WorldWideScience

Sample records for understand pesticide behavior

  1. Understanding Pesticide Risks: Toxicity and Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Muntz, Helen; Miller, Rhonda; Alston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about pesticide risks to human health, primary means of pesticide exposure, standardized measures of pesticide toxicity, pesticide signal words and type of pesticide formulations.

  2. Behavior of pesticides in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan A. Norris

    1974-01-01

    A number of chemicals of diverse characteristics have arbitrarily been classed together on the basis of their use and given the descriptive name "pesticides." An unfortunate aura of mystery has developed about these chemicals. However, there is nothing unique or mysterious about the chemicals we refer to as "pesticides." Like other chemicals, they...

  3. "Causes" of pesticide safety behavior change in Latino farmworker families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Arcury, Thomas A; Talton, Jennifer W; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Trejo, Grisel; Mirabelli, Maria C; Quandt, Sara A

    2013-07-01

    To identify the source of behavior change resulting from a health education intervention focused on pesticide safety. Data were from the La Familia Sana demonstration project, a promotora-delivered pesticide safety education intervention conducted with immigrant Latinos (N = 610). The La Familia Sana program produced changes in 3 sets of pesticide safety behaviors. Changes in the conceptual targets of the intervention and promotora attributes explained 0.45-6% and 0.5-3% of the changes in pesticide-related behavior, respectively. The conceptual targets of the La Familia Sana program explained the greatest amount of change in pesticide-related behavior. Promotora attributes also contributed to intervention success.

  4. Pesticide Risk Communication, Risk Perception, and Self-Protective Behaviors among Farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Leckie, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use is the highest of any industry, yet there is little research evaluating farmworkers' understandings of the health risks chemical exposure poses. This study examines pesticide education, risk perception, and self-protective behaviors among farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley. Fifty current and former farmworkers…

  5. Pesticide spray application, behavior, and assessment: workshop proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Roberts

    1976-01-01

    Experts from relevant disciplines exchanged information on three important problems of pesticide spray technology. The four papers presented are Physical Parameters Relating to Pesticide Applications by N. B. Akesson and W. E. Yates; The Micrometeorology and Physics of Spray Particle Behavior by H. E. Cramer and D. G. Boyle;

  6. Challenges in human behavior understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.; Sebe, N.; Vinciarelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in pattern recognition has allowed computer scientists and psychologists to jointly address automatic analysis of of human behavior via computers. The Workshop on Human Behavior Understanding at the International Conference on Pattern Recognition explores a number of different

  7. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome...

  8. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome,...

  9. Understanding the Occurrence and Transport of Current-use Pesticides in the San Francisco Estuary Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Kuivila

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and potential effects of current-use pesticides are of concern in the San Francisco Estuary watershed but our understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of contamination is limited. This paper summarizes almost two decades of historical data and uses it to describe our current knowledge of the processes controlling the occurrence of current-use pesticides in the watershed. Monitoring studies analyze fewer than half of the pesticides applied in the watershed and most of our knowledge is about inputs of dissolved pesticides in the upper watershed. The four major seasonal patterns of riverine inputs of pesticides to the estuary can be identified by usage and transport mechanism. Dormant spray insecticides applied to orchards and herbicides applied to a variety of crops are transported by rainfall during the winter. Alfalfa pesticides are detected following rainfall and irrigation return flow in the spring, and rice pesticides are detected following release of rice field water in the summer. Irrigation return flows transport a variety of herbicides during the summer. In addition, pesticides applied on Delta islands can cause elevated pesticide concentrations in localized areas. Although not as well characterized, urban creeks appear to have their own patterns of insecticide concentrations causing toxicity throughout most of the year. Current-use pesticides have also been detected on suspended and bed sediments throughout the watershed but limited data make it difficult to determine occurrence patterns. Data gaps include the lack of analysis of many pesticides (or degradates, changing pesticide use, limited information on pesticide transport within the Delta, and an incomplete understanding of the transport and persistence of sediment-associated pesticides. Future monitoring programs should be designed to address these data gaps.

  10. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few. Top of Page How do pesticides work? Pesticides are designed to interfere with some biological or chemical pathway critical to the survival of the pest to which it is targeted. When the pesticide interrupts these pathways, the target organism dies. Top ...

  11. Understanding the Science behind EPA’s Pesticide Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science is key to EPA’s decision-making. EPA scientists review these data to determine whether to register a pesticide product or use and any need for specific restrictions. EPA maintains a transparent, public process in assessing potential human health ri

  12. Effects of pesticides and antibiotics on penaeid shrimp with special emphases on behavioral and biomarker responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to provide information on the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of pesticides and antibiotics used in aquaculture on penaeid shrimp, one of the most common aquatic products for human consumption, with a special emphasis on the use of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical response. These include behavior; feeding rate changes; respiration rate, oxygen consumption, and osmoregulation alterations; nucleic acids, protein, and glycogen synthesis; cholinesterase activity inhibition; ATPase activity; and oxidative stress responses. This paper also deals with residues of antibiotics and pesticides in penaeid shrimp. Antibiotics and pesticides used in aquaculture may have adverse effects on treated animals and human consumers health if they are not correctly used. As a complement to the measurement of antibiotic and pesticide residues in tissues, the use of behavioral and biomarker responses can provide more relevant biological information on the potential adverse effects of antibiotics and pesticides on penaeid shrimp health. (c) 2009 SETAC.

  13. Lethal and behavioral effects of selected novel pesticides on adults of Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Hizbullah; Ruberson, John R

    2015-12-01

    Growing demand for reduced chemical inputs in agricultural systems requires more effective integration of biological control with pesticides. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important natural enemy of lepidopteran pests, used in biological control. In an investigation of the interaction of T. pretiosum and pesticides, we studied the acute toxicity of 19 pesticides (insecticides, miticides, fungicides and herbicides) to adult parasitoids and the behavioral effects of 11 pesticides on foraging parasitoid females, including host antennation, stinging and host feeding. At recommended field doses, fipronil, dinotefuran, spinetoram, tolfenpyrad and abamectin induced nearly 100% adult mortality within 24 h of exposure to treated cotton leaves by comparison with controls. Acetamiprid was also toxic, but significantly less so than the former materials. The other pesticides had no significant toxic effects. Only glufosinate ammonium exhibited increased toxicity among the non-toxic materials when increased two- or fourfold over recommended rates. The foraging behavior of parasitoids was affected only by tolfenpyrad among the materials tested. Most novel pesticides, except for several insecticides, exhibited little to no acute toxicity to the parasitoid. Parasitoid foraging behavior was only affected by tolfenpyrad, indicating that parasitoids could successfully forage on eggs treated with most pesticides evaluated. Therefore, many of these pesticides may have good compatibility with Trichogramma. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Understanding Consumer Buying Behavior in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Bujac, Andreea Ioana

    2017-01-01

    Recent economic growth trends in Africa have raised awareness among businesses about the attractiveness of its market potential. There is therefore an increasing academic interest in understanding the attitudes, preferences and behavior of African consumers. This chapter reviews some...

  15. Interpreting population estimates of birds following pesticide applications--behavior of male starlings exposed to an organophosphate pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; Shipley, B.J.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    We determined activity budgets for 10 pairs of captive male Starlings between 7 May and 18 July 1980. Our objective was to quantify changes in behavior after exposure to an organophosphate (OP) pesticide and to assess the impact of changes in behavior on the interpretation of population estimates of birds following pesticide applications. We observed each pair of males for an hour at 07:30 and 09:30 for four days and classified their behavior into one of four categories: flying, perching, foraging, or singing and displaying. At 06:30 on day 2, one male received a single oral dose of 2.5 mg dicrotophos (3-hydroxy-N, N-dimethyl-cis-crotonamide dimethyl phosphate) per kg of body weight; the other male received an equivalent exposure of corn oil. Changes in the activity budgets of OP-dosed and control males were compared using t-tests. Activity of OP-dosed males was significantly (P _ 0.05) reduced within the 2-4 h following exposure. OP-dosed males spent more time perching (46.1%) than controls and less time flying (-96.6%), foraging (-28.5%), and singing and displaying (-49.5%). The frequency of perching (-75.3%), flying (-83.8%), foraging (-54.1%), and singing and displaying (- 59.2%) was significantly reduced. Activity in OP-dosed males returned to normal by 26-28 h posttreatment. Results suggest that movement and vocalization may be significantly reduced in birds exposed to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Conventional censusing techniques and population estimating procedures may, therefore, be inadequate to assess changes in bird populations after pesticide applications because of the difficulty in separating decreases in density due to mortality or emigration from reductions in activity.

  16. Electrochemical behavior of parent and photodegradation products of some selected pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Carlos M. P.; Silva Jr., Paulo R. V.; Prado, Isis; Castanho, Giuliane M.; Simões, Fabio R.; Machado, Sérgio A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of pesticides is extensively studied, but little attention has been given to the study of their degradation products (by-products) by electrochemical methods. However, the degradation products of pesticides can be even more toxic then the parent products and such studies should be encouraged. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the electroactivity of by-products of imazaquin, methylparathion, bentazon and atrazine, generated by UV irradiation and mea...

  17. Assessing the effectiveness of the Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit: a curriculum for enhancing farmworkers' understanding of pesticide safety concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePrevost, Catherine E; Storm, Julia F; Asuaje, Cesar R; Arellano, Consuelo; Cope, W Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Among agricultural workers, migrant and seasonal farmworkers have been recognized as a special risk population because these laborers encounter cultural challenges and linguistic barriers while attempting to maintain their safety and health within their working environments. The crop-specific Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit (Toolkit) is a pesticide safety and health curriculum designed to communicate to farmworkers pesticide hazards commonly found in their working environments and to address Worker Protection Standard (WPS) pesticide training criteria for agricultural workers. The goal of this preliminary study was to test evaluation items for measuring knowledge increases among farmworkers and to assess the effectiveness of the Toolkit in improving farmworkers' knowledge of key WPS and risk communication concepts when the Toolkit lesson was delivered by trained trainers in the field. After receiving training on the curriculum, four participating trainers provided lessons using the Toolkit as part of their regular training responsibilities and orally administered a pre- and post-lesson evaluation instrument to 20 farmworker volunteers who were generally representative of the national farmworker population. Farmworker knowledge of pesticide safety messages significantly (PHealth Toolkit is an effective, research-based pesticide safety and health intervention for the at-risk farmworker population and identifies a testing format appropriate for evaluating the Toolkit and other similar interventions for farmworkers in the field.

  18. Understanding behaviors in videos through behavior-specific dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2018-01-01

    Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state...

  19. Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 Organophosphorus Pesticides Using a Zebrafish Behavioral Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 Organophosphorus Pesticides Using a Zebrafish Behavioral Assay, Waalkes, M., Hunter, D.L., Jarema, K., Mundy, W., and S. Padilla. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize organophosphor...

  20. Electrochemical behavior of parent and photodegradation products of some selected pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. P. Vaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical behavior of pesticides is extensively studied, but little attention has been given to the study of their degradation products (by-products by electrochemical methods. However, the degradation products of pesticides can be even more toxic then the parent products and such studies should be encouraged. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the electroactivity of by-products of imazaquin, methylparathion, bentazon and atrazine, generated by UV irradiation and measured using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry and UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry. Results have shown that several by-products exhibit electroactivity, allowing, in some cases, the simultaneous determination of both parent and degradation products.

  1. Understanding behaviors in videos through behavior-specific dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2018-01-01

    Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state...... scalability needs: A dictionary aimed at an abnormality detection purpose may misdetect normal behavior, which rarely happens in training datasets even though it may be very common in daily life. In contrast, a dictionary aimed at action recognition may misclassify a newcoming action category as an existing...... action. Therefore, our Behavior-Specific Dictionaries (BSDs) are constructed to solve these two applications through a unified framework. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first generalized dictionary algorithm that successfully handle with action recognition and abnormality detection...

  2. Understanding consumer decisions using behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Miyapuram, Krishna P; Tobler, Philippe N

    2013-01-01

    Consumers make many decisions in everyday life involving finances, food, and health. It is known from behavioral economics research that people are often driven by short-term gratification, that is, people tend to choose the immediate, albeit smaller reward. But choosing the delayed reward, that is, delaying the gratification, can actually be beneficial. How can we motivate consumers to resist the "now" and invest in their future, leading to sustainable or healthy habits? We review recent developments from behavioral and neuroimaging studies that are relevant for understanding consumer decisions. Further, we present results from our field research that examined whether we can increase the perceived value of a (delayed) environmental benefit using tailored communication, that is, change the way it is framed. More specifically, we investigated whether we can boost the value of an abstract, long-term "green" claim of a product by expressing it as a concrete, short-term benefit. This is a new application area for behavioral economics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Contribution to Surface Water Contamination Understanding by Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals, at a Watershed Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Piel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at understanding the presence of regulated and emerging micropollutants, particularly pesticides and pharmaceuticals, in surface water, regarding spatial and temporal influences at a watershed scale. The study of relations between micropollutants and other water quality and hydroclimatic parameters was carried out from a statistical analysis on historical and experimental data of different sampling sites from the main watershed of Brittany, western France. The outcomes point out the influence of urban and rural areas of the watershed as well as the impact of seasons on contamination variations. This work contributes to health risk assessment related to surface water contamination by micropollutants. This approach is particularly interesting in the case of agricultural watersheds such as the one studied, where more than 80% of surface water is used to produce drinking water.

  4. Developmental neurotoxic effects of two pesticides: Behavior and neuroprotein studies on endosulfan and cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iwa; Eriksson, Per; Fredriksson, Anders; Buratovic, Sonja; Viberg, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals have been of growing interest in recent years due to the increasing reports of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism. Exposure to these substances during early development may lead to adverse behavior effects manifested at a later phase of life. Pesticides are a wide group of chemicals which are still actively used and residues are found in the environment and in food products. The present study investigated the potential developmental neurotoxic effects of two different types of pesticides, endosulfan and cypermethrin, after a single neonatal exposure during a critical period of brain development. Ten-day-old male NMRI mice were administrated an oral dose of endosulfan or cypermethrin (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively). Levels of proteins were measured in the neonatal and adult brain, and adult behavioral testing was performed. The results indicate that both pesticides may induce altered levels of neuroproteins, important for normal brain development, and neurobehavioral abnormalities manifested as altered adult spontaneous behavior and ability to habituate to a novel home environment. The neurotoxic behavioral effects were also presentseveral months after the initial testing, indicating long-lasting or even persistent irreversible effects. Also, the present study suggests a possible link between the altered levels of neuroprotein and changes in behavior when exposed during a critical period of brain development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental neurotoxic effects of two pesticides: Behavior and biomolecular studies on chlorpyrifos and carbaryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Iwa; Eriksson, Per; Fredriksson, Anders; Buratovic, Sonja; Viberg, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, an increased occurrence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as neurodevelopmental delays and cognitive abnormalities has been recognized. Exposure to pesticides has been suspected to be a possible cause of these disorders, as these compounds target the nervous system of pests. Due to the similarities of brain development and composition, these pesticides may also be neurotoxic to humans. We studied two different pesticides, chlorpyrifos and carbaryl, which specifically inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the nervous system. The aim of the study was to investigate if the pesticides can induce neurotoxic effects, when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth and maturation. The results from the present study show that both compounds can affect protein levels in the developing brain and induce persistent adult behavior and cognitive impairments, in mice neonatally exposed to a single oral dose of chlorpyrifos (0.1, 1.0 or 5 mg/kg body weight) or carbaryl (0.5, 5.0 or 20.0 mg/kg body weight) on postnatal day 10. The results also indicate that the developmental neurotoxic effects induced are not related to the classical mechanism of acute cholinergic hyperstimulation, as the AChE inhibition level (8–12%) remained below the threshold for causing systemic toxicity. The neurotoxic effects are more likely caused by a disturbed neurodevelopment, as similar behavioral neurotoxic effects have been reported in studies with pesticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids and POPs, when exposed during a critical window of neonatal brain development. - Highlights: • A single neonatal exposure to chlorpyrifos or carbaryl induced developmental neurotoxic effects. • The neurotoxic effects were not caused by acute AChE inhibition. • The neurotoxic effects manifested as altered levels of neuroproteins in the developing brain. • The neurotoxic effects manifested as adult persistent aberrant behavior and cognitive function.

  6. Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Szlufarska, Izabela [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-10-11

    -induced microstructures mapped spatially and temporally, microstructural evolution during post-irradiation annealing, and atomistic modeling of defect formation and transport energetics will provide new, critical understanding about property changes in ZrC. The behavior of materials under irradiation is determined by the balance between damage production, defect clustering, and lattice response. In order to predict those effects at high temperatures so targeted testing can be expanded and extrapolated beyond the known database, it is necessary to determine the defect energetics and mobilities as these control damage accumulation and annealing. In particular, low-temperature irradiations are invaluable for determining the regions of defect mobility. Computer simulation techniques are particularly useful for identifying basic defect properties, especially if closely coupled with a well-constructed and complete experimental database. The close coupling of calculation and experiment in this project will provide mutual benchmarking and allow us to glean a deeper understanding of the irradiation response of ZrC, which can then be applied to the prediction of its behavior in reactor conditions.

  7. Business Conflict and Risk Regulation: Understanding the Influence of the Pesticide Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Despite the criticism, frequent in the literature, of business influence on the formulation of pesticide risk regulation, there has been remarkably little systematic study of this practice. This article discusses Costa Rica pesticide producers’ business influence on global and national efforts to

  8. Action word understanding and overt motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Volta, Riccardo; Gianelli, Claudia; Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2009-07-01

    Is the motor system involved in language processing? In order to clarify this issue, we carried out three behavioral experiments, using go-no-go and choice paradigms. In all the experiments, we used a semantic decision task with an early delivery of the go signal (during processing language material). Italian verbs expressing hand actions, foot actions or an abstract content served as stimuli. Participants executed intransitive (Experiment 1) or transitive (Experiment 2) actions with their right hand in response to the acoustic presentation of action-related verbs and refrained from responding to abstract verbs. The kinematics of the actions was slowed down by hand action-related verbs when compared with foot action-related verbs. In Experiment 3, hand-related and foot-related verbs were presented. Participants responded to hand-related and foot-related verbs with their hand and their foot (compatible condition) and in another block of trials they responded to hand-related and foot-related verbs with their foot and their hand (incompatible condition), respectively. In the compatible condition, the beginning of the action was faster, whereas the kinematics of the action was slower. The present findings suggest complete activation of verb-related motor programs during language processing. The data are discussed in support of the hypothesis that this complete activation is necessary requisite to understand the exact meaning of action words because goal and consequence of the actions are represented.

  9. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents No. 55; December 2015 There is a great ... the incidence of violent behavior among children and adolescents. This complex and troubling issue needs to be ...

  10. Understanding and Managing Self-Injurious Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirpoli, Thomas J.; Lloyd, John Wills

    1987-01-01

    The literature review looks at self-injurious behaviors in handicapped students in terms of characteristics, prevalence, etiology (biological, psychological, and as learned behavior), and management including extinction, positive punishment, negative punishment, and reinforcement of other behaviors. Problems in areas of management, administration,…

  11. Pesticide modelling for a small catchment using SWAT-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Narayanan; White, Sue M; Worrall, Fred; Whelan, Mick J

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides in stream flow from the 142 ha Colworth catchment in Bedfordshire, UK were monitored from October 1999 to December 2000. About 47% of the catchment is tile-drained and different pesticides and cropping patterns have recently been evaluated in terms of their effect on nutrient and pesticide losses to the stream. The data from Colworth were used to test soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) 2000 predictions of pesticide concentrations at the catchment outlet. A sound model set-up to carry out pesticide modelling was created by means of hydrological modelling with proper simulation of crop growth and evapotranspiration. The pesticides terbuthylazine, terbutryn, cyanazine and bentazone were modelled. There was close agreement between SWAT-predicted pesticide concentration values and observations. Scenario trials were conducted to explore management options for reducing pesticide loads arriving at the catchment outlet. The results obtained indicate that SWAT can be used as a tool to understand pesticide behavior at the catchment scale.

  12. Urinary metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and behavioral problems in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to organophosphate pesticides has been associated with neurobehavioral deficits in children, although data on low levels of exposure experienced by the general population are sparse. Pyrethroids are insecticides rapidly gaining popularity, and epidemiological evidence on their potential effects is lacking. We examined the association between exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, indicated by urinary metabolites, and parentally reported behavioral problems in children. We used data on children 6-11 years of age from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009). We used logistic regressions to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for high scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which may indicate behavioral problems, in association with concentrations of pyrethroid and organophosphate metabolites in the urine of 779 children, adjusting for covariates (sex, age, race/ethnicity, income, parental education, blood lead levels, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and others). At least one urinary metabolite for organophosphates was detected in 91% of children, and for pyrethroids in 97% of children. Organophosphate metabolites were not significantly associated with high SDQ scores. The pyrethroid metabolite cis-DCCA [3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylycyclopropane carboxylic acid] was significantly associated with high scores for total difficulties on the SDQ (OR for a 10-fold increase = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.6), and there was a nonsignificant association with trans-DCCA (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.0). In contrast with previous studies, we did not observe an association between exposure to organophosphate pesticides and behavioral scores in children. However, some pyrethroid urinary metabolites were associated with a high level of parent-reported behavioral problems. Longitudinal studies should be conducted on the potential risks of pyrethroids.

  13. Simulating human behavior for understanding and managing environmental resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander; Mosler, Hans Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Computer simulation allows for the experimental study of dynamic interactions between human behavior and complex environmental systems. Behavioral determinants and processes as identified in social-scientific theory may be formalized in simulated agents to obtain a better understanding of

  14. Lethal and behavioral effects of pesticides on the insect predator Macrolophus pygmaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinou, A F; Seraphides, N; Stavrinides, M C

    2014-02-01

    Macrolophus pygmaeus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a common generalist predator in Mediterranean agro-ecosystems. We evaluated the lethal effects of six insecticides and a fungicide on M. pygmaeus nymphs exposed to the pesticides through three routes of exposure: direct, residual and oral. Chlorantraniliprole and emamectin-benzoate caused less than 25% mortality to M. pygmaeus and were classified as harmless according to the International Organization for Biological Control rating scheme. In contrast, thiacloprid and metaflumizone caused 100% and 80% mortality, respectively, and were classified as harmful. Indoxacarb and spinosad resulted in close to 30% mortality to the predator, and were classified as slightly harmful, while the fungicide copper hydroxide caused 58% mortality and was rated as moderately harmful. Chlorantraniliprole and thiacloprid were selected for further sublethal testing by exposing M. pygmaeus to two routes of pesticide intake: pesticide residues and feeding on sprayed food. Thiacloprid led to an increase in resting and preening time of the predator, and a decrease in plant feeding. Chlorantraniliprole resulted in a decrease in plant feeding, but no other behaviors were affected. In addition, thiacloprid significantly reduced the predation rate of M. pygmaeus, whereas chlorantraniliprole had no significant effect on predation rate. The results of the study suggest that thiacloprid is not compatible with M. pygmaeus, while further research needs to be carried out for metaflumizone and copper hydroxide. All other products seem to be relatively compatible with M. pygmaeus, though studies on their sublethal effects will shed more light into their safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Stepwise Behavioral Responses: Behavioral Adjustment of the Chinese Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus in the Exposure of Carbamate Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongming Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to illustrate the behavioral regulation in environmental stress, the behavioral responses of the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus to arprocarb, carbofuran, and oxamyl were analyzed with an online monitoring system. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM was used to define the patterns of the behavioral data obtained from treatments at concentrations of 0.1 toxic unit (TU, 1 TU, 2 TU, 5 TU, 10 TU, and 20 TU and a control. In certain cases, differences among the carbamate pesticides (CPs tested were observed. The profiles of behavioral strength (BS in SOM varied according to the concentration used. The time of the first significant decrease of the BS varied inversely with the CP concentrations. The results suggested that the behavioral regulation in the stepwise behavioral responses (SBR was evident. The primary movement behaviors shown by the SBR model included no effect, stimulation, acclimation, adjustment (readjustment, and toxic effect, especially at the lower concentrations. However, higher stress (10 TU and 20 TU might limit the function of the behavioral adjustment produced by the intrinsic response mechanisms. It was concluded that SBR, which were affected by both the concentration and the exposure time, could be used as a suitable indicator in the ecotoxicological risk assessment of CPs.

  16. Pesticide transport simulation in a tropical catchment by SWAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannwarth, M.A.; Sangchan, W.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Lamers, M.; Ingwersen, J.; Ziegler, A.D.; Streck, T.

    2014-01-01

    The application of agrochemicals in Southeast Asia is increasing in rate, variety and toxicity with alarming speed. Understanding the behavior of these different contaminants within the environment require comprehensive monitoring programs as well as accurate simulations with hydrological models. We used the SWAT hydrological model to simulate the fate of three different pesticides, one of each usage type (herbicide, fungicide and insecticide) in a mountainous catchment in Northern Thailand. Three key parameters were identified: the sorption coefficient, the decay coefficient and the coefficient controlling pesticide percolation. We yielded satisfactory results simulating pesticide load dynamics during the calibration period (NSE: 0.92–0.67); the results during the validation period were also acceptable (NSE: 0.61–0.28). The results of this study are an important step in understanding the modeling behavior of these pesticides in SWAT and will help to identify thresholds of worst-case scenarios in order to assess the risk for the environment. - Highlights: • We performed a global LH-sensitivity analysis of all pesticide related parameters. • Key physical parameters are associated to percolation, degradation and sorption. • We simulated the measured loads of three different pesticides. • We performed an uncertainty analysis of all pesticide simulations. • All Pesticides differed considerably in their sensitivity and simulation behavior. - Pesticide load simulations of three pesticides were modeled by SWAT, providing clues on how to handle pesticides in future SWAT studies

  17. Tracking Nemo: Help Scientists Understand Zebrafish Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Tyrone J; Nakayama, Shinnosuke; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2018-02-22

    The advent of automated tracking software has significantly reduced the time required to record movement trajectories, thereby facilitating behavioral studies of zebrafish. However, results are substantially influenced by tracking errors, such as loss and misidentification of individuals. In this study, we present the development of an online citizen science platform, Tracking Nemo, to improve data accuracy on swimming trajectories of zebrafish groups. As an online extension of software for tracking the position of zebrafish from video recordings, Tracking Nemo offers volunteers the opportunity to contribute to science by manually correcting tracked trajectory data from their personal computers. Researchers can upload their videos that require human intervention for correcting and validating the data. Citizen scientists can monitor their contributions through a leaderboard system, which is designed to strengthen participant retention and contribution by tapping into intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Tracking Nemo is expected to help scientists improve data accuracy through the involvement of citizen scientists, who, in turn, engage in an authentic research activity and learn more about the behavior of zebrafish.

  18. Understanding slope behavior through microseismic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Diego; Boccolari, Mauro; Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Zanzi, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that microseismic activity originates as an elastic stress wave at locations where the material is mechanically unstable. Monitoring techniques focusing on this phenomenon have been studied for over seventy years and are now employed in a wide range of applications. As far as the study of unstable slope is concerned, microseismic monitoring can provide real-time information about fracture formation, propagation and coalescence and may be an appropriate solution to reduce the risk for human settlements when structural mitigation interventions (e.g., rock fall nets and ditches) cannot cope with large rock volumes and high kinetic energies. In this work we present the datasets collected in a 4-year period with a microseismic monitoring network deployed on an unstable rock face in Northern Italy. We mainly focus on the classification and the interpretation of collected signals with the final aim of identifying microseismic events related to the kinematic and dynamic behavior of the slope. We have analyzed signal parameters both in time and frequency domains, spectrograms, polarization of 3-component recordings supported by principal component analysis. Clustering methodologies have been tested in order to develop an automatic classification routine capable to isolate a cluster with most of the events related to slope behavior and to discard all disturbances. The network features both geophones and meteorological sensors so that we could also explore the correlation between microseismic events and meteorological datasets, although no significant relationships emerged. On the contrary, it was found that the majority of the events collected by the network are short-time high-frequency signals generated by electromagnetic activity caused by near and far thunderstorms. Finally, we attempted a preliminary localization of the most promising events according to an oversimplified homogeneous velocity model to get a rough indication about the regions of the

  19. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suin; Park, Sungjoon; Hale, Scott A; Kim, Sooyoung; Byun, Jeongmin; Oh, Alice H

    2016-01-01

    Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary) languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.

  20. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suin Kim

    Full Text Available Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.

  1. Endocrine disrupting pesticides impair the neuroendocrine regulation of reproductive behaviors and secondary sexual characters of red munia (Amandava amandava).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Surya Prakash; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Mohanty, Banalata

    2017-05-01

    The exposure effects of two endocrine disrupting pesticides (EDPs), mancozeb/MCZ and imidacloprid/IMI of the group dithiocarbamate and neonicotinoid respectively, on reproductive behaviors and secondary sexual characters have been studied in a seasonally breeding wildlife bird, red munia (Amandava amandava). Adult male birds were exposed to both the pesticides individually (0.25% LD 50 of each) as well as co-exposed (MIX-I: 0.25% LD 50 of each and MIX-II: 0.5% LD 50 of each) through food for 30d in preparatory (July-August) and breeding (September-October) phase of reproductive cycle. Singing and pairing patterns started decreasing from 2nd week to complete disappearance during 4th week of pesticides exposures at both the phases of reproductive cycles. Similar trend was observed in the disappearance of spots on the plumage as well as color of both plumage and beak which turned black/gray from red. Pesticides caused impairment of the lactotropic as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axes as there was increased plasma PRL and decreased LH, FSH and testosterone levels. Testicular expressions of GnRH and androgen receptor/AR were significantly decreased but that of GnIH significantly increased as compared to control. Significant differences among individually- and co-exposed groups were also present. Abnormalities in sexual behaviors and secondary sexual characteristics could be linked to inhibition of HPT axis and/or direct toxicity at the level of hypothalamus, pituitary and testis. In addition, pesticide-induced hyperprolactinemia as well as impaired thyroid hormones might have also affected maintenance of reproductive behaviors. On co-exposures, the more distinct impairments might be due to cumulative toxicity of pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Review on the Environmental Behavior of the Polyoxyethylene Type Nonionic Surfactants Adjuvants in Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONG Xiang-ji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyoxyethylene type nonionic surfactants such as alkylphenol ethoxylates(APEOs, alcohol ethoxylates(AEOs and alkylamine ethoxylates(ANEOs are typical pesticide adjuvants. Their unique environmental behavior characteristic is reflected in the parameters describing the fate e.g.distribution coefficient, adsorption to soil, degradation and effects of these substances. The major environmental problem related to these compounds is their part metabolites' relatively higher environmental risk. In views of their chemical structure, this paper outlined present knowledge on occurrence, fate and environment effect of the three adjuvants:AEOs, ANEOs and APEOs. The adsorption behaviour of ANEOs in contrast to AEOs was particularly variable and matrix dependent due to the ability of the compound to ionise at environmentally relevant pH. Probably because the compounds exceeded high soil adsorption and were easily degradable which were reflected in the low environmental concentrations generally found in monitoring studies.

  3. Occurrence and behavior of pesticides in wastewater treatment plants and their environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Villagrasa, Marta; López de Alda, Miren; Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc; Barceló, Damià

    2013-01-01

    Reports on pesticides elimination during wastewater treatment are rare since these substances are typically considered of agricultural rather than of urban origin. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the presence, removal and environmental relevance of 22 selected pesticides in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), paying attention not only to their occurrence and elimination but also to the toxicity of each pesticide against three aquatic micro organisms (algae, daphnia and fish) through the calculation of the so-named Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater treatment plants Index (ERPWI). For this purpose, an analytical method based on isotope dilution on-line solid phase extraction–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (SPE–LC–MS/MS) was optimized, allowing the determination of the 22 target pesticides in wastewater with satisfactory sensitivity (limits of detection below 30 ng/L), accuracy and precision. Concerning the results, total pesticide levels were in most instances below 1 μg/L but removal in the WWTPs was variable and often poor, with concentrations in the effluent sometimes higher than in the corresponding influent. Possible explanations for these poor or negative removal rates are, among many others considered (e.g. sampling, sample preservation, method biases, atmospheric deposition), deconjugation of metabolites and/or transformation products of the pesticides, hydrolysis, and desorption from particulate matter during wastewater treatment. The most significant pesticides in terms of concentration and frequency of detection were diazinon and diuron. These two pesticides, followed by atrazine, simazine and malathion, were also the most relevant from the environmental point of view, according to the calculated ERPWI. - Highlights: • Pesticides are poorly removed in WWTPs. • Urban wastewaters are important sources of pesticides to the aquatic environment. • Diazinon and diuron: the

  4. Occurrence and behavior of pesticides in wastewater treatment plants and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Villagrasa, Marta [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C/Emili Grahit 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain); López de Alda, Miren, E-mail: mlaqam@cid.csic.es [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc [AGBAR-Aigües de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 211, E-08018 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C/Emili Grahit 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    Reports on pesticides elimination during wastewater treatment are rare since these substances are typically considered of agricultural rather than of urban origin. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the presence, removal and environmental relevance of 22 selected pesticides in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), paying attention not only to their occurrence and elimination but also to the toxicity of each pesticide against three aquatic micro organisms (algae, daphnia and fish) through the calculation of the so-named Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater treatment plants Index (ERPWI). For this purpose, an analytical method based on isotope dilution on-line solid phase extraction–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (SPE–LC–MS/MS) was optimized, allowing the determination of the 22 target pesticides in wastewater with satisfactory sensitivity (limits of detection below 30 ng/L), accuracy and precision. Concerning the results, total pesticide levels were in most instances below 1 μg/L but removal in the WWTPs was variable and often poor, with concentrations in the effluent sometimes higher than in the corresponding influent. Possible explanations for these poor or negative removal rates are, among many others considered (e.g. sampling, sample preservation, method biases, atmospheric deposition), deconjugation of metabolites and/or transformation products of the pesticides, hydrolysis, and desorption from particulate matter during wastewater treatment. The most significant pesticides in terms of concentration and frequency of detection were diazinon and diuron. These two pesticides, followed by atrazine, simazine and malathion, were also the most relevant from the environmental point of view, according to the calculated ERPWI. - Highlights: • Pesticides are poorly removed in WWTPs. • Urban wastewaters are important sources of pesticides to the aquatic environment. • Diazinon and diuron: the

  5. THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR.Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

  6. Understanding How Domestic Violence Affects Behavior in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Malika

    2011-01-01

    This paper will provide the reader with an understanding of how domestic violence affects the behavior of high school students. The presentation is designed to provide the reader with a working definition of domestic violence, the rate of occurrence and its effects on high school students. Additionally the paper will summarize the negative effects…

  7. Children's Understanding of Display Rules for Expressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarni, Carolyn

    1979-01-01

    Examined how children come to understand that internally experienced affect need not be behaviorally expressed and that the emotion that is expressed is not necessarily what is being felt internally. Sixty elementary school students were interviewed about four interpersonal conflict situations presented in comic strip style but using photographs…

  8. Understanding child sexual behavior problems: a developmental psychopathology framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkovitch, Natasha; Latzman, Robert D; Hansen, David J; Flood, Mary Fran

    2009-11-01

    Children exhibiting sexual behavior have increasingly gained the attention of child welfare and mental health systems, as well as the scientific community. While a heterogeneous group, children with sexual behavior problems consistently demonstrate a number of problems related to adjustment and overall development. In order to appropriately intervene with these children, a comprehensive understanding of etiology is imperative. The overarching goal of the present paper is to review the extant research on mechanisms associated with the development of problematic sexual behavior in childhood within a developmental psychopathology framework. What is known about normative and nonnormative sexual behavior in childhood is reviewed, highlighting definitional challenges and age-related developmental differences. Further, the relationship between child sexual abuse and child sexual behavior problems is discussed, drawing attention to factors impacting this relationship. Risk factors for child sexual behavior problems, beyond that of sexual abuse, are also reviewed utilizing a transactional-ecological framework. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of implications of a developmental psychopathology perspective on problematic child sexual behaviors to inform future research and intervention efforts. Such implications include the need for attention to normative childhood sexual behavior, developmental sensitivity, and examinations of ecological domain in concert.

  9. Designing Graphs that Promote Both Risk Understanding and Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okan, Yasmina; Stone, Eric R; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2017-10-03

    Graphs show promise for improving communications about different types of risks, including health risks, financial risks, and climate risks. However, graph designs that are effective at meeting one important risk communication goal (promoting risk-avoidant behaviors) can at the same time compromise another key goal (improving risk understanding). We developed and tested simple bar graphs aimed at accomplishing these two goals simultaneously. We manipulated two design features in graphs, namely, whether graphs depicted the number of people affected by a risk and those at risk of harm ("foreground+background") versus only those affected ("foreground-only"), and the presence versus absence of simple numerical labels above bars. Foreground-only displays were associated with larger risk perceptions and risk-avoidant behavior (i.e., willingness to take a drug for heart attack prevention) than foreground+background displays, regardless of the presence of labels. Foreground-only graphs also hindered risk understanding when labels were not present. However, the presence of labels significantly improved understanding, eliminating the detrimental effect of foreground-only displays. Labels also led to more positive user evaluations of the graphs, but did not affect risk-avoidant behavior. Using process modeling we identified mediators (risk perceptions, understanding, user evaluations) that explained the effect of display type on risk-avoidant behavior. Our findings contribute new evidence to the graph design literature: unlike what was previously feared, we demonstrate that it is possible to design foreground-only graphs that promote intentions for behavior change without a detrimental effect on risk understanding. Implications for the design of graphical risk communications and decision support are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Effects of three pesticides on the avoidance behavior of earthworms in laboratory tests performed under temperate and tropical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcos [Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, Rod. AM-10, Km 28, 69.011-970 Manaus (Brazil); Roembke, Joerg [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, D-65439 Floersheim (Germany)], E-mail: j-roembke@ect.de; Torres de Brito, Marcus [CNPq - PIBIC/Embrapa, Rod. AM-10, Km 28, 69.011-970 Manaus (Brazil); Scheffczyk, Adam [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, D-65439 Floersheim (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    Little research has been performed on the impact of pesticides on earthworms under tropical conditions. Taking into consideration the often-limited resources in tropical countries, simple screening tests are needed. Therefore, it was investigated whether three pesticides relevant for the Brazilian Amazon (benomyl, carbendazim, lambda-cyhalothrin) affect the avoidance behavior of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The tests were performed for two days according to ISO guideline 17512 but were adapted to tropical conditions (i.e. test substrate, test organism and temperature). The results indicate that this test gives reproducible and reliable results. Toxicity values (NOEC, EC50) are lower than those determined in 14 day-acute mortality tests and are approximately in the same range such as those found in 56 day-chronic reproduction tests with the same earthworm species, which were performed in parallel. Therefore, the use of the earthworm avoidance tests is recommended as a screening tool for the risk assessment of pesticides. - The earthworm avoidance test is a practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of pesticides in tropical soils.

  11. Effects of three pesticides on the avoidance behavior of earthworms in laboratory tests performed under temperate and tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marcos; Roembke, Joerg; Torres de Brito, Marcus; Scheffczyk, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Little research has been performed on the impact of pesticides on earthworms under tropical conditions. Taking into consideration the often-limited resources in tropical countries, simple screening tests are needed. Therefore, it was investigated whether three pesticides relevant for the Brazilian Amazon (benomyl, carbendazim, lambda-cyhalothrin) affect the avoidance behavior of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The tests were performed for two days according to ISO guideline 17512 but were adapted to tropical conditions (i.e. test substrate, test organism and temperature). The results indicate that this test gives reproducible and reliable results. Toxicity values (NOEC, EC50) are lower than those determined in 14 day-acute mortality tests and are approximately in the same range such as those found in 56 day-chronic reproduction tests with the same earthworm species, which were performed in parallel. Therefore, the use of the earthworm avoidance tests is recommended as a screening tool for the risk assessment of pesticides. - The earthworm avoidance test is a practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of pesticides in tropical soils

  12. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  13. Occurrence and behavior of pesticides in wastewater treatment plants and their environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Villagrasa, Marta; López de Alda, Miren; Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc; Barceló, Damià

    2013-08-01

    Reports on pesticides elimination during wastewater treatment are rare since these substances are typically considered of agricultural rather than of urban origin. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the presence, removal and environmental relevance of 22 selected pesticides in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), paying attention not only to their occurrence and elimination but also to the toxicity of each pesticide against three aquatic micro organisms (algae, daphnia and fish) through the calculation of the so-named Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater treatment plants Index (ERPWI). For this purpose, an analytical method based on isotope dilution on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) was optimized, allowing the determination of the 22 target pesticides in wastewater with satisfactory sensitivity (limits of detection below 30 ng/L), accuracy and precision. Concerning the results, total pesticide levels were in most instances below 1 μg/L but removal in the WWTPs was variable and often poor, with concentrations in the effluent sometimes higher than in the corresponding influent. Possible explanations for these poor or negative removal rates are, among many others considered (e.g. sampling, sample preservation, method biases, atmospheric deposition), deconjugation of metabolites and/or transformation products of the pesticides, hydrolysis, and desorption from particulate matter during wastewater treatment. The most significant pesticides in terms of concentration and frequency of detection were diazinon and diuron. These two pesticides, followed by atrazine, simazine and malathion, were also the most relevant from the environmental point of view, according to the calculated ERPWI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding Eating Behaviors through Parental Communication and the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinfeld, Emily; Shim, Minsun

    2017-05-01

    Emerging adulthood (EA) is an important yet overlooked period for developing long-term health behaviors. During these years, emerging adults adopt health behaviors that persist throughout life. This study applies the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to examine the role of childhood parental communication in predicting engagement in healthful eating during EA. Participants included 239 college students, ages 18 to 25, from a large university in the southern United States. Participants were recruited and data collection occurred spring 2012. Participants responded to measures to assess perceived parental communication, eating behaviors, attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control over healthful eating. SEM and mediation analyses were used to address the hypotheses posited. Data demonstrated that perceived parent-child communication - specifically, its quality and target-specific content - significantly predicted emerging adults' eating behaviors, mediated through subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. This study sets the stage for further exploration and understanding of different ways parental communication influences emerging adults' healthy behavior enactment.

  15. Video-CRM: understanding customer behaviors in stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritaoglu, Ismail; Flickner, Myron; Beymer, David

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes two real-time computer vision systems created 10 years ago that detect and track people in stores to obtain insights of customer behavior while shopping. The first system uses a single color camera to identify shopping groups in the checkout line. Shopping groups are identified by analyzing the inter-body distances coupled with the cashier's activities to detect checkout transactions start and end times. The second system uses multiple overhead narrow-baseline stereo cameras to detect and track people, their body posture and parts to understand customer interactions with products such as "customer picking a product from a shelf". In pilot studies both systems demonstrated real-time performance and sufficient accuracy to enable more detailed understanding of customer behavior and extract actionable real-time retail analytics.

  16. Multi-data Mining for Understanding Leadership Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro Matsumura

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for understanding leadership behavior in dot-jp, a non-profit organization, by analyzing heterogeneous multi-data composed of questionnaires and mailing list archives. Attitudes toward leaders were obtained from the questionnaires, and human networks were extracted from the mailing list archives. By integrating the results, we discovered that leaders must receive messages from other people as well as send messages to construct reliable relationships.

  17. Behavioral observations - Evaluating the impacts of pesticides on ESA-listed salmon and their habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Long-running science support for the agency (Office of Protected Resources, others) related to the use of modern pesticides throughout the United States as a...

  18. Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and reciprocal social behavior in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Melissa A; Engel, Stephanie M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Wolff, Mary S

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood, including low IQ, pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), attention problems and ADHD. Many of these disorders involve impairments in social functioning. Thus, we investigated the relationship between biomarkers of prenatal OP exposure and impaired reciprocal social behavior in childhood, as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Using a multi-ethnic urban prospective cohort of mother-infant pairs in New York City recruited between 1998 and 2002 (n=404) we examined the relation between third trimester maternal urinary levels of dialkylphosphate (ΣDAP) OP metabolites and SRS scores among 136 children who returned for the 7-9year visit. Overall, there was no association between OPs and SRS scores, although in multivariate adjusted models, associations were heterogeneous by race and by sex. Among blacks, each 10-fold increase in total diethylphosphates (ΣDEP) was associated with poorer social responsiveness (β=5.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8, 9.4). There was no association among whites or Hispanics, or for total ΣDAP or total dimethylphosphate (ΣDMP) biomarker levels. Additionally, stratum-specific models supported a stronger negative association among boys for ΣDEPs (β=3.5 points, 95% CI 0.2, 6.8), with no notable association among girls. Our results support an association of prenatal OP exposure with deficits in social functioning among blacks and among boys, although this may be in part reflective of differences in exposure patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic behavior research for understanding consumer decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Feng

    2009-05-01

    This study incorporates means-end chain (MEC) theory and dynamic programming for understanding the implications of consumer decision making. The conceptual framework of this study can help programmers design information systems for analyzing consumption behaviors. Such analyses will provide marketers with meaningful information for formulating marketing strategies. The main contributions of this article are as follows: (1) to enable researchers to obtain information for consumer cognitive hierarchies utilizing an information system, (2) to enhance the functions of traditional MEC methodology and provide an integrated method for analyzing consumption information, and (3) to construct an information system for analyzing consumer decision-making processes.

