on the Conceptual Understanding of Students: "The Erosion and Landslide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoruhlu, Tülay Senel; Bilgin, Arzu Kirman; Nas, Sibel Er

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of enriched learning environments which have been developed in the framework of the "erosion and landslide" concepts on the conceptual understanding of students. A quasi-experimental method has been used in this research. The sample consists of 40 students. 5th grade students (aged…

  20. The Effect of a Conceptual Change Approach on Understanding of Students' Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Basri; Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on tenth-grade students' conceptual achievement in understanding chemical equilibrium. The study was conducted in two classes of the same teacher with participation of a total of 44 tenth-grade students. In this study, a…

  1. The Effect of Herrmann Whole Brain Teaching Method on Students' Understanding of Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawaneh, Ali Khalid Ali; Nurulazam Md Zain, Ahmad; Salmiza, Saleh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Herrmann Whole Brain Teaching Method over conventional teaching method on eight graders in their understanding of simple electric circuits in Jordan. Participants (N = 273 students; M = 139, F = 134) were randomly selected from Bani Kenanah region-North of Jordan and randomly assigned to…

  2. Identification of Trichoderma Strain M2 and Related Growth Promoting Effects on Brassica chinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Fang-fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research took Trichoderma strain as tested strains which isolated from the rhizosphere of healthy and high yield pepper, M2 was classified and identified by combining morphological classification with molecular identification means(rDNA-ITS sequence analysis, whose effect on growth of Brassica chinensis L. was explored, in order to provide superior strains for bio-fertilizer development. After solid fermentation of Trichoderma M2, under the condition of the greenhouse, took some research on the growth promoting effect on Brassica chi nensis L. of Trichoderma M2. The results showed that the strain M2 was identified as Trichoderma harzianum strain. M2 had obvious effects on promoting growth, the SPAD and edible leaf number of Brassica chinensis L. Adding of 5.0×109 cfu M2 had the best effect on increasing the biological yield. Compared with CK, fresh weight and dry weight was increased by 30.26%and 20.08%respectively. Followed by inocula tion of 5.0×108 cfu M2, fresh weight and dry weight was increased by 18.33% and 12.46% respectively. Therefore, M2 showed evident promoting effect on Brassica chinensis L., and had potential application value.

  3. Effect of Training Based on Choice Theory on Health-Promoting Lifestyle Behaviors among Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Ensan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Menopause is considered as a stage of life that is often encountered by all women with symptoms as hot flashes, sweating, palpitations, sleep disorders, and urinary tract problems. The improvement of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors is one of the effective measures to moderate these symptoms by facilitating the women to enhance their lifestyle behaviors through making proper choices. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of training based on choice theory on health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in menopausal women. Methods: This two-group pretest-posttest design was conducted on 40 menopausal women within the age range of 45-55 years, referring to healthcare centers in Mashhad, Iran, in 2016. The subjects were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups using simple random sampling method. The data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire, a menopause knowledge/attitude questionnaire, as well as Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLPII, which consisted of six dimensions of nutrition, physical activity, responsibility for health, stress management, interpersonal relationships, and spiritual growth. The intervention group received training in seven 90-minute sessions based on choice theory. The data were analyzed in SPSS software using descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, independent t-test, paired sample t-test, and Friedman test. Results: According to the results, after the intervention, the mean scores of total health-promoting lifestyle behaviors (P

  4. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters effect alkalinization of canine renal proximal tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellas, J.; Hammerman, M.R.

    1986-03-01

    We have demonstrated the presence of specific receptors for tumor-promoting phorbol esters in the plasma membrane of the canine renal proximal tubular cell. These compounds affect proximal tubular metabolism in vitro. For example, we have shown that they inhibit gluconeogenesis in canine renal proximal tubular segments. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters have been shown to effect alkalinization of non-renal cells, by enhancing Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange across the plasma membrane. To determine whether the actions of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in proximal tubular segments might be mediated by a similar process, we incubated suspensions of segments from dog kidney with these compounds and measured changes in intracellular pH using (/sup 14/C)-5,5-dimethoxazoladine-2-4-dione (DMO) and flow dialysis. Incubation of segments with phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate, but not inactive phorbol ester, 4 ..gamma.. phorbol, effected alkalinization of cells within the segments in a concentration-dependent manner. Alkalinization was dependent upon the presence of extracellular (Na/sup +/) > intracellular (Na/sup +/), was prevented by amiloride and was demonstrable in the presence of SITS. Our findings suggest that tumor-promoting esters stimulate the Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchanger known to be present in the brush border membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell. It is possible that the stimulation reflects a mechanism by which phorbol esters affect metabolic processes in these cells.

  5. Curcumin and Turmeric Modulate the Tumor-Promoting Effects of Iron In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Donald J; Robinson, Todd; Kowdley, Kris V

    2017-04-01

    Free or loosely chelated iron has tumor-promoting properties in vitro. Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the food spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), is a potent antioxidant that binds iron. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether curcuminoids prevent tumor-promoting effects of iron in T51B cells, a non-neoplastic rat liver epithelial cell line. Purified curcuminoids (curcumin) or a standardized turmeric extract similarly reduced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity associated with iron overload (IC 50 values near 10 μM, P turmeric for 16 wk in culture; subsequently assayed by soft agar colony formation) was nearly complete at 20 μM of total curcuminoids (P turmeric extract were taken up better by cells, had a longer half-life, and appeared more effective in blocking tumor promotion (P < 0.01), suggesting enhanced curcuminoid delivery to cells in culture. The primary finding that curcuminoids can inhibit tumor promotion caused by iron in T51B cells is tempered by evidence for an underlying increase in neoplastic transformation at lower concentrations.

  6. Effect of science magic applied in interactive lecture demonstrations on conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiq, Muhammad; Suhandi, Andi; Liliawati, Winny

    2017-08-01

    Research about the application of science magic-assisting Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILD) has been conducted. This research is aimed at providing description about the comparison of the improvement of the conceptual understanding of lesson on pressure between students who receive physics lesson through science magic-assisting ILD and students who receive physics lesson through ILD without science magic. This research used a quasi-experiment methods with Control Group Pretest-Posttest Design. The subject of the research is all students of class VIII in one of MTs (Islamic junior high school) in Pekalongan. Research samples were selected using random sampling technique. Data about students' conceptual understanding was collected using test instrument of conceptual understanding in the form of multiple choices. N-gain average calculation was performed in order to determine the improvement of students' conceptual understanding. The result of the research shows that conceptual understanding of students on lesson about pressure who received lesson with ILD using science magic is higher than students who received lesson with ILD without science magic . Therefore, the conclusion is that the application of science magic ILD is more effective to improve the conceptual understanding of lesson on pressure.

  7. Role of adenosine and the orexinergic perifornical hypothalamus in sleep-promoting effects of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep; Thakkar, Mahesh M

    2014-03-01

    Strong clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that acute ethanol promotes sleep. However, very little is known about how and where ethanol acts to promote sleep. We hypothesized that ethanol may induce sleep by increasing extracellular levels of adenosine and inhibiting orexin neurons in the perifornical hypothalamus. Experiments 1 and 2: Within-Subject Design; Experiment 3: Between-Subject Design. N/A. N/A. N/A. Using adult male Sprague-Dawley rats as our animal model, we performed three experiments to test our hypothesis. Our first experiment examined the effect of A1 receptor blockade in the orexinergic perifornical hypothalamus on sleep- promoting effects of ethanol. Bilateral microinjection of the selective A1 receptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-phenylxanthine (500 μM; 250 nL/side) into orexinergic perifornical hypothalamus significantly reduced nonrapid eye movement sleep with a concomitant increase in wakefulness, suggesting that blockade of adenosine A1 receptor attenuates ethanol-induced sleep promotion. Our second experiment examined adenosine release in the orexinergic perifornical hypothalamus during local ethanol infusion. Local infusion of pharmacologically relevant doses of ethanol significantly and dose-dependently increased adenosine release. Our final experiment used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to examine the effects of ethanol on the activation of orexin neurons. Acute ethanol exposure significantly reduced the number of orexin neurons containing c-Fos, suggesting an inhibition of orexin neurons after ethanol intake. Based on our results, we believe that ethanol promotes sleep by increasing adenosine in the orexinergic perifornical hypothalamus, resulting in A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of orexin neurons.

  8. Understanding Teacher Effectiveness: Significant State Data Capacity Is Required to Measure and Improve Teacher Effectiveness. Data for Action 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    States are increasingly focused on understanding and improving teacher effectiveness. There are several funding opportunities that incentivize states to use data to inform measurements of teacher effectiveness. Local, state, and federal efforts support using data to improve teacher preparation programs. Preparation programs seek "access to data…

  9. The effect of adverse information and positive promotion on women's preferences for prescribed contraceptive products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Stephanie A; Viney, Rosalie C; Gu, Yuanyuan; Hole, Arne R; Fiebig, Denzil G; Street, Deborah J; Haas, Marion R; Weisberg, Edith; Bateson, Deborah

    2013-04-01

    Recent rapid growth in the range of contraceptive products has given women more choice, but also adds complexity to the resultant decision of which product to choose. This paper uses a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to investigate the effect of adverse information and positive promotion on women's stated preferences for prescribed contraceptive products. In November 2007, 527 Australian women aged 18-49 years were recruited from an online panel. Each was randomly allocated to one of three information conditions. The control group only received basic information on contraceptive products. One treatment group also received adverse information on the risks of the combined oral pill. The other group received basic information and promotional material on the vaginal ring, newly introduced into Australia and on the transdermal patch, which is unavailable in Australia. Respondents completed 32 choice sets with 3 product options where each option was described by a product label: either combined pill, minipill, injection, implant, hormonal IUD, hormonal vaginal ring, hormonal transdermal patch or copper IUD; and by the attributes: effect on acne, effect on weight, frequency of administration, contraceptive effectiveness, doctor's recommendation, effect on periods and cost. Women's choices were analysed using a generalized multinomial logit model (G-MNL) and model estimates were used to predict product shares for each information condition. The predictions indicated that adverse information did not affect women's preferences for products relative to only receiving basic information. The promotional material increased women's preferences for the transdermal patch. Women in all groups had a low preference for the vaginal ring which was not improved by promotion. The findings highlight the need for researchers to pay attention to setting the context when conducting DCEs as this can significantly affect results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of background music and song texts on the emotional understanding of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, June

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of background music and song texts to teach emotional understanding to children with autism. Participants were 12 students (mean age 11.5 years) with a primary diagnosis of autism who were attending schools in Japan. Each participant was taught four emotions to decode and encode: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear by the counterbalanced treatment-order. The treatment consisted of the four conditions: (a) no contact control (NCC)--no purposeful teaching of the selected emotion, (b) contact control (CC)--teaching the selected emotion using verbal instructions alone, (c) background music (BM)--teaching the selected emotion by verbal instructions with background music representing the emotion, and singing songs (SS)--teaching the selected emotion by singing specially composed songs about the emotion. Participants were given a pretest and a posttest and received 8 individual sessions between these tests. The results indicated that all participants improved significantly in their understanding of the four selected emotions. Background music was significantly more effective than the other three conditions in improving participants' emotional understanding. The findings suggest that background music can be an effective tool to increase emotional understanding in children with autism, which is crucial to their social interactions.

  11. The Global Programme on Health Promotion Effectiveness (GPHPE): a bold concept with few resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, David V

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes the past ten years of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education's (IUHPE) flagship programme on health promotion effectiveness. It examines the context in which the programme developed and the organization of the programme to carry out its goals. The paper takes a critical look at the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and difficulties of conducting such a broad programme within a global membership-based non-governmental organization (NGO). It also discusses how the field of evidence gathering has developed in relationship to the project and what changes have emerged since the early years. Lack of resources, both in terms of contributors and financial support, is identified as the key problem in sustaining an NGO effort to examine effectiveness.

  12. The effect of transformational leadership and job autonomy on promotive and prohibitive voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mari; Unterrainer, Christine; Jønsson, Thomas Faurholt

    2018-01-01

    Although there is a vast amount of research on leadership and improvement-oriented voice behavior, the amount of cross-lagged research on leadership that also incorporates more challenging forms of voice is sparse. This paper reports on a two-wave study of white-collar workers in a Norwegian...... medical technology company, investigating the relationship among employees’ perceived transformational leadership behaviors, job autonomy, and promotive and prohibitive voice. Testing our results cross-lagged, we demonstrate that perceived transformational leadership is significantly related...... to prohibitive voice over time, whereas this effect worked in the opposite direction for promotive voice. We also explore the boundary conditions of transformational leadership, demonstrating that perceived job autonomy strengthens the effect of transformational leadership on prohibitive voice. Implications...

  13. Promoting Climate And Data Literacy: University Courses Engaging Students In Effective Teaching, Learning, Communication And Outreach Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halversen, C.; McDonnell, J. D.; Apple, J. K.; Weiss, E. L.

    2016-02-01

    Two university courses, 1) Promoting Climate Literacy and 2) Climate and Data Literacy, developed by the University of California Berkeley provide faculty across the country with course materials to help their students delve into the science underlying global environmental change. The courses include culturally responsive content, such as indigenous and place-based knowledge, and examine how people learn and consequently, how we should teach and communicate science. Promoting Climate Literacy was developed working with Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of Washington, and Western Washington University. Climate and Data Literacy was developed with Rutgers University and Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, WA. The Climate and Data Literacy course also focuses on helping students in science majors participating in U-Teach programs and students in pre-service teacher education programs gain skills in using real and near-real time data through engaging in investigations using web-based and locally-relevant data resources. The course helps these students understand and apply the scientific practices, disciplinary concepts and big ideas described in the Framework for K-12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). This course focuses on students interested in teaching middle school science for three reasons: (1) teachers often have relatively weak understandings of the practices of science, and of complex Earth systems science and climate change; (2) the concepts that underlie climate change align well with the NGSS; and (3) middle school is a critical time for promoting student interest in science and for recruitment to STEM careers and lifelong climate literacy. This course is now being field tested in a number of U-Teach programs including Florida State University, Louisiana State University, as well as pre-service teacher education programs at California State University East Bay, and Western Washington University

  14. Cost-effectiveness of health promotion targeting physical activity and healthy eating in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Nick; De Smedt, Delphine; De Maeseneer, Jan; Maes, Lea; Van Heeringen, Cornelis; Annemans, Lieven

    2014-08-18

    There is a higher prevalence of obesity in individuals with mental disorders compared to the general population. The results of several studies suggested that weight reduction in this population is possible following psycho-educational and/or behavioural weight management interventions. Evidence of the effectiveness alone is however inadequate for policy making. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a health promotion intervention targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders. A Markov decision-analytic model using a public payer perspective was applied, projecting the one-year results of a 10-week intervention over a time horizon of 20 years, assuming a repeated yearly implementation of the programme. Scenario analysis was applied evaluating the effects on the results of alternative modelling assumptions. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the effects on the results of varying key input parameters. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 27,096€/quality-adjusted life years (QALY) in men, and 40,139€/QALY in women was found in the base case. Scenario analysis assuming an increase in health-related quality of life as a result of the body mass index decrease resulted in much better cost-effectiveness in both men (3,357€/QALY) and women (3,766€/QALY). The uncertainty associated with the intervention effect had the greatest impact on the model. As far as is known to the authors, this is the first health economic evaluation of a health promotion intervention targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders. Such research is important as it provides payers and governments with better insights how to spend the available resources in the most efficient way. Further research examining the cost-effectiveness of health promotion targeting physical activity and healthy eating in individuals with mental disorders is required.

  15. Effects of alternative promoters of growth on the performance and cost of production of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tomazini Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and prebiotics were compared to antimicrobials as alternative growth promoters in male broilers grown from 1 to 42 days of age. Eight treatments were evaluated: a control feed without antimicrobials or alternative growth promoters, a control feed with antimicrobials, a control feed with the antimicrobials colistine and avilamicine, three rations with probiotic Bacillus subtilis in different concentrations and/or under recommended usage, one ration with probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae in addition to a mixture of probiotic Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae, and one ration with mananoligossacarids (MOS plus betaglutanes. Antimicrobials and alternative growth promoters were added to an initial feed and to a growth feed common to all birds. Thirteen to 17 replicates of 50 birds of a Cobb line were utilized per treatment in a completely randomized design. Feed consumption, feed conversion and production costs did not significantly differ among treatments. The weights of 42-day-old birds fed on Bacillus subtilis (1,6 x 109CFU/g or the mixture of probiotics were higher or similar to the weights of birds fed on ration with antimicrobials. It was concluded that probiotics can replace antimicrobials as growth promoters for broilers up to 42 days of age without negative effects on growth performance and production cost.

  16. THE ESSENCE OF THE EFFECTIVE MERCHANDISING WHEN PROMOTING A PRIVATE LABEL PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Майковська, Вікторія Ігорівна; Солониченко, Тетяна Сергіївна

    2014-01-01

    The need for own goods mark is disclosed in the article in conditions of competitive retail market. The competitive benefits are grounded which the own brand affords. Characteristic features and peculiarities of the own goods mark are defined. The experience of Private Label applying in the world, Europe and Ukraine is analyzed. The lack of problem development of merchandising effectiveness study in the promoting process of Private Label products is specified. The tasks to make the analysis o...

  17. Disharmony between wake- and respiration-promoting activities: effects of modafinil on ventilatory control in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Jiro; Fukushi, Isato; Takeda, Kotaro; Hasebe, Yohei; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Okada, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Background Modafinil is a wake-promoting drug and has been widely used for daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. A recent case series reported that daily oral modafinil alleviated hypercapnic respiratory failure in patients with COPD. However, the precise action of modafinil on respiration such as hypercapnic and/or hypoxic ventilatory responses remains unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of modafinil on the ventilatory control. Methods ...

  18. Effectiveness of Using a Portable Video Game for Promoting Healthy Dietary Behavior among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shiba, Eri

    2009-01-01

    Currently the use of new technologies takes on a growing importance in education. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 2-week intervention using portable video game machine "Nintendo DS" and the software "Koharu no DS Uchigohan (Koharu' s DS home cooking)" to increase knowledge and consciousness of cooking and to promote healthier dietary behavior among college students. A pretest was administered to participants before the intervention. In addition to the same test, the questionnaire a...

  19. Physical models have gender‐specific effects on student understanding of protein structure–function relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michelle A.; Chang, Wesley S.; Dent, Erik W.; Nordheim, Erik V.; Franzen, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Understanding how basic structural units influence function is identified as a foundational/core concept for undergraduate biological and biochemical literacy. It is essential for students to understand this concept at all size scales, but it is often more difficult for students to understand structure–function relationships at the molecular level, which they cannot as effectively visualize. Students need to develop accurate, 3‐dimensional mental models of biomolecules to understand how biomolecular structure affects cellular functions at the molecular level, yet most traditional curricular tools such as textbooks include only 2‐dimensional representations. We used a controlled, backward design approach to investigate how hand‐held physical molecular model use affected students' ability to logically predict structure–function relationships. Brief (one class period) physical model use increased quiz score for females, whereas there was no significant increase in score for males using physical models. Females also self‐reported higher learning gains in their understanding of context‐specific protein function. Gender differences in spatial visualization may explain the gender‐specific benefits of physical model use observed. © 2016 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):326–335, 2016. PMID:26923186

  20. Physical models have gender-specific effects on student understanding of protein structure-function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Lorman, Robin M; Harris, Michelle A; Chang, Wesley S; Dent, Erik W; Nordheim, Erik V; Franzen, Margaret A

    2016-07-08

    Understanding how basic structural units influence function is identified as a foundational/core concept for undergraduate biological and biochemical literacy. It is essential for students to understand this concept at all size scales, but it is often more difficult for students to understand structure-function relationships at the molecular level, which they cannot as effectively visualize. Students need to develop accurate, 3-dimensional mental models of biomolecules to understand how biomolecular structure affects cellular functions at the molecular level, yet most traditional curricular tools such as textbooks include only 2-dimensional representations. We used a controlled, backward design approach to investigate how hand-held physical molecular model use affected students' ability to logically predict structure-function relationships. Brief (one class period) physical model use increased quiz score for females, whereas there was no significant increase in score for males using physical models. Females also self-reported higher learning gains in their understanding of context-specific protein function. Gender differences in spatial visualization may explain the gender-specific benefits of physical model use observed. © 2016 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):326-335, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Effect of breastfeeding promotion interventions on cost-effectiveness of rotavirus immunization in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwantika, Auliya A.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rotavirus infection has been reported to be responsible for the majority of severe diarrhea in children under-5-years-old in Indonesia. Breast milk is considered to give protection against rotavirus infection. Increasing breastfeeding promotion programs could be an alternative target to

  2. Does job promotion affect men's and women's health differently? Dynamic panel models with fixed effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anna; Peristera, Paraskevi; Westerlund, Hugo; Johansson, Gunn; Hanson, Linda L Magnusson

    2017-08-01

    Higher occupational status has consistently been shown to be associated with better health, but few studies have to date examined if an upward change in occupational status is associated with a positive change in health. Furthermore, very little is known about whether this association differs by sex. Data were derived from four waves (2008-14) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a follow-up study of a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population. The present study comprises 1410 men and 1926 women. A dynamic panel model with fixed effects was used to analyse the lagged association between job promotion on the one hand and self-rated health (SRH) and symptoms of depression on the other. This method allowed controlling for unobserved time-invariant confounders and determining the direction of causality between the variables. Multigroup comparisons were performed to investigate differences between the sexes. The results showed that job promotion was associated with decreased subsequent SRH and increased symptoms of depression among both men and women. Women reported a larger relative worsening of self-rated health following a job promotion than men and men reported a larger relative worsening of depression symptoms. There was limited evidence that SRH and symptoms of depression were associated with subsequent job promotion. The present study indicates that a job promotion could lead to decreased SRH and increased symptoms of depression in a 2-4-year perspective. Associations appear to differ for women and men. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  3. Are we on the right track: can our understanding of abscission in model systems promote or derail making improvements in less studied crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Patterson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the world population grows and resources and climate conditions change, crop improvement continues to be one of the most important challenges for agriculturalists. The yield and quality of many crops is affected by abscission or shattering, and environmental stresses often hasten or alter the abscission process. Understanding this process can not only lead to genetic improvement, but also changes in cultural practices and management that will contribute to higher yields, improved quality and greater sustainability. As plant scientists, we have learned significant amounts about this process through the study of model plants such as Arabidopsis, tomato, rice and maize. While these model systems have provided significant valuable information, we are sometimes challenged to use this knowledge effectively as variables including the economic value of the crop, the uniformity of the crop, ploidy levels, flowering and crossing mechanisms, ethylene responses, cultural requirements, responses to changes in environment, and cellular and tissue specific morphological differences can significantly influence outcomes. The value of genomic resources for lesser-studied crops such as cranberries and grapes and the orphan crop fonio will also be considered.

