WorldWideScience

Sample records for understand mrnp trafficking

  1. Nuclear surveillance of mRNP formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Heick

    Proper formation of mRNP requires co-transcriptional loading of proteins onto nascent transcripts. Mutations in several genes involved in mRNA processing, mRNP assembly and nuclear export lead to production of aberrant mRNPs that are retained in transcription site-associated foci. Retention...... and degradation of transcripts depend on the nuclear exosome of 3’-5’ exonucleases.We have studied connections between mRNP assembly and quality control in the yeast S. cerevisiae using mutants of the THO complex. THO is implicated in co-transcriptional mRNP assembly, but its precise role is not known. Genetic...... and biochemical data now show that a defective THO complex negatively impacts mRNA 3’-end processing. We are currently trying to understand the relationship between this phenomenon and mRNP quality control. Retention of mRNP in THO mutants is dependent on the nuclear exosome component Rrp6p. Using the solved...

  2. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  3. Providing services to trafficking survivors: Understanding practices across the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jordan J; Kynn, Jamie; Stylianou, Amanda M; Postmus, Judy L

    2018-01-01

    Human trafficking is a global issue, with survivors representing all genders, ages, races, ethnicities, religions, and countries. However, little research exists that identifies effective practices in supporting survivors of human trafficking. The research that does exist is Western-centric. To fill this gap in the literature, the goal of this research was to understand practices used throughout the globe with adult human trafficking survivors. A qualitative approach was utilized. Providers from 26 countries, across six different continents, were interviewed to allow for a comprehensive and multi-faceted understanding of practices in working with survivors. Participants identified utilizing an empowerment-based, survivor, and human life-centered approach to working with survivors, emphasized the importance of engaging in community level interventions, and highlighted the importance of government recognition of human trafficking. Findings provide information from the perspective of advocates on best practices in the field that can be used by agencies to enhance human trafficking programming.

  4. 'Trafficking' or 'personal use': do people who regularly inject drugs understand Australian drug trafficking laws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Ritter, Alison; Cowdery, Nicholas; Sindicich, Natasha

    2014-11-01

    Legal thresholds for drug trafficking, over which possession of an illicit drug is deemed 'trafficking' as opposed to 'personal use', are employed in all Australian states and territories excepting Queensland. In this paper, we explore the extent to which people who regularly inject drugs understand such laws. Participants from the seven affected states/territories in the 2012 Illicit Drug Reporting System (n = 823) were asked about their legal knowledge of trafficking thresholds: whether, if arrested, quantity possessed would affect legal action taken; and the quantities of heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine and cannabis that would constitute an offence of supply. Data were compared against the actual laws to identify the accuracy of knowledge by drug type and state, and sociodemographics, use and purchasing patterns related to knowledge. Most Illicit Drug Reporting System participants (77%) correctly said that quantity possessed would affect charge received. However, only 55.8% nominated any specific quantity that would constitute an offence of supply, and of those 22.6% nominated a wrong quantity, namely a quantity that was larger than the actual quantity for supply (this varied by state and drug). People who regularly inject drugs have significant gaps in knowledge about Australian legal thresholds for drug trafficking, particularly regarding the actual threshold quantities. This suggests that there may be a need to improve education for this population. Necessity for accurate knowledge would also be lessened by better design of Australian drug trafficking laws. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Understanding the link between trafficking in persons and HIV and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is concluded that the reported occupational hazards in industries where trafficked persons are forced into are not specific to trafficked persons as they affect all labourers. However, the underground nature of the trafficking in persons process increases health problems and risks, including the vulnerability to HIV infection.

  6. Understanding the link between trafficking in persons and HIV and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The magnitude of trafficking in persons in Tanzania is unknown. Consequently, available information on health risks of persons trafficked for different forms of exploitation is extremely scanty. We conducted a baseline study in eight administrative regions of Tanzania using both qualitative and quantitative methods ...

  7. Understanding the link between trafficking in persons and HIV and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the underground nature of the trafficking in persons process increases health problems and risks, including the vulnerability to HIV infection. More tailored research is needed, especially to find means of how to reach out and provide services to this particular vulnerable population, validate labour forms of exploitation into ...

  8. The Clothes Make the mRNA: Past and Present Trends in mRNP Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Guramrit; Pratt, Gabriel; Yeo, Gene W; Moore, Melissa J

    2015-01-01

    Throughout their lifetimes, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) associate with proteins to form ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs). Since the discovery of the first mRNP component more than 40 years ago, what is known as the mRNA interactome now comprises >1,000 proteins. These proteins bind mRNAs in myriad ways with varying affinities and stoichiometries, with many assembling onto nascent RNAs in a highly ordered process during transcription and precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) processing. The nonrandom distribution of major mRNP proteins observed in transcriptome-wide studies leads us to propose that mRNPs are organized into three major domains loosely corresponding to 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), open reading frames, and 3' UTRs. Moving from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, mRNPs undergo extensive remodeling as they are first acted upon by the nuclear pore complex and then by the ribosome. When not being actively translated, cytoplasmic mRNPs can assemble into large multi-mRNP assemblies or be permanently disassembled and degraded. In this review, we aim to give the reader a thorough understanding of past and current eukaryotic mRNP research.

  9. The Survival of Motor Neuron Protein Acts as a Molecular Chaperone for mRNP Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G. Donlin-Asp

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a motor neuron disease caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN protein. SMN is part of a multiprotein complex that facilitates the assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs. SMN has also been found to associate with mRNA-binding proteins, but the nature of this association was unknown. Here, we have employed a combination of biochemical and advanced imaging methods to demonstrate that SMN promotes the molecular interaction between IMP1 protein and the 3′ UTR zipcode region of β-actin mRNA, leading to assembly of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP complexes that associate with the cytoskeleton to facilitate trafficking. We have identified defects in mRNP assembly in cells and tissues from SMA disease models and patients that depend on the SMN Tudor domain and explain the observed deficiency in mRNA localization and local translation, providing insight into SMA pathogenesis as a ribonucleoprotein (RNP-assembly disorder.

  10. Trafficking (in Representations: Understanding the recurring appeal of victimhood and slavery in neoliberal times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutvica Andrijasevic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Representations of trafficking and forced labour are pervasive within media, policymaking, and humanitarian debates, discourses and interventions. The terms exploitation and trafficking are increasingly used to characterise the work that migrants do in the sex industry and other irregular employment sectors. Of late, the notion of ‘modern slavery’ is on show in campaigns aiming to raise awareness about trafficking and funds for anti-trafficking initiatives among corporations and local enterprises as well as the general public. Celebrity interventions, militant documentaries, artistic works and fiction films have all become powerful vectors of the global distribution of the trafficking and ‘modern slavery’ rhetoric. These offer simplistic solutions to complex issues without challenging the structural and causal factors of inequality. Through fictional and narrow representations of ideal victims they tend to entrench racialised narratives and conflate all sex work with trafficking, which legitimates criminalising policies and interventions exacerbating the social vulnerability of sex workers. It is because of the under-researched role of representation in the development of anti-trafficking policies and initiatives that the Anti-Trafficking Review decided to devote a thematic issue on trafficking representations.

  11. mRNP assembly, axonal transport, and local translation in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Bilal; Morderer, Dmytro; Price, Phillip L; Liu, Feilin; Rossoll, Wilfried

    2018-02-17

    The development, maturation, and maintenance of the mammalian nervous system rely on complex spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression. In neurons, this is achieved by the expression of differentially localized isoforms and specific sets of mRNA-binding proteins (mRBPs) that regulate RNA processing, mRNA trafficking, and local protein synthesis at remote sites within dendrites and axons. There is growing evidence that axons contain a specialized transcriptome and are endowed with the machinery that allows them to rapidly alter their local proteome via local translation and protein degradation. This enables axons to quickly respond to changes in their environment during development, and to facilitate axon regeneration and maintenance in adult organisms. Aside from providing autonomy to neuronal processes, local translation allows axons to send retrograde injury signals to the cell soma. In this review, we discuss evidence that disturbances in mRNP transport, granule assembly, axonal localization, and local translation contribute to pathology in various neurodegenerative diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Understanding the motivations and activities of transnational advocacy networks against child sex trafficking in the Mekong Subregion: The value of cosmopolitan globalisation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Davy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Child sex trafficking has become one of the most highly publicised social issues of our time and, due to its global nature, transnational anti-trafficking advocacy networks are well placed and central to lead campaigns against it. Whilst there is an abundance of literature on the subjects of child sex trafficking and transnational advocacy networks we lack an understanding of the motivations of these networks that act as buffers against trafficking. Cosmopolitan globalisation theory remains a compelling framework for examining the motivations of transnational anti-child sex trafficking networks in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Applying a cosmopolitan globalisation lens, this article discusses the social justice goals of transnational advocacy networks, their centrality in combating child sex trafficking, and their ability to perform cosmopolitan ‘globalisation from below’ to counter global social problems.

  13. Insights into mRNP biogenesis provided by new genetic interactions among export and transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Francisco; Hodge, Christine; Gómez-Navarro, Natalia; Peiró-Chova, Lorena; Heath, Catherine V; Cole, Charles N

    2012-09-10

    The various steps of mRNP biogenesis (transcription, processing and export) are interconnected. It has been shown that the transcription machinery plays a pivotal role in mRNP assembly, since several mRNA export factors are recruited during transcription and physically interact with components of the transcription machinery. Although the shuttling DEAD-box protein Dbp5p is concentrated on the cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC, previous studies demonstrated that it interacts physically and genetically with factors involved in transcription initiation. We investigated the effect of mutations affecting various components of the transcription initiation apparatus on the phenotypes of mRNA export mutant strains. Our results show that growth and mRNA export defects of dbp5 and mex67 mutant strains can be suppressed by mutation of specific transcription initiation components, but suppression was not observed for mutants acting in the very first steps of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation. Our results indicate that mere reduction in the amount of mRNP produced is not sufficient to suppress the defects caused by a defective mRNA export factor. Suppression occurs only with mutants affecting events within a narrow window of the mRNP biogenesis process. We propose that reducing the speed with which transcription converts from initiation and promoter clearance to elongation may have a positive effect on mRNP formation by permitting more effective recruitment of partially-functional mRNP proteins to the nascent mRNP.

  14. Insights into mRNP biogenesis provided by new genetic interactions among export and transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estruch Francisco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The various steps of mRNP biogenesis (transcription, processing and export are interconnected. It has been shown that the transcription machinery plays a pivotal role in mRNP assembly, since several mRNA export factors are recruited during transcription and physically interact with components of the transcription machinery. Although the shuttling DEAD-box protein Dbp5p is concentrated on the cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC, previous studies demonstrated that it interacts physically and genetically with factors involved in transcription initiation. Results We investigated the effect of mutations affecting various components of the transcription initiation apparatus on the phenotypes of mRNA export mutant strains. Our results show that growth and mRNA export defects of dbp5 and mex67 mutant strains can be suppressed by mutation of specific transcription initiation components, but suppression was not observed for mutants acting in the very first steps of the pre-initiation complex (PIC formation. Conclusions Our results indicate that mere reduction in the amount of mRNP produced is not sufficient to suppress the defects caused by a defective mRNA export factor. Suppression occurs only with mutants affecting events within a narrow window of the mRNP biogenesis process. We propose that reducing the speed with which transcription converts from initiation and promoter clearance to elongation may have a positive effect on mRNP formation by permitting more effective recruitment of partially-functional mRNP proteins to the nascent mRNP.

  15. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  16. Characterization of transcription site-associated mRNP retention in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Heick

    In a variety of S. cerevisiae mutants with defective mRNP maturation and/or export, heat shock (hs) mRNPs are retained at or near their sites of transcription. For example, mutants of the THO complex display an intense hs-mRNA FISH signal, which co-localizes with the hs-gene after transcriptional...... were used to compare the density of the transcription machinery at hs-loci in THO mutant versus wild type cells. Surprisingly, there is a bias in the composition of chromatin fragments recovered after in vivo crosslinking and high speed centrifugation: The 3’-ends of hs-loci are greatly...

  17. Rebooting Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas de Villiers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While popular psychology and appeals to emotion have unfortunately dominated discussions of ‘sex trafficking’, this article suggests that feminist psychoanalytic film theory and theories of affect are still useful for making sense of the appeal of sensational exposés like Lifetime Television’s Human Trafficking (2005. The dynamic of identification with (and impersonation of a human trafficking ‘victim’ by the rescuing Immigration and Customs Enforcement agent (Mira Sorvino is particularly worthy of scrutiny. Film theory about the ‘rebooting’ of film franchises (iconic brands like Batman also helps explain the preponderance of similar programming—Sex Slaves (2005, Selling the Girl Next Door (2011, Trafficked (2016—and the way contemporary discourses of human trafficking have effectively rebranded the myth of ‘white slavery’.

  18. Connections between transcription, mRNP assembly and quality control in S. cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Heick

    Processing of mRNA and proper formation of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) require co-transcriptional loading of proteins onto nascent transcripts, which is critically dependent on the function of the THO/TREX complex, as well as on proper mRNA 3’-end formation.To better determine t...... the role(s) of the THO complex, we have searched for mutant alleles that exhibit a genetic interaction with a strain carrying a deletion of the THO complex component MFT1. Our results suggest that the THO complex is functionally connected to the 3’end formation/mRNA export step. High...... to the new 3’-end. Mutations in several genes involved in mRNA export and in mRNP assembly lead to retention of mRNPs in transcription site-foci and to partial degradation of the mRNA by the nuclear exosome. Here, we demonstrate a prominent role of the rate of transcription in the constitution of an export......-competent mRNP. We show that a transcription-defective allele of the Rad3p helicase, a component of the TFIIH transcription initiation factor, suppress several export-related phenotypes linked to mutation of Rna14p and members of the THO complex. Biochemical and genetic data indicate that mutation of Rad3p...

  19. Chemical Genetic Dissection of Membrane Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Lorena; Tejos, Ricardo

    2017-04-28

    The plant endomembrane system is an extensively connected functional unit for exchanging material between compartments. Secretory and endocytic pathways allow dynamic trafficking of proteins, lipids, and other molecules, regulating a myriad of biological processes. Chemical genetics-the use of compounds to perturb biological processes in a fast, tunable, and transient manner-provides elegant tools for investigating this system. Here, we review how chemical genetics has helped to elucidate different aspects of membrane trafficking. We discuss different strategies for uncovering the modes of action of such compounds and their use in unraveling membrane trafficking regulators. We also discuss how the bioactive chemicals that are currently used as probes to interrogate endomembrane trafficking were discovered and analyze the results regarding membrane trafficking and pathway crosstalk. The integration of different expertises and the rational implementation of chemical genetic strategies will improve the identification of molecular mechanisms that drive intracellular trafficking and our understanding of how trafficking interfaces with plant physiology and development.

  20. Economics of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  1. Differential expression of THOC1 and ALY mRNP biogenesis/export factors in human cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez-Sánchez, María S; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel A; Aguilera, Andrés; Luna, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    One key step in gene expression is the biogenesis of mRNA ribonucleoparticle complexes (mRNPs). Formation of the mRNP requires the participation of a number of conserved factors such as the THO complex. THO interacts physically and functionally with the Sub2/UAP56 RNA-dependent ATPase, and the Yra1/REF1/ALY RNA-binding protein linking transcription, mRNA export and genome integrity. Given the link between genome instability and cancer, we have performed a comparative analysis of the expression patterns of THOC1, a THO complex subunit, and ALY in tumor samples. The mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and hybridization of a tumor tissue cDNA array; and the protein levels and distribution by immunostaining of a custom tissue array containing a set of paraffin-embedded samples of different tumor and normal tissues followed by statistical analysis. We show that the expression of two mRNP factors, THOC1 and ALY are altered in several tumor tissues. THOC1 mRNA and protein levels are up-regulated in ovarian and lung tumors and down-regulated in those of testis and skin, whereas ALY is altered in a wide variety of tumors. In contrast to THOC1, ALY protein is highly detected in normal proliferative cells, but poorly in high-grade cancers. These results suggest a differential connection between tumorogenesis and the expression levels of human THO and ALY. This study opens the possibility of defining mRNP biogenesis factors as putative players in cell proliferation that could contribute to tumor development

  2. TRAFFICKING PRESPEKTIF HUKUM PIDANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Novita Dian Novita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Trafficking is a classic matter that has been existed since the establishment of human culture.  The major cause of the trafficking is the lack of information about trafficking, poverty  and the law level of education and skill of people, specifically villagers. To fight against trafficking, the government needs to accelarate the education and skill quality and cooperate with other countries. Besides, it is important to provide a sufficient law device for international scale in order to drag feet the trafficking network. Furthermore, trafficker must be punished with heavy penalties and the victim must be protected properly.     Key Words: Trafficking, hukum pidana, pelaku dan korban

  3. Human trafficking law and social structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooditch, Alese

    2012-08-01

    Human trafficking has only recently emerged at the forefront of policy reform, even in developed nations. Yet, heightened awareness of the issue has not translated into effective policy as the majority of nations have ineffective antitrafficking practices; many countries have failed to criminalize human trafficking, whereas others do not actively enforce statutes in place. By applying Black's theory of law, this study offers a preliminary understanding into the variation of global prosecutorial efforts in human trafficking and adequacy of antitrafficking law. To isolate this relationship, the effects of trafficking markets are controlled. As with prior research, the study finds limited support for the theory. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications of the quantity of antitrafficking law and morphology association for policy development.

  4. Smuggled or trafficked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Bhabha

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TNC and its two Protocols on Trafficking and Smuggling, adopted in 2000, seek to distinguish between trafficking and smuggling. In reality these distinctions are often blurred. A more nuanced approach is needed to ensure protection for all those at risk.

  5. Corruption and Wildlife Trafficking: Three Case Studies Involving Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, Tanya; Johnson, Kelly; Hunter, Laura; George, Ryan; Gunter, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    As wildlife trafficking or the illegal wildlife trade has taken a more prominent place on the global agenda, discussions are taking place as to how wildlife trafficking happens. An increased understanding has revealed that corruption is a key facilitator of this profitable and pervasive global black market, but limited research has explored exactly what that corruption looks like and how corruption enables wildlife to be trafficked. Furthermore, research shows that Asia, particularly China an...

  6. RNA trafficking in parasitic plant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L LeBlanc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available RNA trafficking in plants contributes to local and long-distance coordination of plant development and response to the environment. However, investigations of mobile RNA identity and function are hindered by the inherent difficulty of tracing a given molecule of RNA from its cell of origin to its destination. Several methods have been used to address this problem, but all are limited to some extent by constraints associated with accurately sampling phloem sap or detecting trafficked RNA. Certain parasitic plant species form symplastic connections to their hosts and thereby provide an additional system for studying RNA trafficking. The haustorial connections of Cuscuta and Phelipanche species are similar to graft junctions in that they are able to transmit mRNAs, viral RNAs, siRNAs and proteins from the host plants to the parasite. In contrast to other graft systems, these parasites form connections with host species that span a wide phylogenetic range, such that a high degree of nucleotide sequence divergence may exist between host and parasites and allow confident identification of most host RNAs in the parasite system. The ability to identify host RNAs in parasites, and vice versa, will facilitate genomics approaches to understanding RNA trafficking. This review discusses the nature of host parasite connections and the potential significance of host RNAs for the parasite. Additional research on host-parasite interactions is needed to interpret results of RNA trafficking studies, but parasitic plants may provide a fascinating new perspective on RNA trafficking.

  7. Public Perceptions of Human Trafficking in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Robinson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a widely studied phenomenon. Comparing public perceptions of trafficking to institutional (i.e. the academy, governmental and non-governmental organizations perceptions gives a richer understanding of the problem. The data for this study were collected in and around Chisinau, Moldova in the summer of 2004. Public discourse provides a more intimate "portraiture" of the issue, but the public also demonstrated a complex level of understanding of this social problem in this study. Its view is juxtaposed against an institutional view of human trafficking as explored through a literature review. Combining institutional and public perceptions and knowledge of a social problem is helpful in not only establishing a more thorough understanding of the social problem and guiding policy decisions, but in exploring the experiences victims may face at the community level.

  8. Human Trafficking and Regulating Prostitution

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Samuel; Persson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    We study sex trafficking in a marriage market model of prostitution. When traffickers can coerce women to sell sex, trafficked prostitutes constitute a non-zero share of supply in any unregulated market for sex. We ask if regulation can eradicate trafficking and restore the equilibrium that would arise in an unregulated market without traffickers. While all existing approaches – criminalization of prostitutes (“the traditional model”), licensed prostitution (“the Dutch model”), and criminaliz...

  9. Sex for Sale: Globalization and Human Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Annmarie

    2009-01-01

    The practice of trafficking has many different facets; drug trafficking, arms trafficking and human trafficking complete the top three illegal trafficking practices today. Human trafficking may be the third highest illegal trafficking practice, however there is inadequate mainstream information on the affects of the trade and horrifying issues that incorporate trafficking in human beings. This paper will discuss how the globalized world has been enabling trafficking in human beings with a con...

  10. Aggression in Sexually Abused Trafficked Girls and Efficacy of Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls…

  11. Adolescent Black Males' Drug Trafficking and Addiction: Three Theoretical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sharon E.

    1995-01-01

    Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)

  12. UK victims of trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Burgoyne

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of court cases shows how hard it is forvictims of trafficking to win the right to remain in the UK. Case law is inconsistent and more research and data collection are urgently needed.

  13. Prostitution and Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Luccitelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the activity of an association: the Community Pope John XXIII, where he works on the liberation of thousands of victims of human trafficking and the fight against prostitution. More specifically, he describes the methods of intervention and provides some data about people who are trafficked for and clients of prostitutes. In conclusion, some legislation models about prostitution in Europe are briefly discussed.

  14. Prostitution and Human Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Luccitelli

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses the activity of an association: the Community Pope John XXIII, where he works on the liberation of thousands of victims of human trafficking and the fight against prostitution. More specifically, he describes the methods of intervention and provides some data about people who are trafficked for and clients of prostitutes. In conclusion, some legislation models about prostitution in Europe are briefly discussed.

  15. Regulation of GPCR Trafficking by Ubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Justine E; Marchese, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-promoted signaling mediates cellular responses to a variety of stimuli involved in diverse physiological processes. In addition, GPCRs are also the largest class of target for many drugs used to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the role of GPCR signaling in health and disease, the molecular mechanisms governing GPCR signaling remain poorly understanding. Classically, GPCR signaling is tightly regulated by GPCR kinases and β-arrestins, which act in a concerted fashion to govern GPCR desensitization and also GPCR trafficking. Ubiquitination has now emerged as an important posttranslational modification that has multiple roles, either directly or indirectly, in governing GPCR trafficking. Recent studies have revealed a mechanistic link between GPCR phosphorylation, β-arrestins, and ubiquitination. Here, we review recent developments in our understanding of how ubiquitin regulates GPCR trafficking within the endocytic pathway. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Child Labor Trafficking in the United States: A Hidden Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Kaufka Walts

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research brings more attention to labor trafficking in the United States. However, very few efforts have been made to better understand or respond to labor trafficking of minors. Cases of children forced to work as domestic servants, in factories, restaurants, peddling candy or other goods, or on farms may not automatically elicit suspicion from an outside observer as compared to a child providing sexual services for money. In contrast to sex trafficking, labor trafficking is often tied to formal economies and industries, which often makes it more difficult to distinguish from "legitimate" work, including among adolescents. This article seeks to provide examples of documented cases of child labor trafficking in the United States, and to provide an overview of systemic gaps in law, policy, data collection, research, and practice. These areas are currently overwhelmingly focused on sex trafficking, which undermines the policy intentions of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (2000, the seminal statute criminalizing sex and labor trafficking in the United States, its subsequent reauthorizations, and international laws and protocols addressing human trafficking.

  17. Human Trafficking as Lever for Feminist Voices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark, human trafficking has emerged as a central issue within the policy field of prostitution during the last decade. Taking a Foucauldian approach from a historical perspective, understanding the policy field of prostitution as a discursive terrain, the article analyses the thinking...... that lies behind policies on prostitution by identifying ruptures and discursive struggles which lead to transformations of the policy field. In particular, this article investigates how the problematisation of human trafficking has created space for a feminist discourse breakthrough within the policy field...

  18. Identification and Management of Human Trafficking Victims in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachey, Lisa M; Phillippi, Julia C

    Health care practitioners serve an important role in identification and assistance of human trafficking victims. Advanced practice registered nurses, including certified nurse midwives, clinical nurse specialists, and nurse practitioners, are in a unique position to interact with persons trafficked and seen in the clinical setting, yet they require knowledge to identify the signs of human trafficking. Lack of training and education has been identified as a barrier for health care professionals to recognize human trafficking victims and implement needed health care services (; ). Barriers to identification and management include gap in knowledge about the process to screen for trafficking, to assist victims, and to make referrals. A patient-centered, trauma-informed approach can provide a safe environment to sensitively screen patients for human trafficking. Advanced practice registered nurses should be able to assess for trafficking indicators, collaborate with multidisciplinary service providers, and ensure understanding and availability of federal, state, and local resources to manage the care of victims of trafficking.