  20. Pesticides and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, Vincent F.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

  1. Neurobiological considerations in understanding behavioral treatments for pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N; Balodis, Iris M; Franco, Christine A; Bullock, Scott; Xu, Jiansong; Chung, Tammy; Grant, Jon E

    2013-06-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), a disorder currently categorized as an impulse-control disorder but being considered as a nonsubstance addiction in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) discussions, represents a significant public health concern. Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made with respect to understanding the biological underpinnings of PG. Research has also demonstrated the efficacies of multiple treatments, particularly behavioral therapies, for treating PG. Despite these advances, relatively little is known regarding how biological measures, particularly those assessing brain function, relate to treatments for PG. In this article, we present a conceptual review focusing on the neurobiology of behavioral therapies for PG. To illustrate issues related to study design, we present proof-of-concept preliminary data that link Stroop-related brain activations prior to treatment onset to treatment outcome in individuals with PG receiving a cognitive-behavioral treatment incorporating aspects of imaginal desensitization and motivational interviewing. We conclude with recommendations about current and future directions regarding how to incorporate and translate biological findings into improved therapies for individuals with nonsubstance and substance addictions. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Neurobiological considerations in understanding behavioral treatments for pathological gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N.; Balodis, Iris M.; Franco, Christine A.; Bullock, Scott; Xu, Jiansong; Chung, Tammy; Grant, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), a disorder currently categorized as an impulse-control disorder but being considered as a non-substance addiction in DSM-5 discussions, represents a significant public health concern. Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made with respect to understanding the biological underpinnings of PG. Research has also demonstrated the efficacies of multiple treatments, particularly behavioral therapies, for treating PG. Despite these advances, relatively little is known regarding how biological measures, particularly those assessing brain function, relate to treatments for PG. In this article, we present a conceptual review focusing on the neurobiology of behavioral therapies for PG. To illustrate issues related to study design, we present proof-of-concept preliminary data that link Stroop-related brain activations prior to treatment onset to treatment outcome in individuals with PG receiving a cognitive behavioral treatment incorporating aspects of imaginal desensitization and motivational interviewing. We conclude with recommendations about current and future directions regarding how to incorporate and translate biological findings into improved therapies for individuals with non-substance and substance addictions. PMID:23586456

  3. Understanding the Implications of Neural Population Activity on Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, John

    Learning how neural activity in the brain leads to the behavior we exhibit is one of the fundamental questions in Neuroscience. In this dissertation, several lines of work are presented to that use principles of neural coding to understand behavior. In one line of work, we formulate the efficient coding hypothesis in a non-traditional manner in order to test human perceptual sensitivity to complex visual textures. We find a striking agreement between how variable a particular texture signal is and how sensitive humans are to its presence. This reveals that the efficient coding hypothesis is still a guiding principle for neural organization beyond the sensory periphery, and that the nature of cortical constraints differs from the peripheral counterpart. In another line of work, we relate frequency discrimination acuity to neural responses from auditory cortex in mice. It has been previously observed that optogenetic manipulation of auditory cortex, in addition to changing neural responses, evokes changes in behavioral frequency discrimination. We are able to account for changes in frequency discrimination acuity on an individual basis by examining the Fisher information from the neural population with and without optogenetic manipulation. In the third line of work, we address the question of what a neural population should encode given that its inputs are responses from another group of neurons. Drawing inspiration from techniques in machine learning, we train Deep Belief Networks on fake retinal data and show the emergence of Garbor-like filters, reminiscent of responses in primary visual cortex. In the last line of work, we model the state of a cortical excitatory-inhibitory network during complex adaptive stimuli. Using a rate model with Wilson-Cowan dynamics, we demonstrate that simple non-linearities in the signal transferred from inhibitory to excitatory neurons can account for real neural recordings taken from auditory cortex. This work establishes and tests

  4. Understanding Jordanian Psychiatric Nurses’ Smoking Behaviors: A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun M. Aldiabat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs. Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking.

  5. Understanding the control of ingestive behavior in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E; Moore, Carla J; Ethun, Kelly F; Johnson, Zachary P

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Ingestive behavior in free-ranging populations of nonhuman primates is influenced by resource availability and social group organization and provides valuable insight on the evolution of ecologically adaptive behaviors and physiological systems. As captive populations were established, questions regarding proximate mechanisms that regulate food intake in these animals could be more easily addressed. The availability of these captive populations has led to the use of selected species to understand appetite control or metabolic physiology in humans. Recognizing the difficulty of quantitating food intake in free-ranging groups, the use of captive, singly-housed animals provided a distinct advantage though, at the same time, produced a different social ecology from the animals' natural habitat. However, the recent application of novel technologies to quantitate caloric intake and energy expenditure in free-feeding, socially housed monkeys permits prospective studies that can accurately define how food intake changes in response to any number of interventions in the context of a social environment. This review provides an overview of studies examining food intake using captive nonhuman primates organized into three areas: a) neurochemical regulation of food intake in nonhuman primates; b) whether exposure to specific diets during key developmental periods programs differences in diet preferences or changes the expression of feeding related neuropeptides; and c) how psychosocial factors influence appetite regulation. Because feeding patterns are driven by more than just satiety and orexigenic signals, appreciating how the social context influences pattern of feeding in nonhuman primates may be quite informative for understanding the biological complexity of feeding in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

    Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

  7. Understanding recurrent crime as system-immanent collective behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Perc

    Full Text Available Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between "criminals", "inspectors", and "ordinary people" as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stable mixture of criminals and inspectors or one of these two strategies alone. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to different final states are possible, indicating that successful strategies to contain crime can be very much counter-intuitive and complex. Our results demonstrate that spatial interactions are crucial for the evolutionary outcome of the inspection game, and they also reveal why criminal behavior is likely to be recurrent rather than evolving towards an equilibrium with monotonous parameter dependencies.

  8. Understanding the behavior of floodplains as human-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.

    2012-12-01

    Floodplains are among the most valuable ecosystems for supporting biodiversity and providing services to the environment. Moreover, they are home of approximately one-sixth of the world population as they offer favorable conditions for economic development. As a result, flood disasters currently affect more than 100 million people a year. Sadly, flood losses and fatalities are expected to increase further in many countries because of population growth as well as changes in land use and climate. Given the relevance of floodplain systems, a number of social scientists have examined how the frequency and severity of flooding often determine whether human development in floodplains is desirable or not. Meanwhile, many earth scientists have investigated the impact of human activities (e.g. land-use changes, urbanization, river training) on the frequency and magnitude of floods. In fact, as human activities change the frequency of flooding, the frequency of flooding affects human developments in floodplain areas. Yet, these dynamic interactions between floods and societies and the associated feedback mechanisms remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. As a result, we typically consider humans as external forcing (or boundary condition) without representing the feedback loops and our prediction of future trajectories are therefore extremely limited. This presentation shows a first attempt to understand the behavior of floodplains as coupled human-water systems. In particular, we analyzed a number of long time series of hydrological and population data in the Po River Basin (Italy) to explore the feedback mechanisms, reciprocal effects, surprises, and threshold mechanisms, taking place in floodplain systems. The outcomes of the study enable a better understanding of how the occurrences of floods shape human developments while, at the same time, human activities shape the magnitude and frequency of floods. The presentation also discusses the opportunities offered by

  9. A Learning-Style Theory for Understanding Autistic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name–number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities

  10. A learning-style theory for understanding autistic behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding autism’s ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically-developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup-table (LUT learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low and high dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name-number association in a phonebook. However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response. The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm, restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity, impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn

  11. A Contextual Behavior Science Framework for Understanding How Behavioral Flexibility Relates to Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Reed, Kathleen M; Cameron, Amy Y; Ameral, Victoria E

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing literature focusing on the emerging idea that behavioral flexibility, rather than particular emotion regulation strategies per se, provides greater promise in predicting and influencing anxiety-related psychopathology. Yet this line of research and theoretical analysis appear to be plagued by its own challenges. For example, middle-level constructs, such as behavioral flexibility, are difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to interpret in relation to clinical interventions. A key point that some researchers have made is that previous studies examining flexible use of emotion regulation strategies (or, more broadly, coping) have failed due to a lack of focus on context. That is, examining strategies in isolation of the context in which they are used provides limited information on the suitability, rigid adherence, or effectiveness of a given strategy in that situation. Several of these researchers have proposed the development of new models to define and measure various types of behavioral flexibility. We would like to suggest that an explanation of the phenomenon already exists and that we can go back to our behavioral roots to understand this phenomenon rather than focusing on defining and capturing a new process. Indeed, thorough contextual behavioral analyses already yield a useful account of what has been observed. We will articulate a model explaining behavioral flexibility using a functional, contextual framework, with anxiety-related disorders as an example.

  12. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  13. Understanding bulk behavior of particulate materials from particle scale simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoliang

    Particulate materials play an increasingly significant role in various industries, such as pharmaceutical manufacturing, food, mining, and civil engineering. The objective of this research is to better understand bulk behaviors of particulate materials from particle scale simulations. Packing properties of assembly of particles are investigated first, focusing on the effects of particle size, surface energy, and aspect ratio on the coordination number, porosity, and packing structures. The simulation results show that particle sizes, surface energy, and aspect ratio all influence the porosity of packing to various degrees. The heterogeneous force networks within particle assembly under external compressive loading are investigated as well. The results show that coarse-coarse contacts dominate the strong network and coarse-fine contacts dominate the total network. Next, DEM models are developed to simulate the particle dynamics inside a conical screen mill (comil) and magnetically assisted impaction mixer (MAIM), both are important particle processing devices. For comil, the mean residence time (MRT), spatial distribution of particles, along with the collision dynamics between particles as well as particle and vessel geometries are examined as a function of the various operating parameters such as impeller speed, screen hole size, open area, and feed rate. The simulation results can help better understand dry coating experimental results using comil. For MAIM system, the magnetic force is incorporated into the contact model, allowing to describe the interactions between magnets. The simulation results reveal the connections between homogeneity of mixture and particle scale variables such as size of magnets and surface energy of non-magnets. In particular, at the fixed mass ratio of magnets to non-magnets and surface energy the smaller magnets lead to better homogeneity of mixing, which is in good agreement with previously published experimental results. Last but not

  14. Understanding Social Learning Behaviors via a Virtual Field Trip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a multidisciplinary study investigating how a virtual rather than face-to-face field trip can be conducted in a real-world setting and how students respond to such a social learning opportunity. Our participants followed a story of a stroke patient at her virtual home and in a virtual hospital via a teaching vignette. They were then given a new case and got on a virtual trip via a multiuser virtual environment. They played the roles of patients, relatives, doctors, or nurses, experiencing the emotional, physical, or social impacts those stakeholders may go through. Our study finds the overall participation of the Virtual Group is 50% more than the Text Group. Although the Virtual Group generates much more nodes in total, they focused much less on knowledge sharing and comparing than the Text Group (46 vs. 67, but more on other higher-level aspects of social interactions, such as knowledge discovery (57 vs. 42, co-construction (66 vs. 39, testing and modification (58 vs. 24 and application of newly constructed meaning (60 vs. 16. Analysis of students’ virtual field activities and in-depth discussions of important issues implied are included to help understand social learning behaviors during a virtual field trip. Sustainability of such systems is discussed.

  15. AIDS, behavior, and culture: understanding evidence-based prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Edward C; Ruark, Allison Herling

    2011-01-01

    .... Arguing for a behavior-based approach, the authors make the case that the most effective programs are those that encourage fundamental behavioral changes such as faithfulness, avoidance of concurrent...

  16. Quality Improvement in Hospitals: Identifying and Understanding Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz M. Mazur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving operational performance in hospitals is complicated, particularly if process improvement requires complex behavioral changes. Using single-loop and double-loop learning theory as a foundation, the purpose of this research is to empirically uncover key improvement behaviors and the factors that may be associated with such behaviors in hospitals. A two-phased approach was taken to collect data regarding improvement behaviors and associated factors, and data analysis was conducted using methods proposed by grounded theorists. The contributions of this research are twofold. First, five key behaviors related to process improvement are identified, namely Quick Fixing, Initiating, Conforming, Expediting, and Enhancing. Second, based on these observed behaviors, a set of force field diagrams is developed to structure and organize possible factors that are important to consider when attempting to change improvement behaviors. This begins to fill the gap in the knowledge about what factors drive effective improvement efforts in hospital settings.

  17. Assessing Freshman Engineering Students' Understanding of Ethical Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M; Murray, Susan L; Olbricht, Gayla R; Ludlow, Douglas K; Hays, Malcolm E; Nelson, Hannah M

    2017-02-01

    Academic dishonesty, including cheating and plagiarism, is on the rise in colleges, particularly among engineering students. While students decide to engage in these behaviors for many different reasons, academic integrity training can help improve their understanding of ethical decision making. The two studies outlined in this paper assess the effectiveness of an online module in increasing academic integrity among first semester engineering students. Study 1 tested the effectiveness of an academic honesty tutorial by using a between groups design with a Time 1- and Time 2-test. An academic honesty quiz assessed participants' knowledge at both time points. Study 2, which incorporated an improved version of the module and quiz, utilized a between groups design with three assessment time points. The additional Time 3-test allowed researchers to test for retention of information. Results were analyzed using ANCOVA and t tests. In Study 1, the experimental group exhibited significant improvement on the plagiarism items, but not the total score. However, at Time 2 there was no significant difference between groups after controlling for Time 1 scores. In Study 2, between- and within-group analyses suggest there was a significant improvement in total scores, but not plagiarism scores, after exposure to the tutorial. Overall, the academic integrity module impacted participants as evidenced by changes in total score and on specific plagiarism items. Although future implementation of the tutorial and quiz would benefit from modifications to reduce ceiling effects and improve assessment of knowledge, the results suggest such tutorial may be one valuable element in a systems approach to improving the academic integrity of engineering students.

  18. "I Got Your Back": Friends' Understandings regarding College Student Spring Break Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E.; Morgan, Nicole; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviors that pose threats to safety and health, including binge drinking and unprotected sex, increase during a week-long break from university. Understandings with peers regarding these behaviors may be important for predicting behavior and related harms. College students (N = 651; 48% men) reported having understandings with their friends…

  19. Guest Editors’ Introduction On Understanding Ethical Behavior and Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David); D.M. Mayer (David); M. Schminke (Marshall)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral ethics is an emerging field that takes an empirical, social scientific approach to the study of business ethics. In this special issue, we include six articles that fall within the domain of behavioral ethics and that focus on three themes—moral awareness, ethical decision

  20. Understanding User Behavioral Patterns in Open Knowledge Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianmin; Song, Shuqiang; Zhao, Xinshuo; Yu, Shengquan

    2018-01-01

    Open knowledge communities (OKCs) have become popular in the era of knowledge economy. This study aimed to explore how users collaboratively create and share knowledge in OKCs. In particular, this research identified the behavior distribution and behavioral patterns of users by conducting frequency distribution and lag sequential analyses. Some…

  1. LD, interpersonal understanding, and social behavior in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravetz, S; Faust, M; Lipshitz, S; Shalhav, S

    1999-01-01

    This study used Baron and Kenny's (1986) criteria for mediation to investigate the extent to which interpersonal understanding mediates the relation between learning disabilities (LD) and social adaptation in the classroom. Twenty-two children with and 22 children without a diagnosis of LD completed a semistructured developmental clinical interview measure of interpersonal understanding. They were also rated by their fourth- and fifth-grade teachers on a measure of social adaptation in the classroom. Interpersonal understanding and social adaptation in the classroom were found to be positively correlated. Children with LD exhibited less interpersonal understanding and social adaptation. Although this group difference on social adaptation was greatly reduced when interpersonal understanding was statistically controlled, it remained statistically significant. These results suggest that reduced social adaptation in the classroom and lower interpersonal understanding are both associated with a diagnosis of LD. However, they do not conclusively support the claim that interpersonal understanding mediates the relation between LD and social adaptation. Thus, whether the social difficulties of people with LD stem from the same complex phenomena that produce these people's learning problems remains an open question.

  2. Understanding driver behavior at grade crossings through signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report uses signal detection theory (SDT) to model motorists decisionmaking strategies at grade crossings in order to understand the factors that influence such decisions and to establish a framework for evaluating the impact of proposed coun...

  3. Understanding driver behavior at grade crossings through signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    This report uses signal detection theory (SDT) to model motorists decisionmaking strategies at grade crossings in order to understand the factors that influence such decisions and to establish a framework for evaluating the impact of proposed coun...

  4. Toward improving our application and understanding of crown fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin E. Alexander; Miguel G. Cruz; Nicole M. Vaillant

    2014-01-01

    The suggestion has been made that most wildland fire operations personnel base their expectations of how a fire will behave largely on experience and, to a lesser extent, on guides to predicting fire behavior (Burrows 1984). Experienced judgment is certainly needed in any assessment of wildland fire potential but it does have its limitations. The same can be said for...

  5. Understanding Transnational African Migrants' Perspectives of Dietary Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe-Lamberts, Kelechi; Tshiswaka, Daudet Ilunga; Osideko, Anuolwaupo; Schwingel, Andiara

    2016-10-28

    Dietary behaviors serve as determinants for chronic diseases such as hypertension across various ethnicities worldwide and within the USA. We investigated dietary perspectives specifically for US transnational African migrants, a migrant cohort subset of individuals who maintain cross-border ties with their indigenous communities of origin. Using PEN-3 model, focus group interviews with 14 transnational African migrants (seven males and seven females) were conducted in Chicago to explore the perceptions of dietary behavior in regard to chronic disease risk factors among our target population. The findings underscore that transnational African migrants maintain strong ties with their African community of origin, impacting dietary behaviors and attitudes. Further, transnational African migrants maintain traditional dishes through their connections. Despite the ability to import African traditional foods through personal connections, African migrants face a challenge in maintaining culture yet conforming to norms of acculturation. Results from this study serve to advocate for further exploration of the interaction between African migrant dietary behaviors and risk factors to chronic diseases.

  6. Behavioral accident avoidance science : understanding response in collision incipient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, P.A.; Ridder, S.N. de

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are the single greatest cause of fatality in the workplace and the primary cause of all accidental death in the U.S. to the age of seventy-eight. However, behavioral analysis of response in the final seconds and milliseconds before collision has been a most difficult

  7. Children's Behavior toward and Understanding of Robotic and Living Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melson, Gail F.; Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Beck, Alan; Friedman, Batya; Roberts, Trace; Garrett, Erik; Gill, Brian T.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated children's reasoning about and behavioral interactions with a computationally sophisticated robotic dog (Sony's AIBO) compared to a live dog (an Australian Shepherd). Seventy-two children from three age groups (7-9 years, 10-12 years, and 13-15 years) participated in this study. Results showed that more children…

  8. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  9. Understanding patients' behavioral intentions: evidence from Iran's private hospitals industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Ehsan; Arab, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud Ghazi; Rashidian, Arash; Forushani, Abbas Rahimi; Khabiri, Roghayeh

    2014-01-01

    In the ever-increasing competitive market of private hospital industry, creating a strong relationship with the customers that shapes patients' loyalty has been considered a key factor in obtaining market share. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of customer loyalty among patients of private hospitals in Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Tehran, the capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 2010. The study samples composed of 969 patients who were consecutively selected from eight private hospitals. The survey instrument was designed based on a review of the related literature and included 36 items. Data analysis was performed using structural equation modeling. For the service quality construct, three dimensions extracted: Process, interaction, and environment. Both process and interaction quality had significant effects on perceived value. Perceived value along with the process and interaction quality were the most important antecedents of patient overall satisfaction. The direct effect of the process and interaction quality on behavioral intentions was insignificant. Perceived value and patient overall satisfaction were the direct antecedents of patient behavioral intentions and the mediators between service quality and behavioral intentions. Environment quality of service delivery had no significant effect on perceived value, overall satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Contrary to previous similar studies, the role of service quality was investigated not in a general sense, but in the form of three types of qualities including quality of environment, quality of process, and quality of interaction.

  10. Understanding Homophobic Behavior and Its Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Russell, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider recent advances in scholarship on homophobic bullying, and implications for policy and practice. We first consider toward whom homophobic behavior is directed, drawing attention to the nuances among LGBT youth, and the realities of homophobic bullying for heterosexual or straight youth. We review the correlates or…

  11. Understanding the heavy-tailed dynamics in human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Gordon J; Jones, Tim

    2015-06-01

    The recent availability of electronic data sets containing large volumes of communication data has made it possible to study human behavior on a larger scale than ever before. From this, it has been discovered that across a diverse range of data sets, the interevent times between consecutive communication events obey heavy-tailed power law dynamics. Explaining this has proved controversial, and two distinct hypotheses have emerged. The first holds that these power laws are fundamental, and arise from the mechanisms such as priority queuing that humans use to schedule tasks. The second holds that they are statistical artifacts which only occur in aggregated data when features such as circadian rhythms and burstiness are ignored. We use a large social media data set to test these hypotheses, and find that although models that incorporate circadian rhythms and burstiness do explain part of the observed heavy tails, there is residual unexplained heavy-tail behavior which suggests a more fundamental cause. Based on this, we develop a quantitative model of human behavior which improves on existing approaches and gives insight into the mechanisms underlying human interactions.

  12. Pesticide Exposure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R.; Karr, Catherine J.

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children’s exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  13. Understanding Chinese international college and university students' physical activity behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Yan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Understanding factors that influence PA among Chinese international students is an important step in the process of promoting their long-term health and wellbeing. Designing program that address the identified key factors may help colleges and universities achieve this goal.

  14. Using Story to Help Student Understanding of Gas Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Rick; Stinner, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Students tend to have a poor understanding of the concept of gas pressure. Usually, gas pressure is taught in terms of the various formulaic gas laws. The development of the concept of gas pressure according to the early Greeks did not include the concept of a vacuum. It was not for another 2000 years that Torricelli proposed that a vacuum can…

  15. Individual Differences in Toddlers’ Social Understanding & Prosocial Behavior: Disposition or Socialization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekkah Lauren Gross

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18 to 30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g. use of emotion words; self-understanding, prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home, temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear, and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers’ social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents’ increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share. Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children’s early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior.

  16. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends’ Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends' Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-10-01

    To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends' aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Participants included a community sample of 230 5 th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6 th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child's and friend's aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents' understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one's own and others' well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior.

  18. Pesticides in ground water: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack; Resek, Elizabeth A.

    1997-01-01

    improvements in understanding and predicting the occurrence and fate of pesticides in ground water are likely to depend on: (1) greater coordination of ground-water sampling across the nation to ensure consistency of study design, and thus comparability of results; (2) more extensive analyses for pesticide transformation products during ground-water monitoring studies; (3) substantially enhanced communication among investigators conducting laboratory experiments, small-scale field studies and large-scale monitoring studies; and (4) more routine testing of predictions of pesticide behavior and ground-water vulnerability against actual field observations of pesticide occurrence in ground water

  19. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand the Beliefs of Chinese Teachers Concerning Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the beliefs of Physical Education (PE) teachers regarding Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Twenty PE teachers participated in this study. Data collection consisted of a survey on demographic data and semistructured interviews. The research results indicate that the teachers…

  20. Pesticide Residues in Food: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Misconceptions among Conventional and Organic Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Epp, Astrid; Lohmann, Mark; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide use and pesticide residues in foods have been the subject of controversial public discussions and media coverage in Germany. Against this background, a better understanding of public risk perceptions is needed to promote efficient public health communication. To this end, this study captures the German public's perception of pesticide residues in foods. A representative sample of the population aged 14 years and older (n = 1,004) was surveyed via computer-assisted telephone interviewing on their attitudes and knowledge with regard to pesticide residues. Based on questions regarding their typical consumer behavior, respondents were classified into conventional and organic consumers to identify differences as well as similarities between these two consumer types. As assessed with an open-ended question, both organic and conventional consumers viewed pesticides, chemicals, and toxins as the greatest threats to food quality and safety. Evaluating the risks and benefits of pesticide use, more than two-thirds of organic consumers (70%) rated the risks as greater than the benefits, compared with just over one-half of conventional consumers (53%). Concern about the detection of pesticide residues in the food chain and bodily fluids was significantly higher among organic compared with conventional consumers. Only a minority of respondents was aware that legal limits for pesticide residues (referred to as maximum residue levels) exist, with 69% of organic and 61% of conventional consumers believing that the presence of pesticide residues in foods is generally not permitted. A lack of awareness of maximum residue levels was associated with heightened levels of concern about pesticide residues. Finally, general exposure to media reporting on pesticide residues was associated with more frequent knowledge of legal limits for pesticide residues, whereas actively seeking information on pesticide residues was not. The possible mechanisms underlying these findings are

  1. Understanding criminal behavior: Empathic impairment in criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Melania; Pino, Maria Chiara; Peretti, Sara; Valenti, Marco; Mazza, Monica

    2017-08-01

    Criminal offenders (CO) are characterized by antisocial and impulsive lifestyles and reduced empathy competence. According to Zaki and Ochsner, empathy is a process that can be divided into three components: mentalizing, emotional sharing and prosocial concern. The aim of our study was to evaluate these competences in 74 criminal subjects compared to 65 controls. The CO group demonstrated a lower ability in measures of mentalizing and sharing, especially in recognizing the mental and emotional states of other people by observing their eyes and sharing other people's emotions. Conversely, CO subjects showed better abilities in prosocial concern measures, such as judging and predicting the emotions and behavior of other people, but they were not able to evaluate the gravity of violations of social rules as well as the control group. In addition, logistic regression results show that the higher the deficits in the mentalizing component are, the higher the probability of committing a crime against another person. Taken together, our results suggest that criminal subjects are able to judge and recognize other people's behavior as right or wrong in a social context, but they are not able to recognize and share the suffering of other people.

  2. Understanding prehospital delay behavior in acute myocardial infarction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Cynthia G

    2006-12-01

    Studies demonstrate that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality can be reduced if reperfusion therapy is initiated within 1 hour of AMI symptom onset. However, a considerable number of men and women arrive at the emergency department outside of the time frame for thrombolytic and angioplasty effectiveness. This is especially true for women who have been shown to delay longer than men due to their prehospital decision-making process utilized. With a mean total delay time greater than 4 hours, the time interval from symptom onset to transport activation to the hospital consumes the majority of the prehospital phase of emergency cardiac care. The health belief model, self-regulation model, theory of reasoned action, and theory of planned behavior have all been used to describe the prehospital decision-making process of both men and women with an AMI and the variables that impact that process. These models have identified the importance of symptom attribution to cardiac-related causes as a target variable for research and interventions related to care-seeking behavior.

  3. Applying the reasoned action approach to understanding health protection and health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) developed out of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior but has not yet been widely applied to understanding health behaviors. The present research employed the RAA in a prospective design to test predictions of intention and action for groups of protection and risk behaviors separately in the same sample. To test the RAA for health protection and risk behaviors. Measures of RAA components plus past behavior were taken in relation to eight protection and six risk behaviors in 385 adults. Self-reported behavior was assessed one month later. Multi-level modelling showed instrumental attitude, experiential attitude, descriptive norms, capacity and past behavior were significant positive predictors of intentions to engage in protection or risk behaviors. Injunctive norms were only significant predictors of intention in protection behaviors. Autonomy was a significant positive predictor of intentions in protection behaviors and a negative predictor in risk behaviors (the latter relationship became non-significant when controlling for past behavior). Multi-level modelling showed that intention, capacity, and past behavior were significant positive predictors of action for both protection and risk behaviors. Experiential attitude and descriptive norm were additional significant positive predictors of risk behaviors. The RAA has utility in predicting both protection and risk health behaviors although the power of predictors may vary across these types of health behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Interest in the use of microbial pesticides has intensified because of public concern about the safety of chemical pesticides and their impact in the environment. Characteristics of the five groups of entomopathogens that have potential as microbial pesticides are briefly discussed and an update is provided on research and development activities underway to enhance the...

  5. Understanding the Relationship Between Subjective Wellbeing and Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lisa

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines the relationship between gambling behavior and subjective wellbeing. It is often asserted that populations consist of different types of gamblers: those for whom gambling is a harmless leisure activity and those (pathological/problem gamblers) for whom the activity has harmful effects. One might, therefore, assume that subjective wellbeing will be negativity associated with an individual's level of gambling addiction. Alternatively, gamblers may choose to gamble because they derive utility from participating in this activity and so the relationship between happiness and gambling might be positively correlated. In this paper we test this association, empirically, using data from the 2010 British Gambling Prevalence Survey. The statistically significant findings from this analysis support the hypothesis that individual wellbeing falls as gambling disorder increases.

  6. Students’ online purchasing behavior in Malaysia: Understanding online shopping attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Zendehdel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining the factors that affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers are rare, despite the prospective advance of e-commerce in Malaysia. The present study examines particular factors that influence the attitude of potential consumers to purchase online by using the attributes from the diffusion of innovations theory of Rogers, the attribute of perception of risk, and the subjective norms toward online purchasing. Consumers’ perceived risks of online shopping have become a vital subject in research because they directly influence users’ attitude toward online purchasing. The structural equation modeling method was used to analyze the data gathered on students using e-commerce, and, thus, to validate the model. According to the results, consumers’ attitude toward online purchasing affects the intention toward online purchasing. The other influential factors are compatibility, relative advantage, and subjective norm.

  7. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.

  8. Understanding externalizing behavior from children's personality and parenting characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramura, Hidetoshi; Uji, Masayo; Shikai, Noriko; Chen, Zi; Matsuoka, Nao; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2010-01-30

    A total of 946 Japanese children in the 5th to 9th grades and their parents were studied in order to investigate the extent to which parenting characteristics (measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument) and the personality of the child (measured by the junior version of the Temperament and Character Inventory) would be associated with the two aspects of the externalizing problems--aggression and delinquency--of the child (measured by the Child Behavior Checklist). A series of regression analyses demonstrated that (1) aggressive children were higher in Novelty Seeking, and delinquent children were higher in Novelty Seeking and lower in Harm Avoidance, and (2) both aggressive and delinquent children were characterised by low maternal care, paternal over-protection, and low maternal overprotection. A structural equation model confirmed these findings except for the link between the two externalizing behaviour scores and the maternal care. Moreover, it was suggested that Novelty seeking of the child would be predicted by low parental care and low paternal and high maternal overprotection. The children's aggression and delinquency could, to some extent, be explainable by their temperament patterns and parental characteristics.

  9. The use of radioisotopes 32P and 35S in studies on behavior of pesticides in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szperlinski, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotopes were used to determine the possibility and extent of contamination of underground waters by pesticides used in agriculture. The sorption and dynamics of the migration of two organo-phosphorous pesticides, fenitrothion and malathion, were studied. These two products are currently being proposed as agricultural pesticides. They would replace other substances of the chrlorinated hydrocarbon group, including DDT, which are more dangerous to health, but are themselves source of potential contamination of underground waters. Studies were carried out on different types of soil: sandy and clay. Isotherms were determined for the sorption of the pesticides examined, together with their distribution coefficients, Kd. The effects of pH values, exchangeable ions, organic substances (organic C and N) and the mechanical composition of the sorption of fenitrothion and malathion were studied

  10. Applying theory-driven approaches to understanding and modifying clinicians' behavior: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew B; Jensen, Peter S; Jaccard, James; Gollwitzer, Peter; Oettingen, Gabriele; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2007-03-01

    Despite major recent research advances, large gaps exist between accepted mental health knowledge and clinicians' real-world practices. Although hundreds of studies have successfully utilized basic behavioral science theories to understand, predict, and change patients' health behaviors, the extent to which these theories-most notably the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and its extension, the theory of planned behavior (TPB)-have been applied to understand and change clinician behavior is unclear. This article reviews the application of theory-driven approaches to understanding and changing clinician behaviors. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched, along with bibliographies, textbooks on health behavior or public health, and references from experts, to find article titles that describe theory-driven approaches (TRA or TPB) to understanding and modifying health professionals' behavior. A total of 19 articles that detailed 20 studies described the use of TRA or TPB and clinicians' behavior. Eight articles describe the use of TRA or TPB with physicians, four relate to nurses, three relate to pharmacists, and two relate to health workers. Only two articles applied TRA or TPB to mental health clinicians. The body of work shows that different constructs of TRA or TPB predict intentions and behavior among different groups of clinicians and for different behaviors and guidelines. The number of studies on this topic is extremely limited, but they offer a rationale and a direction for future research as well as a theoretical basis for increasing the specificity and efficiency of clinician-targeted interventions.

  11. Applied behavior analysis: understanding and changing behavior in the community-a representative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis, a psychological discipline, has been characterized as the science of behavior change (Chance, 2006). Research in applied behavior analysis has been published for approximately 40 years since the initial publication of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in 1968. The field now encompasses a wide range of human behavior. Although much of the published research centers on problem behaviors that occur in schools and among people with disabilities, a substantial body of knowledge has emerged in community settings. This article provides a review of the behavioral community research published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis as representative of this work, including research in the areas of home and family, health, safety, community involvement and the environment, recreation and sports, crime and delinquency, and organizations. In the interest of space, research in schools and with people with disabilities has been excluded from this review.

  12. Understanding the behavior of buried Bi nanostructures from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Hunter; Pantelides, Sokrates; Song, Jiaming; Hudak, Bethany; Lupini, Andrew; Snijders, Paul

    Bismuth dopants in silicon provide several advantages over other n-type options such as phosphorus for usage as quantum bits (qubits). Self-assembled Bi nanolines on Si (100) surfaces may provide a means of introducing these dopants with greater control over placement and with less damage to the host system than is possible using ion implantation. However, these structures have thus far only been observed in vacuum, limiting their usefulness for application. We examine Bi nanolines overgrown with amorphous Si using density functional theory, comparing our findings with observations from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in order to better understand the way in which the Si surface is influenced by both the Bi ad-dimers and the capping layer. We compare the thermodynamic stability of the generally accepted haiku defect core to the modified core that we observe and offer insight from total energy calculations into how the overgrowth process affects the nanolines. Supported by Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02- 09ER46554 (VU) and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy (ORNL).

  13. Experimental and theoretical determination of pesticide processing factors to model their behavior during virgin olive oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Moreno-González, David; Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida

    2018-01-15

    The purpose of the present work was the experimental evaluation of pesticides transfer to virgin olive oil during the production step and prediction of their processing factors, which could be eventually used for the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in olive oil from the MRLs set in olives. A laboratory-scale Abencor system was used for the production of olive oil from olives spiked with the 104 pesticides studied, three different chromatographic methods being used for the analysis of raw olives and the obtained olive oil: (i) gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for GC-amenable pesticides; (ii) hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) for polar pesticides, and; (iii) reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for low to medium polarity pesticides. Processing factors experimentally calculated were correlated to their octanol-water partitioning coefficient (logK ow ), enabling the calculation of the equivalent MRLs in olive oil from the MRLs in olives, considering the percentage of oil extracted (oil yield) and the log K ow of each pesticide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards an understanding of the role of the environment in the development of early callous behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Trentacosta, Christopher; Leve, Leslie D.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2015-01-01

    Key to understanding the long-term impact of social inequalities is identifying early behaviors that may signal higher risk for later poor psychosocial outcomes, such as psychopathology. A set of early-emerging characteristics that may signal risk for later externalizing psychopathology is Callous-Unemotional (CU) behavior. CU behavior predict severe and chronic trajectories of externalizing behaviors in youth. However, much research on CU behavior has focused on late childhood and adolescence, with little attention paid to early childhood when preventative interventions may be most effective. In this paper, we summarize our recent work showing that: (1) CU behavior can be identified in early childhood using items from common behavior checklists; (2) CU behavior predicts worse outcomes across early childhood; (3) CU behavior exhibits a distinct nomological network from other early externalizing behaviors; and (4) malleable environmental factors, particularly parenting, may play a role in the development of early CU behaviors. We discuss the challenges of studying contextual contributors to the development of CU behavior in terms of gene-environment correlations and present initial results from work examining CU behavior in an adoption study in which gene-environment correlations are examined in early childhood. We find that parenting is a predictor of early CU behavior even in a sample in which parents are not genetically related to the children. PMID:26291075

  15. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  16. Maternal Behavior Modifications during Pretense and Their Long-Term Effects on Toddlers' Understanding of Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate the need to investigate the sources of toddlers' understanding of another person's pretense. The present study is a cultural and longitudinal extension of the work of Lillard and Witherington (2004), who claimed that mothers modify their behaviors during pretense and that the some of these behavior modifications help their…

  17. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  18. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem.

  19. Towards a better understanding of consumer behavior : Marginal Utility as a parameter in Neuromarketing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvino, Letizia; Constantinides, Efthymios; Franco, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding consumers’ decision-making process is a recurrent goal in Marketing. However, the traditional tools used in marketing, such as surveys, personal interviews and participant observations are often inadequate to analyze and understand human behavior. Since consumer decisions are often

  20. Understanding Attitudes and Pro-Environmental Behaviors in a Chilean Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás C. Bronfman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection and restoration are some of the major challenges faced by our society. To address this problem, it is fundamental to understand pro-environmental behaviors in the population, as well as the factors that determine them. There are, however, very few studies conducted in Latin America that are focused in understanding the environmental behavior of its citizens. The main goal of this research was to study the environmental behaviors of a Chilean community and identify the factors that determine them. To that end, a diverse set of environmental behaviors (power and water conservation, environmentally-aware consumer behavior, biodiversity protection, rational automobile use and ecological waste management and sociodemographic and attitudinal factors—based on the VBN model—were evaluated. Survey data was obtained from a statistically representative sample (N = 1537 in Santiago, Chile. Our results suggest that several participants displayed tendencies that favor more responsible environmental behaviors, with high environmental concern, and demonstrating their ample awareness of the consequences of failing to protect the environment. Nevertheless, the highest average scores of environmental behavior were related to low cost behaviors and those that imposed the fewest behavioral restrictions. In global terms, we concluded that the youngest subjects in the lowest socioeconomic group obtained the lowest scores across the pro-environmental behavior spectrum.

  1. Investigation of Pesticide Penetration and Persistence on Harvested and Live Basil Leaves Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianxi; Zhao, Bin; Kinchla, Amanda J; Clark, John M; He, Lili

    2017-05-03

    Understanding pesticide behavior in plants is important for effectively applying pesticides and in reducing pesticide exposures from ingestion. This study aimed to investigate the penetration and persistence of pesticides applied on harvested and live basil leaves. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping was applied for in situ and real-time tracking of pesticides over time using gold nanoparticles as probes. The results showed that, after surface exposure of 30 min to 48 h, pesticides (10 mg/L) penetrated more rapidly and deeply into the live leaves than the harvested leaves. The systemic pesticide thiabendazole and the nonsystemic pesticide ferbam can penetrate into the live leaves with depths of 225 and 130 μm, respectively, and the harvested leaves with depths of 180 and 18 μm, respectively, after 48 h of exposure. The effects of leaf integrity and age on thiabendazole penetration were also evaluated on live basil leaves after 24 h of exposure. Thiabendazole (10 mg/L) when applied onto intact leaves penetrated deeper (170 μm) than when applied onto damaged leaves (80 μm) prepared with 20 scrapes on the top surface of the leaves. Older leaves with a wet mass of 0.204 ± 0.019 g per leaf (45 days after leaf out) allowed more rapid and deeper penetration of pesticides (depth of 165 μm) than younger leaves with a wet mass of 0.053 ± 0.007 g per leaf (15 days after leaf out, depth of 95 μm). The degradation of thiabendazole on live leaves was detected after 1 week, whereas the apparent degradation of ferbam was detected after 2 weeks. In addition, the removal of pesticides from basil was more efficient when compared with other fresh produce possibly due to the specific gland structure of basil leaves. The information obtained here provides a better understanding of the behavior and biological fate of pesticides on plants.

  2. On Understanding the Human Nature of Good and Bad Behavior in Business: A Behavioral Ethics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe numerous scandals in business, such as those at AIG, Tyco, WorldCom, Enron and Ahold, have made all of us concerned about the emergence of unethical and irresponsible behavior in organizations. Such widespread corruption in business and politics has, as result, prompted a growth of

  3. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys...

  4. The Crucible simulation: Behavioral simulation improves clinical leadership skills and understanding of complex health policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel; Vlaev, Ivo; McMahon, Laurie; Harvey, Sarah; Mitchell, Andy; Borovoi, Leah; Darzi, Ara

    2017-05-11

    The Health and Social Care Act 2012 represents the most complex National Health Service reforms in history. High-quality clinical leadership is important for successful implementation of health service reform. However, little is known about the effectiveness of current leadership training. This study describes the use of a behavioral simulation to improve the knowledge and leadership of a cohort of medical doctors expected to take leadership roles in the National Health Service. A day-long behavioral simulation (The Crucible) was developed and run based on a fictitious but realistic health economy. Participants completed pre- and postsimulation questionnaires generating qualitative and quantitative data. Leadership skills, knowledge, and behavior change processes described by the "theory of planned behavior" were self-assessed pre- and postsimulation. Sixty-nine medical doctors attended. Participants deemed the simulation immersive and relevant. Significant improvements were shown in perceived knowledge, capability, attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and leadership competency following the program. Nearly one third of participants reported that they had implemented knowledge and skills from the simulation into practice within 4 weeks. This study systematically demonstrates the effectiveness of behavioral simulation for clinical management training and understanding of health policy reform. Potential future uses and strategies for analysis are discussed. High-quality care requires understanding of health systems and strong leadership. Policymakers should consider the use of behavioral simulation to improve understanding of health service reform and development of leadership skills in clinicians, who readily adopt skills from simulation into everyday practice.

  5. Tracer work in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    Innumerable studies on the large number of pesticides being used throughout the world led to some adverse findings on the properties and behavior of these chemicals and their degradation products in revelation to potential toxicity and environmental pollution. However, it is also a fact (difficult to accept as it may) that the use of pesticides as an indirect means of increasing food production cannot yet be dispensed with despite the potential dangers attributed to it. What can be done is to insure its judicious application which means minimizing its effectiveness in controlling pest infestations. To be able to do this it is necessary to know not only what pesticide is to be used against a given pest but also the fate of pesticide after application to a particular environment under prevailing conditions. Knowledge of the distribution and persistence of the parent compounds under metabolites will also help either, to confirm or to dispel the alleged dangers posed by them. Radiotracer methodology is particularly effective for this type of work because it permits highly sensitive analysis with minimum clean-up and permits one to determine even the bound residues which defies ordinary extraction procedures. Some studies made are studies on fate of pesticides in plant after foliar application to plant needs, uptake and translocation of systemic pesticides, fate of pesticides in soil, bioaccumulation of pesticide by aquatic organisms, etc. This particular study is on distribution of pesticide among the components of a rice/fish ecosystem. This project aims to generate data from experiments conducted in a model ecosystem using radiolabelled lindane and carbo-furan. In both cases, results show a decline in extractable species from the recommended dosage of pesticide application although they tend to imbibe a considerable amount of pesticide. It is hoped that depuration in additional experiments will bring useful results. (Auth.)

  6. A Visual Analytics Approach for Detecting and Understanding Anomalous Resident Behaviors in Smart Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Liao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of science and technology, it is possible to analyze residents’ daily behaviors for the purpose of smart healthcare in the smart home environment. Many researchers have begun to detect residents’ anomalous behaviors and assess their physical condition, but these approaches used by the researchers are often caught in plight caused by a lack of ground truth, one-sided analysis of behavior, and difficulty of understanding behaviors. In this paper, we put forward a smart home visual analysis system (SHVis to help analysts detect and comprehend unusual behaviors of residents, and predict the health information intelligently. Firstly, the system classifies daily activities recorded by sensor devices in smart home environment into different categories, and discovers unusual behavior patterns of residents living in this environment by using various characteristics extracted from those activities and appropriate unsupervised anomaly detection algorithm. Secondly, on the basis of figuring out the residents’ anomaly degree of every date, we explore the daily behavior patterns and details with the help of several visualization views, and compare and analyze residents’ activities of various dates to find the reasons why residents act unusually. In the case study of this paper, we analyze residents’ behaviors that happened over two months and find unusual indoor behaviors and give health advice to the residents.

  7. Meta-Analysis of the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to Understanding Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachan, Rosemary; Taylor, Natalie; Harrison, Reema; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter; Conner, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Reasoned action approach (RAA) includes subcomponents of attitude (experiential/instrumental), perceived norm (injunctive/descriptive), and perceived behavioral control (capacity/autonomy) to predict intention and behavior. To provide a meta-analysis of the RAA for health behaviors focusing on comparing the pairs of RAA subcomponents and differences between health protection and health-risk behaviors. The present research reports a meta-analysis of correlational tests of RAA subcomponents, examination of moderators, and combined effects of subcomponents on intention and behavior. Regressions were used to predict intention and behavior based on data from studies measuring all variables. Capacity and experiential attitude had large, and other constructs had small-medium-sized correlations with intention; all constructs except autonomy were significant independent predictors of intention in regressions. Intention, capacity, and experiential attitude had medium-large, and other constructs had small-medium-sized correlations with behavior; intention, capacity, experiential attitude, and descriptive norm were significant independent predictors of behavior in regressions. The RAA subcomponents have utility in predicting and understanding health behaviors.

  8. Pesticide Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the process for periodically evaluating registered pesticides to ensure they meet current science standards for risk assessment, as required by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.

  9. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be harboring disease organisms. Determining human and ecological risks from exposure to antimicrobial pesticides requires different ... Open Government Regulations.gov Subscribe USA.gov White House Ask. Contact Us Hotlines FOIA Requests Frequent Questions ...

  10. Understanding Knowledge Sharing Behavior: An Examination of the Extended Model of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Knowledge is recognized as one valuable asset for many organizations. Thus, knowledge-sharing is one of important activities in many organizations, including university. Knowledge sharing is defined as activities of transferring or disseminating organizationally relevant information, ideas, suggestions, and expertise with one another. This research applied Christian values as a moderating variable in the framework of theory of planned behavior. The aims of this research to assess applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict knowledge sharing and to examine the effects of Christian values in the relationship between attitude and intention to share knowledge. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data for this study. The data was then analyzed using structural equation modeling. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  11. The Psychology of Isolated and Confined Environments: Understanding Human Behavior in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews lessons learned from research in Antarctica with relevance to understanding human behavior in other isolated and confined environments. Outlines four distinct characteristics of psychosocial adaptation to such environments and discusses some of the benefits for individuals seeking challenging experiences. (Contains references.) (SLD)

  12. A neurogenetics approach to understanding individual differences in brain, behavior, and risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, R; Hyde, L W; Hariri, A R

    2013-03-01

    Neurogenetics research has begun to advance our understanding of how genetic variation gives rise to individual differences in brain function, which, in turn, shapes behavior and risk for psychopathology. Despite these advancements, neurogenetics research is currently confronted by three major challenges: (1) conducting research on individual variables with small effects, (2) absence of detailed mechanisms, and (3) a need to translate findings toward greater clinical relevance. In this review, we showcase techniques and developments that address these challenges and highlight the benefits of a neurogenetics approach to understanding brain, behavior and psychopathology. To address the challenge of small effects, we explore approaches including incorporating the environment, modeling epistatic relationships and using multilocus profiles. To address the challenge of mechanism, we explore how non-human animal research, epigenetics research and genome-wide association studies can inform our mechanistic understanding of behaviorally relevant brain function. Finally, to address the challenge of clinical relevance, we examine how neurogenetics research can identify novel therapeutic targets and for whom treatments work best. By addressing these challenges, neurogenetics research is poised to exponentially increase our understanding of how genetic variation interacts with the environment to shape the brain, behavior and risk for psychopathology.