  4. Potential synergistic effects of human placental extract and minoxidil on hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, T-R; Oh, C T; Park, H M; Han, H J; Ji, H J; Kim, B J

    2015-08-01

    Human placenta extract (HPE) has been used to alleviate tiredness and promote wound healing, and for its antiageing functions; however, it has not yet been studied for its effects on hair growth. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of HPE on hair growth by observing its actions on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs). To define how HPE promotes induction of anagen hair growth during the telogen phase, and to understand the synergistic molecular mechanisms of HPE and minoxidil (MXD) actions on hair growth. We examined the effects of HPE and MXD on C57BL6/J mice using haematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative histomorphometry, hair growth scoring, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on the dorsal skins of C57BL/6J mice. We found that HPE synergistically augmented the effects of MXD, a promoter of hair growth. In particular, histomorphometric analysis data indicated that subcutaneous injection of HPE induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the anagen phase. It also stimulated increases in both the number and size of hair follicles in groups treated with HPE alone and HPE + MXD. From our data, we conclude that HPE increases β-catenin and Wnt3a expression levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HPE in combination with MXD has hair growth-promoting activity and is a potential novel therapeutic treatment for alopecia or baldness in humans. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging ® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the "face-to-face" and "combined" versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical-practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural - artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in editions performed in Spain, revealing its consistency

  6. A cross-cultural, multilevel study of inquiry-based instruction effects on conceptual understanding and motivation in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Meiko

    Student achievement and motivation to learn physics is highly valued in many industrialized countries including the United States and Japan. Science education curricula in these countries emphasize the importance and encourage classroom teachers to use an inquiry approach. This dissertation investigated high school students' motivational orientations and their understanding of physics concepts in a context of inquiry-based instruction. The goals were to explore the patterns of instructional effects on motivation and learning in each country and to examine cultural differences and similarities. Participants consisted of 108 students (55 females, 53 males) and 9 physics teachers in the United States and 616 students (203 females and 413 males) and 11 physics teachers in Japan. Students were administered (a) Force Concept Inventory measuring physics conceptual understanding and (b) Attitudes about Science Questionnaire measuring student motivational orientations. Teachers were given a survey regarding their use of inquiry teaching practices and background information. Additionally, three teachers in each country were interviewed and observed in their classrooms. For the data analysis, two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods were used to examine individual student differences (i.e., learning, motivation, and gender) within each classroom (i.e., inquiry-based teaching, teaching experience, and class size) in the U.S. and Japan, separately. Descriptive statistical analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that there was a cultural similarity in that current teaching practices had minimal influence on conceptual understanding as well as motivation of high school students between the U.S. and Japan. In contrast, cultural differences were observed in classroom structures and instructional approaches. Furthermore, this study revealed gender inequity in Japanese students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Limitations of the study, as well as

  7. Informing people about radiation risks: a review of obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on informing people about radiation risks. The paper focuses on obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication. The paper concludes with a set of guidelines for communicating information about radiation risks to the public. The paper also includes an appendix that reviews the literature on one of the most important tools for communicating information about radiation risks: risk comparisons

  8. Understanding treatment effect mechanisms of the CAMBRA randomized trial in reducing caries increment

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, J; Chaffee, BW; Cheng, NF; Gansky, SA; Featherstone, JDB

    2015-01-01

    © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014. The Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) randomized controlled trial showed that an intervention featuring combined antibacterial and fluoride therapy significantly reduced bacterial load and suggested reduced caries increment in adults with 1 to 7 baseline cavitated teeth. While trial results speak to the overall effectiveness of an intervention, insight can be gained from understanding the mechanism by which an int...

  9. Using Process Data to Understand Outcomes in Sexual Health Promotion: An Example from a Review of School-Based Programmes to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Barnett-Page, E.; Kavanagh, J.; Picot, J.; Frampton, G. K.; Cooper, K.; Hartwell, D.; Clegg, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible…

  10. Recent Advances in Understanding and Mitigating Adipogenic and Metabolic Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Julia M.; Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Correll, Christoph U.; Morrato, Elaine H.; Newcomer, John W.; Remington, Gary; Nasrallah, Henry A.; Crystal, Stephen; Nicol, Ginger; Allison, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Although offering many benefits for several psychiatric disorders, antipsychotic drugs (APDs) as a class have a major liability in their tendency to promote adiposity, obesity, and metabolic dysregulation in an already metabolically vulnerable population. The past decade has witnessed substantial research aimed at investigating the mechanisms of these adverse effects and mitigating them. On July 11 and 12, 2011, with support from 2 NIH institutes, leading experts convened to discuss current research findings and to consider future research strategies. Five areas where significant advances are being made emerged from the conference: (1) methodological issues in the study of APD effects; (2) unique characteristics and needs of pediatric patients; (3) genetic components underlying susceptibility to APD-induced metabolic effects; (4) APD effects on weight gain and adiposity in relation to their acute effects on glucose regulation and diabetes risk; and (5) the utility of behavioral, dietary, and pharmacological interventions in mitigating APD-induced metabolic side effects. This paper summarizes the major conclusions and important supporting data from the meeting. PMID:22754543

  11. Effectiveness of Financial and Fiscal Instruments for Promoting Sustainable Renewable Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dombrovski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The new EU target of achieving 80-95% emission reductions by 2050 calls for novel energy policy solutions. Previous research has failed to evaluate the influence of all relevant elements of energy policy on technology-specific sustainable renewable energy diffusion. This paper adds to existing research by studying the effectiveness of financial and fiscal instruments on diffusion, additionally controlling for potential political, economic, social, and environmental drivers. These drivers are analysed for 26 EU countries over the period 1990-2011. The main results show that feed-in tariffs, quotas, and tenders effectively promote wind technologies. Other explanatory variables have technology- and model-dependent impacts.

  12. A New Mission for Schools in Hong Kong in the 21st Century: Promoting Effective KM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Chan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge Management, though a hot topic in business, is quite a new concept in schools and in the education sector in Hong Kong. KM involves identifying, preserving, sharing and making the knowledge assets grow. Proper management of the knowledge assets will make the schools or educational organizations more responsive to changes and to operate successfully in the information age. Thus, there is a need to promote effective knowledge management in schools. The first section of the paper aims to define KM and the relationship of knowledge, information and data. The second section discusses some practical ways that lead to effective handling of knowledge in schools.

  13. Disharmony between wake- and respiration-promoting activities: effects of modafinil on ventilatory control in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Jiro; Fukushi, Isato; Takeda, Kotaro; Hasebe, Yohei; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Okada, Yasumasa

    2016-11-14

    Modafinil is a wake-promoting drug and has been widely used for daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. A recent case series reported that daily oral modafinil alleviated hypercapnic respiratory failure in patients with COPD. However, the precise action of modafinil on respiration such as hypercapnic and/or hypoxic ventilatory responses remains unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of modafinil on the ventilatory control. We investigated the hypothesis that modafinil enhances resting ventilation as well as the stimulatory ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia. We addressed the issue by examining minute ventilation, respiratory rate and volume components using plethysmography, combined with a concurrent EEG monitoring of the level of wakefulness before and after administration of modafinil in two doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg in unanesthetized mice. In addition, we monitored the effect of the lower dose of modafinil on mice locomotor activity in a freely moving condition by video-recording. Wakefulness, locomotor activity and variability of the breathing pattern in tidal volume were promoted by both doses of modafinil. Neither dose of modafinil increased the absolute values of resting ventilation or promoted the ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia. Rather, higher dose of modafinil slightly suppressed respiratory rate in room air condition. Modafinil is conducive to the state of wakefulness but does not augment resting ventilation or the hyperventilatory responses to chemical stimuli in unanesthetized rodents.

  14. [A comprehensive evaluation of intervention effects on workplace health promotion in a pharmaceutical company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Li, Tao; Li, Jian-guo; Chen, Li; Ren, Jun; Li, Chao-lin

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the comprehensive workplace health promotion intervention effect in a pharmaceutical company. The evaluation was conducted by using questionnaires, access to information, on-site surveys, satisfaction surveys and interviews. After the intervention, the awareness rate of the staff on "Occupational Disease Prevention Law", occupational disease prevention measures, the definition of hypertension, HIV transmission and high blood pressure, coronary heart disease preventive measures, have been raised from 72.4%, 13.8%, 67.5%, 45.8%, 51.7% to 97.8%, 19.9%, 82.3%, 94.7%, 53.1% respectively. The lifestyle of the staff has been improved, the improvement rate of smoking, drinking, having breakfast 4 times a week and above are 98.5%, 70.2% and 30.6% separately. Out of the 47 evaluation indicators, 41 meet the requirements, 5 basically meet the requirements. After implementing workplace health promotion activities, the level of occupational safety and health management of the pharmaceutical company has been enhanced, the physical and mental health of the staff have been promoted. The WHP comprehensive interventions are feasible and effective.

  15. Middle-School Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect using a NetLogo Computer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L.; Koons, P. O.; Schauffler, M.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of a freely available agent based, modeling program as a learning tool for seventh and eighth grade students to explore the greenhouse effect without added curriculum. The investigation was conducted at two Maine middle-schools with 136 seventh-grade students and 11 eighth-grade students in eight classes. Students were given a pre-test that consisted of a concept map, a free-response question, and multiple-choice questions about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature. The computer model simulates the greenhouse effect and allows students to manipulate atmospheric and surface conditions to observe the effects on the Earth’s temperature. Students explored the Greenhouse Effect model for approximately twenty minutes with only two focus questions for guidance. After the exploration period, students were given a post-test that was identical to the pre-test. Parametric post-test analysis of the assessments indicated middle-school students gained in their understanding about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature after exploring the computer model for approximately twenty minutes. The magnitude of the changes in pre- and post-test concept map and free-response scores were small (average free-response post-test score of 7.0) compared to an expert's score (48), indicating that students understood only a few of the system relationships. While students gained in their understanding about the greenhouse effect, there was evidence that students held onto their misconceptions that (1) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere deteriorates the ozone layer, (2) the greenhouse effect is a result of humans burning fossil fuels, and (3) infrared and visible light have similar behaviors with greenhouse gases. We recommend using the Greenhouse Effect computer model with guided inquiry to focus students’ investigations on the system relationships in the model.

  16. Effectiveness of a Social Marketing Campaign Promoting Use of a Sexual Health Text Service by Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health text message services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide adolescents with accurate sexual health information, but promotion of such services is often limited. This study uses three quantitative methods (service use data, a text message-based questionnaire, and an in-school online survey) to assess the effectiveness of an in-school social marketing campaign promoting a sexual health text message service that connects teens directly with a health educator. The 3-month campaign was associated with increased service use, but use was still relatively low. Follow-up qualitative work that included focus groups and interviews found a number of barriers to use. Teens indicated they did not have sexual health questions, did not think of the service, or were unsure how to use it. Teens also brought up additional barriers such as concern over parents seeing the messages. Implications for text message service providers and health educators are discussed.

  17. Understanding peer effects - On the nature, estimation and channels of peer effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, J.F.; Zölitz, U.N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates peer effects in a university context where students are randomly assigned to sections. While students benefit from better peers on average, low-achieving students are harmed by high-achieving peers. Analyzing students’ course evaluations suggests that peer effects are driven by

  18. Understanding peer effects : on the nature, estimation and channels of peer effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, J.F.; Zölitz, U.N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates peer effects in a university context where students are randomly assigned to sections. While students benefit from better peers on average, lowachieving students are harmed by high-achieving peers. Analyzing students’ course evaluations suggests that peer effects are driven by

  19. Effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents: systematic review of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; McMinn, Alison M; Griffin, Simon J

    2007-10-06

    To review the published literature on the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents. Systematic review. Literature search using PubMed, SCOPUS, Psychlit, Ovid Medline, Sportdiscus, and Embase up to December 2006. Review methods Two independent reviewers assessed studies against the following inclusion criteria: controlled trial, comparison of intervention to promote physical activity with no intervention control condition, participants younger than 18 years, and reported statistical analyses of a physical activity outcome measure. Levels of evidence, accounting for methodological quality, were assessed for three types of intervention, five settings, and three target populations. The literature search identified 57 studies: 33 aimed at children and 24 at adolescents. Twenty four studies were of high methodological quality, including 13 studies in children. Interventions that were found to be effective achieved increases ranging from an additional 2.6 minutes of physical education related physical activity to 283 minutes per week of overall physical activity. Among children, limited evidence for an effect was found for interventions targeting children from low socioeconomic populations, and environmental interventions. Strong evidence was found that school based interventions with involvement of the family or community and multicomponent interventions can increase physical activity in adolescents. Some evidence was found for potentially effective strategies to increase children's levels of physical activity. For adolescents, multicomponent interventions and interventions that included both school and family or community involvement have the potential to make important differences to levels of physical activity and should be promoted. A lack of high quality evaluations hampers conclusions concerning effectiveness, especially among children.

  20. The effect of education of health promotion behaviors on quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzou Seyed Reza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today more than ever, the importance of health promoting behaviors is considered. Maintaining the function, independence and increasing the quality of life of chronic patients such as hemodialysis patients is influenced by health promoting behaviors. The current study was conducted to determine the effect of education of health promoting behaviors on the quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Method: In the current quasi-experimental study, 70 hospitalized patients were selected through convenient sampling in hemodialysis wards of two Therapeutic-Educational Centers in Hamadan in 2014. Then, the subjects were randomly allocated into two intervention and control groups of 35 persons. In intervention group, 6 educational sessions were held during the hemodialysis. Quality of life of patients in two groups was measured through Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index-dialysis version before and three months after the intervention. Data were analyzed in SPSS 16, and using chi-square test, independent T-test and paired-T test . Results: In intervention group, the mean score of quality of life after intervention was changed from 18.85 ± 5.4 to 20.11 ± 5.46 (p < 0.001 and in control group from 19.41 ± 4.67 to 18.39 ± 4.10 (p = 0.08. After intervention, quality of life of patients in intervention group was increased in health and functioning domain (18.6 ± 5.7 (p < 0.001 and was increased in psychological/spiritual domain to 19.3 ± 7.02 (p=0.041 Conclusion: Education of health-promoting behaviors improved the quality of life of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, according to chronic nature of disease, the education of these behaviors can be effective in improving the quality of life.

  1. The effectiveness of video-based interventions in promoting condom acquisition among STD clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, L; San Doval, A; Duran, R; O'Donnell, C R

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of video-based patient education interventions on promoting condom use among men and women seeking services at a large public STD clinic in New York City. Culturally sensitive video-based interventions designed to promote safer sex behaviors were evaluated in a randomized study of black and Hispanic male and female STD clinic patients. Subjects (n = 1,653) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) control, 2) video viewing, and 3) video viewing followed by participation in an interactive group session led by a trained facilitator. The authors examined 1) the effectiveness of interventions in increasing STD and condom-related knowledge, positive attitudes about condoms, human immunodeficiency virus/STD risk perceptions, and self-efficacy and 2) the relationships among these variables, level of intervention, and condom acquisition, a behavioral measure of condom use. Compared with a control group, subjects assigned to video viewing demonstrated greater knowledge about condoms and STDs, more positive attitudes about condom use, increased human immunodeficiency virus/STD risk perceptions, greater self-efficacy, and higher rates of condom acquisition. Subjects assigned to video viewing followed by interactive sessions demonstrated still further increases in risk perceptions, self-efficacy, and condom acquisition, but not in knowledge or condom attitudes. A significant proportion of the association between the behavioral outcome of condom acquisition and level of intervention is attributable to the impact of interventions on risk perception and self-efficacy. Based on extensive formative research that identified barriers to safer sex behaviors, video-based interventions were developed to promote condom use among black and Hispanic men and women attending STD clinics. Designed to be integrated into clinic services, these interventions help improve knowledge, promote positive attitudes about condoms, and increase condom

  2. Effects of pesticides on plant growth promoting traits of Mesorhizobium strain MRC4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected pesticides [herbicides (metribuzin and glyphosate, insecticides (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and fungicides (hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin] at recommended and higher dose rates on plant growth promoting activities of the Mesorhizobium sp. isolated from chickpea-nodules. A total of 50 rhizobial strains recovered from the nodules of chickpea root systems were identified following morphological, biochemical and host-specificity tests and tested for pesticide-tolerance. Among these strains, the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 was specifically selected due to the highest tolerance levels for all selected pesticides and the maximum production of plant growth promoting substances. Strain MRC4 produced indole acetic acid (44 μg ml−1, siderophores [salicylic acid (35 μg ml−1 and 2,3-dihydroxy benzoic acid (19 μg ml−1], exo-polysaccharides (21 μg ml−1, HCN and ammonia. Under pesticide-stress, pesticide-concentration dependent progressive-decline in all plant growth promoting traits of the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 exposed was observed except for exo-polysaccharides which consistently increased with exceeding the concentration of each pesticide from recommended dose. For instance, hexaconazole at three times the recommended dose elicited the maximum stress on siderophore-biosynthesis by the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 and decreased salicylic acid and DHBA by 40% and 47%, respectively and the greatest stimulatory effect on exo-polysaccharides secretion was shown by imidacloprid which stimulated the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 to secrete EPS by 38%, compared to control. Generally, the maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting traits of Mesorhizobium was shown by glyphosate, thiamethoxam and hexaconazole, at three times the recommended rate among herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, respectively. This study revealed an additional aspect of the toxicological

  3. Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Peggy

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999; Johnstone, 1991) have been studying the difficulty students have in learning science, particularly chemistry. Gabel (1999) suggests that, "while research into misconceptions (also known as alternative conceptions) and problem-solving has dominated the field for the past 25 years, we are no closer to a solution that would improve the teaching and learning of chemistry" (P. 549). Gabel (1999) relates the difficulty in learning chemistry to use of language. She refers to student difficulty both with words that have more than one meaning in English and with words that are used to mean one idea in chemistry and another idea in every day language. The Frayer Model, a research-based teaching strategy, is a graphic organizer which students use to create meaningful definitions for terms in context (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969). It was used as the treatment---the specific vocabulary instruction---in this research study. The researcher collected and analyzed data to answer three research questions that focused on the effect of using the Frayer model (a graphic organizer) on high school students' knowledge and understanding of academic language used in chemistry. The research took place in a New England high school. Four intact chemistry classes provided the student participants; two classes were assigned to the treatment group (TG) and two classes were assigned to the control group (CG). The TG received vocabulary instruction on 14 chosen terms using the Frayer Model. The CG received traditional vocabulary instruction with no special attention to the 14 terms selected for this study

  4. ANTIGENIC PROMOTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Yu; Cinader, Bernard

    1971-01-01

    Rabbits were immunized with p-azobenzene arsonic acid derivatives of human serum albumin (HA-As) or of dissociated keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The IgM response to the hapten was evaluated in terms of the number of hapten-specific plaque-forming cells in the lymph node draining the injection site. In some experiments, antibody was measured by agglutination of tanned and sensitized erythrocytes. The hapten response of animals immunized with HA-As was increased (promoting effect) when the animals were injected with one of several structurally unrelated macromolecules: keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), horse spleen ferritin (HSF), lysozyme (Lys), alum-precipitated human gamma globulin (alum-precipitated HGG). Different macromolecules differed in the magnitude of the promoting effect they induced, e.g., promotion by the associated form of KLH was greater than that by the dissociated form; alum-precipitated HGG was a better promoter than was soluble HGG. The relative magnitude of promotion by different macromolecules (associated vs. dissociated KLH, alum-precipitated vs. soluble HGG) correlated with the relative magnitude of the carrier effect, as judged by the hapten response induced by p-azobenzene arsonic acid conjugated to various proteins. Promotion was detected by agglutination assay of circulating antibody, by plaque assay of cells from the popliteal lymph node draining the site of preinjection, but not by plaque assay of cells from the contralateral lymph node. Promotion was dependent on the dose of the promoting macromolecule and on the dose of the hapten-protein conjugate. It was not observed in animals tolerant to the promoting macromolecule. Inhibition (i.e. antigenic competition), rather than promotion, was observed upon a secondary response to the preinjected macromolecule or when the hapten-protein conjugate was incorporated in Freund's adjuvant. PMID:15776570

  5. Digital educational contents that promote the effective integration of information and communication technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Manso

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research study explores the relationship between the quality of curriculum designs that integrate ICTs and the quality of teachers’ actual implementation of these designs. To analyze them, we selected 10 qualities that build on TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and the Teaching for Understanding framework (TfU. We selected three curriculum designs that integrate ICTs and conducted in-depth interviews to 6 secondary teachers, 34 students and 3 curriculum designers in Argentina, Mexico and Colombia. When themajority of the qualities were present in the curriculum designs, the majority of the qualities were also present in the teachers’ implementations. High quality curriculum designs that integrate ICTs tended to promote high quality teacher practices.

  6. An interesting biochar effect that suppressed dechlorination of pentachlorophenol while promoted iron/sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in flooded soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Zhu, Min

    2017-04-01

    Biochar has received increasing attention for its many environmental impacts in recent years, but there is still a lack of comprehensive understanding of its effects on the fate of reducible organic pollutants and soil biogeochemical processes under anaerobic environments. In this study, anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to explore the effect of biochar on reductive transformation of PCP and other soil redox processes in anaerobic incubation environment. Results showed that biochar had little impact on the system Eh and pH, both of which decreased gradually to a stable value during the incubation. Dissimilatory iron reduction and sulfate reduction were significantly enhanced following biochar addition, with the promoting effect more prominent in the treatment with 1% (w/w) than that with 5% biochar added. In addition, biochar accelerated the formation of carbon dioxide and methane, but there was no difference in the final content of these two greenhouse gases at the end of incubation between biochar amended and control treatments. Unexpectedly, compared to biochar-free controls, the reductively dechlorinated degradation of PCP was inhibited following biochar addition, with the inhibition extent increased with the increase of biochar amount. These revealed an interesting biochar effect that suppressed the dechlorination of PCP, but promoted the iron/sulfate reduction and accelerated the methanogenesis. It might be simultaneously mediated by the functional microbial groups that responded sensitively to the addition of biochar and/or PCP, including the potential dechlorinators, the potential iron/sulfate reducers, and the typical methanogenic archaea. Specific function of biochar as electron shuttle was also likely involved in underpinning this interesting effect, since biochar would be capable of splitting the limited electrons from the inferior electron acceptors (in our case, the PCP) to the dominant more competitive ones (in our case, Fe(III) and SO42

  7. Integrated Experimental and Computational Approach to Understand the Effects of Heavy Ion Radiation on Skin Homeostasis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Neubeck, Claere; Shankaran, Harish; Geniza, Matthew; Kauer, Paula M.; Robinson, Robert J.; Chrisler, William B.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2013-08-08

    The effects of low dose high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on human health are of concern for both space and clinical exposures. As epidemiological data for such radiation exposures are scarce for making relevant predictions, we need to understand the mechanism of response especially in normal tissues. Our objective here is to understand the effects of heavy ion radiation on tissue homeostasis in a realistic model system. Towards this end, we exposed an in vitro three dimensional skin equivalent to low fluences of Neon (Ne) ions (300 MeV/u), and determined the differentiation profile as a function of time following exposure using immunohistochemistry. We found that Ne ion exposures resulted in transient increases in the tissue regions expressing the differentiation markers keratin 10, and filaggrin, and more subtle time-dependent effects on the number of basal cells in the epidermis. We analyzed the data using a mathematical model of the skin equivalent, to quantify the effect of radiation on cell proliferation and differentiation. The agent-based mathematical model for the epidermal layer treats the epidermis as a collection of heterogeneous cell types with different proliferation/differentiation properties. We obtained model parameters from the literature where available, and calibrated the unknown parameters to match the observed properties in unirradiated skin. We then used the model to rigorously examine alternate hypotheses regarding the effects of high LET radiation on the tissue. Our analysis indicates that Ne ion exposures induce rapid, but transient, changes in cell division, differentiation and proliferation. We have validated the modeling results by histology and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The integrated approach presented here can be used as a general framework to understand the responses of multicellular systems, and can be adapted to other epithelial tissues.