  19. Sex Trafficking of Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jessica L; Kaplan, Dana M; Barron, Christine E

    2017-04-01

    Sex trafficking is an increasingly recognized global health crisis affecting every country and region in the world. Domestic minor sex trafficking is a subset of commercial sexual exploitation of children, defined as engagement of minors (sexual acts for items of value (eg, food, shelter, drugs, money) involving children victimized within US borders. These involved youth are at risk for serious immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Continued efforts are needed to improve preventive efforts, identification, screening, appropriate interventions, and subsequent resource provision for victimized and high-risk youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tracking Traffickers. The IAEA Incident and Trafficking Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive material is missing from a hospital. Contaminated metal is found in a scrap yard. Smugglers try to peddle nuclear- weapon-usable material. These different scenarios illustrate the risks that these materials can pose to human safety and security. To assess those risks and to develop strategies to reduce them, States must understand the implications and the scope of such incidents that are occurring around the world. To better understand and respond to these events, the IAEA maintains an Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB) which collects information from 122 participating States and some select international organizations. They are asked to share data on a voluntary basis about incidents in which nuclear and other radioactive material has fallen ''out of regulatory control.'' This could mean reporting cases of material that has gone missing, or discoveries of material where none was expected. The cases range from the innocent misplacement of industrial radioactive sources to criminal smuggling efforts which could aid terrorist acts. This information is shared among ITDB participants, and IAEA analysts try to identify trends and characteristics that could help prevent the misuse of these potentially dangerous materials. ''The ITDB has become an internationally recognized tool for States to study the extent and nature of these incidents,'' said John Hilliard, head of the Information Management and Coordination Section that administers the database. ''We've learned a lot by studying them, and we hope the information helps us prevent accidents or crimes in the future.'' The IAEA established the database in 1995 after States became alarmed by a growing number of trafficking incidents in the early 1990s. The service was originally operated by the Department of Safeguards, but later moved to the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, where the Office of Nuclear Security now administers all the data collection and analysis

  1. Trafficking in Persons Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Venezuela’s Orinoco River Basin area and border regions of Tachira State, where political violence and infiltration by armed rebel groups are common. The...was too good to miss. But the reality he faced at the work site was far from the opportunity he expected. The workers drank from the same river ...routes along the Yalu River to traffic North Korean women into China. While many women trafficked into China are sold as brides, some North Korean

  2. Seventeen years of human trafficking research in social work: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okech, David; Choi, Y Joon; Elkins, Jennifer; Burns, Abigail C

    2018-01-01

    The trafficking of persons around the world is a serious violation of human rights and manifestation of social injustice. It disproportionately affects women and children worldwide. Given the values of the social work profession and the prevalence of trafficking, it is essential to understand the current literature on human trafficking in social work journals. Using the PRISMA method, this systematic review (n = 94 articles) of human trafficking in social work journals found the following: more focus on sex trafficking than other forms of trafficking; a lack of a clear conceptualization and definition on the entire spectrum of trafficking; a lack of evidence-informed empirical research to inform programs, practice, and policy; and a dearth of recommendations for social work education. Specific implications for social work policy, research, practice, and education are highlighted and discussed.

  3. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE CURRENT DIMENSIONS OF HUMAN TRAFFICK IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Caunic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on realizing a better understanding of the aspects and the conditions that facilitate human traffick in a full transition society, such as the Romanian society. To highlight the characteristics of human trafficking and the actual dimensions of this phenomenon in Romania, the paper used both quantitative methods involving interpretation of statistics compiled by the competent institutions and the qualitative research methods, involving the analysis of reports, articles or case studies presented in the literature.

  4. Health implications of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population. © 2014 AWHONN.

  5. Investigating Internalization and Intracellular Trafficking of GPCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Simon R; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2017-01-01

    for signal transduction. One of the major mechanisms for GPCR regulation involves their endocytic trafficking, which serves to internalize the receptors from the plasma membrane and thereby attenuate G protein-dependent signaling. However, there is accumulating evidence to suggest that GPCRs can signal...... independently of G proteins, as well as from intracellular compartments including endosomes. It is in this context that receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking have attracted renewed interest within the GPCR field. In this chapter, we will review the current understanding and methodologies...... that have been used to investigate internalization and intracellular signaling of GPCRs, with a particular focus on emerging real-time techniques. These recent developments have improved our understanding of the complexities of GPCR internalization and intracellular signaling and suggest that the broader...

  6. Illicit Nuclear Trafficking Scams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Trafficking Scams are situations where the scam artist(s) offer something (material or information) that is not what he/she/they represent it to be. Example of a scam is when attempt is made to sell fake nuclear material. The offered material may not be nuclear material or may be of a lower grade. The offered material may not actually exist . Radioactive material may be offered as nuclear material. A small sample of actual nuclear material may be offered, but the bulk material may be something else.

  7. Protein trafficking and maturation regulate intramembrane proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Yuichi; Tomita, Taisuke

    2013-12-01

    Intramembrane-cleaving proteases (I-CLiPs) are membrane embedded proteolytic enzymes. All substrates identified so far are also membrane proteins, involving a number of critical cellular signaling as well as human diseases. After synthesis and assembly at the endoplasmic reticulum, membrane proteins are exported to the Golgi apparatus and transported to their sites of action. A number of studies have revealed the importance of the intracellular membrane trafficking in i-CLiP-mediated intramembrane proteolysis, not only for limiting the unnecessary encounter between i-CLiPs and their substrate but also for their cleavage site preference. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of how each i-CLiP proteolysis is regulated by intracellular vesicle trafficking. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Intramembrane Proteases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. HUMAN TRAFFICKING DRUG TRAFFICKING, AND THE DEATH PENALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Gerry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Australia and Indonesia have made commitments to combatting human trafficking.  Through the experience of Mary Jane Veloso it can be seen that it is most often the vulnerable ‘mule’ that is apprehended by law enforcement and not the powerful leaders of crime syndicates. It is unacceptable that those vulnerable individuals may face execution for acts committed under threat of force, coercion, fraud, deception or abuse of power. For this reason it is vital that a system of victim identification is developed, including better training for law enforcement, legal representatives and members of the judiciary. This paper builds on submissions by authors for Australian Parliamentary Inquiry into Human Trafficking, and focusses on issues arising in the complex cross section of human trafficking, drug trafficking, and the death penalty with particular attention on identifying victims and effective reporting mechanisms in both Australia and Indonesia. It concludes that, in the context of human trafficking both countries could make three main improvements to law and policy, among others, 1 enactment of laws that create clear mandatory protection for human trafficking victims; 2 enactment of criminal laws that provides complete defence for victim of human trafficking; 3 enactment of corporate reporting mechanisms. Systemic protection and support is not sufficiently available without clear legislative protection as this paper suggests together with standardised referral mechanisms and effective financial reporting mechanisms. The implementation can be achieved through collaborative responses and inter-agency coordination with data collection and properly trained specialists.

  9. Devastating consequences of sex trafficking on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Fr James

    2017-11-01

    Sex trafficking has devastating consequences on the physical and mental well-being of millions of women around the world. These trafficking victims often come in contact with medical personnel, and these encounters with suitably prepared staff can be a step toward healing of the victims. The Catholic Church, especially through Pope Francis, is making strenuous efforts to curb the spread of sex trafficking. Same-sex feelings and behavior may arise post-trafficking in individuals, although this does not appear to be mentioned thus far in the literature. Here, we are most likely dealing with a type of "pseudo-lesbianism" post-trauma. The trafficking survivor can be helped to understand some of the likely roots of her feelings such as anti-male sentiments following abuse. She needs to be patiently, and expertly, accompanied to process the trauma she has experienced, and learn how to meet her genuine needs for female affection and affirmation in healthy, chaste, and non-erotic ways. Around the world, millions of female victims of human trafficking are forced into sex "work," often resulting in serious physical and mental-health problems. Healthcare staff should be alert to spot victims of sex trafficking and be ready to assist them. The Catholic Church, especially through Pope Francis, has been vocal in denouncing this form of modern slavery. Some female victims of sex trafficking may experience same-sex feelings afterward. Healing for such young women involves helping them to process their traumatic experiences, as well as patiently accompanying them as they seek to develop healthy, chaste friendships with other females and males.

  10. Public Discourse on Human Trafficking in International Issue Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Meriläinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to better understand how the complex problem of human trafficking is addressed in international debates. How the discussion about human trafficking develops and how it is debated ultimately influences how the decision-making process unfolds. In order to understand the formation of public policy and laws, therefore, it is important to study the debate that occurs prior to decision making. This analysis focuses on the narratives used by major, well-established human rights and political actors that argue for necessary actions to be undertaken—such as the formation of new policies and laws in the European Union—as an attempt to protect citizens of the EU and other regions in the world from becoming victims of trafficking networks. Our research examines how the topic of human trafficking is framed and how this framework is intertwined in the debate with other social problems. We focus on how human trafficking is discussed by two well-established human rights Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs, Amnesty International (Amnesty and Human Rights Watch (HRW, in addition to the European Parliament (EP. The research questions for this study include: (1 In what context is human trafficking discussed by the three actors? (2 How do these actors frame the definition of human trafficking in their presentations? To answer these questions, we have conducted a systematic content analysis of documents that include official statements and research reports of the NGOs, as well as resolutions and recommendations of the EP. Altogether, 240 documents were analyzed in detail. These findings indicate that the two human rights organizations, Amnesty and Human Rights Watch, along with the European Parliament, all address human trafficking as an important social problem, albeit to varying degrees. Each actor has a different method of correlating human trafficking with many other social problems, thereby emphasizing different causes and

  11. Virtual Red Light Districts: Detecting Covert Networks and Sex Trafficking Circuits in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The United States is the second leading destination country for sex trafficking in the world. Increased effort to understand patterns of sex trafficking within the U.S. is imperative to combatting this issue. Covert networks are increasingly using information and communication technologies (ICTs) to extend their operations. Due to the increase in…

  12. Membrane Trafficking and Vesicle Fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    hemophagocytic syndrome) and metabolic (diabe- tes) disorders [2, 23, 33]. Mutations in the genes of the basic secretory protein machinery lead to a number of membrane trafficking diseases such as Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, Cohen.

  13. Sex work and sex trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmore, M; Saunders, P

    1998-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as sexual and physical violence, are major occupational health and safety concerns for prostitutes. Considerable evidence shows that anti-prostitution laws facilitate violence and abuse against prostitutes and may increase their risk of contracting HIV/STDs. For example, police often take advantage of existing laws against prostitution to demand money or sex. In general, the strict enforcement of anti-prostitution laws marginalizes prostitutes from services which could help them avoid abuse and promotes an environment in which prostitutes must take risks to avoid detection and arrest. One strategy to improve prostitutes' lives would therefore be to remove laws which prevent them from working safely and from travelling abroad to work legally. Projects in which prostitutes are actively involved have helped break down stereotypes against prostitutes, while police-sex worker liaison projects in Scotland and Australia have led to higher levels of reporting of crimes against prostitutes. The Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an organization which links sex worker health programs around the world, has found that the incidence of HIV/STDs among prostitutes is lowest when they have control over their work conditions; access to condoms, lubricants, and other safe sex materials; and respect of their basic human and legal rights. People need to understand that consensual involvement in sex work is different from forced sex trafficking.

  14. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  15. Sex trafficking in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, S

    2006-09-01

    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions.

  16. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  17. Trafficking in persons: a health concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Zimmerman

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a phenomenon that has now been documented in most regions in the world. Although trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is the most commonly recognised form of trafficking, it is widely acknowledged that human trafficking also involves men, women and children who are trafficked for various forms of labour exploitation and into other abusive circumstances. Despite the violence and harm inherent in most trafficking situations, there remains extremely little evidence on the individual and public health implications of any form of human trafficking. The Brazilian government has recently launched a national plan to combat human trafficking. However, because the health risks associated with human trafficking have not been well-recognised or documented, there is extremely limited reliable data on the health needs of trafficked persons to inform policy and practices.. Brazilian policy-makers and service providers should be encouraged to learn about the likely range of health impacts of trafficking, and incorporate this into anti-trafficking protection and response strategies. As well as prevention activities, the government, international and local organisations should work together with the public health research community to study the health needs of trafficked persons and explore opportunities to provide safe and appropriate services to victims in need of care.

  18. Trafficking: a perspective from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    2000-01-01

    The main theme of this article is market development and trafficking as a business. It touches upon most of the aspects of the phenomenon, which have been encountered elsewhere, and translates them into the relatively unfamiliar context of many of the Asian and South-East Asian economies. Equally, the literature cited is also probably unfamiliar. Themes touched upon include democratization, inter-state relations, human rights, and scale and perspectives, together with the problems of definitions, theory, and the reliability of data. The directions and characteristics of trafficking flows together with routes and border control are also considered. Coordinated official responses to criminality and criminal organizations, as well as to trafficked individuals, are beginning to emerge. There is a note of caution sounded that contextual and cultural perspectives, particularly on sex workers, must be viewed somewhat differently to those in Western societies. The article concludes that as long as countries in Asia maintain their policies of restrictive immigration, trafficking can be expected to continue and almost certainly increase. This is because accelerating development creates demand for labor at various skill levels and because even in times of recession migrants and brokers will seek to side-step attempts to expel immigrants and restrict access to labor markets. The elimination of trafficking is unlikely to be realistically achieved through legislation and declarations of intent but by improvements in the socioeconomic status of the population.

  19. Roles of membrane trafficking in plant cell wall dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo eEbine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell wall is one of the characteristic components of plant cells. The cell wall composition differs among cell types and is modified in response to various environmental conditions. To properly generate and modify the cell wall, many proteins are transported to the plasma membrane or extracellular space through membrane trafficking, which is one of the key protein transport mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. Given the diverse composition and functions of the cell wall in plants, the transport of the cell wall components and proteins that are involved in cell wall-related events could be specialized for each cell type, i.e., the machinery for cell wall biogenesis, modification, and maintenance could be transported via different trafficking pathways. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the current understanding of the roles and mechanisms of membrane trafficking in plant cells and focus on the biogenesis and regulation of the cell wall.

  20. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  1. Sex trafficking and the exploitation of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Natalie M; Garrity, Stacy E

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking affects a surprisingly large number of adolescents around the globe. Women and girls make up the majority of sex trafficking victims. Nurses must be aware of sex trafficking as a form of sexual violence in the adolescent population. Nurses can play a role in identifying, intervening, and advocating for victims of human trafficking as they currently do for patients that are the victims of other types of violent crimes. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  2. The ESCRT regulator Did2 maintains the balance between long-distance endosomal transport and endocytic trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Haag

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In highly polarised cells, like fungal hyphae, early endosomes function in both endocytosis as well as long-distance transport of various cargo including mRNA and protein complexes. However, knowledge on the crosstalk between these seemingly different trafficking processes is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the ESCRT regulator Did2 coordinates endosomal transport in fungal hyphae of Ustilago maydis. Loss of Did2 results in defective vacuolar targeting, less processive long-distance transport and abnormal shuttling of early endosomes. Importantly, the late endosomal protein Rab7 and vacuolar protease Prc1 exhibit increased shuttling on these aberrant endosomes suggesting defects in endosomal maturation and identity. Consistently, molecular motors fail to attach efficiently explaining the disturbed processive movement. Furthermore, the endosomal mRNP linker protein Upa1 is hardly present on endosomes resulting in defects in long-distance mRNA transport. In conclusion, the ESCRT regulator Did2 coordinates precise maturation of endosomes and thus provides the correct membrane identity for efficient endosomal long-distance transport.

  3. Security Implications of Human-Trafficking Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    to those security concerns. Background How is Human Trafficking Carried Out? While trafficking victims are often found in sweatshops , domestic...labor. This type of trafficking is often found in agricultural labor, the production of goods (typically called sweatshops ) and construction labor

  4. Investigation of SNARE-Mediated Membrane Trafficking in Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xin

    2003-01-01

    In order to better understand how polarized membrane trafficking pathways change during the loss of epithelial cell polarity during cancer progression we have studied syntaxins 3 and 4 in prostate cancer...

  5. Human trafficking in domestic legislature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skakavac Zdravko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is an occurrence that, even in our time, is present in alarming proportions, in its actuality and consequences. It is a phenomenon with a long history and has been qualified as a serious international problem and is the object of interest for a large number of international subjects. However, the key international document that defines this phenomenon is the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime from Palermo 2000; specifically its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children. After its adoption, intensive actions were undertaken to regulate the phenomenon on the level of national legislature. It's done so in the local legislature too. According to the criminal law of the republic of Serbia, besides the concrete law against human trafficking, a number of other crimes are connected to human trafficking. This paper deals with the most important ones. The purpose of this paper is to review the legislature on the phenomenon in the domestic law, then the accordance of incrimination with international standards, as well as to indicate the need for further changes in domestic legislature.

  6. Routledge handbook of human trafficking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Piotrowicz, Ryszard; Uhl, Baerbe Heide

    2017-01-01

    Trafficking in human beings (THB) has been described as modern slavery. It is a serious criminal activity that has significant ramifications for the human rights of the victims. It poses major challenges to the state, society and individual victims. THB is not a static given but a constantly

  7. Membrane Trafficking and Vesicle Fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Membrane Trafficking and Vesicle Fusion: Post-Palade Era Researchers Win the Nobel Prize. Riddhi Atul Jani Subba Rao Gangi Setty. General Article Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 421-445 ...

  8. Anti-Human Trafficking Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, a significant number of programs and policies have been developed and implemented to prevent and combat human trafficking. At the international, regional and national levels, government, and international, and nongovernment organizations have established plans of action, conducted training, developed policy tools, and…

  9. Human trafficking and the healthcare professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Jeffrey; Finger, Reginald

    2008-05-01

    Despite the legislation passed in the 19th century outlawing human slavery, it is more widespread today than at the conclusion of the civil war. Modern human slavery, termed human trafficking, comes in several forms. The most common type of human trafficking is sex trafficking, the sale of women and children into prostitution. Labor trafficking is the sale of men, women, and children into hard labor for which they receive little or no compensation. Other forms of trafficking include child soldiering, war brides, and organ removal. Healthcare professionals play a critical role in both finding victims of human trafficking while they are still in captivity, as well as caring for their mental and physical needs upon release. Those working in the healthcare profession need to be educated regarding how a trafficking victim may present, as well as their unique healthcare needs.

  10. Ethical Considerations in Mandatory Disclosure of Data Acquired While Caring for Human Trafficking Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patrick L; Dash, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Accurate data on the prevalence and psychological effects of human trafficking as well as treatment outcomes for survivors are essential for measuring the impact of interventions and generating better understanding of this phenomenon. However, such data are difficult to obtain. A legal mandate for health care professionals to report trafficking opens opportunities for advancing our work in the field of human trafficking but also poses risks to survivors seeking services. In this article, we provide an analysis of some critical ethical considerations for the development and implementation of a mandatory reporting policy and offer recommendations for the ethical implementation of such a policy. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Central Asian Drug Trafficking Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Afghanistan and Central Asia have made the region a perfect environment for drug trafficking and use. Weakened governments, corrupt officials, lack of...expanding and increasing the role of the KOGG. If governments in Central Asia are serious about wanting stability, corruption is one of the most...concerning expanding and increasing the role of the KOGG. If governments in Central Asia are serious about wanting stability, corruption is one of the most

  12. Untold stories: biases and selection effects in research with victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunovskis, Anette; Surtees, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Recent discussions of trafficking research have included calls for more innovative studies and new methodologies in order to move beyond the current trafficking narrative, which is often based on unrepresentative samples and overly simplified images. While new methods can potentially play a role in expanding the knowledge base on trafficking, this article argues that the solution is not entirely about applying new methods, but as much about using current methods to greater effect and with careful attention to their limitations and ethical constraints. Drawing on the authors' experience in researching trafficking issues in a number of projects over the past decade, the article outlines and exemplifies some of the methodological and ethical issues to be considered and accommodated when conducting research with trafficked persons -- including unrepresentative samples; access to respondents; selection biases by "gatekeepers" and self selection by potential respondents. Such considerations should inform not only how research is undertaken but also how this information is read and understood. Moreover, many of these considerations equally apply when considering the application of new methods within this field. The article maintains that a better understanding of how these issues come into play and inform trafficking research will translate into tools for conducting improved research in this field and, by implication, new perspectives on human trafficking.

  13. Advocates' Experiences With Media and the Impact of Media on Human Trafficking Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Soibatian, Christina; Shattell, Mona M

    2017-02-01

    The present qualitative study explores advocates' opinions of misinformation about human trafficking in the media and describes advocates' strategies to counter the misinformation presented by the media. Thus, 15 advocates who work against human trafficking in Chicago-based nonprofit organizations participated in semistructured interviews about their opinions and strategies. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The present study identifies specific misperceptions of human trafficking in the media, highlights advocates' opinions of this misinformation, and discusses advocates' strategies to counteract inaccurate media, adding support to the role of media advocacy. Advocates note how media images shape and perpetuate stereotypes of trafficking through glamorizing sex work and sensationalizing stories that are most often international depictions of trafficking. Advocates report media generally shares only a piece of the story, simplifying the stories of survivors and the issue of human trafficking. Advocates critique media perpetuating these misperceptions for how they may contribute to policies and programs which fail to address structural factors that create vulnerabilities to be trafficked and the multisystem needs of survivors. However, advocates also note misperceptions can be counteracted by producing sensitive, informed media through social platforms. Advocates share their strategies counteracting misinformation through engaging in informative conversations, utilizing social media to educate, and promoting media messages of survivor agency. Research, clinical, and policy implications are also discussed. The present study emphasizes the importance of decision makers and service providers being critical consumers of media and to assess how media portrayals may (or may not) inform their understanding and response to the issue.

  14. The political aspects of human trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Lukach

    2014-01-01

    The negative international results of human trafficking are researched by the author. Namely, problems of governance organization that are created by powerful criminal groups of human traffickers and smugglers, mass stay of a significant number of non­citizens in the country; formation of the negative international image of the origin, destination or transit country as the state which is unable to counter effectively illegal migration and human trafficking.

  15. Human organ trafficking in the cyber space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuletić Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated growth of the information-communication technology use brought about cyber crime as a new form of crime connected with the misuse of computer network. Human trafficking and human organ trafficking are changing in line with the state-of-art technological achievements i.e. becoming more and more characteristic of cyber space. Passing appropriate regulations at both national and international levels presents an important step in solving the problem of human organ trafficking through Internet.

  16. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia

    2017-11-01

    In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  17. Maternity care for trafficked women: Survivor experiences and clinicians' perspectives in the United Kingdom's National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Debra; Howard, Louise M; Oram, Sian; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Although trafficked women and adolescents are at risk of unprotected or forced sex, there is little research on maternity care among trafficking survivors. We explored health care needs, service use and challenges among women who became pregnant while in the trafficking situation in the United Kingdom (UK) and clinicians' perspectives of maternity care for trafficked persons. Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews with trafficking survivors recruited from statutory and voluntary sector organisations in England and qualitative interviews with maternity clinicians and family doctors undertaken to offer further insight into experiences reported by these women. Twenty-eight (29%) of 98 women who took part in a large study of trafficking survivors reported one or more pregnancies while trafficked, whose data are reported here. Twelve (42.8%) of these women reported at least one termination of pregnancy while in the trafficking situation and 25 (89.3%) experienced some form of mental health disorder. Nineteen (67.9%) women experienced pre-trafficking physical abuse and 9 (32.%) sexual abuse. A quarter of women were trafficked for sexual exploitation, six for domestic servitude and two for manual labour. Survivors and clinicians described service challenges, including restrictions placed on women's movements by traffickers, poor knowledge on how to access maternity care, poor understanding of healthcare entitlements and concerns about confidentiality. Maternity care clinicians recognised potential indicators of trafficking, but considered training would help them identify and respond to victims. Main limitations include that findings reflect women who had exited the trafficking situation, however as some had only recently exited the trafficking situation, difficulties with recall were likely to be low. More than one in four women became pregnant while trafficked, indicating that maternity services offer an important contact point for identification and care

  18. Maternity care for trafficked women: Survivor experiences and clinicians' perspectives in the United Kingdom's National Health Service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Bick

    Full Text Available Although trafficked women and adolescents are at risk of unprotected or forced sex, there is little research on maternity care among trafficking survivors. We explored health care needs, service use and challenges among women who became pregnant while in the trafficking situation in the United Kingdom (UK and clinicians' perspectives of maternity care for trafficked persons.Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews with trafficking survivors recruited from statutory and voluntary sector organisations in England and qualitative interviews with maternity clinicians and family doctors undertaken to offer further insight into experiences reported by these women.Twenty-eight (29% of 98 women who took part in a large study of trafficking survivors reported one or more pregnancies while trafficked, whose data are reported here. Twelve (42.8% of these women reported at least one termination of pregnancy while in the trafficking situation and 25 (89.3% experienced some form of mental health disorder. Nineteen (67.9% women experienced pre-trafficking physical abuse and 9 (32.% sexual abuse. A quarter of women were trafficked for sexual exploitation, six for domestic servitude and two for manual labour. Survivors and clinicians described service challenges, including restrictions placed on women's movements by traffickers, poor knowledge on how to access maternity care, poor understanding of healthcare entitlements and concerns about confidentiality. Maternity care clinicians recognised potential indicators of trafficking, but considered training would help them identify and respond to victims. Main limitations include that findings reflect women who had exited the trafficking situation, however as some had only recently exited the trafficking situation, difficulties with recall were likely to be low.More than one in four women became pregnant while trafficked, indicating that maternity services offer an important contact point for identification

  19. Nurses' Perceptions of Victims of Human Trafficking in an Urban Emergency Department: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elizabeth; Dowdell, Elizabeth B

    2017-12-15

    Human trafficking is estimated to surpass the drug trade as the leading illegal industry in the world. According to a recent study, over 87.8% of trafficking survivors came into contact with a healthcare professional while they were enslaved and were not identified as a victim of human trafficking. The aims of this study are to understand the perceptions of emergency nurses about human trafficking, victims of violence, and prostitution. A qualitative, descriptive study using a semi-structured interview approach was done with ten registered nurses in a large, urban Emergency Department in the northeastern U.S. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; thematic analysis was performed. Six themes emerged from the interviews including, "human trafficking exists in the patient population" yet no nurse has screened or treated a victim; human trafficking victims are perceived to be "young, female, and foreign born"; all of the emergency nurses reported having worked with or screened a victim of violence; victims of violence were viewed as patients who present as "sad and grieving"; prostitutes are seen as "hard and tough"; and emergency nurses did not have education on human trafficking victims' needs or resources. Emergency nurses should be more aware about victims of human trafficking. The media portrayal of human trafficking victims had influenced the nurses' perceptions of this population. Victims of violence are perceived to be very different from prostitutes, but there is a desire for education about violence as well as information about specific resources open to victims. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Key challenges in the combat of human trafficking : Evaluating the EU trafficking strategy and EU trafficking directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Alice; Rijken, Conny

    2016-01-01

    The problem of trafficking in human beings (THB) is still omnipresent in Europe, despite the numerous preventive and retributive actions taken. This article evaluates the two most important EU-instruments to combat trafficking: the EU Directive and the EU Strategy. Based on secondary analysis of

  1. Ligand-directed trafficking of receptor stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2014-12-01

    GPCRs are seven transmembrane-spanning receptors that convey specific extracellular stimuli to intracellular signalling. They represent the largest family of cell surface proteins that are therapeutically targeted. According to the traditional two-state model of receptor theory, GPCRs were considered as operating in equilibrium between two functional conformations, an active (R*) and inactive (R) state. Thus, it was assumed that a GPCR can exist either in an "off" or "on" conformation causing either no activation or equal activation of all its signalling pathways. Over the past several years it has become evident that this model is too simple and that GPCR signalling is far more complex. Different studies have presented a multistate model of receptor activation in which ligand-specific receptor conformations are able to differentiate between distinct signalling partners. Recent data show that beside G proteins numerous other proteins, such as β-arrestins and kinases, may interact with GPCRs and activate intracellular signalling pathways. GPCR activation may therefore involve receptor desensitization, coupling to multiple G proteins, Gα or Gβγ signalling, and pathway activation that is independent of G proteins. This latter effect leads to agonist "functional selectivity" (also called ligand-directed receptor trafficking, stimulus trafficking, biased agonism, biased signalling), and agonist intervention with functional selectivity may improve the therapy. Many commercially available drugs with beneficial efficacy also show various undesirable side effects. Further studies of biased signalling might facilitate our understanding of the side effects of current drugs and take us to new avenues to efficiently design pathway-specific medications. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Cambodia: human trafficking legislation threatens HIV response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearshouse, Richard

    2008-12-01

    In February 2008, Cambodia's new Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation was promulgated and went into effect. The law criminalizes sex for money, public soliciting for prostitution and many forms of financial transactions connected to sex work. The law has been criticized for conflating sex work and trafficking.