  13. Bridging Models and Business: Understanding heterogeneity in hidden drivers of customer purchase behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Korkmaz (Evsen)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Recent years have seen many advances in quantitative models in the marketing literature. Even though these advances enable model building for a better understanding of customer purchase behavior and customer heterogeneity such that firms develop optimal targeting and

  14. An Integrative Model for Understanding Team Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Antecedents and Consequences for Educational Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Anit; Khotaba, Soha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to use a model to broaden the understanding of the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) phenomenon in educational teams and examines team OCB's mediating role in the relation of the contextual variables of team justice climate (distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice) to team…

  15. Enviromental behavior of sulfentrazone and fipronil in a Brazilian clayey latosol: field experiment and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Scorza Júnior, Rômulo Penna; Franco, André Andrade

    2014-01-01

    There has been an urgent need to assess pesticide environmental behavior under Brazilian field conditions and to evaluate the risks associated to its use in agriculture. Besides a qualitative and quantitative interpretation of field experiments to acquire understanding about pesticide environmental behaviour, field experiments are important to test pesticide fate models. Environmental behaviour of fipronil and sulfentrazone in a sugarcane area in Dourados, MS, was evaluated until 257 days aft...

  16. Pesticide Use Site Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  17. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920

  18. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens' sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.

  19. Facebook tells me so: applying the theory of planned behavior to understand partner-monitoring behavior on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvell, Millie J; Walsh, Shari P; White, Katherine M

    2011-12-01

    The social networking site (SNS) Facebook is becoming increasingly recognized as a medium through which individuals can investigate and monitor others' activities. However, little is known about whether Facebook monitoring behavior occurs within romantic relationships and, accordingly, the psychological predictors of this behavior. The present study employed an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework including self-esteem, partner trust, and demographic characteristics, to predict frequent Facebook partner-monitoring. Facebook users (N=244) in romantic relationships completed measures assessing the standard TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control), additional predictor variables (self-esteem and partner trust), and demographic characteristics (age, gender, relationship length, daily Facebook logins, and time spent per login). One week later, participants reported their level of Facebook partner-monitoring during the previous week. Regression analyses supported the standard TPB constructs of attitude and subjective norm in predicting intentions to engage in frequent Facebook partner-monitoring, with intention, in turn, predicting behavior. Partner trust, but not self-esteem, significantly predicted frequent Facebook partner-monitoring intentions. Of the demographic characteristics, daily Facebook logins significantly predicted both intention and behavior and, unexpectedly, relationship length directly affected behavior. Overall, the current study revealed that frequent Facebook partner-monitoring is influenced by attitudinal, normative, and relational factors and, potentially, increased visits to Facebook. These findings provide a new understanding of an individual's use of the world's leading SNS to monitor their partner's activities and provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the potential negative implications this activity may have for those in romantic relationships.

  20. Understanding how discrete populations of hypothalamic neurons orchestrate complicated behavioral states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison eGraebner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A major question in systems neuroscience is how a single population of neurons can interact with the rest of the brain to orchestrate complex behavioral states. The hypothalamus contains many such discrete neuronal populations that individually regulate arousal, feeding, and drinking. For example, hypothalamic neurons that express hypocretin (Hcrt neuropeptides can sense homeostatic and metabolic factors affecting wakefulness and orchestrate organismal arousal. Neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP can sense the metabolic needs of the body and orchestrate a state of hunger. The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT can detect the hypertonicity of blood and orchestrate a state of thirst. Each hypothalamic population is sufficient to generate complicated behavioral states through the combined efforts of distinct efferent projections. The principal challenge to understanding these brain systems is therefore to determine the individual roles of each downstream projection for each behavioral state. In recent years, the development and application of temporally precise, genetically encoded tools have greatly improved our understanding of the structure and function of these neural systems. This review will survey recent advances in our understanding of how these individual hypothalamic populations can orchestrate complicated behavioral states due to the combined efforts of individual downstream projections.

  1. Can fractal methods applied to video tracking detect the effects of deltamethrin pesticide or mercury on the locomotion behavior of shrimps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; da Silva Filho, Eurípedes Alves; Neiva, Gentileza Santos Martins; da Silva, Valdemiro Amaro; Tenorio, Fernanda das Chagas Angelo Mendes; da Silva, Themis de Jesus; Silva, Emerson Carlos Soares E; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque

    2017-08-01

    Shrimps can accumulate environmental toxicants and suffer behavioral changes. However, methods to quantitatively detect changes in the behavior of these shrimps are still needed. The present study aims to verify whether mathematical and fractal methods applied to video tracking can adequately describe changes in the locomotion behavior of shrimps exposed to low concentrations of toxic chemicals, such as 0.15µgL -1 deltamethrin pesticide or 10µgL -1 mercuric chloride. Results showed no change after 1min, 4, 24, and 48h of treatment. However, after 72 and 96h of treatment, both the linear methods describing the track length, mean speed, mean distance from the current to the previous track point, as well as the non-linear methods of fractal dimension (box counting or information entropy) and multifractal analysis were able to detect changes in the locomotion behavior of shrimps exposed to deltamethrin. Analysis of angular parameters of the track points vectors and lacunarity were not sensitive to those changes. None of the methods showed adverse effects to mercury exposure. These mathematical and fractal methods applicable to software represent low cost useful tools in the toxicological analyses of shrimps for quality of food, water and biomonitoring of ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thymol as an alternative to pesticides: persistence and effects of Apilife Var on the phototactic behavior of the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Jean-Luc; Téné, Nathan; Bonnafé, Elsa; Alayrangues, Julie; Hotier, Lucie; Armengaud, Catherine; Treilhou, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Thymol is a natural substance increasingly used as an alternative to pesticides in the fight against the Varroa destructor mite. Despite the effectiveness of this phenolic monoterpene against Varroa, few articles have covered the negative or side effects of thymol on bees. In a previous study, we have found an impairment of phototaxis in honeybees following application of sublethal doses of thymol-lower or equal to 100 ng/bee-under laboratory conditions. The present work shows the same behavioral effects on bees from hives treated with Apilife Var®, a veterinary drug containing 74 % thymol, with a decrease in phototactic behavior observed 1 day after treatment. Thus, thymol causes disruption of bee phototactic behavior both under laboratory conditions as well as in beehives. The bee exposure dose in treated hives was quantified using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), giving a median value of 4.3 μg per body 24 h after treatment, with 11 ng in the brain. The thymol level in 20 organic waxes from hives treated with Apilife Var® was also measured and showed that it persists in waxes (around 10 mg/kg) 1 year after treatment. Thus, in the light of (1) behavioral data obtained under laboratory conditions and in beehives, (2) the persistence of thymol in waxes, and (3) the high load on bees, it would appear important to study the long-term effects of thymol in beehives.

  3. The importance of pesticide exposure duration and mode on the foraging of an agricultural pest predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Caitlyn; Hanna, Chadwick J; Hanna, Catherine J B

    2015-02-01

    The striped lynx spider (Oxyopes salticus), is a natural predator of crop pests and therefore frequently encounters pesticides on its substrate and its prey. While pesticide exposure may negatively impact the lifespan of spiders, sublethal effects can also alter their normal behaviors. This study examined how prey capture was affected when spiders and their prey were exposed to bifenthrin and malathion. When spiders were continually exposed to bifenthrin residues, prey capture decreased over time, but mortality was not affected. Malathion exposed spiders, however, showed increased mortality, but their ability to catch prey was unaltered. When spiders encountered pesticide dosed prey, predation was unaffected, implying that spiders are unable to detect residues on prey. These results improve the understanding of how pesticides affect natural pest control and raise questions about the functional roles that spiders play when exposed to different chemicals.

  4. Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2014-03-01

    Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

  5. Understanding action control of parental support behavior for child physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norman; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-02-01

    Parental support is the critical family-level variable linked to child physical activity (PA), yet the antecedents of support are poorly understood, and its relationship with intention is modest. The purpose of this study was to apply a framework designed to evaluate the intention-behavior gap, known as multiprocess action control (M-PAC), to understand parental support for regular child PA. Mothers (N = 1,253) with children 5-12 years of age completed measures of attitudes, perceived control over support, behavioral regulation tactics (e.g., planning, self-monitoring), and intention to support. Over half (58%) reported on subsequent support behaviors 6 months later. Three intention-behavior profiles emerged: (a) nonintenders (26.4%; n = 331), (b) unsuccessful intenders (36.6%; n = 458), and (c) successful intenders (33%; n = 414). Congruent with M-PAC, a discriminant function analysis showed that affective attitude about support (r = .18), perceived behavioral control over support (r = .55), and behavioral regulation (r = .55) distinguished between all 3 intention-behavior profiles. A disaggregated analysis of specific behavioral regulation tactics showed that most distinguished all 3 profiles, yet planning, information seeking, and monitoring were the critical correlates of the discriminant function. The majority of mothers had positive intentions to support regular child PA, yet over half failed to enact this support. Difficulty of intention translating into support behavior arises from compromised control over support, self-regulation skills, and perceptions that the support experience is unenjoyable. Interventions aimed at strengthening these factors are recommended to improve parental support action control. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Expanding the Understanding of Risk Behavior Associated With Homelessness Among Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Taylor; Kintzle, Sara; Wenzel, Suzanne; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2017-09-01

    To advance large-scale efforts to end veteran homelessness, an understanding of factors that contribute to housing insecurity is necessary. Common risk behaviors (e.g., substance use and risky sexual practices) are associated with lengthier experiences of homelessness among the general homeless population, but less understood among homeless veterans. Additionally, whether emerging risk behaviors among veterans (e.g., sensation seeking and aggression) are associated with lengthy homeless experiences is unknown. Data were drawn from a sample of Los Angeles County veterans surveyed using a mixed nonprobability sampling strategy, which included recruiting veterans via national and local veterans service organizations, college organizations, and social media campaigns. Measures aligning with factors of sensation seeking (reckless driving, gambling, suicidal ideation); substance use (alcohol misuse, tobacco use, driving while intoxicated); risky sexual practices (risking getting a sexually transmitted disease); and aggression (looking to start a fight) were tested in multivariate, multinomial logistic regression analyses to determine their association with varying lengths of homelessness in the past year (less than 1 month, 2-6 months, 6 months to 1 year). Risking getting a sexually transmitted disease, gambling, suicidal ideation, alcohol misuse, tobacco use, driving while intoxicated, and looking to start a fight were associated with 6 or more months of homelessness. Several indicators of risk were associated with brief periods of homelessness, including gambling and looking to start a fight. Although a clear exposure-response effect was not detected with risk behaviors, results suggested there may be some wavering of engagement in risk behaviors over time. Findings suggest sensation seeking and aggression risk behaviors should be included in risk assessments and prevention efforts along with substance use and risky sexual practices to reduce veterans' risk of becoming

  7. Status of pesticides pollution in Tanzania - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elibariki, Raheli; Maguta, Mihayo Musabila

    2017-07-01

    Various studies have been conducted in Tanzania to assess the magnitude of pesticides pollution associated with pesticides application, storage, disposal as well as knowledge of farmers on pesticides handling. The studies analysed samples from different matrices covering vegetation, biota, water, sediments and soil. The objective of this review was to summarise the results of pesticides residues reported in different components of the environment to give a clear picture of pesticides pollution status in the country for law enforcement as well as for taking precaution measures. Gaps which need to be filled in order to establish a comprehensive understanding on pesticides pollution in the country have also been highlighted. Reviewed studies revealed that, most of the samples contained pesticides below permissible limits (WHO, FAO, US-EPA) except for few samples such as water from Kikavu river, Kilimanjaro region and Kilolo district, Iringa region which were detected with some Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) above WHO permissible limits. Some soil samples from the former storage sites also contained pesticides above FAO permissible limits. Pesticides and their metabolites were also detected both in vegetation, food and biota samples. The prevalent pesticides in the reviewed studies were the organochlorines such as Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan and Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Surveys to assess farmer's knowledge on pesticides handling observed poor understanding of farmers on pesticides storage, application and disposal. Decontamination of former storage areas, continuous monitoring of pesticide applications and training of farmers on proper handling of pesticides are highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Light induced heterogeneous ozone processing on the pesticides adsorbed on silica particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, J.; Désert, M.; Quivet, E.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.

    2013-12-01

    In France, in 2010, the sales of pesticides reached 1.8 billion euros for 61 900 tons of active ingredients, positioning France as a first European consumer of pesticides, as reported by the European Crop Protection Association. About 19 million hectares of crops are sprayed annually with pesticides, i.e., 35% of the total surface area of France. This corresponds to an average pesticide dose of 3.2 kg ha-1. The consumption of herbicide and fungicide is favoured in comparison to the use of insecticides in France and the other European countries, as well. The partitioning of pesticides between the gas and particulate phases influences the atmospheric fate of these compounds such as their photo-chemical degradation. There is much uncertainty concerning the behavior of the pesticides in the atmosphere. Especially, there is a gap of knowledge concerning the degradation of the pesticides induced by heterogeneous reactions in absence and especially in presence of solar light. Considering that most of the pesticides currently used are semi-volatile, it is of crucial importance to investigate the heterogeneous reactivity of particulate pesticides with light and with atmospheric oxidants such as ozone and OH radical. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the light induced heterogeneous ozonation of suspended pesticide particles. 8 pesticides (cyprodinil, deltamethrin, difenoconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, permethrin and tetraconazole) were chosen for their physico-chemical properties and their concentration levels in the PACA (Région Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur) region, France. Silica particles with well-known properties were chosen as model particles of atmospheric relevance. Kinetic rate constants were determined to allow estimate the atmospheric lifetimes relating to ozone. The rate constants were determined as follows: k = (6.6 × 0.2) 10-19, (7.2 × 0.3) 10-19, (5.1 × 0.5) 10-19, (3.9 × 0.3) 10-19 [cm3 molecules-1 s-1] for Cyprodinil

  9. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  10. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  11. Copy of Using Emulation and Simulation to Understand the Large-Scale Behavior of the Internet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalsteinsson, Helgi; Armstrong, Robert C.; Chiang, Ken; Gentile, Ann C.; Lloyd, Levi; Minnich, Ronald G.; Vanderveen, Keith; Van Randwyk, Jamie A; Rudish, Don W.

    2008-10-01

    We report on the work done in the late-start LDRDUsing Emulation and Simulation toUnderstand the Large-Scale Behavior of the Internet. We describe the creation of a researchplatform that emulates many thousands of machines to be used for the study of large-scale inter-net behavior. We describe a proof-of-concept simple attack we performed in this environment.We describe the successful capture of a Storm bot and, from the study of the bot and furtherliterature search, establish large-scale aspects we seek to understand via emulation of Storm onour research platform in possible follow-on work. Finally, we discuss possible future work.3

  12. Understanding Information Seeking Behavior of Indonesian Postgraduate Students in Malaysian Universities: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Subhan; Ahmad Bashawir Abdul Ghani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract : This study investigates Indonesian postgraduate student’s experience at the pre-sessional program of the process of seeking information and the strategies they used throughout the process. The objective is to understand their information seeking behavior particularly academic-related information in order to improve the effectiveness of educational communication in Malaysia higher institutions. Two research questions are addressed: what experiences do pre-sessional students face i...

  13. The contributions of cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging to understanding mechanisms of behavior change in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; Naqvi, Nasir H; Debellis, Robert; Breiter, Hans C

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Getting angry matters: Going beyond perspective taking and empathic concern to understand bystanders' behavior in bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Thornberg, Robert

    2017-12-01

    The present study examined the relations between different empathic dimensions and bystanders' behavior in bullying. Specifically, the indirect effects of empathic concern and perspective taking via empathic anger on defending and passive bystanding were tested in a sample of Italian young adolescents (N = 398; M age  = 12 years, 3 months, 47.2% girls). Path analysis confirmed the direct and indirect effects, via empathic anger, of empathic concern and perspective taking on bystanders' behavior, with the exception of the direct association between perspective taking and passive bystanding that was not significant. Our findings suggest that considering empathic anger together with empathic concern and perspective taking could help researchers to better understand the links between empathic dispositions and bystanders' behavior in bullying. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Understanding behavioral intent to participate in shared decision-making in medically uncertain situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Roxana M; Dunn, K; Zhang, J; Hsu, C E; Holmes, J H

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the process undertaken to identify and validate behavioral and normative beliefs and behavioral intent based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and applied to men between the ages of 45 and 70 in the context of their participation in shared decision-making (SDM) in medically uncertain situations. This article also discusses the preliminary results of the aforementioned processes and explores potential future uses of this information that may facilitate greater understanding, efficiency and effectiveness of clinician-patient consultations. Twenty-five male subjects from the Philadelphia community participated in this study. Individual semi-structure patient interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached. Based on their review of the patient interview transcripts, researchers conducted a qualitative content analysis to identify prevalent themes and, subsequently, create a category framework. Qualitative indicators were used to evaluate respondents' experiences, beliefs, and behavioral intent relative to participation in shared decision-making during medical uncertainty. Based on the themes uncovered through the content analysis, a category framework was developed to facilitate understanding and increase the accuracy of predictions related to an individual's behavioral intent to participate in shared decision-making in medical uncertainty. The emerged themes included past experience with medical uncertainty, individual personality, and the relationship between the patient and his physician. The resulting three main framework categories include 1) an individual's Foundation for the concept of medical uncertainty, 2) how the individual Copes with medical uncertainty, and 3) the individual's Behavioral Intent to seek information and participate in shared decision-making during times of medically uncertain situations. The theme of Coping (with uncertainty) emerged as a particularly critical behavior/characteristic amongst the

  16. Radiography as a tool in understanding soil insect behavior in turfgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, M.G.; Wright, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    In an effort to gain a more realistic picture of the events that occur within the soil matrix an x-ray technique has been developed that has been used to study seed insects, parasitized cocoons, and wood boring insects in trees to study soil insect movement and behavior. This technique makes it possible to study the movement of the target insects within simulated or natural soil blocks over time. This method also shows physical properties of the soil matrix: particle size, extent of compaction, differences in soil moisture, horizons, and random soil heterogeneity. Blocks of soil up to 14'' x 17'' x 5'' have been removed from the field and x-rayed in my laboratory using this technique. These radiographs are of sufficient quality to determine the movement of white grubs in situ. Such blocks retain their field characteristics and therefore allow for the careful monitoring and manipulation of the system over relatively long (several months) periods of time. Radiographic data are presented which document the behavior of several white grub species in response to dynamic soil ecosystem processes such as moisture and temperature flux. Additional data on the effects of specific soil insecticides on the behavior of white grubs in the soil and the movement of these insecticides through the soil profile are also presented. The importance of understanding the dynamic interaction of soil insect and soil insecticide provided through x-ray technology, both in understanding white grub behavior in the field and maximizing management efforts is discussed

  17. The use and disposal of household pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, Charlotte N.B.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

  18. Understanding action control of daily walking behavior among dog owners: a community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Lim, Clarise

    2016-11-16

    Walking among dog owners may be a means to achieve health benefits, yet almost half of owners (approximately 30% of households) are not regularly walking their dogs. Current research on the correlates of dog walking has generally considered intention as the primary determinant of behavior, yet the intention-behavior relationship is modest. The purpose of this paper was to apply a framework designed to evaluate the intention-behavior gap, known as multi-process action control (M-PAC), to understand daily walking among dog owners. A community sample of adult dog owners (N = 227) in Victoria, Canada completed M-PAC measures of motivational (dog and human outcome expectations, affective judgments, perceived capability and opportunity), regulatory (planning), and reflexive (automaticity, identity) processes as well as intention to walk and behavior. Three intention-behavior profiles emerged: a) non-intenders who were not active (26%; n = 59), b) unsuccessful intenders who failed to enact their positive intentions (33%; n = 75), and c) successful intenders who were active (40%; n = 91). Congruent with M-PAC, a discriminant function analysis showed that affective judgements (r = 0.33), automaticity (r = 0.38), and planning (r = 0.33) distinguished between all three intention-behavior profiles, while identity (r = 0.22) and dog breed size (r = 0.28) differentiated between successful and unsuccessful intenders. The majority of dog owners have positive intentions to walk, yet almost half fail to meet these intentions. Interventions focused on affective judgments (e.g., more enjoyable places to walk), behavioral regulation (e.g., setting a concrete plan), habit (e.g., making routines and cues) and identity formation (e.g., affirmations of commitment) may help overcome difficulties with translating these intentions into action, thus increasing overall levels of walking.

  19. Understanding action control of daily walking behavior among dog owners: a community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E. Rhodes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking among dog owners may be a means to achieve health benefits, yet almost half of owners (approximately 30% of households are not regularly walking their dogs. Current research on the correlates of dog walking has generally considered intention as the primary determinant of behavior, yet the intention-behavior relationship is modest. The purpose of this paper was to apply a framework designed to evaluate the intention-behavior gap, known as multi-process action control (M-PAC, to understand daily walking among dog owners. Method A community sample of adult dog owners (N = 227 in Victoria, Canada completed M-PAC measures of motivational (dog and human outcome expectations, affective judgments, perceived capability and opportunity, regulatory (planning, and reflexive (automaticity, identity processes as well as intention to walk and behavior. Results Three intention-behavior profiles emerged: a non-intenders who were not active (26%; n = 59, b unsuccessful intenders who failed to enact their positive intentions (33%; n = 75, and c successful intenders who were active (40%; n = 91. Congruent with M-PAC, a discriminant function analysis showed that affective judgements (r = 0.33, automaticity (r = 0.38, and planning (r = 0.33 distinguished between all three intention-behavior profiles, while identity (r = 0.22 and dog breed size (r = 0.28 differentiated between successful and unsuccessful intenders. Conclusions The majority of dog owners have positive intentions to walk, yet almost half fail to meet these intentions. Interventions focused on affective judgments (e.g., more enjoyable places to walk, behavioral regulation (e.g., setting a concrete plan, habit (e.g., making routines and cues and identity formation (e.g., affirmations of commitment may help overcome difficulties with translating these intentions into action, thus increasing overall levels of walking.

  20. Putting the Mind in the Brain: Promoting an Appreciation of the Biological Basis to Understanding Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A surprising number of students in psychology, behavioral science, and related social science classes fail to appreciate the importance of biological mechanisms to understanding behavior. To help teachers promote this understanding, this paper outlines six sources of evidence. These are (a) phylogenetic, (b) genetic/developmental, (c) clinical,…

  1. On the Importance of Comparative Research for the Understanding of Human Behavior and Development: A Reply to Gottlieb & Lickliter (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Comparative behavioral research is important for a number of reasons and can contribute to the understanding of human behavior and development in many different ways. Research with animal models of human behavior and development can be a source not only of general principles and testable hypotheses but also of empirical information that may be…

  2. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  3. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann C; Nelson, A Katrina; Livchits, Viktoria; Greenfield, Shelly F; Yanova, Galina; Yanov, Sergei; Connery, Hilary S; Atwood, Sidney; Lastimoso, Charmaine S; Shin, Sonya S

    2016-01-01

    Russian Federation's (RF) HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB) patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961) randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months), clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female) at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5%) endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR)3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95, 7.95), age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04), drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77), history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD)(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90), low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03) and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46) were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58), incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17) and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10) continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  4. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C Miller

    Full Text Available Russian Federation's (RF HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961 randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months, clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5% endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.95, 7.95, age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04, drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77, history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90, low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03 and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46 were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58, incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17 and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10 continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  5. UNDERSTANDING OF NON VERBAL BEHAVIOR CLIENTS AND TECHNIQUES IN COUNSELING SESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afdal afdal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of counseling by counselor not only need the skills to understand what is expressed by the client, but were further able to understand and have skills in giving meaning to the nonverbal communication, demonstrated by the behavior of a counseling session. During this time many of counselors who focus only on what is revealed by the client and using verbal techniques alone without seeing what goes on inside the client more deeply to understand the communication indicated by nonverbal behavior. The techniques used in the discussion of this article provides the inspiration that counseling is an art, not superficial, not skeptical and just focus on one technique alone, but many of the techniques that can be used to explore client issues. Furthermore, this paper supports the philosophical theory of Gestalt who believe that the client can feel the direct presence in the counseling sessions through the practices of the techniques used, to interpret the expression of various communications made, stationing themselves and find their own meaning.

  6. NOAEL-dose of a neonicotinoid pesticide, clothianidin, acutely induce anxiety-related behavior with human-audible vocalizations in male mice in a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsushi; Yanai, Shogo; Takada, Tadashi; Yoneda, Naoki; Omotehara, Takuya; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Yamamoto, Anzu; Mantani, Youhei; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2018-01-05

    Neonicotinoids are novel systemic pesticides acting as agonists on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects. Experimental studies have revealed that neonicotinoids pose potential risks for the nervous systems of non-target species, but the brain regions responsible for their behavioral effects remain incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess the neurobehavioral effects of clothianidin (CTD), a later neonicotinoid developed in 2001 and widely used worldwide, and to explore the target regions of neonicotinoids in the mammalian brain. A single-administration of 5 or 50mg/kg CTD to male C57BL/6N mice at or below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) induced an acute increase in anxiety during the elevated plus-maze test. In addition, mice in the CTD-administered group spontaneously emitted human-audible vocalizations (4-16kHz), which are behavioral signs of aversive emotions, and showed increased numbers of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In conclusion, mice exposed to NOAEL-dose CTD would be rendered vulnerable to a novel environment via the activation of thalamic and hippocampal regions related to stress responses. These findings should provide critical insight into the neurobehavioral effects of neonicotinoids on mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding professional behavior: experiences of occupational therapy students in mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, M

    1997-09-01

    A phenomenological study explored occupational therapy students' experiences in psychiatric fieldwork. Of particular interest was students' understanding of professional behavior toward persons who use mental health services. Data were gathered from 16 informants via in-depth interviews and participant observation on multiple occasions during fieldwork affiliations. Emerging from informants' views of professional behavior were difficulties in their reconciling conflicting expectations with regard to emotional and social distance from persons who use mental health services. Additionally, the informants experienced a need to assume authority and maintain control in their dealings with service users. Students' encounters with such issues during fieldwork are indicative of challenges they may face as health professionals in a changing climate of mental health services. These data are stimuli for reflection on features of professional relationships with service users, particularly in response to expectations of persons with disabilities regarding control over their lives.

  8. Bridging the Gap: Towards a Cell-Type Specific Understanding of Neural Circuits Underlying Fear Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, KM; Morrison, FG; Ressler, KJ

    2016-01-01

    Fear and anxiety-related disorders are remarkably common and debilitating, and are often characterized by dysregulated fear responses. Rodent models of fear learning and memory have taken great strides towards elucidating the specific neuronal circuitries underlying the learning of fear responses. The present review addresses recent research utilizing optogenetic approaches to parse circuitries underlying fear behaviors. It also highlights the powerful advances made when optogenetic techniques are utilized in a genetically defined, cell-type specific, manner. The application of next-generation genetic and sequencing approaches in a cell-type specific context will be essential for a mechanistic understanding of the neural circuitry underlying fear behavior and for the rational design of targeted, circuit specific, pharmacologic interventions for the treatment and prevention of fear-related disorders. PMID:27470092

  9. Human behavior understanding in networked sensing theory and applications of networks of sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Distante, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    This unique text/reference provides a broad overview of both the technical challenges in sensor network development, and the real-world applications of distributed sensing. Important aspects of distributed computing in large-scale networked sensor systems are analyzed in the context of human behavior understanding, including such topics as systems design tools and techniques, in-network signals, and information processing. Additionally, the book examines a varied range of application scenarios, covering surveillance, indexing and retrieval, patient care, industrial safety, social and ambient

  10. #consumingitall: Understanding The Complex Relationship Between Media Consumption And Eating Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Stephanie L.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents spend almost nine hours a day engaging with media. As a result, they are confronted with large amounts of obesogenic content that shapes their understanding of what are normal and acceptable eating behaviors. Utilizing primary data collected from a sample of 4,838 low-income, racially and ethnically diverse middle school students in Los Angeles County, I studied the effects of different types of media use (i.e., social media, TV/movies/videos, gaming, music, Internet) on dietary p...

  11. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  12. Application of Survival Analysis and Multistate Modeling to Understand Animal Behavior: Examples from Guide Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Lucy; Harvey, Naomi D.; Green, Martin; England, Gary C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health-related states or events in populations. Statistical models developed for epidemiology could be usefully applied to behavioral states or events. The aim of this study is to present the application of epidemiological statistics to understand animal behavior where discrete outcomes are of interest, using data from guide dogs to illustrate. Specifically, survival analysis and multistate modeling are applied to data on guide dogs comparing dogs that completed training and qualified as a guide dog, to those that were withdrawn from the training program. Survival analysis allows the time to (or between) a binary event(s) and the probability of the event occurring at or beyond a specified time point. Survival analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards model, was used to examine the time taken to withdraw a dog from training. Sex, breed, and other factors affected time to withdrawal. Bitches were withdrawn faster than dogs, Labradors were withdrawn faster, and Labrador × Golden Retrievers slower, than Golden Retriever × Labradors; and dogs not bred by Guide Dogs were withdrawn faster than those bred by Guide Dogs. Multistate modeling (MSM) can be used as an extension of survival analysis to incorporate more than two discrete events or states. Multistate models were used to investigate transitions between states of training to qualification as a guide dog or behavioral withdrawal, and from qualification as a guide dog to behavioral withdrawal. Sex, breed (with purebred Labradors and Golden retrievers differing from F1 crosses), and bred by Guide Dogs or not, effected movements between states. We postulate that survival analysis and MSM could be applied to a wide range of behavioral data and key examples are provided. PMID:28804710

  13. Application of Survival Analysis and Multistate Modeling to Understand Animal Behavior: Examples from Guide Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Asher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health-related states or events in populations. Statistical models developed for epidemiology could be usefully applied to behavioral states or events. The aim of this study is to present the application of epidemiological statistics to understand animal behavior where discrete outcomes are of interest, using data from guide dogs to illustrate. Specifically, survival analysis and multistate modeling are applied to data on guide dogs comparing dogs that completed training and qualified as a guide dog, to those that were withdrawn from the training program. Survival analysis allows the time to (or between a binary event(s and the probability of the event occurring at or beyond a specified time point. Survival analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards model, was used to examine the time taken to withdraw a dog from training. Sex, breed, and other factors affected time to withdrawal. Bitches were withdrawn faster than dogs, Labradors were withdrawn faster, and Labrador × Golden Retrievers slower, than Golden Retriever × Labradors; and dogs not bred by Guide Dogs were withdrawn faster than those bred by Guide Dogs. Multistate modeling (MSM can be used as an extension of survival analysis to incorporate more than two discrete events or states. Multistate models were used to investigate transitions between states of training to qualification as a guide dog or behavioral withdrawal, and from qualification as a guide dog to behavioral withdrawal. Sex, breed (with purebred Labradors and Golden retrievers differing from F1 crosses, and bred by Guide Dogs or not, effected movements between states. We postulate that survival analysis and MSM could be applied to a wide range of behavioral data and key examples are provided.

  14. Toward a qualitative understanding of binge-watching behaviors: A focus group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayelle, Maèva; Maurage, Pierre; Billieux, Joël

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in a row) now constitutes a widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about the psychological factors underlying this behavior, as reflected by the paucity of available studies, most merely focusing on its potential harmfulness by applying the classic criteria used for other addictive disorders without exploring the uniqueness of binge-watching. This study thus aimed to take the opposite approach as a first step toward a genuine understanding of binge-watching behaviors through a qualitative analysis of the phenomenological characteristics of TV series watching. Methods A focus group of regular TV series viewers (N = 7) was established to explore a wide range of aspects related to TV series watching (e.g., motives, viewing practices, and related behaviors). Results A content analysis identified binge-watching features across three dimensions: TV series watching motivations, TV series watching engagement, and structural characteristics of TV shows. Most participants acknowledged that TV series watching can become addictive, but they all agreed having trouble recognizing themselves as truly being an "addict." Although obvious connections could be established with substance addiction criteria and symptoms, such parallelism appeared to be insufficient, as several distinctive facets emerged (e.g., positive view, transient overinvolvement, context dependency, and low everyday life impact). Discussion and conclusion The research should go beyond the classic biomedical and psychological models of addictive behaviors to account for binge-watching in order to explore its specificities and generate the first steps toward an adequate theoretical rationale for these emerging problematic behaviors.

  15. ISBP: Understanding the Security Rule of Users' Information-Sharing Behaviors in Partnership.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchen Wu

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of social network data has given rise to high security awareness among users, especially when they exchange and share their personal information. However, because users have different feelings about sharing their information, they are often puzzled about who their partners for exchanging information can be and what information they can share. Is it possible to assist users in forming a partnership network in which they can exchange and share information with little worry? We propose a modified information sharing behavior prediction (ISBP model that can help in understanding the underlying rules by which users share their information with partners in light of three common aspects: what types of items users are likely to share, what characteristics of users make them likely to share information, and what features of users' sharing behavior are easy to predict. This model is applied with machine learning techniques in WEKA to predict users' decisions pertaining to information sharing behavior and form them into trustable partnership networks by learning their features. In the experiment section, by using two real-life datasets consisting of citizens' sharing behavior, we identify the effect of highly sensitive requests on sharing behavior adjacent to individual variables: the younger participants' partners are more difficult to predict than those of the older participants, whereas the partners of people who are not computer majors are easier to predict than those of people who are computer majors. Based on these findings, we believe that it is necessary and feasible to offer users personalized suggestions on information sharing decisions, and this is pioneering work that could benefit college researchers focusing on user-centric strategies and website owners who want to collect more user information without raising their privacy awareness or losing their trustworthiness.

  16. ISBP: Understanding the Security Rule of Users' Information-Sharing Behaviors in Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongchen; Wang, Xinjun

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of social network data has given rise to high security awareness among users, especially when they exchange and share their personal information. However, because users have different feelings about sharing their information, they are often puzzled about who their partners for exchanging information can be and what information they can share. Is it possible to assist users in forming a partnership network in which they can exchange and share information with little worry? We propose a modified information sharing behavior prediction (ISBP) model that can help in understanding the underlying rules by which users share their information with partners in light of three common aspects: what types of items users are likely to share, what characteristics of users make them likely to share information, and what features of users' sharing behavior are easy to predict. This model is applied with machine learning techniques in WEKA to predict users' decisions pertaining to information sharing behavior and form them into trustable partnership networks by learning their features. In the experiment section, by using two real-life datasets consisting of citizens' sharing behavior, we identify the effect of highly sensitive requests on sharing behavior adjacent to individual variables: the younger participants' partners are more difficult to predict than those of the older participants, whereas the partners of people who are not computer majors are easier to predict than those of people who are computer majors. Based on these findings, we believe that it is necessary and feasible to offer users personalized suggestions on information sharing decisions, and this is pioneering work that could benefit college researchers focusing on user-centric strategies and website owners who want to collect more user information without raising their privacy awareness or losing their trustworthiness.

  17. Application of Survival Analysis and Multistate Modeling to Understand Animal Behavior: Examples from Guide Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Lucy; Harvey, Naomi D; Green, Martin; England, Gary C W

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health-related states or events in populations. Statistical models developed for epidemiology could be usefully applied to behavioral states or events. The aim of this study is to present the application of epidemiological statistics to understand animal behavior where discrete outcomes are of interest, using data from guide dogs to illustrate. Specifically, survival analysis and multistate modeling are applied to data on guide dogs comparing dogs that completed training and qualified as a guide dog, to those that were withdrawn from the training program. Survival analysis allows the time to (or between) a binary event(s) and the probability of the event occurring at or beyond a specified time point. Survival analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards model, was used to examine the time taken to withdraw a dog from training. Sex, breed, and other factors affected time to withdrawal. Bitches were withdrawn faster than dogs, Labradors were withdrawn faster, and Labrador × Golden Retrievers slower, than Golden Retriever × Labradors; and dogs not bred by Guide Dogs were withdrawn faster than those bred by Guide Dogs. Multistate modeling (MSM) can be used as an extension of survival analysis to incorporate more than two discrete events or states. Multistate models were used to investigate transitions between states of training to qualification as a guide dog or behavioral withdrawal, and from qualification as a guide dog to behavioral withdrawal. Sex, breed (with purebred Labradors and Golden retrievers differing from F1 crosses), and bred by Guide Dogs or not, effected movements between states. We postulate that survival analysis and MSM could be applied to a wide range of behavioral data and key examples are provided.

  18. Effectiveness Of Pesticide Labels As A Communication Tool For Smallholder Farmers On Pesticides Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Kapeleka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in northern Tanzania to assess the effectiveness of pesticide labels in communicating useful information to horticultural farmers. A total of 200 respondents were obtained through simple random selection. Data were collected through personal and face-to-face interview using structured interview schedule observation and focus group discussion. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation were used in the analysis. The study revealed that 79.6 of farmers interviewed had not learned anything from the labels. With regard to the main source of information on pesticides use 66.7 of the farmers get information from pesticides retailers. Misinterpretation of symbols and pictograms was realized among the farmers. It was revealed that 60 of the farmers cannot interpret correctly the warning symbols and pictograms. The study also revealed that 76.3 of the farmers are aware that pesticide labels contain useful information on safe use of pesticides and 76.1 of all farmers interviewed read pesticides labels before using pesticides. Even when farmers read instructions most do not understand the instructions provided on pesticide labels the main reasons reported include the use of foreign language 53.3 too technical language 51.7 unclear information 40 use of uncommon Swahili words 26.7 while 35.5 said following information on the label do not give good results. Other factors influencing the use of information on pesticide labels were found to be farmers perception on pesticide labels lacking sensitization on label use and reading habit. The study concluded that pesticide labels do not communicate fully the intended information on pesticide use. Pesticide labels need to be simplified and capacity building on symbols colour codes pictograms safety precautions health and environmental impacts of pesticides use is highly required to pesticide users.

  19. America's Growing Dilemma: Pesticides in Food and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Valerie; Sullivan, Monica, Ed.

    Public concern about the safety of continued reliance on pesticides in agricultural production is widespread and growing. The lack of understanding of how food is grown, the role of pesticides in food production, the risk assessment and regulatory processes and alternatives to pesticide use limits citizen participation in food safety debates and…

  20. Understanding compressive deformation behavior of porous Ti using finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Sandipan; Khutia, Niloy [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (India); Das, Debdulal [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (India); Das, Mitun, E-mail: mitun@cgcri.res.in [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Balla, Vamsi Krishna [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Bandyopadhyay, Amit [W. M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Chowdhury, Amit Roy, E-mail: arcbesu@gmail.com [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (India)

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, porous commercially pure (CP) Ti samples with different volume fraction of porosities were fabricated using a commercial additive manufacturing technique namely laser engineered net shaping (LENS™). Mechanical behavior of solid and porous samples was evaluated at room temperature under quasi-static compressive loading. Fracture surfaces of the failed samples were analyzed to determine the failure modes. Finite Element (FE) analysis using representative volume element (RVE) model and micro-computed tomography (CT) based model have been performed to understand the deformation behavior of laser deposited solid and porous CP-Ti samples. In vitro cell culture on laser processed porous CP-Ti surfaces showed normal cell proliferation with time, and confirmed non-toxic nature of these samples. - Highlights: • Porous CP-Ti samples fabricated using additive manufacturing technique • Compressive deformation behavior of porous samples closely matches with micro-CT and RVE based analysis • In vitro studies showed better cell proliferation with time on porous CP-Ti surfaces.

  1. Understanding why low-risk patients accept vaccines: a socio-behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemken, Timothy L; Carrico, Ruth M; Kelley, Robert R; Binford, Laura E; Peyrani, Paula; Ford, Kimbal D; Welch, Verna; Ramirez, Julio A

    2015-12-23

    Vaccines are one of the most important public health interventions. Understanding factors associated with vaccine acceptance is critical. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of the three constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) on the intention to be vaccinated among healthy individuals being seen for pre-travel care, and to evaluate if behavioral intention was associated with vaccine acceptance. We surveyed individuals seeking vaccination at the University of Louisville Vaccine and International Health and Travel Clinic. Linear and two stage least squares regression models were used to define the associations between constructs of the TPB and the intention to be vaccinated, as well as the association between the intention to be vaccinated and vaccine acceptance. A total of 183 individuals were included in the analysis. None of the constructs of the TPB were associated with intention to be vaccinated. Behavioral intention was not associated with vaccination acceptance. This study suggests that the TPB does not predict the intention to get vaccinated among individuals attending our Vaccine and International Health and Travel Clinic. It will be critical to define better predictors of vaccine uptake in healthy, low-risk individuals to increase vaccine acceptance.

  2. Understanding the effects of stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol via behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James

    2014-06-01

    Psychological stress and alcohol cues are common antecedents of both ongoing drinking and relapse. One candidate mechanism of risk from these factors is acute increases in craving, but experimental support for this hypothesis is mixed. Furthermore, the combination of stress and cues has been largely unstudied. The current study employed a behavioral economic approach to investigate the combined roles of psychosocial stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol. In a sample of 84 adult heavy drinkers, we examined the effects of an acute laboratory stress induction and an alcohol cue exposure on subjective craving and stress, arousal, and behavioral economic decision making. Primary dependent measures included an intertemporal cross-commodity multiple-choice procedure (ICCMCP), incorporating both price and delay elements, an alcohol purchase task (APT), measuring alcohol demand, and a monetary delay discounting task, measuring intertemporal choice. The stress induction significantly increased stress, craving, and the incentive value of alcohol on the ICCMCP and APT. Stress-related increases in value on the ICCMCP were mediated by increased alcohol demand. Exposure to alcohol cues only significantly affected craving, APT breakpoint, and arousal. Delay discounting was not affected by either stress or cues. These results reveal unique behavioral economic dimensions of motivation for alcohol following acute stress and an alcohol cue exposure. More broadly, as the first application of this approach to understanding the role of stress in drug motivation, these findings support its utility and potential in future applications. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Understanding compressive deformation behavior of porous Ti using finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sandipan; Khutia, Niloy; Das, Debdulal; Das, Mitun; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Chowdhury, Amit Roy

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, porous commercially pure (CP) Ti samples with different volume fraction of porosities were fabricated using a commercial additive manufacturing technique namely laser engineered net shaping (LENS™). Mechanical behavior of solid and porous samples was evaluated at room temperature under quasi-static compressive loading. Fracture surfaces of the failed samples were analyzed to determine the failure modes. Finite Element (FE) analysis using representative volume element (RVE) model and micro-computed tomography (CT) based model have been performed to understand the deformation behavior of laser deposited solid and porous CP-Ti samples. In vitro cell culture on laser processed porous CP-Ti surfaces showed normal cell proliferation with time, and confirmed non-toxic nature of these samples. - Highlights: • Porous CP-Ti samples fabricated using additive manufacturing technique • Compressive deformation behavior of porous samples closely matches with micro-CT and RVE based analysis • In vitro studies showed better cell proliferation with time on porous CP-Ti surfaces

  4. Context, cultural bias, and health risk perception: the "everyday" nature of pesticide policy preferences in London, Calgary, and Halifax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Rachel A; Baxter, Jamie

    2011-05-01

    Risk perception and the cultural theory of risk have often been contrasted in relation to risk-related policy making; however, the local context in which risks are experienced, an important component of everyday decision making, remains understudied. What is unclear is the extent to which localized community beliefs and behaviors depend on larger belief systems about risk (i.e., worldviews). This article reports on a study designed to understand the relative importance of health risk perceptions (threat of harm); risk-related worldviews (cultural biases); and the experiences of local context (situated risk) for predicting risk-related policy preferences regarding cosmetic pesticides. Responses to a random telephone questionnaire are used to compare residents' risk perceptions, cultural biases, and pesticide bylaw preferences in Calgary (Alberta), Halifax (Nova Scotia), and London (Ontario), Canada. Logistic regression shows that the most important determinants of pesticide bylaw preference are risk perception, lack of benefit, and pesticide "abstinence." Though perception of health risk is the best single predictor of differences in bylaw preferences, social factors such as gender and situated risk factors like conflict over chemical pesticides, are also important. Though cultural biases are not important predictors of pesticide bylaw preference, as in other studies, they are significant predictors of health risk perception. Pesticide bylaw preference is therefore more than just a health risk perception or worldview issue; it is also about how health risk becomes situated-contextually-in the experiences of residents' everyday lives. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  6. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  7. Contributions of pesticide residue chemistry to improving food and environmental safety: past and present accomplishments and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, James N; Kleinschmidt, Loreen A

    2011-07-27

    The principles of modern pesticide residue chemistry were articulated in the 1950s. Early authors pointed out the advantages of systematizing and standardizing analytical methods for pesticides so that they could be widely practiced and the results could be reproduced from one laboratory to the next. The availability of improved methods has led to a much more complete understanding of pesticide behavior and fate in foods and the environment. Using methods based largely upon gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled increasingly with mass spectrometry (MS) and MS(n) as the detection tool, residues can be measured at parts per billion levels and below in a variety of food and environmental matrices. Development of efficient extraction and cleanup methods, techniques such as ELISA, efficient sample preparation techniques such as QuEChERS, and automated laboratory and field instrumentation has also contributed to the tools available for use in modern pesticide residue analysis. As a result, great strides have been made in improving food and worker safety and in understanding environmental behavior and fate of pesticides. There are many challenges remaining in the field of pesticide residue chemistry that will continue to stimulate analytical chemists. New chemistries are emerging, often patterned on complex natural products. Analyzing for the parent chemicals and potentially multiple breakdown products will require analytical ingenuity. The development of more sensitive bioassays and knowledge of unintended side effects will challenge residue chemistry as well, as in the case of following the fate of environmental endocrine disruptors associated with some pesticides as well as nonpesticide contaminants from packaging materials and other familiar articles. Continued funding and other resources to ensure better training, international cooperation, and accelerated research and development activities will be a constant need in

  8. The geochemistry of pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack E.

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth’s ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet’s ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth’s history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  9. The eco-toxic effects of pesticide and heavy metal mixtures towards earthworms in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwizeyimana, Herman; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Khan, Kifayatullah

    2017-10-01

    Earthworms are the key soil organisms, contribute to many positive ecological services that could be degraded by pesticides and other soil pollutants such as heavy metals. Chemicals usually occur as mixtures in the environmental systems which can lead synergistic effects. The assessment and characterization of soil pollutants that effects risks are very difficult due to the complexity of soil matrix, poor understanding about the fate and effects of chemical combinations like pesticide and metal mixtures in terrestrial systems, and scarcity of toxicological data on mixtures of pollutants. In this review we summarized the current studies on individual and joint effects of pesticides and metals on earthworms and indicate the mixture that cause the synergistic interactions. The review explores the methods and models used previously to evaluate the toxicity of chemical mixtures, and suggests the perspective approaches for a better knowledge of combine effects as well as research methods The summarized report indicates that pesticide and metal mixtures at all organization levels affect the earthworms negatively. Whereas, the combined pollution generated by mixtures of pesticides and metal ions could induce the DNA damage, disruption in enzyme activities, reduction in individual survival, production and growth rate, change in individual behavior such as feeding rate, and decrease in the total earthworm community biomass and density. Among the pesticides organophosphates were identified the most toxic pesticides causing the synergistic effects. The findings indicate the scarcity of toxicological data concerning the assessment of pesticide and metal mixtures at genome level; while the mechanisms causing synergism were still not sufficiently explored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Applied Behavior Analysis, Autism, and Occupational Therapy: A Search for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Christie D; Polatajko, H J

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapists strive to be mindful, competent practitioners and continuously look for ways to improve practice. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has strong evidence of effectiveness in helping people with autism achieve goals, yet it does not seem to be implemented in occupational therapy practice. To better understand whether ABA could be an evidence-based option to expand occupational therapy practice, the authors conducted an iterative, multiphase investigation of relevant literature. Findings suggest that occupational therapists apply developmental and sensory approaches to autism treatment. The occupational therapy literature does not reflect any use of ABA despite its strong evidence base. Occupational therapists may currently avoid using ABA principles because of a perception that ABA is not client centered. ABA principles and occupational therapy are compatible, and the two could work synergistically. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. Understanding Information Seeking Behavior of Indonesian Postgraduate Students in Malaysian Universities: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Subhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : This study investigates Indonesian postgraduate student’s experience at the pre-sessional program of the process of seeking information and the strategies they used throughout the process. The objective is to understand their information seeking behavior particularly academic-related information in order to improve the effectiveness of educational communication in Malaysia higher institutions. Two research questions are addressed: what experiences do pre-sessional students face in the process of information seeking that can be articulated and described? What stages do pre-sessional students experience in the process of information seeking construction? Using the qualitative method, the study found that the pre-sessional students have different patterns in the constructive process of information seeking in two different groups i.e. writing and reading classes. Six stages and four stages of the search process were identified respectively for the two groups.