  8. Understanding and tuning the quantum-confinement effect and edge magnetism in zigzag graphene nanoribbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang Feng; Zhang, Guo Ren; Zheng, Xiao Hong; Gong, Peng Lai; Cao, Teng Fei; Zeng, Zhi

    2013-02-06

    The electronic structure of zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) is studied using density functional theory. The mechanisms underlying the quantum-confinement effect and edge magnetism in ZGNR are systematically investigated by combining the simulated results and some useful analytic models. The quantum-confinement effect and the inter-edge superexchange interaction can be tuned by varying the ribbon width, and the spin polarization and direct exchange splitting of the edge states can be tuned by varying their electronic occupations. The two edges of ZGNR can be equally or unequally tuned by charge doping or Li adsorption, respectively. The Li adatom has a site-selective adsorption on ZGNR, and it is a nondestructive and memorable approach to effectively modify the edge states in ZGNR. These systematic understanding and effective tuning of ZGNR electronics presented in this work are helpful for further investigation and application of ZGNR and other magnetic graphene systems.

  9. Effects of motivational interviewing to promote weight loss in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emmy M Y; Cheng, May M H

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effects of motivational interviewing for obese children and telephone consultation for parents to promote weight loss in obese children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide health problem that leads to serious metabolic and physiological consequences. An effective intervention to manage obesity is essential. Motivational interviewing is designed to resolve ambivalence, enhance intrinsic motivation and promote confidence in a person's ability to make behaviour changes. It has shown promise in the adult obesity literature as effecting positive health behaviour changes. Motivational interviewing has also been proposed as an effective method for improving the weight loss of obese children. A pre-post quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was used. The study was conducted in four primary schools over an 11-month period in 2010-2011. Obese children (n = 185) were screened from 791 school children studying the equivalent to UK grades 5 and 6 and were divided into three groups: motivational interviewing, motivational interviewing+ and a control group. The motivational interviewing group (n = 70) children were provided with motivational interviewing counselling; the motivational interviewing+ group (n = 66) children were provided with motivational interviewing counselling while telephone consultation was provided for their parents; and the control group did not receive any intervention (n = 49). Children in both the motivational interviewing and motivational interviewing+ groups showed significant improvement in their weight-related behaviour and obesity-related anthropometric measures from the baseline to the end of the 14-week intervention, while the control group had significant deterioration in their anthropometric measures. Motivational interviewing appears to be a promising intervention for promoting weight loss in obese children. Motivational interviewing counselling may be extended to obese children of different age groups. This study

  10. "There is a chain of connections": using syndemics theory to understand HIV treatment side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marilou

    2018-03-12

    Side effects are central to the experience of living longer with HIV but rarely have they been studied alone. Unlike other aspects of that experience, like quality of life, treatment adherence, chronicity, episodic disability, aging, health, and viral load suppression, side effects have not benefited from the same level of empirical and theoretical engagement from qualitative researchers. In this paper, we draw on syndemics theory and 50 qualitative interviews to better understand the experience of HIV treatment side effects. Two main categories were identified in the data: side effects as a product and side effects as a risk factor. The first category suggests that side effects are not just the product of taking antiretroviral drugs. They are also the product of particular conditions and tend to cluster with other health problems. The second category puts forward the idea that side effects can act as a syndemic risk factor by exposing PLWH to a greater risk of developing health problems and creating conditions in which psychosocial issues are more likely to emerge. The paper concludes by calling for more research on the complex nature of side effects and for the development of comprehensive approaches for the assessment and management of side effects.

  11. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Second Grade Junior Students’ Mathematics Conceptual Understanding on Polyhedron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suarsana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Brain Based Learning on second grade junior high school students’ conceptual understanding on polyhedron. This study was conducted by using post-test only control group quasi-experimental design. The subjects of this study were 148 students that divided into three classes. Two classes were taken as sample by using cluster random sampling technique. One of the classes was randomly selected as an experimental group and the other as control group. There were 48 students in experimental group and 51 students in control group. The data were collected with post-test which contained mathematical conceptual understanding on fractions. The post-test consisted of 8 essay question types.  The normality and variance homogeny test result showed that the scores are normally distributed and have no difference in variance. The data were analyzed by using one tailed t-test with significance level of 5%. The result of data analysis revealed that the value of t-test = 6,7096 greater than t-table = 1,987, therefore; the null hypothesis is rejected. There is positive effect of of Brain Based Learning on second grade junior students’ conceptual understanding in polyhedron.

  12. Identifying and clarifying values and reason statements that promote effective food parenting practices, using intensive interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-yea...

  13. Identifying and Clarifying Values and Reason Statements that Promote Effective Food Parenting Practices, Using Intensive Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D.; Knesek, Jessica; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. Methods: This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-year-old child were recruited. Interested parents…

  14. For Protection and Promotion : The Design and Implementation of Effective Safety Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Ouerghi, Azedine; Tesliuc, Emil; Grosh, Margaret; del Ninno, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    All countries fund safety net programs for the protection of their people. Though an increasing number of safety net programs are extremely well thought out, adroitly implemented, and demonstrably effective, many others are not. This book aims to assist those concerned with social policy to understand why countries need social assistance, what kind of safety programs will serve those best ...

  15. Effects of Health Education Programs for the Elders in Community Care Centers – Evaluated by Health Promotion Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Song Chang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The health education programs specifically for elders and middle age adults in community care centers were effective in raising the awareness of health promotion behaviors. The success could provide a reference for future studies developing health promotion and education programs and holistic care for community elders and middle age adults in Taiwan.

  16. The Differential Effects of Social Media Sites for Promoting Cancer Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauckner, Carolyn; Whitten, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Social media are potentially valuable tools for disseminating cancer education messages, but the differential effects of various sites on persuasive outcomes are unknown. In an effort to inform future health promotion, this research tested the effects of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and blogs for delivering a cancer risk reduction message. Using an experimental design, participants were randomly placed in several conditions that delivered the same message but with different forms of social media. Effects on comprehension and attitudes were examined, as they are important variables in the behavior change process. YouTube led to higher comprehension and stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction than Twitter, but there were no differences between other sites. Additionally, YouTube led to stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction as compared to Facebook, but not any other sites. These results demonstrate that, even if the message is kept constant, the form of social media used to deliver content can have an effect on persuasive outcomes. More research is needed to determine the mechanisms behind the differences found, however. Altogether, this line of research is valuable for any individuals seeking to use social media for health promotion purposes and could have direct implications for the development of cancer risk reduction campaigns.

  17. Effect of promoter architecture on the cell-to-cell variability in gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sanchez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to recent experimental evidence, promoter architecture, defined by the number, strength and regulatory role of the operators that control transcription, plays a major role in determining the level of cell-to-cell variability in gene expression. These quantitative experiments call for a corresponding modeling effort that addresses the question of how changes in promoter architecture affect variability in gene expression in a systematic rather than case-by-case fashion. In this article we make such a systematic investigation, based on a microscopic model of gene regulation that incorporates stochastic effects. In particular, we show how operator strength and operator multiplicity affect this variability. We examine different modes of transcription factor binding to complex promoters (cooperative, independent, simultaneous and how each of these affects the level of variability in transcriptional output from cell-to-cell. We propose that direct comparison between in vivo single-cell experiments and theoretical predictions for the moments of the probability distribution of mRNA number per cell can be used to test kinetic models of gene regulation. The emphasis of the discussion is on prokaryotic gene regulation, but our analysis can be extended to eukaryotic cells as well.

  18. Pregnancy Research on Osteopathic Manipulation Optimizing Treatment Effects: The PROMOTE Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Kendi L; Carnes, Michael S; Stoll, Scott T

    2016-11-01

    The structural and physiologic changes in a woman's body during pregnancy can predispose pregnant women to low back pain and its associated disability, as well as to complications of pregnancy, labor, and delivery. Anecdotal and empirical evidence has indicated that osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) may be efficacious in improving pain and functionality in women who are pregnant. Based on that premise, the Pregnancy Research on Osteopathic Manipulation Optimizing Treatment Effects (PROMOTE) study was designed as a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, and blinded clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of an OMT protocol for pain during third-trimester pregnancy. The OMT protocol developed for the PROMOTE study was based on physiologic theory and the concept of the interrelationship of structure and function. The 12 well-defined, standardized OMT techniques used in the protocol are commonly taught at osteopathic medical schools in the United States. These techniques can be easily replicated as a 20-minute protocol applied in conjunction with usual prenatal care, thus making it feasible to implement into clinical practice. This article presents an overview of the study design and treatment protocols used in the PROMOTE study.

  19. Growth-promoting effect on iron-sulfur proteins on axenic cultures of Entamoeba dispar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa S.A.M.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A growth-promoting factor (GPF that promotes the growth of Entamoeba dispar under axenic culture conditions was found in fractions of mitochondria (Mt, hydrogenosomes (Hg and chloroplasts (Cp obtained from cells of six different protozoan, mammalian and plant species. We were able to extract the GPF from the Cp-rich leaf cells of a plant (spiderwort: Commelina communis L. in an acetone-soluble fraction as a complex of chlorophyll with low molecular weight proteins (molecular weight [MW] approximately 4,600. We also found that on treatment with 0.6 % complexes of 2-mercapthoethanol (2ME, complexes of chlorophyll-a with iron-sulphur (Fe-S proteins (e.g., ferredoxins [Fd] from spinach and Clostridium pasteurianum and noncomplex rubredoxin (Rd from C. pasteurianum have a growth-promoting effect on E. dispar. These findings suggest that E. dispar may lack a sufficient quantity of some essential components of Fe-S proteins, such as Fe-S center.

  20. Health Promotion and Education: A Study of the Effectiveness of Programs Focusing on the Aging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Kenio Costa; Caldas, Celia Pereira; Veras, Renato Peixoto; Correa, Renata de Freitas; Bonfada, Diego; de Souza, DyegoLeandro Bezerra; Jerez-Roig, Javier

    2017-07-01

    Considering the population aging and the failure of biologistic and hospital-based treatment model, health promotion programs based on scientific evidence are necessary. A comprehensive review of literature was performed, aiming to identify and analyze health promotion and education experiments focused on the aging process. Papers published in eight databases, together with the database of the Pan-American Health Organization, were selected based on review of titles and abstracts, followed by a full text review conducted by two independent reviewers. A total of 22 studies were included, the majority of which adopted a quantitative approach, with a sample larger than 100 elderly or pre-retirement individuals. The majority of studies reported positive results in terms of health promotion and education. One study obtained minimum improvement and one reported that no statistically significant improvement had occurred. The positive effects most indicated by authors were: general or self-perceived improvement in physical health, improvement in psychosocial aspects and in relation to the aging process, improvement in adherence to preventative actions and in healthy conduct and lifestyle, increase in level of physical activity, improvement in quality of life and/or physical well-being, and improvement in activities of daily living or reduction of the risk of developing disabilities.

  1. Effective spacetime understanding emergence in effective field theory and quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the notion that quantum gravity may represent the "breakdown" of spacetime at extremely high energy scales. If spacetime does not exist at the fundamental level, then it has to be considered "emergent", in other words an effective structure, valid at low energy scales. The author develops a conception of emergence appropriate to effective theories in physics, and shows how it applies (or could apply) in various approaches to quantum gravity, including condensed matter approaches, discrete approaches, and loop quantum gravity.

  2. Medicago truncatula Gaertn. as a model for understanding the mechanism of growth promotion by bacteria from rhizosphere and nodules of alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Kępczyńska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    The present study showed all the 16 strains isolated and identified from the alfalfa rhizosphere and nodules, and registered in GenBank, to be good candidates for targeted use in studies addressing the rather weak known mechanism of plant growth promotion, including that of Medicago truncatula, a molecular crop model. Based on physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis, the 16 isolates obtained were ascribed to the following five families: Bacillaceae, Rhizobiaceae, Xantomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, within which 9 genera and 16 species were identified. All these bacteria were found to significantly enhance fresh and dry weight of root, shoots and whole 5-week-old seedlings. The bacteria were capable of the in vitro use of tryptophan to produce indolic compounds at various concentrations. The ability of almost all the strains to enhance growth of seedlings and individual roots was positively correlated with the production of the indolic compounds (r = 0.69; P = 0.0001), but not with the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) activity (no correlation). For some strains, it was difficult to conclude whether the growth promotion was related to the production of indolic compounds or to the ACCD activity. It is likely that promotion of M. truncatula root development involves also root interaction with pseudomonads, known to produce 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), a secondary metabolite reported to alter the root architecture by interacting with an auxin-dependent signaling pathway. Inoculation of seedlings with Pseudomonas brassicacearum KK 5, a bacterium known for its lowest ability to produce indolic compounds, the highest ACCD activity and the presence of the phlD gene responsible for DAPG precursor synthesis, resulted in a substantial promotion of root development. Inoculation with the strain increased the endogenous IAA level in M. truncatula leaves after inoculation of 5-week-old seedlings. Three other strains examined

  3. The effect of intranasal oxytocin on perceiving and understanding emotion on the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Christopher; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Linnen, Anne-Marie

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that intranasal oxytocin enhances the perception of emotion in facial expressions during standard emotion identification tasks. However, it is not clear whether this effect is desirable in people who do not show deficits in emotion perception. That is, a heightened perception of emotion in faces could lead to "oversensitivity" to the emotions of others in nonclinical participants. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of intranasal oxytocin on emotion perception using ecologically valid social and nonsocial visual tasks. Eighty-two participants (42 women) self-administered a 24 IU dose of intranasal oxytocin or a placebo in a double-blind, randomized experiment and then completed the perceiving and understanding emotion components of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. In this test, emotion identification accuracy is based on agreement with a normative sample. As expected, participants administered intranasal oxytocin rated emotion in facial stimuli as expressing greater emotional intensity than those given a placebo. Consequently, accurate identification of emotion in faces, based on agreement with a normative sample, was impaired in the oxytocin group relative to placebo. No such effect was observed for tests using nonsocial stimuli. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that intranasal oxytocin enhances the salience of social stimuli in the environment, but not nonsocial stimuli. The present findings support a growing literature showing that the effects of intranasal oxytocin on social cognition can be negative under certain circumstances, in this case promoting "oversensitivity" to emotion in faces in healthy people. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Effect of TNF{alpha} on activities of different promoters of human apolipoprotein A-I gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlov, Sergey V., E-mail: serge@iem.sp.ru [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mogilenko, Denis A. [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shavva, Vladimir S. [Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dizhe, Ella B.; Ignatovich, Irina A. [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Perevozchikov, Andrej P., E-mail: app@iem.sp.ru [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} TNF{alpha} stimulates the distal alternative promoter of human apoA-I gene. {yields} TNF{alpha} acts by weakening of promoter competition within apoA-I gene (promoter switching). {yields} MEK1/2 and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs take part in apoA-I promoter switching. -- Abstract: Human apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major structural and functional protein component of high-density lipoproteins. The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I gene (apoA-I) in hepatocytes is repressed by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1{beta} and TNF{alpha}. Recently, two novel additional (alternative) promoters for human apoA-I gene have been identified. Nothing is known about the role of alternative promoters in TNF{alpha}-mediated downregulation of apoA-I gene. In this article we report for the first time about the different effects of TNF{alpha} on two alternative promoters of human apoA-I gene. Stimulation of HepG2 cells by TNF{alpha} leads to activation of the distal alternative apoA-I promoter and downregulation of the proximal alternative and the canonical apoA-I promoters. This effect is mediated by weakening of the promoter competition within human apoA-I 5'-regulatory region (apoA-I promoter switching) in the cells treated by TNF{alpha}. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs are important for TNF{alpha}-mediated apoA-I promoter switching.

  5. Dual hypocretin receptor antagonism is more effective for sleep promotion than antagonism of either receptor alone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Morairty

    Full Text Available The hypocretin (orexin system is involved in sleep/wake regulation, and antagonists of both hypocretin receptor type 1 (HCRTR1 and/or HCRTR2 are considered to be potential hypnotic medications. It is currently unclear whether blockade of either or both receptors is more effective for promoting sleep with minimal side effects. Accordingly, we compared the properties of selective HCRTR1 (SB-408124 and SB-334867 and HCRTR2 (EMPA antagonists with that of the dual HCRTR1/R2 antagonist almorexant in the rat. All 4 antagonists bound to their respective receptors with high affinity and selectivity in vitro. Since in vivo pharmacokinetic experiments revealed poor brain penetration for SB-408124, SB-334867 was selected for subsequent in vivo studies. When injected in the mid-active phase, SB-334867 produced small increases in rapid-eye-movement (REM and non-REM (NR sleep. EMPA produced a significant increase in NR only at the highest dose studied. In contrast, almorexant decreased NR latency and increased both NR and REM proportionally throughout the subsequent 6 h without rebound wakefulness. The increased NR was due to a greater number of NR bouts; NR bout duration was unchanged. At the highest dose tested (100 mg/kg, almorexant fragmented sleep architecture by increasing the number of waking and REM bouts. No evidence of cataplexy was observed. HCRTR1 occupancy by almorexant declined 4-6 h post-administration while HCRTR2 occupancy was still elevated after 12 h, revealing a complex relationship between occupancy of HCRT receptors and sleep promotion. We conclude that dual HCRTR1/R2 blockade is more effective in promoting sleep than blockade of either HCRTR alone. In contrast to GABA receptor agonists which induce sleep by generalized inhibition, HCRTR antagonists seem to facilitate sleep by reducing waking "drive".

  6. Understanding of radiation effect on sink in aluminum base structure materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Il; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-01-01

    In case of aluminum, a slightly different approach is needed for the evaluation of radiation damage. Unlikely other structure materials such as zirconium alloy and iron based alloy, aluminum generate not only matrix defect but also much transmutation. Quantitative analysis of radiation damage of aluminum have been done in two research method. First research method is calculation of radiation damage quantity in the matrix. In this research, quantity of transmutation and matrix damage are evaluated by KMC simulation from ENDF database of IAEA. Most recently, radiation damage such as defect and transmutation are calculated in the MNSR reactor environment. The second research method is evaluation of sink morphology change by irradiation, which research method focus on accumulating behavior of radiation defects. Matrix defect and transmutation are clustering or dissolved by thermal diffusion and energy statue. These clustering defect such as dislocation loop, void and bubble directly affect mechanical properties. In this research area, it is hard to using deterministic method because it should describe envious and various reaction module in detail. However, in case of probabilistic method, it could be explained without detail reaction module. Most recently, there was KMC modeling about vacancy and helium cluster. From this cluster modeling, transmutation is quantitatively analyzed. After that cluster effect on swelling are explained. Unfortunately, silicon, which is another transmutation of aluminum, effect are neglected. Also primary cluster, which is generated by cascade, effect are neglected. For the fundamental understanding of radiation effect on aluminum alloy, it is needed that more various parameter such as alloy element and primary cluster effect should be researched. However, until now there was not general modeling which include alloy element and primary cluster effect on aluminum. However, there was not specified KMC platform for the quantitative analysis of

  7. Support vector regression-guided unravelling: antioxidant capacity and quantitative structure-activity relationship predict reduction and promotion effects of flavonoids on acrylamide formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengmeng; Wei, Yan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yu

    2016-09-01

    We used the support vector regression (SVR) approach to predict and unravel reduction/promotion effect of characteristic flavonoids on the acrylamide formation under a low-moisture Maillard reaction system. Results demonstrated the reduction/promotion effects by flavonoids at addition levels of 1-10000 μmol/L. The maximal inhibition rates (51.7%, 68.8% and 26.1%) and promote rates (57.7%, 178.8% and 27.5%) caused by flavones, flavonols and isoflavones were observed at addition levels of 100 μmol/L and 10000 μmol/L, respectively. The reduction/promotion effects were closely related to the change of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ΔTEAC) and well predicted by triple ΔTEAC measurements via SVR models (R: 0.633-0.900). Flavonols exhibit stronger effects on the acrylamide formation than flavones and isoflavones as well as their O-glycosides derivatives, which may be attributed to the number and position of phenolic and 3-enolic hydroxyls. The reduction/promotion effects were well predicted by using optimized quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) descriptors and SVR models (R: 0.926-0.994). Compared to artificial neural network and multi-linear regression models, SVR models exhibited better fitting performance for both TEAC-dependent and QSAR descriptor-dependent predicting work. These observations demonstrated that the SVR models are competent for predicting our understanding on the future use of natural antioxidants for decreasing the acrylamide formation.