  3. The Palermo Protocol: Trafficking Takes it All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónína Einarsdóttir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palermo Protocol is the outcome of bargain and lobbying with global institutions, NGOs and government representatives embattling to enforce their interests. The outcome is the concept of trafficking that embraces the struggles against prostitution, slavery and child labour. This broad concept has allowed various local cultural practices and survival strategies of those who live under difficult conditions to become classified as trafficking. While such definition may facilitate fundraising there are adverse consequences to be considered. Firstly, hazardous conditions of children that obviously are not trafficking tend to become ignored. Second, the victims of “real” trafficking become invisible by the excessive number of children allegedly trafficked. Third, the broad definition of trafficking has contributed to criminalization of whole communities and consequent conflicts between NGOs engaged in anti-trafficking activities and the communities involved. Such a situation is not in the best interest of the children involved. Rather than spending huge amount of resources on the conventional anti-trafficking measures there is a need to address the root causes of whatsoever unacceptable condition a child is suffering from.

  4. TRACE-ing human trafficking : Project Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Pijnenburg, Annick

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is one of the largest criminal enterprises in the world. It is a multi-billion-dollar crime of global scale. This is because human trafficking as a criminal enterprise continues to evolve as a high profit-low risk business for perpetrators and challenges policy makers, law

  5. Human Trafficking. Ministering to The 'Invisible' Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Colleen; Krausa, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Human trafficking is modern-day slavery - an insidious, criminal industry that gener- ates billions of dollars in labor trafficking alone. It knows no boundary of continent, country, race or class; it is a shattering, impartial predator that robs individuals of their basic human dignity.

  6. Was Trafficking in Persons Really Criminalised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Kangaspunta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the successes and setbacks in the criminal justice response to trafficking in persons. While today, the majority of countries have passed specific legislation criminalising human trafficking in response to the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, there are still very few convictions of trafficking. Using currently available knowledge, this paper discusses four possible reasons for low conviction rates. Further, the paper suggests that due to the heavy dependency on victim testimonies when prosecuting trafficking in persons crimes, members of criminal organisations that are easily identifiable by victims may face criminal charges more frequently than other members of the criminal group, particularly those in positions of greater responsibility who profit the most from the criminal activities. In this context, the exceptionally high number of women among convicted offenders is explored.

  7. Examining the Risk of Nuclear Trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schoeneck, Jeffery [DHS

    2009-01-01

    The need to stop illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials around the world is undeniable and urgent. This issue is particularly evident due to the highly dangerous consequences of the risks involved, the known interest of terrorist groups in acquiring such materials and the vulnerability of theft and diversion of such materials. Yet the phenomenon of nuclear trafficking remains a subject where the unknown dominates what is known on the subject. The trafficking panel at the Institute for Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Workshop on Reducing the Risk of Radioactive and Nuclear Materials that took place in Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 10-11, 2009, dealt with some of the issues associated with nuclear trafficking. Different points of view on how to better address trafficking and thwart perpetrator efforts were discussed. This paper presents some of these views and addresses practical measures that should be considered to improve the situation.

  8. Apical trafficking in epithelial cells: signals, clusters and motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Ora A; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2009-12-01

    In the early days of epithelial cell biology, researchers working with kidney and/or intestinal epithelial cell lines and with hepatocytes described the biosynthetic and recycling routes followed by apical and basolateral plasma membrane (PM) proteins. They identified the trans-Golgi network and recycling endosomes as the compartments that carried out apical-basolateral sorting. They described complex apical sorting signals that promoted association with lipid rafts, and simpler basolateral sorting signals resembling clathrin-coated-pit endocytic motifs. They also noticed that different epithelial cell types routed their apical PM proteins very differently, using either a vectorial (direct) route or a transcytotic (indirect) route. Although these original observations have generally held up, recent studies have revealed interesting complexities in the routes taken by apically destined proteins and have extended our understanding of the machinery required to sustain these elaborate sorting pathways. Here, we critically review the current status of apical trafficking mechanisms and discuss a model in which clustering is required to recruit apical trafficking machineries. Uncovering the mechanisms responsible for polarized trafficking and their epithelial-specific variations will help understand how epithelial functional diversity is generated and the pathogenesis of many human diseases.

  9. "Reconstructing a Sense of Self": Trauma and Coping Among Returned Women Survivors of Human Trafficking in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, PhuongThao D

    2017-03-01

    Survivors of human trafficking who return to their community of origin must cope with the trauma they experienced as victims as well as the conditions that contributed to their trafficking vulnerabilities. In this article, I examine the psychosocial adjustment process among women survivors of trafficking who returned to Vietnam. Supplemented by participation observation, thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with survivors revealed that throughout the trafficking process, the women experienced multiple abuses and changes in relationships and environments. The women coped by navigating a process of "reconstructing a sense of self," seeking congruence between their self-understandings and the changing contextual factors while exhibiting three main coping strategies: regulating emotional expression and thought, creating opportunities within constraints, and relating to cultural schemas. The findings underscore the importance of considering contextual factors such as cultural norms and societal values in efforts to assist trafficked survivors reintegrate into their communities.

  10. Human trafficking and the dental professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Michael G

    2012-05-01

    "Human trafficking" is a term for a modern form of slavery. It is a criminal human rights violation and a significant health issue. Dental professionals can assist in recognizing victims of trafficking. The author conducted a PubMed search of the English-language literature through May 2011, which yielded no articles meeting the search criteria "dentistry" and "human trafficking prostitution." Given these results, the author reviewed articles published in medical journals, reports from both governmental and nongovernmental agencies and lay literature. The author examines the present state of human trafficking and provides information--including specific questions to ask--to help dentists identify victims. In addition, the author suggests means of notifying authorities and assisting trafficking victims. He also examines the health care needs of these patients. Human trafficking is a global problem, with thousands of victims in the United States, including many women and children. Dentists have a responsibility to act for the benefit of others, which includes detecting signs of abuse and neglect. Dental professionals are on the front lines with respect to encountering and identifying potential victims who seek dental treatment. Dentists can combat human trafficking by becoming informed and by maintaining vigilance in their practices.

  11. Intensifying Insecurities: The impact of climate change on vulnerability to human trafficking in the Indian Sundarbans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Molinari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite an enormous amount of attention paid to the factors that shape vulnerability to human trafficking, such as poverty and a lack of economic opportunity, the debate of evidence for what enables these factors to exist in the first place is relatively less explored. Presently, discussions of the relationship between climate change and human insecurity have been marginal to broader debates about vulnerability to trafficking. This paper argues that this signifies a gap in our understanding of the underlying drivers that push individuals and communities into situations where vulnerability to trafficking amplifies, but also that increase the pull of risky migration pathways and exploitative work situations. This paper proceeds by examining and problematising dominant conceptualisations of vulnerability in human trafficking and climate change discourses. Next, it presents a case study of the Sundarbans region of India to highlight how climate change impacts compound and exacerbate the same factors that shape vulnerability to human trafficking—including environmental degradation, loss of livelihood, destitution, and forced migration. Lastly, it argues for enhanced attention to climate change-related insecurity as evidence of vulnerability to trafficking and outlines what such insights can bring to anti-trafficking efforts.

  12. Update: What Nurses Need to Know about Human Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Joy

    Nurses are key people who interact with victims of human trafficking in healthcare and other settings. This article provides a current overview of human trafficking, explains legal definitions, elements for protocols in healthcare settings when trafficking is suspected, nursing roles and responses, interview tools, resources, public health recommendations, and nursing education approaches to address human trafficking.

  13. Decreasing Human Trafficking through Sex Work Decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  14. How to Use a Trafficked Woman. The Alliance between Political and Criminal Trafficking Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Davies

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The principal argument of this paper is that migrant women with secure mobility rights and supportive social networks can avoid or mitigate many trafficking harms. However the paper contends that some actors have conspired to prevent such circumstances so as to pursue diverse political agendas at the expense of migrant women. The paper’s analysis restructures the trafficking contest from organised criminals versus law enforcement agencies to principally a contest between migrant women and those political agents who benefit from the moral panic associated with trafficking. It is then argued that it is these more sophisticated political actors rather than organised criminals and the clients of sex workers are the most important stakeholders in sustaining or exploiting trafficking harm. Therefore, it is concluded that resolving many trafficking harms in the EEA could be achieved by subverting political traffickers through improving migration policy rather than fighting organised crime.

  15. Nuclear trafficking latest statistics released

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Countries reported 121 incidents to the IAEA in 2004 of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials, newly released statistics from the Agency's Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB) show. The ITDB report also shows that one incident was reported since 2003 that involved fissile material - highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium - that is needed to make a nuclear weapon. It occurred in June 2003 when an individual was arrested in possession of 170 grams of HEU, attempting to illegally transport it across the border. During the two-year period 2003-2004, the number of incidents reported by States substantially increased compared with previous years. 'Improved reporting may in part account for it,' the report said. 'The majority of the incidents reported in 2003-2004 showed no evidence of criminal activity.' The Past Twelve Years: 1993 - 2004 Nuclear Weapons Grade Material. Since the database started in 1993, there have been eighteen confirmed incidents involving trafficking in HEU and plutonium. A few of these incidents involved seizures of kilogram quantities of weapons-usable nuclear material but most involved very small quantities. In some of the cases the seized material was allegedly a sample of larger quantities available for illegal sale or at risk of theft. More than two dozens incidents involved trace amounts of plutonium sources. Table can be viewed: Incidents involving HEU and Pu confirmed to the ITDB (1993-2004). Nuclear Materials. In the past twelve years, 220 incidents involved nuclear materials. The majority of confirmed cases with nuclear materials involved low-grade nuclear materials, mostly in the form of reactor fuel pellets, and natural uranium, depleted uranium and thorium. While the quantities of these materials have been rather small to be significant for nuclear proliferation or use in a terrorist nuclear explosive device, these cases are indicative of gaps in the control

  16. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration.

  17. Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Richard J; English, Abigail

    2015-08-01

    This review describes the current state of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of adolescents in the United States and globally, the legal and health implications of this severe form of abuse, and the roles that pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers can play in addressing this issue. Although this form of exploitation and abuse is shrouded in secrecy, pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers are well positioned to respond when it arises. However, awareness and understanding of the issue are generally lacking among healthcare professionals, currently limiting their effectiveness in combating this problem. Although the empirical evidence base available to guide clinical care of victims of trafficking remains limited given the secretive nature of the abuse, important contributions to the multidisciplinary literature on this issue have been made in recent years, including the Institute of Medicine's landmark report in the United States. Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of adolescents represent a human rights tragedy that remains inadequately addressed. As preeminent advocates for the health and well-being of adolescents, pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers can play a crucial role in advancing efforts not only to intervene but also to prevent further victimization of vulnerable youth.

  18. Perdagangan Orang (Trafficking) sebagai Pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia

    OpenAIRE

    Munthe, Riswan

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is garbage of civilization which is hard to be fought. This sentence provide an invasion for all that human trafficking is a common enemy. Human trafficking is often done by agent who has national even international network, has power, strong physically and arrogance. Due to the victim of human trafficking is the group in the lower class of economy and education. Generally the victim of human trafficking is everyone without exception. Since Indonesian independence, it is con...

  19. Human trafficking in Asia: a heinous crime against humanities

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the human trafficking especially women and children trafficking in Asia. Human trafficking is not only a local problem but also a global concern. It is performed for various purposes such as labor, prostitution, organ transplant, drug couriers, and arm smuggling and affects virtually every country in the world. Recently trafficking of human being increased alarmingly due to globalization and liberalization. In Bangladesh and Nepal trafficking becomes an important issue re...

  20. Neurobeachin regulates neurotransmitter receptor trafficking to synapses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, R.; Lauks, J.; Jung, S; Cooke, N.E.; de Wit, H.; Brose, N.; Kilimann, M.W.; Verhage, M.; Rhee, J.

    2013-01-01

    The surface density of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses is a key determinant of synaptic efficacy. Synaptic receptor accumulation is regulated by the transport, postsynaptic anchoring, and turnover of receptors, involving multiple trafficking, sorting, motor, and scaffold proteins. We found

  1. Committee opinion no. 507: human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Human trafficking is a widespread problem with estimates ranging from 14,000 to 50,000 individuals trafficked into the United States annually. This hidden population involves the commercial sex industry, agriculture, factories, hotel and restaurant businesses, domestic workers, marriage brokers, and some adoption firms. Because 80% of trafficked individuals are women and girls, women’s health care providers may better serve their diverse patient population by increasing their awareness of this problem. The exploitation of people of any race, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnicity is unacceptable at any time, in any place. The members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists should be aware of this problem and strive to recognize and assist their patients who are victims or who have been victims of human trafficking.

  2. Sex trafficking of women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

    2013-01-01

    Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women's rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services.

  3. Trafficking in Persons Report 10th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Venezuela. Human trafficking is reportedly increasing in Venezuela’s Orinoco River Basin area, where victims are exploited in mining operations, and in...Khansee trusted him because he was a fellow Lao, but he never made it to the garment factory. They crossed the river at night and boarded a van that...Equatorial Guinea – caused traffickers to change their routes, including utilizing estuaries and rivers to transport children. The majority of victims

  4. Debate: Strategically Working in Parallel to Traffickers

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Tournecuillert

    2014-01-01

    Let’s be realistic, counter-trafficking teams will never be as effective as the proactive and flexible networks of outlaws that violate the rights of millions of people each year. The ‘bad guys’ operate without the same financial limitations such as bureaucratic red tape and donor criteria, and take advantage of patchy and often uncoordinated border surveillance that is chronically untrained in detecting trafficking in persons.  Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) involved in the fight agai...

  5. Liberal Coercion? - Prostitution, Human Trafficking and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho

    2013-01-01

    Liberal prostitution policy aims at improving labour conditions for prostitutes and protecting victims of forced prostitution. Its policy orientation predicts that the policy choice of liberalizing prostitution is positively associated with better protection policy for trafficking victims and enhanced anti-trafficking measures. In this paper, I investigate empirically whether the legalization of prostitution improves protection policy for victims, as it is presumed. The results of my analysis...

  6. An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: achieving a more effective health sector response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Konstantopoulos, Wendy; Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Cafferty, Elizabeth; McGahan, Anita; Williams, Timothy P; Castor, Judith Palmer; Wolferstan, Nadya; Purcell, Genevieve; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-12-01

    Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread form of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women and girls, and has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficking situation, yet it is unclear how the healthcare system responds to the needs of victims of sex trafficking. To understand the intersection of sex trafficking and public health, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews among 277 antitrafficking stakeholders across eight metropolitan areas in five countries to examine the local context of sex trafficking. We sought to gain a new perspective on this form of gender-based violence from those who have a unique vantage point and intimate knowledge of push-and-pull factors, victim health needs, current available resources and practices in the health system, and barriers to care. Through comparative analysis across these contexts, we found that multiple sociocultural and economic factors facilitate sex trafficking, including child sexual abuse, the objectification of women and girls, and lack of income. Although there are numerous physical and psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking, health services for victims are patchy and poorly coordinated, particularly in the realm of mental health. Various factors function as barriers to a greater health response, including low awareness of sex trafficking and attitudinal biases among health workers. A more comprehensive and coordinated health system response to sex trafficking may help alleviate its devastating effects on vulnerable women and girls. There are numerous opportunities for local health systems to engage in antitrafficking efforts while partnering across sectors with relevant stakeholders.

  7. Health and Rights at the Margins: Human trafficking and HIV/AIDS amongst Jingpo ethnic communities in Ruili City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Shih

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, China and Myanmar signed their first Bilateral Memorandum of Understanding on human trafficking. The two countries cemented this agreement with the unveiling of the first Border Liaison Office in Ruili City, located in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province — one of the primary border crossing points between China and Myanmar. The government focus on human trafficking on this border intersects with decades of struggles to curb the border’s porousness to drugs and HIV/AIDS. This paper i...

  8. The Global Discourse on Human Trafficking and the Construction of a Standard of Civilization: Explored through The CNN Freedom Project

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Line Liblik

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an integrated research study in two study programs cultural encounters and global studies. The thesis performs a critical discourse analysis of a mass media humanitarian campaign called The CNN Freedom Project and the broader global discourse on human trafficking in which the campaign is situated. The complexity of the issue of human trafficking is owed to the plethora of competing and influential elements, where various definitions, understandings, statistics, and ideologies e...

  9. Altered neutrophil trafficking during sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ren-Feng; Riedemann, Niels C; Laudes, Ines J; Sarma, Vidya J; Kunkel, Robin G; Dilley, Kari A; Paulauskis, Joseph D; Ward, Peter A

    2002-07-01

    In sepsis, dysregulation of the inflammatory system is well known, as reflected in excessive inflammatory mediator production, complement activation, and appearance of defects in phagocytic cells. In the current study sepsis was induced in rats by cecal ligation/puncture. Early in sepsis the beta(1) and beta(2) integrin content on blood neutrophils increased in a nontranscriptional manner, and the increase in beta(2), but not beta(1), integrin content was C5a dependent. Similar changes could be induced in vitro on blood neutrophils following contact with phorbol ester or C5a. Direct injury of lungs of normal rats induced by deposition of IgG immune complexes (IgG-IC) caused 5-fold increases in the myeloperoxidase content that was beta(2), but not beta(1), dependent. In contrast, in cecal ligation/puncture lungs myeloperoxidase increased 10-fold after IgG immune complex deposition and was both beta(1) and beta(2) integrin dependent. These data suggest that sepsis causes enhanced neutrophil trafficking into the lung via mechanisms that are not engaged in the nonseptic state.

  10. Na+ channel function, regulation, structure, trafficking and sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Izu, Ye; Shaw, Robin M; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Sack, Jon T; Abriel, Hugues; Aldrich, Richard W; Belardinelli, Luiz; Cannell, Mark B; Catterall, William A; Chazin, Walter J; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Deschenes, Isabelle; Grandi, Eleonora; Hund, Thomas J; Izu, Leighton T; Maier, Lars S; Maltsev, Victor A; Marionneau, Celine; Mohler, Peter J; Rajamani, Sridharan; Rasmusson, Randall L; Sobie, Eric A; Clancy, Colleen E; Bers, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second of a series of three reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on Na+ channel function and regulation, Na+ channel structure and function, and Na+ channel trafficking, sequestration and complexing. PMID:25772290

  11. Preliminary perspectives on DNA collection in anti-human trafficking efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanis, Sara H; Kim, Joyce; Minear, Mollie A; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Wagner, Jennifer K

    2014-01-01

    Forensic DNA methodologies have potential applications in the investigation of human trafficking cases. DNA and relationship testing may be useful for confirmation of biological relationship claims in immigration, identification of trafficked individuals who are missing persons, and family reunification of displaced individuals after mass disasters and conflicts. As these applications rely on the collection of DNA from non-criminals and potentially vulnerable individuals, questions arise as to how to address the ethical challenges of collection, security, and privacy of collected samples and DNA profiles. We administered a survey targeted to victims' advocates to gain preliminary understanding of perspectives regarding human trafficking definitions, DNA and sex workers, and perceived trust of authorities potentially involved in DNA collection. We asked respondents to consider the use of DNA for investigating adoption fraud, sex trafficking, and post-conflict child soldier cases. We found some key differences in perspectives on defining what qualifies as "trafficking." When we varied terminology between "sex worker" and "sex trafficking victim" we detected differences in perception on which authorities can be trusted. Respondents were supportive of the hypothetical models proposed to collect DNA. Most were favorable of DNA specimens being controlled by an authority outside of law enforcement. Participants voiced concerns focused on privacy, misuse of DNA samples and data, unintentional harms, data security, and infrastructure. These preliminary data indicate that while there is perceived value in programs to use DNA for investigating cases of human trafficking, these programs may need to consider levels of trust in authorities as their logistics are developed and implemented.

  12. Comprehensive Care Model for Sex Trafficking Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Naomi M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify aftercare services for domestic minor of sex trafficking (DMST) survivors provided by U.S. residential treatment centers. A qualitative research study was conducted with aftercare program personnel from five U.S. residential treatment centers for DMST survivors. Interviews were conducted with staff from five different residential treatment centers providing services exclusively to domestic minor sex trafficking survivors. Participants described the range of services offered to address survivors' posttrafficking needs. Participants' responses assisted in expanding an existing care model to include education re-entry, family reunification, family reconciliation, and emergency substance use services. This study led to the refinement of an aftercare service delivery model and laid the foundation to develop best practice guidelines for providing aftercare services to DMST survivors. Sex trafficking is a global health problem affecting our youth today. Nurses have a vital role in combatting sex trafficking by raising awareness about the problem and restoring the lives of sex trafficking victims by implementing innovative care programs. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Characterising the online weapons trafficking on cryptomarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhumorbarbe, Damien; Werner, Denis; Gilliéron, Quentin; Staehli, Ludovic; Broséus, Julian; Rossy, Quentin

    2018-02-01

    Weapons related webpages from nine cryptomarkets were manually duplicated in February 2016. Information about the listings (i.e. sales proposals) and vendors' profiles were extracted to draw an overview of the actual online trafficking of weapons. Relationships between vendors were also inferred through the analysis of online digital traces and content similarities. Weapons trafficking is mainly concentrated on two major cryptomarkets. Besides, it accounts for a very small proportion of the illicit trafficking on cryptomarkets compared to the illicit drugs trafficking. Among all weapon related listings (n=386), firearms only account for approximately 25% of sales proposal since the proportion of non-lethal and melee weapons is important (around 46%). Based on the recorded pseudonyms, a total of 96 vendor profiles were highlighted. Some pseudonyms were encountered on several cryptomarkets, suggesting that some vendors may manage accounts on different markets. This hypothesis was strengthened by comparing pseudonyms to online traces such as PGP keys, images and profiles descriptions. Such a method allowed to estimate more accurately the number of vendors offering weapons across cryptomarkets. Finally, according to the gathered data, the extent of the weapons trafficking on the cryptomarkets appear to be limited compared to other illicit goods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Debate: Strategically Working in Parallel to Traffickers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tournecuillert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s be realistic, counter-trafficking teams will never be as effective as the proactive and flexible networks of outlaws that violate the rights of millions of people each year. The ‘bad guys’ operate without the same financial limitations such as bureaucratic red tape and donor criteria, and take advantage of patchy and often uncoordinated border surveillance that is chronically untrained in detecting trafficking in persons.  Non-governmental organisations (NGOs involved in the fight against human trafficking—and in direct contact with presumed victims (their status is not assessed until at a stage later than this initial contact—are in a diametrically opposite situation. They must carefully abide by the national and international legal frameworks that their criminal antagonists ignore. Donors and national authorities operate within the constraints of geographic target areas and funding cycles. Since counter-trafficking actors neither create the markets nor devise the routes for trafficking, their strategic cross-border (or long distance partnerships are always a few steps behind the traffickers, if not many steps behind, and rarely efficient.

  15. Medical education and human trafficking: using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Hanni; Lyman, Michelle; Bohnert, Carrie; Mittel, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare providers have the potential to play a crucial role in human trafficking prevention, identification, and intervention. However, trafficked patients are often unidentified due to lack of education and preparation available to healthcare professionals at all levels of training and practice. To increase victim identification in healthcare settings, providers need to be educated about the issue of trafficking and its clinical presentations in an interactive format that maximizes learning and ultimately patient-centered outcomes. In 2014, University of Louisville School of Medicine created a simulation-based medical education (SBME) curriculum to prepare students to recognize victims and intervene on their behalf. The authors share the factors that influenced the session's development and incorporation into an already full third year medical curriculum and outline the development process. The process included a needs assessment for the education intervention, development of objectives and corresponding assessment, implementation of the curriculum, and finally the next steps of the module as it develops further. Additional alternatives are provided for other medical educators seeking to implement similar modules at their home institution. It is our hope that the description of this process will help others to create similar interactive educational programs and ultimately help trafficking survivors receive the care they need. HCP: Healthcare professional; M-SIGHT: Medical student instruction in global human trafficking; SBME: Simulation-based medical education; SP: Standardized patient; TIC: Trauma-informed care.