  12. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  13. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples' behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of "leaders" on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of "followers", people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  14. Understanding social and behavioral drivers and impacts of air quality sensor use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Bryan J; Kaufman, Amanda; Rivers, Louie; Schulte, Kayla; Hagler, Gayle; Clougherty, Jane; Cascio, Wayne; Costa, Dan

    2018-04-15

    Lower-cost air quality sensors (hundreds to thousands of dollars) are now available to individuals and communities. This technology is undergoing a rapid and fragmented evolution, resulting in sensors that have uncertain data quality, measure different air pollutants and possess a variety of design attributes. Why and how individuals and communities choose to use sensors is arguably influenced by social context. For example, community experiences with environmental exposures and health effects and related interactions with industry and government can affect trust in traditional air quality monitoring. To date, little social science research has been conducted to evaluate why or how sensors, and sensor data, are used by individuals and communities, or how the introduction of sensors changes the relationship between communities and air quality managers. This commentary uses a risk governance/responsible innovation framework to identify opportunities for interdisciplinary research that brings together social scientists with air quality researchers involved in developing, testing, and deploying sensors in communities. Potential areas for social science research include communities of sensor users; drivers for use of sensors and sensor data; behavioral, socio-political, and ethical implications of introducing sensors into communities; assessing methods for communicating sensor data; and harnessing crowdsourcing capabilities to analyze sensor data. Social sciences can enhance understanding of perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, and other human factors that drive levels of engagement with and trust in different types of air quality data. New transdisciplinary research bridging social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and design fields of study, and involving citizen scientists working with professionals from a variety of backgrounds, can increase our understanding of air sensor technology use and its impacts on air quality and public health. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Advancing our understanding of religion and spirituality in the context of behavioral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Masters, Kevin S; Salsman, John M; Wachholtz, Amy; Clements, Andrea D; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Trevino, Kelly; Wischenka, Danielle M

    2017-02-01

    Recognizing and understanding the potentially powerful roles that religiousness and spirituality (RS) may serve in the prevention and amelioration of disease, as well as symptom management and health related quality of life, significantly enhances research and clinical efforts across many areas of behavioral medicine. This article examines the knowledge established to date and suggests advances that remain to be made. We begin with a brief summary of the current knowledge regarding RS as related to three exemplary health conditions: (a) cardiovascular disease; (b) cancer; and, (c) substance abuse. We then focus on particular concerns for future investigations, emphasizing conceptual issues, possible mediators and moderators of relationships or effects, and methodology. Our discussion is framed by a conceptual model that may serve to guide and organize future investigations. This model highlights a number of important issues regarding the study of links between RS and health: (a) RS comprise many diverse constructs, (b) the mechanisms through which RS may influence health outcomes are quite diverse, and (c) a range of different types of health and health relevant outcomes may be influenced by RS. The multidimensional nature of RS and the complexity of related associations with different types of health relevant outcomes present formidable challenges to empirical study in behavioral medicine. These issues are referred to throughout our review and we suggest several solutions to the presented challenges in our summary. We end with a presentation of barriers to be overcome, along with strategies for doing so, and concluding thoughts.

  16. Computational Intelligence-Assisted Understanding of Nature-Inspired Superhydrophobic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Ding, Bei; Cheng, Ran; Dixon, Sebastian C; Lu, Yao

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, state-of-the-art computational modeling of physical and chemical systems has shown itself to be an invaluable resource in the prediction of the properties and behavior of functional materials. However, construction of a useful computational model for novel systems in both academic and industrial contexts often requires a great depth of physicochemical theory and/or a wealth of empirical data, and a shortage in the availability of either frustrates the modeling process. In this work, computational intelligence is instead used, including artificial neural networks and evolutionary computation, to enhance our understanding of nature-inspired superhydrophobic behavior. The relationships between experimental parameters (water droplet volume, weight percentage of nanoparticles used in the synthesis of the polymer composite, and distance separating the superhydrophobic surface and the pendant water droplet in adhesive force measurements) and multiple objectives (water droplet contact angle, sliding angle, and adhesive force) are built and weighted. The obtained optimal parameters are consistent with the experimental observations. This new approach to materials modeling has great potential to be applied more generally to aid design, fabrication, and optimization for myriad functional materials.

  17. Advancing our understanding of religion and spirituality in the context of behavioral medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Kevin S.; Salsman, John M.; Wachholtz, Amy; Clements, Andrea D.; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Trevino, Kelly; Wischenka, Danielle M.

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing and understanding the potentially powerful roles that religiousness and spirituality (RS) may serve in the prevention and amelioration of disease, as well as symptom management and health related quality of life, significantly enhances research and clinical efforts across many areas of behavioral medicine. This article examines the knowledge established to date and suggests advances that remain to be made. We begin with a brief summary of the current knowledge regarding RS as related to three exemplary health conditions: (a) cardiovascular disease; (b) cancer; and, (c) substance abuse. We then focus on particular concerns for future investigations, emphasizing conceptual issues, possible mediators and moderators of relationships or effects, and methodology. Our discussion is framed by a conceptual model that may serve to guide and organize future investigations. This model highlights a number of important issues regarding the study of links between RS and health: (a) RS comprise many diverse constructs, (b) the mechanisms through which RS may influence health outcomes are quite diverse, and (c) a range of different types of health and health relevant outcomes may be influenced by RS. The multidimensional nature of RS and the complexity of related associations with different types of health relevant outcomes present formidable challenges to empirical study in behavioral medicine. These issues are referred to throughout our review and we suggest several solutions to the presented challenges in our summary. We end with a presentation of barriers to be overcome, along with strategies for doing so, and concluding thoughts. PMID:27342616

  18. Using self-determination theory to understand motivation deficits in schizophrenia: the 'why' of motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect-disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or 'passing time'. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: (1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; (2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; (3) more disconnected-disengaged. Higher disconnected-disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Himalayan glaciers: understanding contrasting patterns of glacier behavior using multi-temporal satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviteanu, A.

    2014-12-01

    High rates of glacier retreat for the last decades are often reported, and believed to be induced by 20th century climate changes. However, regional glacier fluctuations are complex, and depend on a combination of climate and local topography. Furthermore, in ares such as the Hindu-Kush Himalaya, there are concerns about warming, decreasing monsoon precipitation and their impact on local glacier regimes. Currently, the challenge is in understanding the magnitude of feedbacks between large-scale climate forcing and small-scale glacier behavior. Spatio-temporal patterns of glacier distribution are still llimited in some areas of the high Hindu-Kush Himalaya, but multi-temporal satellite imagery has helped fill spatial and temporal gaps in regional glacier parameters in the last decade. Here I present a synopsis of the behavior of glaciers across the Himalaya, following a west to east gradient. In particular, I focus on spatial patterns of glacier parameters in the eastern Himalaya, which I investigate at multi-spatial scales using remote sensing data from declassified Corona, ASTER, Landsat ETM+, Quickbird and Worldview2 sensors. I also present the use of high-resolution imagery, including texture and thermal analysis for mapping glacier features at small scale, which are particularly useful in understanding surface trends of debris-covered glaciers, which are prevalent in the Himalaya. I compare and contrast spatial patterns of glacier area and élévation changes in the monsoon-influenced eastern Himalaya (the Everest region in the Nepal Himalaya and Sikkim in the Indian Himalaya) with other observations from the dry western Indian Himalaya (Ladakh and Lahul-Spiti), both field measurements and remote sensing-based. In the eastern Himalaya, results point to glacier area change of -0.24 % ± 0.08% per year from the 1960's to the 2006's, with a higher rate of retreat in the last decade (-0.43% /yr). Debris-covered glacier tongues show thinning trends of -30.8 m± 39 m

  20. Modern pesticides and bobwhite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromborg, K.L.; Schitoskey, Frank=; Schitoskey, Elizabeth C.; Talent, Larry G.

    1982-01-01

    Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) are frequently used as test animals for wildlife tests of pesticides. The organophosphate and carbamate pesticides that have replaced the organochlorines have many desirable properties, but they span a wide range of acute toxicities and some of them affe,ct survival, reproduction, food consumption, behavior, and nervous system enzymes in laboratory tests. Applying these laboratory findings to the field requires assumptions about the severity of exposure in the field. Direct field measurements show that birds may be exposed to significant amounts of these pesticides or even more toxic degradation products under some conditions. Adverse population effects may also result from depression of insect populations during the seasons when bobwhites rely on insects for food.

  1. Understanding the Behavior of the Oligomeric Fractions During Pyrolysis Oils Upgrading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovikj, Filip

    Fast pyrolysis oils represent most viable renewable sources for production of fuels and chemicals, and they could supplement significant portion of the depleting fossil fuels in near future. Progress on their utilization is impeded by their thermal and storage instability, lack of understanding of their complex composition and behavior during upgrading, including the poorly described water soluble fraction (WS). This work offers two new methodologies for simplified, and sensible description of the pyrolysis oils in terms of functional groups and chemical macro-families, augments our understanding of the composition of the WS, and the behavior of the heavy non-volatile fraction during pyrolysis oils stabilization. The concept of analyzing the volatile and non-volatile fraction in terms of functional groups has been introduced, and the quantification power of spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, 1H-NMR, UV fluorescence) for phenols, carbonyl and carboxyl groups was shown. The FT-ICR-MS van Krevelen diagram revealed the importance of dehydration reactions in pyrolysis oils and the presence of "pyrolytic humins" was hypothesized. For the first time the WS was analyzed with plethora of analytical techniques. This lead to proposition of a new characterization scheme based on functional groups, describing 90-100 wt.% of the bio-oils. The structure of idealized "pyrolytic humin" was further described as a random combination of 3-8 units of dehydrated sugars, coniferyl-type phenols, furans, and carboxylic acids attached on a 2,5-dioxo-6-hydroxyhexanal (DHH) backbone rich in carbonyl groups. TG-FTIR studies resulted in defining rules for fitting pyrolysis oils' DTG curves and assignment of TG residue. This second method is reliable for estimation of water content, light volatiles, WS and WIS. Finally, stabilization of two oils was analyzed through the prism of functional groups. Carbonyl and hydroxyl groups interconverted. The first attempt to follow silent 31P-NMR oxygen was

  2. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction to Understand College Students' STI Testing Beliefs, Intentions, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, Kevin; Dai, Minhao; Matig, Jacob J; Harrington, Nancy Grant

    2018-03-22

    To identify salient behavioral determinants related to STI testing among college students by testing a model based on the integrative model of behavioral (IMBP) prediction. 265 undergraduate students from a large university in the Southeastern US. Formative and survey research to test an IMBP-based model that explores the relationships between determinants and STI testing intention and behavior. Results of path analyses supported a model in which attitudinal beliefs predicted intention and intention predicted behavior. Normative beliefs and behavioral control beliefs were not significant in the model; however, select individual normative and control beliefs were significantly correlated with intention and behavior. Attitudinal beliefs are the strongest predictor of STI testing intention and behavior. Future efforts to increase STI testing rates should identify and target salient attitudinal beliefs.

  3. Modulating mimicry: Exploring the roles of inhibitory control and social understanding in 5-year-olds' behavioral mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Johanna E; Hunnius, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    During adult interactions, behavioral mimicry, the implicit copying of an interaction partner's postures and mannerisms, communicates liking and affiliation. While this social behavior likely develops during early childhood, it is unclear which factors contribute to its emergence. Here, the roles of inhibitory control and social understanding on 5-year-olds' behavioral mimicry were investigated. Following a social manipulation in which one experimenter shared a sticker with the child and the other experimenter kept two stickers for herself, children watched a video in which these experimenters each told a story. During this story session, children in the experimental group (n = 28) observed the experimenters perform face and hand rubbing behaviors whereas the control group (n = 23) did not see these behaviors. Children's inhibitory control was assessed using the day-night task and their social understanding was measured through a parental questionnaire. Surprisingly, group-level analyses revealed that the experimental group performed the behaviors significantly less than the control group (i.e. a negative mimicry effect) for both the sticker-sharer and sticker-keeper. Yet, the hypothesized effects of inhibitory control and social understanding were found. Inhibitory control predicted children's selective mimicry of the sticker-keeper versus sticker-sharer and children's overall mimicry was correlated with social understanding. These results provide the first indications to suggest that factors of social and cognitive development dynamically influence the emergence and specificity of behavioral mimicry during early childhood.

  4. Enviromental behavior of sulfentrazone and fipronil in a Brazilian clayey latosol: field experiment and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Penna Scorza Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been an urgent need to assess pesticide environmental behavior under Brazilian field conditions and to evaluate the risks associated to its use in agriculture. Besides a qualitative and quantitative interpretation of field experiments to acquire understanding about pesticide environmental behaviour, field experiments are important to test pesticide fate models. Environmental behaviour of fipronil and sulfentrazone in a sugarcane area in Dourados, MS, was evaluated until 257 days after application. Moreover, the PEARL model was tested to simulate the fate of these two pesticides in the field. Soil samples for pesticide residue quantification and water content were taken at 0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70 and 70-100 cm depth. There was a fast dissipation of both pesticides at soil surface within 15 days after application and their leaching was not beyond 30 cm depth. Dissipation and leaching satisfactory simulations for both pesticides were achieved only after calibration of half-life values or using a reduced initial dose. This study shows that fast dissipation of pesticides in the field can be an important process to consider when assessing the environmental behavior of pesticides in Brazil.

  5. A Comprehensive Understanding of Machine and Material Behaviors During Inertia Friction Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Daniel J.

    Inertia Friction Welding (IFW), a critical process to many industries, currently relies on trial-and-error experimentation to optimize process parameters. Although this Edisonian approach is very effective, the high time and dollar costs incurred during process development are the driving force for better design approaches. Thermal-stress finite element modeling has been increasingly used to aid in process development in the literature; however, several fundamental questions on machine and material behaviors remain unanswered. The work presented here aims produce an analytical foundation to significantly reduce the costly physical experimentation currently required to design the inertia welding of production parts. Particularly, the work is centered around the following two major areas. First, machine behavior during IFW, which critically determines deformation and heating, had not been well understood to date. In order to properly characterize the IFW machine behavior, a novel method based on torque measurements was invented to measure machine efficiency, i.e. the ratio of the initial kinetic energy of the flywheel to that contributing to workpiece heating and deformation. The measured efficiency was validated by both simple energy balance calculations and more sophisticated finite element modeling. For the first time, the efficiency dependence on both process parameters (flywheel size, initial rotational velocity, axial load, and surface roughness) and materials (1018 steel, Low Solvus High Refractory LSHR and Waspaloy) was quantified using the torque based measurement method. The effect of process parameters on machine efficiency was analyzed to establish simple-to-use yet powerful equations for selection and optimization of IFW process parameters for making welds; however, design criteria such as geometry and material optimization were not addressed. Second, there had been a lack of understanding of the bond formation during IFW. In the present research, an

  6. Factors influencing degradation of pesticides in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Beulke, Sabine; Brown, Colin D

    2007-05-30

    Degradation and sorption of six acidic pesticides (2,4-D, dicamba, fluroxypyr, fluazifop-P, metsulfuron-methyl, and flupyrsulfuron-methyl) and four basic pesticides (metribuzin, terbutryn, pirimicarb, and fenpropimorph) were determined in nine temperate soils. Results were submitted to statistical analyses against a wide range of soil and pesticide properties to (i) identify any commonalities in factors influencing rate of degradation and (ii) determine whether there was any link between sorption and degradation processes for the compounds and soils studied. There were some marked differences between the soils in their ability to degrade the different pesticides. The parameters selected to explain variations in degradation rates depended on the soil-pesticide combination. The lack of consistent behavior renders a global approach to prediction of degradation unrealistic. The soil organic carbon content generally had a positive influence on degradation. The relationship between pH and degradation rates depended on the dominant mode of degradation for each pesticide. There were positive relationships between sorption and rate of degradation for metsulfuron-methyl, pirimicarb, and all acidic pesticides considered together (all P pesticides.

  7. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding implications of consumer behavior for wildlife farming and sustainable wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuno, A; Blumenthal, J M; Austin, T J; Bothwell, J; Ebanks-Petrie, G; Godley, B J; Broderick, A C

    2018-04-01

    Unsustainable wildlife trade affects biodiversity and the livelihoods of communities dependent upon those resources. Wildlife farming has been proposed to promote sustainable trade, but characterizing markets and understanding consumer behavior remain neglected but essential steps in the design and evaluation of such operations. We used sea turtle trade in the Cayman Islands, where turtles have been farm raised for human consumption for almost 50 years, as a case study to explore consumer preferences toward wild-sourced (illegal) and farmed (legal) products and potential conservation implications. Combining methods innovatively (including indirect questioning and choice experiments), we conducted a nationwide trade assessment through in-person interviews from September to December 2014. Households were randomly selected using disproportionate stratified sampling, and responses were weighted based on district population size. We approached 597 individuals, of which 37 (6.2%) refused to participate. Although 30% of households had consumed turtle in the previous 12 months, the purchase and consumption of wild products was rare (e.g., 64-742 resident households consumed wild turtle meat [i.e., 0.3-3.5% of households] but represented a large threat to wild turtles in the area due to their reduced populations). Differences among groups of consumers were marked, as identified through choice experiments, and price and source of product played important roles in their decisions. Despite the long-term practice of farming turtles, 13.5% of consumers showed a strong preference for wild products, which demonstrates the limitations of wildlife farming as a single tool for sustainable wildlife trade. By using a combination of indirect questioning, choice experiments, and sales data to investigate demand for wildlife products, we obtained insights about consumer behavior that can be used to develop conservation-demand-focused initiatives. Lack of data from long-term social

  9. Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PESP is an EPA partnership program that works with the nation's pesticide-user community to promote IPM practices. Pesticide users can reduce the risks from pests and pesticides. Members include organizations and companies in the pesticide-user community.

  10. Inner-City African-American Women's Adolescence as Stressful Life Events: Understanding Substance Abusing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Marlese; Small, La Fleur F; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-06-01

    Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, "What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?" This research examines African American women's substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces.

  11. Understanding watershed hydrogeochemistry: 2. Synchronized hydrological and geochemical processes drive stream chemostatic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Bao, Chen; Sullivan, Pamela L.; Brantley, Susan; Shi, Yuning; Duffy, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Why do solute concentrations in streams remain largely constant while discharge varies by orders of magnitude? We used a new hydrological land surface and reactive transport code, RT-Flux-PIHM, to understand this long-standing puzzle. We focus on the nonreactive chloride (Cl) and reactive magnesium (Mg) in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO). Simulation results show that stream discharge comes from surface runoff (Qs), soil lateral flow (QL), and deeper groundwater (QG), with QL contributing >70%. In the summer, when high evapotranspiration dries up and disconnects most of the watershed from the stream, Cl is trapped along planar hillslopes. Successive rainfalls connect the watershed and mobilize trapped Cl, which counteracts dilution effects brought about by high water storage (Vw) and maintains chemostasis. Similarly, the synchronous response of clay dissolution rates (Mg source) to hydrological conditions, maintained largely by a relatively constant ratio between "wetted" mineral surface area Aw and Vw, controls Mg chemostatic behavior. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cation exchange plays a secondary role in determining chemostasis compared to clay dissolution, although it does store an order-of-magnitude more Mg on exchange sites than soil water. Model simulations indicate that dilution (concentration decrease with increasing discharge) occurs only when mass influxes from soil lateral flow are negligible (e.g., via having low clay surface area) so that stream discharge is dominated by relatively constant mass fluxes from deep groundwater that are unresponsive to surface hydrological conditions.

  12. Understanding of action-related and abstract verbs in comparison: a behavioral and TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessandro; De Stefani, Elisa; Sestito, Mariateresa; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Does the comprehension of both action-related and abstract verbs rely on motor simulation? In a behavioral experiment, in which a semantic task was used, response times to hand-action-related verbs were briefer than those to abstract verbs and both decreased with repetition of presentation. In a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment, single-pulse stimulation was randomly delivered over hand motor area of the left primary motor cortex to measure cortical-spinal excitability at 300 or 500 ms after verb presentation. Two blocks of trials were run. In each block, the same verbs were randomly presented. In the first block, stimulation induced an increase in motor evoked potentials only when TMS was applied 300 ms after action-related verb presentation. In the second block, no modulation of motor cortex was found according to type of verb and stimulation-delay. These results confirm that motor simulation can be used to understand action rather than abstract verbs. Moreover, they suggest that with repetition, the semantic processing for action verbs does not require activation of primary motor cortex anymore.

  13. Trying not to get burned: understanding homeowners' wildfire risk-mitigation behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkert-Smith, Hannah; Champ, Patricia A; Flores, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    Three causes have been identified for the spiraling cost of wildfire suppression in the United States: climate change, fuel accumulation from past wildfire suppression, and development in fire-prone areas. Because little is likely to be performed to halt the effects of climate on wildfire risk, and because fuel-management budgets cannot keep pace with fuel accumulation let alone reverse it, changing the behaviors of existing and potential homeowners in fire-prone areas is the most promising approach to decreasing the cost of suppressing wildfires in the wildland-urban interface and increasing the odds of homes surviving wildfire events. Wildfire education efforts encourage homeowners to manage their property to decrease wildfire risk. Such programs may be more effective with a better understanding of the factors related to homeowners' decisions to undertake wildfire risk-reduction actions. In this study, we measured whether homeowners had implemented 12 wildfire risk-mitigation measures in 2 Colorado Front Range counties. We found that wildfire information received from local volunteer fire departments and county wildfire specialists, as well as talking with neighbors about wildfire, were positively associated with higher levels of mitigation. Firsthand experience in the form of preparing for or undertaking an evacuation was also associated with a higher level of mitigation. Finally, homeowners who perceived higher levels of wildfire risk on their property had undertaken higher levels of wildfire-risk mitigation on their property.

  14. Overview of rehabilitative efforts in understanding and managing sexually coercive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Barbara K

    2003-06-01

    In reviewing approaches to rehabilitative efforts in understanding and managing sexually coercive behaviors within the past two decades, one is struck by the development of two totally divergent paths. In 1971, there were a few civil commitment programs operated by mental health departments-most notably were the Sexual Psychopath Program at Western State Hospital in Fort Steilacoom, Washington, and the Massachusetts Treatment Center for Sexually Dangerous Persons. There were a few programs in prisons started by therapists who were interested in this population but given little recognition and even fewer resources. Additionally there were a handful of community-based programs including the J.J. Peters Institute in Philadelphia and PASO (Positive Approaches to Sex Offenders) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Today there are thousands of specialized sexual offender treatment programs treating sexual abusers of every age, gender, ethnicity, and with a wide range of comorbid conditions. They are treated in the community, prisons, mental hospitals, residential facilities, and private practices. There is an international organization, a specialized research journal, and a specialized branch of the Department of Justice, the Center for Sex Offender Management. This chapter will provide an overview of the developments in the field, primarily covering the last 25 years. It will look at the evolution of theoretical approaches, the development of specialized approaches for subpopulations, significant landmarks, and possible future trends.

  15. A qualitative study to understand positive and negative child feeding behaviors of immigrant Asian Indian mothers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Shabnam R; Chung, Kimberly R; Olson, Beth H

    2014-09-01

    To understand current practice of child feeding behaviors, and underlying factors influencing these practices in Asian Indian mothers, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 immigrant Asian Indian mothers of children ages 5-10 years. Using the theory of planned behavior as a guiding framework, child feeding behaviors employed, beliefs about the outcomes of feeding behaviors, perceived ease or difficultly in practicing feeding behaviors, and social norms were explored during the interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted using coding and display matrices. Mothers were motivated by nutrition outcomes when practicing positive and negative controlling feeding behaviors. Outcomes related to preservation of Indian culture and values also influenced feeding behaviors. Pressuring to eat was often practiced despite the perception of ineffectiveness. Use of food rewards was found, and use of TV to control children's food intake despite the clear understanding of undesirable nutrition outcomes was a unique finding. Asian Indian mothers need effective child feeding strategies that are culturally appropriate. Integrating cultural beliefs in nutrition education could help support existing motivation and behavior modification.

  16. Using video technology to disseminate behavioral procedures: a review of Functional Analysis: a Guide for Understanding Challenging Behavior (DVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James E; Fox, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    Although applied behavior analysis has generated many highly effective behavior-change procedures, the procedures have not always been effectively disseminated. One solution to this problem is the use of video technology, which has been facilitated by the ready availability of video production equipment and software and multiple distribution methods (e.g., DVD, online streaming). We review a recent DVD that was produced to disseminate the successful experimental functional analysis procedure. The review is followed by general recommendations for disseminating behavior-analytic procedures via video technology.

  17. Evaluation of the influence of parental anxiety on children's behavior and understanding children's dental anxiety after sequential dental visits

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnali Dilip Shinde; Rahul J Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying anxiety levels of parents accompanying their children can help the clinician in designing the behavior management strategies for the child. In addition, continued dental experience can improve the child's response, indicating desensitization to dental stress. Aims: To evaluate the influence of parental anxiety on children's behavior and understanding children's dental anxiety after sequential dental visits. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 children of age 6–12 yea...

  18. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePrevost, Catherine E.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Cope, W. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This study describes the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory with an important target audience: pesticide educators in a southeastern U.S. state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.780 and to be a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators’ beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and in guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the agricultural labor force, and the general public. PMID:21776210

  19. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2008-01-01

    The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

  20. Understanding caregivers' intentions for their child to walk to school: Further application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Lisa; Kubacki, Krzysztof; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn

    2016-01-01

    Increases in childhood obesity have coincided with declines in active transportation to school. This research builds on largely atheoretical extant literature examining factors that influence walk-to-school behavior through application of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Understanding caregivers' decision for their child to walk to/from school is key to developing interventions to promote this cost-effective and accessible health behavior. The results from an online survey of 512 caregivers provide support for the TPB, highlighting the important role of subjective norms. This suggests marketers should nurture caregivers' perception that important others approve of walking to school.

  1. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  2. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  3. National Pesticide Standard Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Pesticide Standards Repository collects and maintains an inventory of analytical “standards” of registered pesticides in the United States, as well as some that are not currently registered for food and product testing and monitoring.

  4. Nephrotoxic Effects of Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Gönültaş, Tülin; Aytaç, Necdet; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Pesticidesare used extensively throughout the world and, in recent years, their use hasincreased considerably. Pesticides are responsible for several adverse effectson human health, and they represent a potential risk to human. Liver and kidneyare firstly most harmed tissues by pesticides, because pesticides are removedfrom the body by being metabolized in the liver and kidney main road. A broad rangeof pesticides, including organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates,pyrethroids and triazi...

  5. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  6. An association rule mining-based framework for understanding lifestyle risk behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence and patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors in Korean adults. METHODS: We utilized data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 14,833 adults (>20 years of age. We used association rule mining to analyze patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors by characterizing non-adherence to public health recommendations related to the Alameda 7 health behaviors. The study variables were current smoking, heavy drinking, physical inactivity, obesity, inadequate sleep, breakfast skipping, and frequent snacking. RESULTS: Approximately 72% of Korean adults exhibited two or more lifestyle risk behaviors. Among women, current smoking, obesity, and breakfast skipping were associated with inadequate sleep. Among men, breakfast skipping with additional risk behaviors such as physical inactivity, obesity, and inadequate sleep was associated with current smoking. Current smoking with additional risk behaviors such as inadequate sleep or breakfast skipping was associated with physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle risk behaviors are intercorrelated in Korea. Information on patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors could assist in planning interventions targeted at multiple behaviors simultaneously.

  7. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals’ intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China’s three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  8. Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…

  9. Understanding strength exercise intentions and behavior in hematologic cancer survivors: an analysis of the intention-behavior gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerand, James R; Rhodes, Ryan E; Walker, Gordon J; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-12-01

    Strength exercise improves many health outcomes in cancer survivors but the prevalence and correlates of strength exercise have not been well-described. Moreover, no study has examined the critical intention-behavior gap for exercise in cancer survivors. The aims of this study are to quantify the intention-behavior gap for strength exercise in hematologic cancer survivors (HCS) and examine correlates of both intention formation and translation using the multi-process action control framework (M-PAC). A random sample of 2100 HCS in Alberta, Canada, were mailed a survey assessing strength exercise behavior, the M-PAC, and demographic/medical variables. Separate logistic regressions were used to analyze the relationships between the correlates and intention formation and translation. Surveys were completed by 606 HCS with 58 % (n = 353) intending to do strength exercise. HCS who were not retired (OR = 1.56, p = 0.001), were highly educated (OR = 1.32, p = 0.001), and had a favorable attitude (OR = 1.56, p exercise intention. Of those with an exercise intention, 51 % (n = 181) reported regular strength exercise. HCS with a detailed plan (OR = 1.86, p strength exercise and only half of intenders translated that intention into behavior. Interventions targeting both intention formation and translation may provide the best approach for increasing strength exercise in HCS.

  10. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwei; Sheng, Hong; Mundorf, Norbert; Redding, Colleen; Ye, Yinjiao

    2017-12-18

    With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals' intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China's three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  11. Applying Self-Efficacy Theory to Understanding the Behavioral Expectations of College Students with Disabilities in Requesting Accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitker-Magin, Mikael C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply Bandura's self-efficacy theory to understanding the behavior of college students with disabilities in requesting accommodations. Students with disabilities were recruited from 20 two-year and four-year postsecondary institutions by asking student disabilities services staff to forward an email invitation to…

  12. Understanding the Personality and Behavioral Mechanisms Defining Hypersexuality in Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raymond, Nancy; Janssen, Erick; MacDonald, Angus; Coleman, Eli

    2016-09-01

    Hypersexuality has been conceptualized as sexual addiction, compulsivity, and impulsivity, among others, in the absence of strong empirical data in support of any specific conceptualization. To investigate personality factors and behavioral mechanisms that are relevant to hypersexuality in men who have sex with men. A sample of 242 men who have sex with men was recruited from various sites in a moderate-size mid-western city. Participants were assigned to a hypersexuality group or a control group using an interview similar to the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Self-report inventories were administered that measured the broad personality constructs of positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint and more narrow constructs related to sexual behavioral control, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, sexual excitation, sexual inhibition, impulsivity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sexual behavior. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to determine the relation between these personality and behavioral variables and group membership. A hierarchical logistic regression controlling for age showed a significant positive relation between hypersexuality and negative emotionality and a negative relation with constraint. None of the behavioral mechanism variables entered this equation. However, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis predicting sexual behavioral control indicated that lack of such control was positively related to sexual excitation and sexual inhibition owing to the threat of performance failure and negatively related to sexual inhibition owing to the threat of performance consequences and general behavioral inhibition Hypersexuality was found to be related to two broad personality factors that are characterized by emotional reactivity, risk taking, and impulsivity. The associated lack of sexual behavior control is influenced by sexual

  13. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  14. Understanding mechanisms of change in the development of antisocial behavior: The impact of a universal intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); P. Vuijk (Patricia); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe association between the development of antisocial behavior, affiliation with deviant friends, and peer rejection was tested with a preventive intervention; 664 boys and girls were randomly assigned to a universal classroom-based intervention targeting disruptive behavior or a control

  15. Chemical approaches to understanding the environmental behavior of Pu, Np, and Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: speciation behavior of Pu, Np, and Tc; thermodynamic and radiochemical behavior; sorption studies with soils; Pu oxidation states in fresh water; Np oxidation states in soils; effect of oxidation state of Tc on environmental transport predictions; and thermodynamic calculations of Tc speciation

  16. Parental Cognitions, Parental Behavior, and the Child's Understanding of the Parent-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekovic, Maja; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Studied the relationship of parental reasoning complexity to parental behavior during parent-child interactions, and the effect of this relationship on children's social cognitions. Results indicate that parental reasoning complexity is related to parental behaviors of restrictive control, authoritative control, and support, which, in turn, are…

  17. Understanding Soccer Team Supporters' Behavior and Culture in a Globalized Society from Social Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungbum; Han, Keunsu

    2012-01-01

    Whereas there have been many academic studies on European soccer team supporters, relatively few studies have looked at supporters in Asia, especially regarding their supporting behavior and culture. Broadly, the purpose of this paper is to describe the behavior and culture of supporters of the Korean professional soccer league (K-League).…

  18. Acute toxicity of chemical pesticides and plant-derived essential oil on the behavior and development of earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and Eisenia fetida (Savigny).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-06-17

    Comparative toxicity of two chemical pesticides (temephos and monocrotophos) versus a plant-derived betel leaf oil Piper betle (L.) to earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and redworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, historically: Eisenia foetida (Savigny 1826), was evaluated. Mortality rate was more prominent in temephos at 100 μg concentration to both the earthworms in filter paper test (FPT) as well as 10 mg concentration in artificial soil test (AST). In contrast, P. betle does not display much mortality rate to both the earthworms even at 1000 mg of treatment concentrations. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) value was observed at 3.89 and 5.26 mg/kg for temephos and monocrotophos against E. eugeniae and 3.81 and 5.25 mg/kg to E. fetida, respectively. Whereas, LC 50 value of betel leaf oil was only observed at 3149 and 4081 mg/kg to E. eugeniae and E. fetida, respectively. Correspondingly, the avoidance or attraction assay also displayed that earthworms were more sensitive to the soil containing chemical pesticides. Whereas, the avoidance percentage was decreased in the P. betle oil. Similarly, sublethal concentration of chemical pesticides (5 and 6.5 mg) significantly reduced the earthworm weight and growth rate. However, P. betle oil did not change the developmental rate in the duration of the assay (2, 7 and 14 days) even at 4000 mg treatment concentration. The enzyme ratio of CAT and SOD was also affected significantly after exposure to the chemical pesticides (6.5 mg/kg). Hence, our study implied the risk assessment associated with the chemical pesticides and also recommends plant-derived harmless P. betle oil against beneficial species as an alternative pest control agent.

  19. Harsh Parenting, Deviant Peers, Adolescent Risky Behavior: Understanding the Meditational Effect of Attitudes and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppl, Tricia K; Dhalewadikar, Jui; Lohman, Brenda J

    2016-09-01

    Although research supports the influence of parents and peers on adolescent risky behavior, less is known about mechanisms proposed to explain this relation. This study examined the influence of adolescent attitudes and intentions about such behaviors. Prospective, longitudinal data came from rural youth who participated throughout adolescence (n= 451). Observed harsh parenting and relationship with deviant peers was assessed in early adolescence, attitudes and intentions were measured during middle adolescence, and risky behavior was assessed in late adolescence. Results indicated that parenting and deviant peers was related to engagement in tobacco use, alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Moreover, attitudes and intentions mediated this relationship even after parent use and adolescent early involvement in these behaviors were taken into account.

  20. Understanding the self-assembly process and behavior of metal-seamed pyrogallol[4]arene nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossine, Andrew V.

    time of measurement as well as the solvent system during synthesis were also performed. Furthermore, SANS was also used to study Fe3+-PgC complexes. These complexes are difficult if not impossible to crystallize, and therefore cannot be studied using scXRD. SANS was used in conjunction with elemental analysis to deduce a structure for these materials. In addition to understanding the synthesis of MONCs, another goal was to also use them for other (possibly practical) purposes. To this end, PgC-based MONCs were used as building blocks in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). This involved the use of divergent ligands to "link" capsular monomers together, resulting in one and two dimensional frameworks. This work not only produced functional materials that may be useful in future research efforts, but also showed that exo-ligand exchange can be used to derivatize MONCs into potentially useful and functional materials. The introduction of radioisotopes into the nanocapsule was another method by which functionality could theoretically be imparted into MONCs. It was envisioned that MONCs could potentially be used as carrier systems for radioisotopes, and thereby function as agents for therapy or medical imaging. Copper hexamers constructed from 64Cu2+ were therefore prepared and studied in a living system. However, these studies were unsuccessful at showing that the copper-seamed MONCs differed in behavior from 64Cu in vivo, either due to poor labeling efficiency or metabolism. Nevertheless, radiolabeling of hexameric nanocapsules was helpful in broadening our understanding of these materials. Some of the studies that were conducted include those that gauge the solubility and stability of nanocapsules, as well as others that explore the conditions required for cationic uptake and exchange.

  1. Medical Drama Viewing and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: Understanding the Role of Health Locus of Control Beliefs and Education Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsu; Baek, Young Min

    2017-11-22

    The present study advances the understanding of how medical drama viewing influences healthy lifestyle behaviors (e.g., smoking, exercising, and consuming vegetables) by examining the role of the health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs and education level. An analysis of nationally representative data reveals that watching medical dramas is positively associated with chance and powerful others' HLOC beliefs. In addition, healthy lifestyle behaviors are positively associated with the internal HLOC belief and are negatively associated with the chance and powerful others' HLOC beliefs. Research findings demonstrate that there are indirect effects of medical drama viewing on these behaviors via chance and powerful others' HLOC beliefs. The indirect effect through the powerful others' HLOC belief is also contingent on the education level. The implications for the role of HLOC beliefs and education level in terms of the effects of medical dramas on health-promoting behaviors are discussed.

  2. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atreya, Kishor

    2007-01-01

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions

  3. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulia, Danae S., E-mail: ntoulia@mail.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Anagnos, Efstathios K. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Liapis, Konstantinos S. [Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 7 Ekalis Str., Kiphissia, Athens GR-14561 (Greece); Klimentzos, Demetrios A. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  4. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doulia, Danae S.; Anagnos, Efstathios K.; Liapis, Konstantinos S.; Klimentzos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  5. Understanding Irrigator Bidding Behavior in Australian Water Markets in Response to Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Zuo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water markets have been used by Australian irrigators as a way to reduce risk and uncertainty in times of low water allocations and rainfall. However, little is known about how irrigators’ bidding trading behavior in water markets compares to other markets, nor is it known what role uncertainty and a lack of water in a variable and changing climate plays in influencing behavior. This paper studies irrigator behavior in Victorian water markets over a decade (a time period that included a severe drought. In particular, it studies the evidence for price clustering (when water bids/offers end mostly around particular numbers, a common phenomenon present in other established markets. We found that clustering in bid/offer prices in Victorian water allocation markets was influenced by uncertainty and strategic behavior. Water traders evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering and act according to their risk aversion levels. Water market buyer clustering behavior was mostly explained by increased market uncertainty (in particular, hotter and drier conditions, while seller-clustering behavior is mostly explained by strategic behavioral factors which evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering.

  6. A review: radiolabeled synthesis of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Juying; Han Ailiang; Wang Haiyan; Wang Wei; Ye Qingfu

    2010-01-01

    Isotope tracer technique has been widely applied in studies of metabolism, mode action, fate and environmental behavior of pesticides. In such studies, the key point is to obtain suitable radiolabelled compounds. However, the radiotracers, especially the labelled pesticides which are novel compounds with complex structures and longer synthesis routes, are usually unavailable from domestic and /or foreign markets. Therefore, it is essential to explore the synthesis methods of radiolabelled pesticides, which are quite different from the conventional nonradiosynthesis, and are requested to obtain higher yield. This article is a review on current status of choosing the available radionuclide and labelled position, the main synthesis methods and problems in the process of preparing radiolabelled pesticides. (authors)

  7. New insights into pesticide photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivella, Aurélien; Richard, Claire

    2014-04-01

    Photolysis may be a significant route of pesticide dissipation on crops, leading to an increase of pesticide use. Spraying strong absorbing compounds (photoprotector) along with pesticide is an attractive strategy to prevent the photodegradation phenomenon. The aim of this study is to get a better understanding of the parameters governing the photoprotection efficiency. Experiments were conducted using formulated sulcotrione as a pesticide and a grape wine extract as a photoprotector. These compounds were irradiated using simulated solar light as dried deposits on carnauba wax films or on disks of tobacco leaves and analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet (UV), spectroscopy, and microscopy. It is shown that photolysis is faster on leaves than on carnauba wax and that the photoprotection effect of grape wine extract is more efficient on leaves than on wax. Images recorded by microscopy bring evidence that deposits are very different on the two supports both in the absence and in the presence of the photoprotector. The grape wine extract plays a double role; it is antioxidant and UV screen. Photoprotection by the grape wine extract is a complex mixing of UV screen and antioxidant effects. The UV screen effect can be rationalized by considering the rate of light absorption by sulcotrione. Our results demonstrate that the rates of sulcotrione phototransformation are mainly governed by the repartition of the deposit on the solid support.

  8. Do behavioral scientists really understand HIV-related sexual risk behavior? A systematic review of longitudinal and experimental studies predicting sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, David M; Perry, Nicholas S

    2015-10-01

    Behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior depend on strong health behavior theory. By identifying the psychosocial variables that lead causally to sexual risk, theories provide interventionists with a guide for how to change behavior. However, empirical research is critical to determining whether a particular theory adequately explains sexual risk behavior. A large body of cross-sectional evidence, which has been reviewed elsewhere, supports the notion that certain theory-based constructs (e.g., self-efficacy) are correlates of sexual behavior. However, given the limitations of inferring causality from correlational research, it is essential that we review the evidence from more methodologically rigorous studies (i.e., longitudinal and experimental designs). This systematic review identified 44 longitudinal studies in which investigators attempted to predict sexual risk from psychosocial variables over time. We also found 134 experimental studies (i.e., randomized controlled trials of HIV interventions), but of these only 9 (6.7 %) report the results of mediation analyses that might provide evidence for the validity of health behavior theories in predicting sexual behavior. Results show little convergent support across both types of studies for most traditional, theoretical predictors of sexual behavior. This suggests that the field must expand the body of empirical work that utilizes the most rigorous study designs to test our theoretical assumptions. The inconsistent results of existing research would indicate that current theoretical models of sexual risk behavior are inadequate, and may require expansion or adaptation.

  9. Racial Bias in Drivers' Yielding Behavior at Crosswalks : Understanding the Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This project explores social identity factors (race and gender) that influence drivers' behavior in interactions with pedestrians at crosswalks. One dangerous potential point of conflict for pedestrians within the transportation system is interaction...

  10. Understanding adolescent peer sexual harassment and abuse: using the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man Yu; Frieze, Irene; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2010-06-01

    This study examines intentions to take protective action against peer sexual harassment and abuse (PSHA). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) proposes that attitudes about protective action, perceptions of what others would think about doing this (subjective norms), and behavioral control would be important predictors. A total of 1,531 Chinese secondary school students (769 boys and 762 girls) from Hong Kong were surveyed to test this model. Results showed that the TPB model was predictive for girls, but only subjective norms and behavioral control significantly predicted boys' intentions to protect themselves. Results supported the influence of subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on youths' intentions to reject PSHA. These factors may be useful in guiding the development of an educational program for prevention of PSHA.