  8. CHIP/Stub1 regulates the Warburg effect by promoting degradation of PKM2 in ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Y; He, J; Wang, Y; Feng, Q; Zhang, Y; Guo, J; Li, J; Li, S; Wang, Y; Yan, G; Ren, F; Shi, Y; Xu, J; Zeps, N; Zhai, Y; He, D; Chang, Z

    2017-07-20

    Tumor cells preferentially adopt aerobic glycolysis for their energy supply, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. It remains a matter of debate as to how the Warburg effect is regulated during tumor progression. Here, we show that CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein), a U-box E3 ligase, suppresses tumor progression in ovarian carcinomas by inhibiting aerobic glycolysis. While CHIP is downregulated in ovarian carcinoma, induced expression of CHIP results in significant inhibition of the tumor growth examined by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Reciprocally, depletion of CHIP leads to promotion of tumor growth. By a SiLAD proteomics analysis, we identified pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2), a critical regulator of glycolysis in tumors, as a target that CHIP mediated for degradation. Accordingly, we show that CHIP regulates PKM2 protein stability and thereafter the energy metabolic processes. Depletion or knockout of CHIP increased the glycolytic products in both tumor and mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Simultaneously, we observed that CHIP expression inversely correlated with PKM2 levels in human ovarian carcinomas. This study reveals a mechanism that the Warburg effect is regulated by CHIP through its function as an E3 ligase, which mediates the degradation of PKM2 during tumor progression. Our findings shed new light into understanding of ovarian carcinomas and may provide a new therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer.

  9. [Study on effect of oligochitosan in promoting intestinal absorption of protoberberine alkaloids in extracts from Corydalis saxicola total alkaloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-yang; Xie, Hui; Lu, Tu-lin; Shi, Yue-jiao; Zhang, Xing-de; Liu, Ting

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effect of oligochitosan in promoting intestinal absorption of protoberberine alkaloids in extracts from Corydalis saxicola total alkaloids. The in vitro single-pass intestinal perfusion model in rats was established to study the changes in absorption kinetic parameters of dehydrocavidine, berberine hydrochloride and palmatine chloride in C. saxicola total alkaloids after the addition of different concentrations oligochitosan and evaluate the effect of oligochitosan in promoting intestinal absorption of the drugs. The concentration of oligochitosan had different effects on the absorption rate constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficient (Peff) of the three active component in rat intestines. Ka and Peff in 0.5% oligochitosan group significantly increased, indicating a stronger effect in promoting the absorption. Oligochitosan has a certain effect in promoting the intestinal absorptions of protoberberine alkaloids in C. saxicola total alkaloids.

  10. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  11. Effectiveness of the Vertical Gas Ventilation Pipes for Promoting Waste Stabilization in Post-Closure Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumasa Tojo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To make inside of the municipal solid waste (MSW landfill aerobic as much as possible is thought to be preferable for promoting waste stabilization, reducing pollutant's load in leachate, minimizing greenhouse gas emission and shortening post-closure-care period. In Japan, installation of semi-aerobic landfill structure has widely spread in order to promote waste stabilization in MSW landfill from 1980s. In semi-aerobic landfill structure, outlet of main leachate collection pipe is opened to atmosphere. Heat generated by aerobic degradation of waste causes natural convection and natural aeration arises from the outlet of leachate collection pipe to the gas vents. It is so-called stack effect. This air flow is thought to be effective for purifying leachate flowing through drainage layer and leachate collection pipes. And it is also thought to be contributing to expanding aerobic region in waste layer in landfill. Recently, measures attempting the promotion of waste stabilization are taken at several landfills at where stabilization of waste delays, in which many vertical gas vents are newly installed and close structure to semi-aerobic landfill is created. However, in many cases, these gas vents are not connected to leachate collection pipes. Many vertical gas vents are just installed without scientific proof regarding whether they can contribute for waste stabilization. In this study, how such installation of gas vents is effective for waste stabilization and aerobization of waste layer was discussed by numerical analysis. In numerical analysis, heat transfer, gas movement by pressure, gas diffusion, biological degradation of organic matter, and heat generation by biodegradation were taken into account. Simulations were carried out by using the general purpose simulator of finite element method. Three types of landfill structure were assumed. As the results, the following information were obtained. In dig-down type landfill, installation of gas

  12. Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) promotes cementogenesis and alleviates the catabolic effects of mechanical strain in cementoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyu; Hu, Zhiai; Zhou, Chenchen; Xu, Yang; Huang, Li; Wang, Xin; Zou, Shujuan

    2017-04-20

    External root resorption, commonly starting from cementum, is a severe side effect of orthodontic treatment. In this pathological process and repairing course followed, cementoblasts play a significant role. Previous studies implicated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) could act on committed osteoblast precursors to promote differentiation, and inhibit apoptosis. But little was known about the role of PTH in cementoblasts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent PTH on cementoblasts and its influence after mechanical strain treatment. Higher levels of cementogenesis- and differentiation-related biomarkers (bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN), Collagen type I (COL1) and Osterix (Osx)) were shown in 1-3 cycles of intermittent PTH treated groups than the control group. Additionally, intermittent PTH increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodules formation, as measured by ALP staining, quantitative ALP assay, Alizarin red S staining and quantitative calcium assay. The morphology of OCCM-30 cells changed after mechanical strain exertion. Expression of BSP, ALP, OCN, osteopontin (OPN) and Osx was restrained after 18 h mechanical strain. Furthermore, intermittent PTH significantly increased the expression of cementogenesis- and differentiation-related biomarkers in mechanical strain treated OCCM-30 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that intermittent PTH promoted cementum formation through activating cementogenesis- and differentiation-related biomarkers, and attenuated the catabolic effects of mechanical strain in immortalized cementoblasts OCCM-30.

  13. Socioeconomic variation in recall and perceived effectiveness of campaign advertisements to promote smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Farrelly, Matthew C; Nonnemaker, James; Davis, Kevin C; Wagner, Lauren

    2011-03-01

    There are large disparities in cigarette smoking rates by socioeconomic status (SES) in many countries. There is mixed evidence about the relative effectiveness of smoking cessation media campaigns in promoting quitting between lower and higher SES populations, and studies suggest that some types of ad content may have differential effects by SES. We analyzed data from five waves of the New York Media Tracking Survey Online (MTSO), a web survey involving over 7000 adult smokers conducted between 2007 and 2009, to assess SES variation in response to smoking cessation ads. Smokers with low levels of education and income less often recalled ads focused on how to quit, and perceived them as less effective, than ads using graphic imagery or personal testimonials to convey why to quit. Contrary to predictions offered by the Stages of Change Model, we found no evidence that variation in readiness to quit smoking explained patterns of response by education. Results offer guidance for theorists and campaign planners in developing campaigns that are likely to promote cessation among less educated populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Error Messages on a Student's Ability to Understand and Fix Programming Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beejady Murthy Kadekar, Harsha Kadekar

    Assemblers and compilers provide feedback to a programmer in the form of error messages. These error messages become input to the debugging model of the programmer. For the programmer to fix an error, they should first locate the error in the program, understand what is causing that error, and finally resolve that error. Error messages play an important role in all three stages of fixing of errors. This thesis studies the effects of error messages in the context of teaching programming. Given an error message, this work investigates how it effects student's way of 1) understanding the error, and 2) fixing the error. As part of the study, three error message types were developed--Default, Link and Example, to better understand the effects of error messages. The Default type provides an assembler-centric single line error message, the Link type provides a program-centric detailed error description with a hyperlink for more information, and the Example type provides a program centric detailed error description with a relevant example. All these error message types were developed for assembly language programming. A think aloud programming exercise was conducted as part of the study to capture the student programmer's knowledge model. Different codes were developed to analyze the data collected as part of think aloud exercise. After transcribing, coding, and analyzing the data, it was found that the Link type of error message helped to fix the error in less time and with fewer steps. Among the three types, the Link type of error message also resulted in a significantly higher ratio of correct to incorrect steps taken by the programmer to fix the error.

  15. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  16. Promoting public transport as a subscription service: Effects of a free month travel card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    on a solid behaviouraltheoretical framework. By measuring important antecedents and mediators, the applied approach offers important insights not only on what behavioural outcomes were produced by the intervention, but why they were produced. Copenhagen car owners received a free month travel card, either...... alone or together with a customised travel plan or a planning intervention. A control group receiving no intervention was also included. Attitudinal variables, car habits and travel behaviour were measured before and immediately after the intervention and again six months later. The only intervention...... that had an effect was the free month travel card, which led to a significant increase in commuting by public transport.As expected, the effect was mediated through a change in behavioural intentions rather than a change in perceived constraints. As expected, the effect became weaker when the promotion...

  17. Effects of Structural Transparency in System Dynamics Simulators on Performance and Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Kopainsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior exploration is an instructional strategy that has improved performance and understanding in system-dynamics-based simulators, but only to a limited degree. This study investigates whether model transparency, that is, showing users the internal structure of models, can extend the prior exploration strategy and improve learning even more. In an experimental study, participants in a web-based simulation learned about and managed a small developing nation. All participants were provided the prior exploration strategy but only half received prior exploration embedded in a structure-behavior diagram intended to make the underlying model’s structure more transparent. Participants provided with the more transparent strategy demonstrated better understanding of the underlying model. Their performance, however, was the equivalent to those in the less transparent condition. Combined with previous studies, our results suggest that while prior exploration is a beneficial strategy for both performance and understanding, making the model structure transparent with structure-behavior diagrams is more limited in its effect.

  18. Understanding and Predicting Effect of Sodium Exposure on Microstructure of Grade 91 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meimei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Wei-Ying [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report provides an update on the understanding of the effect of sodium exposures on microstructure and tensile properties of Grade 91 (G91) steel in support of the design and operation of G91 components in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). The report is a Level 3 deliverable in FY17 (M3AT-17AN1602018), under the Work Package AT-17AN160201, “SFR Materials Testing” performed by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies Program.

  19. PCI compliance understand and implement effective PCI data security standard compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Branden R

    2012-01-01

    The credit card industry established the PCI Data Security Standards to provide a minimum standard for how vendors should protect data to ensure it is not stolen by fraudsters. PCI Compliance, 3e, provides the information readers need to understand the current PCI Data Security standards, which have recently been updated to version 2.0, and how to effectively implement security within your company to be compliant with the credit card industry guidelines and protect sensitive and personally identifiable information. Security breaches continue to occur on a regular basis, affecting millions of

  20. The Effect of Simulated Interaural Frequency Mismatch on Speech Understanding and Spatial Release From Masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupell, Matthew J; Stoelb, Corey A; Kan, Alan; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2018-01-15

    The binaural-hearing system interaurally compares inputs, which underlies the ability to localize sound sources and to better understand speech in complex acoustic environments. Cochlear implants (CIs) are provided in both ears to increase binaural-hearing benefits; however, bilateral CI users continue to struggle with understanding speech in the presence of interfering sounds and do not achieve the same level of spatial release from masking (SRM) as normal-hearing listeners. One reason for diminished SRM in CI users could be that the electrode arrays are inserted at different depths in each ear, which would cause an interaural frequency mismatch. Because interaural frequency mismatch diminishes the salience of interaural differences for relatively simple stimuli, it may also diminish binaural benefits for spectral-temporally complex stimuli like speech. This study evaluated the effect of simulated frequency-to-place mismatch on speech understanding and SRM. Eleven normal-hearing listeners were tested on a speech understanding task. There was a female target talker who spoke five-word sentences from a closed set of words. There were two interfering male talkers who spoke unrelated sentences. Nonindividualized head-related transfer functions were used to simulate a virtual auditory space. The target was presented from the front (0°), and the interfering speech was either presented from the front (colocated) or from 90° to the right (spatially separated). Stimuli were then processed by an eight-channel vocoder with tonal carriers to simulate aspects of listening through a CI. Frequency-to-place mismatch ("shift") was introduced by increasing the center frequency of the synthesis filters compared with the corresponding analysis filters. Speech understanding was measured for different shifts (0, 3, 4.5, and 6 mm) and target-to-masker ratios (TMRs: +10 to -10 dB). SRM was calculated as the difference in the percentage of correct words for the colocated and separated

  1. PEDF-derived peptide promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through its mitogenic effect on muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chiang, Yi-Pin; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Show-Li; Hsieh, Jui-Wen; Lan, Yu-Wen; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2015-08-01

    In response injury, intrinsic repair mechanisms are activated in skeletal muscle to replace the damaged muscle fibers with new muscle fibers. The regeneration process starts with the proliferation of satellite cells to give rise to myoblasts, which subsequently differentiate terminally into myofibers. Here, we investigated the promotion effect of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) on muscle regeneration. We report that PEDF and a synthetic PEDF-derived short peptide (PSP; residues Ser(93)-Leu(112)) induce satellite cell proliferation in vitro and promote muscle regeneration in vivo. Extensively, soleus muscle necrosis was induced in rats by bupivacaine, and an injectable alginate gel was used to release the PSP in the injured muscle. PSP delivery was found to stimulate satellite cell proliferation in damaged muscle and enhance the growth of regenerating myofibers, with complete regeneration of normal muscle mass by 2 wk. In cell culture, PEDF/PSP stimulated C2C12 myoblast proliferation, together with a rise in cyclin D1 expression. PEDF induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and STAT3 in C2C12 myoblasts. Blocking the activity of ERK, Akt, or STAT3 with pharmacological inhibitors attenuated the effects of PEDF/PSP on the induction of C2C12 cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse-labeling demonstrated that PEDF/PSP stimulated primary rat satellite cell proliferation in myofibers in vitro. In summary, we report for the first time that PSP is capable of promoting the regeneration of skeletal muscle. The signaling mechanism involves the ERK, AKT, and STAT3 pathways. These results show the potential utility of this PEDF peptide for muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. A String Number-Line Lesson Sequence to Promote Students' Relative Thinking and Understanding of Scale, Key Elements of Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    This article describes part of a study in which researchers designed lesson sequences based around using a string number line to help teachers support children's development of relative thinking and understanding of linear scale. In the first year of the study, eight teachers of Years 3-5 participated in four one-day professional development…

  3. Momentum Probabilities for a Single Quantum Particle in Three-Dimensional Regular "Infinite" Wells: One Way of Promoting Understanding of Probability Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Students often wrestle unsuccessfully with the task of correctly calculating momentum probability densities and have difficulty in understanding their interpretation. In the case of a particle in an "infinite" potential well, its momentum can take values that are not just those corresponding to the particle's quantised energies but…

  4. Using Solution Strategies to Examine and Promote High-School Students' Understanding of Exponential Functions: One Teacher's Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendefur, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on how elementary students develop mathematical understanding and subsequently how teachers might use this information. This article builds on this type of work by investigating how one high-school algebra teacher designs and conducts a lesson on exponential functions. Through a lesson study format she studies with…

  5. The Effectiveness of Policies that Promote Labor Force Participation of Women with Children: A Collection of National Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascio, Elizabeth; Haider, Steven; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    Numerous countries have enacted policies to promote the labor force participation of women around the years of childbearing, and unsurprisingly, many research articles have been devoted to evaluating their effectiveness. Perhaps more surprisingly, however, six such articles were submitted...

  6. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba NM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neyda Ma Mendoza-Ruvalcaba,1 Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros2 1Health Sciences Department, University of Guadalajara, University Center of Tonalá, Tonalá, Jalisco, Mexico; 2Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain Introduction: Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the “face-to-face” and “combined” versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Methods: Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF (n=35 and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face (n=15, and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. Results: At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural – artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were

  7. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the “face-to-face” and “combined” versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Methods Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. Results At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural – artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Conclusion Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in

  8. Effects of Potassium and Manganese Promoters on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube-Supported Iron Catalysts for CO2 Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praewpilin Kangvansura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs were used as a support for iron (Fe nanoparticles applied in carbon dioxide (CO2 hydrogenation at 633 K and 25 bar (1 bar = 105 Pa. The Fe/NCNT catalyst promoted with both potassium (K and manganese (Mn showed high performance in CO2 hydrogenation, reaching 34.9% conversion with a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV of 3.1 L·(g·h−1. Product selectivities were high for olefin products and low for short-chain alkanes for the K-promoted catalysts. When Fe/NCNT catalyst was promoted with both K and Mn, the catalytic activity was stable for 60 h of reaction time. The structural effect of the Mn promoter was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR with molecular hydrogen (H2, and in situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES analysis. The Mn promoter stabilized wüstite (FeO as an intermediate and lowered the TPR onset temperature. Catalytic ammonia (NH3 decomposition was used as an additional probe reaction for characterizing the promoter effects. The Fe/NCNT catalyst promoted with both K and Mn had the highest catalytic activity, and the Mn-promoted Fe/NCNT catalysts had the highest thermal stability under reducing conditions.

  9. "I am active": effects of a program to promote active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Arias-Merino, Elva Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Active aging involves a general lifestyle strategy that allows preservation of both physical and mental health during the aging process. "I am Active" is a program designed to promote active aging by increased physical activity, healthy nutritional habits, and cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this program. Sixty-four healthy adults aged 60 years or older were recruited from senior centers and randomly allocated to an experimental group (n=31) or a control group (n=33). Baseline, post-test, and 6-month follow-up assessments were performed after the theoretical-practical intervention. Effect sizes were calculated. At the conclusion of the program, the experimental group showed significant improvement compared with the control group in the following domains: physical activity (falls risk, balance, flexibility, self-efficacy), nutrition (self-efficacy and nutritional status), cognitive performance (processing speed and self-efficacy), and quality of life (general, health and functionality, social and economic status). Although some declines were reported, improvements at follow-up remained in self-efficacy for physical activity, self-efficacy for nutrition, and processing speed, and participants had better nutritional status and quality of life overall. Our findings show that this program promotes improvements in domains of active aging, mainly in self-efficacy beliefs as well as in quality of life in healthy elders.

  10. “I am active”: effects of a program to promote active aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Arias-Merino, Elva Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Background Active aging involves a general lifestyle strategy that allows preservation of both physical and mental health during the aging process. “I am Active” is a program designed to promote active aging by increased physical activity, healthy nutritional habits, and cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this program. Methods Sixty-four healthy adults aged 60 years or older were recruited from senior centers and randomly allocated to an experimental group (n=31) or a control group (n=33). Baseline, post-test, and 6-month follow-up assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Effect sizes were calculated. Results At the conclusion of the program, the experimental group showed significant improvement compared with the control group in the following domains: physical activity (falls risk, balance, flexibility, self-efficacy), nutrition (self-efficacy and nutritional status), cognitive performance (processing speed and self-efficacy), and quality of life (general, health and functionality, social and economic status). Although some declines were reported, improvements at follow-up remained in self-efficacy for physical activity, self-efficacy for nutrition, and processing speed, and participants had better nutritional status and quality of life overall. Conclusion Our findings show that this program promotes improvements in domains of active aging, mainly in self-efficacy beliefs as well as in quality of life in healthy elders. PMID:26005337

  11. Effect of a novel workstation device on promoting non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswill, Craig A; Scott, Haley M; Voorhees, Danel M

    2017-01-01

    Strategies to increase non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) through promotion of movement and energy expenditure at desk stations are needed to help overcome ill effects of prolonged sitting. Examine the metabolic rate during three stages of a workstation: sitting, standing, and use of a device (HOVR®) that promotes leg movement while seated. Participants (n = 16; mean ±standard deviation: age 26.1±6.0 years; BMI 24.7±4.3 kg/m2) were tested for VO2 and VCO2 for 15 min at each stage in this order: sitting only, sitting using the HOVR, and standing. Participants performed the same desk work to keep fine-motor activity consistent for the stages. Data collected during the final 5 min of a stage were averaged and analyzed as steady-state data. To evaluate the effect of each stage on cognitive function, the Stroop word-color test was administered after metabolic assessment as the stage continued. One-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare stages for VO2 (L/min), metabolic equivalents (METs), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate (p NEAT during the workday.

  12. Intervention Effects of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme on Obesity Related Behavioural Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kobel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown preventive effects of an active lifestyle during childhood on later life; therefore, health promotion has to start early. The programme “Join the Healthy Boat” promotes a healthy lifestyle in primary school children. In order to evaluate it, children’s behaviours in respect of increased physical activity (PA, a decrease in screen media use (SMU, more regular breakfast, and a reduction of the consumption of soft drinks (SDC were investigated. 1943 children (7.1 ± 0.6 years participated in the cluster-randomised study and were assessed at baseline and 1736 of them at follow-up. Teachers delivered lessons, which included behavioural contracting and budgeting of SMU and SDC. Daily SMU, PA behaviours, SDC, and breakfast patterns were assessed via parental questionnaire. After one-year intervention, significant effects were found in the intervention group for SMU of girls, children without migration background, and children with parents having a low education level. In the control group, second grade children skipped breakfast significantly more often. Tendencies but no significant differences were found for PA and SDC. This intervention seems to affect groups, which are usually hard to reach, such as children of parents with low education levels, which shows that active parental involvement is vital for successful interventions.

  13. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 μL per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent.

  14. Merging contemporary learning theory with mental health promotion to produce an effective schools-based program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Margaret; Knight, Bruce Allen; Withyman, Cathie

    2017-07-01

    Approximately three quarters of all major mental disorders begin in adolescence. Finding ways to buffer against stress, access social support and connection and flexibly draw upon a range of coping mechanisms are vital strategies that young people can use to promote mental health and wellbeing and to navigate this turbulent life transition successfully. Within Australia, like other parts of the world such as the UK and the USA, it is a sad reality that when young people do become distressed they are not self-caring or supporting others effectively, and not seeking or receiving appropriate help. In order to respond proactively to this issue, a nurse-initiated mental health promotion program was developed. It is termed, iCARE, which stands for Creating Awareness, Resilience and Enhanced Mental Health. The aim of this paper is to discuss the underpinning educational theory that assists in developing in young people a sense of belonging, empathy, self-care and resilience, and why the strategies chosen to engage young people are likely to be effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. β-elemene inhibits tumor-promoting effect of M2 macrophages in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomu; Xu, Maoyi; Li, Na; Li, Zongjuan; Li, Hongye; Shao, Shujuan; Zou, Kun; Zou, Lijuan

    2017-08-19

    Macrophages in tumor are mostly M2-polarized and have been reported to promote tumorigenesis, which are also defined as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). β-elemene has therapeutic effects against several cancers, however, it remains unknown whether β-elemene could inhibit cancer by targeting TAMs. Herein, we examined the effect of β-elemene on macrophages to elucidate a novel mechanism of β-elemene in tumor therapy. We showed that the conditioned medium of M2 macrophages promoted lung cancer cells to migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition, which could be inhibited by β-elemene. Moreover, β-elemene regulated the polarization of macrophages from M2 to M1. β-elemene also inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion of lung cancer cells and enhanced its radiosensitivity. These results indicate β-elemene suppresses lung cancer by regulating both macrophages and lung cancer cells, it is a promising drug for combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Understanding the Problem Statement on Students' Mathematical Performance of Senior Secondary Schools in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banus, Abdullahi Audu; Dauda, Bala

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the relative effectiveness of understanding the problem statement on students' mathematical behaviours in Borno State Secondary Schools. The study was guided by an objective: to determine the Understanding the problem statement on student's performance in senior secondary school and a null hypothesis: there was no effect of…

  17. Children's experiences of food insecurity can assist in understanding its effect on their well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Carol L; Lofton, Kristi L; Yadrick, Kathy; Rehner, Timothy A

    2005-07-01

    An understanding of the experience of food insecurity by children is essential for better measurement and assessment of its effect on children's nutritional, physical, and mental health. Our qualitative study explored children's perceptions of household food insecurity to identify these perceptions and to use them to establish components of children's food insecurity experience. Children (n = 32; 11-16 y old) from after school programs and a middle school in low-income areas participated in individual semistructured in-depth interviews. Children as young as 11 y could describe behaviors associated with food insecurity if they had experienced it directly or indirectly. Using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis, children's descriptions of behaviors associated with food insecurity were categorized into components of quantity of food, quality of food, psychological aspects, and social aspects described in the household food insecurity literature. Aspects of quantity included eating less than usual and eating more or eating fast when food was available. Aspects of quality included use of a few kinds of low-cost foods. Psychological aspects included worry/anxiety/sadness about the family food supply, feelings of having no choice in the foods eaten, shame/fear of being labeled as poor, and attempts to shield children. Social aspects of food insecurity centered on using social networks to acquire food or money and social exclusion. These results provide valuable information in understanding the effect of food insecurity on children's well-being especially relative to the social and emotional aspects of well-being.