  16. Human Trafficking in Indonesia: Law Enforcement Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalina Naibaho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is considered as a crime against humanity. To conduct the due process of law towards cases related with human trafficking, the law enforcement officers cannot work by themselves. They really need assistance from many parties – such as active report from the society – as a valuable information to disclose such cases. Law enforcement conducted towards woman and child trafficking is still ineffective. It is proven by many existing cases, that low number of processed cases before the court and minimum sanction convicted to the perpetrators is clearly evident. Factors which are deemed to have correlation with low attempt of law enforcement towards legal case on this case, among others are: Lack of the Government’s commitment to fight against the crime of human trafficking, in the event that the ineffectiveness in utilization of prevailing laws and regulation; Lack of capacity of professionalism of law enforcement agency (and relevant parties in handling women and child trafficking at the field. This may be caused by lack of knowledge on infringed regulation. For that matter, those law enforcement agency shall be given socialization and an SOP (standardized operational procedure, so that there will be no inconsistency in handling the existing cases.

  17. Trafficking in people in Serbia: Between moral panic and social strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with analysis of different levels of defining understanding, and dealing in general terms with trafficking in people problems in Serbia -from legal regulation and state organs that implement laws in practice, through domestic non-governmental and international organizations, to media images and messages that are sent to the public. The analysis is based on results of up to date research on trafficking in people in Serbia, as well as on author's ongoing monitoring of legal changes and attitudes of media, as well as governmental, non-governmental and international organizations toward this problem.

  18. Recognize the signs of human trafficking, and be prepared to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    A visit to the ED represents a vital opportunity for victims of human trafficking to break free from their exploiters, but this opportunity is often lost, either because ED personnel don't recognize the subtle cues that a person may be a trafficking victim, or because they don't know how to handle the situation. However, resources and training are available to help ED managers raise awareness of the issue in their settings. An estimated 15,000 to 20,000 people are trafficked into this country each year, and this is in addition to the untold numbers of domestic victims who are forced into prostitution or other labor situations. A first step for ED managers who want to address this situation is to obtain on-site training for all staff in the ED so that they understand what human trafficking is, and can recognize the subtle cues that a patient may be a victim. When you suspect that patients may be human-trafficking victims, it is important to speak with them alone so that they are free to explain their situation. However, unless they are a minor, it is their decision on whether to seek help.

  19. An imaging flow cytometry method to assess ricin trafficking in A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Dominic; Chong, Damien; Walker, Nicola; Green, A Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The endocytosis and trafficking of ricin in mammalian cells is an important area of research for those producing ricin anti-toxins and other ricin therapeutics. Ricin trafficking is usually observed by fluorescence microscopy techniques. This gives good resolution and leads to a detailed understanding of the internal movement of ricin within cells. However, microscopy techniques are often hampered by complex analysis and quantification techniques, and the inability to look at ricin trafficking in large populations of cells. In these studies we have directly labelled ricin and assessed if its trafficking can be observed using Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) both to the cytoplasmic region of cells and specifically to the Golgi apparatus. Using IDEAS® data analysis software the specific fluorescence location of the ricin within the cells was analysed. Then, using cytoplasmic masking techniques to quantify the number of cells with endocytosed cytoplasmic ricin or cells with Golgi-associated ricin, kinetic endocytosis curves were generated. Here we present, to the authors' knowledge, the first example of using imaging flow cytometry for evaluating the subcellular transport of protein cargo, using the trafficking of ricin toxin in lung cells as a model. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. TRAFFICKING: SUATU STUDI TENTANG PERDAGANGAN PEREMPUAN DARI ASPEK SOSIAL, BUDAYA DAN EKONOMI DI KABUPATEN BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Muflichah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking or people commerce is a recruitment, transportation, reception centre, sending, moving or reception somaone with threat, harshness, abduction, forgery, deception, abuse of power, trapping of debt or giving payment or profit, so get approval from people holding to conduct of others, both for conducted in inter-states and state for ceploittation or result people exploited. From understanding above, hence form trafficking can in the form of labor migran legal also illegal, worker of hausehold, worker of commercial seks, wedding orger, spurlous child adoption, beggar, pornography industry, circulation of forbidden drug and sale of body organ. Pursuant to research result, trafficking form that happened Banyumas is expressed. Its for ecample that is husemaid labour of migran and worker of commercial seks. Form of him not yet been expressed. Cause factor the happen of trafficking is economic factor or poorness, education which relative lower, patriakhi culture who then push woman motivate to fulfill requirement of economics and fulfill the him of as especial entrpreneur. The trafficking victims less get protection of law, this matter is caused by law and substanstion regulation completely arrangen protection to victim. The adjacent is theoretically conducted in three aspects, its relocation, repatriating, and reintegration, but not all victims get adjacent pattern.

  1. Application of Live-Cell RNA Imaging Techniques to the Study of Retroviral RNA Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrin V. Bann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses produce full-length RNA that serves both as a genomic RNA (gRNA, which is encapsidated into virus particles, and as an mRNA, which directs the synthesis of viral structural proteins. However, we are only beginning to understand the cellular and viral factors that influence trafficking of retroviral RNA and the selection of the RNA for encapsidation or translation. Live cell imaging studies of retroviral RNA trafficking have provided important insight into many aspects of the retrovirus life cycle including transcription dynamics, nuclear export of viral RNA, translational regulation, membrane targeting, and condensation of the gRNA during virion assembly. Here, we review cutting-edge techniques to visualize single RNA molecules in live cells and discuss the application of these systems to studying retroviral RNA trafficking.

  2. Role of Occupational Therapy in Combating Human Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen W; Hatkevich, Beth Ann

    Human trafficking is a modern-day form of slavery that includes sex trafficking, labor trafficking, and trafficking of children. It is estimated that 35.8 million people are enslaved around the world. Because of the traumatic experiences that victims of human trafficking encounter, the needs of victims are extensive and require the services of several providers, including health care providers, for victims to transform into survivors and thrivers. Currently, the role of occupational therapy is minimal and unexplored. The profession of occupational therapy has the capacity of having a profound role in both providing client-centered care services to victims and survivors of human trafficking and partaking in preventive advocacy efforts to combat human trafficking. Further advocacy efforts are required to promote the profession of occupational therapy in combating human trafficking. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. Participatory Assessment of a Matched Savings Program for Human Trafficking Survivors and their Family Members in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cordisco Tsai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Survivors of human trafficking often experience considerable financial difficulties upon exiting human trafficking, including pressure to provide financially for their families, challenges securing employment, lack of savings, and familial debt. Few evaluations have been conducted of reintegration support interventions addressing financial vulnerability among trafficking survivors. In this article, we present findings from a participatory assessment of the BARUG program, a matched savings and financial capability program for survivors of human trafficking and their family members in the Philippines. Photovoice was used to understand the experiences of two cohorts of BARUG participants. Survivors collaborated with research team members in conducting thematic analysis of transcripts from the photovoice sessions. Themes included: the positive emotional impact of financial wellness, overcoming the challenges of saving, applying financial management skills in daily decision making, developing a habit of savings, building a future-oriented mindset, receiving guidance and enlightenment, the learning process, and the change process. Findings reinforce the importance of interventions to support trafficked persons and their family members in getting out of debt and accumulating emergency savings, while also providing emotional support to survivors in coping with family financial pressures. The study also highlights the value of using participatory research methods to understand the experiences of trafficked persons. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1702116

  4. Human Trafficking: The Role of the Health Care Provider

    OpenAIRE

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setti...

  5. Trafficking of Children in Albania: Patterns of Recruitment and Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjermeni, Eglantina; Van Hook, Mary P.; Gjipali, Saemira; Xhillari, Lindita; Lungu, Fatjon; Hazizi, Anila

    2008-01-01

    Problem: Many children in Albania and other countries of Eastern Europe are being trafficked as part of the global business of human trafficking. Objectives: The study sought to identify the patterns of child trafficking involving Albanian children, and especially children's views of the role of family issues and the nature of the trafficking…

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Combating Trafficking in Persons (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Coercion means— (1.... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or...

  7. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  8. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Zimmerman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  9. 78 FR 59317 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Ending Trafficking in Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... addressed a wide range of human trafficking-related issues. Commonly raised themes included the following...-AM55 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Ending Trafficking in Persons AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD...) to strengthen protections against trafficking in persons in Federal contracts. These changes are...

  10. a Study of Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo's Trafficked

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trafficking is frowned at in Nigeria, yet people are perpetually trafficked. In this research work, the researcher examines the novel in line with sociological approach so that the ills of human trafficking as it is a case in the contemporary society would be seen. The researcher believes that when the ills are exposed, there ...

  11. South Africa - safe haven for human traffickers? Employing the arsenal of existing law to combat human trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, H B; Oosthuizen, H

    2012-01-01

    aving ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, South Africa is obliged to adopt legislative measures that criminalise human trafficking and comply with other standards laid down in this international instrument. However, by mid-2011, South Africa had not enacted the required comprehensive counter-trafficking legislation. The question that now arises is if the absence of such anti-trafficking legislation poses an insurmountabl...

  12. Trafficking in Persons for Ransom and the Need to Expand the Interpretation of Article 3 of the UN Trafficking Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Mogos O Brhane

    2015-01-01

    As the nature of trafficking in persons continues to manifest itself in myriad ways all over the world, interpretation of the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Trafficking Protocol), should be broadened to include newly emerging practices that are similar in nature to those it has already embraced under its definition. The Protocol appears to encompass other forms of trafficking which are unnamed or unforeseen by the definition ...

  13. Trafficking as a Human Rights Violation: Is South Africa's Curriculum Stuck in a Traffick Jam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, Petro; Simmonds, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Human trafficking is a form of modern day slavery and is often collectively referred to as a human rights violation. However, human trafficking is more complex than this suggests as this article attempts to demonstrate. It begins by describing the landscape of international trends in human trafficking, with particular attention to child…

  14. Sinai Trafficking: Origin and Definition of a New Form of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam van Reisen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon that is coined “Sinai Trafficking” started in 2009 in the Sinai desert. It involves the abduction, extortion, sale, torture, sexual violation and killing of men, women and children. Migrants, of whom the vast majority are from Eritrean descent, are abducted and brought to the Sinai desert, where they are sold and resold, extorted for very high ransoms collected by mobile phone, while being brutally and “functionally” tortured to support the extortion. Many of them die in Sinai. Over the last five years broadcasting stations, human rights organisations and academics have reported on the practices in the Sinai and some of these reports have resulted in some confusion on the modus operandi. Based on empirical research by the authors and the analysis of data gathered in more than 200 recorded interviews with Sinai hostages and survivors on the practices, this article provides a definition of Sinai Trafficking. It argues that the term Sinai Trafficking can be used to differentiate a particular new set of criminal practices that have first been reported in the Sinai Peninsula. The article further examines how the new phenomenon of Sinai Trafficking can be framed into the legal human trafficking definition. The interconnectedness of Sinai Trafficking with slavery, torture, ransom collection, extortion, sexual violence and other severe crimes is presented to substantiate the use of the trafficking framework. The plight of Sinai survivors in Israel and Egypt is explained to illustrate the cyclical process of the trafficking practices especially endured by Eritreans, introduced as the Human Trafficking Cycle. The article concludes by setting out areas for further research.

  15. Trafficking in persons : A victim's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Rijken, Conny; Piotrowicz, Ryszard; Uhl, Baerbel Heide

    2017-01-01

    Historically, protection and assistance to victims of human trafficking in many countries is anchored in migration law and dependent on whether or not a residence permit is granted to the victim. Apart from some limited exceptions, cooperation with law enforcement authorities in criminal

  16. Neuronal trafficking: basic mechanisms and ALS pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M.

    2014-01-01

    A cell is divided into different compartments and organelles, which enables the cell to create specialized environments for specific functions. To perform these functions, organelles need a unique composition of proteins and lipids. By actively controlling the trafficking of proteins and membrane

  17. Psychological characteristics of victims of trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larin A.N.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main causes of falling into slavery, forms of slave labour, as well as moral-psychological properties and characteristics of potential victims of trafficking. Noted risk factors leading to victimization of the person and increase the possibility of becoming an object for criminal groups specializing in this kind of crime. The number of victims of international trafficking ranges from 600 to 800 thousand people a year, and when you consider human trafficking within the individual countries, the total number of victims ranges from 2 to 4 million people. 80% of trafficked people are women and children, of which 70% are sold to other countries for sexual exploitation. According to the International organization for migration (International Organization of Migration annually only in the European markets of prostitution sold is not less than 500 thousand women. Among the personal factors that affect the increase in the number of such crimes, it is necessary to indicate family trouble, which manifests itself, primarily, to neglect, loss of relationships with family and parents, or in the absence of moral and material support from existing family and friends.

  18. Linking Poverty, Irregular Migration and Human Trafficking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration literature suggests that poverty, irregular migration and human trafficking are causally linked. However, empirical studies linking these aspects of migration are scarce. This is because, as clandestine activities, data collection on these aspects of migration presents serious challenges. As a result of these ...

  19. Human Trafficking, Globalisation and Transnational Feminist Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T-D. Truong (Thanh-Dam)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a historical overview of feminist frameworks for analysis and advocacy on human trafficking. It traces the major differences and similarities in the forms of knowledge produced since the Anti-White Slavery campaigns nearly two centuries ago. It highlights how

  20. Advocacy of Trafficking Campaigns: A Controversy Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Echezarreta, Vanesa; Alvarado, María-Cruz; Gómez-Lorenzini, Paulina

    2018-01-01

    The construction, visualization and stabilization of public problems require the mobilization of civil society groups concerned about these issues to actively engage in the demand for actions and policies. This paper explores the institutional campaigns against human trafficking and sexual exploitation in Spain between 2008 and 2017 and their role…

  1. Global Human Trafficking and Child Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Jordan; Bodrick, Nia

    2017-12-01

    Trafficking of children for labor and sexual exploitation violates basic human rights and constitutes a major global public health problem. Pediatricians and other health care professionals may encounter victims who present with infections, injuries, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidality, or a variety of other physical or behavioral health conditions. Preventing child trafficking, recognizing victimization, and intervening appropriately require a public health approach that incorporates rigorous research on the risk factors, health impact, and effective treatment options for child exploitation as well as implementation and evaluation of primary prevention programs. Health care professionals need training to recognize possible signs of exploitation and to intervene appropriately. They need to adopt a multidisciplinary, outward-focused approach to service provision, working with nonmedical professionals in the community to assist victims. Pediatricians also need to advocate for legislation and policies that promote child rights and victim services as well as those that address the social determinants of health, which influence the vulnerability to human trafficking. This policy statement outlines major issues regarding public policy, medical education, research, and collaboration in the area of child labor and sex trafficking and provides recommendations for future work. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Ovarian Cystadenoma in a Trafficked Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchen, Kanani E; Katz, Douglas; Martinez, Kidian; White, Krishna

    2016-05-01

    The topic of child sex trafficking is receiving increased attention both in the lay press and in research articles. Recently, a number of physician organizations have issued policy statements calling for the education and involvement of physicians in combating this form of "modern-day slavery." Primary care and emergency medicine physicians have led these efforts, but a number of these victims may present to surgeons. Surgeons are in a unique position to identify trafficked patients; during the process of undraping, intubation, and surgical preparation, signs of trafficking such as tattoos, scars, dental injuries, and bruising may be evident. In addition, these patients may have specific needs in terms of anesthesia and postoperative care due to substance abuse. Here, we report the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of sexual exploitation who presents for cystadenoma excision. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a sex-trafficked pediatric patient presenting for surgery. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Global recycling - waste trafficking in disguise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuk, Bettina; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2007-01-01

    Recycling is used as cover for illegal exporting of hazardous wastes (waste trafficking). This happens in spite of international conventions and codes of good conduct. Additional rules and recommendations are suggested to initiatiate local and national action and compliance with international...

  4. Counter Trafficking System Development "Analysis Training Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dennis C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document will detail the training curriculum for the Counter-Trafficking System Development (CTSD) Analysis Modules and Lesson Plans are derived from the United States Military, Department of Energy doctrine and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Global Security (GS) S Program.

  5. HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Biosynthesis, Trafficking, and Incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkley, Mary Ann; Luttge, Benjamin G.; Freed, Eric O.

    2011-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins play an essential role in the virus replication cycle by mediating the fusion between viral and cellular membranes during the entry process. The Env glycoproteins are synthesized as a polyprotein precursor, gp160, that is cleaved by cellular proteases to the mature surface glycoprotein gp120 and the transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. During virus assembly the gp120/gp41 complex is incorporated as heterotrimeric spikes into the lipid bilayer of nascent virions. These gp120/gp41 complexes then initiate the infection process by binding receptor and co-receptor on the surface of target cells. Much is currently known about the HIV-1 Env glycoprotein trafficking pathway and the structure of gp120 and the extracellular domain of gp41. However, the mechanism by which the Env glycoprotein complex is incorporated into virus particles remains incompletely understood. Genetic data support a major role for the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 and the matrix domain of Gag in Env glycoprotein incorporation. Still to be defined are the identities of host cell factors that may promote Env incorporation, and the role of specific membrane microdomains in this process. Here we review our current understanding of HIV-1 Env glycoprotein trafficking and incorporation into virions. PMID:21762802

  6. Cytomegalovirus immune evasion by perturbation of endosomal trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lučin, Pero; Mahmutefendić, Hana; Blagojević Zagorac, Gordana; Ilić Tomaš, Maja

    2015-03-01

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs), members of the herpesvirus family, have evolved a variety of mechanisms to evade the immune response to survive in infected hosts and to establish latent infection. They effectively hide infected cells from the effector mechanisms of adaptive immunity by eliminating cellular proteins (major histocompatibility Class I and Class II molecules) from the cell surface that display viral antigens to CD8 and CD4 T lymphocytes. CMVs also successfully escape recognition and elimination of infected cells by natural killer (NK) cells, effector cells of innate immunity, either by mimicking NK cell inhibitory ligands or by downregulating NK cell-activating ligands. To accomplish these immunoevasion functions, CMVs encode several proteins that function in the biosynthetic pathway by inhibiting the assembly and trafficking of cellular proteins that participate in immune recognition and thereby, block their appearance at the cell surface. However, elimination of these proteins from the cell surface can also be achieved by perturbation of their endosomal route and subsequent relocation from the cell surface into intracellular compartments. Namely, the physiological route of every cellular protein, including immune recognition molecules, is characterized by specific features that determine its residence time at the cell surface. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of endocytic trafficking of immune recognition molecules and perturbations of the endosomal system during infection with CMVs and other members of the herpesvirus family that contribute to their immune evasion mechanisms.

  7. Trafficking and contract migrant workers in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jureidini, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The paper addresses a number of issues regarding the extent to which trafficking may be applied to migrant domestic workers who enter under the kafala system of sponsorship in the Middle East. Migrant domestic workers are the most numerous of those mentioned in reports on trafficking for labour exploitation in the region. The discussion seeks to determine whether "trafficking" can be ex post facto, rather than ex ante? In other words, can the label of trafficking be attributed only after the worker has arrived in the receiving country and is victimized according to the principles of trafficking protocols? In addition, must there be a proven intent to traffic by agents, or can employers who harm and/or exploit them be considered as traffickers alone? Should the harm done to workers on arrival at their place of work be classified (and assisted) as victims of trafficking, or as exploited workers?

  8. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Siân; Ostrovschi, Nicolae V; Gorceag, Viorel I; Hotineanu, Mihai A; Gorceag, Lilia; Trigub, Carolina; Abas, Melanie

    2012-07-26

    Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months). Headaches (61.7%), stomach pain (60.9%), memory problems (44.2%), back pain (42.5%), loss of appetite (35%), and tooth pain (35%) were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation.

  9. South Africa – Safe Haven for Human Traffickers? Employing the Arsenal of Existing Law to Combat Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Oosthuizen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available aving ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, South Africa is obliged to adopt legislative measures that criminalise human trafficking and comply with other standards laid down in this international instrument. However, by mid-2011, South Africa had not enacted the required comprehensive counter-trafficking legislation. The question that now arises is if the absence of such anti-trafficking legislation poses an insurmountable obstacle to the prosecution of traffickers for trafficking-related activities. In asking this question the article examines the utilisation of existing crimes in order to prosecute and punish criminal activities committed during the human trafficking process. Firstly, a selection of existing common law and statutory crimes that may often be applicable to trafficking related activities is mapped out. Secondly, transitional trafficking provisions in the Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007 are discussed. Finally, since the Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Bill B7 of 2010 will in all probability be enacted in the near future, the use of other criminal law provisions in human trafficking prosecutions, even after the passing of this bill into law, is reflected upon.

  10. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oram Siân

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. Methods We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months. Results Headaches (61.7%, stomach pain (60.9%, memory problems (44.2%, back pain (42.5%, loss of appetite (35%, and tooth pain (35% were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Conclusions Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation.

  11. Getting out of the game: desistance from drug trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Howard; Hansen, Tobin

    2012-11-01

    This ethnographic study was conducted along the U.S.-Mexico border, the centre of the western hemispheric illicit drugs trade. It examines factors that encouraged or discouraged drug traffickers to "get out of the game" (a common slang reference to leaving the drug business). In-depth, life history interviews were conducted of thirty ex-traffickers in the El Paso/Ciudad Juárez area. Participants discussed their experiences exiting drug trafficking and their retrospective, often conflicted, feelings about the trade. Although leaving drug trafficking is a complex and multi-faceted process, the principle factors for study participants were (1) punishment (by authorities or other traffickers), (2) self-image and identity, (3) social ties, (4) life course changes and (5) drug use/abuse. Traffickers often want to quit, but their divided self-identities make it difficult to relinquish the power and exhilaration they derive from the illicit drugs business. Harm reduction policies are needed that address the embeddedness of trafficker identities in dense webs of family, community, street gangs and transnational cartels, and the larger society, as well as the seductive appeal of Hollywood and pro-cartel narco-media. Traffickers need pathways that allow them to exit the illicit drugs business without surrendering their identity. Prison sentences are not enough to encourage traffickers to stop-also needed are culturally sensitive policies that help traffickers get out of the game and stay out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Drosophila VAMP7 regulates Wingless intracellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han; He, Fang; Lin, Xinhua; Wu, Yihui

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila Wingless (Wg) is a morphogen that determines cell fate during development. Previous studies have shown that endocytic pathways regulate Wg trafficking and signaling. Here, we showed that loss of vamp7, a gene required for vesicle fusion, dramatically increased Wg levels and decreased Wg signaling. Interestingly, we found that levels of Dally-like (Dlp), a glypican that can interact with Wg to suppress Wg signaling at the dorsoventral boundary of the Drosophila wing, were also increased in vamp7 mutant cells. Moreover, Wg puncta in Rab4-dependent recycling endosomes were Dlp positive. We hypothesize that VAMP7 is required for Wg intracellular trafficking and the accumulation of Wg in Rab4-dependent recycling endosomes might affect Wg signaling.

  13. The problem of international drug trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    KUZMINA V.M.

    2015-01-01

    The illegal drug trade is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subjected to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws. Today, drug trafficking is a very profitable business and at the same time it requires great ingenuity during its transit.

  14. Sucrose Ingestion Induces Rapid AMPA Receptor Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukey, David S.; Ferreira, Jainne M.; Antoine, Shannon O.; D’amour, James A.; Ninan, Ipe; de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Incontro, Salvatore; Wincott, Charlotte; Horwitz, Julian K.; Hartner, Diana T.; Guarini, Carlo B.; Khatri, Latika; Goffer, Yossef; Xu, Duo; Titcombe, Roseann F.; Khatri, Megna; Marzan, Dave S.; Mahajan, Shahana S.; Wang, Jing; Froemke, Robert C.; Carr, Kenneth D.; Aoki, Chiye; Ziff, Edward B.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which natural rewards such as sugar affect synaptic transmission and behavior are largely unexplored. Here, we investigate regulation of nucleus accumbens synapses by sucrose intake. Previous studies have shown that AMPA receptor trafficking is a major mechanism for regulating synaptic strength, and that in vitro, trafficking of AMPA receptors containing the GluA1 subunit takes place by a two-step mechanism involving extrasynaptic and then synaptic receptor transport. We report that in rat, repeated daily ingestion of a 25% sucrose solution transiently elevated spontaneous locomotion and potentiated accumbens core synapses through incorporation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CPARs), which are GluA1-containing, GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Electrophysiological, biochemical and quantitative electron microscopy studies revealed that sucrose training (7 days) induced a stable (>24 hr) intraspinous GluA1 population, and that in these rats a single sucrose stimulus rapidly (5 min) but transiently (<24 hr) elevated GluA1 at extrasynaptic sites. CPARs and dopamine D1 receptors were required in vivo for elevated locomotion after sucrose ingestion. Significantly, a 7-day protocol of daily ingestion of a 3% solution of saccharin, a non-caloric sweetener, induced synaptic GluA1 similarly to 25% sucrose ingestion. These findings identify multi-step GluA1 trafficking, previously described in vitro, as a mechanism for acute regulation of synaptic transmission in vivo by a natural orosensory reward. Trafficking is stimulated by a chemosensory pathway that is not dependent on the caloric value of sucrose. PMID:23554493

  15. Trafficking regulates the subcellular distribution of voltage-gated sodium channels in primary sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lan

    2015-09-30

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) comprise at least nine pore-forming α subunits. Of these, Nav1.6, Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are the most frequently studied in primary sensory neurons located in the dorsal root ganglion and are mainly localized to the cytoplasm. A large pool of intracellular Navs raises the possibility that changes in Nav trafficking could alter channel function. The molecular mediators of Nav trafficking mainly consist of signals within the Navs themselves, interacting proteins and extracellular factors. The surface expression of Navs is achieved by escape from the endoplasmic reticulum and proteasome degradation, forward trafficking and plasma membrane anchoring, and it is also regulated by channel phosphorylation and ubiquitination in primary sensory neurons. Axonal transport and localization of Navs in afferent fibers involves the motor protein KIF5B and scaffold proteins, including contactin and PDZ domain containing 2. Localization of Nav1.6 to the nodes of Ranvier in myelinated fibers of primary sensory neurons requires node formation and the submembrane cytoskeletal protein complex. These findings inform our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying Nav trafficking in primary sensory neurons.