  11. A Better Understanding of Parental Emotional Socialization Behaviors With an Illustrative Context

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Şükran

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to provide an illustrative framework for synthesizing derived from a growing body of crucial studies on parental emotional socialization behaviors and processes with regard to children’s emotional competence. This explanatory perspective has also been tried to be established with other relevant parental characteristics. Explaining the parental emotional socialization behaviors are firstly established upon the parental styles which is one of the basic conc...

  12. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sundling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+ travelers’ motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers’ critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT, five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers’ access to public transport, key findings were: (a service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior.

  13. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundling, Catherine

    2015-11-18

    Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+) travelers' motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers' critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral) to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT), five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers' access to public transport, key findings were: (a) service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b) extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c) when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior.

  14. Advances in Understanding Energy Consumption Behavior and the Governance of Its Change – Outline of an Integrated Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Paul; Bezençon, Valéry; Bornemann, Basil; Brosch, Tobias; Carabias-Hütter, Vicente; Farsi, Mehdi; Hille, Stefanie Lena; Moser, Corinne; Ramseier, Céline; Samuel, Robin; Sander, David; Schmidt, Stephan; Sohre, Annika; Volland, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Transforming today’s energy systems in industrialized countries requires a substantial reduction of the total energy consumption at the individual level. Selected instruments have been found to be effective in changing people’s behavior in single domains. However, the so far weak success story on reducing overall energy consumption indicates that our understanding of the determining factors of individual energy consumption as well as of its change is far from being conclusive. Among others, the scientific state of the art is dominated by analyzing single domains of consumption and by neglecting embodied energy. It also displays strong disciplinary splits and the literature often fails to distinguish between explaining behavior and explaining change of behavior. Moreover, there are knowledge gaps regarding the legitimacy and effectiveness of the governance of individual consumption behavior and its change. Against this backdrop, the aim of this paper is to establish an integrated interdisciplinary framework that offers a systematic basis for linking the different aspects in research on energy related consumption behavior, thus paving the way for establishing a better evidence base to inform societal actions. The framework connects the three relevant analytical aspects of the topic in question: (1) it systematically and conceptually frames the objects, i.e., the energy consumption behavior and its change (explananda); (2) it structures the factors that potentially explain the energy consumption behavior and its change (explanantia); (3) it provides a differentiated understanding of change inducing interventions in terms of governance. Based on the existing states of the art approaches from different disciplines within the social sciences, the proposed framework is supposed to guide interdisciplinary empirical research.

  15. Advances in Understanding Energy Consumption Behavior and the Governance of Its Change – Outline of an Integrated Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Paul, E-mail: paul.burger@unibas.ch [Sustainability Research Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Bezençon, Valéry [Enterprise Institute, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Bornemann, Basil [Sustainability Research Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Brosch, Tobias [Department of Psychology, Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Carabias-Hütter, Vicente [Institute of Sustainable Development, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Farsi, Mehdi [Institute of Economic Research, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Hille, Stefanie Lena [Institute for Economy and the Environment, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Moser, Corinne [Institute of Sustainable Development, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Ramseier, Céline [Center for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Samuel, Robin [Institute of Sociology, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Social Research and Methodology Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Sander, David [Department of Psychology, Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Schmidt, Stephan; Sohre, Annika [Sustainability Research Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Volland, Benjamin [Institute of Economic Research, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Transforming today’s energy systems in industrialized countries requires a substantial reduction of the total energy consumption at the individual level. Selected instruments have been found to be effective in changing people’s behavior in single domains. However, the so far weak success story on reducing overall energy consumption indicates that our understanding of the determining factors of individual energy consumption as well as of its change is far from being conclusive. Among others, the scientific state of the art is dominated by analyzing single domains of consumption and by neglecting embodied energy. It also displays strong disciplinary splits and the literature often fails to distinguish between explaining behavior and explaining change of behavior. Moreover, there are knowledge gaps regarding the legitimacy and effectiveness of the governance of individual consumption behavior and its change. Against this backdrop, the aim of this paper is to establish an integrated interdisciplinary framework that offers a systematic basis for linking the different aspects in research on energy related consumption behavior, thus paving the way for establishing a better evidence base to inform societal actions. The framework connects the three relevant analytical aspects of the topic in question: (1) it systematically and conceptually frames the objects, i.e., the energy consumption behavior and its change (explananda); (2) it structures the factors that potentially explain the energy consumption behavior and its change (explanantia); (3) it provides a differentiated understanding of change inducing interventions in terms of governance. Based on the existing states of the art approaches from different disciplines within the social sciences, the proposed framework is supposed to guide interdisciplinary empirical research.

  16. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety : an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement...

  17. Animal models to improve our understanding and treatment of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, T D; Georgiou, P; Brenner, L A; Brundin, L; Can, A; Courtet, P; Donaldson, Z R; Dwivedi, Y; Guillaume, S; Gottesman, I I; Kanekar, S; Lowry, C A; Renshaw, P F; Rujescu, D; Smith, E G; Turecki, G; Zanos, P; Zarate, C A; Zunszain, P A; Postolache, T T

    2017-04-11

    Worldwide, suicide is a leading cause of death. Although a sizable proportion of deaths by suicide may be preventable, it is well documented that despite major governmental and international investments in research, education and clinical practice suicide rates have not diminished and are even increasing among several at-risk populations. Although nonhuman animals do not engage in suicidal behavior amenable to translational studies, we argue that animal model systems are necessary to investigate candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behavior and the neurobiology underlying these endophenotypes. Animal models are similarly a critical resource to help delineate treatment targets and pharmacological means to improve our ability to manage the risk of suicide. In particular, certain pathophysiological pathways to suicidal behavior, including stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, neurotransmitter system abnormalities, endocrine and neuroimmune changes, aggression, impulsivity and decision-making deficits, as well as the role of critical interactions between genetic and epigenetic factors, development and environmental risk factors can be modeled in laboratory animals. We broadly describe human biological findings, as well as protective effects of medications such as lithium, clozapine, and ketamine associated with modifying risk of engaging in suicidal behavior that are readily translatable to animal models. Endophenotypes of suicidal behavior, studied in animal models, are further useful for moving observed associations with harmful environmental factors (for example, childhood adversity, mechanical trauma aeroallergens, pathogens, inflammation triggers) from association to causation, and developing preventative strategies. Further study in animals will contribute to a more informed, comprehensive, accelerated and ultimately impactful suicide research portfolio.

  18. Shared strategies for behavioral switching: understanding how locomotor patterns are turned on and off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A Mesce

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Animals frequently switch from one behavior to another, often to meet the demands of their changing environment or internal state. What factors control these behavioral switches and the selection of what to do or what not to do? To address these issues, we will focus on the locomotor behaviors of two distantly related ‘worms’, the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana (clade Lophotrochozoa and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (clade Ecdysozoa. Although the neural architecture and body morphology of these organisms are quite distinct, they appear to switch between different forms of locomotion by using similar strategies of decision-making. For example, information that distinguishes between liquid and more solid environments dictates whether an animal swims or crawls. In the leech, dopamine biases locomotor neural networks so that crawling is turned on and swimming is turned off. In C. elegans, dopamine may also promote crawling, a form of locomotion that has gained new attention.

  19. Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Behavior among College Students: Understanding Gender and Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Mary E.; Torres, Hector; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Lloyd, Bronwyn; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of gender and ethnicity in the relationship between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior. Method Sexually active college students (n = 425) reported on alcohol expectancies, perceived risk of HIV, and drinking and sexual behavior in the context of a larger health behavior survey. Results Approximately one-third of participants reported binge drinking 3 or more times in the past two weeks. African American women reported less drinking and less positive alcohol expectancies than other women. Older men engaged more often than younger men in binge drinking and reported more sexual partners in the past year. Younger age and greater perceived risk for HIV were positively associated with condom use for both women and men. Conclusion Collectively, these findings suggest that alcohol abuse and HIV prevention efforts among young adults need to consider gender, ethnicity, and age. PMID:19253158

  20. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  1. Understanding environment-influenced swarm behavior from a social force perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Lu, D.; Jiang, Y.; Lee, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, J.

    2018-02-01

    The relevant research on swarm behavior has focused on the facts that when individuals agree with other members in the system globally consistent behaviors are generated and that individual decisions are completely dominated by other members. In fact, when individuals generate their own behavior strategies, they tend to consider not only the influences of other members but also autonomically consider their current environment. For example, in the social foraging of flocks, the behavior strategy of each individual animal is influenced by the food distribution, and individual movement patterns are characterized by a highly efficient search strategy-Lévy walks. To investigate this, this paper proposes using an environment-driven social force perspective to explore the Lévy walks of individuals in a group in patchy food environments. This model adopts the concept of social force to quantify the social effects and the interactions between individuals and food. The coordination between forces is a key in the formation of individual behavior strategies. Our simulation results show a power-law frequency distribution for agent flight lengths that conforms to Lévy walks and verifies the hypothesis of a relationship between food density and the Lévy index. In our model, the flock still exhibits collective consistency and cohesion and yields a high value for the order parameter and population density when moving between food patches. In addition, our model explains the intraspecific cooperation and competition that occurs during foraging as proposed in related work. The simulation also validates the impact of two inducements for individual behaviors compared with several benchmark models.

  2. Studying Abroad: Understanding the Relationships among Beliefs, Perceived Value, and Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Weiling; King, Kristen; Carnes, Lana

    2015-01-01

    Increased globalization highlights the importance of encouraging university students to participate in an international experience. In this study, the authors investigate how behavioral belief, subjective belief, and control belief influence students' perceived value and intention to study abroad. The authors further examine the moderation effects…

  3. Evolutionary psychology: A fresh perspective for understanding and changing problematic behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Griskevicius, V.

    2013-01-01

    From rising obesity and soaring health care costs to escalating violence and environmental degradation, contemporary society faces many challenges. Are there policies that are naturally effective in changing the behaviors that produce these problems? In this article, the authors examine some of the

  4. Toward a Better Understanding of the Effects of Hindrance and Challenge Stressors on Work Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennica R.; Beehr, Terry A.; Christiansen, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes whereby hindrance and challenge stressors may affect work behavior. Three mechanisms were examined to explain the differential effects these stressors have demonstrated: job satisfaction, strains, and work self-efficacy. A model is proposed in which both types of stressors will result in increases in strains,…

  5. Evaluation of psychosocial measures for understanding weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, A; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A

    2001-01-01

    The greatest weight gain for US. women occurs during the childbearing years of 25 to 34, and many obese women attribute their adult weight gain to childbearing. Few studies have examined psychosocial influences on women's behaviors during pregnancy, in part because of the lack of valid and reliable measures of psychosocial constructs relevant to pregnant women. Based on existing theory and an in-depth interview study, the psychosocial constructs of locus of control, self-efficacy, body image, feelings about motherhood, and career orientation were identified. Scales for each construct were constructed by drawing items from existing validated scales and writing items based on the in-depth interviews; their content validity assessed using factor analysis with oblique rotation and their reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed by examining the associations between scale scores and preexisting conditions of participants. Data for evaluating the scales came from a study of 622 pregnant women in a rural health care system who completed questionnaires and whose medical records were audited. Cronbach's alpha of the scales ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Scale scores were strongly associated with lifestyle behaviors, body weight, and demographic characteristics of the participants. The analysis provides evidence of the validity of measures of psychosocial factors related to health behaviors of pregnant women. These measures should be useful in studying weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

  6. Understanding Artful Behavior as a Human Proclivity: Clues from a Pre-Kindergarten Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt-Gross, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Concurrent to the present reduction of arts education in mainstream American schools, many evolutionary-minded scholars are asserting that artistic behavior contributes significantly to cognition, has been advantageous for our survival, and satisfies psychological needs that are biologically embedded. Supported by long-term and wide-spread art…

  7. Understanding Student Behavioral Engagement: Importance of Student Interaction with Peers and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Dinh; Cannata, Marisa; Miller, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Recent theoretical conceptualizations of student engagement have raised questions about how to measure student engagement and how engagement varies not only across schools, but also within school and within classrooms. The authors build on existing research on student behavioral engagement and extend this research to emphasize a continuum of…

  8. Compliance pluralisme and processes : Understanding compliance behavior in restaurants in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to offer a case study of dynamic compliance processes in selected Chinese restaurants with the main methods of participant observation and in-depth interviews. It applied an integrated and dynamic research approach, called descriptive analysis of compliance behavior, which

  9. Understanding Teamwork Behaviors in the Use of New Ways of Working

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leede, Jan; Nijland, Joyce; de Leede, Jan

    2017-01-01

    New Ways of Working practices like activity-based working and home-based work lead to different behaviors of employees. Due to these NWW practices, employees choose their own preferred times and places to work – albeit to a certain extent and within certain boundaries. This might have an impact on

  10. But I'm Married: Understanding Relationship Status and College Students' Sexual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy J.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual health programs on college campuses are often directed toward single individuals with a focus on sexual risk. Using a sample of college students, this study examines how relationship status relates to sexual behaviors and may be a factor for sexual risk. Based on the study's results, expansion of sexual health programming on college…

  11. Understanding the influence of social interactions on individual's behavior pattern in a work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Aztiria, Asier; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Aghajan, Hamid; Salah, Albert Ali; Lepri, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we study social interactions in a work environment and investigate how the presence of other people changes personal behavior patterns. We design the visual processing algorithms to track multiple people in the environment and detect dyadic interactions using a discriminative

  12. Understanding the relationship between teacher behavior and motivation in students with acquired deafblindness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haakma, Ineke; Janssen, Marleen; Minnaert, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Because little is known about teacher-student relationships that involve students with acquired deafblindness, the authors performed a multiple case study with a multiple-method design to investigate the relationship between need-supportive teaching behaviors and student engagement. Using

  13. Understanding the privacy behavior of adolescents on Facebook : The role of peers, popularity and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, B.; Corten, R.; van Tubergen, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    We study whether peer influence processes, popularity and trust predict privacy settings on Facebook. We use large-scale survey data from 3434 Dutch adolescents combined with observed privacy behavior on Facebook. The findings show that peer influence processes play a role and that adolescents

  14. Understanding problematic game behavior : prevalence and the role of social cognitive determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been growing academic attention on the phenomenon of problematic game use. Empirical research has consistently identified a subgroup of gamers in Western, industrial countries who report adverse psychosocial consequences related to their video-gaming behavior. The

  15. Drunkorexia: Understanding the Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Consumption and Eating/Exercise Weight Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disordered eating behaviors via a drunkorexia perspective. Participants: Nationally representative sample (n = 22,488) of college students completing the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to…

  16. Towards Understanding How to Assess Help-Seeking Behavior across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan, Amy; Walker, Erin; Baker, Ryan; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Soriano, Jose Carlo; Castro, Maynor Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent…

  17. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  19. Pesticides: evaluation of environmental pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rathore, Hamir Singh; Nollet, Leo M. L

    2012-01-01

    ..., and more. It describes the degradation of pesticides in the atmosphere and in the environment. The text also covers the fate and transport of pesticides in the environment and the effects of pesticides on plants, animals, and humans...

  20. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  1. Gender differences in pesticide use knowledge, risk awareness and practices in Chinese farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyu; Jin, Jianjun; He, Rui; Gong, Haozhou

    2017-07-15

    This study investigates gender differences in the pesticide use knowledge, risk awareness and practices of farmers in Anqiu County, China. A total of 452 male and 178 female farmers from seven towns were interviewed in 2016. The results show that there are gender differences regarding knowledge of pesticide impacts, pesticide use practices and protective behaviors. Male farmers had a better knowledge of pesticide use and greater awareness of associated health risks. More men than women used pesticides and disposed of the pesticide containers correctly, but fewer men applied protective measures or behaviors when using pesticides. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that participation in farmer professional cooperatives differed by gender and contributed greatly to the protective behaviors of farmers (prisks in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A F; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  3. Toxicology of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Dubská, Veronika

    2008-01-01

    Toxykology of pesticides Pesticides are substances or mixtures substances as a natural so synthetic origin. By effect of pesticides is removing of pest and undesirable plants. However owing to their toxicity and unaware manipulation with these substances may go to a waste of another than target organism, plants, rivers and land. The target of this graduation theses has been draw up possibility hazards resulting of using these substances.

  4. Understanding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs: Toward Identification of a Behavioral Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Nash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs currently represent the leading cause of mental retardation in North America, ahead of Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. The damaging effects of alcohol on the developing brain have a cascading impact on the social and neurocognitive profiles of affected individuals. Researchers investigating the profiles of children with FASDs have found impairments in learning and memory, executive functioning, and language, as well as hyperactivity, impulsivity, poor communication skills, difficulties with social and moral reasoning, and psychopathology. The primary goal of this review paper is to examine current issues pertaining to the identification of a behavioral phenotype in FASDs, as well as to address related screening and diagnostic concerns. We conclude that future research initiatives comparing children with FASDs to nonalcohol-exposed children with similar cognitive and socioemotional profiles should aid in uncovering the unique behavioral phenotype for FASDs.

  5. Understanding the nanoscale local buckling behavior of vertically aligned MWCNT arrays with van der Waals interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Kim, Hyung-ick; Wei, Bingqing; Kang, Junmo; Choi, Jae-boong; Nam, Jae-Do; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2015-09-14

    The local buckling behavior of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) has been investigated and interpreted in the view of a collective nanotube response by taking van der Waals interactions into account. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the case of collective VACNT behavior regarding van der Waals force among nanotubes as a lateral support effect during the buckling process. The local buckling propagation and development of VACNTs were experimentally observed and theoretically analyzed by employing finite element modeling with lateral support from van der Waals interactions among nanotubes. Both experimental and theoretical analyses show that VACNTs buckled in the bottom region with many short waves and almost identical wavelengths, indicating a high mode buckling. Furthermore, the propagation and development mechanism of buckling waves follow the wave damping effect.

  6. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  7. Living systems theory as a paradigm for organizational behavior: understanding humans, organizations, and social processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancouver, J B

    1996-07-01

    Living systems theories have been used to model human, organization, and communication processes. This paper attempts to describe these models and to highlight the isomorphisms among the models. Particular emphasis is given to self-regulating properties of humans as a subsystem of social systems. Attention is given to the advantages of generalizing across levels and phenomena and integrating the middle-range theories that dominate the field of organizational behavior. Three broad recommendations for future research are discussed.

  8. Social Psychology And Marketing: The Consumption Game. Understanding Marketing And Consumer Behavior Through Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina BUTNARU

    2009-01-01

    Consumer psychology provides enough evidence that consumer behavior is not just one side of our existence, but, as a matter of fact, it is a central dimension of our everyday lives, engaging us into changing and defining our identity, beliefs, attitudes and practices. In relation to this, commodification has reached us on all levels: everything that people created, produced and developed over the years, during the post-industrial era, can be commodified and sold to a specific market. Commodif...

  9. Sociocultural Behavior Sensemaking: State of the Art in Understanding the Operational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    unreliable. Other work (Caimo & Friel, 2012) has wedded ERGMs to a Bayesian framework to assess the quality of model fit. This helps to avoid...population for behavior that contradicted Muslim values. The movement assumed other functions of government as well, such as performing wedding ... ceremonies . The FLN strategy was to win the respect and support of the people and thereby secure hideouts for themselves. Ethnic violence between the French

  10. Towards an integrative understanding of social behavior: new models and new opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Blumstein

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Social interactions among conspecifics are a fundamental and adaptively significant component of the biology of numerous species. Such interactions give rise to group living as well as many of the complex forms of cooperation and conflict that occur within animal groups. Although previous conceptual models have focused on the ecological causes and fitness consequences of variation in social interactions, recent developments in endocrinology, neuroscience, and molecular genetics offer exciting opportunities to develop more integrated research programs that will facilitate new insights into the physiological causes and consequences of social variation. Here, we propose an integrative framework of social behavior that emphasizes relationships between ultimate-level function and proximate-level mechanism, thereby providing a foundation for exploring the full diversity of factors that underlie variation in social interactions, and ultimately sociality. In addition to identifying new model systems for the study of human psychopathologies, this framework provides a mechanistic basis for predicting how social behavior will change in response to environmental variation. We argue that the study of non-model organisms is essential for implementing this integrative model of social behavior because such species can be studied simultaneously in the lab and field, thereby allowing integration of rigorously controlled experimental manipulations with detailed observations of the ecological contexts in which interactions among conspecifics occur.

  11. Toward an Integrative Understanding of Social Behavior: New Models and New Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T.; Ebensperger, Luis A.; Hayes, Loren D.; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; Ahern, Todd H.; Burger, Joseph Robert; Dolezal, Adam G.; Dosmann, Andy; González-Mariscal, Gabriela; Harris, Breanna N.; Herrera, Emilio A.; Lacey, Eileen A.; Mateo, Jill; McGraw, Lisa A.; Olazábal, Daniel; Ramenofsky, Marilyn; Rubenstein, Dustin R.; Sakhai, Samuel A.; Saltzman, Wendy; Sainz-Borgo, Cristina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Stewart, Monica L.; Wey, Tina W.; Wingfield, John C.; Young, Larry J.

    2010-01-01

    Social interactions among conspecifics are a fundamental and adaptively significant component of the biology of numerous species. Such interactions give rise to group living as well as many of the complex forms of cooperation and conflict that occur within animal groups. Although previous conceptual models have focused on the ecological causes and fitness consequences of variation in social interactions, recent developments in endocrinology, neuroscience, and molecular genetics offer exciting opportunities to develop more integrated research programs that will facilitate new insights into the physiological causes and consequences of social variation. Here, we propose an integrative framework of social behavior that emphasizes relationships between ultimate-level function and proximate-level mechanism, thereby providing a foundation for exploring the full diversity of factors that underlie variation in social interactions, and ultimately sociality. In addition to identifying new model systems for the study of human psychopathologies, this framework provides a mechanistic basis for predicting how social behavior will change in response to environmental variation. We argue that the study of non-model organisms is essential for implementing this integrative model of social behavior because such species can be studied simultaneously in the lab and field, thereby allowing integration of rigorously controlled experimental manipulations with detailed observations of the ecological contexts in which interactions among conspecifics occur. PMID:20661457

  12. Using Social Network Analysis to Better Understand Compulsive Exercise Behavior Among a Sample of Sorority Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Megan S; Goodson, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    Compulsive exercise, a form of unhealthy exercise often associated with prioritizing exercise and feeling guilty when exercise is missed, is a common precursor to and symptom of eating disorders. College-aged women are at high risk of exercising compulsively compared with other groups. Social network analysis (SNA) is a theoretical perspective and methodology allowing researchers to observe the effects of relational dynamics on the behaviors of people. SNA was used to assess the relationship between compulsive exercise and body dissatisfaction, physical activity, and network variables. Descriptive statistics were conducted using SPSS, and quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) analyses were conducted using UCINET. QAP regression analysis revealed a statistically significant model (R 2 = .375, P exercise behavior. Physical activity, body dissatisfaction, and network variables were statistically significant predictor variables in the QAP regression model. In our sample, women who are connected to "important" or "powerful" people in their network are likely to have higher compulsive exercise scores. This result provides healthcare practitioners key target points for intervention within similar groups of women. For scholars researching eating disorders and associated behaviors, this study supports looking into group dynamics and network structure in conjunction with body dissatisfaction and exercise frequency.

  13. The role of mobile phone technology in understanding and preventing suicidal behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurs, D. de; Kirtley, O.; Kerkhof, A.; Portzky, G.; O'Connor, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this editorial, we discuss how mobile phone technology has the potential to move the field forward in terms of understanding suicide risk as well as laying foundations for the development of effective treatments/interventions. We have focused on mobile health technology given the rapid growth of

  14. Understanding Manual-Based Behavior Therapy: Some Theoretical Foundations of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Laurie A.; Sorrell, John T.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a model of understanding and evaluating manualized treatments by beginning with a review of the theory and data-driven principles upon which one treatment, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is based. As a point of illustration, several principles of PCIT, such as reinforcement, punishment, and stimulus control, are highlighted, and…

  15. Do Students Understand Our Course Structure? Implications for Important Classroom Attitudes and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elicker, Joelle D.; Foust, Michelle Singer; Perry, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of a course's structure may influence how well students understand what is expected of them. Using the foundation of the industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology literature, the authors modified a measure of "Perceived System Knowledge" (Williams & Levy, 1992) for employee performance appraisal to be appropriate for…

  16. A Behavioral Approach to Understanding Green Consumerism Using Latent Class Choice Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo

    To better understand motivations of consumers making choices among sustainability-labeled food products, this paper analyzes drivers of stated choices for a dietary staple labeled with carbon and water foodprints. Latent class modeling of survey responses reveals distinct consumer segments based ...

  17. A Behavioral Approach to Understanding Green Consumerism Using Latent Class Choice Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo

    To better understand motivations of consumers making choices among sustainability-labeled food products, this paper analyzes drivers of stated choices for a dietary staple labeled with carbon and water foodprints. Latent class modeling of survey responses reveals distinct consumer segments based...

  18. Understanding travel information search behaviors by levels of information technology adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghye Angela Kah; Christine A. Vogt; Kelly MacKay

    2007-01-01

    Although the signifi cance of the Internet has been widely discussed in previous studies, the research of e-commerce has focused primarily on organizational and business perspectives (Sigala 2004). The growing number of Internet users allows a better understanding of online tourists who seek travel information and book or purchase travel products. The levels of...

  19. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  20. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, a permanent, broadly representative advisory committee, meets with EPA on a regular basis to discuss pesticide regulatory, policy, and program implementation issues.

  1. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This is a laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques, and in particular radioisotopes in pesticide research. It is designed to give the scientists involved in pesticide research the basic terms and principles for understanding ionizing radiation: detection and measurement its hazards and safety measures, and some of the more common applications. Laboratory exercises representing the types of experiments that are valuable in pesticide research programmes and field tests which demonstrate the use of radiolabelled pesticides are included

  2. Symbolic Interactionism: A Framework for Understanding Risk-Taking Behaviors in Farm Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Julie A; Tinc, Pamela J; Weil, Rebecca; Droullard, David

    2017-01-01

    Risk behaviors are key drivers of occupationally related injuries and illnesses, considerably impacting the uptake and success of injury interventions, technologies, and practices. This is certainly true in the agricultural sector, where farmers often ignore recommended safety practices or have even been known to disable safety technologies. Although research studies have characterized specific individual safety or risk behaviors, few studies have thoroughly examined farmers' risk and safety orientations or how these develop in response to environmental and societal exposures. This study utilizes data collected over the past decade with a variety of small to midsize farm personnel to explore the meanings that farmers ascribe to risk and safety and how these influence risk and safety behaviors. In all, over 90 interviews with farmers, farm-wives, and family members were reviewed. Researchers used a grounded theory approach to identify patterns of environmental and societal exposures, as well as their impact on farmers' risk and safety orientations. Analysis revealed exposures and orientations to risk and safety, which could be largely explained through the lens of symbolic interactionism. This framework posits that people create a sense-of-self as a way of adjusting and adapting to their environment. For farmers in this study, belief in their ability to persevere allows them to succeed, despite the considerable stressors and challenges they face each day. However, this identity can, at times, be maladaptive when it is applied to safety decisions and hazard exposures. The authors discuss the implications of this research and how it may be used to productively inform future farm safety efforts.

  3. Context for understanding psychosocial outcomes and behavior among adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad; Butler, Melissa

    2012-09-01

    Across all age groups, cancer affects relationships with family and friends; challenges one's sense of independence; disrupts goals, aspirations, and achievements; alters one's body image and integrity; and poses existential challenges about the world and one's place in it. When diagnosed with cancer, adolescents and young adults (AYAs) in their 20s and 30s face unique challenges compared with younger children and older adults. Understanding how cancer-related challenges manifest needs and desires for psychological and social support services throughout a continuum of care may help clinicians improve cost-effective quality care and patient outcomes. This article provides a context for understanding the experiences of AYAs with cancer and highlights key domains of psychosocial need in this population.

  4. Understanding the dynamics of sustainable social-ecological systems: human behavior, institutions, and regulatory feedback networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderies, John M

    2015-02-01

    I present a general mathematical modeling framework that can provide a foundation for the study of sustainability in social- ecological systems (SESs). Using basic principles from feedback control and a sequence of specific models from bioeconomics and economic growth, I outline several mathematical and empirical challenges associated with the study of sustainability of SESs. These challenges are categorized into three classes: (1) the social choice of performance measures, (2) uncertainty, and (3) collective action. Finally, I present some opportunities for combining stylized dynamical systems models with empirical data on human behavior and biophysical systems to address practical challenges for the design of effective governance regimes (policy feedbacks) for highly uncertain natural resource systems.

  5. Evolutionary psychology and evolutionary developmental psychology: understanding the evolution of human behavior and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Causey, Kayla

    2010-02-01

    This is an introduction to this special issue on evolutionary psychology (EP) and evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP). We suggest here that, contrary to some common assumptions, mainstream psychology continues to be essentially non Darwinian and that EP and EDP are new approaches that can potentially help us to change this situation. We then present the organization of the special issue (composed of six papers). We conclude that evolution is certainly not the final consideration in psychology, but emphasize its importance as the basis upon which all modern behaviors and development are built.

  6. Towards a better understanding and behavior recognition of inhabitants in smart cities. A public transport case

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, Radoslaw; Kotulski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    The idea of modern urban systems and smart cities requires monitoring and careful analysis of different signals. Such signals can originate from different sources and one of the most promising is the BTS, i.e. base transceiver station, an element of mobile carrier networks. This paper presents the fundamental problems of elicitation, classification and understanding of such signals so as to develop context-aware and pro-active systems in urban areas. These systems are characterized by the omn...

  7. Understanding the Mechanisms behind Changing People’s Recycling Behavior at Work by Applying a Comprehensive Action Determination Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Prugsamatz Ofstad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study moves toward a better understanding of the mechanisms behind changing people’s recycling behavior at work by mapping out which pathways and variables change in recycling behavior as triggered by interventions. A questionnaire was designed based on the theory of planned behaviour, the norm-activation model, habits, and a comprehensive action determination model (CADM. The data was collected in two rounds: before the intervention and after a three-month pilot period with implemented interventions using a sample of n = 1269 students and employees. The CADM model appears to be a good fit with the data. The results from the structural equation modelling indicate the pathways to influencing behavioural change. The most important psychological variables accounting for waste separation behaviour are intentions, perceived behavioural control, personal norms, social norms and habits. No difference in waste separation behaviour was observed in the control building. Interventions targeting the increase in waste separation raised participants’ intentions to engage in such behaviour. Results indicate that waste separation at work must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success. Furthermore, understanding human behavior is key in determining the performance and success of an integrated and effective recycling intervention strategy.

  8. Understanding pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors: a mixed-methods study of homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Sussell, Jesse; Golinelli, Daniela; Zhou, Annie; Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2012-12-01

    Pregnancy rates are substantially higher among homeless youth than in the general population of youth, yet little is known about homeless adolescents' and young adults' pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors. Pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors were examined among two samples of sexually active homeless 13-24-year-olds in Los Angeles County. Data from 37 semistructured interviews conducted in March-April 2011 were analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Data from a structured survey with 277 respondents, conducted between October 2008 and August 2009, were analyzed primarily using regression modeling. More than half of interview respondents held ambivalent attitudes toward pregnancy, and ambivalent youth reported less contraceptive use than others. The interviews identified several potential influences on pregnancy attitudes: barriers associated with homelessness, readiness to settle down, desire to achieve goals, belief that a child would create something positive in life, and family and partners. In the survey, having positive attitudes toward pregnancy was positively associated with duration of homelessness (odds ratio, 1.6), contact with relatives (1.1) and relationship commitment (1.8); it was negatively associated with frequency of drinking (0.9). Relationship commitment was positively associated with nonuse of an effective contraceptive method at last sex (1.5). Effective and accessible pregnancy prevention and family planning programs for homeless youth are needed. Youths' ambivalence toward pregnancy and feelings of relationship commitment warrant attention as possible areas for programs to address. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  9. The Gist of Delay of Gratification: Understanding and Predicting Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Wilhelms, Evan A

    2017-04-01

    Delay of gratification captures elements of temptation and self-denial that characterize real-life problems with money and other problem behaviors such as unhealthy risk taking. According to fuzzy-trace theory, decision makers mentally represent social values such as delay of gratification in a coarse but meaningful form of memory called "gist." Applying this theory, we developed a gist measure of delay of gratification that does not involve quantitative trade-offs (as delay discounting does) and hypothesize that this construct explains unique variance beyond sensation seeking and inhibition in accounting for problem behaviors. Across four studies, we examine this Delay-of-gratification Gist Scale by using principal components analyses and evaluating convergent and divergent validity with other potentially related scales such as Future Orientation, Propensity to Plan, Time Perspectives Inventory, Spendthrift-Tightwad, Sensation Seeking, Cognitive Reflection, Barratt Impulsiveness, and the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (delay discounting). The new 12-item measure captured a single dimension of delay of gratification, correlated as predicted with other scales, but accounted for unique variance in predicting such outcomes as overdrawing bank accounts, substance abuse, and overall subjective well-being. Results support a theoretical distinction between reward-related approach motivation, including sensation seeking, and inhibitory faculties, including cognitive reflection. However, individuals' agreement with the qualitative gist of delay of gratification, as expressed in many cultural traditions, could not be reduced to such dualist distinctions nor to quantitative conceptions of delay discounting, shedding light on mechanisms of self-control and risk taking.

  10. Understanding the impact of the central atom on the ionic liquid behavior: Phosphonium vs ammonium cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Pedro J.; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Batista, Marta L. S.; Schröder, Bernd; Coutinho, João A. P., E-mail: jcoutinho@ua.pt [CICECO, Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando [Departamento de Biologia e CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Esperança, José [Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Mutelet, Fabrice [Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés, CNRS (UPR3349), Nancy-Université, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451 54001 Nancy (France)

    2014-02-14

    The influence of the cation's central atom in the behavior of pairs of ammonium- and phosphonium-based ionic liquids was investigated through the measurement of densities, viscosities, melting temperatures, activity coefficients at infinite dilution, refractive indices, and toxicity against Vibrio fischeri. All the properties investigated are affected by the cation's central atom nature, with ammonium-based ionic liquids presenting higher densities, viscosities, melting temperatures, and enthalpies. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution show the ammonium-based ionic liquids to present slightly higher infinite dilution activity coefficients for non-polar solvents, becoming slightly lower for polar solvents, suggesting that the ammonium-based ionic liquids present somewhat higher polarities. In good agreement these compounds present lower toxicities than the phosphonium congeners. To explain this behavior quantum chemical gas phase DFT calculations were performed on isolated ion pairs at the BP-TZVP level of theory. Electronic density results were used to derive electrostatic potentials of the identified minimum conformers. Electrostatic potential-derived CHelpG and Natural Population Analysis charges show the P atom of the tetraalkylphosphonium-based ionic liquids cation to be more positively charged than the N atom in the tetraalkylammonium-based analogous IL cation, and a noticeable charge delocalization occurring in the tetraalkylammonium cation, when compared with the respective phosphonium congener. It is argued that this charge delocalization is responsible for the enhanced polarity observed on the ammonium based ionic liquids explaining the changes in the thermophysical properties observed.

  11. Understanding smallholders’ intended deforestation behavior in the Brazilian Cerrado following environmental registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang Rasmussen, Laura; Jung, Suhyun; Dantas Brites, Alice; Watkins, Cristy; Agrawal, Arun

    2016-09-01

    Brazil’s Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) is a potentially promising avenue to slow deforestation on private properties as it facilitates the monitoring of land use. Yet limited empirical evidence exists on how the CAR affects smallholders’ behavior and recent scholarly efforts have in fact indicated that it may be doing less to protect forests than previously assumed. Based on 1177 smallholder surveys conducted in the Cerrado, we assess 1) whether the CAR might incentivize smallholders to pursue deforestation and 2) which factors are associated with smallholders’ intended deforestation behavior. We find that upon CAR registration, factors significantly associated with smallholders’ intention to deforest are: the existing percentage of native vegetation on the property, the use of agricultural loans, property owner’s age, and livestock production experience. To curb deforestation that may follow expressed intentions of smallholders, the CAR, and environmental registration programs alike, should account for existing land use by, for example, improving the system already in place for trading areas of native vegetation as this system is not widely adopted by those smallholders with more native vegetation than the legal cut-off. Also, such programs should assess the role of whether conditions related to land cover maintenance may protect against deforestation if credit access is supported especially to younger smallholders and/or livestock producers with a high percentage of native vegetation in their properties.

  12. Fractured Identity: A Framework for Understanding Young Asian American Women's Self-harm and Suicidal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors.

  13. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS) in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  14. Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior Using Neuroscience through a Developmental Psychopathology Lens: Review, Integration, and Directions for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2013-01-01

    Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB. PMID:24273368

  15. Photodegradation and volatility of pesticides: chamber experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Thomas; Ophoff, Holger; Stork, Andreas; Führ, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    Among the factors affecting the environmental fate of surface-applied pesticides several biological as well as abiotic factors, such as volatilization and photochemical transformations are of particular interest. Whereas reliable measurement methods and models for estimating direct photodegradation are already available for the compartments of water and atmosphere and individual subprocesses have already been described in detail, there is still a need for further elucidation concerning the key processes of heterogeneous photodegradation of environmental chemicals on surfaces. In order to systematically examine the direct and indirect photodegradation of 14C-labeled pesticides on various surfaces and their volatilization behavior, a new laboratory device ('photovolatility chamber') was designed according to US EPA Guideline 161-3. Model experiments under controlled conditions were conducted investigating the impact of different surfaces, i.e. glass, soil dust and radish plants, and environmental factors, i.e. irradiation and atmospheric ozone (O3), on the photodegradation and volatilization of surface-deposited [phenyl-UL-14C]parathion-methyl (PM). Depending on the experimental conditions, parathion-methyl was converted to paraoxon-methyl, 4-nitrophenol, unknown polar products and 14CO2. With respect to the direct photodegradation of PM (experiments without O3), the major products were polar compounds and 14CO2, due to the rapid photochemical mineralization of 4-nitrophenol to 14CO2. Paraoxon-methyl and 4-nitrophenol formation was mainly mediated by the combination of light, O3, and *OH radicals. In radish experiments PM photodegradation was presumably located in the cuticle compartment, which exhibited a sensitized photodegradation, as more unknown products were yielded compared to the glass and soil dust experiments. This could be explained by intensifying the inherent PM degradation in the dark with the same product spectrum. Due to photochemical product

  16. Understanding Psychosocial and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Detained Juveniles: A Descriptive Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Madison L; Staples-Horne, Michelle; Cartier, Jeanne; Best, Candace; Walker, Veronica; Schwartz, David; Yoo, Wonsuk

    2015-12-30

    African American women are disproportionately impacted by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, which are known risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. STIs, particularly chlamydia and gonorrhea, are even more prevalent among young African American women with a juvenile detention history. The population with experiences with the criminal justice system has greater rates of STIs and is diagnosed more often with mental health issues, often related to sexual abuse or intimate partner violence, compared to peers who have not been detained by law enforcement. Psychosocial factors, especially those related to intimate relationships (ie, the imperativeness of being in a relationship and the power one has in their relationship), have emerged as important explanatory factors for acquiring STIs, including HIV, and a component of risk reduction interventions. To investigate more comprehensively the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and STIs, including HIV, as it relates to reduction and prevention of these diseases. The long-term goal is to improve the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions with a major focus on intimate relationship dynamics. This descriptive study surveys young women (ages 13-17) who have been detained (incarcerated) by a department of juvenile justice. In addition to being female and detained, eligibility criteria include being detained longer than 30 days and being free of cognitive impairments. This study will include young women from one juvenile detention center. The primary outcomes to be measured are STI knowledge, intimate relationship dynamics (ie, imperativeness and power), and high-risk sexual behaviors. High-risk sexual behaviors will be assessed using data extracted from health records. Preliminarily, we have received assent from 26 primarily young African American women. The majority of participants (81%) had inadequate knowledge about STIs, 52% perceived a lack of

  17. Understanding the viscoelastic behavior of arterial elastin in glucose via relaxation time distribution spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunjie; Li, Haiyue; Zhang, Yanhang

    2018-01-01

    Elastin is a critical extracellular matrix protein that provides many biological tissues with resilience. In elastic arteries such as aorta, elasticity is crucial for energy storage and transmission of the pulsatile blood flow. As one of the main mechanisms of aging, non-enzymatic glycation can greatly compromise the mechanical properties of the long-lived elastin. In this study, effect of glucose on the viscoelastic behavior of purified porcine aortic elastin was investigated through stress relaxation tests and the corresponding relaxation time distribution spectra. Elastin was incubated in 2M glucose solution at 37°C for 4, 7, 14, 21 or 28 days. Biaxial stress relaxation tests were performed to study the viscoelastic property of elastin. Elastin samples with glucose treatment show increased stress relaxation with incubation time. Continuous relaxation time distribution spectra were obtained from the stress relaxation data using Tikhonov regularization method. Generally the spectra of both untreated and treated elastin have a broad range of relaxation time constants and multiple peaks located between 0.1-10,000s. The intensity of the short-term peak (0.1-10s) increases after glucose exposure whereas the intensity of the long-term peak (> 100s) decreases. The dominant peaks, i.e., the long-term peak of untreated tissue and the short-term peak of glucose treated tissue, suggest different relaxation mechanisms. The initial stress level dependency of stress relaxation was studied and the results suggested that the intensity of all the peaks increases with higher initial stresses. A multi-exponential model was developed to describe the stress relaxation behavior with material parameters obtained directly from the continuous relaxation spectrum. To fully characterize the relaxation processes, a multi-exponential model with four exponential terms, located between 0.001-1s, 1-10s, 10-100s, and 100-10,000s and obtained directly from the corresponding relaxation spectrum

  18. Behavior of fluopyram and tebuconazole and some selected pesticides in ripe apples and consumer exposure assessment in the applied crop protection framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Zwolak, Aneta; Sadło, Stanisław

    2017-07-01

    The supervised field trials were conducted in a commercial apple orchard in 2016. The trials were an attempt to determine a model for dissipation and toxicological evaluation of fluopyram, tebuconazole, captan, tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), pirimicarb, spirodiclofen, and boscalid residues detected in fruit of Red Jonaprince, Lobo, and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. The analysis also covered amounts of pesticides still present in remnants of calyx in Lobo and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. Laboratory samples of ripe apples were collected within 14 days of the treatment. Levels of pesticide residues detected in the samples changed at a constant exponential rate, and the residue levels found in ripe apples of Red Jonaprince, Gala, and Lobo varieties immediately before harvest were below maximum residue levels (MRL). Overall, captan residues in remnants of calyx were at a level of 22.3% for the Gala variety and 9.3% for the Lobo variety. Likewise, the long-term daily intake of the detected substances by a Polish adult consumer was low, ranging from 0.02% ADI for pirimicarb to 0.72% ADI for captan.

  19. Self-care behaviour for minor symptoms: can Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use help us to understand it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Terry; Wyke, Sally; Hannaford, Philip; Bond, Christine

    2015-02-01

    To explore whether Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use can aid understanding of self-care behaviour and inform development of interventions to promote self-care for minor illness. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 Scottish participants about their experience and management of minor symptoms normally associated with analgesic use. Synthesised data from the interviews were mapped onto the Behavioral Model. All factors identified as influencing decisions about how to manage the symptoms discussed, mapped onto at least one domain of Andersen's model. Individual characteristics including beliefs, need factors and available resources were associated with health behaviour, including self-care. Outcomes such as perceived health status and consumer satisfaction from previous experience of managing symptoms also appeared to feed back into health behaviour. The Behavioral Model seems relevant to self-care as well as formal health services. Additional work is needed to explore applicability of the Behavioral Model to different types of symptoms, different modalities of self-care and in countries with different health care systems. Future quantitative studies should establish the relative importance of factors influencing the actions people take to manage minor symptoms to inform future interventions aimed at optimising self-care behaviour. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Progress in understanding the mechanical behavior of pressure-vessel materials at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Brinkman, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress during the 1970's on the production of high-temperature mechanical properties data for pressure vessel materials was reviewed. The direction of the research was toward satisfying new data requirements to implement advances in high-temperature inelastic design methods. To meet these needs, servo-controlled testing machines and high-resolution extensometry were developed to gain more information on the essential behavioral features of high-temperature alloys. The similarities and differences in the mechanical response of various pressure vessel materials were identified. High-temperature pressure vessel materials that have received the most attention included Type 304 stainless steel, Type 316 stainless steel, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X

  1. Physical Chemistry of Nanomedicine: Understanding the Complex Behaviors of Nanoparticles in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Lucas A.; Qian, Ximei; Smith, Andrew M.; Nie, Shuming

    2015-04-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field of research at the interface of science, engineering, and medicine, with broad clinical applications ranging from molecular imaging to medical diagnostics, targeted therapy, and image-guided surgery. Despite major advances during the past 20 years, there are still major fundamental and technical barriers that need to be understood and overcome. In particular, the complex behaviors of nanoparticles under physiological conditions are poorly understood, and detailed kinetic and thermodynamic principles are still not available to guide the rational design and development of nanoparticle agents. Here we discuss the interactions of nanoparticles with proteins, cells, tissues, and organs from a quantitative physical chemistry point of view. We also discuss insights and strategies on how to minimize nonspecific protein binding, how to design multistage and activatable nanostructures for improved drug delivery, and how to use the enhanced permeability and retention effect to deliver imaging agents for image-guided cancer surgery.

  2. Understanding catalyst behavior during in situ heating through simultaneous secondary and transmitted electron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Jane Y.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Bigelow, Wilbur C.; Demers, Hendrix; Overbury, Steven H.

    2014-11-01

    By coupling techniques of simultaneous secondary (SE) and transmitted electron (TE) imaging at high resolution in a modern scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), with the ability to heat specimens using a highly stable MEMS-based heating platform, we obtained synergistic information to clarify the behavior of catalysts during in situ thermal treatments. Au/iron oxide catalyst 'leached' to remove surface Au was heated to temperatures as high as 700°C. The Fe2O3 support particle structure tended to reduce to Fe3O4 and formed surface terraces; the formation, coalescence, and mobility of 1- to 2-nm particles on the terraces were characterized in SE, STEM-ADF, and TEM-BF modes. If combined with simultaneous nanoprobe spectroscopy, this approach will open the door to a new way of studying the kinetics of nano-scaled phenomena.