  18. Understanding reliance on automation: effects of error type, error distribution, age and experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Julian; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rovira, Ericka

    2015-01-01

    An obstacle detection task supported by “imperfect” automation was used with the goal of understanding the effects of automation error types and age on automation reliance. Sixty younger and sixty older adults interacted with a multi-task simulation of an agricultural vehicle (i.e. a virtual harvesting combine). The simulator included an obstacle detection task and a fully manual tracking task. A micro-level analysis provided insight into the way reliance patterns change over time. The results indicated that there are distinct patterns of reliance that develop as a function of error type. A prevalence of automation false alarms led participants to under-rely on the automation during alarm states while over relying on it during non-alarms states. Conversely, a prevalence of automation misses led participants to over-rely on automated alarms and under-rely on the automation during non-alarm states. Older adults adjusted their behavior according to the characteristics of the automation similarly to younger adults, although it took them longer to do so. The results of this study suggest the relationship between automation reliability and reliance depends on the prevalence of specific errors and on the state of the system. Understanding the effects of automation detection criterion settings on human-automation interaction can help designers of automated systems make predictions about human behavior and system performance as a function of the characteristics of the automation. PMID:25642142

  19. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  20. The Effects of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) Towards Critical Thinking Skills of Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukaesih, S.; Sutrisno

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of the application of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) learning to the students’ critical thinking skills in the matter of categorisaed in SMA Negeri 1 Larangan. This study was quasi-experimental design using nonequivalent control group design. The population in this study was entire class X. The samples that were taken by convenience sampling were class X MIA 1 and X MIA 2. Primary data in the study was the student’s critical thinking skills, which was supported by student activity, the level of adherence to the CUPs learning model, student opinion and teacher opinion. N-gain test results showed that the students’ critical thinking skills of experimental class increased by 89.32%, while the control group increased by 57.14%. Activity grade of experimental class with an average value of 72.37 was better than that of the control class with an average of only 22.69 student and teacher opinions to the learning were excellegoodnt. Based on this study concluded that the model of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) had an effect on the student’s critical thinking skills in the matter of protest in SMA Negeri 1 Larangan.

  1. Understanding the Doppler effect by analysing spectrograms of the sound of a passing vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubyako, Dmitry; Martinez-Piedra, Gordon; Ushenin, Arthur; Denvir, Patrick; Dunlop, John; Hall, Alex; Le Roux, Gus; van Someren, Laurence; Weinberger, Harvey

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the Doppler effect can be analysed to deduce information about a moving source of sound waves. Specifically, we find the speed of a car and the distance of its closest approach to an observer using sound recordings from smartphones. A key focus of this paper is how this can be achieved in a classroom, both theoretically and experimentally, to deepen students’ understanding of the Doppler effect. Included are our own experimental data (48 sound recordings) to allow others to reproduce the analysis, if they cannot repeat the whole experiment themselves. In addition to its educational purpose, this paper examines the percentage errors in our results. This enabled us to determine sources of error, allowing those conducting similar future investigations to optimize their accuracy.

  2. Understanding of latent tuberculosis, its treatment and treatment side effects in immigrant and refugee patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Katie; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Leder, Karin; Lemoh, Chris; O'Brien, Daniel; Marshall, Caroline

    2013-08-29

    Isoniazid treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is commonly prescribed in refugees and immigrants. We aimed to assess understanding of information provided about LTBI, its treatment and potential side effects. A questionnaire was administered in clinics at a tertiary hospital. Total Knowledge (TKS) and Total Side Effect Scores (TSES) were derived. Logistic regression analyses were employed to correlate socio-demographic factors with knowledge. Fifty-two participants were recruited, 20 at isoniazid commencement and 32 already on isoniazid. The average TKS were 5.04/9 and 6.23/9 respectively and were significantly associated with interpreter use. Approximately half did not know how tuberculosis was transmitted. The average TSES were 5.0/7 and 3.5/7 respectively, but were not influenced by socio-demographic factors. There was suboptimal knowledge about LTBI. Improvements in health messages delivered via interpreters and additional methods of distributing information need to be developed for this patient population.

  3. Supporting traditional instructional methods with a constructivist approach to learning: Promoting conceputal change and understanding of stoichiometry using e-learning tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayan, Kenneth Munoz

    Stoichiometry is a fundamental topic in chemistry that measures a quantifiable relationship between atoms, molecules, etc. Stoichiometry is usually taught using expository teaching methods. Students are passively given information, in the hopes they will retain the transmission of information to be able to solve stoichiometry problems masterfully. Cognitive science research has shown that this kind of instructional teaching method is not very effecting in meaningful learning practice. Instead, students must take ownership of their learning. The students need to actively construct their own knowledge by receiving, interpreting, integrating and reorganizing that information into their own mental schemas. In the absence of active learning practices, tools must be created in such a way to be able to scaffold difficult problems by encoding opportunities necessary to make the construction of knowledge memorable, thereby creating a usable knowledge base. Using an online e-learning tool and its potential to create a dynamic and interactive learning environment may facilitate the learning of stoichiometry. The study entailed requests from volunteer students, IRB consent form, a baseline questionnaire, random assignment of treatment, pre- and post-test assessment, and post assessment survey. These activities were given online. A stoichiometry-based assessment was given in a proctored examination at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) campus. The volunteer students who took part in these studies were at least 18 of age and were enrolled in General Chemistry 1441, at the University of Texas at Arlington. Each participant gave their informed consent to use their data in the following study. Students were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments groups based on teaching methodology, (Dimensional Analysis, Operational Method, Ratios and Proportions) and a control group who just received instruction through lecture only. In this study, an e-learning tool was created to

  4. Desalted duck egg white peptides promote calcium uptake by counteracting the adverse effects of phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tao; Liu, Weiwei; Shi, Wen; Ma, Zhili; He, Hui

    2017-03-15

    The structure of the desalted duck egg white peptides-calcium chelate was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Characterization results showed structural folding and aggregation of amino acids or oligopeptides during the chelation process. Desalted duck egg white peptides enhanced the calcium uptake in the presence of oxalate, phosphate and zinc ions in Caco-2 monolayers. Animal model indicated that desalted duck egg white peptides effectively enhanced the mineral absorption and counteracted the deleterious effects of phytic acid. These findings suggested that desalted duck egg white peptides might promote calcium uptake in three pathways: 1) desalted duck egg white peptides bind with calcium to form soluble chelate and avoid precipitate; 2) the chelate is absorbed as small peptides by enterocyte; and 3) desalted duck egg white peptides regulate the proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes through the interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 calcium channel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effectiveness of a Parent-Training Program for Promoting Cognitive Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Vahidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent training program for promoting cognitive performance of young children through enriching the parent-child interactions among mothers of preschool-aged children in Mashhad, Iran. A total of 29 couples of mothers and their children were assigned to an experimental group (n = 16 couples and a control group (n = 13 couples. Mothers in the experimental group participated in 12 weekly sessions and were trained how to enrich their daily parent-child interactions as such. Children’s cognitive performance was assessed by three subscales of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI. The results of the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group. The findings support the effectiveness of the parent training program for enhancing cognitive performance in preschoolers.

  6. Flavonoid Profile of Saskatoon Berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and Their Health Promoting Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Mlcek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a significant group of secondary metabolites in plants. Many of these compounds are potent antioxidants, being an important part in food products derived from the plants. The current status of research on flavonoid compounds in the fruit of Saskatoon berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and their health promoting effects, including recommended utilization, are reviewed. The major classes of flavonoids in the fruit are flavonols (quercetin and rutin, flavanes (proanthocyanidin compounds ranging from dimers through to heptamers and even higher polymers and finally anthocyanins. The flavonoids represented the group of polyphenols that mostly contributed to the antioxidant activity of Saskatoon berries. High content of the flavoinoids antioxidants in the fruit is responsible for the observed anti-inflammatory, antidiadiabetic and chemo-protective effects.

  7. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  8. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii--toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkaric, Muris; Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B; Junghans, Marion; Eggen, Rik I L

    2015-05-01

    The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Indigenous Youth Peer-Led Health Promotion in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States: A Systematic Review of the Approaches, Study Designs, and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcich, Daniel; Thomas, Jessica; Crawford, Katy; Ward, James

    2018-01-01

    Youth peer-led interventions have become a popular way of sharing health information with young people and appear well suited to Indigenous community contexts. However, no systematic reviews focusing on Indigenous youth have been published. We conducted a systematic review to understand the range and characteristics of Indigenous youth-led health promotion projects implemented and their effectiveness. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and ProQuest Social Sciences databases was conducted, supplemented by gray literature searches. Included studies focused on interventions where young Indigenous people delivered health information to age-matched peers. Twenty-four studies were identified for inclusion, based on 20 interventions (9 Australian, 4 Canadian, and 7 from the United States of America). Only one intervention was evaluated using a randomized controlled study design. The majority of evaluations took the form of pre-post studies. Methodological limitations were identified in a majority of studies. Study outcomes included improved knowledge, attitude, and behaviors. Currently, there is limited high quality evidence for the effectiveness of peer-led health interventions with Indigenous young people, and the literature is dominated by Australian-based sexual health interventions. More systematic research investigating the effectiveness of peer-led inventions is required, specifically with Indigenous populations. To improve health outcomes for Indigenous youth, greater knowledge of the mechanisms and context under which peer-delivered health promotion is effective in comparison to other methods of health promotion is needed.

  10. Effects of disintegration-promoting agent, lubricants and moisture treatment on optimized fast disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late, Sameer G; Yu, Yi-Ying; Banga, Ajay K

    2009-01-05

    Effects of calcium silicate (disintegration-promoting agent) and various lubricants on an optimized beta-cyclodextrin-based fast-disintegrating tablet formulation were investigated. Effects of moisture treatment were also evaluated at 75, 85 and 95% relative humidities. A two factor, three levels (3(2)) full factorial design was used to optimize concentrations of calcium silicate and lubricant. Magnesium stearate, being commonly used lubricant, was used to optimize lubricant concentration in optimization study. Other lubricants were evaluated at an obtained optimum concentration. Desiccator with saturated salt solutions was used to analyze effects of moisture treatments. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that concentration of calcium silicate had no effect; however concentration of lubricant was found to be important for tablet disintegration and hardness. An optimized value of 1.5% of magnesium stearate gave disintegration time of 23.4 s and hardness of 1.42 kg. At an optimized concentration, glycerol dibehenate and L-leucine significantly affected disintegration time, while talc and stearic acid had no significant effect. Tablet hardness was significantly affected with L-leucine, while other lubricants had no significant effect. Hardness was not affected at 75% moisture treatment. Moisture treatment at 85 and 95% increased hardness of the tablets; however at the same time it negatively affected the disintegration time.

  11. Promotional effects of CO2 laser on neoplastic lesions in hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Jeffrey S.; Margarone, Joseph E., III; Satchidanand, S.; Liebow, Charles

    1991-06-01

    Surgical incision may have promotional effects on neoplastic lesions, possibly through release of tissue growth factors (e.g., EGF, FGF(beta) , IGF, TGF(alpha) ). The CO2 laser may precipitate altered release of these factors. To test this, .5 cm laser, and scalpel incisions were made into fields treated by application of .5% DMBA in acetone, 3 times a week for 6 weeks (group 1) and 12 weeks (group 2). DMBA is a complete carcinogen (initiator and promoter). At 6 weeks, chemically, but not histologically, definable premalignant lesions are seen. Treatment for 12 weeks causes histologic neoplasia which can be graded with T-N-M classification. For both groups, the surgical sites were examined clinically and histologically 4 weeks post-op in a blind fashion. Standard criteria were utilized for defining neoplasia. For group 1, 3 out of 6 laser treated animals developed large exophytic squamous cell carcinomas, but no lesions developed in 12 contralateral, 3 control and 3 scalpel treated pouches. For group 2, 12 of 16 laser treated animals developed tumor with mean grade of 1.75 and mean size of 7.4 mm, 5 of 6 scalpel treated animals developed tumor with mean grade of 1.83 and mean size of 3.6 mm and 3 of 6 control animals developed tumor with mean grade of 1.00 and mean size of 1.5 mm. By the Student 't' test on the binomial distribution lasers cause significant promotion (p wound site by increased release of growth factors.

  12. Protocol for digital intervention for effective health promotion of small children - a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, Anni; Flemmich, Magda; Parisod, Heidi; Selänne, Laura; Hamari, Lotta; Aromaa, Minna; Leppänen, Ville; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Smed, Jouni; Salanterä, Sanna

    2018-03-08

    This article introduces the protocol of a study aiming to evaluate the effectiveness of digital WellWe intervention in supporting the participation of families with small children in the promotion of their health. Early childhood is a meaningful period for building a strong base for good health. Parents play a key role in affecting the health behaviour and psychosocial development of their children. A family-centred approach makes it possible to support families' individual health literacy needs and empower them to take actions towards promoting healthier behaviour. However, there are a lack of family-centred digital health interventions intended for parents and their small children. The study is designed as a two-arm cluster, randomized, controlled trial with a four-month follow-up. The data is being collected from 200 families with a four-year old child. Cluster randomization is being performed at the municipality level. Municipalities (N=4) located in Southwest Finland, comprising child health clinics (N=15) with their family clients, were randomly allocated to either an intervention (WellWe intervention) or a control group (usual care). The outcome measures include parental self-efficacy for healthy behaviours, mindfulness in parenting and the family-centred approach of the extensive health examination. Data collection is being performed at baseline, after the intervention and at a four-month follow-up. The results from this study will make it possible to determine whether this new method can be recommended for implementation in child health clinic settings to support the participation of families with small children in promoting their health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic Effects of Topoisomerase I Inhibition on R-Loops and Short Transcripts at Active Promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Marinello

    Full Text Available Topoisomerase I-DNA-cleavage complexes (Top1cc stabilized by camptothecin (CPT have specific effects at transcriptional levels. We recently reported that Top1cc increase antisense transcript (aRNAs levels at divergent CpG-island promoters and, transiently, DNA/RNA hybrids (R-loop in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of colon cancer HCT116 cells. However, the relationship between R-loops and aRNAs was not established. Here, we show that aRNAs can form R-loops in N-TERA-2 cells under physiological conditions, and that promoter-associated R-loops are somewhat increased and extended in length immediately upon cell exposure to CPT. In contrast, persistent Top1ccs reduce the majority of R-loops suggesting that CPT-accumulated aRNAs are not commonly involved in R-loops. The enhancement of aRNAs by Top1ccs is present both in human colon cancer HCT116 cells and WI38 fibroblasts suggesting a common response of cancer and normal cells. Although Top1ccs lead to DSB and DDR kinases activation, we do not detect a dependence of aRNA accumulation on ATM or DNA-PK activation. However, we showed that the cell response to persistent Top1ccs can involve an impairment of aRNA turnover rather than a higher synthesis rate. Finally, a genome-wide analysis shows that persistent Top1ccs also determine an accumulation of sense transcripts at 5'-end gene regions suggesting an increased occurrence of truncated transcripts. Taken together, the results indicate that Top1 may regulate transcription initiation by modulating RNA polymerase-generated negative supercoils, which can in turn favor R-loop formation at promoters, and that transcript accumulation at TSS is a response to persistent transcriptional stress by Top1 poisoning.

  14. Promotion of solar water disinfection: comparing the effectiveness of different strategies in a longitudinal field study in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Andrea; Tobias, Robert; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-12-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple method designed to treat microbiologically contaminated drinking water at the household level. This study focused on the effective promotion of the SODIS method using various strategies. In a longitudinal field study, we compared 2 interpersonal strategies (promoters and opinion leaders) and a centralized strategy (health fair) with a control group. Indicators of effectiveness were SODIS knowledge, SODIS adoption rate, and potential reach. The results suggest that use of promoters is the most successful strategy in terms of reaching people and changing their behavior toward SODIS use. The opinion leaders-although less effective-show some potential to stimulate communication among people about SODIS. Only the health fair did not have a big impact on behavior. Further discussion includes the costs of the various promotional activities, limitations, and recommendations for future projects.

  15. Effectiveness of organisational infrastructures to promote evidence-based nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodgren, Gerd; Rojas-Reyes, Maria Ximena; Cole, Nick; Foxcroft, David R

    2012-02-15

    Nurses and midwives form the bulk of the clinical health workforce and play a central role in all health service delivery. There is potential to improve health care quality if nurses routinely use the best available evidence in their clinical practice. Since many of the factors perceived by nurses as barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) lie at the organisational level, it is of interest to devise and assess the effectiveness of organisational infrastructures designed to promote EBP among nurses. To assess the effectiveness of organisational infrastructures in promoting evidence-based nursing. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, BIREME, IBECS, NHS Economic Evaluations Database, Social Science Citation Index, Science Citation Index and Conference Proceedings Citation Indexes up to 9 March 2011.We developed a new search strategy for this update as the strategy published in 2003 omitted key terms. Additional search methods included: screening reference lists of relevant studies, contacting authors of relevant papers regarding any further published or unpublished work, and searching websites of selected research groups and organisations.  We considered randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted times series (ITSs) and controlled before and after studies of an entire or identified component of an organisational infrastructure intervention aimed at promoting EBP in nursing. The participants were all healthcare organisations comprising nurses, midwives and health visitors. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. For the ITS analysis, we reported the change in the slopes of the regression lines, and the change in the level effect of the outcome at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. We included one study from the USA (re-analysed as

  16. The effectiveness of different interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours in households with children: a network meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A Achana

    Full Text Available There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a "usual care or no intervention" which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to increase prevalence of safe storage of i Medicines only, ii Other household products only, iii Poisons (both medicines and non-medicines, iv Poisonous plants; and v Possession of poison control centre (PCC telephone number in households with children.Data on the effectiveness of poison prevention interventions was extracted from primary studies identified in 2 newly-undertaken systematic reviews. Effect estimates were pooled across studies using a random effects network meta-analysis model.28 of the 47 primary studies identified were included in the analysis. Compared to usual care intervention, the intervention with education and low cost/free equipment elements was most effective in promoting safe storage of medicines (odds ratio 2.51, 95% credible interval 1.01 to 6.00 while interventions with education, low cost/free equipment, home safety inspection and fitting components were most effective in promoting safe storage of other household products (2.52, 1.12 to 7.13, safe storage of poisons (11.10, 1.60 to 141.50 and possession of PCC number (38.82, 2.19 to 687.10. No one intervention package was more effective than the others in promoting safe storage of poisonous plants.The most effective interventions varied by poison prevention practice, but education alone was not the most effective intervention for any poison prevention practice. Commissioners and providers of poison prevention interventions should tailor the interventions they commission or provide to the

  17. The effectiveness of different interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours in households with children: a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achana, Felix A; Sutton, Alex J; Kendrick, Denise; Wynn, Persephone; Young, Ben; Jones, David R; Hubbard, Stephanie J; Cooper, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a "usual care or no intervention" which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to increase prevalence of safe storage of i) Medicines only, ii) Other household products only, iii) Poisons (both medicines and non-medicines), iv) Poisonous plants; and v) Possession of poison control centre (PCC) telephone number in households with children. Data on the effectiveness of poison prevention interventions was extracted from primary studies identified in 2 newly-undertaken systematic reviews. Effect estimates were pooled across studies using a random effects network meta-analysis model. 28 of the 47 primary studies identified were included in the analysis. Compared to usual care intervention, the intervention with education and low cost/free equipment elements was most effective in promoting safe storage of medicines (odds ratio 2.51, 95% credible interval 1.01 to 6.00) while interventions with education, low cost/free equipment, home safety inspection and fitting components were most effective in promoting safe storage of other household products (2.52, 1.12 to 7.13), safe storage of poisons (11.10, 1.60 to 141.50) and possession of PCC number (38.82, 2.19 to 687.10). No one intervention package was more effective than the others in promoting safe storage of poisonous plants. The most effective interventions varied by poison prevention practice, but education alone was not the most effective intervention for any poison prevention practice. Commissioners and providers of poison prevention interventions should tailor the interventions they commission or provide to the poison

  18. Isolation and identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from maize (Zea mays L. rhizosphere and their plant growth promoting effect on rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnwal Arun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria is increasing in agriculture and gives an appealing manner to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and dietary supplements. The objective of our research was to access the plant growth promotion traits of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis isolated from the maize (Zea mays L. rhizosphere. In vitro studies showed that isolates have the potential to produce indole acetic acid (IAA, hydrogen cyanide, phosphate solubilisation, and siderophore. RNA analysis revealed that two isolates were 97% identical to P. aeruginosa strain DSM 50071 and P. aeruginosa strain NBRC 12689 (AK20 and AK31, while two others were 98% identical to P. fluorescens strain ATCC 13525, P. fluorescens strain IAM 12022 (AK18 and AK45 and one other was 99% identical to B. subtilis strain NCDO 1769 (AK38. Our gnotobiotic study showed significant differences in plant growth variables under control and inoculated conditions. In the present research, it was observed that the isolated strains had good plant growth promoting effects on rice.