  16. Oxidation inhibits PTH receptor signaling and trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura, Juan A; Alonso, Verónica; Esbrit, Pedro; Friedman, Peter A

    2017-01-22

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) increase during aging, potentially affecting many tissues including brain, heart, and bone. ROS alter signaling pathways and constitute potential therapeutic targets to limit oxidative damaging effects in aging-associated diseases. Parathyroid hormone receptors (PTHR) are widely expressed and PTH is the only anabolic therapy for osteoporosis. The effects of oxidative stress on PTHR signaling and trafficking have not been elucidated. Here, we used Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based cAMP, ERK, and calcium fluorescent biosensors to analyze the effects of ROS on PTHR signaling and trafficking by live-cell imaging. PTHR internalization and recycling were measured in HEK-293 cells stably transfected with HA-PTHR. PTH increased cAMP production, ERK phosphorylation, and elevated intracellular calcium. Pre-incubation with H 2 O 2 reduced all PTH-dependent signaling pathways. These inhibitory effects were not a result of PTH oxidation since PTH incubated with H 2 O 2 triggered similar responses. PTH promoted internalization and recycling of the PTHR. Both events were significantly reduced by H 2 O 2 pre-incubation. These findings highlight the role of oxidation on PTHR signaling and trafficking, and suggest the relevance of ROS as a putative target in diseases associated with oxidative stress such as age-related osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Etiological Aspects of Human Trafficking in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Abdyli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is considered one of the most serious criminal offences, which is presented as a contemporary form of slavery and which implies the most brutal violation of basic human rights, which are guaranteed by international and law and national law. The phenomenon of human trafficking is present in many countries in transition (such as Kosovo, namely in those countries which were affected by internal political, economic, social, educational, etc. changes, and in such situations the perpetrators of this offense are in a very favorable position to victimize society. Therefore, this paper will focus on external criminogenic factors that influence the growth of this negative phenomenon, including the difficult economic situation, poverty and unemployment, poor housing, migration of people, domestic violence, the impact of mass media in society, lack of border control and insufficient effectiveness of institutions to deal with law enforcement. The paper is based on literature review, statistical data and interviews by treating the subject theoretically, legislatively and practically. To successfully fight against human trafficking, relevant authorities should more closely approach the etiological treatment of this negative phenomenon.

  18. Child human trafficking victims: challenges for the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Rowena; Berger Cardoso, Jodi

    2010-08-01

    Since the passing of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act in 2000 and its reauthorization by President George Bush in 2008, federal, state and community efforts in identifying and providing services for victims of human trafficking have significantly improved. However, most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards adults rather than children. Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population. This article examines commercial sexual exploitation of children; differentiates the needs and problems between child prostitution and victims of human trafficking; reviews and critiques current treatment practices; and summarizes challenges and successes in working with child victims of human trafficking, offering practice and policy recommendations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Health Care and Human Trafficking: We are Seeing the Unseen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm-Straker, Makini; Baldwin, Susie; Gaïgbé-Togbé, Bertille; Ndukwe, Nneka; Johnson, Pauline N; Richardson, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to build the evidence base around human trafficking (HT) and health in the U.S. by employing a quantitative approach to exploring the notion that health care providers encounter this population. Furthermore, this study sought to describe the health care settings most frequented by victims of human trafficking. This was an anonymous, retrospective study of survivors of U.S.-based human trafficking. One hundred and seventy-three participants who endured U.S.-based human trafficking were surveyed. The majority (68%, n=117) of participants were seen by a health care provider while being trafficked. Respondents most frequently reported visiting emergency/urgent care practitioners (56%), followed by primary care providers, dentists, and obstetricians/gynecologists (OB/GYNs). While health care providers are serving this patient population, they do not consistently identify them as victims of human trafficking.

  20. Human Trafficking, Mental Illness, and Addiction: Avoiding Diagnostic Overshadowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Hanni; MacGibbon, Marti; Stoklosa, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews an emergency department-based clinical vignette of a trafficked patient with co-occurring pregnancy-related, mental health, and substance use disorder issues. The authors, including a survivor of human trafficking, draw on their backgrounds in addiction care, human trafficking, emergency medicine, and psychiatry to review the literature on relevant general health and mental health consequences of trafficking and propose an approach to the clinical complexities this case presents. In their discussion, the authors explicate the deleterious role of implicit bias and diagnostic overshadowing in trafficked patients with co-occurring addiction and mental illness. Finally, the authors propose a trauma-informed, multidisciplinary response to potentially trafficked patients. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Barcoding of GPCR trafficking and signaling through the various trafficking roadmaps by compartmentalized signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahouth, Suleiman W; Nooh, Mohammed M

    2017-08-01

    Proper signaling by G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) is dependent on the specific repertoire of transducing, enzymatic and regulatory kinases and phosphatases that shape its signaling output. Activation and signaling of the GPCR through its cognate G protein is impacted by G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-imprinted "barcodes" that recruit β-arrestins to regulate subsequent desensitization, biased signaling and endocytosis of the GPCR. The outcome of agonist-internalized GPCR in endosomes is also regulated by sequence motifs or "barcodes" within the GPCR that mediate its recycling to the plasma membrane or retention and eventual degradation as well as its subsequent signaling in endosomes. Given the vast number of diverse sequences in GPCR, several trafficking mechanisms for endosomal GPCR have been described. The majority of recycling GPCR, are sorted out of endosomes in a "sequence-dependent pathway" anchored around a type-1 PDZ-binding module found in their C-tails. For a subset of these GPCR, a second "barcode" imprinted onto specific GPCR serine/threonine residues by compartmentalized kinase networks was required for their efficient recycling through the "sequence-dependent pathway". Mutating the serine/threonine residues involved, produced dramatic effects on GPCR trafficking, indicating that they played a major role in setting the trafficking itinerary of these GPCR. While endosomal SNX27, retromer/WASH complexes and actin were required for efficient sorting and budding of all these GPCR, additional proteins were required for GPCR sorting via the second "barcode". Here we will review recent developments in GPCR trafficking in general and the human β 1 -adrenergic receptor in particular across the various trafficking roadmaps. In addition, we will discuss the role of GPCR trafficking in regulating endosomal GPCR signaling, which promote biochemical and physiological effects that are distinct from those generated by the GPCR signal transduction

  2. International regulation of the ban on trafficking in women

    OpenAIRE

    Suská, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    Resumé The theme of my diploma thesis is The International Regulations of Trafficking in Women. Trafficking in people, especially with women is very old and unfortunately still actual phenomenon. Nowadays it is a fastest-growing form of criminal industry in the world. People are in the position of commodity that is trafficked. Universal human rights of victims and fundamental principles of democratic societies are breached, particularly the principle of protection of life, human integrity and...

  3. ANTROPOLOGIS TENTANG TRAFFICKING TKW DI MALAYSIA: ANTARA ADA DAN TIADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Marhaeni Pudji Astuti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking has existed since the period of kingdoms in Java, going on to the colonialism period, andto the present time. Its meaning is broadening beyond human trading into the matters related to violence,blackmailing, and forcing. Trafficking happens not only within one specific area, but has crossed theborder of countries, indicating the existence of an international net. The mushrooming of trafficking isdue to weak law and political commitment of the concerning countries. Moreover, the bilateral talk tobanish trafficking has not been maximally conducted. The actors of trafficking vary from man-powerbrokers, agents, taxi drivers, and even officers (of transmigration and police offices. Trafficking happens invarious places ranging from luxurious spots or starred-hotels to plantations and areas which accommodatea lot of migrants. The victims are usually in so unfavorable bargaining positions that they are muchdependent on those traffickers. This dependency is the impact of imbalanced gender relation. Based onsome existing cases, it is indicated that the women’s lack of power, strength, information, and educationare often misused by the traffickers to take them as their preys. That is why empowering migrant womenis very crucial. One of the ways is empowering them through their realization that this need comes fromtheir own selves, not from any force outside. Besides, there should be strong commitment from the stateto seriously implement the law against any traffickers. Cooperation between the concerning countriesare also needed, for instance by issuing common regulations to banish trafficking.Keywords: Trafficking, migrant women, receiving country, sending country, trafficker

  4. Human Trafficking in Southeast Asia: Causes and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Trafficking (Thailand, 2007), 1. 21 Sheila Jeffreys, “Globalizing Sexual Exploitation, Sex Tourism and the Traffic in Women,” Leisure Studies , vol...Jeffreys, Sheila. “Globalizing Sexual Exploitation, Sex Tourism and the Traffic in Women.” Leisure Studies 18 (1999): 179-196. Junsuwanaruk...Trafficking in the Global Economy,” Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies , vol. 13, no. 1 (2006), 137. 17 Feingold, Human Trafficking, 30. 12 prevention

  5. Modern Day Slavery: What Drives Human Trafficking in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Diego; Rudolph, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    At a time of increased attention on the international agenda for human trafficking, this paper examines the determinants of human trafficking inflows to 13 European countries based on official records. By employing a fixed effects zero-inflated, negative binomial gravity-type model, we address data characteristics appropriately. The econometric analysis suggests that human trafficking occurs in well established routes for migrants and refugees. Victims are more likely to be transported to, an...

  6. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    James Campbell

    2013-01-01

    Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces ...

  7. The IAEA's Illicit Trafficking Database Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzelon, G.; Hammond, W.; Nicholas, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: As part of its overall programme on nuclear material security, the IAEA has since 1995 maintained a database of incidents of trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. The Illicit Trafficking Database Programme (ITDP) is intended to assist Member States by alerting them to current incidents, by facilitating exchange of reliable, detailed information about incidents, and by identifying any common threads or trends that might assist States in combating illicit trafficking. The ITDP also seeks to better inform the public by providing basic information to the media concerning illicit trafficking events. Approximately 70 States have joined this programme for collecting and sharing information on trafficking incidents. Reporting States have the opportunity to designate what information may be shared with other States and what may be shared with the public. In cases where the IAEA's first information about a possible incident comes from news media or other open sources rather than from a State notification, the information first is evaluated, and then, if warranted, the relevant State or States are contacted to request confirmation or clarification of an alleged incident. During 2000, as a result of experience gained working with information on illicit nuclear trafficking, the IAEA developed of a flexible and comprehensive new database system. The new system has an open architecture that accommodates structured information from States, in-house information, open-source articles, and other information sources, such as pictures, maps and web links. The graphical user interface allows data entry, maintenance and standard and ad-hoc reporting. The system also is linked to a Web-based query engine, which enables searching of both structured and open-source information. For the period 1 January 1993 through 31 March 2001, the database recorded more than 550 incidents, of which about two-thirds have been confirmed by States. (Some of these

  8. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Coral J; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.

  9. MDMA impairs mitochondrial neuronal trafficking in a Tau- and Mitofusin2/Drp1-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Daniel José; Serrat, Román; Mirra, Serena; Quevedo, Martí; Gómez de Barreda, Elena; Avila, Jesús; Fernandes, Eduarda; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Capela, João Paulo; Carvalho, Félix; Soriano, Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Identification of the mechanisms by which drugs of abuse cause neuronal dysfunction is essential for understanding the biological bases of their acute and long-lasting effects in the brain. Here, we performed real-time functional experiments of axonal transport of mitochondria to explore the role of in situ mitochondrial dysfunction in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy")-related brain actions. We showed that MDMA dramatically reduced mitochondrial trafficking in hippocampal neurons in a Tau-dependent manner, in which glycogen synthase kinase 3β activity was implicated. Furthermore, we found that these trafficking abnormalities were rescued by over-expression of Mitofusin2 and dynamin-related protein 1, but not of Miro1. Given the relevance of mitochondrial targeting for neuronal function and neurotransmission, our data underscore a novel mechanism of action of MDMA that may contribute to our understanding of how this drug of abuse alters neuronal functioning.

  10. Tackling Trafficking by Targeting Sex Buyers: Can It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Johanna; Aaltonen, Jussi

    2016-08-23

    The European legal instruments on human trafficking encourage states to tackle the demand for services of trafficked persons, for example, by making the use of services of a trafficked person a criminal offense. In Finland, buying sex from a trafficked person is a criminal offense. This article reports the results of an evaluation of the Finnish law and shows that the implementation has been inefficient. The authors argue that with an amendment of the law, the implementation could be improved but a truly efficient policy would require a total ban of sex purchase along the lines of the Swedish model. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Trafficking in Human Beings in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the intersection of gender, trafficking for sexual exploitation, and use of digital communication technologies are analyzed based on data from the European Union (EU. Over the past two decades, an increase in trafficking in human beings in the EU has been accompanied by an increase in the development and availability of digital communication technologies. The first statistical analysis of trafficking in human beings (2008-2010 carried out by the European Commission found 23,632 victims of human trafficking in the reporting member states. Eighty percent of victims were women and girls; 20% were men and boys. The majority of the victims (62% were trafficked for sexual exploitation. Digital communication technologies are widely used for trafficking for sexual exploitation, and more rarely for trafficking for forced labor. This article concludes that the combination of gender, trafficking for sexual exploitation, and use of digital communication technologies has created a nexus of victimization for women and girls. Based on this analysis and other sources of information, the European region is the world’s leading region for trafficking for sexual exploitation.

  12. Elided Populations: A Baseline Survey on Human Trafficking in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Trafficking in persons is a crime. It is gaining momentum in the continent and particularly in Kenya and also attracting the attention of actors who are working to combat it. This focus shows the multiplicity of actors working together to prosecute, prevent and protect. Evidence of both intra......-regional, as well as inter-regional trafficking, is available. This study seeks to build synergy in the counter-trafficking efforts in Kenya. In so doing it aims to in the overall identify gaps in combating and responding to human trafficking and offer programmatic recommendations/suggestions particularly for IRC...

  13. Prevention of Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: Assessing The Legal Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelalem Shiferaw Woldemichael

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have indicated that both in-country trafficking (trafficking of individuals from rural areas to relatively affluent towns and cities and external trafficking (trafficking of individuals from a given country to foreign countries are prevalent in Ethiopia. In 2012, the government acceded to the Protocol to Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (The UN Trafficking Protocol, here after. With a view to giving effect to the requirements of this instrument, the government passed in to law Proclamation No. 909/2015 (The Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants Proclamation, which is the most comprehensive of all laws adopted in Ethiopia to deal with human trafficking. Taking in to account the fact that human trafficking is exacerbated by the absence of regulatory framework on the employment of Ethiopian nationals in foreign countries, the govern-ment has also brought in to practice Proclamation No. 923/2016 (Ethiopia’s Overseas Employment Proclamation. This article has examined whether the above-mentioned laws of Ethiopia comply with international standards in dealing with prevention strategies.

  14. Accountability and the Use of Raids to Fight Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ditmore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Accountability in anti-trafficking efforts is a crucial but often overlooked aspect of deciding whether such efforts are truly rooted in a human rights framework. In a rush to help, and inspired by sensationalised views of what human trafficking is, many campaigns actually harm the very people they are supposed to assist. Law enforcement raids are one such effort, as they do not take into account the very different power dynamics between the actor engaging in the raid, and the person who is subject to the raid. Data from the United States suggests that raids conducted by local law enforcement agencies are an ineffective means of locating and identifying trafficked persons. Research also reveals that raids are all too frequently accompanied by violations of the human rights of trafficked persons and sex workers alike, and can therefore be counterproductive to the underlying goals of anti-trafficking initiatives. Findings suggest that a rights-based and “survivor-centred” approach to trafficking in persons requires the development and promotion of alternative methods of identifying and protecting the rights of trafficked persons which prioritise the needs, agency, and self-determination of trafficking survivors. They also indicate that preventative approaches, which address the circumstances that facilitate trafficking in persons, should be pursued over law enforcement based responses.

  15. Human Trafficking and Commercialization of Surrogacy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyali Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Supreme Court of India, In Baby Manji Yamada versus Union of India & Anr. [2008] INSC 1656, popularly known as Manji Case, declared that Commercial Surrogacy is legal in India. As we know that, India is a developing country and here, most of the peoples are very poor and illiterate. Recently, human trafficking was increase with an uncontrollable rate in the entire world. In addition, making Commercialization of Surrogacy legal had already give birth to a new form of trafficking. Where, illiterate women from poor section is trafficked to run the reproductive industry of the Surrogacy. As we know that the traffickers, they used to trafficked girls/women for prostitution but now after the legalization of Commercial Surrogacy, they will trafficked girl/women for the reproductive industry as a raw material. The Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act (ITPA, 1956 and Sections 366(A and 372 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 are the existing laws of India, which deals with human trafficking. However, none of these provisions contains any solution, to deal with this new serious issue of trafficking of women/girls for the purpose of Commercial Surrogacy in reproductive industries. These existing laws as well as the pending draft bill of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART Regulation Bill, 2010 needs an amendment to check this crime against women once again to protect the rights and health of the women.

  16. A Dual Role for the Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinase Pyk2 during the Intracellular Trafficking of Human Papillomavirus 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Elinor Y; Meneses, Patricio I

    2015-09-01

    The infectious process of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) has been studied considerably, and many cellular components required for viral entry and trafficking continue to be revealed. In this study, we investigated the role of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 during HPV16 pseudovirion infection of human keratinocytes. We found that Pyk2 is necessary for infection and appears to be involved in the intracellular trafficking of the virus. Small interfering RNA-mediated reduction of Pyk2 resulted in a significant decrease in infection but did not prevent viral entry at the plasma membrane. Pyk2 depletion resulted in altered endolysosomal trafficking of HPV16 and accelerated unfolding of the viral capsid. Furthermore, we observed retention of the HPV16 pseudogenome in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in Pyk2-depleted cells, suggesting that the kinase could be required for the viral DNA to exit the TGN. While Pyk2 has previously been shown to function during the entry of enveloped viruses at the plasma membrane, the kinase has not yet been implicated in the intracellular trafficking of a nonenveloped virus such as HPV. Additionally, these data enrich the current literature on Pyk2's function in human keratinocytes. In this study, we investigated the role of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 during human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of human skin cells. Infections with high-risk types of HPV such as HPV16 are the leading cause of cervical cancer and a major cause of genital and oropharyngeal cancer. As a nonenveloped virus, HPV enters cells by interacting with cellular receptors and established cellular trafficking routes to ensure that the viral DNA reaches the nucleus for productive infection. This study identified Pyk2 as a cellular component required for the intracellular trafficking of HPV16 during infection. Understanding the infectious pathways of HPVs is critical for developing additional preventive therapies. Furthermore, this study advances our knowledge of

  17. DMPD: Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9287290 Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cell...ml) Show Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. PubmedID ...9287290 Title Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses

  18. 77 FR 74045 - Request for Information for the 2013 Trafficking in Persons Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    .... Freeing victims, preventing trafficking, and bringing traffickers to justice are the ultimate goals of the... address root causes of trafficking such as poverty; lack of access to education and economic opportunity...

  19. 76 FR 1660 - Request for Information for the 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ..., preventing trafficking, and bringing traffickers to justice are the ultimate goals of the report and of the U... trafficking such as poverty; lack of access to education and economic opportunity; and discrimination against...

  20. Trafficking in Persons for Ransom and the Need to Expand the Interpretation of Article 3 of the UN Trafficking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogos O Brhane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As the nature of trafficking in persons continues to manifest itself in myriad ways all over the world, interpretation of the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Trafficking Protocol, should be broadened to include newly emerging practices that are similar in nature to those it has already embraced under its definition. The Protocol appears to encompass other forms of trafficking which are unnamed or unforeseen by the definition provided under Article 3. It is time to expand its spectrum. Northeast Africa is plagued by a unique form of trafficking in persons—trafficking in persons for ransom. This involves a practice where people are smuggled, abducted, kidnapped and tortured to compel their relatives and families to pay ransom money. Victims are nationals of Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan and South Sudan. However, as Northeast Africa hosts particularly high numbers of Eritrean migrants and the largest Eritrean diaspora globally, Eritreans are very vulnerable to being targeted for trafficking for ransom. As trafficking for ransom is an emerging trend, legal ramifications have never been studied in full. Few reports try to address legal issues around the phenomenon, and those that do only give it a few paragraphs of attention. There is need for a closer look at this form of trafficking.

  1. Assisting victims of human trafficking: strategies to facilitate identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R

    2014-04-01

    Human trafficking is a pressing social justice concern. Social work is uniquely situated to address this problem. However, despite the profession's commitment to social justice, the scholarship to equip social workers to address this issue has been largely absent from professional discourse. To address this gap, this article helps social work practitioners to assist victims of human trafficking. After orienting readers to the scope and process of human trafficking, the topics of victim identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of psychological wellness are discussed. By equipping themselves in these three areas, practitioners can advance social justice on behalf of some of the most exploited people in the world.

  2. Endomembrane Cation Transporters and Membrane Trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, Heven [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics

    2017-04-01

    fertilization. Based on localization and mutant analyses, we conclude that CHXs modulate the ion balance, pH or both in micro-regions of endoplasmic reticulum, endosomes and prevacuolar compartment (PVC), and so influence membrane trafficking and signaling resulting in proper osmoregulation in guard cells and seed formation. We also demonstrated for the first time that AtKEA2 associates with chloroplasts, especially at the two poles of developing plastids. These results show that AtKEA1 and AtKEA2 transporters in specific microdomains of the inner envelope link local osmotic, ionic, and pH homeostasis to plastid division and thylakoid membrane formation. The first 3-D structure model of AtCHX was generated, and architecture-directed mutagenesis identified critical residues of the transport core giving insights to the transport mode of this family. Thus we have revealed for the first time crucial roles of an unknown K+/H+ transport family on plant growth (KEA), gas exchange, pollen cell wall, and different phases of reproduction (CHXs). The dynamic endomembrane of plant cells is integral to cytokinesis, cell expansion, defense, and cell wall formation, thus these studies are directly relevant to the mission of the Department of Energy and to a better understanding of determinants for enhancing plant biomass and plant tolerance to abiotic stress.

  3. Domestic Sex Trafficking of Minors: Medical Student and Physician Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchen, Kanani E; Loo, Dyani; Berdan, Elizabeth; Rysavy, Mary Becker; Ng, Jessica J; Sharif, Iman

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to assess: (1) medical trainee and practicing physician awareness about domestic sex trafficking of minors; and (2) whether respondents believe that awareness of trafficking is important to their practice. We designed an anonymous electronic survey, and a convenience sample was collected from June through October 2013. Voluntary participants were 1648 medical students, residents, and practicing physicians throughout the United States. Data were analyzed for correlations between study cohort characteristics and: (1) agreement with the statement: "knowing about sex trafficking in my state is important to my profession"; (2) knowledge of national statistics regarding the sex trafficking of minors; and (3) knowledge of appropriate responses to encountering a trafficked victim. More practicing physicians than residents or medical students: (1) agreed or strongly agreed that knowledge about human trafficking was important to their practice (80.6%, 71.1%, and 69.2%, respectively; P = .0008); (2) correctly estimated the number of US trafficked youth according to the US Department of State data (16.1%, 11.7%, and 7.9%, respectively; P = .0011); and (3) were more likely to report an appropriate response to a trafficked victim (40.4%, 20.4%, and 8.9%, respectively; P = .0001). Although most medical trainees and physicians place importance on knowing about human trafficking, they lack knowledge about the scope of the problem, and most would not know where to turn if they encountered a trafficking victim. There exists a need for standardized trafficking education for physicians, residents, and medical students. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex trafficking and health care in Metro Manila: identifying social determinants to inform an effective health system response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy P; Alpert, Elaine J; Ahn, Roy; Cafferty, Elizabeth; Konstantopoulos, Wendy Macias; Wolferstan, Nadya; Castor, Judith Palmer; McGahan, Anita M; Burke, Thomas F

    2010-12-15

    This social science case study examines the sex trafficking of women and girls in Metro Manila through a public health lens. Through key informant interviews with 51 health care and anti-trafficking stakeholders in Metro Manila, this study reports on observations about sex trafficking in Metro Manila that provide insight into understanding of risk factors for sex trafficking at multiple levels of the social environment: individual (for example, childhood abuse), socio-cultural (for example, gender inequality and a "culture of migration"), and macro (for example, profound poverty caused, inter alia, by environmental degradation disrupting traditional forms of labor). It describes how local health systems currently assist sex-trafficking victims, and provides a series of recommendations, ranging from prevention to policy, for how health care might play a larger role in promoting the health and human rights of this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2010 Williams, Alpert, Ahn, Cafferty, Konstantopoulos, Wolferstan, Castor, McGahan, and Burke. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  5. Global Trafficking Prevalence Data Distorts Efforts to Stop Patterns of Human Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Dottridge

    2017-01-01

    For everyone engaged in efforts to stop the exploitation and harm associated with human trafficking, it always sounds helpful to know how many people are being exploited in particular places and where they come from. Finding out should help us assess whether efforts to cut down these numbers are effective or not.