  3. Explanatory models of black lung: understanding the health-related behavior of Appalachian coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, J

    1982-03-01

    Many retired coal miners who are eligible for care in a black lung treatment center at little or no cost to themselves do not enter into available programs or discontinue soon after beginning therapy. Reasons for this behavior are related to the prevalent beliefs among Appalachians concerning the course of black lung and the appropriate treatment for it. The miners' health beliefs are clearly at odds with those of the health care providers who work in the centers. Using the concept of explanatory model, popular and professional health cultures are analyzed, focusing on course of disease, sick role, appropriate treatment, and expected outcome. Differences in explanatory models are discussed with regard to implications for the organization and delivery of care to retired coal miners with black lung.

  4. Understanding the intentional acoustic behavior of humpback whales: a production-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazau, Dorian; Adam, Olivier; Laitman, Jeffrey T; Reidenberg, Joy S

    2013-09-01

    Following a production-based approach, this paper deals with the acoustic behavior of humpback whales. This approach investigates various physical factors, which are either internal (e.g., physiological mechanisms) or external (e.g., environmental constraints) to the respiratory tractus of the whale, for their implications in sound production. This paper aims to describe a functional scenario of this tractus for the generation of vocal sounds. To do so, a division of this tractus into three different configurations is proposed, based on the air recirculation process which determines air sources and laryngeal valves. Then, assuming a vocal function (in sound generation or modification) for several specific anatomical components, an acoustic characterization of each of these configurations is proposed to link different spectral features, namely, fundamental frequencies and formant structures, to specific vocal production mechanisms. A discussion around the question of whether the whale is able to fully exploit the acoustic potential of its respiratory tractus is eventually provided.

  5. A Multi-Method Approach to Understanding Behavior Change. The Case of Texting and Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. HOOD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Distracted driving, specifically texting and driving, has become a nationwide public health problem in the U.S. with negative, and potentially fatal consequences. In an effort to combat the growing problem, non-profit organizations, corporations, and the federal government have all stepped in to try to increase public awareness and persuade drivers to cease texting while driving. These efforts have not had the desired impact as texting and driving has continued to increase in recent years. This research investigates the potential that the messages used to curb texting and driving behavior might not be properly constructed. Specifically, we test the potential for message sponsor and self-relevance of the message to influence message outcomes. Our results suggest that messages sponsored by a combination of company and government that are self-relevant to viewers will have different outcomes than other messages. We identify practical and theoretical implications as well as future research directions.

  6. Applying Ecodevelopmental Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understand HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Johis; Huang, Shi; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-03

    HIV/AIDS is listed as one of the top 10 reasons for the death of Hispanics between the ages of 15 and 54 in the United States. This cross sectional, descriptive secondary study proposed that using both the systemic (ecodevelopmental) and the individually focused (theory of reasoned action) theories together would lead to an increased understanding of the risk and protective factors that influence HIV risk behaviors in this population. The sample consisted of 493 Hispanic adolescent 7th and 8th graders and their immigrant parents living in Miami, Florida. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used for the data analysis. Family functioning emerged as the heart of the model, embedded within a web of direct and mediated relationships. The data support the idea that family can play a central role in the prevention of Hispanic adolescents' risk behaviors.

  7. Understanding parental behavior in pediatric palliative care: Attachment theory as a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Joan A; Byrne, Mary W

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this conceptual paper was to present important constructs in attachment theory as they apply to parent and caregiver behavior in pediatric palliative care. Clarification of these constructs is provided with specific reference to their clinical application as well as their reflection in current empirical literature. Social attachment theory is proposed as a developmentally contextual model for the study of parenting in pediatric palliative and end-of-life care. A comprehensive search was conducted of pertinent literatures. These included classic as well as recent theory and research in attachment theory in addition to the empirical literatures on parent and family experience in pediatric palliative care, serious illness, and beyond to parental bereavement. Other relevant literature was examined with respect to the phenomena of concern. The empirical literature in pediatric palliative care supports the use of central concepts in attachment theory as foundational for further inquiry. This is evidenced in the emphasis on the importance of parental protection of the child, as well as executive activities such as decision making and other prominent parental operations, parental psychological resolution of the child's diagnosis and illness as well as coping and meaning making, and the core significance of parental relationships with providers who provide secure-base and safe-haven functions. The promise for developing integrated, conceptually based interventions from construction through implementation is of urgent importance to children and families receiving pediatric palliative care services. Focusing on key parental behaviors and processes within the context of a well-studied and contextually appropriate model will inform this task efficiently. The attachment paradigm meets these criteria and has promise in allowing us to move forward in developing well-defined, inclusive, and conceptually grounded protocols for child and family psychosocial research

  8. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhou

    Full Text Available The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  9. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  10. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...

  11. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  12. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  13. Pesticider 2 i overfladevand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeland, B.; Kvamm, B. L.

    DMU har den 29. september 1999 afholdt en metodeafprøvning: Pesticider 2 i overfladevand. Der var tilmeldt 17 danske og udenlandske laboratorier i metodeafprøvningen. Prøvningen omfattede 32 pesticider i overfladevand fra en sjællandsk sø. Koncentrationsniveauet for hver komponent var på 0,025 - 0...

  14. Food and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  15. Pesticide Safety for Non-Certified Mixers, Loaders and Applicators = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para Mezcladores, Cargadores y Aplicadores no Certificados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    Written in English and Spanish and completely illustrated, this manual provides basic safety information for pesticide workers. Mixers, loaders, and applicators work with pesticides at their greatest strength and have the highest risk of poisoning. Understanding the pesticide label is the first step to pesticide safety. The words…

  16. Understanding persuasion contexts in health gamification: A systematic analysis of gamified health behavior change support systems literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahäivälä, Tuomas; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2016-12-01

    Gamification is increasingly used as a design strategy when developing behavior change support systems in the healthcare domain. It is commonly agreed that understanding the contextual factors is critical for successful gamification, but systematic analyses of the persuasive contexts have been lacking so far within gamified health intervention studies. Through a persuasion context analysis of the gamified health behavior change support systems (hBCSSs) literature, we inspect how the contextual factors have been addressed in the prior gamified health BCSS studies. The implications of this study are to provide the practitioners and researchers examples of how to conduct a systematic analysis to help guide the design and research on gamified health BCSSs. The ideas derived from the analysis of the included studies will help identify potential pitfalls and shortcomings in both the research and implementations of gamified health behavior change support systems. We systematically analyzed the persuasion contexts of 15 gamified health intervention studies. According to our results, gamified hBCSSs are implemented under different facets of lifestyle change and treatments compliance, and use a multitude of technologies and methods. We present a set of ideas and concepts to help improve endeavors in studying gamified health intervention through comprehensive understanding of the persuasive contextual factors. Future research on gamified hBCSSs should systematically compare the different combinations of contextual factors, related theories, chosen gamification strategies, and the study of outcomes to help understand how to achieve the most efficient use of gamification on the different aspects of healthcare. Analyzing the persuasion context is essential to achieve this. With the attained knowledge, those planning health interventions can choose the 'tried-and-tested' approaches for each particular situation, rather than develop solutions in an ad-hoc manner. Copyright © 2016

  17. Evolved pesticide tolerance in amphibians: Predicting mechanisms based on pesticide novelty and mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K.; Mattes, Brian M.; Cothran, Rickey D.; Relyea, Rick A.; Hoverman, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    We examined 10 wood frog populations distributed along an agricultural gradient for their tolerance to six pesticides (carbaryl, malathion, cypermethrin, permethrin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) that differed in date of first registration (pesticide novelty) and mode-of-action (MOA). Our goals were to assess whether: 1) tolerance was correlated with distance to agriculture for each pesticide, 2) pesticide novelty predicted the likelihood of evolved tolerance, and 3) populations display cross-tolerance between pesticides that share and differ in MOA. Wood frog populations located close to agriculture were more tolerant to carbaryl and malathion than populations far from agriculture. Moreover, the strength of the relationship between distance to agriculture and tolerance was stronger for older pesticides compared to newer pesticides. Finally, we found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion (two pesticides that share MOA). This study provides one of the most comprehensive approaches for understanding patterns of evolved tolerance in non-pest species. - Highlights: • We explored patterns of tolerance to six insecticides across 10 wood frog populations. • We found evidence that wood frogs have evolved tolerance to carbaryl and malathion. • The likelihood of evolved tolerance was stronger for older compared to newer pesticides. • We found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion. • This is one of the most comprehensive approaches studying evolved tolerance in a non-pest species. - Using 10 wood frog populations, we detected evidence for evolved tolerance, found that the evolved tolerance depends on insecticide novelty, and found evidence for cross-tolerance.

  18. Utilizing E. coli Autotactic Responses to Understand Quorum Dependent Behaviors in P. aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Shinji; Bienvenu, Samuel; Thatcher, Travis; Gordon, Vernita

    2010-10-01

    Biofilms are multicellular, surface-bound communities of interacting unicellular organisms. In the initial stages of biofilm formation, cells populate the surface and eventually form microcolonies (dense surface-bound clusters of cells). How much these microcolonies arise from clonal growth and how much they arise from attraction and binding of non-clonal cells is not well-understood. A potentially important form of attraction is autotaxis, movement of cells toward like cells. Using microscopy and automated tracking and analysis algorithms, we will study how bacteria respond to each other in a spatially-dependent manner. We will determinine how variations in neighbor density and arrangement stimulate changes in cell motility. E. coli will be our initial model system, and later we will probe early biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa. We will also study chemotaxis (motility toward an attractive chemical), to understand how this drives, complements, or competes with autotaxis in different settings.

  19. Understanding volatility correlation behavior with a magnitude cross-correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Woo Cheol; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-06-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing the basic relation between correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations by decomposing the original signal into its positive and negative fluctuation components. We use this relation to understand the following phenomenon found in many naturally occurring time series: the magnitude of the signal exhibits long-range correlation, whereas the original signal is short-range correlated. The applications of our approach to heart rate variability signals and high-frequency foreign exchange rates reveal that the difference between the correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations is induced by the time organization structure of the correlation function between the magnitude fluctuations of positive and negative components. We show that this correlation function can be described well by a stretched-exponential function and is related to the nonlinearity and the multifractal structure of the signals.

  20. Identifying and Understanding Environment-Induced Crack propagation Behavior in Ni-based Superalloy INCONEL 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Longzhou

    2012-11-30

    The nickel-based superalloy INCONEL 617 is a candidate material for heat exchanger applications in the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) system. This project will study the crack propagation process of alloy 617 at temperatures of 650°C-950°C in air under static/cyclic loading conditions. The goal is to identify the environmental and mechanical damage components and to understand in-depth the failure mechanism. Researchers will measure the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate (da/dn) under cyclic and hold-time fatigue conditions, and sustained crack growth rates (da/dt) at elevated temperatures. The independent FCP process will be identified and the rate-controlled sustained loading crack process will be correlated with the thermal activation equation to estimate the oxygen thermal activation energy. The FCP-dependent model indicates that if the sustained loading crack growth rate, da/dt, can be correlated with the FCP rate, da/dn, at the full time dependent stage, researchers can confirm stress-accelerated grain-boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) as a predominate effect. Following the crack propagation tests, the research team will examine the fracture surface of materials in various cracking stages using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an optical microscope. In particular, the microstructure of the crack tip region will be analyzed in depth using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) mapping techniques to identify oxygen penetration along the grain boundary and to examine the diffused oxygen distribution profile around the crack tip. The cracked sample will be prepared by focused ion beam nanofabrication technology, allowing researchers to accurately fabricate the TEM samples from the crack tip while minimizing artifacts. Researchers will use these microscopic and spectroscopic results to interpret the crack propagation process, as well as distinguish and understand the environment or

  1. Using the internet to understand angler behavior in the information age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dustin R.; Pracheil, Brenda M.; DeBoer, Jason A.; Wilde, Gene R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Declining participation in recreational angling is of great concern to fishery managers because fishing license sales are an important revenue source for protection of aquatic resources. This decline is frequently attributed, in part, to increased societal reliance on electronics. Internet use by anglers is increasing and fishery managers may use the Internet as a unique means to increase angler participation. We examined Internet search behavior using Google Insights for Search, a free online tool that summarizes Google searches from 2004 to 2011 to determine (1) trends in Internet search volume for general fishing related terms and (2) the relative usefulness of terms related to angler recruitment programs across the United States. Though search volume declined for general fishing terms (e.g., fishing, fishing guide), search volume increased for social media and recruitment terms (e.g., fishing forum, family fishing) over the 7-year period. We encourage coordinators of recruitment programs to capitalize on anglers’ Internet usage by considering Internet search patterns when creating web-based information. Careful selection of terms used in web-based information to match those currently searched by potential anglers may help to direct traffic to state agency websites that support recruitment efforts.

  2. Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Kronvang, Brian; Binning, Philip J.; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2015-01-01

    We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable to pesticides. Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity. Our results support recent studies indicating that highly sorbing chemicals contribute and even drive impacts on aquatic ecosystems. They further indicate that groundwater contaminated by legacy and contemporary pesticides may impact adjoining streams. Stream observations of soluble and sediment-bound pesticides are valuable for understanding the long-term fate of pesticides in aquifers, and should be included in stream monitoring programs. - Highlights: • Findings comprised a range of contemporary and banned legacy pesticides in streams. • Groundwater is a significant pathway for some herbicides entering streams. • Legacy pesticides increased predicted aquatic toxicity by four orders of magnitude. • Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for ecotoxicity. • Stream monitoring programs should include legacy pesticides to assess impacts. - Legacy pesticides, particularly sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity impacting benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams

  3. Discovering and understanding android sensor usage behaviors with data flow analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xing

    2017-03-20

    Today’s Android-powered smartphones have various embedded sensors that measure the acceleration, orientation, light and other environmental conditions. Many functions in the third-party applications (apps) need to use these sensors. However, embedded sensors may lead to security issues, as the third-party apps can read data from these sensors without claiming any permissions. It has been proven that embedded sensors can be exploited by well designed malicious apps, resulting in leaking users’ privacy. In this work, we are motivated to provide an overview of sensor usage patterns in current apps by investigating what, why and how embedded sensors are used in the apps collected from both a Chinese app. market called “AppChina” and the official market called “Google Play”. To fulfill this goal, We develop a tool called “SDFDroid” to identify the used sensors’ types and to generate the sensor data propagation graphs in each app. We then cluster the apps to find out their sensor usage patterns based on their sensor data propagation graphs. We apply our method on 22,010 apps collected from AppChina and 7,601 apps from Google Play. Extensive experiments are conducted and the experimental results show that most apps implement their sensor related functions by using the third-party libraries. We further study the sensor usage behaviors in the third-party libraries. Our results show that the accelerometer is the most frequently used sensor. Though many third-party libraries use no more than four types of sensors, there are still some third-party libraries registering all the types of sensors recklessly. These results call for more attentions on better regulating the sensor usage in Android apps.

  4. Understanding the Role of Context-Specific Drinking in Neglectful Parenting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment, yet little is known about how drinking context may be related to particular subtypes of child neglect. This study examines the relationship between parental drinking in multiple contexts and the use of supervisory and physical neglectful. A sample of 2152 parents of children 12 years or younger in 50 cities in California was obtained using a computer-assisted telephone interview. Past-year prevalence of child neglect was measured using the Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale. Information was collected on past month or past-year frequency of having at least one drink in five contexts, continued drinking measures (e.g. number of drinks after the first drink) and sociodemographics. Data were analyzed using multilevel random effects logit models. Frequency of drinking in various contexts was related to different neglect subtypes. Specifically, frequency of drinking with friends was positively related leaving a child home alone when an adult should be present. Parents who drank more frequently with family were less likely to leave their child home alone in the past year yet more likely to unsafely monitor their child in the past year. Drinking at parties more often was related to being more likely to leave a child alone in a car sometime during the past year. That no single drinking context is universally problematic for supervisory and physical neglect suggests that different social mechanisms may underlie the relationships observed between different drinking contexts and neglect subtypes. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding Health Seeking Behavior Of Health Care Professionals In Tertiary Care Hospitals In Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bana, Shazia; Yakoob, Javed; Jivany, Nourin; Faisal, Asima; Jawed, Humeira; Awan, Safia

    2016-01-01

    Health seeking behaviour refers to the behaviour of people towards seeking their own health through provided health services. The medical professionals are at a higher risk of avoiding health seeking behaviour because they believe they are aware of the diseases and their symptoms as well as the pharmaceutical management of the disease. The aim of this study was to understand the healthcare seeking behaviour of nurses and doctors as well as the factors affecting it in hospitals of a major city in a developing country. A cross-sectional study was designed and a self-report questionnaire was distributed to healthcare workers at four tertiary care hospitals from July, 2012 to December, 2014. A total of 1015 participants responded. There were 234 (23%) doctors, 664 (65%) nurses, 60 (6%) pharmacist and 57 (6%) paramedical staff. The doctors 194 (83%) had a greater access to medical facilities compared to nurses 278 (42%) (phealth compared to doctors 102 (44%) (phealth check-ups compared to doctor 234 (100%) (pseek healthcare when they get sick. Self-medication is common in both groups.

  6. Understanding the nanoscale redox-behavior of iron-anodes for rechargeable iron-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinrich, Henning [Forschungszentrum Julich (Germany). Inst. for Energy and Climate Research-Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9); RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Physical Chemistry; Come, Jérémy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Tempel, Hermann [Forschungszentrum Julich (Germany). Inst. for Energy and Climate Research-Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9); Kungl, Hans [Forschungszentrum Julich (Germany). Inst. for Energy and Climate Research-Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9); Eichel, Rüdiger-A. [Forschungszentrum Julich (Germany). Inst. for Energy and Climate Research-Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9); Balke, Nina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS)

    2017-10-10

    Iron-air cells provide a promising and resource-efficient alternative battery concept with superior area specific power density characteristics compared to state-of-the-art Li-air batteries and potentially superior energy density characteristics compared to present Li-ion batteries. Understanding charge-transfer reactions at the anode-electrolyte interface is the key to develop high-performance cells. By employing in-situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (in-situ EC-AFM), in-depth insight into the electrochemically induced surface reaction processes on iron in concentrated alkaline electrolyte is obtained. The results highlight the formation and growth of the redox-layer on iron over the course of several oxidation/reduction cycles. By this means, a direct correlation between topography changes and the corresponding electrochemical reactions at the nanoscale could unambiguously be established. Here in this paper, the twofold character of the nanoparticulate redox-layer in terms of its passivating character and its contribution to the electrochemical reactions is elucidated. Furthermore, the evolution of single nanoparticles on the iron electrode surface is evaluated in unprecedented and artifact-free detail. Based on the dedicated topography analysis, a detailed structural model for the evolution of the redox-layer which is likewise elementary for corrosion science and battery research is derived.

  7. Process analytical technology to understand the disintegration behavior of alendronate sodium tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2013-05-01

    Various adverse events including esophagus irritations have been reported with the use of alendronate tablets, likely attributed to the rapid tablet disintegration in the mouth or esophagus. Accordingly, the disintegration of six alendronate tablet drug products was studied using a newly developed testing device equipped with in-line sensors, in addition to the official compendial procedure for measuring the disintegration time. The in-line sensors were used to monitor the particle count and solution pH change to assess the onset and duration of disintegration. A relatively large variation was observed in the disintegration time of the tested drug products using the compendial method. The data collected using the in-line sensors suggested that all tested drug products exhibited almost instantaneous onset of disintegration, under 2 s, and a sharp drop in solution pH. The drop in pH was slower for tablets with slower disintegration. The in-house prepared alendronate test tablets also showed similar trends suggesting rapid solubilization of the drug contributed to the fast tablet disintegration. This research highlights the usefulness of the newly developed in-line analytical method in combination with the compendial method in providing a better understanding of the disintegration and the accompanying drug solubilization processes for fast disintegrating tablet drug products. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.

  9. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the pro......The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... in the products comply with the labelled content. The tolerance of deviation from the labelled content of active ingredient is set by the Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. In addition to the examination of the content of active ingredients, all collected samples are examined for the content of octylphenol...... chloride and ethephon. Satisfactory results were found for all examined pesticide formulations. Thus, the analysed samples of these formulations complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None...

  10. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...... individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design....

  11. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  12. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pesticide label. Check with your local solid waste management authority, environmental agency or health department to find out whether your community has a household hazardous waste collection program or a similar program for ...

  13. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  14. What are Antimicrobial Pesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.

  15. Pesticide Registration Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  16. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if there is more information on a specific brand that you have questions about. When calling, have a copy of the label nearby so that you can list the ingredients. Will exposure to pesticides harm my pregnancy? Most animal studies ...

  17. Neurodevelopmental effects in children associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticides: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A; Barr, Dana B; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose-response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose-response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows of

  18. Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet

  19. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    , fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin......, one of four samples containing terbuthylazine, one of eleven samples containing clopyralid, and one of four samples containing ioxynil did not comply with the accepted limits of content of active ingredient...

  20. Pesticide Pollution in Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    İlter, Hüseyin; Kurt, Burak; Ötegen, Volkan Recai; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Pesticidepollution affects both aquatic and soil ecosystems. Factors that promotepesticide pollution include drainage patterns, properties of the pesticide,rainfall, microbial activity, treatment surface and rate of application.Pesticides are able to move from one ecosystem to another through processessuch as transfer (mobility) and transformation (degradation). Transfer mayoccur through surface runoff, vapourization to atmosphere, sorption (adsorp‐tion/desorp-tion), plant uptakeor soil water...

  1. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  2. Understanding the molecular behavior of organotin compounds to design their effective use as agrochemicals: exploration via quantum chemistry and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Teodorico C; Rocha, Marcus V J; da Cunha, Elaine F F; Oliveira, Luiz C A; Carvalho, Kele T C

    2010-10-01

    The high frequency of contamination by herbicides suggests the need for more active and selective agrochemicals. Organotin compounds are the active component of some herbicides, such as Du-Ter and Brestan, which is also a potent inhibitor of the F1Fo ATP Synthase. That is a key enzyme, because the ATP production is one of the major chemical reactions in living organisms. Thus ATP Synthase is regarded as a prime target for organotin compounds. In this line, molecular modeling studies and DFT calculations were performed in order to understand the molecular behavior of those compounds in solution. In addition, we investigated the reaction mechanism by ESI-MS analyses of the diphenyltin dichloride. Our findings indicate that an unstable key-intermediate generated in situ might take place in the reaction with ATP Synthase.

  3. Biodegradation kinetics for pesticide exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolt, J D; Nelson, H P; Cleveland, C B; van Wesenbeeck, I J

    2001-01-01

    Understanding pesticide risks requires characterizing pesticide exposure within the environment in a manner that can be broadly generalized across widely varied conditions of use. The coupled processes of sorption and soil degradation are especially important for understanding the potential environmental exposure of pesticides. The data obtained from degradation studies are inherently variable and, when limited in extent, lend uncertainty to exposure characterization and risk assessment. Pesticide decline in soils reflects dynamically coupled processes of sorption and degradation that add complexity to the treatment of soil biodegradation data from a kinetic perspective. Additional complexity arises from study design limitations that may not fully account for the decline in microbial activity of test systems, or that may be inadequate for considerations of all potential dissipation routes for a given pesticide. Accordingly, kinetic treatment of data must accommodate a variety of differing approaches starting with very simple assumptions as to reaction dynamics and extending to more involved treatments if warranted by the available experimental data. Selection of the appropriate kinetic model to describe pesticide degradation should rely on statistical evaluation of the data fit to ensure that the models used are not overparameterized. Recognizing the effects of experimental conditions and methods for kinetic treatment of degradation data is critical for making appropriate comparisons among pesticide biodegradation data sets. Assessment of variability in soil half-life among soils is uncertain because for many pesticides the data on soil degradation rate are limited to one or two soils. Reasonable upper-bound estimates of soil half-life are necessary in risk assessment so that estimated environmental concentrations can be developed from exposure models. Thus, an understanding of the variable and uncertain distribution of soil half-lives in the environment is

  4. Pesticides in the atmosphere: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Michael S.; Capel, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    Most people know about the presence and health effects of pesticide residues in the water they drink. However, they may not realize the impact of atmospheric transportation and deposition of pesticides on water quality. Scientific studies of pesticides in various atmospheric matrices (air, rain, snow, aerosols, and fog) provide some of the answers. Pesticides in the Atmosphere focuses on the review and interpretation of direct measurements of pesticides in the environment. An exhaustive compilation, the book examines hundreds of studies in detailed tabular listings, with accompanying maps that include such features as spatial and temporal domain studies, target analytes, detection limits, and compounds detected. Working with the foundation of forty years of scientific studies, the editors synthesize this research to characterize the common threads and main conclusions. They use this information to identify where we need to improve our understanding of pesticides in the atmosphere and their significance to water quality. Pesticides in the Atmosphere serves as a resource, text, and reference to a wide spectrum of scientists, water managers, and students. It includes extensive compilations of references, interpretive analyses and conclusions. For those not familiar with the atmospheric transportation and deposition of pesticides it provides a comprehensive introduction.

  5. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides with pesticide applications on farm fields and crops. In terrestrial landscapes, dermal contact with contaminated soil and plant matter may lead to bioconcentration as well as lethal and sublethal effects in amphibians.Although the physiological structure of the amphibian dermis may facilitate pesticide uptake, soil properties may ultimately dictate bioavailability of pesticides in terrestrial habitats. The organic matter fraction of soil readily binds to pesticides, potentially decreasing the availability of pesticides adhering to biological matter. Soil partition coefficient soils. A basic understanding of soil organic carbon content and soil-specific Koc values may be important to indicating pesticide bioavailability and potential bioconcentration in amphibians. Our study was designed to evaluate dermal uptake of five pesticide active ingredients on either high or low organic matter soils. We predicted that amphibian body burdens would be a function of soil carbon content or Koc. with greater bioconcentration in individuals exposed to pesticides on sa

  6. Using Self-Determination Theory to Understand Motivation Deficits in Schizophrenia: The ‘Why’ of Motivated Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, David E.; Sanchez, Amy H.; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Self-Determination Theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect/disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or ‘passing time’. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: 1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; 2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; 3) more disconnected/disengaged. Higher disconnected/disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. PMID:24853060

  7. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Health Symptoms Among Rice Farmers in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marisa; Stadlinger, Nadja; Mmochi, Aviti J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The agrarian population in low- and middle-income countries suffers from a number of adverse health effects due to pesticide exposure. In Zanzibar, the government subsidizes pesticides to enhance local rice production. The objectives of this study were to assess Zanzibar smallholder rice farmers' pesticide use and self-reported health symptoms in relation to pesticide exposure, training, and use of protective measures and to raise awareness for future local policy formulation. An exploratory cross-sectional interviewer-administered study was conducted among 99 rice farmers. Participants were selected based on convenience sampling and stratified by expected exposure category. The study participants reported using pesticides in World Health Organization (WHO) Class II. Of pesticide users, 61% reported one or more symptoms of possible acute pesticide poisoning. Only 50% of pesticide users had received training in safe handling and application of pesticides, but those who had displayed a higher use of protective measures. Farmers who did not use protective measures were more likely to have reported skin irritation and headache, which, together with eye irritation, were the most commonly reported acute symptoms. The main sociodemographic differences between the expected exposure categories of pesticide users and nonusers were in gender and education level. Scaling up of training in safe handling and application of pesticides is needed. Further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms behind the choice to use pesticides or not.

  8. The paths of mortality: how understanding the biology of aging can help explain systems behavior of single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Matthew M; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Aging is a fundamental aspect of life, yet also one of the most confounding. In individual cells, aging results in a progressive decline which affects all organelles and reduces a cell's ability to maintain homeostasis. Because of the interconnected nature of cellular systems, the failure of even a single organelle can have cascading effects. We are just beginning to understand the dramatic physiological changes that occur during aging. Because most aging research has focused on population dynamics, or differences between wild-type and mutant populations, single-cell behavior has been largely overlooked. An open question is whether aging cells are defined by predictable sequences of physiological changes, or whether they proceed along divergent aging trajectories defined by whichever system begins to fail first. Can aging be best characterized by a cell-cycle like model with stereotyped states all cells progress through, or a Waddington landscape with divergent trajectories? Here we present work on understanding the changing physiological states of aging cells, why it will impact systems and synthetic biologists, and how the systems community can contribute significantly to the study of aging.

  9. Pesticides in the atmosphere across Canadian agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Harner, Tom; Blanchard, Pierrette; Tuduri, Ludovic; Waite, Don; Poissant, Laurier; Murphy, Clair; Belzer, Wayne; Aulagnier, Fabien; Sverko, Ed

    2008-08-15

    The Canadian Atmospheric Network for Currently Used Pesticides (CANCUP) was the first comprehensive, nationwide air surveillance study of pesticides in Canada. This paper presentsthe atmospheric occurrence and distribution of pesticides including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), acid herbicides (AHs), and neutral herbicides (NHs) during the spring to summer of 2004 and 2005 across agricultural regions in Canada. Atmospheric concentrations of pesticides varied within years and time periods, and regional characteristics were observed including the following: (i) highest air concentrations of several herbicides (e.g., mecoprop, triallate, and ethalfluralin) were found at Bratt's Lake, SK, a site in the Canadian Prairies; (ii) the west-coast site at Abbotsford, BC, had the maximum concentrations of diazinon; (iii) the fruit and vegetable growing region in Vineland, ON, showed highest levels for several insecticides including chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and azinphos-methyl; (iv) high concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor were measured at St. Anicet, QC, a corn-growing region; (v) the Kensington site in PEI, Canada's largest potato-producing province, exhibited highest level of dimethoate. Analysis of particle- and gas-phase fractions of air samples revealed that most pesticides including OCPs, OPPs, and NHs exist mainly in the gas phase, while AHs exhibit more diversity in particle-gas partitioning behavior. This study also demonstrated that stirred up soil dust does not account for pesticides that are detected in the particle phase. The estimated dry and wet deposition fluxes indicate considerable atmospheric inputs for some current-use pesticides (CUPs). This data set represents the first measurements for many pesticides in the atmosphere, precipitation, and soil for given agricultural regions across Canada.

  10. Ignoring The Labels: An Analysis of Pesticide Use in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jikun Huang; Fangbin Qiao; Linxiu Zhang; Scott Rozelle

    2000-01-01

    China, like many developing countries, has seen a dramatic increase in the use of pesticides and other agricultural chemicals over the last twenty years. In order to get a clearer understanding of the consequences of pesticide use, a team of researchers from the Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy recently undertook an in-depth analysis of the way the chemicals are used in rice production. They found that pesticides were being grossly over-used and that this was having a marked negative im...

  11. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  12. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  13. Pesticides and child neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2008-04-01

    This review summarizes the recent research on pesticide exposure and child neurobehavioral development with a focus on in-utero exposure to organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides. Recent studies on in-utero exposure to the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its breakdown product, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene, indicate that exposure is associated with poorer infant (6 months and older) and child neurodevelopment. Yet, the studies differ on the domain of development that is affected. Research on organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment is limited but suggests some negative association of exposure and neurodevelopment at certain ages. Two reports agree that increased levels of organophosphate exposure in utero result in greater numbers of abnormal reflexes in neonates and studies in older infants and young children also point to a negative association with development. In young children (2-3 years) two separate studies observed an increase in maternally reported pervasive developmental disorder with increased levels of organophosphate exposure. Given that the literature suggests a link between organochlorine and in-utero pesticide exposure and impaired child neurodevelopment, clinicians should educate parents about prevention of exposure, especially in populations living in agricultural areas or where household use is common.

  14. In Case of Pesticide Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Consumers Contact Us Share In Case of Pesticide Emergency If someone has swallowed or inhaled a pesticide or gotten it in the eye or on ... for help with first aid information. The National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) (1-800-858-7378) also ...

  15. Cognitive and affective components of mental workload: Understanding the effects of each on human decision making behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    Human factors and ergonomics researchers have recognized for some time the increasing importance of understanding the role of the construct of mental workload in flight research. Current models of mental workload suggest that it is a multidimensional and complex construct, but one that has proved difficult to measure. Because of this difficulty, emphasis has usually been placed on using direct reports through subjective measures such as rating scales to assess levels of mental workload. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA/TLX, Hart and Staveland) has been shown to be a highly reliable and sensitive measure of perceived mental workload. But a problem with measures like TLX is that there is still considerable disagreement as to what it is about mental workload that these subjective measures are actually measuring. The empirical use of subjective workload measures has largely been to provide estimates of the cognitive components of the actual mental workload required for a task. However, my research suggests that these measures may, in fact have greater potential in accurately assessing the affective components of workload. That is, for example, TLX may be more likely to assess the positive and negative feelings associated with varying workload levels, which in turn may potentially influence the decision making behavior that directly bears on performance and safety issues. Pilots, for example, are often called upon to complete many complex tasks that are high in mental workload, stress, and frustration, and that have significant dynamic decision making components -- often ones that involve risk as well.

  16. Preparing for smart grid technologies: A behavioral decision research approach to understanding consumer expectations about smart meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurti, Tamar; Schwartz, Daniel; Davis, Alexander; Fischhoff, Baruch; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Lave, Lester; Wang, Jack

    2012-01-01

    With the enactment of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, U.S. President Obama made a public commitment to a new approach to energy production and transmission in the United States. It features installing smart meters and related technologies in residential homes, as part of transforming the current electrical grid into a “smart grid.” Realizing this transformation requires consumers to accept these new technologies and take advantage of the opportunities that they create. We use methods from behavioral decision research to understand consumer beliefs about smart meters, including in-depth mental models interviews and a follow-up survey with a sample of potential smart meter customers of a major U.S. mid-Atlantic electricity utility. In both the surveys and the interviews, most respondents reported wanting smart meters. However, these preferences were often based on erroneous beliefs regarding their purpose and function. Respondents confused smart meters with in-home displays and other enabling technologies, while expecting to realize immediate savings. They also perceived risks, including less control over their electricity usage, violations of their privacy, and increased costs. We discuss the policy implications of our results. - Highlights: ► We outline normative risks and benefits of smart meters from scientific literature. ► We examine consumer perceptions of smart meters via interviews and surveys. ► Smart meter desire stems from consumer misconceptions about purpose and function. ► Appropriate communications may prevent consumer protests against the smart grid.

  17. Perspectives of using fungi as bioresource for bioremediation of pesticides in the environment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Zahid; Hussain, Sabir; Imran, Muhammad; Mahmood, Faisal; Shahzad, Tanvir; Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Azeem, Farrukh; Muzammil, Saima

    2016-09-01

    Pesticides are used for controlling the development of various pests in agricultural crops worldwide. Despite their agricultural benefits, pesticides are often considered a serious threat to the environment because of their persistent nature and the anomalies they create. Hence removal of such pesticides from the environment is a topic of interest for the researchers nowadays. During the recent years, use of biological resources to degrade or remove pesticides has emerged as a powerful tool for their in situ degradation and remediation. Fungi are among such bioresources that have been widely characterized and applied for biodegradation and bioremediation of pesticides. This review article presents the perspectives of using fungi for biodegradation and bioremediation of pesticides in liquid and soil media. This review clearly indicates that fungal isolates are an effective bioresource to degrade different pesticides including lindane, methamidophos, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, cypermethrin, dieldrin, methyl parathion, heptachlor, etc. However, rate of fungal degradation of pesticides depends on soil moisture content, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, oxygen level, etc. Fungal strains were found to harbor different processes including hydroxylation, demethylation, dechlorination, dioxygenation, esterification, dehydrochlorination, oxidation, etc during the biodegradation of different pesticides having varying functional groups. Moreover, the biodegradation of different pesticides was found to be mediated by involvement of different enzymes including laccase, hydrolase, peroxidase, esterase, dehydrogenase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, etc. The recent advances in understanding the fungal biodegradation of pesticides focusing on the processes, pathways, genes/enzymes and factors affecting the biodegradation have also been presented in this review article.

  18. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    This PhD project was carried out as part of the Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) project, funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research (grant number 2104-08-0012). The environment is contaminated with various xenobiotic compounds e.g. pesticides......D student, to construct fungal-bacterial consortia in order to potentially stimulate pesticide degradation thereby increasing the chance of successful bioaugmentation. The results of the project are reported in three article manuscripts, included in this thesis. In manuscript I, the mineralization of 2...

  19. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    of a key species of farmland bird, caused to changes in production and landscape. The results from the agricultural sector model are also used in evaluation of pesticide usage and the leaching of pesticides to ground water. First we analyze the implication of three different scenarios in all of the above...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  20. The estimation of existed pesticides dumps contamination with pesticides residues

    OpenAIRE

    Taurozaitė, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Kristina Taurozaitė Buvusių pesticidų sandėlių teritorijų užterštumo pesticidų likučiais vertinimas Santrauka Didžiausia tarša pesticidais stebima dirvožemyje ir požeminiuose gruntiniuose vandenyse, pesticidų kapinynų aplinkvietėse ir buvusių pesticidų sandėlių gaisravietėse, o pagrindiniai taršos pesticidais židiniai yra pesticidų sandelio gaisrai ir pesticidų kapinynai. Pesticidų sukeltas neigiamas poveikis aplinkai yra negrįžtamas, o tai pasireiškia įvairiais išsigimimais, nukrypimais ir l...

  1. Pesticides in groundwater: modelling and data analysis of the past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binning, Philip John; McKnight, Ursula S.; Malaguerra, Flavio

    Pesticides are the most frequently detected groundwater contaminants in Denmark. However, there is still a great deal of debate about the fate of pesticides and their future occurrence in our environment. We do not really understand the link between past usage and current observations, and are no......Pesticides are the most frequently detected groundwater contaminants in Denmark. However, there is still a great deal of debate about the fate of pesticides and their future occurrence in our environment. We do not really understand the link between past usage and current observations...... to jointly manage our groundwater and surface water resources. Here, observed pesticide data is analyzed and combined with models to address these questions and needs. Groundwater and surface water pesticide observations reflect the fact that these two hydrological components have a strong interaction...

  2. Understanding HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy: an information--motivation--behavioral skills model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Fisher, William A; Shuper, Paul A; Cornman, Deborah H; Christie, Sarah; Macdonald, Susan; Pillay, Sandy; Mahlase, Gethwana; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2013-08-01

    The current study applied the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model (Fisher & Fisher, 1992; Fisher & Fisher, 1993) to identify factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), a population of considerable significance for curtailing, or maintaining, South Africa's generalized HIV epidemic. HIV prevention information, HIV prevention motivation, HIV prevention behavioral skills, and HIV transmission risk behavior were assessed in a sample of 1,388 South Africans infected with HIV and receiving ART in 16 clinics in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Findings confirmed the assumptions of the IMB model and demonstrated that HIV prevention information and HIV prevention motivation work through HIV prevention behavioral skills to affect HIV transmission risk behavior in this population. Subanalyses confirmed these relationships for HIV transmission risk behavior overall and for HIV transmission risk behavior with partners perceived to be HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown. A consistent pattern of gender differences showed that for men, HIV prevention information and HIV prevention motivation may have direct links with HIV preventive behavior, whereas for women, the effect of HIV prevention motivation works through HIV prevention behavioral skills to affect HIV preventive behavior. These IMB model-based findings suggest directions for HIV prevention interventions with South African men and women living with HIV and on ART as an important component of overall strategies to contain South Africa's generalized HIV epidemic. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Pesticides and cancer: insights into toxicoproteomic-based findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2011-11-18

    Humans are often exposed to a variety of pollutants that contribute to an individual's risk for diseases including cancer. Animal, cell cultures and epidemiological lines of evidence demonstrate that exposure to various environmental pollutants including pesticides are associated with increasing frequency of cancers. Organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates, pyrethroids, the major groups of pesticides, have been reported to be carcinogenic in various models. However, the results of these studies are still controversial, nevertheless, their mechanism of action is clear. Therefore, new strategies in toxicological research are needed for efficient screening for adverse effects of pesticides on complex living systems. Biomarkers can be employed to identify causal associations and to make better quantitative and qualitative estimates of those associations at relevant levels of exposure. This will enable us to deepen our understanding of mechanism behind their carcinogenic potential. Deciphering the associations between pesticide exposure and cancer, following toxicoproteomics application, will be useful in the development of potential predictive biomarkers of pesticide induced carcinogenicity. Therefore, the thrust of this article was to review the risk of cancer due to pesticide exposure and significant toxicoproteomic-based studies conducted so far, to identify the novel molecules as possible biomarkers for cancer following pesticide exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Applying the Skill-Rule-Knowledge Framework to Understanding Operators’ Behaviors and Workload in Advanced Main Control Rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Shiang, Wei-Jung; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Liou, Jin-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Operator behaviors were analyzed according to Rasmussen's SRK classification. • Different job positions connote different abilities to perform the job successfully. • Rule-based behavior comprised the main behavior patterns of the operating crew. - Abstract: For the past years, a number of researches have focused on operators’ behaviors and workloads in advanced main control rooms (MCRs) in either the procedure-domain or knowledge-domain and in either workload-increased or workload-decreased conditions. Different job positions connote different responsibilities and abilities that are required to perform the job successfully. However, it may be inappropriate to apply a dichotomy in these issues. In this study, we clarified these controversial points through the analysis of the time, frequency, and workload of the behaviors based on Rasmussen's skill–rule–knowledge classification (SRK framework) according to the supervisor operator (SRO), reactor operator (RO), and assistant reactor operator (ARO). The results showed that, for the SRO, rule- and knowledge-based behaviors occurred more often than skill-based behavior in terms of time and frequency, and knowledge-based behavior was the main source of workload. For the RO, no significant differences were found among the three behavior types in terms of frequency and workload, but more time was spent on rule-based behaviors than on skill- and knowledge-based behaviors. The ARO spent more time performing skill-based behaviors than rule- and knowledge-based behaviors, but in terms of frequency and workload, rule-based behavior was the predominant type. Operators’ behaviors contribute to a plant's defense-in-depth approach to safety and serve a vital function in ensuring its safe operation. Research on behavioral taxonomies of advanced MCRs has many significant benefits in both scientific-theoretical and applied practical fields

  5. Earthworms, pesticides and sustainable agriculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shivika; Singh, Joginder; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to generate awareness and understand the importance of earthworms in sustainable agriculture and effect of pesticides on their action. The natural resources are finite and highly prone to degradation by the misuse of land and mismanagement of soil. The world is in utter need of a healthy ecosystem that provides with fertile soil, clean water, food and other natural resources. Anthropogenic activities have led to an increased contamination of land. The intensification of industrial and agricultural practices chiefly the utilization of pesticides has in almost every way made our natural resources concave. Earthworms help in a number of tasks that support many ecosystem services that favor agrosystem sustainability but are degraded by exhaustive practices such as the use of pesticides. The present review assesses the response of earthworm toward the pesticides and also evaluates the relationship between earthworm activity and plant growth. We strictly need to refresh and rethink on the policies and norms devised by us on sustainable ecology. In an equivalent way, the natural resources should be utilized and further, essential ways for betterment of present and future livelihood should be sought.

  6. Pesticides and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Y Z A-Z Index Health & Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Plants Pest ... our environment When pesticides are used on the food we eat The risk of health problems depends not only on how toxic the ingredients are ( ...

  7. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  8. Kombinationseffekter af pesticider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per; Andersen, Helle Raun; Cedergreen, Nina

    Resumé: Effekten af 101 tokomponentblandinger og 20 trekomponentblandinger bestående af 22 forskellige pesticider blev undersøgt i 7 forskellige testsystemer. Effekterne af blandingerne blev sammenholdt med pesticidernes virkningsmekanismer/virkemåder med henblik på at undersøge, om det med...

  9. Understanding the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Men's Risk Behavior: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J; Brown, Dominique; Steen, Jeffrey; Benoit, Ellen

    2018-02-26

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) remains a critical public health issue among black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is associated with multiple negative outcomes including substance misuse, poor mental health, revictimization, and high-risk sexual behavior. Most CSA research with MSM relies on quantitative assessment that often precludes consideration of cultural variations in how formative sexual experiences are understood and is based on inconsistent or overly restrictive definitions of abuse, and therefore may fail to detect certain abusive experiences (eg, those involving female perpetrators), which can have harmful health consequences if they remain unrecognized. The objective of this study is to overcome existing limitations in the literature by drawing on perspectives of black and Latino MSM and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW), as well as relevant service providers to better understand the role of, and the need to include, sexual abuse histories (eg, CSA) in treatment and counseling settings, with the long-term goal of improving assessment and health outcomes. We will conduct mixed-methods interviews, framed by an intersectionality approach, with 80 black and Latino men (40 MSM and 40 MSMW) in New York City (NYC), exploring appraisals of their formative sexual experiences, including those described as consensual but meeting criteria for CSA. We will also interview 30 local service providers representing substance abuse treatment, mental health care, and HIV prevention and outreach. The study was launched in May 2017. This formative research will inform testable approaches to assessing and incorporating sexual abuse history into substance abuse treatment and other health and mental health services used by men with such histories. ©Martin J Downing Jr, Dominique Brown, Jeffrey Steen, Ellen Benoit. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 26.02.2018.