  19. Understanding treatment effect mechanisms of the CAMBRA randomized trial in reducing caries increment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J; Chaffee, B W; Cheng, N F; Gansky, S A; Featherstone, J D B

    2015-01-01

    The Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) randomized controlled trial showed that an intervention featuring combined antibacterial and fluoride therapy significantly reduced bacterial load and suggested reduced caries increment in adults with 1 to 7 baseline cavitated teeth. While trial results speak to the overall effectiveness of an intervention, insight can be gained from understanding the mechanism by which an intervention acts on putative intermediate variables (mediators) to affect outcomes. This study conducted mediation analyses on 109 participants who completed the trial to understand whether the intervention reduced caries increment through its action on potential mediators (oral bacterial load, fluoride levels, and overall caries risk based on the composite of bacterial challenge and salivary fluoride) between the intervention and dental outcomes. The primary outcome was the increment from baseline in decayed, missing, and filled permanent surfaces (ΔDMFS) 24 mo after completing restorations for baseline cavitated lesions. Analyses adjusted for baseline overall risk, bacterial challenge, and fluoride values under a potential outcome framework using generalized linear models. Overall, the CAMBRA intervention was suggestive in reducing the 24-mo DMFS increment (reduction in ΔDMFS: -0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.01 to 0.08; P = 0.07); the intervention significantly reduced the 12-mo overall risk (reduction in overall risk: -19%; 95% CI, -7 to -41%;], P = 0.005). Individual mediators, salivary log10 mutans streptococci, log10 lactobacilli, and fluoride level, did not represent statistically significant pathways alone through which the intervention effect was transmitted. However, 36% of the intervention effect on 24-mo DMFS increment was through a mediation effect on 12-mo overall risk (P = 0.03). These findings suggest a greater intervention effect carried through the combined action on multiple aspects of the caries process rather than

  20. The Role of Social Network Technologies in Online Health Promotion: A Narrative Review of Theoretical and Empirical Factors Influencing Intervention Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balatsoukas, Panos; Kennedy, Catriona M; Buchan, Iain; Powell, John; Ainsworth, John

    2015-06-11

    Social network technologies have become part of health education and wider health promotion—either by design or happenstance. Social support, peer pressure, and information sharing in online communities may affect health behaviors. If there are positive and sustained effects, then social network technologies could increase the effectiveness and efficiency of many public health campaigns. Social media alone, however, may be insufficient to promote health. Furthermore, there may be unintended and potentially harmful consequences of inaccurate or misleading health information. Given these uncertainties, there is a need to understand and synthesize the evidence base for the use of online social networking as part of health promoting interventions to inform future research and practice. Our aim was to review the research on the integration of expert-led health promotion interventions with online social networking in order to determine the extent to which the complementary benefits of each are understood and used. We asked, in particular, (1) How is effectiveness being measured and what are the specific problems in effecting health behavior change?, and (2) To what extent is the designated role of social networking grounded in theory? The narrative synthesis approach to literature review was used to analyze the existing evidence. We searched the indexed scientific literature using keywords associated with health promotion and social networking. The papers included were only those making substantial study of both social networking and health promotion—either reporting the results of the intervention or detailing evidence-based plans. General papers about social networking and health were not included. The search identified 162 potentially relevant documents after review of titles and abstracts. Of these, 42 satisfied the inclusion criteria after full-text review. Six studies described randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of online social

  1. The Role of Social Network Technologies in Online Health Promotion: A Narrative Review of Theoretical and Empirical Factors Influencing Intervention Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Buchan, Iain; Powell, John; Ainsworth, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Social network technologies have become part of health education and wider health promotion—either by design or happenstance. Social support, peer pressure, and information sharing in online communities may affect health behaviors. If there are positive and sustained effects, then social network technologies could increase the effectiveness and efficiency of many public health campaigns. Social media alone, however, may be insufficient to promote health. Furthermore, there may be unintended and potentially harmful consequences of inaccurate or misleading health information. Given these uncertainties, there is a need to understand and synthesize the evidence base for the use of online social networking as part of health promoting interventions to inform future research and practice. Objective Our aim was to review the research on the integration of expert-led health promotion interventions with online social networking in order to determine the extent to which the complementary benefits of each are understood and used. We asked, in particular, (1) How is effectiveness being measured and what are the specific problems in effecting health behavior change?, and (2) To what extent is the designated role of social networking grounded in theory? Methods The narrative synthesis approach to literature review was used to analyze the existing evidence. We searched the indexed scientific literature using keywords associated with health promotion and social networking. The papers included were only those making substantial study of both social networking and health promotion—either reporting the results of the intervention or detailing evidence-based plans. General papers about social networking and health were not included. Results The search identified 162 potentially relevant documents after review of titles and abstracts. Of these, 42 satisfied the inclusion criteria after full-text review. Six studies described randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating

  2. Effect of Recreational Activities in Schizophrenic Patients Rehabilitation in Promoting Social Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Fallahi-Khoshknab

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: one of group interventions in rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients is recreational activities intervention, in this type of rehabilitation therapist participates patients in recreational activities and hobbies, which promotes activity of daily livings and social skills. Our purpose of this study was investigating the effectiveness of recreational interventions in schizophrenics’ social skills. Materials & Methods: in a before and after interventional study, 45 schizophrenic patients selected and assessed with Activity of Daily Living Skills Scale before intervention. Intervention was a recreational trip to MESHAD for ten days all of patients participate and work to prepare trip properties. They live, participate and work for 10 days together. Then after intervention again patients reassessed with Daily Living Skills Scale, and mean of before and after scores compared with paired T test. Results: Results showed means of score increase from 116.87 to 135.49, comparing mean of before and after means with paired T test was significant. Conclusion: recreational interventions can promote social skills in schizophrenic patients.

  3. Promotion effect of constituents from the root of Polygonum multiflorum on hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya Nan; Cui, Long; Li, Wei; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kang, Jung Il; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-09-01

    Two new compounds, gallic acid ester of torachrysone-8-O-β-D-glucoside (1) and (E)-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-xyloside (4), along with eight known compounds (2, 3, 5-10) were isolated from a 70% ethanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum roots. The structures were determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC spectrometry. Extracts of P. multiflorum have been reported to promote hair growth in vivo. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of isolated compounds from P. multiflorum on promoting hair growth using dermal papilla cells (DPCs), which play an important role in hair growth. When DPCs were treated with compounds (1-10) from P. multiflorum, compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 10 increased the proliferation of DPCs compared with the control. Specifically, compound 2 (10 and 20 μM) induced a greater increase in the proliferation of DPCs than minoxidil (10 μM). Additionally, treatment of vibrissa follicles with compound 2 for 21 days increased hair-fiber length significantly. On the basis of this result, further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might help in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of alopecia. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustainable Carbon Dioxide Photoreduction by a Cooperative Effect of Reactor Design and Titania Metal Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Olivo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective process based on the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to face on the one hand, the crucial problem of environmental pollution, and, on the other hand, to propose an efficient way to product clean and sustainable energy sources has been developed in this work. Particular attention has been paid to the sustainability of the process by using a green reductant (water and TiO2 as a photocatalyst under very mild operative conditions (room temperature and atmospheric pressure. It was shown that the efficiency in carbon dioxide photoreduction is strictly related to the process parameters and to the catalyst features. In order to formulate a versatile and high performing catalyst, TiO2 was modified by oxide or metal species. Copper (in the oxide CuO form or gold (as nanoparticles were employed as promoting metal. Both photocatalytic activity and selectivity displayed by CuO-TiO2 and Au-TiO2 were compared, and it was found that the nature of the promoter (either Au or CuO shifts the selectivity of the process towards two strategic products: CH4 or H2. The catalytic results were discussed in depth and correlated with the physicochemical features of the photocatalysts.

  5. The Effect of Branding to Promote Healthy Behavior: Reducing Tobacco Use among Youth and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Vallone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy interventions such as public health mass media campaigns disseminate messages in order to improve health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors at the population level. Only more recently have campaigns that promote health-related behaviors adopted branding, a well-established marketing strategy, to influence how consumers think and feel about a message. This study examines whether positive brand equity for the national truth® campaign is associated with lower likelihood of cigarette use over time using the nationally representative Truth Longitudinal Cohort of youth and young adults, aged 15–21. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between brand equity and the likelihood of reporting past 30-day smoking over a 12-month period. Respondents who reported positive brand equity were significantly less likely to report past 30-day smoking 12 months later (OR = 0.66, p < 0.05, controlling for covariates known to influence tobacco use behavior. Findings also translate the effect size difference to a population estimate of more than 300,000 youth and young adults having been prevented from current smoking over the course of a year. Building brand equity is a strategic process for health promotion campaigns, not only to improve message recall and salience but also to influence behavioral outcomes.

  6. Preparation of chitosan-collagen-alginate composite dressing and its promoting effects on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haixia; Chen, Xiuli; Shen, Xianrong; He, Ying; Chen, Wei; Luo, Qun; Ge, Weihong; Yuan, Weihong; Tang, Xue; Hou, Dengyong; Jiang, Dingwen; Wang, Qingrong; Liu, Yuming; Liu, Qiong; Li, Kexian

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to prepare a composite dressing composed of collagen, chitosan, and alginate, which may promote wound healing and prevent from seawater immersion. Chitosan-collagen-alginate (CCA) cushion was prepared by paintcoat and freeze-drying, and it was attached to a polyurethane to compose CCA composite dressing. The swelling, porosity, degradation, and mechanical properties of CCA cushion were evaluated. The effects on wound healing and seawater prevention of CCA composite dressing were tested by rat wound model. Preliminary biosecurity was tested by cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility. The results revealed that CCA cushion had good water absorption and mechanical properties. A higher wound healing ratio was observed in CCA composite dressing treated rats than in gauze or chitosan treated ones. On the fifth day, the healing rates of CCA composite dressing, gauze, and chitosan were 48.49%±1.07%, 28.02%±6.4%, and 38.97%±8.53%, respectively. More fibroblast and intact re-epithelialization were observed in histological images of CCA composite dressing treated rats, and the expressions of EGF, bFGF, TGF-β, and CD31 increased significantly. CCA composite dressing showed no significant cytotoxicity, and favorable hemocompatibility. These results suggested that CCA composite dressing could prevent against seawater immersion and promote wound healing while having a good biosecurity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. [Factors associated with perceived effectiveness of health promotion messages among Japanese adults Focus on socioeconomic status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Hayashi, Tatsumi

    2015-01-01

    Responses and receptiveness to messages advocating health promotion are expected to vary according to differences in personal characteristics. To increase communication effectiveness, this study examined the differences in perceptions of the effectiveness of messages among Japanese adults by socioeconomic status and other characteristics. A structured questionnaire survey was administered to residents aged 30-59 randomly selected in two cities (Yamaguchi and Iwakuni) of Yamaguchi prefecture. The questionnaire consisted of items on sociodemographic characteristics including sex, age, marital status, education, and household income; the perceived effectiveness of health messages; and other factors. The subjects were shown different messages on several themes (smoking cessation, cancer screening, weight gain) and asked to select those that they considered most effective. The associations between perception and subjects' sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed. A total of 445 subjects responded (response rate, 37.1%). The negative messages (health effects of risk behaviors) were generally perceived as the most effective. Sex, age, marital status, education, and income were significantly associated with the perceived effectiveness of health messages: higher income was significantly associated with secondhand smoke in the case of smoking cessation, lower income was associated with addiction in the case of drinking restraints, lower education and middle income were associated with affection, and lower income was associated with own expense in the case of cancer screening. Despite some differences among the health themes, personal characteristics including age, sex, and marital and socioeconomic status were associated with the perceived effectiveness of health messages, and our results suggest that health communication may be made more effective by consideration of the sociodemographic characteristics of target populations and subjects.

  8. Migrations and Diasporas. German Writers in Mexican Exile. Egon Erwin Kisch’s and Anna Seghers’ Promotion of Cross-Cultural Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Michaels

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The journalist and popular travel writer, Egon Erwin Kisch, and the well-known novelist and short story writer Anna Seghers were among the many left wing and communist intellectuals for whom Mexico was a haven during the Hitler years. Kisch traveled extensively in Mexico, immersed himself in its history and culture and interpreted Mexico for the other German exiles. On her return from exile Seghers became an important mediator in the GDR of Mexican and South American culture and a strong voice for crosscultural understanding

  9. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii – Toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkaric, Muris [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Junghans, Marion [Swiss Center for Applied Ecotoxicology Eawag-EPFL, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Eggen, Rik I.L., E-mail: rik.eggen@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Systematic study of multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals in C. reinhardtii. • UVR and chemicals did not act independently on algal photosynthesis and reproduction. • Multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals depended on chemical MOA. • Synergistic effect interactions not limited to oxidative stress inducing chemicals. • Multiple MOAs of UVR may limit applicability of current prediction models. - Abstract: The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are

  10. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii – Toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkaric, Muris; Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B.; Junghans, Marion; Eggen, Rik I.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic study of multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals in C. reinhardtii. • UVR and chemicals did not act independently on algal photosynthesis and reproduction. • Multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals depended on chemical MOA. • Synergistic effect interactions not limited to oxidative stress inducing chemicals. • Multiple MOAs of UVR may limit applicability of current prediction models. - Abstract: The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are

  11. The Manhattan effect: when relationship commitment fails to promote support for partners' interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chin Ming; Finkel, Eli J; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Kumashiro, Madoka; Hofmann, Wilhelm

    2014-04-01

    Research on close relationships has frequently contrasted one's own interests with the interests of the partner or the relationship and has tended to view the partner's and the relationship's interests as inherently aligned. The present article demonstrated that relationship commitment typically causes people to support their partner's personal interests but that this effect gets weaker to the extent that those interests misalign or even threaten the relationship. Studies 1a and 1b showed that (a) despite their strong correlation, partner-oriented and relationship-oriented concerns in goal-directed behaviors are separable and (b) relationship commitment strengthens only the link between relationship-oriented motivation and the goal pursuit (not the link between partner-oriented motivation and the goal pursuit). The remaining 7 studies zero in on circumstances in which the partner's and the relationship's interests are in conflict, demonstrating that (c) relationship commitment reliably increases the tendency to support the partner's personal interests when those interests do not pose a strong threat to the relationship but that (d) this effect becomes weaker-and even reverses direction-as the relationship threat posed by the partner's interests becomes stronger. The reduction or reversal of the positive link between relationship commitment and propartner behaviors in such situations is termed the Manhattan effect. These findings suggest that the partner-versus-relationship conflicts provide fertile ground for novel theorizing and empirical investigations and that relationship commitment appears to be less of a partner-promoting construct than relationship science has suggested; instead, its role appears to be focused on promoting the interests of the relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be predicted.

  13. The effect of Sc promoter on the performance of Co/TiO{sub 2}–P25 catalyst in dry reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-fatesh, Ahmed Sadeq; Naeem, Muhammad Awais; Fakeeha, Anis Hamza; Abasaeed, Ahmed Elhag [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-08-15

    In the present work, the effect of scandium (Sc) promoter on the performance of Co/TiO{sub 2}–P25 catalyst in dry reforming of methane has been investigated. The catalysts were prepared by the incipient wet impregnation technique. For each catalyst, the Co loading was fixed at 5 wt %, while the Sc loading was varied from 0.0 to 2.0 wt %. The experiments were carried out at atmospheric pressure in a micro tubular reactor at a temperature of 700 °C. For better understanding and comparison, the catalysts were characterized by various techniques such as Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), H{sub 2}-temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), CO{sub 2}-temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The results revealed that the promotion of Co/TiO{sub 2}–P25 catalyst with Sc has a significant impact on its catalytic performance and the amount of carbon deposition. The doping of Co/TiO{sub 2}–P25 catalyst with Sc improves the basicity and enhances the metal support interaction in the catalyst. At higher Sc loading, Co metal oxidation became substantial that triggered severe catalyst deactivation. Amongst all Sc-promoted catalysts, 0.75 wt % Sc-promoted catalyst exhibited the highest CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} activity with minimum deactivation.

  14. Understanding the foot-in-the-door effect as a pseudo-effect from the perspective of the Campbell paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Oliver; Kaiser, Florian G

    2018-04-01

    Compliance with a small request (a metaphorical foot-in-the-door) promotes compliance with a subsequent big request. Whereas some explanations expect a drop in the behavioural costs of the big request, others suspect that the effect comes from boosting the underlying attitude. However, evidence for both explanations is equivocal and circumstantial, at best. Drawing on what Kaiser et al. (2010) call the Campbell paradigm, we present an integrative account: Compliance with any request demands a corresponding attitude to counterbalance the costs of the request. In our research, 229 participants were randomly assigned to either a foot-in-the-door (i.e., initially asked to sign a pro-environmental petition) or a control condition. Small-request-compliant participants were more likely than control participants to also comply with the big request and to continue filling out environmental-issues-related questionnaires. However, this foot-in-the-door effect occurred without diminishing behavioural costs or increasing attitude levels. Accordingly, the greater likelihood of small-request-compliant participants to also comply with the big request can be parsimoniously explained by baseline variability in people's attitude levels that manifests in their compliance with the initial request. We conclude that several of the foot-in-the-door effects reported in the literature carry the risk of representing mere pseudo-effects. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. A trait-based framework for understanding how and why litter decay and resource stoichiometry promote biogeochemical syndromes in arbuscular- and ectomycorrhizal-dominated forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Brzostek, E. R.; Fisher, J. B.; Sulman, B. N.; Midgley, M.; Craig, M.; Keller, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    While it has long been known that ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants (e.g., grasslands, tropical forests) cycle carbon (C) and nutrients differently than those dominated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plants (e.g., boreal and subarctic forests), demonstrations of these patterns in ecosystems where both mycorrhizal types co-occur are rare. We tested the hypothesis that variation between AM and ECM nutrient use traits (e.g., litter quality) promote distinct microbial traits that track biogeochemical syndromes in temperate forests. We then explored whether such belowground dynamics influence ecosystem responses to elevated CO2. To do this, we calculated the C to N ratios of litter, soil microbes and soil organic matter in AM- and ECM-dominated forests throughout the temperate region. We then used these data to parameterize a coupled plant uptake-microbial decomposition model, in order to determine how belowground interactions feedback to affect ecosystem C and N cycling in forests exposed to elevated CO2. We found support for our hypothesis: AM litters decomposed 50% faster than ECM litters (p litter decay rates were negatively correlated with the C:N of soils (including the microbial biomass and mineral soil; p < 0.05 for both) and positively correlated with net nitrification rates (p < 0.01). However, faster nitrogen (N) cycling in AM plots was also associated with a greater amount of physcially protected N in soil, suggesting that nutrient stabilizing mechanisms may constrain NPP in response to elevated CO2. Our model results supported this prediction. We found that while the C cost of acquiring of N is cheaper for AM trees than ECM trees, this cost difference is reduced under rising atmospheric CO2 owing to the enhanced protection of soil N in AM soils. Taken together, our results demonstrate that variation in AM- and ECM-associated plant and microbial traits promote predictable biogeochemical syndromes in temperate forests that can impact

  16. CD14+ monocytes promote the immunosuppressive effect of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ding; Chen, Ke; Du, Wei Ting; Han, Zhi-Bo; Ren, He; Chi, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Here, the effect of CD14 + monocytes on human umbilical cord matrix stem cell (hUC-MSC)-mediated immunosuppression was studied in vitro. hUC-MSCs exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion capacities of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in response to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation. Transwell co-culture system revealed that the suppressive effect was primarily mediated by soluble factors. Addition of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (indomethacin or NS-398) almost completely abrogated the immunosuppression activity of hUC-MSCs, identifying prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) as an important soluble mediator. CD14 + monocytes were found to be able to enhance significantly the immunosuppressive effect of hUC-MSCs in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, either exogenously added or produced by CD14 + monocytes in culture, could trigger expression of high levels of PGE 2 by hUC-MSCs, whereas inclusion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) in the culture down-regulated not only PGE 2 expression, but also reversed the promotional effect of CD14 + monocytes and partially restored CD4 + and CD8 + T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion. Our data demonstrate an important role of monocytes in the hUC-MSC-induced immunomodulation, which may have important implications in future efforts to explore the clinical potentials of hUC-MSCs.

  17. Understanding the effects of short-term international service-learning trips on medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Nauzley C; Gruppen, Larry D; Kolars, Joseph C; Kumagai, Arno K

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand what meaning(s) preclinical students attributed to participation in one-week international service-learning trips (ISLTs) and what specific experiences during the trips accounted for such perspectives. Twenty-four first-year students who had participated in one-week ISLTs at the University of Michigan Medical School during February 2010 were invited to participate. Individual, semistructured interviews were conducted from March to August 2010 with 13 student participants. Using grounded theory analysis, several major themes were identified. Acquisition of clinical/language skills and knowledge of other health care systems were explicit benefits associated with student ISLT experiences. However, in-depth, reflective discussions revealed implicit insights and lessons, the most pervasive of which were student ambivalence concerning the value and effect of ISLTs on communities, issues of privilege and power, and ethical concerns when working with vulnerable populations. These implicit lessons stimulated new insights into future involvement in global health and emphasized the importance of reflection and discussion to enhance ISLT experiences. The current study suggests that one-week ISLTs may engender implicit insights and lessons regarding ethical and societal issues involved with global health and may stimulate the development of critical reflection on current and future professional roles for student participants. Furthermore, these activities should allow time and space for dialogue and reflection to ensure that this implicit understanding can be put to constructive educational and service-oriented uses.

  18. Role understanding and effective communication as core competencies for collaborative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Esther; Arndt, Julia; Arthur, Nancy; Parboosingh, John; Taylor, Elizabeth; Deutschlander, Siegrid

    2009-01-01

    The ability to work with professionals from other disciplines to deliver collaborative, patient-centred care is considered a critical element of professional practice requiring a specific set of competencies. However, a generally accepted framework for collaborative competencies is missing, which makes consistent preparation of students and staff challenging. Some authors have argued that there is a lack of conceptual clarity of the "active ingredients" of collaboration relating to quality of care and patient outcomes, which may be at the root of the competencies issue. As part of a large Health Canada funded study focused on interprofessional education and collaborative practice, our goal was to understand the competencies for collaborative practice that are considered most relevant by health professionals working at the front line. Interview participants comprised 60 health care providers from various disciplines. Understanding and appreciating professional roles and responsibilities and communicating effectively emerged as the two perceived core competencies for patient-centred collaborative practice. For both competencies there is evidence of a link to positive patient and provider outcomes. We suggest that these two competencies should be the primary focus of student and staff education aimed at increasing collaborative practice skills.