  6. Global Trafficking Prevalence Data Distorts Efforts to Stop Patterns of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Dottridge

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For everyone engaged in efforts to stop the exploitation and harm associated with human trafficking, it always sounds helpful to know how many people are being exploited in particular places and where they come from. Finding out should help us assess whether efforts to cut down these numbers are effective or not.

  7. Response to Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Two response paths are discussed in the presentation. Reactive response follows when an alarm of a border monitor goes off or a notification is received about an incident involving or suspected to involve radioactive materials. The response can also be the result of the finding of a discrepancy between a customs declaration form and the corresponding actual shipment. Proactive response is undertaken upon receipt of intelligence information suggesting the illicit trafficking of radioactive materials, notification about the discovery of non-compliance with transport regulations or if discrepancies are found in an inventory of radioactive materials.

  8. Illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials: Modeling and analysis of trafficking trends and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, D.; Rochau, G.; Cleary, V.

    2007-01-01

    Concerns over the illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials were focused originally on the lack of security and accountability of such material throughout the former Soviet states. This is primarily attributed to the frequency of events that have occurred involving theft and trafficking of critical material components that could be used to construct a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or a rudimentary, improvised nuclear device (IND). However, with the continued expansion of nuclear technology and the deployment of a global nuclear fuel cycle these materials will continue to become increasingly prevalent, affording a more diverse inventory of dangerous materials and dual-use items. To further complicate the matter, the list of nuclear consumers has grown to include: 1) Nation-states that have gone beyond the IAEA agreed framework and additional protocols concerning multiple nuclear fuel cycles and processes that reuse the fuel through reprocessing to exploit technologies previously confined to the more industrialized world. 2) Terrorist organizations seeking to acquire nuclear and radiological material due to the potential devastation and psychological effect of their use. 3) Organized crime, which has discovered a lucrative market in trafficking of illicit material to international actors and/or countries. 4) Amateur smugglers trying to feed their families in a post-Soviet era. An initial look at trafficking trends of this type seems scattered and erratic, localized primarily to a select group of countries. This is not necessarily the case. The success with which other contraband has been smuggled throughout the world suggests that nuclear trafficking may be carried out with relative ease along the same routes by the same criminals or criminal organizations. (author)

  9. Trafficking: Sebuah Masalah Pengiriman Tenaga Kerja Indonesia Ke Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuddin, S.S., M.Hum.

    2013-01-01

    Trafficking atau yang lazim dikenal dengan istilah perdagangan manusia merupakan sebuah fenomena internasional yang terjadi dari masa ke masa. Kalupun terdengar seperti baru, itu karena peristilahan saja. Istilah trafficking dewasa ini kita kenal juga dengan istilah modern slavery. Praktek serupa terjadi juga di masa lampau seperti eksploitasi baik fisik maupun seksual dalam bentuk kerja paksa dan perbudakan. -

  10. Curbing Human Trafficking And The Seed Dispersal Syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trafficking in human beings is a “cancerous” problem that has negative impacts on every aspect of the human society globally. This cancer has assumed alarming dimensions and has been attributed to various factors.The result of trafficking in humans is that people are dislocated from their culture, which can be likened to ...

  11. Patterns and Processes of Recruitment and Trafficking into sex Work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recruitment patterns and trafficking processes were characterized with incidences of deception, extortion, violence and exploitation with severe consequences on the emotional, psychological and health condition of the victims. To contain the activities of the traffickers, the use of formal and informal channels of ...

  12. South Africa – Safe Haven for Human Traffickers? Employing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, South Africa is obliged to adopt legislative measures that criminalise human trafficking and comply with other standards laid down in this international instrument. However, by mid-2011, South Africa had not ...

  13. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrla, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    By now, most social workers are familiar with the issue of human trafficking. However, many are likely unfamiliar with research indicating that youths constitute the most vulnerable group in the United States for becoming victims of sex trafficking and that most women in prostitution actually entered as minors. Some experts are now referring to…

  14. Human Sex Trafficking in America: What Counselors Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litam, Stacey Diane A.

    2017-01-01

    The social justice issue of human sex trafficking is a global form of oppression that places men, women and children at risk for sexual exploitation. Although a body of research exists on the topics of human trafficking, literature specific to the mental health implications for counselors working with this population is limited. Counselors should…

  15. Child Trafficking: A Hindrance to the Girl-Child Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibangbe, Mary O.

    2015-01-01

    Child trafficking continues to pose a major hindrance to the freedom and educational development of the girl-child in Nigeria. Most of the girls trafficked are forced into prostitution, forced labour and in some cases as human sacrifice. Some families support this trend because they see it as a means to break the yoke of economic hardship. The…

  16. Human Trafficking and Child Abuse: Their Effect on Our Nation's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined what human trafficking and child abuse are all about the causes and consequences of these ugly activities. The paper discovered that human trafficking and child abuse are combined to taint Nigerian's image and they are perhaps the center of modern day slavery. There is an urgent need to put an end ...

  17. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.

  18. The role of the nurse in combating human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabella, Donna

    2011-02-01

    Human trafficking, also called modern slavery, happens worldwide--and the United States is no exception. Within our borders, thousands of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens, many of them children, are forced or coerced into sex work or various forms of labor every year. Nurses and other health care providers who encounter victims of trafficking often don't realize it, and opportunities to intervene are lost. Although no one sign can demonstrate with certainty when someone is being trafficked, there are several indicators that clinicians should know. This article provides an overview of human trafficking, describes how to recognize signs that a person is being trafficked and how to safely intervene, and offers an extensive resource list.

  19. Human Trafficking: Fighting the Illicit Economy with the Legitimate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Shelley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and leadership initiatives; codes of conduct; supply chain management; and financial analysis. This paper will examine the latest in these strategies and approaches by businesses in the global war against human trafficking, in addition to a discussion of a new initiative engaging the private sector co-led by Dr. Louise Shelley and Christina Bain through the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council Network.

  20. Regulation of vesicular trafficking by Parkinson's disease-associated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Inoshita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory mechanisms that control intracellular vesicular trafficking play important roles in cellular function and viability. Neurons have specific vesicular trafficking systems for synaptic vesicle formation, release and recycling. Synaptic vesicular trafficking impairments induce neuronal dysfunction and physiological and behavioral disorders. Parkinson's disease (PD is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopamine depletion and loss of dopamine neurons in the midbrain. The molecular mechanism responsible for the neurodegeneration that occurs during PD is still not understood; however, recent functional analyses of familial PD causative genes suggest that a number of PD causative genes regulate intracellular vesicular trafficking, including synaptic vesicular dynamics. This review focuses on recent insights regarding the functions of PD causative genes, their relationship with vesicular trafficking and how mutations associated with PD affect vesicular dynamics and neuronal survival.

  1. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  2. Domestic minor sex trafficking: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health problem and represents a substantial human rights violation. Human trafficking has been receiving attention in both the lay media and professional literature. Human trafficking can include commercial sex, forced labor, child soldiers, and stealing of human organs. One form of human trafficking represents a significant American pediatric health problem: domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). DMST is the commercial sexual abuse of children by selling, buying, or trading their sexual service. This continuing education article will define DMST and discuss it in terms of prevalence, risk factors, and practice implications for the pediatric nurse practitioner. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling for Determinants of Human Trafficking: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo-Young Cho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify robust push and pull factors of human trafficking. I test for the robustness of 70 push and 63 pull factors suggested in the literature. In doing so, I employ an extreme bound analysis, running more than two million regressions with all possible combinations of variables for up to 153 countries during the period of 1995–2010. My results show that crime prevalence robustly explains human trafficking both in destination and origin countries. Income level also has a robust impact, suggesting that the cause of human trafficking shares that of economic migration. Law enforcement matters more in origin countries than destination countries. Interestingly, a very low level of gender equality may have constraining effects on human trafficking outflow, possibly because gender discrimination limits female mobility that is necessary for the occurrence of human trafficking.

  4. Human trafficking: the role of the health care provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setting. Definitions, statistics, and common health care problems of trafficking victims are reviewed. The role of the health care provider is outlined through a case study and clinical practice tools are provided. Suggestions for future research are also briefly addressed. (c) 2010 American College of Nurse-Midwives. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Synaptic Control of Secretory Trafficking in Dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hanus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Localized signaling in neuronal dendrites requires tight spatial control of membrane composition. Upon initial synthesis, nascent secretory cargo in dendrites exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER from local zones of ER complexity that are spatially coupled to post-ER compartments. Although newly synthesized membrane proteins can be processed locally, the mechanisms that control the spatial range of secretory cargo transport in dendritic segments are unknown. Here, we monitored the dynamics of nascent membrane proteins in dendritic post-ER compartments under regimes of low or increased neuronal activity. In response to activity blockade, post-ER carriers are highly mobile and are transported over long distances. Conversely, increasing synaptic activity dramatically restricts the spatial scale of post-ER trafficking along dendrites. This activity-induced confinement of secretory cargo requires site-specific phosphorylation of the kinesin motor KIF17 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK. Thus, the length scales of early secretory trafficking in dendrites are tuned by activity-dependent regulation of microtubule-dependent transport.

  6. Epithelial trafficking of Sonic hedgehog by megalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carlos R; Zeng, Jibin; El Alfy, Mohamed; Barth, Jeremy L; Chintalapudi, Mastan Rao; McCarthy, Robert A; Incardona, John P; Argraves, W Scott

    2006-10-01

    We present here evidence of in vivo epithelial endocytosis and trafficking of non-lipid-modified Sonic hedgehog (ShhN) when infused into rat efferent ducts via microinjection. Initially, exogenous ShhN is detected in endocytic vesicles and early endosomes located near the apical plasma membrane of non-ciliated cells. Within 30-60 min following infusion, ShhN can be detected in lysosomes and at basolateral regions of non-ciliated cells. Basolaterally, ShhN was observed along the extracellular surfaces of interdigitated plasma membranes of adjacent cells and in the extracellular compartment underlying the efferent duct epithelium. Uptake and subcellular trafficking of infused ShhN by non-ciliated cells could be blocked by either anti-megalin IgG or the megalin antagonist, RAP. Ciliated cells, which do not express megalin, displayed little if any apical internalization of ShhN even though they were found to express Patched-1. However, ShhN was found in coated pits of lateral plasma membranes of ciliated cells as well as in underlying endocytic vesicles. We conclude that megalin-mediated endocytosis of ShhN can occur in megalin-expressing epithelia in vivo, and that the internalized ShhN can be targeted to the lysosome or transcytosed in the plane of the epithelium or across the epithelium. These findings highlight the multiple mechanisms by which megalin may influence Shh morphogen gradients in vivo.

  7. Sex Trafficking, Law Enforcement and Perpetrator Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Burkhalter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In theory, everyone – except for criminals involved in their exploitation - agrees that children must not be in the sex industry and further, that those who prey on them must be prosecuted and punished. Virtually every country in the world has adopted national laws prohibiting the commercial sexual exploitation of children. International law is clear on this point, as well. Yet, when governments – and NGOs working with them – take action to extract children from commercial sex venues, common ground on protecting children from abuse can quickly erode with concerns about the efficacy of police intervention, the possibility of collateral harm to consenting adult sex workers or a decrease in access to HIV-prevention and related health services. The author argues that healing this divide must come through the reform of local police – and that, without the participation of law enforcement, there can be no long-term protection for children vulnerable to trafficking and related exploitation. In this article, human rights practitioner Holly Burkhalter argues that healing this divide must be accomplished through the reform of local police – and that human rights advocates, local governments and others seeking to combat trafficking cannot achieve long-term, sustainable protection for children without the involvement of law enforcement.

  8. Two Cheers for the Trafficking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne T Gallagher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Trafficking Protocol makes an easy target for attack. Its origins lie in an attempt to control a particularly exploitative form of migration that was challenging the ability of States to control their own borders. Its parent instrument is a framework agreement to address transnational organised crime. While paying fleeting attention to the rights of victims, the Protocol, with its emphasis on criminalisation and border protection is nowhere near being a human rights treaty. On top of all that it does not even have a credible enforcement mechanism, allowing states parties wide latitude in interpreting and applying their obligations. Strangely, these seemingly insurmountable flaws have not stopped the Protocol’s emergence as perhaps the single most important development in the fight against human trafficking. Without the Protocol, arguments around definitions would have continued to block the evolution of principles and rules. Without the Protocol it is likely that the human rights system would have continued its shameful tradition of sidelining issues such as forced labour, forced sex, forced marriage and the ritual exploitation of migrant workers through debt. Most critically, the Protocol provided the impetus and template for a series of legal and political developments that, over time, have served to ameliorate some of its greatest weaknesses, including the lack of human rights protections and of a credible oversight mechanism.

  9. Plasma membrane protein polarity and trafficking in RPE cells: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Guillermo L.; Benedicto, Ignacio; Philp, Nancy J.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) comprises a monolayer of polarized pigmented epithelial cells that is strategically interposed between the neural retina and the fenestrated choroid capillaries. The RPE performs a variety of vectorial transport functions (water, ions, metabolites, nutrients and waste products) that regulate the composition of the subretinal space and support the functions of photoreceptors (PRs) and other cells in the neural retina. To this end, RPE cells display a polarized distribution of channels, transporters and receptors in their plasma membrane (PM) that is remarkably different from that found in conventional extra-ocular epithelia, e.g. intestine, kidney, and gall bladder. This characteristic PM protein polarity of RPE cells depends on the interplay of sorting signals in the RPE PM proteins and sorting mechanisms and biosynthetic/recycling trafficking routes in the RPE cell. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the RPE trafficking machinery, most available data have been obtained from immortalized RPE cell lines that only partially maintain the RPE phenotype and by extrapolation of data obtained in the prototype Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. The increasing availability of RPE cell cultures that more closely resemble the RPE in vivo together with the advent of advanced live imaging microscopy techniques provides a platform and an opportunity to rapidly expand our understanding of how polarized protein trafficking contributes to RPE PM polarity. PMID:25152359

  10. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose improvements of different means and methods for the prevention of illicit trafficking and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. An essential requirement imposed on authorities and operators through basic nuclear legislation is the establishment and implementation of: a) nuclear material accountancy and control; b) physical protection of nuclear material and facilities; and c) export/import control of nuclear material and, so called, dual-use items. The legislation would make it possible for the State nuclear authority to be informed continuously about the location and quantity of nuclear material in the country, and to monitor that it is under satisfactory protection and guard in accordance with the requirements. The introduction of requirements on licensing of practices and activities involving dual-use items, and other products used for nuclear weapons manufacturing, would also give the authority the possibility to prevent unauthorised transfers of such products. The nuclear legislation must clearly stipulate the distribution of responsibilities between nuclear authority, operator and employees. This would give a solid basis for attaining high safety culture, including positive motivation and active commitment among executives and other employees. It would also ensure that nuclear material would not be lost through negligence or internal criminal activities. A further step of improvements on the national level, would be the urgent and firm introduction of modern Quality Assurance and Internal Control Systems into all forms of nuclear activities. In modern, safety related quality control systems, the operator alone is responsible for all activities and operations, and he must establish an internal control that will ensure that the authority's rules and requirements are thoroughly implemented and adhered to. The operator's organisation, including competence and procedures, must be approved by the State authority. By means

  11. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue, T cell trafficking, and chronic intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koboziev, Iurii; Karlsson, Fridrik; Grisham, Matthew B

    2010-10-01

    The etiologies of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis) have not been fully elucidated. However, there is very good evidence implicating T cell and T cell trafficking to the gut and its associated lymphoid tissue as important components in disease pathogenesis. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the mechanisms involved in naive and effector T cell trafficking to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT; Peyer's patches, isolated lymphoid follicles), mesenteric lymph nodes and intestine in response to commensal enteric antigens under physiological conditions as well as during the induction of chronic gut inflammation. In addition, recent data suggests that the GALT may not be required for enteric antigen-driven intestinal inflammation in certain mouse models of IBD. These new data suggest a possible paradigm shift in our understanding of how and where naive T cells become activated to yield disease-producing effector cells. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Debate: The Challenges and Perils of Reframing Trafficking as ‘Modern-Day Slavery’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie Chuang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years, we have seen a rebranding of global anti-trafficking efforts as ‘modern-day slavery’ abolitionism. The United States of America (US Department of State and powerful philanthropists are key proponents of the slavery makeover, prompting other governments, international organisations, and non-governmental organisations alike to adopt the ‘modern-day slavery’ frame. The slavery frame has helped ignite outrage and galvanise political support for modern anti-slavery campaigns. It has also helped expand the anti-trafficking spotlight beyond the sex sector to expose the extreme exploitation that men, women, and children suffer in the non-sexual labour sectors of our global economy. These benefits come at a cost, however, both with respect to legal doctrine and practice, and, perhaps more significantly, to how we understand and respond to the problem of extreme exploitation for profit.

  13. Relationships between suspects and victims of sex trafficking. Exploitation of prostitutes and domestic violence parallels in Dutch trafficking cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.; van Gestel, B.; de Jong, D.; Kleemans, E.R.

    2014-01-01

    This article centres on the hypothesis that human trafficking for sexual exploitation is not only an organised crime activity, but a crime of relational nature as well. Therefore this study explores the relationships that exist between suspects and victims of sex trafficking, and examines to what

  14. Illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials: modeling and analysis of trafficking trends and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, David L.; Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over the illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials were focused originally on the lack of security and accountability of such material throughout the former Soviet states. This is primarily attributed to the frequency of events that have occurred involving the theft and trafficking of critical material components that could be used to construct a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or even a rudimentary nuclear device. However, with the continued expansion of nuclear technology and the deployment of a global nuclear fuel cycle these materials have become increasingly prevalent, affording a more diverse inventory of dangerous materials and dual-use items. To further complicate the matter, the list of nuclear consumers has grown to include: (1) Nation-states that have gone beyond the IAEA agreed framework and additional protocols concerning multiple nuclear fuel cycles and processes that reuse the fuel through reprocessing to exploit technologies previously confined to the more industrialized world; (2) Terrorist organizations seeking to acquire nuclear and radiological material due to the potential devastation and psychological effect of their use; (3) Organized crime, which has discovered a lucrative market in trafficking of illicit material to international actors and/or countries; and (4) Amateur smugglers trying to feed their families in a post-Soviet era. An initial look at trafficking trends of this type seems scattered and erratic, localized primarily to a select group of countries. This is not necessarily the case. The success with which other contraband has been smuggled throughout the world suggests that nuclear trafficking may be carried out with relative ease along the same routes by the same criminals or criminal organizations. Because of the inordinately high threat posed by terrorist or extremist groups acquiring the ingredients for unconventional weapons, it is necessary that illicit trafficking of these materials be better

  15. Endosome-based protein trafficking and Ca2+ homeostasis in the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry eCurran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to dynamically regulate, traffic, retain, and recycle proteins within the cell membrane is fundamental to life and central to the normal function of the heart and cardiovascular system. In the heart, these systems are essential for the regulation of cardiac calcium, both at the level of the plasma membrane, but also at local domains of the endoplasmic reticulum, sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, nucleus, and nuclear envelope. One intracellular pathway often overlooked in relation to cardiovascular calcium regulation and signaling is the endosome-based trafficking pathway. Highlighting its importance, this system and its molecular components are evolutionarily conserved across all metazoans. However, remarkably little is known of how endosome-based protein trafficking and recycling functions within mammalian cells systems, especially in the heart. The vast majority of what is known has been derived from heterologous cell systems. However, recently, more appropriate cell and animal models been developed that have allowed researchers to begin to understand how this system functions within the intact physiological environment. All excitable cells, including cardiomyocytes, depend on the proper expression and organization of multiple ion channels, pumps, exchangers, and transporters within the plasma membrane. As the endosomal system acts to regulate the expression and localization of membrane proteins, understanding the in vivo function of this system in the heart is important. This review will focus on endosome-based protein trafficking in the heart in both health and disease. Special emphasis will be given to the role played by the family of endocytic regulatory proteins, C-terminal Eps15 homology domain -containing proteins (EHDs, as recent data demonstrates that this family of proteins is essential for the proper trafficking and localization and of key proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling.

  16. Cathepsin B trafficking in thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedelind Sofia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine peptidase cathepsin B is important in thyroid physiology by being involved in prohormone processing initiated in the follicle lumen and completed in endo-lysosomal compartments. However, cathepsin B has also been localized to the extrafollicular space in thyroid cancer tissue, and is therefore suggested to promote invasiveness and metastasis in thyroid carcinomas through e.g. extracellular matrix degradation. Methods Transport of cathepsin B in normal thyroid epithelial and carcinoma cells was investigated through immunolocalization of endogenous cathepsin B in combination with probing protease activity. Transport analyses of cathepsin B-eGFP and its active-site mutant counterpart cathepsin B-C29A-eGFP were used to test whether intrinsic sequences of a protease influence its trafficking. Results Our approach employing activity based probes, which distinguish between active and inactive cysteine proteases, demonstrated that both eGFP-tagged normal and active-site mutated cathepsin B chimeras reached the endo-lysosomal compartments of thyroid epithelial cells, thereby ruling out alterations of sorting signals by mutagenesis of the active-site cysteine. Analysis of chimeric protein trafficking further showed that GFP-tagged cathepsin B was transported to the expected compartments, i.e. endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and endo-lysosomes of normal and thyroid carcinoma cell lines. However, the active-site mutated cathepsin B chimera was mostly retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi of KTC-1 and HTh7 cells. Hence the latter, as the least polarized of the three carcinoma cell lines analyzed, exhibited severe transport defects in that it retained chimeras in pre-endolysosomal compartments. Furthermore, secretion of endogenous cathepsin B and of other cysteine peptidases, which occurs at the apical pole of normal thyroid epithelial cells, was most prominent and occurred in a non-directed fashion in thyroid

  17. Human Trafficking of Minors and Childhood Adversity in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joan A; Baglivio, Michael T; Piquero, Alex R; Greenwald, Mark A; Epps, Nathan

    2017-02-01

    To examine the link between human trafficking of minors and childhood adversity. We compared the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and cumulative childhood adversity (ACE score) among a sample of 913 juvenile justice-involved boys and girls in Florida for whom the Florida child abuse hotline accepted human trafficking abuse reports between 2009 and 2015 with those of a matched sample. ACE composite scores were higher and 6 ACEs indicative of child maltreatment were more prevalent among youths who had human trafficking abuse reports. Sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of human trafficking: the odds of human trafficking was 2.52 times greater for girls who experienced sexual abuse, and there was a 8.21 times greater risk for boys who had histories of sexual abuse. Maltreated youths are more susceptible to exploitation in human trafficking. Sexual abuse in connection with high ACE scores may serve as a key predictor of exploitation in human trafficking for both boys and girls.

  18. HIV vulnerabilities of sex-trafficked Indian women and girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To qualitatively explore potential mechanisms that may confer heightened risk for HIV infection among survivors of sex trafficking in India. Methods Case narratives of 61 repatriated women and girls who reported being trafficked into sex work and were receiving services at an NGO in Mysore, India, were reviewed. Narratives were analyzed to examine potential sources of HIV risk related to sex trafficking. Results Participants were aged 14–30 years. Among the 48 women and girls tested for HIV, 45.8% were HIV positive. Narratives described very low levels of autonomy, with control exacted by brothel managers and traffickers. Lack of control appeared to heighten trafficked women and girls’ vulnerability to HIV infection in the following ways: use of violent rape as a means of coercing initiation into sex work, inability to refuse sex, inability to use condoms or negotiate use, substance use as a coping strategy, and inadequate access to health care. Conclusion Sex trafficked women and girls lack autonomy and are rendered vulnerable to HIV infection through several means. Development of HIV prevention strategies specifically designed to deal with lack of autonomy and reach sex-trafficked women and girls is imperative. PMID:19625022

  19. Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet presents questions and answers related to the human trafficking of children in the United States. It describes human trafficking and its extent in the United States, how human traffickers target children for coerced labor and sex exploitation, how to identify victims of human trafficking, how to report a suspected incidence of…

  20. Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Safe and Healthy Students, US Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Human trafficking is a serious federal crime with penalties of up to imprisonment for life. Federal law defines "severe forms of trafficking in persons." In short, human trafficking is a form of modern slavery. Those who recruit minors into commercial sexual exploitation (or prostitution) violate federal anti-trafficking laws, even if there is no…

  1. Queering the Support for Trafficked Persons: LGBTQ Communities and Human Trafficking in the Heartland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Schwarz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking justice centers on the “Three Ps” model of prevention, protection, and prosecution. While protection and prosecution efforts have been moderately successful, prevention remains elusive, as “upstream” structural fac-tors—class, gender, and sexuality inequalities—remain difficult to target. Individuals who are affected by these factors are not fully served within linear service frameworks. Based on a 12-month study in Kansas City, we find that service providers recognize the limitations of a “one-size-fits all” approach. Using a public health model, our research team con-ducted a public health surveillance, explored risk and protective factors, and facilitated organizational self-assessments of services. Our findings support a prevention approach that supports a survivor-centered model, which creates new, non-linear or queered avenues of agency and community for trafficking survivors. This model allows survivors to make use of services in moments of vulnerability and opt out of others in moments of resilience. Given the systematic cuts in funding that have affected service providers, this research contends that prevention is cheaper, more effective, and more ethical than relying on prosecutions to curb trafficking. Developing a model that fosters survivor empowerment is a key step toward individual justice and survivor resilience for vulnerable and marginalized populations.