  10. Neurodevelopmental consequences of pediatric cancer and its treatment: applying an early adversity framework to understanding cognitive, behavioral, and emotional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusak, Hilary A; Iadipaolo, Allesandra S; Harper, Felicity W; Elrahal, Farrah; Taub, Jeffrey W; Goldberg, Elimelech; Rabinak, Christine A

    2017-12-22

    Today, children are surviving pediatric cancer at unprecedented rates, making it one of modern medicine's true success stories. However, we are increasingly becoming aware of several deleterious effects of cancer and the subsequent "cure" that extend beyond physical sequelae. Indeed, survivors of childhood cancer commonly report cognitive, emotional, and psychological difficulties, including attentional difficulties, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Cognitive late- and long-term effects have been largely attributed to neurotoxic effects of cancer treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, cranial irradiation, surgery) on brain development. The role of childhood adversity in pediatric cancer - namely, the presence of a life-threatening disease and endurance of invasive medical procedures - has been largely ignored in the existing neuroscientific literature, despite compelling research by our group and others showing that exposure to more commonly studied adverse childhood experiences (i.e., domestic and community violence, physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) strongly imprints on neural development. While these adverse childhood experiences are different in many ways from the experience of childhood cancer (e.g., context, nature, source), they do share a common element of exposure to threat (i.e., threat to life or physical integrity). Therefore, we argue that the double hit of early threat and cancer treatments likely alters neural development, and ultimately, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional outcomes. In this paper, we (1) review the existing neuroimaging research on child, adolescent, and adult survivors of childhood cancer, (2) summarize gaps in our current understanding, (3) propose a novel neurobiological framework that characterizes childhood cancer as a type of childhood adversity, particularly a form of early threat, focusing on development of the hippocampus and the salience and emotion network (SEN), and (4) outline future directions for

  11. Smallholder farmers’ knowledge, perception and practice in pesticide use in South Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikre Lemessa Ocho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are often used to manage pests and enhance agricultural productivity. However, pesticides have negative impacts on human and animal health as well as on the environment if not properly used and handled. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices of smallholder farmers in agricultural pesticides utilization in three major cereal producing districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia. For the study original data collected from 140 randomly selected farmers using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and key informant interviews with district level experts were used. The results showed that 98% of the sample households use pesticides; of which 45% purchase pesticides from open market. Furthermore, while the herbicide 2, 4-D was used by 57% of the households, 48% of the respondents did not know the type of pesticides they used. Only 30% read the instructions and less than 40% understand the signs on pesticide containers. Most households perceived that pesticides are useful; however, 98.5% of them witnessed its negative effects. Some health related discomforts reported include nausea, vomiting, headache, and skin irritation with the respective shares of 68%, 18%, 12% and 2%. Ninety five percent of the respondents believed that it is possible to minimize the negative effects of pesticides. But, 80% use normal clothes for spraying pesticides; 40% wash spray equipments in yard; 23% throw pesticide containers in open field and 32% reuse pesticide containers for other purposes. Findings of the study revealed that there is mismatch among knowledge, perception and practice of the farmers. Hence, it is important to carefully design pesticides supply chain and train farmers to create awareness about the careful use of pesticide, and disposal of the leftover and containers.

  12. Is gender a risk factor for pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Hay-Younes, Jasmin; Condarco, Madelaine A

    2013-01-01

    This study compares gender differences regarding knowledge, practice, and symptoms of intoxication when handling pesticides in farming. Data were gathered in La Paz County, Bolivia, in 2008 and 2009. Poor knowledge on safe handling, hazardous working practices, and use of very toxic pesticides were...... seen. Being a female and having a low educational level were risk factors for "poor knowledge on pesticides" and a "risky behavior when handling pesticides." Females reported more symptoms of intoxication. The gender differences on knowledge and handling practices might explain why females report more...... symptoms. To minimize this gap, education and agricultural services should be made more accessible to female farmers in Bolivia....

  13. Presence of pesticide residues on produce cultivated in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoel Wahid, F; Wickliffe, J; Wilson, M; Van Sauers, A; Bond, N; Hawkins, W; Mans, D; Lichtveld, M

    2017-06-01

    Agricultural pesticides are widely used in Suriname, an upper middle-income Caribbean country located in South America. Suriname imported 1.8 million kg of agricultural pesticides in 2015. So far, however, national monitoring of pesticides in crops is absent. Reports from the Netherlands on imported Surinamese produce from 2010 to 2015 consistently showed that samples exceeded plant-specific pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) of the European Union (EU). Consumption of produce containing unsafe levels of pesticide residues can cause neurological disorders, and particularly, pregnant women and children may be vulnerable. This pilot study assessed the presence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed produce items cultivated in Suriname. Thirty-two insecticides (organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates, and pyrethroids) and 12 fungicides were evaluated for their levels in nine types of produce. Pesticide residue levels exceeding MRLs in this study regarded cypermethrin (0.32 μg/g) in tomatoes (USA MRL 0.20 μg/g), lambda-cyhalothrin (1.08 μg/g) in Chinese cabbage (USA MRL 0.40 μg/g), endosulfan (0.07 μg/g) in tannia (EU MRL 0.05 μg/g), and lindane (0.02 and 0.03 μg/g, respectively) in tannia (EU MRL 0.01 μg/g). While only a few pesticide residues were detected in this small pilot study, these residues included two widely banned pesticides (endosulfan and lindane). There is a need to address environmental policy gaps. A more comprehensive sampling and analysis of produce from Suriname is warranted to better understand the scope of the problem. Preliminary assessments, using intake rate, hazard quotient, and level of concern showed that it is unlikely that daily consumption of tannia leads to adverse health effects.

  14. Biostimulation and enhancement of pesticide degradation around water abstraction fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi

    and precipitation of iron followed by the growth of iron bacteria leading to bioclogging reduces the efficiency of bioremediation of contaminated aquifers. The overall scope of this PhD study was to investigate biostimulated degradation potentials of pesticides at low concentrations in groundwater contaminated...... potential in the field than could be transferred to the laboratory. In conclusion, this PhD has developed our understanding on degradation processes of pesticides in aquifer systems. We have shown that biostimulation by oxygen addition even at relatively low concentrations is a promising remediation......Groundwater contamination by pesticides is a widespread environmental problem and a major threat to drinking water supplies. Diffuse source contamination of groundwater that enters from an extensive area is characterized by low pesticide concentrations (nanogram-microgram per liter) in large...

  15. Sex Differences in Affect Behaviors, Desired Social Responses, and Accuracy at Understanding the Social Desires of Other People

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob M. Vigil

    2008-01-01

    I recently proposed a socio-relational framework that suggests that phenotypic variation in the expression of discrete affect behaviors (e.g., expressed anger vs. sadness) may reflect two basic dimensions of behavioral response. The first dimension is the motivation to selectively attract or avoid interactions with different people. The second dimension is the behavioral display of either personal capacity or trustworthiness cues, often through the expression of dominant and submissive behavi...

  16. Simulation of pesticide dissipation in soil at the catchment scale over 23 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queyrel, Wilfried; Florence, Habets; Hélène, Blanchoud; Céline, Schott; Laurine, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    study show that the dynamic of the remaining mass of pesticide in soil is a relevant issue to understand pesticide dissipation at long term. Attention must be paid on parameters influencing sorption and availability of the pesticide for leaching. To conclude, the significant discrepancies in the simulated pesticide leaching for the two types of crops (maize and wheat) highlight the interest of using a crop model to simulate the fate of pesticides at the catchment scale.

  17. Determination of Stability from Multicomponent Pesticide Mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorweiler, Kelly J; Gurav, Jagdish N; Walbridge, James S; Ghatge, Vishwas S; Savant, Rahul H

    2016-08-10

    A study was conducted to evaluate the stability of 528 pesticides, metabolites, and contaminants prepared in large multicomponent mixes to enhance laboratory efficiency by allowing maximum use of the useful shelf life of the mixtures. Accelerated aging at 50 °C simulated 6 month, 1 year, and 2 year storage periods at -20 °C. Initial mixture composition was based on the instrument of analysis. After preliminary stability data had been obtained, mixtures were reformulated and re-evaluated. In all, 344 compounds showed satisfactory stability across all treatment groups, 100 compounds showed statistically significant changes between the control and the 6 month simulated storage period (27 with losses >20%), and the remainder showed borderline stability or were tested in one protocol. Stability behavior for organophosphates agreed with the proposed reaction mechanism responsible for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. A small number of compounds increased in response over time, suggesting the occurrence of degradation of precursor pesticides into these respective compounds.

  18. Survey report on awareness and participation behavior in disabled sports and disability understanding after Tokyo’s bid for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kotomi

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzes awareness and participation behavior in disabled sports and disability understanding after Tokyo’s bid for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics. [Subjects and Methods] The study conducted a cross survey on 220 registrants of an Internet research firm. It analyzed: the awareness of citizens and their behavioral changes, in the aftermath of the allocation of Olympic and Paralympic Games; subject attributes and education level; recognition of disabled sports; and the awareness and behavior of participants, with regard to disabled sports. The analysis was conducted using SPSS Ver. 21 (IBM). [Results] The subjects were not interested in watching (72.2%), participating (76.8%), or volunteering (71.8%) in disabled sports. In addition, 76.8% of the subjects exhibited no behavioral changes—such as by watching, participating, or volunteering in disabled sports—after the Olympics and Paralympics bid decision. [Conclusion] This study’s subjects had no confidence in their disability knowledge and no opportunities to interact with disabled persons. Furthermore, the bids for mega-events such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games did not lead to behavioral changes concerning disabled sports. Therefore, disability understanding should promote and deepen participation behavior in disabled sports. PMID:29410556

  19. Evaluation of the Safety Detective Program: A Classroom-Based Intervention to Increase Kindergarten Children's Understanding of Home Safety Hazards and Injury-Risk Behaviors to Avoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Bell, Melissa; Park, Katey; Pogrebtsova, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Home injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity for young children. Most programs that aim to improve their knowledge of home safety have been narrowly focused on one injury type and/or required specialized personnel for delivery. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new Safety Detective Program that was designed to teach young children (4-6 years) about several types of home safety hazards and unsafe behaviors, with the program delivered in a classroom setting by non-experts based on manualized training. The current study used a randomized group, pre-post design to evaluate the effectiveness of the program to increase children's knowledge and understanding of home safety hazards and injury-risk behaviors to avoid. Children participated in six structured sessions, covering burns, falls, drowning, and poisoning. Each session involved play-based activities (storybook, song, and game or craft) to teach main messages about hazards and injury-risk behaviors, a take home activity, and a parent information sheet about the injury type covered that day. An individually administered photo-sort task with follow-up interview was used to measure intervention and control group participants' knowledge and understanding of injury-risk behaviors before and after program delivery. Children in the intervention, but not the control, group exhibited significant gains in their knowledge and understanding of home safety hazards and injury-risk behaviors to avoid, establishing the effectiveness of the program. This evaluation indicates that the Safety Detective Program can be delivered in classrooms without requiring specialized personnel or extensive training and with positive changes obtained. The program holds much promise as a means of improving kindergarten children's understanding of a broad range of home hazards and injury-risk behaviors that are relevant to their safety.

  20. The action suited to the word? Use of the framework of risk information seeking to understand risk-related behaviors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kievik, Milou; ter Huurne, E.F.J.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Although a growing body of risk communication research focuses on how people process risk information, one question that is overlooked is how the seeking of information contributes to behavioral adaptation toward the risk issue. How are people’s behavioral responses to risks affected by the search

  1. Brief Report: Understanding Crisis Behaviors in Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder--Iceberg Assessment Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Kate H.; Barnes, Julia C.; Young, Nicholas D.; Gabriels, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for emotional dysregulation and behavior problems that can escalate to levels requiring psychiatric hospitalization. Evaluating the etiology of such behaviors can be challenging for health care providers, as individuals with ASD can have difficulty self-reporting concerns.…

  2. Modulating mimicry: Exploring the roles of inhibitory control and social understanding in 5-year-olds' behavioral mimicry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, J.E. van; Hunnius, S.

    2018-01-01

    During adult interactions, behavioral mimicry, the implicit copying of an interaction partner's postures and mannerisms, communicates liking and affiliation. While this social behavior likely develops during early childhood, it is unclear which factors contribute to its emergence. Here, the roles of

  3. Parental mind-mindedness but not false belief understanding predicts Hong Kong children's lie-telling behavior in a temptation resistance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lamei; Zhu, Liqi; Wang, Zhenlin

    2017-10-01

    Children can tell lies before they understand the concept of false belief. This study investigated the relationship between parental mind-mindedness, defined as the propensity of parents to view their children as mental agents with independent thoughts and feelings, and the lie-telling behavior of Hong Kong children aged 3-6years. The results confirmed earlier findings indicating that Hong Kong children's understanding of false belief is delayed; nevertheless, the participants appeared to lie just as well as children from other cultures. The lie-telling behavior of Hong Kong children was predicted by parental mind-mindedness and children's age but was unrelated to children's false belief understanding. It is suggested that children of mind-minded parents are more likely to exercise autonomy in socially ambiguous situations. Future studies should focus on the roles of parenting and children's multifaceted autonomy when addressing children's adaptive lie telling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pesticides in surface waters: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steven J.; Capel, Paul D.; Majewski, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Pesticde use in agriculture and non-agriculture settings has increased dramatically over the last several decades. Concern about adverse effects on the environment and human health has spurred an enormous amount of research into their environmental behavior and fate. Pesticides in Surface Waters presents a comprehensive summary of this research. This book evaluates published studies that focus on measuring pesticide concentration. The studies chosen include peer reviewed scientific literature, government reports, laboratory studies, and those using microcosms and artificial streams and ponds. The authors used this information to develop their overview of pesticide contamination of surface waters. The exhaustive compilation of data along with the fundamental science make this book essential for those involved in pesticide use, environmental protection, water quality, and human or ecological risk assessment. Pesticides in Surface Waters covers the results of actual studies, sources of pesticides to surface water, fate and transport, and environmental significance. Hundreds of data-packed tables, maps, charts, and drawings illustrate the key points, making research and application easy and cost effective.

  5. Degradation of pesticides in nursery recycling pond waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianhang; Wu, Laosheng; Newman, Julie; Faber, Ben; Gan, Jianying

    2006-04-05

    Recycling or collection ponds are often used in outdoor container nursery production to capture and recycle runoff water and fertilizers. Waters in recycling ponds generally have high concentrations of nutrients, pesticides, and dissolved organic matter, as well as elevated salinity and turbidity. Little is known about pesticide degradation behavior in the unique environment of nursery recycling ponds. In this study, degradation of four commonly used pesticides diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, and pendimethalin in waters from two nursery recycling ponds was investigated at an initial pesticide concentration of 50 microg/L. Results showed that the persistence of diazinon and chlorpyrifos appeared to be prolonged in recycling pond waters as compared to surface streamwaters, possibly due to decreased contribution from biotic transformation, while degradation of chlorothalonil and pendimethalin was enhanced. Activation energies of biotic degradation of all four pesticides were lower than abiotic degradation, indicating that microbial transformation was less affected by temperature than chemical transformation. Overall, the pesticide degradation capacity of recycling ponds was better buffered against temperature changes than that of surface streamwaters.

  6. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the provisions...

  7. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  8. Revised Certification Standards for Pesticide Applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized stronger standards for people who apply restricted use pesticides (RUPs). These revisions to the Certification of Pesticide Applicators rule will reduce the likelihood of harm from the misapplication of toxic pesticides.

  9. Environmental fate of fungicides and other current-use pesticides in a central California estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Orlando, James L.; Phillips, Bryn M.; Anderson, Brian S.; Siegler, Katie; Hunt, John W.; Hamilton, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the fate of current-use pesticides in an agriculturally-dominated central California coastal estuary by focusing on the occurrence in water, sediment and tissue of resident aquatic organisms. Three fungicides (azoxystrobin, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin), one herbicide (propyzamide) and two organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) were detected frequently. Dissolved pesticide concentrations in the estuary corresponded to the timing of application while bed sediment pesticide concentrations correlated with the distance from potential sources. Fungicides and insecticides were detected frequently in fish and invertebrates collected near the mouth of the estuary and the contaminant profiles differed from the sediment and water collected. This is the first study to document the occurrence of many current-use pesticides, including fungicides, in tissue. Limited information is available on the uptake, accumulation and effects of current-use pesticides on non-target organisms. Additional data are needed to understand the impacts of pesticides, especially in small agriculturally-dominated estuaries.

  10. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  11. Pesticides Provoke Endocrine Disruption A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing numbers of environmental chemicals,including pesticides, have the ability to produce endocrine disruption by various mechanisms. such substances may affect hormone secretion from an endocrine gland and may alter the rate of hormone elimination from the body. environmental chemicals may also disrupt regulatory feedback mechanisms that exist between two endocrine organs; or may interact with a hormone receptor either by mimicking or antagonizing the actions of the natural hormone. these chemicals are referred to endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC's). EDC's act to alter the blood hormone levels or the subsequent action of hormones . the use of radioimmunoassay(RIA) constitutes a superior and unrivalled tool for the determination and quantification of hormones.the endocrine system participates in virtually all important functions of an organism, such as sexual differentiation before birth, sexual maturation during puberty, reproduction in adulthood, growth, metabolism, digestion, cardiovascular function and excretion. hormones are also implicated in the etiology of certain cancers of hormone- dependent tissues, such as those of the breast, uterus, and prostate gland. therefore, endocrine disruption can potentially produce widespread effects. scientists should not stick to the past belief which presumes that pesticides have limited effect on some hormones. A paradigm shift in which a wider vision of understanding of the wholesome complex effects of pesticides on the whole body rather than a narrow limited understanding should take place

  12. Using in vitro derived enzymatic reaction rates of metabolism to inform pesticide body burdens in amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. To assess the potential metabolic activation of broad use pesticides in amphibians, in vitro and in vivo metabolic rate cons...

  13. Fine scale spatial variability of microbial pesticide degradation in soil: scales, controlling factors, and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Badawi, N.; Aamand, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide biodegradation is a soil microbial function of critical importance for modern agriculture and its environmental impact. While it was once assumed that this activity was homogeneously distributed at the field scale, mounting evidence indicates that this is rarely the case. Here, we criti...... advantage of these investigations for a better understanding and prediction of the fate of pesticides in soil....

  14. Modelling pesticide volatilization after soil application using the mechanistic model Volt'Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedos, Carole; Génermont, Sophie; Le Cadre, Edith; Garcia, Lucas; Barriuso, Enrique; Cellier, Pierre

    Volatilization of pesticides participates in atmospheric contamination and affects environmental ecosystems including human welfare. Modelling at relevant time and spatial scales is needed to better understand the complex processes involved in pesticide volatilization. Volt'Air-Pesticides has been developed following a two-step procedure to study pesticide volatilization at the field scale and at a quarter time step. Firstly, Volt'Air-NH 3 was adapted by extending the initial transfer of solutes to pesticides and by adding specific calculations for physico-chemical equilibriums as well as for the degradation of pesticides in soil. Secondly, the model was evaluated in terms of 3 pesticides applied on bare soil (atrazine, alachlor, and trifluralin) which display a wide range of volatilization rates. A sensitivity analysis confirmed the relevance of tuning to K h. Then, using Volt'Air-Pesticides, environmental conditions and emission fluxes of the pesticides were compared to fluxes measured under 2 environmental conditions. The model fairly well described water temporal dynamics, soil surface temperature, and energy budget. Overall, Volt'Air-Pesticides estimates of the order of magnitude of the volatilization flux of all three compounds were in good agreement with the field measurements. The model also satisfactorily simulated the decrease in the volatilization rate of the three pesticides during night-time as well as the decrease in the soil surface residue of trifluralin before and after incorporation. However, the timing of the maximum flux rate during the day was not correctly described, thought to be linked to an increased adsorption under dry soil conditions. Thanks to Volt'Air's capacity to deal with pedo-climatic conditions, several existing parameterizations describing adsorption as a function of soil water content could be tested. However, this point requires further investigation. Practically speaking, Volt'Air-Pesticides can be a useful tool to make

  15. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  16. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  17. Conceptual shifts needed to understand the dynamic interactions of genes, environment, epigenetics, social processes, and behavioral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fatimah L C; Niculescu, Mihai D; Jackson, Robert T

    2013-10-01

    Social and behavioral research in public health is often intimately tied to profound, but frequently neglected, biological influences from underlying genetic, environmental, and epigenetic events. The dynamic interplay between the life, social, and behavioral sciences often remains underappreciated and underutilized in addressing complex diseases and disorders and in developing effective remediation strategies. Using a case-study format, we present examples as to how the inclusion of genetic, environmental, and epigenetic data can augment social and behavioral health research by expanding the parameters of such studies, adding specificity to phenotypic assessments, and providing additional internal control in comparative studies. We highlight the important roles of gene-environment interactions and epigenetics as sources of phenotypic change and as a bridge between the life and social and behavioral sciences in the development of robust interdisciplinary analyses.

  18. Time integrated Pesticide analysis in the tropical Rio Tapezco in Costa Rica by using passive sampling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Frederik; Stamm, Christian; Ruepert, Clemens; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik

    2016-04-01

    Tropical areas are pesticide "hot spots". Global data indicate that in these regions the annual average pesticide application rates and surface runoff potentials can be very high. However in tropical regions, information about the pesticide entry routes, their environmental behavior, and the degree of water pollution is often lacking. Catchment-scale monitoring data are required to fill these knowledge gaps and to gain a better systematic understanding of the environmental fate, behavior and impacts of pesticides in tropical aquatic environments. Accordingly, our study was conducted in the tropical Rio Tapezco catchment in the Zarcero canton, Costa Rica. The area covers 5112 ha, ranges between an altitude of 1580 and 2010 m above sea level and receives a total annual precipitation between 1500 and 3500 mm. The catchment is intensively used for the horticultural production of vegetables and herbs. It is a hot spots of pesticide use with an average application rate of about 22 kg/ha of arable land and cropping cycle. In conjunction with the poor pesticide application practices, the tropical climate, strong precipitations and the continuous pesticide application during the whole year, the risks for water pollution and environmental health are high. Indeed, previous spot sampling showed that in streams of the study area, several pesticides were found in concentrations up to 6.8 μg/L. While this data indicate the risk for the aquatic environment, the seasonal grab sampling reflects only poorly the highly dynamic concentration time-series. Additionally, the assessment of the actual pollution level was restricted by a limited analytical window. To close these research gaps, we sampled the rivers of the study area continuously between end of July and beginning of October 2015 by using three passive sampling systems (Camcather® with styrene-divinylbenzene reverse phase sulfonated discs, polydimethylsiloxane sheets, and a water level proportional water sampler). Samples

  19. Understanding childhood (problem) behaviors from a cultural perspective: comparison of problem behaviors and competencies in Turkish immigrant, Turkish and Dutch children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengi-Arslan, L; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Erol, N

    1997-11-01

    Parents' reports of problem behaviors in 2,081 Dutch children, 3,127 Turkish children in Ankara and 833 Turkish immigrant children living in The Netherlands, aged 4-18 years, were compared. Dutch and Turkish versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were used. Immigrant children were scored higher than Dutch children on 6 of the 11 CBCL scales, most markedly on the Anxious/Depressed scale. Immigrant children were scored higher than Ankara children on five CBCL scales. However, these differences were much smaller than those found between immigrant and Dutch children. Furthermore, immigrant children's Total Problem scores did not differ from those for Ankara children. Turkish immigrant children have very similar patterns of parent-reported problem behaviors to children living in Turkey, although both groups of Turkish children showed higher levels of parent-reported problem behaviors than Dutch children. The higher scores for Turkish children on the Anxious/Depressed scale compared with their Dutch peers may be explained by cultural differences in parental perception of children's problem behaviors, as well as the threshold for reporting them, or by cultural differences in the prevalence of problems, for instance as the result of cross-cultural differences in child-rearing practice. More research is needed to test the degree to which Turkish immigrant parents tend to preserve their cultural characteristics and child-rearing practices in Dutch society.

  20. 75 FR 10259 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... contact person listed is: Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide... A. Matthews, Acting Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide...

  1. Bioenergy residues as novel sorbents to clean up pesticide pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Santanu

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, water contamination from agricultural use of pesticides has received increasing attention within the last decades. In general, sources of pesticide water pollution are categorized into diffuse (stemming from treated fields) and point sources (stemming from farmyards and spillages). Research has demonstrated that 40 to 90% of surface water pesticide contamination is due to point source pollution. To reduce point pollution from farm yards, where the spray equipment is washed, biobed or biofilter systems are used to treat the washing water. The organic material usually used in these systems is often not environmentally sustainable (e.g. peat) and incorporated organic material such as straw leads to a highly heterogeneous water flow, with negative effects on the retention and degradation behavior of the pesticides. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the suitability of alternative materials based on bioenergy residues (biochar and digestate) for use in biofilters. To this aim the sorption-desorption potential of three contrasting pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) on mixtures of soil with digestate and/or biochar were investigated in laboratory batch equilibrium experiments. The results indicate that the mixture of digestate and biochar increased pesticide sorption potential, whereby in all cases, the Kd des / Kf des values were lower than the Kd ads / Kf ads values indicating that the retention of the pesticides was weak. Thus, as Kf des were lower than the Kf ads values and H values were below 1, it can be concluded that the biomixtures presented negative desorption (higher hysteresis) in those cases. A higher Kd (>78 L kg-1), Kf (>400 μM1-1/nf L1/nfkg-1) and KL (>40 L kg-1) was obtained for all pesticides for the digestate and biochar based mixtures, which had a higher organic matter content. However, lower sorption of the pesticides was observed in blank soil compared to the other biomixtures, which was attributed to the

  2. Estimation of pyrethroid pesticide intake using regression modeling of food groups based on composite dietary samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population-based estimates of pesticide intake are needed to characterize exposure for particular demographic groups based on their dietary behaviors. Regression...

  3. Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to Understand Physicians' Behaviors and Behavior Change in Using Temporary Work Modifications for Return to Work: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horppu, Ritva; Martimo, K P; MacEachen, E; Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2018-03-01

    Purpose Applying the theoretical domains framework (TDF) and the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) to understand physicians' behaviors and behavior change in using temporary work modifications (TWMs) for return to work (RTW). Methods Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 15 occupational physicians (OPs). Responses were coded using the TDF and the BCW. Results Key behaviors related to applying TWMs were initiating the process with the employee, making recommendations to the workplace, and following up the process. OP behaviors were influenced by several factors related to personal capability and motivation, and opportunities provided by the physical and social environment. Capability comprised relevant knowledge and skills related to applying TWMs, remembering to initiate TWMS and monitor the process, and being accustomed to reflective practice. Opportunity comprised physical resources (e.g., time, predefined procedures, and availability of modified work at companies), and social pressure from stakeholders. Motivation comprised conceptions of a proper OP role, confidence to carry out TWMs, personal RTW-related goals, beliefs about the outcomes of one's actions, feedback received from earlier cases, and feelings related to applying TWMs. OPs' perceived means to target these identified factors were linked to the following BCW intervention functions: education, training, persuasion, environmental restructuring, and enablement. The results suggest that at least these functions should be considered when designing future interventions. Conclusions Our study illustrates how theoretical frameworks TDF and BCW can be utilized in a RTW context to understand which determinants of physicians' behavior need to be targeted, and how, to promote desired behaviors.

  4. PERSEPSI DAN PERILAKU PETANI DALAM PENANGANAN RISIKO PESTISIDA PADA LINGKUNGAN DI KELURAHAN KALAMPANGAN, KECAMATAN SABANGAU KOTA PALANGKA RAYA (Farmer’s Perception and Behavior Toward the Risk of Pesticide to the Environment In Kalampangan Village,Sabang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Rario

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengetahuan, persepsi dan perilaku petani penanganan pestisida menurut tingkat sosial ekonomi petani, serta menyusun alternatif arahan penanganan pestisida untuk mengurangi risiko terhadap lingkungan. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian survei yang dilakukan melalui wawancara dan observasional dengan pengambilan data secara cross sectional menggunakan 60 sampel dari populasi sebesar 414 orang. Data diolah dan dianalisis dengan tabulasi silang yang dilanjutkan dengan uji statistik. Tingkat sosial ekonomi, pengetahuan, persepsi dan perilaku penanganan pestisida petani rata-rata tinggi. Tingkat sosial ekonomi petani berhubungan nyata dan berpengaruh kecil terhadap pengetahuan, persepsi dan perilaku penanganan pestisida. Pengetahuan tentang pestisida berhubungan nyata dan berpengaruh besar terhadap persepsi dan perilaku penanganan pestisida. Persepsi tentang pestisida berhubungan nyata dan berpengaruh besar terhadap perilaku penanganan pestisida.   ABSTRACT This research aims at studying farmer’s knowledge, perception and behaviour on pesticide handling according his social economic level, and formulate alternative guideline for pesticide handling to reduce the risk to the environment. This research is a survey research by means of interview and observation. It used cross sectional technique in data collection, using 60 samples from a total population of 414 people. The data were processed and analysed in a cross tabulation, followed by a statistic test. The levels of social economy, knowledge, perception, and behaviour towards pesticide handling by farmers are relatively high. The social economic level shoes a significant correlation and gives small effect to the knowledge, perception, and behaviour in pesticide handling. The farmer’s knowledge shows a significant correlation and gives big effect to the perception, and behaviour in pesticide handling. The farmer’s perception shows a

  5. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of

  6. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee and Pesticide Regulatory Reform Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs will hold a public meeting of the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC) on Wednesday, May 3, from 9:00 a.m. to 4:45 p.m., and on Thursday, May 4, from 8:30 a.m. to noon.

  7. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... required to register pesticides. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... prevention, and in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration systems. All of these recommended...

  8. Sex Differences in Affect Behaviors, Desired Social Responses, and Accuracy at Understanding the Social Desires of Other People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M. Vigil

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available I recently proposed a socio-relational framework that suggests that phenotypic variation in the expression of discrete affect behaviors (e.g., expressed anger vs. sadness may reflect two basic dimensions of behavioral response. The first dimension is the motivation to selectively attract or avoid interactions with different people. The second dimension is the behavioral display of either personal capacity or trustworthiness cues, often through the expression of dominant and submissive behaviors, respectively (Vigil, in press. Sex differences in affect behaviors (e.g., externalizing vs. internalizing displays may reflect developmental sensitivities to advertise capacity and trustworthiness cues somewhat differently, due to the unique social dynamics and relational constraints under which males and females evolved. In this study, I use a series of self-report questionnaires to examine two basic assumptions of the framework. The first assumption is that sex differences in nonverbal affect behaviors (aggression vs. crying reflect the desire for, and are effective for causing other people to either avoid or comfort the individual, respectively. I hypothesized that males would report a greater likelihood of responding to various distress moods with aggressive, rather than crying behaviors, and that males would desire, and believe male peers similarly desire distancing responses from others when feeling these moods. Instead, females were hypothesized to report more crying behaviors, and to desire, and believe female peers desire more comforting responses from others. The second assumption is that people are more accurate at inferring the desired social responses (i.e., to be left alone or comforted when experiencing distress of same-sex, rather than opposite-sex peers. I hypothesized that people's beliefs of same-sex peers are more similar to the self-reported desires of the male and female participants, themselves, than their beliefs of opposite

  9. Acute Toxicity of Cypermethrin (A Pyrethroid Pesticide) to Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish treated with cypermethrin showed abnormal behavior characterised by restlessness, uncoordinated movements, loss of equilibrium, gulping of air, period of quiescence and then death. The sub-lethal responses of the fish to the pesticide were more pronounced on opercular ventilation (y=64.45+115.6x) than on tail ...

  10. Computed leaching of pesticides from soil under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Dekkers, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    With a computer model, pesticide behavior in soil after spring application to a sandy loam field with a potato crop, was simulated. Special attention was paid to the risk of leaching through the upper meter of soil in catchment areas. Unsaturated water flow resulting from rainfall was modeled in

  11. Understanding differences in sexting behaviors across gender, relationship status, and sexual identity, and the role of expectancies in sexting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Steiner, Jennifer L; Cyders, Melissa A

    2013-08-01

    Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (α=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, psexting behaviors (η(2) from 0.04-0.13). College students reported both positive and negative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks.

  12. Genomic analysis of the interaction between pesticide exposure and nutrition in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmehl, Daniel R; Teal, Peter E A; Frazier, James L; Grozinger, Christina M

    2014-12-01

    Populations of pollinators are in decline worldwide. These declines are best documented in honey bees and are due to a combination of stressors. In particular, pesticides have been linked to decreased longevity and performance in honey bees; however, the molecular and physiological pathways mediating sensitivity and resistance to pesticides are not well characterized. We explored the impact of coumaphos and fluvalinate, the two most abundant and frequently detected pesticides in the hive, on genome-wide gene expression patterns of honey bee workers. We found significant changes in 1118 transcripts, including genes involved in detoxification, behavioral maturation, immunity, and nutrition. Since behavioral maturation is regulated by juvenile hormone III (JH), we examined effects of these miticides on hormone titers; while JH titers were unaffected, titers of methyl farnesoate (MF), the precursor to JH, were decreased. We further explored the association between nutrition- and pesticide-regulated gene expression patterns and demonstrated that bees fed a pollen-based diet exhibit reduced sensitivity to a third pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Finally, we demonstrated that expression levels of several of the putative pesticide detoxification genes identified in our study and previous studies are also upregulated in response to pollen feeding, suggesting that these pesticides and components in pollen modulate similar molecular response pathways. Our results demonstrate that pesticide exposure can substantially impact expression of genes involved in several core physiological pathways in honey bee workers. Additionally, there is substantial overlap in responses to pesticides and pollen-containing diets at the transcriptional level, and subsequent analyses demonstrated that pollen-based diets reduce workers' pesticide sensitivity. Thus, providing honey bees and other pollinators with high quality nutrition may improve resistance to pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Understanding Associations between Information Seeking and Scanning and Health Risk Behaviors: An Early Test of the Structural Influence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Hovick, Shelly R

    2018-03-01

    This study examined proposed direct and mediating relationships in the Structural Influence Model (SIM) of Communication within the chronic disease context. Using data from the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (N = 14,472), we tested the potential mediating roles of information seeking, information scanning, and social capital between social determinants of health and four chronic disease risk behaviors: exercise level, fruit and vegetable intake, cigarette smoking, and excessive alcohol use. Information seeking, information scanning, and social capital received support as potential mediators. Our results are largely consistent with predictions of the SIM and highlight the important role of communication in reducing health risks and increasing healthy behaviors.

  14. Simplifying the complexity of a coupled carbon turnover and pesticide degradation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschmann, Gianna; Erhardt, André H.; Pagel, Holger; Kügler, Philipp; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    The mechanistic one-dimensional model PECCAD (PEsticide degradation Coupled to CArbon turnover in the Detritusphere; Pagel et al. 2014, Biogeochemistry 117, 185-204) has been developed as a tool to elucidate regulation mechanisms of pesticide degradation in soil. A feature of this model is that it integrates functional traits of microorganisms, identifiable by molecular tools, and physicochemical processes such as transport and sorption that control substrate availability. Predicting the behavior of microbially active interfaces demands a fundamental understanding of factors controlling their dynamics. Concepts from dynamical systems theory allow us to study general properties of the model such as its qualitative behavior, intrinsic timescales and dynamic stability: Using a Latin hypercube method we sampled the parameter space for physically realistic steady states of the PECCAD ODE system and set up a numerical continuation and bifurcation problem with the open-source toolbox MatCont in order to obtain a complete classification of the dynamical system's behaviour. Bifurcation analysis reveals an equilibrium state of the system entirely controlled by fungal kinetic parameters. The equilibrium is generally unstable in response to small perturbations except for a small band in parameter space where the pesticide pool is stable. Time scale separation is a phenomenon that occurs in almost every complex open physical system. Motivated by the notion of "initial-stage" and "late-stage" decomposers and the concept of r-, K- or L-selected microbial life strategies, we test the applicability of geometric singular perturbation theory to identify fast and slow time scales of PECCAD. Revealing a generic fast-slow structure would greatly simplify the analysis of complex models of organic matter turnover by reducing the number of unknowns and parameters and providing a systematic mathematical framework for studying their properties.

  15. Review Article. Organochlorine pesticides, their toxic effects on living organisms and their fate in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraj Ravindran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine (OC pesticides are synthetic pesticides widely used all over the world. They belong to the group of chlorinated hydrocarbon derivatives, which have vast application in the chemical industry and in agriculture. These compounds are known for their high toxicity, slow degradation and bioaccumulation. Even though many of the compounds which belong to OC were banned in developed countries, the use of these agents has been rising. This concerns particularly abuse of these chemicals which is in practice across the continents. Though pesticides have been developed with the concept of target organism toxicity, often non-target species are affected badly by their application. The purpose of this review is to list the major classes of pesticides, to understand organochlorine pesticides based on their activity and persistence, and also to understand their biochemical toxicity.

  16. Choice of pesticide fate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderacchi, Matteo; Trevisan, Marco; Vischetti, Costantino

    2006-01-01

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested [it

  17. Factors affecting pesticide safety behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhandari, Govinda; Atreya, Kishor; Yang, Xiaomei; Fan, Liangxin; Geissen, Violette

    2018-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides in vegetable farming is an emerging problem resulting in increasing health and environmental risks in developing countries including Nepal. As there are limited studies focusing on farmers’ and retailers’ knowledge related to pesticide use and associated risks as

  18. Pesticide-Related Hospitalizations Among Children and Teenagers in Texas, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueblood, Amber B; Shipp, Eva; Han, Daikwon; Ross, Jennifer; Cizmas, Leslie H

    2016-01-01

    Acute exposure to pesticides is associated with nausea, headaches, rashes, eye irritation, seizures, and, in severe cases, death. We characterized pesticide-related hospitalizations in Texas among children and teenagers for 2004-2013 to characterize exposures in this population, which is less well understood than pesticide exposure among adults. We abstracted information on pesticide-related hospitalizations from hospitalization data using pesticide-related International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes and E-codes. We calculated the prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children and teenagers aged #19 years for all hospitalizations, unintentional exposures, intentional exposures, pesticide classifications, and illness severity. We also calculated age- and sex-specific prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children. The prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children and teenagers was 2.1 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations per 100,000 population was 2.7 for boys and 1.5 for girls. The age-specific prevalence per 100,000 population was 5.3 for children aged 0-4 years, 0.3 for children and teenagers aged 5-14 years, and 2.3 for teenagers aged 15-19 years. Children aged 0-4 years had the highest prevalence of unintentional exposures, whereas teenagers aged 15-19 years had the highest prevalence of intentional exposures. Commonly reported pesticide categories were organophosphates/carbamates, disinfectants, rodenticides, and other pesticides (e.g., pyrethrins, pyrethroids). Of the 158 pesticide-related hospitalizations, most were coded as having minor (n=86) or moderate (n=40) illness severity. Characterizing the prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children and teenagers leads to a better understanding of the burden of pesticide exposures, including the type of pesticides used and the severity of potential

  19. Pesticide-Related Hospitalizations Among Children and Teenagers in Texas, 2004–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Eva; Han, Daikwon; Ross, Jennifer; Cizmas, Leslie H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Acute exposure to pesticides is associated with nausea, headaches, rashes, eye irritation, seizures, and, in severe cases, death. We characterized pesticide-related hospitalizations in Texas among children and teenagers for 2004–2013 to characterize exposures in this population, which is less well understood than pesticide exposure among adults. Methods We abstracted information on pesticide-related hospitalizations from hospitalization data using pesticide-related International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes and E-codes. We calculated the prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children and teenagers aged #19 years for all hospitalizations, unintentional exposures, intentional exposures, pesticide classifications, and illness severity. We also calculated age- and sex-specific prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children. Results The prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children and teenagers was 2.1 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations per 100,000 population was 2.7 for boys and 1.5 for girls. The age-specific prevalence per 100,000 population was 5.3 for children aged 0–4 years, 0.3 for children and teenagers aged 5–14 years, and 2.3 for teenagers aged 15–19 years. Children aged 0–4 years had the highest prevalence of unintentional exposures, whereas teenagers aged 15–19 years had the highest prevalence of intentional exposures. Commonly reported pesticide categories were organophosphates/carbamates, disinfectants, rodenticides, and other pesticides (e.g., pyrethrins, pyrethroids). Of the 158 pesticide-related hospitalizations, most were coded as having minor (n=86) or moderate (n=40) illness severity. Conclusion Characterizing the prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children and teenagers leads to a better understanding of the burden of pesticide exposures, including the type of

  20. Substance use: toward an understanding of its relation to nutrition-related attitudes and behavior among Israeli high school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, R E; Trostler, N

    1996-09-01

    To study the distribution, prevalence, determinants, and association between substance use (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, and illegal drugs) and eating attitudes and behavior of high school students in the Negev region of Israel in order to provide an improved basis for prevention and health services. An anonymous questionnaire regarding attitudes and behavior related to substance use and eating (e.g., breakfast before school, a snack or meal during school time, and three meals a day) was answered by 1,513 high school age youth. The study participants were at greater risk of poor eating behavior if they: (1) used cigarettes, alcohol, and/or illicit substances (p illicit substances were used or not used, more than 50% of the youth reported not eating breakfast and 30% indicated they did not eat three meals daily. There are many concerns about the use and abuse of both licit and illicit substances among adolescents. More attention, however, needs to be given to the relationship between substance use and the attitudes and behavior of young people toward their health, including proper eating habits. The results support the need to develop drug prevention and health programs that are more comprehensive in terms of addressing the broad range of factors associated with adolescent growth and development.

  1. Understanding E-Learning Adoption among Brazilian Universities: An Application of the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Luiz Miguel Renda; Okazaki, Shintaro

    2013-01-01

    This study sheds light on the organizational dimensions underlying e-learning adoption among Brazilian universities. We propose an organizational e-learning adoption model based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior (TPB). A series of hypotheses are posited with regard to the relationships among the proposed constructs. The model is…

  2. Applying a Socioecological Model to Understand Preschool Children's Sedentary Behaviors from the Viewpoints of Parents and Preschool Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Suvi; Ray, Carola; Roos, Gun; Roos, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' and preschool personnel's opinions on factors influencing 3-5-year-old children's sedentary behaviors by applying the socioecological model. Four focus group interviews with preschool personnel (N = 14) and six interviews with parents (N = 17) were conducted in autumn 2014. Two researchers independently analyzed the…

  3. Utilizing Behavioral Economics to Understand Adherence to Physical Activity Guidelines Among a Low-Income Urban Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval, Kerem; Si, Xia; Nguyen, Binh; Leonard, Tammy

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral economics studies have found that individuals with more patient time preferences (ie, greater willingness to forgo current costs for future benefits) are more likely to save money. Although research has observed significant relationships between time preferences and health-promoting behaviors, scant evidence exists with physical activity as an outcome. We examined the association between monetary saving behaviors and physical activity among adults of low-income who reside in an urban community. Specifically, we assessed the relationship between saving behaviors (checking/saving account, monthly savings, and planning family finances), and future orientation to physical activity as a dichotomous (meeting guidelines) and continuous (total and domain specific) endpoint. In multivariable regression, being future-oriented and having a checking/saving account were related to a 1.3 and 2.1 times higher (respectively) likelihood of meeting physical activity guidelines (P < .05). When examining physical activity continuously, all measures were significantly related to leisure-time activity (P < .05). Our study findings establish a relationship between future time preferences and increased levels of physical activity among low-income adults. Future research should prospectively explore the efficacy of various schemes that help individuals overcome impatient time preferences to determine a causal relationship.

  4. From judgment to understanding mental health nurses' perceptions of changed professional behaviors following positively changed attitudes toward self-harm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, P.; Kool, N.; Gamel, C.; van Meijel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Nurses experience feelings of frustration, anger and fear when caring for patients who self-harm. Training programmes were developed that aimed to positively influence nurses' knowledge, attitudes and skills. The aim of this study was to investigate professional behavior of mental health nurses with

  5. Understanding Alcohol Consumption and Its Correlates among African American Youths in Public Housing: A Test of Problem Behavior Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombe, Margaret; Yu, Mansoo; Nebbitt, Von; Earl, Tara

    2011-01-01

    African American youths are overrepresented in urban public housing developments characterized by violence, poverty, and alternative market activities. Using Jessor and Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT), the authors examined alcohol use and its correlates in a sample of African American youths from three public housing developments (N = 403).…

  6. How Users Search the Mobile Web: A Model for Understanding the Impact of Motivation and Context on Search Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study explores how search motivation and context influence mobile Web search behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: We studied 30 experienced mobile Web users via questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and an online diary tool that participants used to record their daily search activities. SQLite Developer was used to extract data from the users' phone logs for correlation analysis in Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS. Findings: One quarter of mobile search sessions were driven by two or more search motivations. It was especially difficult to distinguish curiosity from time killing in particular user reporting. Multi-dimensional contexts and motivations influenced mobile search behaviors, and among the context dimensions, gender, place, activities they engaged in while searching, task importance, portal, and interpersonal relations (whether accompanied or alone when searching correlated with each other. Research limitations: The sample was comprised entirely of college students, so our findings may not generalize to other populations. More participants and longer experimental duration will improve the accuracy and objectivity of the research. Practical implications: Motivation analysis and search context recognition can help mobile service providers design applications and services for particular mobile contexts and usages. Originality/value: Most current research focuses on specific contexts, such as studies on place, or other contextual influences on mobile search, and lacks a systematic analysis of mobile search context. Based on analysis of the impact of mobile search motivations and search context on search behaviors, we built a multi-dimensional model of mobile search behaviors.

  7. Is It Incivility or Mental Illness? Understanding and Coping with Disruptive Student Behavior in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton-Cassill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Rising rates of incivility in the college classroom can generate stress for both faculty and students. However, incivility can take multiple forms, have different causes and require different management techniques. In some cases disruptive behavior is the result of student faculty interactions, and can be ameliorated by improved communication or…

  8. Quality control of pesticide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

  9. Understanding screen-related sedentary behavior and its contributing factors among school-aged children: a social-ecologic exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Harris, Stewart; Piché, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene

    2009-01-01

    To explore the factors that contribute to children's screen-related sedentary (S-RS) behaviors. Elementary schools. A random sample of children in grades five and six and their parents. The outcome measure was children's S-RS activity level measured by a self-administered questionnaire. A full spectrum of potential contributing factors for children's S-RS behaviors was obtained through surveys. Multilevel linear regression methods were used to determine the associations between these factors and children's screen time (hours per day) and results were expressed as regression coefficients (g). Of 955 child-parent pairs in 14 participating schools, 508 pairs (53%) completed the surveys. At an intrapersonal level, protective factors included being a girl (g = -.71); belonging to a sports team inside (g = -.56) or outside (g = -.49) of school; having a negative attitude toward S-RS activities (g = -.13); and having a positive attitude toward physical activity (g = .48). At the interpersonal and social levels, parental leisure S-RS behaviors (g = .32) were positively associated, whereas strict parental rules on computer use (g = -.27) and family income (g = -.32) were inversely correlated with S-RS behavior. At the environmental level, the presence of TVs in children's bedrooms (g = .44) and owning videogame devices (g = .58) increased the risk of S-RS behaviors, whereas after school programs (g = - .86) and schools' participation in the Turn Off the Screen Week campaign (g = -.91) decreased the risk. Public health interventions should target multilevel factors, including increasing children's awareness, promoting parental involvement in healthy lifestyle pursuits, and creating less screenogenic environments.