  19. Effectiveness of individual counselling and activity monitors to promote physical activity among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Marco; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio

    2017-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) promotion among university students is important to contribute to a lifelong healthy lifestyle. Nevertheless, research in the field is still limited in quantity, quality and generalizability. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of two individual-based strategies for promoting PA among university students in such university contexts where course-based interventions are difficult to implement. Thirty-three university students were recruited by means of face-to-face interviews and randomly assigned to three groups. The first group attended individual counselling sessions (based on the Social-Cognitive theory and the Transtheoretical model of behaviour change) via videoconferencing calls, the second used wearable PA monitors designed to motivate to PA, and the third served as control. Interventions lasted 12 weeks. Measures of weekly PA (self-reported by questionnaires and recorded by ActiGraph-GT3X+ monitors) and the stage of change of participants were collected at baseline (t0), immediately after the 12-week intervention (t1), and after a 3-month follow-up (t2). Students in the individual counselling group increased self-reported energy expenditure between t0 and t1 and maintained this improvement at t2; on the contrary, there was no increase in ActiGraph measures of PA. Progression through stages of changes was observed in the same group at t1, followed by some relapses at t2. No significant differences were found neither in the group of students who used the PA monitors nor in the control group. Although measures of self-reported PA and stage of change suggest the effectiveness of the counselling intervention, the results obtained with accelerometers are contrasting, probably due to the fact that some types of PA participants engaged in could not be recorder by accelerometers. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of individual counselling to promote PA in university students. The autonomous use of PA monitors had

  20. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of television, radio and print advertisements in promoting the New York smokers' quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Hussin, Altijani; Bauer, Ursula E

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the relative effectiveness and cost effectiveness of television, radio and print advertisements to generate calls to the New York smokers' quitline. Regression analysis was used to link total county level monthly quitline calls to television, radio and print advertising expenditures. Based on regression results, standardised measures of the relative effectiveness and cost effectiveness of expenditures were computed. There was a positive and statistically significant relation between call volume and expenditures for television (padvertisements and a marginally significant effect for expenditures on newspaper advertisements (peffect was for television advertising. However, because of differences in advertising costs, for every $1000 increase in television, radio and newspaper expenditures, call volume increased by 0.1%, 5.7% and 2.8%, respectively. Television, radio and print media all effectively increased calls to the New York smokers' quitline. Although increases in expenditures for television were the most effective, their relatively high costs suggest they are not currently the most cost effective means to promote a quitline. This implies that a more efficient mix of media would place greater emphasis on radio than television. However, because the current study does not adequately assess the extent to which radio expenditures would sustain their effectiveness with substantial expenditure increases, it is not feasible to determine a more optimal mix of expenditures.

  1. Evaluation of a Swedish universal health-promoting parenting program : effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Ulfsdotter, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of universal parenting programs is not as comprehensive as knowledge of targeted parenting programs. Few evaluations of universal programs have to date included a measure of child health and well-being; the focus has rather been on measuring improvement in child behavior problems. Still, many of the existing evaluations of these programs do not show effects in terms of reduced behavior problems in children. Knowledge of potential cost-effectiveness, predictors and moderators of univ...

  2. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Cobiac

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a key risk factor for chronic disease, but a growing number of people are not achieving the recommended levels of physical activity necessary for good health. Australians are no exception; despite Australia's image as a sporting nation, with success at the elite level, the majority of Australians do not get enough physical activity. There are many options for intervention, from individually tailored advice, such as counselling from a general practitioner, to population-wide approaches, such as mass media campaigns, but the most cost-effective mix of interventions is unknown. In this study we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From evidence of intervention efficacy in the physical activity literature and evaluation of the health sector costs of intervention and disease treatment, we model the cost impacts and health outcomes of six physical activity interventions, over the lifetime of the Australian population. We then determine cost-effectiveness of each intervention against current practice for physical activity intervention in Australia and derive the optimal pathway for implementation. Based on current evidence of intervention effectiveness, the intervention programs that encourage use of pedometers (Dominant and mass media-based community campaigns (Dominant are the most cost-effective strategies to implement and are very likely to be cost-saving. The internet-based intervention program (AUS$3,000/DALY, the GP physical activity prescription program (AUS$12,000/DALY, and the program to encourage more active transport (AUS$20,000/DALY, although less likely to be cost-saving, have a high probability of being under a AUS$50,000 per DALY threshold. GP referral to an exercise physiologist (AUS$79,000/DALY is the least cost-effective option if high time and travel costs for patients in screening and consulting an exercise physiologist are considered

  3. Multiple intelligences and alternative teaching strategies: The effects on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragona, Michelle

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between multiple intelligence strengths and alternative teaching methods on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding and attitudes. The design was a quasi-experimental study, in which students enrolled in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, a developmental biology course, received lecture only, problem-based learning with lecture, or peer teaching with lecture. These students completed the Multiple Intelligence Inventory to determine their intelligence strengths, the Students' Motivation Toward Science Learning questionnaire to determine student attitudes towards learning in science, multiple choice tests to determine academic achievement, and open-ended questions to determine conceptual understanding. Effects of intelligence types and teaching methods on academic achievement and conceptual understanding were determined statistically by repeated measures ANOVAs. No significance occurred in academic achievement scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in logical-mathematical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and intrapersonal intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by problem-based learning (PBL) as compared to peer teaching (PT). No significance occurred in conceptual understanding scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and spatial intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by lecture as compared to PBL. Students with

  4. Modeling and understanding of effects of randomness in arrays of resonant meta-atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tretyakov, Sergei A.; Albooyeh, Mohammad; Alitalo, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    In this review presentation we will discuss approaches to modeling and understanding electromagnetic properties of 2D and 3D lattices of small resonant particles (meta-atoms) in transition from regular (periodic) to random (amorphous) states. Nanostructured metasurfaces (2D) and metamaterials (3D......) are arrangements of optically small but resonant particles (meta-atoms). We will present our results on analytical modeling of metasurfaces with periodical and random arrangements of electrically and magnetically resonant meta-atoms with identical or random sizes, both for the normal and oblique-angle excitations....... We show how the electromagnetic response of metasurfaces is related to the statistical parameters of the structure. Furthermore, we will discuss the phenomenon of anti-resonance in extracted effective parameters of metamaterials and clarify its relation to the periodicity (or amorphous nature...

  5. Current Understanding on Antihepatocarcinoma Effects of Xiao Chai Hu Tang and Its Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Chai Hu Tang (XCHT, a compound formula originally recorded in an ancient Chinese medical book Shanghanlun, has been used to treat chronic liver diseases for a long period of time in China. Although extensive studies have been demonstrated the efficacy of this formula to treat chronic hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, and hepatocarcinoma, how it works against these diseases still awaits full understanding. Here, we firstly present an overview arranging from the entire formula to mechanism studies of single herb in XCHT and their active components, from a new perspective of “separation study,” and we tried our best to both detailedly and systematically organize the antihepatocarcinoma effects of it, hoping that the review will facilitate the strive on elucidating how XCHT elicits its antihepatocarcinoma role.

  6. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalupski, Peter R.; Martin, Leigh R.; Nash, Ken; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N(double p rime),N(double p rime)-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  7. The Effect of Three-Dimensional Simulations on the Understanding of Chemical Structures and Their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhahne, Detlef; Nick, Sabine; Schanze, Sascha

    2009-08-01

    In a series of three experimental studies, the effectiveness of three-dimensional computer simulations to aid the understanding of chemical structures and their properties was investigated. Arguments for the usefulness of three-dimensional simulations were derived from Mayer’s generative theory of multimedia learning. Simulations might lead to a decrease in cognitive load and thus support active learning. In our studies, the learning effectiveness of three-dimensional simulations was compared to two-dimensional illustrations by use of different versions of a computer programme concerning the modifications of carbon. The first and third study with freshman students of chemistry and biochemistry show that no more knowledge was acquired when participants learnt with three-dimensional simulations than with two-dimensional figures. In the second study with 16-year old secondary school students, use of simulations facilitated the acquisition of conceptual knowledge. It was concluded that three-dimensional simulations are more effective for younger students who lack the experience of learning with different visual representation formats in chemistry. In all three studies, a significant relationship between spatial ability and conceptual knowledge about the modifications of carbon was detected.

  8. Understanding the protective effects of wine components and their metabolites in the brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban-Fernández A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate wine consumption has been suggested to exert a positive effect in prevention of neurodegenerative process and cognitive impairment. With the ultimate aim of achieving a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this benefit, we have investigated the role of certain wine- derived phenolic metabolites and aroma compounds in the MAPK cascade (including ERK1/2, p38, one of the routes directly related to inflammation in neuronal cells. Some of the tested phenolic compounds, especially in the case of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, showed a significant neuroprotective effect against SIN-1-induced neuronal death. Regarding their effect over MAPK phosphorylation, inmunoblotting technique revealed a beneficial and significant decrease on the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 kinases after incubation with wine constituents. In addition, activity of caspase3-like protease, an executor of neuronal apoptosis and a downstream signal of MAPK, was significantly diminished by 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid and linalool, counterbalancing the increase produced by SIN-1. Altogether, these results suggest that wine aroma, phenolic compounds and their gut metabolites could exert neuroprotective actions by modulating MAPK signalling and caspase-3 proteases activation, which are known to play a key role in oxidative/ nitrosative stress-induced response.

  9. CALCULATING ROTATING HYDRODYNAMIC AND MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES TO UNDERSTAND MAGNETIC EFFECTS ON DYNAMICAL TIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xing, E-mail: xing.wei@sjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Natural Sciences and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    To understand magnetic effects on dynamical tides, we study the rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow driven by harmonic forcing. The linear responses are analytically derived in a periodic box under the local WKB approximation. Both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are calculated, and the various parameters are investigated. Although magnetic pressure may be negligible compared to thermal pressure, the magnetic field can be important for the first-order perturbation, e.g., dynamical tides. It is found that the magnetic field splits the resonant frequency, namely the rotating hydrodynamic flow has only one resonant frequency, but the rotating MHD flow has two, one positive and the other negative. In the weak field regime the dissipations are asymmetric around the two resonant frequencies and this asymmetry is more striking with a weaker magnetic field. It is also found that both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are inversely proportional to the Ekman number and the square of the wavenumber. The dissipation at the resonant frequency on small scales is almost equal to the dissipation at the non-resonant frequencies, namely the resonance takes its effect on the dissipation at intermediate length scales. Moreover, the waves with phase propagation that is perpendicular to the magnetic field are much more damped. It is also interesting to find that the frequency-averaged dissipation is constant. This result suggests that in compact objects, magnetic effects on tidal dissipation should be considered.

  10. Increasing the understanding of chemical concepts: The effectiveness of multiple exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bius, Janet H.

    Chemistry is difficult because it has multilevels of knowledge with each level presenting challenges in vocabulary, abstract thinking, and symbolic language. Students have to be able to transfer between levels to understand the concepts and the theoretical models of chemistry. The cognitive theories of constructivism and cognitive-load theory are used to explain the difficulties novice learners have with the subject of chemistry and methods to increase success for students. The relationship between external representations, misconceptions and topics on the success of students are addressed. If students do not know the formalisms associated with chemical diagrams and graphs, the representations will decrease student success. Misconceptions can be formed when new information is interpreted based on pre-existing knowledge that is faulty. Topics with large amount of interacting elements that must be processed simultaneously are considered difficult to understand. New variables were created to measure the number of times a student is exposed to a chemical concept. Each variable was coded according to topic and learning environment, which are the lecture and laboratory components of the course, homework assignments and textbook examples. The exposure variables are used to measure the success rate of students on similar exam questions. Question difficulty scales were adapted for this project from those found in the chemical education literature. The exposure variables were tested on each level of the difficulty scales to determine their effect at decreasing the cognitive demand of these questions. The subjects of this study were freshmen science majors at a large Midwest university. The effects of the difficulty scales and exposure variables were measured for those students whose exam scores were in the upper one-fourth percentile, for students whose test scores were in the middle one-half percentile, and the lower one-fourth percentile are those students that scored the

  11. Sleep-promoting effects of the GABA/5-HTP mixture in vertebrate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ki-Bae; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sleep-promoting effect of combined γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on sleep quality and quantity in vertebrate models. Pentobarbital-induced sleep test and electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis were applied to investigate sleep latency, duration, total sleeping time and sleep quality of two amino acids and GABA/5-HTP mixture. In addition, real-time PCR and HPLC analysis were applied to analyze the signaling pathway. The GABA/5-HTP mixture significantly regulated the sleep latency, duration (pHTP mixture modulates both GABAergic and serotonergic signaling. Moreover, the sleep architecture can be controlled by the regulation of GABAA receptor and GABA content with 5-HTP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of adhesion promoting monomer addition to MMA-TBBO resin on bonding to pure palladium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Hiroyuki; Murahara, Sadaaki; Muraguchi, Koichi; Sakoguchi, Kenji; Suzuki, Shiro; Tanaka, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of combined use of metal primers and modified monomers on the bonding of MMA-TBBO resins to pure palladium (Pd). Bonding surface was polished with 600-grit silicon carbide paper and primed with one of these four metal primers: V-Primer, M. L. Primer, Metaltite, or Alloy Primer. Four monomers, including three modified ones, were added to MMATBBO resin. One was a methyl methacrylate monomer containing no adhesion promoting monomers, while the other two modified monomers contained the functional monomer of either V-Primer or Alloy Primer. Bonded specimens were prepared by incremental build-up of MMA-TBBO resin on primed Pd surfaces. Shear bond strengths were measured after thermal cycling. Bonding to Pd was significantly improved when modified monomer containing the functional monomer of Alloy Primer was used in combination with M. L. Primer or Metaltite applied on the bonding surface.

  13. Ce - promoted catalyst from hydrotalcites for CO2 reforming of methane: calcination temperature effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Daza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce-promoted Ni-catalysts from hydrotalcites were obtained. The effect of calcination temperature on the chemical and physical properties of the catalysts was studied. Several techniques were used to determine the chemical and physical characteristics of oxides. The apparent activation energies of reduction were determined. Catalytic experiments at 48 L g-1h-1 without pre-reduction in CO2 reforming of methane were performed. The spinel-like phase in these oxides was only formed at 1000 ºC. The reduction of Ni2+ in the oxides was clearly affected by the calcination temperature which was correlated with catalytic performance. The catalyst calcined at 700 ºC showed the greatest activity.

  14. Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gao-feng; Sun, Bo; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2009-08-01

    The effects of five domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwaving, boiling, stir-frying, and stir-frying followed by boiling (stir-frying/boiling), on the nutrients and health-promoting compounds of broccoli were investigated. The results show that all cooking treatments, except steaming, caused significant losses of chlorophyll and vitamin C and significant decreases of total soluble proteins and soluble sugars. Total aliphatic and indole glucosinolates were significantly modified by all cooking treatments but not by steaming. In general, the steaming led to the lowest loss of total glucosinolates, while stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling presented the highest loss. Stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling, the two most popular methods for most homemade dishes in China, cause great losses of chlorophyll, soluble protein, soluble sugar, vitamin C, and glucosinolates, but the steaming method appears the best in retention of the nutrients in cooking broccoli.

  15. Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gao-feng; Sun, Bo; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2009-01-01

    The effects of five domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwaving, boiling, stir-frying, and stir-frying followed by boiling (stir-frying/boiling), on the nutrients and health-promoting compounds of broccoli were investigated. The results show that all cooking treatments, except steaming, caused significant losses of chlorophyll and vitamin C and significant decreases of total soluble proteins and soluble sugars. Total aliphatic and indole glucosinolates were significantly modified by all cooking treatments but not by steaming. In general, the steaming led to the lowest loss of total glucosinolates, while stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling presented the highest loss. Stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling, the two most popular methods for most homemade dishes in China, cause great losses of chlorophyll, soluble protein, soluble sugar, vitamin C, and glucosinolates, but the steaming method appears the best in retention of the nutrients in cooking broccoli. PMID:19650196

  16. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11–13 year old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Breiting, Søren; Perez-Cuetoa, Federico J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to pro- vide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils’ attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food...... and health. An observational cross-sectional study was designed, and the participants were 6th grade Danish pupils from two schools with organic food provision and two schools with non-organic food provision. The pupils were asked to complete an online adapted food frequency questionnaire, after which...... selected pupils were invited to focus group interviews. More positive school lunch habits were observed in pupils in the organic schools than in the non-organic schools. Generally all the pupils had positive attitudes towards organic food and health and this had a significant impact on their intention...

  17. Household structure vs. composition: Understanding gendered effects on educational progress in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. Objective: We offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household in rural South Africa. Methods: We use data from the 2002 round of the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System. Our analytical sample includes 22,997 children aged 6‒18 who were neither parents themselves nor lived with a partner or partner's family. We employ ordinary least squares regression models to examine the effects of structure and composition on educational progress of girls and boys. Results: Non-nuclear structures are associated with similar negative effects for both boys and girls compared to children growing up in nuclear households. However, the presence of other kin in the absence of one or both parents results in gendered effects favouring boys. Conclusions: The absence of any gendered effects when using a household structure typology suggests that secular changes to attitudes about gender equity trump any specific gendered processes stemming from particular configurations. On the other hand, gendered effects that appear when one or both parents are absent show that traditional gender norms and/or resource constraints continue to favour boys. Contribution: We have shown the value of unpacking household structure to better understand how gender norms and gendered resource allocations are linked to an important outcome for children in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum hall effect state.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei; Crawford, Matthew; Tallakulam, Madhu; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2010-10-01

    We wish to present in this report experimental results from a one-year Senior Council Tier-1 LDRD project that focused on understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall effect state. We first give a general introduction to the quantum Hall effect, and then present the experimental results on the edge-state transport in a special fractional quantum Hall effect state at Landau level filling {nu} = 5/2 - a possible non-Abelian quantum Hall state. This state has been at the center of current basic research due to its potential applications in fault-resistant topological quantum computation. We will also describe the semiconductor 'Hall-bar' devices we used in this project. Electron physics in low dimensional systems has been one of the most exciting fields in condensed matter physics for many years. This is especially true of quantum Hall effect (QHE) physics, which has seen its intellectual wealth applied in and has influenced many seemingly unrelated fields, such as the black hole physics, where a fractional QHE-like phase has been identified. Two Nobel prizes have been awarded for discoveries of quantum Hall effects: in 1985 to von Klitzing for the discovery of integer QHE, and in 1998 to Tsui, Stormer, and Laughlin for the discovery of fractional QHE. Today, QH physics remains one of the most vibrant research fields, and many unexpected novel quantum states continue to be discovered and to surprise us, such as utilizing an exotic, non-Abelian FQHE state at {nu} = 5/2 for fault resistant topological computation. Below we give a briefly introduction of the quantum Hall physics.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of a New Nordic Diet as a Strategy for Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Dejgård Jensen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate diets constitute an important health risk and an increasing environmental burden. Healthy regional diets may contribute to meeting this dual challenge. A palatable, healthy and sustainable New Nordic diet (NND based on organic products from the Nordic region has been developed. This study assesses whether a large-scale introduction of NND is a cost-effective health promotion strategy by combining an economic model for estimating the utility-maximizing composition of NND, a life cycle assessment model to assess environmental effects of the dietary change, and a health impact model to assess impacts on the disease burden. Consumer expenditure for food and beverages in the NND is about 16% higher than currently, with the largest relative difference in low-income households. Environmental loads from food consumption are 15%–25% lower, and more than 18,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALY will be saved per year in Denmark. NND exhibits a cost-effectiveness ratio of about €73,000–94,000 per DALY saved. This cost-effectiveness improves considerably, if the NND’s emphasis on organic and Nordic-origin products is relaxed.

  20. [Screening and identification of endophytic fungi with growth promoting effect on Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-qiang; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic fungi with plant growth promoting effects were screened by co-culture of each endophytic fungus and seedlings of Dendrobium officinale. Anatomical features of the inoculated roots were studied by paraffin sectioning. Morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 sequences were applied for the taxonomy of endophytic fungi. The results showed that 8 strains inoculated to D. officinale seedlings greatly enhanced plant height, stem diameter, new roots number and biomass. According to the anatomical features of the inoculated roots, each fungus could infect the velamina of seedlings. The hyphae or pelotons were existed in the exodermis passage cells and cortex cells. The effective fungi could not infect the endodermis and vascular bundle sheath, but which was exception for other fungi with harmful to seedlings. Combined with classic morphologic classification, 2 effective strains were identified which were subjected to Pestalotiopsis and Eurotium. Six species of fungi without conidiophore belonged to Pyrenochaeta, Coprinellus, Pholiota, Alternaria, Helotiales, which were identified by sequencing the PCR-amplified rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 regions. The co-culture technology of effective endophytic fungi and plant can apply to cultivate the seedlings of D. officinale. It is feasible to shorten growth cycle of D. officinale and increase the resource of Chinese herbs.

  1. The effect of 5-HTT gene promoter polymorphism on impulsivity depends on family relations in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paaver, Marika; Kurrikoff, Triin; Nordquist, Niklas; Oreland, Lars; Harro, Jaanus

    2008-07-01

    The short (S) allele of the 5-HTT gene promoter region polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), in combination with adverse environmental influence, leads to higher likelihood of depression. Impulsivity has been related to low serotonin turnover, poor regulation of affect, and problems in the family, including child maltreatment. The current study explored the effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene and adverse family environment on impulsivity in adolescents. Healthy adolescents participating in the Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (n=483) filled the Adaptive and Maladaptive Impulsivity Scale (AMIS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), a scale measuring family relations, and were genotyped. While genotype alone was not associated with thoughtlessness, BIS-11 impulsiveness, fast decision-making or excitement seeking, 5-HTTLPR S allele carriers, however, had higher scores of disinhibition. In girls carrying the S allele, scores of thoughtlessness and disinhibition depended on family relations, being higher with less warmth in the family. Adverse family relations had no effect on impulsivity in girls with LL genotype. In boys, the effects of family relations on maladaptive impulsivity did not depend on genotype. However, the S allele and high maltreatment in the family both independently increased disinhibition and the BIS-11 score in boys. Family environment and the 5-HTTLPR genotype had no interactive effect on excitement seeking or fast decision-making. In summary, carrying the S allele may lead to high maladaptive impulsivity due to higher sensitivity to environmental adversity, which is more significantly expressed in girls.

  2. Potential deleterious effects of promoting the use of ceftriaxone in the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Matthew R; Barbee, Lindley A; Kerani, Roxanne; Dombrowski, Julia C

    2014-10-01

    US gonorrhea treatment guidelines recently changed to promote ceftriaxone as first-line therapy. Because ceftriaxone requires intramuscular administration, this could lead some patients to go untreated. We used an arithmetic model to compare the number of persons with gonorrhea who would be successfully treated with continued use of oral therapies versus exclusive use of ceftriaxone. Our base case scenario assumed the following: decreased cefixime susceptibility in 2% of heterosexuals and 5% of men who have sex with men, baseline oral therapy in 30% of heterosexuals and 15% of men who have sex with men, oral treatment failure in 10% of decreased susceptibility cases, and baseline patient-delivered partner therapy use in 30% of heterosexuals. Considering only effects on index cases, universal ceftriaxone use would result in fewer cures if at least 5% of oral therapy recipients go untreated with the change in treatment practice. Exclusive ceftriaxone use consistently led to fewer infected persons being cured when the model incorporated partner treatment effects and assumed that the change in treatment practices eliminated the use of patient delivered partner therapy. If oral treatment were 75% effective against decreased susceptibility gonorrhea, exclusive ceftriaxone use would likely increase cure rates in persons with decreased susceptibility gonorrhea, but could diminish them in persons with gonorrhea overall. At least in the short term, eliminating oral therapy for gonorrhea will likely have small effects on decreased susceptibility treatment failures and could increase gonorrhea rates overall.