  2. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose improvements of different means and methods for the prevention of illicit trafficking and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. An essential requirement imposed on authorities and operators through basic nuclear legislation is the establishment and implementation of: a) nuclear material accountancy and control; b) physical protection of nuclear material and facilities; and c) export/import control of nuclear material and, so called, dual-use items. The legislation would make it possible for the State nuclear authority to be informed continuously about the location and quantity of nuclear material in the country, and to monitor that it is under satisfactory protection and guard in accordance with the requirements. The introduction of requirements on licensing of practices and activities involving dual-use items, and other products used for nuclear weapons manufacturing, would also give the authority the possibility to prevent unauthorised transfers of such products. The nuclear legislation must clearly stipulate the distribution of responsibilities between nuclear authority, operator and employees. This would give a solid basis for attaining high safety culture, including positive motivation and active commitment among executives and other employees. It would also ensure that nuclear material would not be lost through negligence or internal criminal activities. A further step of improvements on the national level, would be the urgent and firm introduction of modern Quality Assurance and Internal Control Systems into all forms of nuclear activities. In modern, safety related quality control systems, the operator alone is responsible for all activities and operations, and he must establish an internal control that will ensure that the authority's rules and requirements are thoroughly implemented and adhered to. The operator's organisation, including competence and procedures, must be approved by the State authority

  3. Trade Unions, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ford

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the dilemmas facing trade unions seeking to engage on questions of forced labour and human trafficking. The International Labour Organization and elements of the international trade union movement have succeeded in getting forced labour on the policy agenda globally and within many national settings. However, trade unions have limited capacity to effect real change in relation to these issues because of limitations on their influence, determined largely by membership density and the limited number of sectors in which they are present, but also internal assessments of what constitutes ‘core business’. As a consequence, while trade unions may advocate for legislative or policy change, partner with non-governmental organisations to deal with particular cases, or even engage directly with vulnerable populations, the integration of those populations into the day to day concerns of trade unions necessarily remains elusive—particularly in the global south, where forced labour is most prevalent.

  4. Combating (Child Human Trafficking: Building Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Winterdyk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The presentation/paper focuses on the challenges and necessity of building capacity at local, national, and international levels with a focus of how to more effectively combat trafficking in human beings (THB. Insight from several of initiatives are shared with the aim of illustrating how to capitalize on the vast number of opportunities that already exist at these levels and how they might be coordinated to enable collaborative work in an informed and dynamic manner to combat human trafficking. Information from several recent research projects that focus on some of these same issues is also incorporated into this paper. El artículo se centra en los desafíos de la lucha contra el tráfico de personas y en la necesidad de aumentar la capacidad para ser más eficaces en ese sentido, local, nacional e internacionalmente. Nos hacemos eco de la visión de varias iniciativas, con el fin de ilustrar cómo capitalizar el gran número de oportunidades que ya existen en los ámbitos citados, y la forma en que se podrían coordinar para posibilitar la colaboración de una manera informada y dinámica para combatir la trata de personas. También se incluye en el artículo información emanada de diversos proyectos recientes de investigación sobre el tema que nos ocupa. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=3086067

  5. ITRAP. Illicit trafficking radiation detection assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    2001-02-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear materials (nuclear criminality) has become more and more a problem, due to the circulation of the a high number of radioactive sources and the big amount of nuclear material, particularly, caused by the changes of the organisational infrastructures to supervise these material within the successor states of the former Soviet Union. The IAEA data base counts at present more than 300 verified cases. The endangering cased thereby ranges from possible health defect for the publication to terrorists activities and production of nuclear weapons. In addition to the primary criminal reasons the illegal deposal of radioactive sources as salvage, scrap and others show a further problem, which has lead to severe accidents and lethal effects in the past (e.g. Goiana, Mexiko). As the study ITRAP (Illicit Trafficking Radiation Assessment Program) can show, also in Austria the cases of partly considerable contaminated scrap transports from neighbouring countries exists. Some countries have already under taken countermeasures (e.g. Monitoring at the Finnish-Russian and German-Polish border, border monitoring in Italy). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reacted on this actual problem by setting up a new program to fight against nuclear criminality and has suggested a pilot study for the practical test of border monitoring systems. Aim of the study was to work out the technical requirements and the practicability of an useful monitoring system at border crossings. The results of the study will be offered by the IAEA to the member states as international recommendations for border monitoring systems. (author)

  6. War Zone Acapulco: Urban Drug Trafficking in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Acapulco epitomises the (insecurity of urban zones in the Americas whose geographical, political and economic divisions are exacerbated by the political economy and geopolitics of drug trafficking, as well as by militarised attempts to fight it. Various geographic, political, and economic factors in the Acapulco Metropolitan Zone (AMZ have impacted drug trafficking and organised crime and contributed to high levels of violence. As a result, Acapulco now ranks among the 50 most violent cities in the world. This article analyses the trends in drug trafficking and organised crime in the AMZ, and highlights the lessons for scholars and policy-makers.

  7. Human trafficking - modern day slavery: Menneskehandel i nutidens samfund

    OpenAIRE

    Holberg, Christina; Wilson, Philippa Rose Lucy; Larsen, Maiken Hollænder; Sennahøj, Cecilie; Søderberg, Ene Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to approach the concept of human trafficking from a historical, cultural and philosophical point of view in order to cover the two dimensions: History and Culture and Philosophy and Science. It will be focusing on human trafficking, in the form of the sexual exploitation of women, and it’s existence within Europe. With a focus on human trafficking in the form of sexual exploitation of women, the main intention of this paper is to investigate the modern form of slavery through ...

  8. Human Trafficking as a Crime Against Humanity: An analysis of the legal potential to prosecute human trafficking in the International Criminal Court with reference to the trafficking of Rohingya Muslims in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Haraldsen, Janne

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the legal potential to prosecute human trafficking as a crime against humanity (CAH) in the International Criminal Court (ICC). Although the ICC has been equipped with the legal tools necessary to prosecute human trafficking, it has not yet brought a single trafficking case to the Court. In order to fully comprehend the bar for prosecution of human trafficking as a CAH at the ICC, the paper applies the CAH framework to the situation of the persecuted Rohingya minority in M...

  9. Andrographolide regulates epidermal growth factor receptor and transferrin receptor trafficking in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y; Chiow, KH; Huang, D; Wong, SH

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Andrographolide is the active component of Andrographis paniculata, a plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and it has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in different cancer cell lines. However, not much is known about how it may affect the key receptors implicated in cancer. Knowledge of how andrographolide affects receptor trafficking will allow us to better understand new mechanisms by which andrographolide may cause death in cancer cells. Experimental approach: We utilized the well-characterized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transferrin receptor (TfR) expressed in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells as a model to study the effect of andrographolide on receptor trafficking. Receptor distribution, the total number of receptors and surface receptors were analysed by immunofluorescence, Western blot as well as flow-cytometry respectively. Key results: Andrographolide treatment inhibited cell growth, down-regulated EGFRs on the cell surface and affected the degradation of EGFRs and TfRs. The EGFR was internalized into the cell at an increased rate, and accumulated in a compartment that co-localizes with the lysosomal-associated membrane protein in the late endosomes. Conclusion and implications: This study sheds light on how andrographolide may affect receptor trafficking by inhibiting receptor movement from the late endosomes to lysosomes. The down-regulation of EGFR from the cell surface also indicates a new mechanism by which andrographolide may induce cancer cell death. PMID:20233216

  10. HIV Trafficking Between Blood and Semen During Early Untreated HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillon, Antoine; Smith, Davey M; Vanpouille, Christophe; Lisco, Andrea; Jordan, Parris; Caballero, Gemma; Vargas, Milenka; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of HIV across anatomic compartments is important to design effective eradication strategies. In this study, we evaluated viral trafficking between blood and semen during primary HIV infection in 6 antiretroviral-naive men who have sex with men. Deep sequencing data of HIV env were generated from longitudinal blood plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and seminal plasma samples. The presence or absence of viral compartmentalization was assessed using tree-based Slatkin-Maddison and distance-based Fst methods. Phylogeographic analyses were performed using a discrete Bayesian asymmetric approach of diffusion with Markov jump count estimation to evaluate the gene flow between blood and semen during primary HIV infection. Levels of DNA from human herpesviruses and selected inflammatory cytokines were also measured on genital secretions collected at baseline to evaluate potential correlates of increased viral migration between anatomic compartments. We detected varying degrees of compartmentalization in all 6 individuals evaluated. None of them maintained viral compartmentalization between blood and seminal plasma throughout the analyzed time points. Phylogeographic analyses revealed that the HIV population circulating in blood plasma populated the seminal compartment during the earliest stages of infection. In our limited data set, we found no association between local inflammation or herpesvirus shedding at baseline and viral trafficking between semen and blood. The early spread of virus from blood plasma to genital tract and the complex viral interplay between these compartments suggest that viral eradication efforts will require monitoring viral subpopulations in anatomic sites and viral trafficking during the course of infection.

  11. Endocytosis and Endosomal Trafficking of DNA After Gene Electrotransfer In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Rosazza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA electrotransfer is a successful technique for gene delivery into cells and represents an attractive alternative to virus-based methods for clinical applications including gene therapy and DNA vaccination. However, little is currently known about the mechanisms governing DNA internalization and its fate inside cells. The objectives of this work were to investigate the role of endocytosis and to quantify the contribution of different routes of cellular trafficking during DNA electrotransfer. To pursue these objectives, we performed flow cytometry and single-particle fluorescence microscopy experiments using inhibitors of endocytosis and endosomal markers. Our results show that ≃50% of DNA is internalized by caveolin/raft-mediated endocytosis, 25% by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and 25% by macropinocytosis. During active transport, DNA is routed through multiple endosomal compartments with, in the hour following electrotransfer, 70% found in Rab5 structures, 50% in Rab11-containing organelles and 30% in Rab9 compartments. Later, 60% of DNA colocalizes with Lamp1 vesicles. Because these molecular markers can overlap while following organelles through several steps of trafficking, the percentages do not sum up to 100%. We conclude that electrotransferred DNA uses the classical endosomal trafficking pathways. Our results are important for a generalized understanding of gene electrotransfer, which is crucial for its safe use in clinics.

  12. Andrographolide regulates epidermal growth factor receptor and transferrin receptor trafficking in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y; Chiow, K H; Huang, D; Wong, S H

    2010-04-01

    Andrographolide is the active component of Andrographis paniculata, a plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and it has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in different cancer cell lines. However, not much is known about how it may affect the key receptors implicated in cancer. Knowledge of how andrographolide affects receptor trafficking will allow us to better understand new mechanisms by which andrographolide may cause death in cancer cells. We utilized the well-characterized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transferrin receptor (TfR) expressed in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells as a model to study the effect of andrographolide on receptor trafficking. Receptor distribution, the total number of receptors and surface receptors were analysed by immunofluorescence, Western blot as well as flow-cytometry respectively. Andrographolide treatment inhibited cell growth, down-regulated EGFRs on the cell surface and affected the degradation of EGFRs and TfRs. The EGFR was internalized into the cell at an increased rate, and accumulated in a compartment that co-localizes with the lysosomal-associated membrane protein in the late endosomes. This study sheds light on how andrographolide may affect receptor trafficking by inhibiting receptor movement from the late endosomes to lysosomes. The down-regulation of EGFR from the cell surface also indicates a new mechanism by which andrographolide may induce cancer cell death.

  13. Vacuolar Sorting Receptor-Mediated Trafficking of Soluble Vacuolar Proteins in Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyangju Kang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vacuoles are one of the most prominent organelles in plant cells, and they play various important roles, such as degradation of waste materials, storage of ions and metabolites, and maintaining turgor. During the past two decades, numerous advances have been made in understanding how proteins are specifically delivered to the vacuole. One of the most crucial steps in this process is specific sorting of soluble vacuolar proteins. Vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs, which are type I membrane proteins, are involved in the sorting and packaging of soluble vacuolar proteins into transport vesicles with the help of various accessory proteins. To date, large amounts of data have led to the development of two different models describing VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking that are radically different in multiple ways, particularly regarding the location of cargo binding to, and release from, the VSR and the types of carriers utilized. In this review, we summarize current literature aimed at elucidating VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking and compare the two models with respect to the sorting signals of vacuolar proteins, as well as the molecular machinery involved in VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking and its action mechanisms.

  14. The Relation of Visual Signs In The Narrative Structure of MTV Exit Human Trafficking Campaign Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny Gunarti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a violation of the human rights. One of the campaign to fight against this crime takes the form of a digital campaign that aired on television and internet.   This study discusses the narrative structure of human trafficking campaign video from non-profit organization MTV Exit in 2012. This video campaign combines art collage and graphic art in its narrative structure. Nonverbal visual elements displayed in the form of a digital photo collage with animated illustrations setting. We consider this video campaign quite interesting as it is visually inform the public about the importance of safe migration through the visual signs in the narrative structure. This study analyzes qualitatively the relation of nonverbal visual signs in the narrative collage and illustration. Denotative and connotative analysis with structural semiotics approach is needed to understand the meaning of visual signs in the context of humans as cultural beings in their communities. This study is expected to be a model example of visual communication campaigns that can foster public awareness of the issue of human trafficking, especially for young women and children as young generation.

  15. The Fight against the Least Visible Form of Human Trafficking: Trafficking for Child Labour Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Puente Aba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Child trafficking for the purpose of labour exploitation is a difficult phenomenon to detect. It is also not readily definable considering that this specific form of trafficking is closely linked with the phenomenon of forced child labour, and even with the broader occurrence of child labour. A lack of globally reliable data and the convergence of different concepts related to child trafficking for labour exploitation pose significant challenges when trying to regulate the circumstances concerning child work and the criminalisation of trafficking for labour exploitation. This article offers a clear overview of the available data related to all the phenomena, and aims to clarify all the situations involved, defining child work, child labour, forced child labour and child trafficking for the purposes of labour exploitation. Furthermore, this article discusses the possible loopholes and critical issues that could hinder global approaches to resolving these issues. La trata infantil con fines de explotación laboral es un fenómeno difícil de detectar, y tampoco es sencillo definirlo si se tiene en cuenta que esta forma específica de trata está estrechamente relacionada con el fenómeno del trabajo forzado infantil e, incluso, con el fenómeno más general de trabajo infantil. Todo ello supone un desafío a la hora de regular las circunstancias que definen el trabajo realizado por niños y la criminalización de la trata para la explotación laboral. Este artículo ofrece un repaso de los datos disponibles en esta materia y procura aclarar las situaciones que se pueden plantear, así como definir trabajo realizado por niños, trabajo infantil, trabajo infantil forzado y trata infantil con fines de explotación laboral. Por último, profundiza en las posibles deficiencias y en los aspectos críticos que podrían obstaculizar un acercamiento global a esta problemática. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=3088010

  16. Sortin2 enhances endocytic trafficking towards the vacuole in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vásquez-Soto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A highly regulated trafficking of cargo vesicles in eukaryotes performs protein delivery to a variety of cellular compartments of endomembrane system. The two main routes, the secretory and the endocytic pathways have pivotal functions in uni- and multi-cellular organisms. Protein delivery and targeting includes cargo recognition, vesicle formation and fusion. Developing new tools to modulate protein trafficking allows better understanding the endomembrane system mechanisms and their regulation. The compound Sortin2 has been described as a protein trafficking modulator affecting targeting of the vacuolar protein carboxypeptidase Y (CPY, triggering its secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: A reverse chemical-genetics approach was used to identify key proteins for Sortin2 bioactivity. A genome-wide Sortin2 resistance screen revealed six yeast deletion mutants that do not secrete CPY when grown at Sortin2 condition where the parental strain does: met18, sla1, clc1, dfg10, dpl1 and yjl175w. Integrating mutant phenotype and gene ontology annotation of the corresponding genes and their interactome pointed towards a high representation of genes involved in the endocytic process. In wild type yeast endocytosis towards the vacuole was faster in presence of Sortin2, which further validates the data of the genome-wide screen. This effect of Sortin2 depends on structural features of the molecule, suggesting compound specificity. Sortin2 did not affect endocytic trafficking in Sortin2-resistant mutants, strongly suggesting that the Sortin2 effects on the secretory and endocytic pathways are linked. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results reveal that Sortin2 enhances the endocytic transport pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This cellular effect is most likely at the level where secretory and endocytic pathways are merged. Them Sortin2 specificity over the endomembrane system places it as a powerful biological modulator for cell biology.

  17. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Walia Harleen; Khanna Tinku; Joffres Michel; Mills Edward; Joffres Christine; Grund Darrin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another o...

  18. KENYA’S CONSTITUTION AND CHILD TRAFFICKING AS A SECURITY THREAT

    OpenAIRE

    E.O.S. ODHIAMBO; J. KASSILLY; L.T. MAITO; K. ONKWARE; W. A. OBOKA

    2012-01-01

    Human trafficking also referred to as modern-day slavery is seen as a security threat. Traditional security approaches to human trafficking call for analysis of trafficking as a threat to the Kenyan state and to Kenya’s control of its borders. Traditional security analyses of trafficking emphasize border security, migration controls, and international law enforcement cooperation. This article discusses three forms of child trafficking: sexual exploitation, forced labor and child soldiers and ...

  19. Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals’ contact with victims of human trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Claire; Dimitrova, Stoyanka; Howard, Louise M; Dewey, Michael; Zimmerman, Cathy; Oram, Siân

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To estimate the proportion of National Health Service (NHS) professionals who have come into contact with trafficked people and (2) to measure NHS professionals’ knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Face-to-face mandatory child protection and/or vulnerable adults training sessions at 10 secondary healthcare provider organisations in England, and meetings of the UK College of Emergency Medicine. Participants 782/892 (84.4%) NHS professionals participated, including from emergency medicine, maternity, mental health, paediatrics and other clinical disciplines. Measures Self-completed questionnaire developed by an expert panel. Questionnaire asks about prior training and contact with potential victims of trafficking, perceived and actual human trafficking knowledge, confidence in responding to human trafficking, and interest in future human trafficking training. Results 13% participants reported previous contact with a patient they knew or suspected of having been trafficked; among maternity services professionals this was 20.4%. However, 86.8% (n=679) reported lacking knowledge of what questions to ask to identify potential victims and 78.3% (n=613) reported that they had insufficient training to assist trafficked people. 71% (n=556), 67.5% (n=528) and 53.4% (n=418) lacked confidence in making appropriate referrals for men, women and children, respectively, who had been trafficked. 95.3% (n=746) of respondents were unaware of the scale of human trafficking in the UK, and 76.5% (n=598) were unaware that calling the police could put patients in more danger. Psychometric analysis showed that subscales measuring perceived knowledge, actual knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's αs 0.93, 0.63 and 0.64, respectively) and internal correlations. Conclusions NHS professionals working in secondary care are in contact with potential

  20. Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals' contact with victims of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Claire; Dimitrova, Stoyanka; Howard, Louise M; Dewey, Michael; Zimmerman, Cathy; Oram, Siân

    2015-08-20

    (1) To estimate the proportion of National Health Service (NHS) professionals who have come into contact with trafficked people and (2) to measure NHS professionals' knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking. A cross-sectional survey. Face-to-face mandatory child protection and/or vulnerable adults training sessions at 10 secondary healthcare provider organisations in England, and meetings of the UK College of Emergency Medicine. 782/892 (84.4%) NHS professionals participated, including from emergency medicine, maternity, mental health, paediatrics and other clinical disciplines. Self-completed questionnaire developed by an expert panel. Questionnaire asks about prior training and contact with potential victims of trafficking, perceived and actual human trafficking knowledge, confidence in responding to human trafficking, and interest in future human trafficking training. 13% participants reported previous contact with a patient they knew or suspected of having been trafficked; among maternity services professionals this was 20.4%. However, 86.8% (n=679) reported lacking knowledge of what questions to ask to identify potential victims and 78.3% (n=613) reported that they had insufficient training to assist trafficked people. 71% (n=556), 67.5% (n=528) and 53.4% (n=418) lacked confidence in making appropriate referrals for men, women and children, respectively, who had been trafficked. 95.3% (n=746) of respondents were unaware of the scale of human trafficking in the UK, and 76.5% (n=598) were unaware that calling the police could put patients in more danger. Psychometric analysis showed that subscales measuring perceived knowledge, actual knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's αs 0.93, 0.63 and 0.64, respectively) and internal correlations. NHS professionals working in secondary care are in contact with potential victims of human trafficking, but lack knowledge and confidence in

  1. GPCR Signaling and Trafficking: The Long and Short of It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlos, Nathan J; Friedman, Peter A

    2017-03-01

    Emerging findings disclose unexpected components of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling and cell biology. Select GPCRs exhibit classical signaling, that is restricted to cell membranes, as well as newly described persistent signaling that depends on internalization of the GPCR bound to β-arrestins. Termination of non-canonical endosomal signaling requires intraluminal acidification and sophisticated protein trafficking machineries. Recent studies reveal the structural determinants of the trafficking chaperones. This review summarizes advances in GPCR signaling and trafficking with a focus on the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) as a prototype, and on the actin-sorting nexin 27 (SNX27)-retromer tubule (ASRT) complex, an endosomal sorting hub responsible for recycling and preservation of cell surface receptors. The findings are integrated into a model of PTHR trafficking with implications for signal transduction, bone growth, and mineral ion metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Women trafficked into prostitution: determinants, human rights and health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Stewart, Donna E

    2007-09-01

    Human trafficking is an international challenge that increasingly affects industrialized countries. It represents a gross violation of a person's right to liberty and freedom of movement, and is often accompanied by violence and degrading treatment which can have detrimental effects on health. In this article, we review the definition and extent of human trafficking, and focus on the human rights abuses and determinants of trafficking in women. Mental health and other health outcomes are reviewed, and differences between countries in organized activities for victim assistance and protection are assessed. Finally, we discuss the roles of mental health and other healthcare providers in identifying and helping trafficked women, and recommend a tailored multidisciplinary approach for victim assistance.

  3. The Role of Local Authorities in Addressing Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Rossiter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, it is estimated that nearly 4 million people fall victim to people traffickers every year. Trafficking is carried out mainly by Organised Criminal Networks and the victims are forced into prostitution, illegal labour, domestic slavery and petty crime. ROSSITER & BENFIELD: The Role of Local Authorities in Addressing Human Trafficking CJLG May 2009 128 On 1 April 2009, the United Kingdom signed up to the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings.1 The Convention, which has to date been ratified by 20 European countries, is legally binding and aims to promote and protect the rights of victims who have been tricked or forced into leaving their homes, moved to another country, or within their own country, and then exploited. Whilst it is national governments who are signatories to the Council of Europe Convention, local authorities have a key role to play in its successful implementation.

  4. Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miko, Francis T

    2006-01-01

    Trafficking in people for prostitution and forced labor is one of the most prolific areas of international criminal activity and is of significant concern to the United States and the international community...

  5. Effectiveness of Counter-Trafficking Response in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meçe Merita H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a new phenomenon of Albanian post-socialist society which significantly increased during the difficult years of its transformation from centralized state-led economy to market economy. Both economic and political instability contributed to its size, nature and multiple dynamics. Drawing on a rights-based approach to human trafficking, this paper examines the effectiveness of the counter-trafficking response of the Albanian government with a special emphasis on prevention, protection and prosecution. Using secondary data and reviewing various country strategic documents, it highlights a range of weaknesses and challenges which have hindered its effectiveness over years. It concludes that successful and effective counter-trafficking response requires well rounded and coordinated gender sensitive, victim-centred, holistic and human rights-based efforts. Combined with adequate law enforcement, they will sustainably tackle the full spectrum of this problem.

  6. Recognizing victims of human trafficking in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heather J; Bechtel, Kirsten

    2015-02-01

    Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery that is rapidly expanding in the United States and throughout the world. It is a crime under both the United States and international law. The child and adult victims of human trafficking are denied their basic human rights and subjected to unspeakable physical and emotional harm. Traffickers exert complete control over their victims and are proficient at hiding their condition from authorities. Healthcare practitioners may be the only professionals who come into contact with victims if they present for medical care. This article will describe human trafficking and its potential victims, as well as guide medical management and access to services that will ensure their safety and restore their freedom.

  7. Civil society response to human trafficking in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    In South Asia civil society organisations have led the way in encouraging governments to address the problem of human trafficking. A coordinated regional response by both governments and civil society organisations is urgently required.

  8. Civil society response to human trafficking in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Yousaf

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In South Asia civil society organisations have led the way in encouraging governments to address the problem of human trafficking. A coordinated regional response by both governments and civil society organisations is urgently required.

  9. Mekong sub-region committed to ending trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Thatun

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In October 2004 six countries - Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar/Burma, Thailand and Vietnam – joined hands in the battle against human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS.

  10. The Institutionalization of Drug Trafficking Organizations: Comparing Colombia and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    general political violence from violence associated with drug trafficking and violence associated with revolutionary struggle. La Violencia ...twentieth century. As Colombia went through La Violencia (1948–1958), society witnessed a continuation of the tradition of lawlessness. The rise

  11. Segrosome complex formation during DNA trafficking in bacterial cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Oliva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial extrachromosomal DNAs often contribute to virulence in pathogenic organisms or facilitate adaptation to particular environments. The transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next requires sufficient partitioning of DNA molecules to ensure that at least one copy reaches each side of the division plane and is inherited by the daughter cells. Segregation of the bacterial chromosome occurs during or after replication and probably involves a strategy in which several protein complexes participate to modify the folding pattern and distribution first of the origin domain and then of the rest of the chromosome. Low-copy number plasmids rely on specialised partitioning systems, which in some cases use a mechanism that show striking similarity to eukaryotic DNA segregation. Overall, there have been multiple systems implicated in the dynamic transport of DNA cargo to a new cellular position during the cell cycle but most seem to share a common initial DNA partitioning step, involving the formation of a nucleoprotein complex called the segrosome. The particular features and complex topologies of individual segrosomes depend on both the nature of the DNA binding protein involved and on the recognized centromeric DNA sequence, both of which vary across systems. The combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches, with structural biology has significantly furthered our understanding of the mechanisms underlying DNA trafficking in bacteria. Here, I discuss recent advances and the molecular details of the DNA segregation machinery, focusing on the formation of the segrosome complex.