  10. A Framework for Understanding the Emerging Role of Corticolimbic-Ventral Striatal Networks in OCD-Associated Repetitive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jesse; Ahmari, Susanne E

    2015-01-01

    Significant interest in the mechanistic underpinnings of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has fueled research on the neural origins of compulsive behaviors. Converging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that abnormal repetitive behaviors are driven by dysfunction in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuits. These findings suggest that compulsive behaviors arise, in part, from aberrant communication between lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsal striatum. An important body of work focused on the role of this network in OCD has been instrumental to progress in the field. Disease models focused primarily on these regions, however, fail to capture an important aspect of the disorder: affective dysregulation. High levels of anxiety are extremely prevalent in OCD, as is comorbidity with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, deficits in processing rewards and abnormalities in processing emotional stimuli are suggestive of aberrant encoding of affective information. Accordingly, OCD can be partially characterized as a disease in which behavioral selection is corrupted by exaggerated or dysregulated emotional states. This suggests that the networks producing OCD symptoms likely expand beyond traditional lateral OFC and dorsal striatum circuit models, and highlights the need to cast a wider net in our investigation of the circuits involved in generating and sustaining OCD symptoms. Here, we address the emerging role of medial OFC, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area projections to the ventral striatum (VS) in OCD pathophysiology. The VS receives strong innervation from these affect and reward processing regions, and is therefore poised to integrate information crucial to the generation of compulsive behaviors. Though it complements functions of dorsal striatum and lateral OFC, this corticolimbic-VS network is less commonly explored as a potential source of the pathology underlying OCD. In this review, we discuss this network's potential role as

  11. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    containing hymexazol. 3) Insecticides and molluscicides containing imidacloprid and methiocarb. 4) Rodenticides containing coumatetralyl. All samples were examined for the content of the respective active ingredients and for the content of OPEO and NPEO. All samples but two out of three contained...... coumatetralyl and one out of four contained dicamba complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the examined samples contained OPEO, but one of the samples contained NPEO. On three products...

  12. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    . 3) Insecticides containing cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, methoprene and cyromazine. 4) Plant growth regulators containing 1-napthylacetic acid. All products were examined for the content of the respective active ingredients and for the content of OPEO and NPEO. All samples but one...... containing methoprene complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the 44 examined samples contained OPEO, but 5 of the samples contained NPEO. Three of these five samples were produced before...

  13. Comparative hygienic evaluation of behavior of different pesticides groups in soil, prediction of risk of ground water contamination and its danger for human health in areas with irrigation farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novohatska, O.; Stavnichenko, P.; Kondratiuk, M.; Antonenko, A.; Vavrinevich, O.; Omelchuk, S.; Bardov, V.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative risk evaluation of contamination of the soil and groundwater with fungicides, insecticides and herbicides, and risk assessment of the adverse effects of these substances on human health while contaminated groundwater consumption. Methodology: Field hygienic experiments with studied pesticides were carried out in different soil and climatic zones. Prediction of pesticides migration possibility in groundwater was carried out by Groundwater ubiquity score (GUS) and Leaching potential index (LEACH). For integrated assessment of the potential hazard of pesticide exposure on the human organism when it enters ground and surface waters we used integral groundwater contamination index (IGCHI). Results: Among fungicides, the most resistant were triazoles, herbicides- oxyacetamide flufenacet and all studied insecticides. There was a significant difference between the maximum and minimum DT50 values, in some cases the difference reaches more than 10 times. The evaluation of GUS index showed that risk of leaching into groundwater of fungicides based on paclobutrazol, herbicides based on metribuzin, insecticides based on thiamethoxam during application in soil and climatic conditions of Ukraine is a high (probably leached). Conclusion: The maximum possible concentration of studied groups pesticides in groundwater was significantly lower than allowable, which is associated primarily with low application rates and indicates the relative safety for human health when consuming water, which could be contaminated with test compounds. (author)

  14. Organophosphate pesticides exposure among farmworkers: pathways and risk of adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Suratman; Edwards, John William; Babina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used pesticides with more than 100 OP compounds in use around the world. The high-intensity use of OP pesticides contributes to morbidity and mortality in farmworkers and their families through acute or chronic pesticides-related illnesses. Many factors contributing to adverse health effects have been investigated by researchers to determine pathways of OP-pesticide exposure among farmers in developed and developing countries. Factors like wind/agricultural pesticide drift, mixing and spraying pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), knowledge, perceptions, washing hands, taking a shower, wearing contaminated clothes, eating, drinking, smoking, and hot weather are common in both groups of countries. Factors including low socioeconomic status areas, workplace conditions, duration of exposure, pesticide safety training, frequency of applying pesticides, spraying against the wind, and reuse of pesticide containers for storage are specific contributors in developing countries, whereas housing conditions, social contextual factors, and mechanical equipment were specific pathways in developed countries. This paper compares existing research in environmental and behavioural exposure modifying factors and biological monitoring between developing and developed countries. The main objective of this review is to explore the current depth of understanding of exposure pathways and factors increasing the risk of exposure potentially leading to adverse health effects specific to each group of countries.

  15. Mechanistic modeling of pesticide exposure: The missing keystone of honey bee toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponsler, Douglas B; Johnson, Reed M

    2017-04-01

    The role of pesticides in recent honey bee losses is controversial, partly because field studies often fail to detect effects predicted by laboratory studies. This dissonance highlights a critical gap in the field of honey bee toxicology: there exists little mechanistic understanding of the patterns and processes of exposure that link honey bees to pesticides in their environment. The authors submit that 2 key processes underlie honey bee pesticide exposure: 1) the acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees, and 2) the in-hive distribution of pesticide returned by foragers. The acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees must be understood as the spatiotemporal intersection between environmental contamination and honey bee foraging activity. This implies that exposure is distributional, not discrete, and that a subset of foragers may acquire harmful doses of pesticide while the mean colony exposure would appear safe. The in-hive distribution of pesticide is a complex process driven principally by food transfer interactions between colony members, and this process differs importantly between pollen and nectar. High priority should be placed on applying the extensive literature on honey bee biology to the development of more rigorously mechanistic models of honey bee pesticide exposure. In combination with mechanistic effects modeling, mechanistic exposure modeling has the potential to integrate the field of honey bee toxicology, advancing both risk assessment and basic research. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:871-881. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. Pesticide load dynamics during stormwater flow events in Mediterranean coastal streams: Alexander stream case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Tom; Egozi, Roey; Eshel, Gil; Chefetz, Benny

    2018-06-01

    Cultivated land is a major source of pesticides, which are transported with the runoff water and eroded soil during rainfall events and pollute riverine and estuarine environments. Common ecotoxicological assessments of riverine systems are mainly based on water sampling and analysis of only the dissolved phase, and address a single pesticide's toxicological impact under laboratory conditions. A clear overview of mixtures of pesticides in the adsorbed and dissolved phases is missing, and therefore the full ecotoxicological impact is not fully addressed. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify pesticide concentrations in both suspended sediment and dissolved phases, to provide a better understanding of pesticide-load dynamics during storm events in coastal streams in a Mediterranean climate. High-resolution sampling campaigns of seven flood events were conducted during two rainy seasons in Alexander stream, Israel. Samples of suspended sediments were separated from the solution and both media were analyzed separately for 250 pesticides. A total of 63 pesticides were detected; 18 and 16 pesticides were found solely in the suspended sediments and solution, respectively. Significant differences were observed among the pesticide groups: only 7% of herbicide, 20% of fungicide and 42% of insecticide load was transported with the suspended sediments. However, in both dissolved and adsorbed phases, a mix of pesticides was found which were graded from "mobile" to "non-mobile" with varied distribution coefficients. Diuron, and tebuconazole were frequently found in large quantities in both phases. Whereas insecticide and fungicide transport is likely governed by application time and method, the governing factor for herbicide load was the magnitude of the stream discharge. The results show a complex dynamic of pesticide load affected by excessive use of pesticides, which should be taken into consideration when designing projects to monitor riverine and estuarine

  17. Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Koomen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and

  18. Understanding the Magic of the Bicycle; Basic scientific explanations to the two-wheeler's mysterious and fascinating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph W.

    The bicycle is a common, yet unique mechanical contraption in our world. In spite of this, the bike's physical and mechanical principles are understood by a select few. You do not have to be a genius to join this small group of people who understand the physics of cycling. This is your guide to fundamental principles (such as Newton's laws) and the book provides intuitive, basic explanations for the bicycle's behaviour. Each concept is introduced and illustrated with simple, everyday examples. Although cycling is viewed by most as a fun activity, and almost everyone acquires the basic skills at a young age, few understand the laws of nature that give magic to the ride. This is a closer look at some of these fun, exhilarating, and magical aspects of cycling. In the reading, you will also understand other physical principles such as motion, force, energy, power, heat, and temperature.

  19. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Brand Names AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' PR Notices are issued...

  20. 75 FR 34448 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Brand Names; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice..., announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' This document extends the comment period...

  1. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  2. Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.

    2014-01-01

    Health behaviors are people’s actions, some purposefully deployed to promote or protect health; some thoughtlessly undertaken without concern for their potential risk to health; some consciously, even defiantly, deployed regardless of consequences to health. Risk behaviors are specific forms of

  3. Occurrence of Pesticides in Water, Sediment, and Soil from the Yolo Bypass, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L. Smalling

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential sources of pesticides to the Yolo Bypass, including those that could potentially impact critical life stages of resident fish. To assess direct inputs during inundation, pesticide concentrations were analyzed in water and suspended and bed sediment samples collected from source watersheds during high-flow events. To understand inputs from direct application on fields, pesticides were also measured in soils collected from several sites within the Bypass. Thirteen current-use pesticides were detected in water samples collected in 2004 with the highest pesticide concentrations observed at the input sites to the Bypass during high-flow. Hexazinone and simazine were detected at all sites and at some of the highest concentrations. In bed and suspended sediments collected in 2004 and 2005, thirteen current-use pesticides were detected along with DDT and its metabolites. Trifluralin, DDE, and DDT were highest in the bed sediments, whereas oxyfluorfen and thiobencarb were highest in the suspended sediments. With the exception of the three organochlorine insecticides, suspended sediments had higher pesticide concentrations compared to bed sediments, indicating the potential for pesticide transport especially during high-flow events. Soil samples were dominated by DDT and its degradates but also contained a variety of current-use pesticides typically at lower concentrations. The types of pesticides detected in water and sediments were correlated with agricultural application in each watershed. Understanding the distribution of pesticides between the water and sediment is important in assessing their fate and transport within the Bypass, and in evaluating the exposure and potential effects to resident fish.

  4. Sprinkler irrigation-pesticide best management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjha, A. Y.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, R. W.; Requena, A. M.; Deer, H. M.; Ehteshami, M.

    1992-01-01

    The relative reduction in potential groundwater contamination due to pesticides at several sites in Utah was determined by comparing alternative irrigation system designs, water management practices, and pesticides. Alternative sprinkler irrigation distribution coefficients were used to estimate irrigation application depths. The movement of pesticides through soils following sprinkler irrigations was simulated with a one-dimensional model. Pesticide contamination of groundwater can be reduce...

  5. Understanding the different rotational behaviors of $^{252}$No and $^{254}$No in terms of high-order deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, H L; Walker, P M

    2012-01-01

    Total Routhian surface calculations have been performed to investigate rapidly rotating transfermium nuclei, the heaviest nuclei accessible by detailed spectroscopy experiments. The observed fast alignment in $^{252}$No and slow alignment in $^{254}$No are well reproduced by the calculations incorporating high-order deformations. The different rotational behaviors of $^{252}$No and $^{254}$No can be understood for the first time in terms of $\\beta_6$ deformation that decreases the energies of the $\

  6. Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to influenza and the influenza vaccine in US-Mexico border communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phippard, Alba E; Kimura, Akiko C; Lopez, Karla; Kriner, Paula

    2013-08-01

    Hispanics are less likely to receive the influenza vaccine compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the US. Hispanic residents of the US-Mexico border region may have differing health beliefs and behaviors, and their cross-border mobility impacts disease control. To assess beliefs and behaviors regarding influenza prevention and control among border populations, surveys were conducted at border clinics. Of 197 respondents, 34 % reported conditions for which vaccination is indicated, and travel to Mexico was common. Few (35 %) believed influenza could make them 'very sick', and 76 % believed they should take antibiotics to treat influenza. Influenza vaccine awareness was high, and considered important, but only 36 % reported recent vaccination. The belief that influenza vaccination is 'very important' was strongly associated with recent vaccination; "Didn't think about it" was the most common reason for being un-vaccinated. Misconceptions about influenza risk, prevention and treatment were common in this Hispanic border population; improved educational efforts and reminder systems could impact vaccination behaviors.

  7. Understanding the Adoption Process of National Security Technology: An Integration of Diffusion of Innovations and Volitional Behavior Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Irina A; Egnoto, Michael J; Fisher Liu, Brooke; Ackerman, Gary; Roberts, Holly; Smith, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the U.S. government initiated several national security technology adoption programs. The American public, however, has been skeptical about these initiatives and adoption of national security technologies has been mandated, rather than voluntary. We propose and test a voluntary behavioral intention formation model for the adoption of one type of new security technology: portable radiation detectors. Portable radiation detectors are an efficient way of detecting radiological and nuclear threats and could potentially prevent loss of life and damage to individuals' health. However, their functioning requires that a critical mass of individuals use them on a daily basis. We combine the explanatory advantages of diffusion of innovation with the predictive power of two volitional behavior frameworks: the theory of reasoned action and the health belief model. A large sample survey (N = 1,482) investigated the influence of factors identified in previous diffusion of innovation research on portable radiation detector adoption intention. Results indicated that nonfinancial incentives, as opposed to financial incentives, should be emphasized in persuasive communications aimed at fostering adoption. The research provides a new integration of diffusion of innovation elements with determinants of volitional behavior from persuasion literature, and offers recommendations on effective communication about new security technologies to motivate public adoption and enhance national safety. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Toward understanding social cues and signals in human–robot interaction: effects of robot gaze and proxemic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M.; Wiltshire, Travis J.; Lobato, Emilio J. C.; Jentsch, Florian G.; Huang, Wesley H.; Axelrod, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As robots are increasingly deployed in settings requiring social interaction, research is needed to examine the social signals perceived by humans when robots display certain social cues. In this paper, we report a study designed to examine how humans interpret social cues exhibited by robots. We first provide a brief overview of perspectives from social cognition in humans and how these processes are applicable to human–robot interaction (HRI). We then discuss the need to examine the relationship between social cues and signals as a function of the degree to which a robot is perceived as a socially present agent. We describe an experiment in which social cues were manipulated on an iRobot AvaTM mobile robotics platform in a hallway navigation scenario. Cues associated with the robot’s proxemic behavior were found to significantly affect participant perceptions of the robot’s social presence and emotional state while cues associated with the robot’s gaze behavior were not found to be significant. Further, regardless of the proxemic behavior, participants attributed more social presence and emotional states to the robot over repeated interactions than when they first interacted with it. Generally, these results indicate the importance for HRI research to consider how social cues expressed by a robot can differentially affect perceptions of the robot’s mental states and intentions. The discussion focuses on implications for the design of robotic systems and future directions for research on the relationship between social cues and signals. PMID:24348434

  9. Depression and Coping Behaviors Are Key Factors in Understanding Pain in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muere, Abi; Tripp, Dean A; Nickel, J Curtis; Kelly, Kerri-Lynn; Mayer, Robert; Pontari, Michel; Moldwin, Robert; Carr, Lesley K; Yang, Claire C; Nordling, Jorgen

    2018-02-28

    Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) is a urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome with suboptimal treatment outcomes. Catastrophizing is an empirically supported risk factor for greater IC/BPS pain. In this study, a moderated multiple mediation model is tested in which several additional psychosocial risk factors (depression, illness and wellness-focused behavioral coping strategies) are proposed as mediators or moderators in the existing relationship between catastrophizing and IC/BPS pain. The present questionnaire study employed a cross-sectional design. Female patients with an IC/BPS diagnosis (n = 341) were recruited at tertiary care sites. Participants completed questionnaires assessing pain, catastrophizing, behavioral coping strategies, and depressive symptoms. Aggregate factor scores were calculated following exploratory factor analyses. It was found that patients with a greater tendency to catastrophize were more likely to engage in illness-focused coping strategies, which contributed to the reporting of greater sensory and affective pain. Furthermore, this mediating effect of illness-focused coping on affective pain was more likely to occur in those patients reporting greater depressive symptoms. Illness-focused behavioral coping is an important mechanism between maladaptive pain cognition and aspects of patient pain, with patients reporting greater depressive symptoms at increased risk for elevated pain. Patient management techniques, including screening for catastrophizing, coping, and depression, are recommended to enrich IC/BPS management. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding the effects of MTV's 16 and Pregnant on adolescent girls' beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Kim, Kyungbo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a popular documentary series about teen pregnancy, MTV's 16 and Pregnant, on adolescent girls' pregnancy-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. The results suggest that girls who watched 16 and Pregnant, compared with a control group, reported a lower perception of their own risk for pregnancy and a greater perception that the benefits of teen pregnancy outweigh the risks. The authors also examined the relationships between homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms featured in 16 and Pregnant and attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions, finding that homophily predicted lower risk perceptions, greater acceptance of myths about teen pregnancy, and more favorable attitudes about teen pregnancy. Parasocial interaction demonstrated the same pattern of results, with the addition of also predicting fewer behavioral intentions to avoid teen pregnancy. Last, results revealed that teen girls' perceptions that the message of 16 and Pregnant was encouraging of teen pregnancy predicted homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  11. The Architecture of the Pollen Hoarding Syndrome in Honey Bees: Implications for Understanding Social Evolution, Behavioral Syndromes, and Selective Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav

    2014-05-01

    Social evolution has influenced every aspect of contemporary honey bee biology, but the details are difficult to reconstruct. The reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution proposes that central regulators of the gonotropic cycle of solitary insects have been coopted to coordinate social complexity in honey bees, such as the division of labor among workers. The predicted trait associations between reproductive physiology and social behavior have been identified in the context of the pollen hoarding syndrome, a larger suite of interrelated traits. The genetic architecture of this syndrome is characterized by a partially overlapping genetic architecture with several consistent, pleiotropic QTL. Despite these central QTL and an integrated hormonal regulation, separate aspects of the pollen hoarding syndrome may evolve independently due to peripheral QTL and additionally segregating genetic variance. The characterization of the pollen hoarding syndrome has also demonstrated that this syndrome involves many non-behavioral traits, which may be the case for numerous "behavioral" syndromes. Furthermore, the genetic architecture of the pollen hoarding syndrome has implications for breeding programs for improving honey health and other desirable traits: If these traits are comparable to the pollen hoarding syndrome, consistent pleiotropic QTL will enable marker assisted selection, while sufficient additional genetic variation may permit the dissociation of trade-offs for efficient multiple trait selection.

  12. Understanding the failure of a behavior change intervention to reduce risk behaviors for avian influenza transmission among backyard poultry raisers in rural Bangladesh: a focused ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimi, Nadia Ali; Sultana, Rebeca; Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Rahman, Md Zahidur; Hasin, Marufa; Islam, M Saiful; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Nahar, Nazmun; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P

    2016-08-24

    The spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among poultry and humans has raised global concerns and has motivated government and public health organizations to initiate interventions to prevent the transmission of HPAI. In Bangladesh, H5N1 became endemic in poultry and seven human H5N1 cases have been reported since 2007, including one fatality. This study piloted messages to increase awareness about avian influenza and its prevention in two rural communities, and explored change in villagers' awareness and behaviors attributable to the intervention. During 2009-10, a research team implemented the study in two rural villages in two districts of Bangladesh. The team used a focused ethnographic approach for data collection, including informal interviews and observations to provide detailed contextual information about community response to a newly emerging disease. They collected pre-intervention qualitative data for one month. Then another team disseminated preventive messages focused on safe slaughtering methods, through courtyard meetings and affixed posters in every household. After dissemination, the research team collected post-intervention data for one month. More villagers reported hearing about 'bird flu' after the intervention compared to before the intervention. After the intervention, villagers commonly recalled changes in the color of combs and shanks of poultry as signs of avian influenza, and perceived zoonotic transmission of avian influenza through direct contact and through inhalation. Consequently the villagers valued covering the nose and mouth while handling sick and dead poultry as a preventive measure. Nevertheless, the team did not observe noticeable change in villagers' behavior after the intervention. Villagers reported not following the recommended behaviors because of the perceived absence of avian influenza in their flocks, low risk of avian influenza, cost, inconvenience, personal discomfort, fear of being

  13. Understanding the failure of a behavior change intervention to reduce risk behaviors for avian influenza transmission among backyard poultry raisers in rural Bangladesh: a focused ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ali Rimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus among poultry and humans has raised global concerns and has motivated government and public health organizations to initiate interventions to prevent the transmission of HPAI. In Bangladesh, H5N1 became endemic in poultry and seven human H5N1 cases have been reported since 2007, including one fatality. This study piloted messages to increase awareness about avian influenza and its prevention in two rural communities, and explored change in villagers’ awareness and behaviors attributable to the intervention. Methods During 2009–10, a research team implemented the study in two rural villages in two districts of Bangladesh. The team used a focused ethnographic approach for data collection, including informal interviews and observations to provide detailed contextual information about community response to a newly emerging disease. They collected pre-intervention qualitative data for one month. Then another team disseminated preventive messages focused on safe slaughtering methods, through courtyard meetings and affixed posters in every household. After dissemination, the research team collected post-intervention data for one month. Results More villagers reported hearing about ‘bird flu’ after the intervention compared to before the intervention. After the intervention, villagers commonly recalled changes in the color of combs and shanks of poultry as signs of avian influenza, and perceived zoonotic transmission of avian influenza through direct contact and through inhalation. Consequently the villagers valued covering the nose and mouth while handling sick and dead poultry as a preventive measure. Nevertheless, the team did not observe noticeable change in villagers’ behavior after the intervention. Villagers reported not following the recommended behaviors because of the perceived absence of avian influenza in their flocks, low risk of avian

  14. Partitioning of the pesticide trifluralin between dissolved organic matter and water using automated SPME-GC/MS

    KAUST Repository

    Caupos, Emilie

    2014-10-04

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to determine the equilibrium association constant for a pesticide, trifluralin (TFR), with dissolved organic matter (DOM). After optimization of the SPME method for the analysis of TFR, partition coefficients (K DOM) with three different sources of DOM were determined in buffered solutions at pH 7. Commercial humic acids and DOM fractions isolated from two surface waters were used. The values of log K DOMvaried from 4.3 to 5.8, depending on the nature of the organic material. A good correlation was established between log K DOMand DOM properties (as measured with the H/O atomic ratio and UV absorbance), in agreement with literature data. This is consistent with the effect of polarity and aromaticity for governing DOM-pollutant associations, regardless of the origin of DOM. This association phenomenon is relevant to better understand the behavior of pesticides in the environment since it controls part of pesticide leaching and fate in aquatic systems.

  15. Grabbing the Air Force by the Tail: Applying Strategic Cost Analytics to Understand and Manage Indirect Cost Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    understanding of one’s self. The experience of a doctoral journey teaches you that the archetype of a self-made PhD is only a myth as the limiting factors...128 6.2 Tooth-to-Tail Literature ...Consequently, each chapter contains its own literature review, methodology, analysis, and conclusion sections with recommendations for future research

  16. Evaluating the effects of a new qualitative simulation software (DynaLearn) on learning behavior, factual and causal understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitek, A.; Poppe, M.; Stelzhammer, M.; Muhar, S.; Bredeweg, B.; Biswas, G.; Bull, S.; Kay, J.; Mitrovic, A.

    2011-01-01

    The DynaLearn software, a new intelligent learning environment aimed at supporting a better conceptual and causal understanding of environmental sciences was evaluated. The main goals of these pilot evaluations were to provide information on (1) usability of the software and problems learners

  17. Promising pesticide results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Virotec Global Solutions has announced what it believes is the first successful destruction of intractable organochlorine pesticide contamination in industrial wastewater. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, otherwise known as DDT, is one of the most intractable and persistent chemical compounds known to man. In February remediation specialist Virotec reported it had been successful in reducing DDT contaminant levels. In addition to destroying DDT in wastewater, Virotec showed its ViroFlow Technology can reduce levels of two DDT metabolites (or breakdown products), DDD and DDE, along with an organo-phosphate insecticide called chlorpyrifos. Virotec was commissioned by a large pesticide and fertiliser company to find a way of using its ViroFlow suite of products to reliably reduce high levels of pesticides and heavy metals from wastewater and stormwater at an industrial site. “Along with our strategic partner Green Shadows Commercial from Tasmania, we were able to successfully reduce DDT from 108 parts per billion to under two parts per billion in industrial wastewater using a combination of ozofractionation and ElectroBind reagent,” said business development manager Gisela Barros. “In addition, we were successful in demonstrating similar reductions in Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) from 15.2 parts per billion to under 0.5 parts per billion, and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) from one part per billion to under accurate to around 0.5 parts per billion.” The level of detection for pesticides was 0.5 parts per billion (ppb). In addition, ViroFlow reduced chlorpyrifos from 7,972 ppb to 6.4 ppb, arsenic (a key ingredient in pesticide composition) from 0.13 parts per million (ppm) to 0.002 ppm, and zinc from 0.35 ppm to less than 0.005 ppm. “The significance of these findings cannot be overstated,” Barros said. “DDT and its metabolites are among the most persistent and toxic contaminants to be found in soil and groundwater and

  18. An agent-based simulation of persistent inequalities in health behavior: Understanding the interdependent roles of segregation, clustering, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A

    2016-12-01

    Health inequalities are conspicuously persistent through time and often durable even in spite of interventions. In this study, I use agent-based simulation models (ABMs) to understand how the complex interrelationships between residential segregation, social network formation, group-level preferences, and social influence may contribute to this persistence. I use a more-stylized ABM, Bubblegum Village (BV), to understand how initial inequalities in bubblegum-chewing behaviors either endure, increase, or decrease over time given group-level differences in preferences, neighborhood-level barriers or facilitators of bubblegum chewing (e.g., access to bubblegum shops), and agents' preferences for segregation, homophily, and clustering (i.e., the 'tightness' of social networks). I further use BV to understand whether segregation and social network characteristics impact whether the effects of a bubblegum-reduction intervention that is very effective in the short term are durable over time, as well as to identify intervention strategies to reduce attenuation of the intervention effects. In addition to BV, I also present results from an ABM based on the distribution and social characteristics of the population in Philadelphia, PA. This model explores similar questions to BV, but examines racial/ethnic inequalities in soda consumption based on agents' social characteristics and baseline soda consumption probabilities informed by the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Collectively, the models suggest that residential segregation is a fundamental process for the production and persistence of health inequalities. The other major conclusion of the study is that, for behaviors that are subject to social influence and that cluster within social groups, interventions that are randomly-targeted to individuals with 'bad' behaviors will likely experience a large degree of recidivism to pre-intervention behaviors. In contrast, interventions that target

  19. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS MODELING OF SORPTION OF PESTICIDES ONTO THE SURFACES OF KAOLINITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    To accurately predict the fate of contaminants in the environment and to make sound decisions about environmental remediation, we must accurately understand sorption mechanisms and surface reactivity of environmental particles. Sorption of selected pesticides on kaolinite surface...

  20. Environmental persistence of pesticides and their ecotoxicity: A review of natural degradation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Valderrama, Jhon Fredy; Palacio Baena, Jaime Alberto; Molina Perez, Francisco Jose

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are allochthonous pollutants discharged in natural environments. Once in the environment, natural factors such as biodegradation, photodegradation and chemical hydrolysis trigger partial or total pesticide transformation and reduce their environmental persistence. However, some degraded compounds have a greater ecotoxicological effect on the biota that the parent compounds and the change in the physicochemical properties increase the bioaccumulation, toxicity and transference processes. Therefore, knowledge about degradation processes in the environment is crucial in studies related to the dynamics and behavior of these substances in the environment and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This review aims to show the influence of natural degradation processes on the persistence of pesticides, their ecotoxicity and dynamics. Also discuss the application of the degradation processes in water treatment and pesticides removal. While biodegradation processes have been improved by using genetically engineered microorganisms, in the photodegradation has been applied advanced oxidation technologies (TAOS) in the treatment of water contaminated with pesticides.

  1. Paternal Aging Affects Behavior in Pax6 Mutant Mice: A Gene/Environment Interaction in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaichi Yoshizaki

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have increased over the last few decades. These neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a complex etiology, which involves multiple genes and gene-environmental interactions. Various genes that control specific properties of neural development exert pivotal roles in the occurrence and severity of phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, paternal aging has been reported as one of the factors that contribute to the risk of ASD and ADHD. Here we report, for the first time, that paternal aging has profound effects on the onset of behavioral abnormalities in mice carrying a mutation of Pax6, a gene with neurodevelopmental regulatory functions. We adopted an in vitro fertilization approach to restrict the influence of additional factors. Comprehensive behavioral analyses were performed in Sey/+ mice (i.e., Pax6 mutant heterozygotes born from in vitro fertilization of sperm taken from young or aged Sey/+ fathers. No body weight changes were found in the four groups, i.e., Sey/+ and wild type (WT mice born to young or aged father. However, we found important differences in maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations of Sey/+ mice born from young father and in the level of hyperactivity of Sey/+ mice born from aged fathers in the open-field test, respectively, compared to WT littermates. Phenotypes of anxiety were observed in both genotypes born from aged fathers compared with those born from young fathers. No significant difference was found in social behavior and sensorimotor gating among the four groups. These results indicate that mice with a single genetic risk factor can develop different phenotypes depending on the paternal age. Our study advocates for serious considerations on the role of paternal aging in breeding strategies for animal studies.

  2. The significance of midsummer movements of Autographa gamma: Implications for a mechanistic understanding of orientation behavior in a migrant moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. CHAPMAN, Ka S. LIM, Don R. REYNOLDS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The silver Y moth Autographa gamma undertakes windborne spring and fall migrations between winter breeding regions around the Mediterranean and summer breeding regions in northern Europe. Flight behaviors facilitating these migrations include: (i selection of seasonally-favorable tailwinds; (ii flying at the altitude of the fastest winds; (iii adopting flight headings that partially counteract crosswind drift; and (iv seasonal reversal of preferred directions between spring and fall. In the UK, radar measurements indicate that migratory activity is pronounced during the spring and fall, but is usually very low during midsummer (July. However, an atypically intense period of high-altitude flight was recorded during July 2006, and in this study we compare the flight behavior of A. gamma during these midsummer movements with the more typical spring and fall migrations. During July 2006, activity was most intense at significantly lower altitudes than occurred in spring or fall, and was not associated with the height of the fastest winds; consequently displacement speeds were significantly slower. The most striking difference was an absence of tailwind selectivity in July with windborne movements occurring on almost every night of the month and on tailwinds from all directions. Finally, orientation behavior was quantitatively different during July, with significantly greater dispersion of flight headings and displacements than observed in spring and fall. We discuss mechanisms which could have caused these differences, and conclude that a lack of appropriate photoperiod cues during development of the summer generation resulted in randomly-oriented ‘dispersive’ movements that were strikingly different from typical seasonal migrations [Current Zoology 59 (3: 360–370, 2013].

  3. Understanding the effects of past flood events and perceived and estimated flood risks on individuals' voluntary flood insurance purchase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wanyun; Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Kunreuther, Howard; Jackson, Nida; Goidel, Kirby

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the economic damage from flooding in the coastal areas has greatly increased due to rapid coastal development coupled with possible climate change impacts. One effective way to mitigate excessive economic losses from flooding is to purchase flood insurance. Only a minority of coastal residents however have taken this preventive measure. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data, this study examines the effects of external influences and perceptions of flood-related risks on individuals' voluntary behaviors to purchase flood insurance. It is found that the estimated flood hazard conveyed through the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) flood maps, the intensities and consequences of past storms and flooding events, and perceived flood-related risks significantly affect individual's voluntary purchase of flood insurance. This behavior is also influenced by home ownership, trust in local government, education, and income. These findings have several important policy implications. First, FEMA's flood maps have been effective in conveying local flood risks to coastal residents, and correspondingly influencing their decisions to voluntarily seek flood insurance in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Flood maps therefore should be updated frequently to reflect timely and accurate information about flood hazards. Second, policy makers should design strategies to increase homeowners' trust in the local government, to better communicate flood risks with residents, to address the affordability issue for the low-income, and better inform less educated homeowners through various educational programs. Future studies should examine the voluntary flood insurance behavior across countries that are vulnerable to flooding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding and Laboratory Prediction of the Atmospheric Corrosion behavior of Steels and of Non-Ferrous Metals and Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-31

    R.E. GROOVER , T.J. LENNOX, M.H. PETERSON. "Cathodic Protection of 19 Aluminum Alloys Exposed to Sea Water. Corrosion Behavior". i1’iteriais Protection...and 20). As pointed out by GROOVER at al. (11), in a nearly neutral chloride solution such as sea water, the highest the potential, the deepest the...potential" by GROOVER et al. seems rather high, we believe this concept is true and may also be used in atmospheric corrosion testing in marine

  5. From judgment to understanding: mental health nurses' perceptions of changed professional behaviors following positively changed attitudes toward self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karman, Pieter; Kool, Nienke; Gamel, Claudia; van Meijel, Berno

    2015-12-01

    Nurses experience feelings of frustration, anger and fear when caring for patients who self-harm. Training programmes were developed that aimed to positively influence nurses' knowledge, attitudes and skills. The aim of this study was to investigate professional behavior of mental health nurses with positively changed attitudes after following a training program. Using grounded theory, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 mental health nurses. Participants reported using less restrictive interventions, being more patient oriented, and choosing a more empathic and exploratory approach after the training. A work environment conductive to making autonomous professional decisions with supportive colleagues enabled these changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. From Bench to Bedside: Understanding Stress-Obesity Research Within the Context of Translation to Improve Pediatric Behavioral Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Amy F; Fahrenkamp, Amy J

    2016-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that stress, including chronic stress and acute physiologic stress reactivity, is one contributor to the development and maintenance of obesity in youth. Little has been done to apply the literature on stress and obesity risk to inform the development of pediatric behavioral weight control (BWC) interventions. The aims of this review are to (1) discuss research linking stress and pediatric obesity, (2) provide examples of the implications of the stress-obesity research for pediatric BWC development, and (3) propose that a mindfulness-based approach may be useful in targeting stress reduction within pediatric BWC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategic positioning and repositioning of oil companies in the upstream business: understanding the historical evolution of firms' strategic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira Carneiro, J.M.; Ferreira Deschamps Cavalcanti, M.A.; Dos Santos, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the second article of a series whose objective is to use the analytical framework proposed by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, to study the global oil competition game and the competitive advantages of oil companies. The paper focuses on the historical changes in the positioning and behavior of various actors in the upstream oil industry. The authors start by describing the main oil actors and their initial strategic positioning before 1973. Then, the changes and the firm's strategic repositioning during the oil crisis in the 1970's and 1980's are analyzed. (author)

  8. Development of psychosocial case studies by students to improve their ability to understand and analyze human behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Saldaña, Omar; Rodríguez Carballeira, Álvaro; Espelt, Esteve; Jiménez, Yirsa; Porrúa, Clara; Escartín Solanelles, Jordi; Castrechini Trotta, Ángela; Codina, Núria (Codina Mata); Pestana, José Vicente; Vidal i Moranta, Tomeu

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an active learning methodology based on the development and analysis of case studies by college students and explores its effects on academic performance and on students' capacity of understanding and analysing human behaviour. A group of 54 students who were taking the course Social Psychology at the University of Barcelona developed written stories where psychosocial concepts were represented. Results showed that participants, after developing their own case studies, imp...

  9. Fate of pesticides in the arid subtropics, Botswana, Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Mmereki, Baagi T; Masamba, Wellington; Oyiliagu, Catherine E; Lei, Ying D; Wania, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Despite a history of pesticide usage, few data exist on their concentrations in air and soil of Southern Africa. To add to the understanding of the processes controlling the fate of organic contaminants in arid regions, the levels, spatial trends, and seasonal variability of pesticides were studied in air and soil from Botswana. XAD resin-based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed at 15 sites across the country from May 2006 to May 2007. Soil samples were collected from the vicinity of nine of the PAS sampling sites. In addition, 27 24-h high-volume air samples were collected in Maun, at the southeastern edge of the Okavango Delta, every two weeks for one year. Levels of pesticides in PAS were low, with α-endosulfan and lindane being most abundant. Concentrations in soils were extremely low and only soils with high organic carbon contained notable amounts of dieldrin and traces of other pesticides. In particular, air and soil from the Okavango Delta had very low levels even though the area had repeatedly been sprayed with DDT and endosulfan in the past. Air samples from Eastern Botswana, where the majority of the population lives, contained higher levels. Higher air concentrations of α-endosulfan occurred during summer and higher HCB levels occurred in winter. This seasonality was related with neither minor seasonal changes in temperature nor hydrological seasonal events such as the rainy season or the flooding of the Okavango Delta. Thus, the observed spatial and seasonal patterns are more likely related to pesticide usage pattern than to environmental factors or historical use. High temperature and low organic matter content limit the uptake capacity of most subtropical soils for pesticides. No evidence was found that sorption to dry mineral matter plays a major role. Arid soils in subtropical regions are therefore neither a major reservoir of organic contaminants nor do they constitute a significant long-term source of pesticides to the atmosphere.

  10. Use of isotopic tracers in pesticide and environmental contamination research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casida, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The era of synthetic organic pesticides, starting with DDT and the herbicide 2,4-D about 1940, coincides with that of rapid advances in radiotracer applications. This is indeed fortunate since isotopic experiments are an essential step in evaluating each new pesticide and in continually reassessing older compounds for safety and most efficient utilization. This research is carried out in all developed nations with important supplementation on local problems or use conditions from investigations in the developing countries. Several slides will help illustrate the sequence of studies for establishing the disposition and fate of pesticides and other environmental contaminants.It is clear that very little of the pesticide ever contacts the pest. Pesticide chemicals are generally applied at dosages of 0.2 to 2 kilogram per hectare from one to five or more times per crop season. Less than 0.01% of an insecticide is absorbed or ingested by the pest insect. The remaining amount, more than 99.99%, is an environmental contaminant, a portion of which is a potential residue in food, feed and fibre. Isotopic research is critical in understanding or solving several aspects of the problem. The isotopic label is introduced into the chemical by synthesis in a commercial or university laboratory or in a national or regional atomic research centre. The most common radioisotopes used are tritium, 14carbon, 32phosphorus, 35sulphur and 36chlorine. Stable isotopes are becoming increasingly important in pesticide research, particularly carbon 13, nitrogen 15 and oxygen 18. The initial studies usually involve administration of the 14 carbon-labelled pesticide to rats, which are then held in metabolism cages that allow separate collection of expired gases, urine and faeces. The products in the excreta are identified by various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The persistence of the chemical and its metabolites in various tissues is also determined to make sure that the material

  11. Mutation network-based understanding of pleiotropic and epistatic mutational behavior of Enterococcus faecalis FMN-dependent azoreductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously identified a highly active homodimeric FMN-dependent NADH-preferred azoreductase (AzoA from Enterococcus faecalis, which cleaves the azo bonds (R-N˭N-R of diverse azo dyes, and determined its crystal structure. The preliminary network-based mutational analysis suggested that the two residues, Arg-21 and Asn-121, have an apparent mutational potential for fine-tuning of AzoA, based on their beneficial pleiotropic feedbacks. However, epistasis between the two promising mutational spots in AzoA has not been obtained in terms of substrate binding and azoreductase activity. In this study, we further quantified, visualized, and described the pleiotropic and/or epistatic behavior of six single or double mutations at the positions, Arg-21 and Asn-121, as a further research endeavor for beneficial fine-tuning of AzoA. Based on this network-based mutational analysis, we showed that pleiotropy and epistasis are common, sensitive, and complex mutational behaviors, depending mainly on the structural and functional responsibility and the physicochemical properties of the residue(s in AzoA.

  12. Increased Understanding of Stem Cell Behavior in Neurodegenerative and Neuromuscular Disorders by Use of Noninvasive Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Bryan; De Waele, Liesbeth; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Gheysens, Olivier; Sampaolesi, Maurillio; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Deroose, Christophe M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders are associated with cell-specific depletion in the human body. This imbalance in tissue homeostasis is in healthy individuals repaired by the presence of endogenous stem cells that can replace the lost cell type. However, in most disorders, a genetic origin or limited presence or exhaustion of stem cells impairs correct cell replacement. During the last 30 years, methods to readily isolate and expand stem cells have been developed and this resulted in a major change in the regenerative medicine field as it generates sufficient amount of cells for human transplantation applications. Furthermore, stem cells have been shown to release cytokines with beneficial effects for several diseases. At present however, clinical stem cell transplantations studies are struggling to demonstrate clinical efficacy despite promising preclinical results. Therefore, to allow stem cell therapy to achieve its full potential, more insight in their in vivo behavior has to be achieved. Different methods to noninvasively monitor these cells have been developed and are discussed. In some cases, stem cell monitoring even reached the clinical setting. We anticipate that by further exploring these imaging possibilities and unraveling their in vivo behavior further improvement in stem cell transplantations will be achieved.

  13. Increased Understanding of Stem Cell Behavior in Neurodegenerative and Neuromuscular Disorders by Use of Noninvasive Cell Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Holvoet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders are associated with cell-specific depletion in the human body. This imbalance in tissue homeostasis is in healthy individuals repaired by the presence of endogenous stem cells that can replace the lost cell type. However, in most disorders, a genetic origin or limited presence or exhaustion of stem cells impairs correct cell replacement. During the last 30 years, methods to readily isolate and expand stem cells have been developed and this resulted in a major change in the regenerative medicine field as it generates sufficient amount of cells for human transplantation applications. Furthermore, stem cells have been shown to release cytokines with beneficial effects for several diseases. At present however, clinical stem cell transplantations studies are struggling to demonstrate clinical efficacy despite promising preclinical results. Therefore, to allow stem cell therapy to achieve its full potential, more insight in their in vivo behavior has to be achieved. Different methods to noninvasively monitor these cells have been developed and are discussed. In some cases, stem cell monitoring even reached the clinical setting. We anticipate that by further exploring these imaging possibilities and unraveling their in vivo behavior further improvement in stem cell transplantations will be achieved.

  14. Understanding the antecedents of Korean high school students' drinking refusal self-efficacy: parental influence, peer influence, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Su Ahn; Cho, Namauk; Yoo, Jina

    2011-12-29

    The current study examined the factors that influence Korean adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy, which is known to be associated with alcohol use and drinking intentions. Specifically, this study considered parental monitoring, parent-child communication satisfaction, peer influence, and prior alcohol use as possible antecedents of Korean high school students' drinking refusal self-efficacy. High school students (n = 538) in South Korea responded to the current study. The data revealed that parent-child communication satisfaction facilitated parental monitoring, and these factors indirectly predicted adolescents' drinking behavior through peer influence. We also found that prior drinking, parental monitoring, and peer influence were directly associated with drinking refusal self-efficacy, and the self-efficacy, in turn, was associated with drinking intentions. These results not only suggest that drinking refusal self-efficacy are related to drinking behavior and intentions, but they also provide a theoretical explanation for how parental and peer influences are associated with adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy.

  15. Better ways of using pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    1992-01-01

    The primary role of agriculture is to produce a reliable supply of wholesome food to feed the world's population, safely and without adverse effects on the environment. Pesticides have a crucial part to play in reducing the loss of food during production and after harvesting, and this article discusses how the use of pesticides can be made more efficient. Two particular examples of safer and more effective pesticide delivery systems are described, relating to tsetse fly control in Africa and to the control of weeds in a rice paddy or rice-fish mixed ecosystem. 45 refs, 6 figs

  16. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Nandita

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  17. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pcabhilash@gmail.com [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Nandita, E-mail: nanditasingh8@yahoo.co.in [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2009-06-15

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  18. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-01-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

  19. Student understanding of control of variables: Deciding whether or not a variable influences the behavior of a system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Andrew; Shaffer, Peter S.; Heron, Paula R. L.; McDermott, Lillian C.

    2008-02-01

    The ability of adult students to reason on the basis of the control of variables was the subject of an extended investigation. This paper describes the part of the study that focused on the reasoning required to decide whether or not a given variable influences the behavior of a system. The participants were undergraduates taking introductory Physics and K-8 teachers studying physics and physical science in inservice institutes and workshops. Although most of the students recognized the need to control variables, many had significant difficulty with the underlying reasoning. The results indicate serious shortcomings in the preparation of future scientists and in the education of a scientifically literate citizenry. There are also strong implications for the professional development of teachers, many of whom are expected to teach control of variables to young students.

  20. UNDERSTANDING THE SUBJECT´S BEHAVIOR IN THE INTERACTION WITH A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM UNDER TIME PRESSURE AND MISSING INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathiane Benedetti Corso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to determine how time pressure and missing information in decision-making affect the behavior of decision makers. Data was collected through an experimental task of simulating the purchase of a car, which was structured with the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process multi-criteria method in a Decision Support System. When pressured by time, the experimental subjects focused on the car of their choice; whereas with no time pressure, some of them rationalized more, used the information, and did not agree with the chosen car. Assumptions of the Theory of Image justified some findings, indicating that previously structured images in the mind of the decision maker are a way to cope with time pressure. Given the missing information, the use of background knowledge and individual experience were the most prominent coping strategy.