  3. Practical skills teaching in contemporary surgical education: how can educational theory be applied to promote effective learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Kneebone, Roger

    2012-09-01

    Teaching practical skills is a core component of undergraduate and postgraduate surgical education. It is crucial to optimize our current learning and teaching models, particularly in a climate of decreased clinical exposure. This review explores the role of educational theory in promoting effective learning in practical skills teaching. Peer-reviewed publications, books, and online resources from national bodies (eg, the UK General Medical Council) were reviewed. This review highlights several aspects of surgical education, modeling them on current educational theory. These include the following: (1) acquisition and retention of motor skills (Miller's triangle; Fitts' and Posner's theory), (2) development of expertise after repeated practice and regular reinforcement (Ericsson's theory), (3) importance of the availability of expert assistance (Vygotsky's theory), (4) learning within communities of practice (Lave and Wenger's theory), (5) importance of feedback in learning practical skills (Boud, Schon, and Endes' theories), and (6) affective component of learning. It is hoped that new approaches to practical skills teaching are designed in light of our understanding of educational theory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. “I am active”: effects of a program to promote active aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba NM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neyda Ma Mendoza-Ruvalcaba,1 Elva Dolores Arias-Merino2 1Health Sciences Department, University of Guadalajara, University Center of Tonala Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; 2Public Health Department, University of Guadalajara, University Center of Health Sciences, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico Background: Active aging involves a general lifestyle strategy that allows preservation of both physical and mental health during the aging process. “I am Active” is a program designed to promote active aging by increased physical activity, healthy nutritional habits, and cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this program. Methods: Sixty-four healthy adults aged 60 years or older were recruited from senior centers and randomly allocated to an experimental group (n=31 or a control group (n=33. Baseline, post-test, and 6-month follow-up assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Effect sizes were calculated. Results: At the conclusion of the program, the experimental group showed significant improvement compared with the control group in the following domains: physical activity (falls risk, balance, flexibility, self-efficacy, nutrition (self-efficacy and nutritional status, cognitive performance (processing speed and self-efficacy, and quality of life (general, health and functionality, social and economic status. Although some declines were reported, improvements at follow-up remained in self-efficacy for physical activity, self-efficacy for nutrition, and processing speed, and participants had better nutritional status and quality of life overall. Conclusion: Our findings show that this program promotes improvements in domains of active aging, mainly in self-efficacy beliefs as well as in quality of life in healthy elders. Keywords: active aging, successful aging, intervention program, randomized controlled trial

  5. Nickel allergy-promoting effects of microbial or inflammatory substances at the sensitization step in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Harue; Kinbara, Masayuki; Sato, Naoki; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2011-10-01

    Microbial components stimulate innate immunity via Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), and/or IL-1. We recently reported that in mice, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TLR4-ligand) promotes allergic responses to nickel (Ni) at both the sensitization and elicitation steps. Here, we examined in mice the effects of administering other microbial or inflammatory materials at the Ni-sensitization step. A mixture of 1mM NiCl(2) and a test solution was injected into BALB/c mice intraperitoneally (0.1 ml/10 g body weight), and 10 days later 5mM NiCl(2) was challenged intradermally into the ear pinnas of the mice (20 μl/ear). The following preparations or substances exhibited adjuvant activities: Prevotella intermedia LPS, Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan, a synthetic muramyl dipeptide (NOD2-stimulating cell-wall component of bacteria), Pam(3)Cys-SKKKK (TLR2-stimulating synthetic peptide), poly I:C (TLR3-stimulating double-stranded RNA), concanavalin A (a typical T-cell mitogen and T-cell-mediated hepatitis-inducer), heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes (Gram-positive bacterium that causes pimples and induces macrophage-mediated experimental hepatitis), and nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (chemicals stimulating IL-1 production). Unexpectedly, P. intermedia LPS, which displayed the most potent adjuvant activity among the tested preparations, was effective in TLR4-dysfunctional mutant mice, but not in TLR2-deficient mice, whereas the reverse was true for S. cerevisiae mannan. These results suggest that (i) for the establishment of Ni-allergy in mice, stimulation of innate immunity (including TLRs, NLRs, IL-1 production, and/or other factors) may be important at the sensitization step, and (ii) P. intermedia may produce a substance(s) that potently promotes Ni-allergy via stimulation of TLR2. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria on Quantitative and Qualitative Yield of Forage Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to investigate the effect of growth-promoting bacteria on yield and some traits of maize. This experiment was performed as a factorial randomized complete block design with three replications at research farm of Islamic Azad University, Izeh branch, Iran. The experimental factors included four strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescent 169 (B1, Pseudomonas fluorescent 79 (B2, Pseudomonas putida 108 (B3, Pseudomonas putida 159 (B4 and without bacteria (control, B5 and two corn varieties namely sc 704 (A1 and Bolson (A2. Before planting corn seeds were soaked with liquid inoculation. Plant height, number of leaves per plant and ear, forage yield, dry matter and dry matter digestibility of leaf, stem and ear, crude protein and cell wall without hemicellulose in the leaf, stem and ear were evaluated. Analysis of variances showed that the effects of varieties, bacteria and their interaction on all traits were significant. Plant height, number of leaves per plant and ear, forage yield, dry matter and stem dry matter digestibility were higher in Bolson. Moreover, dry matter digestibility of leaf and ear, crude protein and cell wall without hemicellulose in the leaf, stem and ear of sc 704 were greater, compared to hybrid Bolson. Plant height, number of leaves per plant and ear, forage yield, dry matter and dry matter digestibility of stem and ear were greater in at the presence of fluorescent strains than those of putida strains. The results revealed that bacterial inoculation enhances the grain yield, yield components and quality of forage maize. Bolson seemed potent to outperform sc 704, though this proposition needs further examination in future field trials.

  7. Assessing the effects of data selection and representation on the development of reliable E. coli sigma 70 promoter region predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mostafa M; Mohie-Eldin, Mostafa M; El-Manzalawy, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    As the number of sequenced bacterial genomes increases, the need for rapid and reliable tools for the annotation of functional elements (e.g., transcriptional regulatory elements) becomes more desirable. Promoters are the key regulatory elements, which recruit the transcriptional machinery through binding to a variety of regulatory proteins (known as sigma factors). The identification of the promoter regions is very challenging because these regions do not adhere to specific sequence patterns or motifs and are difficult to determine experimentally. Machine learning represents a promising and cost-effective approach for computational identification of prokaryotic promoter regions. However, the quality of the predictors depends on several factors including: i) training data; ii) data representation; iii) classification algorithms; iv) evaluation procedures. In this work, we create several variants of E. coli promoter data sets and utilize them to experimentally examine the effect of these factors on the predictive performance of E. coli σ70 promoter models. Our results suggest that under some combinations of the first three criteria, a prediction model might perform very well on cross-validation experiments while its performance on independent test data is drastically very poor. This emphasizes the importance of evaluating promoter region predictors using independent test data, which corrects for the over-optimistic performance that might be estimated using the cross-validation procedure. Our analysis of the tested models shows that good prediction models often perform well despite how the non-promoter data was obtained. On the other hand, poor prediction models seems to be more sensitive to the choice of non-promoter sequences. Interestingly, the best performing sequence-based classifiers outperform the best performing structure-based classifiers on both cross-validation and independent test performance evaluation experiments. Finally, we propose a meta

  8. Assessing the effects of data selection and representation on the development of reliable E. coli sigma 70 promoter region predictors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M Abbas

    Full Text Available As the number of sequenced bacterial genomes increases, the need for rapid and reliable tools for the annotation of functional elements (e.g., transcriptional regulatory elements becomes more desirable. Promoters are the key regulatory elements, which recruit the transcriptional machinery through binding to a variety of regulatory proteins (known as sigma factors. The identification of the promoter regions is very challenging because these regions do not adhere to specific sequence patterns or motifs and are difficult to determine experimentally. Machine learning represents a promising and cost-effective approach for computational identification of prokaryotic promoter regions. However, the quality of the predictors depends on several factors including: i training data; ii data representation; iii classification algorithms; iv evaluation procedures. In this work, we create several variants of E. coli promoter data sets and utilize them to experimentally examine the effect of these factors on the predictive performance of E. coli σ70 promoter models. Our results suggest that under some combinations of the first three criteria, a prediction model might perform very well on cross-validation experiments while its performance on independent test data is drastically very poor. This emphasizes the importance of evaluating promoter region predictors using independent test data, which corrects for the over-optimistic performance that might be estimated using the cross-validation procedure. Our analysis of the tested models shows that good prediction models often perform well despite how the non-promoter data was obtained. On the other hand, poor prediction models seems to be more sensitive to the choice of non-promoter sequences. Interestingly, the best performing sequence-based classifiers outperform the best performing structure-based classifiers on both cross-validation and independent test performance evaluation experiments. Finally, we propose a

  9. Tree growth variation in the tropical forest: understanding effects of temperature, rainfall and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Peter; Sterck, Frank; Vlam, Mart; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-01-28

    Tropical forest responses to climatic variability have important consequences for global carbon cycling, but are poorly understood. As empirical, correlative studies cannot disentangle the interactive effects of climatic variables on tree growth, we used a tree growth model (IBTREE) to unravel the climate effects on different physiological pathways and in turn on stem growth variation. We parameterized the model for canopy trees of Toona ciliata (Meliaceae) from a Thai monsoon forest and compared predicted and measured variation from a tree-ring study over a 30-year period. We used historical climatic variation of minimum and maximum day temperature, precipitation and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in different combinations to estimate the contribution of each climate factor in explaining the inter-annual variation in stem growth. Running the model with only variation in maximum temperature and rainfall yielded stem growth patterns that explained almost 70% of the observed inter-annual variation in stem growth. Our results show that maximum temperature had a strong negative effect on the stem growth by increasing respiration, reducing stomatal conductance and thus mitigating a higher transpiration demand, and - to a lesser extent - by directly reducing photosynthesis. Although stem growth was rather weakly sensitive to rain, stem growth variation responded strongly and positively to rainfall variation owing to the strong inter-annual fluctuations in rainfall. Minimum temperature and atmospheric CO 2 concentration did not significantly contribute to explaining the inter-annual variation in stem growth. Our innovative approach - combining a simulation model with historical data on tree-ring growth and climate - allowed disentangling the effects of strongly correlated climate variables on growth through different physiological pathways. Similar studies on different species and in different forest types are needed to further improve our understanding of the sensitivity of

  10. Effect of Trichoderma on horticultural seedlings' growth promotion depending on inoculum and substrate type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Guirao, J I; Rodríguez-Romera, P; Lupión-Rodríguez, B; Camacho-Ferre, F; Tello-Marquina, J C

    2016-10-01

    The biostimulant effect of Trichoderma spp. on horticultural crops are highly variable. Thus, practical use of Trichoderma sp. requires feasible formulated products and suitable substrates. This study evaluates the survival and the growth-promotion effect of a Trichoderma saturnisporum rice formulation compared with a nonformulated conidia suspension (seven treatments in total), on tomato, pepper and cucumber seedlings grown in two substrates: (i) rich in organic matter (OM) and (ii) mineral substrate without OM. The results showed beneficial effects on seedling growth in the OM-rich substrate when T. saturnisporum rice formulation (mainly at maximum concentration) was applied, but the effects were opposite when the mineral substrate without OM was used. The effects were closely linked to the level of inoculum in the substrate, which was greater upon application of the formulated inoculum as opposed to the nonformulated one. The use of rice to prepare the inoculum of T. saturnisporum seems to be promising for seedling growth in the nursery when it is applied in a substrate that is rich in organic matter, but it must be considered that under certain conditions of food shortage, Trichoderma sp. could show pathogenicity to seedlings. This study provides evidence of the complexity inherent in the use of micro-organisms in agriculture, while also confirming that the activity of the biofertilizers based on Trichoderma depends on the type of inoculum and its concentration, as well as the properties of the medium in which the fungi develop. Further studies assessing the effectiveness or possible pathogenicity of Trichoderma in different soils under greenhouse conditions must be addressed. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Effects of a Program to Promote High Quality Parenting by Divorced and Separated Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin; Gunn, Heather; Mazza, Gina; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Berkel, Cady; Jones, Sarah; Porter, Michele

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports on the effects on parenting and on children's mental health problems and competencies from a randomized trial of a parenting program for divorced and separated fathers. The program, New Beginnings Program-Dads (NBP-Dads), includes ten group sessions (plus two phone sessions) which promote parenting skills to increase positive interactions with children, improve father-child communication, use of effective discipline strategies, and skills to protect children from exposure to interparental conflict. The program was adapted from the New Beginnings Program, which has been tested in two randomized trials with divorced mothers and shown to strengthen mothers' parenting and improve long-term outcomes for children (Wolchik et al. 2007). Fathers were randomly assigned to receive either NBP-Dads or a 2-session active comparison program. The sample consisted of 384 fathers (201 NBP-Dads, 183 comparisons) and their children. Assessments using father, youth, and teacher reports were conducted at pretest, posttest, and 10-month follow-up. Results indicated positive effects of NBP-Dads to strengthen parenting as reported by fathers and youth at posttest and 10-month follow-up. Program effects to reduce child internalizing problems and increase social competence were found at 10 months. Many of the program effects were moderated by baseline level of the variable, child age, gender, and father ethnicity. This is the first randomized trial to find significant effects to strengthen father parenting following divorce. In view of recent changes in family courts to allot fathers increasing amounts of parenting time following divorce, the results have significant implications for improving outcomes for children from divorced families.

  12. Do participant characteristics influence the effectiveness of behavioral interventions? Promoting condom use to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legardy, Jennifer K; Macaluso, Maurizio; Artz, Lynn; Brill, Ilene

    2005-11-01

    This study assessed whether participant baseline characteristics modified the effects of a skill-based intervention promoting condom use. The randomized, controlled trial enrolled 427 women from a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Birmingham, Alabama. The main outcome measures: consistent (100%) and problem-free (correct, no breakage or slippage) condom use were verified by sexual diary self-report and contraceptive product counts. The enhanced intervention group had a 60% higher consistent condom use rate compared to the basic group (risk ratio [RR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-1.8). There was no statistically significant difference between groups in relationship to problem-free, consistent use (RR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.9-1.1). A binomial regression analysis identified the following factors as significant modifiers of intervention effectiveness on consistent condom use: intention to use condoms next time, early-age sexual debut, marital status combined with place of intercourse, and substance use before sex. The results suggest that participant baseline characteristics can be modifiers of intervention effectiveness.

  13. Radiation-induced degradation of sodium alginate and its plant growth promotion effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Abd El-Mohdy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Alginate was irradiated as a solid with 60Co gamma rays in the dose range of 20–100 kGy to investigate the effect of radiation on alginates. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses which occurs with addition of chemical initiator to NaAlg during irradiation process that leads to a synergistic effect, which remarkably increases the degradation efficiency of alginate. The factors affecting the degradation process such as irradiation dose and potassium per-sulfate (KPS addition were studied. The average molecular weight of the irradiated alginate was investigated in detail by using several complementary techniques such as chromatography and viscometry. The lowest molecular weight of alginate resulted at 100 kGy and added KPS, whereas the highest one at 20 kGy in absence of KPS. Characterization of the oligoalginates obtained by radiation degradation was performed by FT-IR and UV–vis spectroscopy, XRD and TGA. The effect of water-soluble radiation-induced alginate fractions on the growth promotion of Faba bean plant was studied. The highest plant growth and seed yield compared with control occurred for plants sprayed with low molecular weight NaAlg fractions (treated with 100 kGy and added KPS.

  14. Composition-Effects of Context-based Learning Opportunities on Students' Understanding of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podschuweit, Sören; Bernholt, Sascha

    2017-05-01

    Context-based learning has become a widespread approach in science education. While positive motivational effects of such approaches have been well established empirically, clear results regarding cognitive aspects of students' learning are still missing. In this article, we argue that this circumstance might be mainly rooted in the definition of context itself. Based on this argument, we shift from the issue of if contexts are cognitively beneficial to focus on the question of which composition of contexts is, at least by tendency, more effective than another. Based on theories of conceptual change, we therefore conducted a small-scale intervention study comparing two groups of students learning in different sets of contexts focusing on the same scientific concept—the cross-cutting concept of energy. Results suggest that learning in a more heterogeneous set of contexts eases transfer to new contexts in comparison to learning in a more homogeneous set of contexts. However, a more abstract understanding of the energy concept does not seem to be fostered by either of these approaches. Theoretical as well as practical implications of these finding are discussed.

  15. Effectiveness of the Wavelet Transform on the Surface EMG to Understand the Muscle Fatigue During Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. S.; Mamun, Md.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is the decline in ability of a muscle to create force. Electromyography (EMG) is a medical technique for measuring muscle response to nervous stimulation. During a sustained muscle contraction, the power spectrum of the EMG shifts towards lower frequencies. These effects are due to muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue is often a result of unhealthy work practice. In this research, the effectiveness of the wavelet transform applied to the surface EMG (SEMG) signal as a means of understanding muscle fatigue during walk is presented. Power spectrum and bispectrum analysis on the EMG signal getting from right rectus femoris muscle is executed utilizing various wavelet functions (WFs). It is possible to recognize muscle fatigue appreciably with the proper choice of the WF. The outcome proves that the most momentous changes in the EMG power spectrum are symbolized by WF Daubechies45. Moreover, this research has compared bispectrum properties to the other WFs. To determine muscle fatigue during gait, Daubechies45 is used in this research to analyze the SEMG signal.

  16. A transdisciplinary approach to understanding the health effects of wildfire and prescribed fire smoke regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, G. J.; Bowman, D. M. J. S.; Price, O. F.; Henderson, S. B.; Johnston, F. H.

    2016-12-01

    Prescribed burning is used to reduce the occurrence, extent and severity of uncontrolled fires in many flammable landscapes. However, epidemiologic evidence of the human health impacts of landscape fire smoke emissions is shaping fire management practice through increasingly stringent environmental regulation and public health policy. An unresolved question, critical for sustainable fire management, concerns the comparative human health effects of smoke from wild and prescribed fires. Here we review current knowledge of the health effects of landscape fire emissions and consider the similarities and differences in smoke from wild and prescribed fires with respect to the typical combustion conditions and fuel properties, the quality and magnitude of air pollution emissions, and the potential for dispersion to large populations. We further examine the interactions between these considerations, and how they may shape the longer term smoke regimes to which populations are exposed. We identify numerous knowledge gaps and propose a conceptual framework that describes pathways to better understanding of the health trade-offs of prescribed and wildfire smoke regimes.

  17. Understanding the effects of electronic polarization and delocalization on charge-transport levels in oligoacene systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sutton, Christopher

    2017-06-13

    Electronic polarization and charge delocalization are important aspects that affect the charge-transport levels in organic materials. Here, using a quantum mechanical/ embedded-charge (QM/EC) approach based on a combination of the long-range corrected omega B97X-D exchange-correlation functional (QM) and charge model 5 (CM5) point-charge model (EC), we evaluate the vertical detachment energies and polarization energies of various sizes of crystalline and amorphous anionic oligoacene clusters. Our results indicate that QM/EC calculations yield vertical detachment energies and polarization energies that compare well with the experimental values obtained from ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy measurements. In order to understand the effect of charge delocalization on the transport levels, we considered crystalline naphthalene systems with QM regions including one or five-molecules. The results for these systems show that the delocalization and polarization effects are additive; therefore, allowing for electron delocalization by increasing the size of the QM region leads to the additional stabilization of the transport levels. Published by AIP Publishing.

  18. Individual differences in children's emotion understanding: Effects of age and language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; Lawson, J.: Harris, P.; Rosnay, M. de

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, it has been established that children's emotion understanding changes as they develop. Recent studies have also begun to address individual differences in children's emotion understanding. The first goal of this study was to examine the development of these individual...... differences across a wide age range with a test assessing nine different components of emotion understanding. The second goal was to examine the relation between language ability and individual differences in emotion understanding. Eighty children ranging in age from 4 to 11 years were tested. Children...... displayed a clear improvement with age in both their emotion understanding and language ability. In each age group, there were clear individual differences in emotion understanding and language ability. Age and language ability together explained 72% of emotion understanding variance; 20% of this variance...

  19. Cost effectiveness of a telephone intervention to promote dilated fundus examination in adults with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde B Schechter

    2008-05-01

    , but would cost approximately 17% less. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the 5th and 95th percentiles of the cost-effectiveness ratio were US$304.05 and US$692.52 per DFE gained, respectively. Our telephone intervention is more expensive than simple mail or telephone reminders used in other settings to promote preventive care; it is, however, also considerably more effective, and is effective in a low-income minority population at greater risk for diabetes complications. The costs are dominated by labor costs, and may be substantially defrayed, without loss of effectiveness, by restricting the number of telephone calls to 5 per patient.Keywords: cost-effectiveness, diabetes mellitus, dilated fundus examination

  20. Understanding uncertainty in temperature effects on vector-borne disease: a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leah R; Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D; McNally, Amy; Mordecai, Erin; Paaijmans, Krijn P; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic environmental factors influence the distribution and population dynamics of many organisms, including insects that are of concern for human health and agriculture. This is particularly true for vector-borne infectious diseases like malaria, which is a major source of morbidity and mortality in humans. Understanding the mechanistic links between environment and population processes for these diseases is key to predicting the consequences of climate change on transmission and for developing effective interventions. An important measure of the intensity of disease transmission is the reproductive number R0. However, understanding the mechanisms linking R0 and temperature, an environmental factor driving disease risk, can be challenging because the data available for parameterization are often poor. To address this, we show how a Bayesian approach can help identify critical uncertainties in components of R0 and how this uncertainty is propagated into the estimate of R0. Most notably, we find that different parameters dominate the uncertainty at different temperature regimes: bite rate from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C; fecundity across all temperatures, but especially approximately 25-32 degrees C; mortality from 20 degrees C to 30 degrees C; parasite development rate at degrees 15-16 degrees C and again at approximately 33-35 degrees C. Focusing empirical studies on these parameters and corresponding temperature ranges would be the most efficient way to improve estimates of R0. While we focus on malaria, our methods apply to improving process-based models more generally, including epidemiological, physiological niche, and species distribution models.