  12. Drug Trafficking Organizations and Local Economic Activity in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between illegal firms and local economic activity. In this paper I study changes in satellite night lights across Mexican municipalities after the arrival of large drug trafficking organizations in the period 2000-2010. After accounting for state trends and differences in political regimes, results indicate no significant change in night lights after the arrival of these illegal firms. Estimated coefficients are precise, robust, and similar across different drug trafficking organizations.

  13. Drug Trafficking Organizations and Local Economic Activity in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe González

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between illegal firms and local economic activity. In this paper I study changes in satellite night lights across Mexican municipalities after the arrival of large drug trafficking organizations in the period 2000-2010. After accounting for state trends and differences in political regimes, results indicate no significant change in night lights after the arrival of these illegal firms. Estimated coefficients are precise, robust, and similar across different drug trafficking organizations.

  14. Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-07

    lucrative business of international trafficking; ! the high demand, worldwide, for trafficked women and children as sex workers, cheap sweatshop labor, and...into sweatshop labor and domestic servitude. The rest are forced into prostitution and the sex industry, or in the case of young children, kidnaped and...definition of involuntary servitude, criminalize a broader range of actions constituting involuntary servitude, and increase the penalties for placing people

  15. Human trafficking in Southeast Asia causes and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Betz, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis examines human trafficking within Southeast Asia to identify the similarities and differences between the causes of labor and sex trafficking. The thesis also analyzes how three case study countries have tailored their antitrafficking policies to causes present in their country. The causes examined are divided into two distinct categories, universal and specific. The universal causes studied are large-scale social issues af...

  16. Trafficking of Vietnamese women and girls for marriage in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Kiss, Ligia; Koehler, Jobst; Dong, Dung Thuy; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Bride-trafficking has been a growing phenomenon in Southeast Asia, particularly in China, where one-child policies have resulted in demographic imbalances favoring males. Yet, empirical evidence about women and girls sold into marriage in China remains sparse. This study describes the experiences of 51 Vietnamese women and girls as young as 14 in post-trafficking services who were sold into marriage in China. A consecutive sample of individuals from five services in Vietnam were invited to be interviewed within the first 2 weeks of admission. It is part of a wider dataset for research on the health of men, women, and children in post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the largest study to date on human trafficking and health. We calculated proportions for all variables and conducted bivariate analyses using Fisher Exact Tests for their associations with mental health disorders symptoms. Before leaving home, 31% ( n  = 15) participants were married. Participants reported high levels of sexual violence ( n  = 43; 86%) while trafficked and59% ( n  = 30) spent time in detention before returning to Vietnam. Once in post-trafficking care 52.9% ( n  = 27) reported probable depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), two women (4%) attempted suicide in the past month and 38 (75%) remained afraid of their trafficker. Ten (22%) became pregnant while trafficked, and seven (16%) were pregnant at the interview. The cross-border bride trade between Vietnam and China raises complex policy issues, including questions about detention and immigration rights and strategies for supported return processes, including maternal and child health services. As the repercussions of China's absent female population will persist, Vietnam and China must grapple with the political and social conditions to implement prevention strategies, and resources for women who fall prey to this cross-border bride trade.

  17. Drug Trafficking within Mexico: A Law Enforcement Issue or Insurgency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    are employed in Mexico was reported by the Mexico City‘s Reforma newspaper in 2007. The report stated that La Familia, ―began to sign up workers to...DRUG TRAFFICKING WITHIN MEXICO : A LAW ENFORCEMENT ISSUE OR INSURGENCY? A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...JUN 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Drug Trafficking within Mexico : A Law Enforcement Issue or Insurgency? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  18. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. This Technical Document (TECDOC) will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. The report outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. This publication outlines the supporting infrastructure concerned with the control of radioactive materials of all types, including radioactive sources, radioactive wastes and nuclear materials, in order to prevent them being involved in inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking. In particular. it explains the contribution that may be made by customs, police and other law enforcement bodies towards solving this problem. This TECDOC has neither the aim nor intention of interfering with the regulation or practice of customs or other law enforcement agencies. It is intended to support their countermeasures against inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of this publication is to provide information to customs, police and other law enforcement bodies on the arrangements for effectively preventing inadvertent movements and illicit trafficking, and the role that they might play in this. It is

  19. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. This Technical Document (TECDOC) will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. The report outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. This publication outlines the supporting infrastructure concerned with the control of radioactive materials of all types, including radioactive sources, radioactive wastes and nuclear materials, in order to prevent them being involved in inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking. In particular. it explains the contribution that may be made by customs, police and other law enforcement bodies towards solving this problem. This TECDOC has neither the aim nor intention of interfering with the regulation or practice of customs or other law enforcement agencies. It is intended to support their countermeasures against inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of this publication is to provide information to customs, police and other law enforcement bodies on the arrangements for effectively preventing inadvertent movements and illicit trafficking, and the role that they might play in this. It is

  20. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. This Technical Document (TECDOC) will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. The report outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. This publication outlines the supporting infrastructure concerned with the control of radioactive materials of all types, including radioactive sources, radioactive wastes and nuclear materials, in order to prevent them being involved in inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking. In particular. it explains the contribution that may be made by customs, police and other law enforcement bodies towards solving this problem. This TECDOC has neither the aim nor intention of interfering with the regulation or practice of customs or other law enforcement agencies. It is intended to support their countermeasures against inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of this publication is to provide information to customs, police and other law enforcement bodies on the arrangements for effectively preventing inadvertent movements and illicit trafficking, and the role that they might play in this. It is

  1. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. This Technical Document (TECDOC) will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. The report outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. This publication outlines the supporting infrastructure concerned with the control of radioactive materials of all types, including radioactive sources, radioactive wastes and nuclear materials, in order to prevent them being involved in inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking. In particular. it explains the contribution that may be made by customs, police and other law enforcement bodies towards solving this problem. This TECDOC has neither the aim nor intention of interfering with the regulation or practice of customs or other law enforcement agencies. It is intended to support their countermeasures against inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of this publication is to provide information to customs, police and other law enforcement bodies on the arrangements for effectively preventing inadvertent movements and illicit trafficking, and the role that they might play in this. It is

  2. Peran End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography And Trafficking Of Children For Sexual Purposes (Ecpat) Internasional dalam Menanggulangi Kasus Child Trafficking di Albania (2007-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Faisyal; Rafiqa, Adni Luthfi

    2015-01-01

    This research purpose to explain about the role of End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes (ECPAT) International to solve child trafficking case in Albania (2007-2012). ECPAT International is a non-governmental organization which take focus on solving child trafficking case and ECPAT International has had affiliate in some country in the world, one of them is Albania.Authors analyze and explain about child trafficking condition which is occure...

  3. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking-neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures.

  4. Underlying Motives, Moral Agendas and Unlikely Partnerships: The Formulation of the U.S. Trafficking in Victims Protection Act Through the Data and Voices of Key Policy Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Footen Bromfield

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the overwhelming amount of attention to human trafficking, the debates surrounding its definition, and its focus on the sex industry, the purpose of this study was to understand the motivations behind the formation of the Trafficking in Victims Protection Act (TVPA. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF as a model, data was collected and analyzed in order to examine the coalition identities of key players and their positions. Through the presentation of in-depth interview data with key policy players involved in the making of the TVPA, this article illustrates how and why the TVPA was formulated, the implications of its development, and the necessity for critical analysis of its effects. The use of alternative frameworks of labor and migration for understanding trafficking is proposed. Further consideration is given to legislative changes to eliminate anti-prostitution ideology and to support anti-oppressive approaches to addressing forced or deceptive working conditions.

  5. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, I-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  6. Health and Rights at the Margins: Human trafficking and HIV/AIDS amongst Jingpo ethnic communities in Ruili City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Shih

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, China and Myanmar signed their first Bilateral Memorandum of Understanding on human trafficking. The two countries cemented this agreement with the unveiling of the first Border Liaison Office in Ruili City, located in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province — one of the primary border crossing points between China and Myanmar. The government focus on human trafficking on this border intersects with decades of struggles to curb the border’s porousness to drugs and HIV/AIDS. This paper is based on qualitative ethnographic participant observation and interviews with young Jingpo women living in Ruili City and investigates the risk of human trafficking as a by-product of cultural stigma associated with ethnic marginality, drugs, and HIV/AIDS. The case of Ruili warns us that the global shift towards regarding human trafficking as the single most perilous phenomenon of the current age obscures ongoing issues of vulnerability and cultural stigma for ethnic minority peoples globally. In lieu of state sponsored patrol and monitoring of the border, more attention must be paid to overlapping concerns of people living in border communities, including drug prevalence, disease, and ethnic marginalisation.

  7. Analysis of occludin trafficking, demonstrating continuous endocytosis, degradation, recycling and biosynthetic secretory trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Fletcher

    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs link adjacent cells and are critical for maintenance of apical-basolateral polarity in epithelial monolayers. The TJ protein occludin functions in disparate processes, including wound healing and Hepatitis C Virus infection. Little is known about steady-state occludin trafficking into and out of the plasma membrane. Therefore, we determined the mechanisms responsible for occludin turnover in confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial monolayers. Using various biotin-based trafficking assays we observed continuous and rapid endocytosis of plasma membrane localised occludin (the majority internalised within 30 minutes. By 120 minutes a significant reduction in internalised occludin was observed. Inhibition of lysosomal function attenuated the reduction in occludin signal post-endocytosis and promoted co-localisation with the late endocytic system. Using a similar method we demonstrated that ∼20% of internalised occludin was transported back to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, significant co-localisation between internalised occludin and recycling endosomal compartments was observed. We then quantified the extent to which occludin synthesis and transport to the plasma membrane contributes to plasma membrane occludin homeostasis, identifying inhibition of protein synthesis led to decreased plasma membrane localised occludin. Significant co-localisation between occludin and the biosynthetic secretory pathway was demonstrated. Thus, under steady-state conditions occludin undergoes turnover via a continuous cycle of endocytosis, recycling and degradation, with degradation compensated for by biosynthetic exocytic trafficking. We developed a mathematical model to describe the endocytosis, recycling and degradation of occludin, utilising experimental data to provide quantitative estimates for the rates of these processes.

  8. The Anatomy of Human Trafficking: Learning About the Blues: A Healthcare Provider's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Meriam; Berishaj, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health concern. It is a grave crime that violates human rights. Contrary to healthcare providers' perceptions, victims of human trafficking come in contact with the healthcare system while being trafficked, with the emergency department being the most frequented setting for medical treatment. In this article, we explore the anatomy of human trafficking, including the scope of the problem, definitions, and types and elements of human trafficking. The roles of clinicians, particularly emergency department nurses and advanced practice nurses, in screening and identifying those at risk are examined. Clinical practice tools and guidelines that may be used by clinicians to guide the treatment of human trafficking victims are reviewed. Finally, current strategies and resources that address human trafficking are presented. For the purpose of this article, the terms "human trafficking" or "trafficking" will be used throughout.

  9. Editorial: How is the money to combat human trafficking spent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Dottridge

    2014-09-01

    This edition of the Anti-Trafficking Review explores what happens to the money that is allocated by governments and private donors to stop human trafficking and to assist people who have been trafficked. It has been an honour to play the role of guest editor, though it has not been easy to steer a route between amazement (at the sums apparently involved, concern (at the lack of real insight into how money is allocated and spent and cynicism (at what appear to be rather modest achievements. It was challenging for potential authors to choose a method of analysing anti-trafficking spending. Should they simply describe what money is available and the drawbacks of the ways which donors make it available to organisations to use? Some authors take this descriptive approach. Should articles be about the efficiency and effectiveness of aid flows in general, in which case the shortcomings in anti-trafficking funding may mirror the generic flaws in aid flows? Only one author (Ucnikova has tackled this. Or, should studies focus on the way the purse strings are controlled by a small number of donors who appear poorly informed about the needs of trafficked persons or the factors that cause them to be trafficked? Several of the articles touch on this (e.g. those of Hoff and Nwogu. Early on, it became apparent to the editorial team that people working for large organisations with anti-trafficking programmes were wary of contributing articles on this topic. In this sense, although the Anti-Trafficking Review aims to promote public debate, we have not yet found the best way of opening up a debate about funding, for practitioners evidently fear that writing about their own sources of funding could result in the tap being turned off! So, it is mainly the Debate section that tackles the question of funding strategies. Even these contributions do not make assessments of the various actors involved (donors and the organisations they fund in as full and frank a way as is needed. The

  10. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures is monitoring for radioactive materials at borders. This Technical Document (TECDOC) provides information to front-line officers on response to events involving the detection of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The emphasis in this publication is on operational and tactical response measures. These may entail a multi-agency response, particularly at the tactical level. Detailed scientific information has been kept to a minimum as it is recognized that the majority of law enforcement personnel will not have the background necessary to use such information effectively. The prime objective of this TECDOC is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated. This information is aimed primarily at police, customs and other law enforcement officers who may become involved in incidents concerning inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. Effective inter-agency co-operation can only be achieved if personnel who are not normally involved with radiological emergencies are aware of the issues associated with

  11. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures is monitoring for radioactive materials at borders. This Technical Document (TECDOC) provides information to front-line officers on response to events involving the detection of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The emphasis in this publication is on operational and tactical response measures. These may entail a multi-agency response, particularly at the tactical level. Detailed scientific information has been kept to a minimum as it is recognized that the majority of law enforcement personnel will not have the background necessary to use such information effectively. The prime objective of this TECDOC is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated. This information is aimed primarily at police, customs and other law enforcement officers who may become involved in incidents concerning inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. Effective inter-agency co-operation can only be achieved if personnel who are not normally involved with radiological emergencies are aware of the issues associated with

  12. Trafficking and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: a complex network of posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Michelle L.; Barnes, Stephen; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications add diversity to protein function. Throughout its life cycle, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) undergoes numerous covalent posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including glycosylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, phosphorylation, and palmitoylation. These modifications regulate key steps during protein biogenesis, such as protein folding, trafficking, stability, function, and association with protein partners and therefore may serve as targets for therapeutic manipulation. More generally, an improved understanding of molecular mechanisms that underlie CFTR PTMs may suggest novel treatment strategies for CF and perhaps other protein conformational diseases. This review provides a comprehensive summary of co- and posttranslational CFTR modifications and their significance with regard to protein biogenesis. PMID:27474090

  13. Glut4 Palmitoylation at Cys223 Plays a Critical Role in Glut4 Membrane Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Wenying; Sun, Yingmin; Du, Keyong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we identified Glut4 as a palmitoylated protein in adipocytes. To understand the role of Glut4 palmitoylation in Glut4 membrane trafficking, a process that is essential for maintenance of whole body glucose homeostasis, we have characterized Glut4 palmitoylation. We found that Glut4 is palmitoylated at Cys223 and Glut4 palmitoylation at Cys223 is essential for insulin dependent Glut4 membrane translocation as substitution of Cys223 with a serine residue in Glut4 (C223S Glut4) diminis...

  14. Sub-regional Workshop on Illicit Nuclear Trafficking Information Management and Coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The workshop was organized to; have a comprehensive set of information which effectively supports implementation of the Nuclear Security Plan; understand nuclear security needs on a global scale to identify areas of cooperation between and among the Agency and Member States; determine illicit global trafficking trends and patterns, including theft and other malicious acts involving radioactive material; fully protect sensitive nuclear security information from disclosure; coordinate the nuclear security support programmes of Member States and international organizations with those of the Agency and have effective mechanisms of interaction with other international organizations

  15. Human trafficking: Role of oral health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzolese, E

    2014-11-30

    Trafficking in human beings is a modern form of slavery and is a well-known phenomenon throughout the European Union and beyond. After drug dealing and the weapons industry, human trafficking is the second largest criminal activity in the world today and it is a growing crime. The aim of governmental and non-governmental agencies, which are either directly or indirectly involved in combating trafficking in human beings, is the identification and referral of victims of trafficking and also to encourage self-referrals. Identification is the most important step to provide protection and assistance to victims of trafficking. Victims often have a variety of physical and mental health needs, including psychological trauma, injuries from violence, head and neck trauma, sexually transmitted infections and other gynaecological problems, dental/oral problems and have poor nutrition. The author's experience in the field of community dentistry in presented within. Volunteer dental services are offered to non-European Union patients held in a centre for asylum seekers in Bari (Italy). Dental professionals can, in fact, contribute to the identification, assistance and protection of trafficked persons, as well as offering forensic services to assist the police investigation in order to identify crimes and find the criminal organizations behind them. As for domestic violence and child abuse cases, there are ethical concerns involved in the identification and protection of the trafficked persons, as well as the need for interdisciplinary work and awareness. Adequate training in behavioural science and intercultural learning is paramount in order to avoid misunderstandings and increase sensitivity.

  16. Tomato Prenylated RAB Acceptor Protein 1 Modulates Trafficking and Degradation of the Pattern Recognition Receptor LeEIX2, Affecting the Innate Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Lorena; Leibman-Markus, Meirav; Schuster, Silvia; Bar, Maya; Meltz, Tal; Avni, Adi

    2018-01-01

    Plants recognize microbial/pathogen associated molecular patterns (MAMP/PAMP) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) triggering an immune response against pathogen progression. MAMP/PAMP triggered immune response requires PRR endocytosis and trafficking for proper deployment. LeEIX2 is a well-known Solanum lycopersicum RLP-PRR, able to recognize and respond to the fungal MAMP/PAMP ethylene-inducing xylanase (EIX), and its function is highly dependent on intracellular trafficking. Identifying protein machinery components regulating LeEIX2 intracellular trafficking is crucial to our understanding of LeEIX2 mediated immune responses. In this work, we identified a novel trafficking protein, SlPRA1A, a predicted regulator of RAB, as an interactor of LeEIX2. Overexpression of SlPRA1A strongly decreases LeEIX2 endosomal localization, as well as LeEIX2 protein levels. Accordingly, the innate immune responses to EIX are markedly reduced by SlPRA1A overexpression, presumably due to a decreased LeEIX2 availability. Studies into the role of SlPRA1A in LeEIX2 trafficking revealed that LeEIX2 localization in multivesicular bodies/late endosomes is augmented by SlPRA1A. Furthermore, inhibiting vacuolar function prevents the LeEIX2 protein level reduction mediated by SlPRA1A, suggesting that SlPRA1A may redirect LeEIX2 trafficking to the vacuole for degradation. Interestingly, SlPRA1A overexpression reduces the amount of several RLP-PRRs, but does not affect the protein level of receptor-like kinase PRRs, suggesting a specific role of SlPRA1A in RLP-PRR trafficking and degradation.

  17. Human Trafficking in Areas of Conflict: Health Care Professionals' Duty to Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Christina; Morris, Rikki E; Chisolm-Straker, Makini

    2017-01-01

    Given the significant global burden of human trafficking, the ability of clinicians to identify and provide treatment for trafficked persons is critical. Particularly in conflict settings, health care facilities often serve as the first and sometimes only point of contact for trafficked persons. As such, medical practitioners have a unique opportunity and an ethical imperative to intervene, even in nonclinical roles. With proper training, medical practitioners can assist trafficked persons by documenting human trafficking cases, thereby placing pressure on key stakeholders to enforce legal protections, and by providing adequate services to those trafficked. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  18. KENYA’S CONSTITUTION AND CHILD TRAFFICKING AS A SECURITY THREAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S. ODHIAMBO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking also referred to as modern-day slavery is seen as a security threat. Traditional security approaches to human trafficking call for analysis of trafficking as a threat to the Kenyan state and to Kenya’s control of its borders. Traditional security analyses of trafficking emphasize border security, migration controls, and international law enforcement cooperation. This article discusses three forms of child trafficking: sexual exploitation, forced labor and child soldiers and argues that the newly promulgated Kenyan constitution in chapter three on citizenship has a provision that can be interpreted as encouraging child trafficking.

  19. HIV-1 Nef: a master manipulator of the membrane trafficking machinery mediating immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Emily N; Dikeakos, Jimmy D

    2015-04-01

    Many viral genomes encode a limited number of proteins, illustrating their innate efficiency in bypassing host immune surveillance. This concept of genomic efficiency is exemplified by the 9 kb RNA genome of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), encoding 15 proteins sub-divided according to function. The enzymatic group includes proteins such as the drug targets reverse transcriptase and protease. In contrast, the accessory proteins lack any known enzymatic or structural function, yet are essential for viral fitness and HIV-1 pathogenesis. Of these, the HIV-1 accessory protein Nef is a master manipulator of host cellular processes, ensuring efficient counterattack against the host immune response, as well as long-term evasion of immune surveillance. In particular, the ability of Nef to downmodulate major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) is a key cellular event that enables HIV-1 to bypass the host's defenses by evading the adaptive immune response. In this article, we briefly review how various pathogenic viruses control cell-surface MHC-I, and then focus on the mechanisms and implications of HIV-1 Nef-mediated MHC-I downregulation via modulation of the host membrane trafficking machinery. The extensive interaction network formed between Nef and numerous membrane trafficking regulators suggests that Nef's role in evading the immune surveillance system intersects multiple host membrane trafficking pathways. Nef's ability to evade the immune surveillance system is linked to AIDS pathogenesis. Thus, a complete understanding of the molecular pathways that are subverted by Nef in order to downregulate MHC-I will enhance our understanding of HIV-1's progression to AIDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Educating health care professionals on human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Aimee M; Lippert, Suzanne; Collins, Kristin; Pineda, Noelle; Tolani, Alisha; Walker, Rebecca; Jeong, Monica; Trounce, Milana Boukhman; Graham-Lamberts, Caroline; Bersamin, Melina; Martinez, Jeremy; Dotzler, Jennifer; Vanek, John; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2014-12-01

    The US Department of State estimates that there are between 4 and 27 million individuals worldwide in some form of modern slavery. Recent studies have demonstrated that 28% to 50% of trafficking victims in the United States encountered health care professionals while in captivity, but were not identified and recognized. This study aimed to determine whether an educational presentation increased emergency department (ED) providers' recognition of human trafficking (HT) victims and knowledge of resources to manage cases of HT. The 20 largest San Francisco Bay Area EDs were randomized into intervention (10 EDs) or delayed intervention comparison groups (10 EDs) to receive a standardized educational presentation containing the following: background about HT, relevance of HT to health care, clinical signs in potential victims, and referral options for potential victims. Participants in the delayed intervention group completed a pretest in the period the immediate intervention group received the educational presentation, and all participants were assessed immediately before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention. The intervention effect was tested by comparing the pre-post change in the intervention group to the change in 2 pretests in the delayed intervention group adjusted for the effect of clustering within EDs. The 4 primary outcomes were importance of knowledge of HT to the participant's profession (5-point Likert scale), self-rated knowledge of HT (5-point Likert scale), knowledge of who to call for potential HT victims (yes/no), and suspecting that a patient was a victim of HT (yes/no). There were 258 study participants from 14 EDs; 141 from 8 EDs in the intervention group and 117 from 7 EDs in the delayed intervention comparison group, of which 20 served as the delayed intervention comparison group. Participants in the intervention group reported greater increases in their level of knowledge about HT versus those in the delayed intervention comparison

  1. Regulation of GPCR Anterograde Trafficking by Molecular Chaperones and Motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brent; Wertman, Jaime; Dupré, Denis J

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) make up a superfamily of integral membrane proteins that respond to a wide variety of extracellular stimuli, giving them an important role in cell function and survival. They have also proven to be valuable targets in the fight against various diseases. As such, GPCR signal regulation has received considerable attention over the last few decades. With the amplitude of signaling being determined in large part by receptor density at the plasma membrane, several endogenous mechanisms for modulating GPCR expression at the cell surface have come to light. It has been shown that cell surface expression is determined by both exocytic and endocytic processes. However, the body of knowledge surrounding GPCR trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane, commonly known as anterograde trafficking, has considerable room for growth. We focus here on the current paradigms of anterograde GPCR trafficking. We will discuss the regulatory role of both the general and "nonclassical private" chaperone systems in GPCR trafficking as well as conserved motifs that serve as modulators of GPCR export from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Together, these topics summarize some of the known mechanisms by which the cell regulates anterograde GPCR trafficking. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Salt bridge integrates GPCR activation with protein trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovick, Jo Ann; Conn, P Michael

    2010-03-02

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play central roles in almost all physiological functions; mutations in GPCRs are responsible for more than 30 disorders. There is a great deal of information about GPCR structure but little information that directly relates structure to protein trafficking or to activation. The gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor, because of its small size among GPCRs, is amenable to preparation of mutants and was used in this study to establish the relation among a salt bridge, protein trafficking, and receptor activation. This bridge, between residues E(90) [located in transmembrane segment (TM) 2] and K(121) (TM3), is associated with correct trafficking to the plasma membrane. Agonists, but not antagonists, interact with residue K(121), and destabilize the TM2-TM3 association of the receptor in the plasma membrane. The hGnRHR mutant E(90)K has a broken salt bridge, which also destabilizes the TM2-TM3 association and is typically retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. We show that this mutant, if rescued to the plasma membrane by either of two different means, has constitutive activity and shows modified ligand specificity, revealing a role for the salt bridge in receptor activation, ligand specificity, trafficking, and structure. The data indicate that destabilizing the TM2-TM3 relation for receptor activation, while requiring an intact salt bridge for correct trafficking, provides a mechanism that protects the cell from plasma membrane expression of constitutive activity.

  3. Entrepreneurship and Innovation in the Fight Against Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been much discussed and written on the benefits of entrepreneurship education, as well as the importance of early access to this type of learning. But how can entrepreneurship education train and inspire the next generation of anti-trafficking leaders? How can entrepreneurship also be a driver for prevention and a source of economic stability for those at-risk and survivors of human trafficking? At present, there are entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs-in-training at multiple age levels coming from a variety of backgrounds, incomes, and circumstances who will develop groundbreaking strategies and solutions in the fight against trafficking. These current and future entrepreneurs can also provide fresh perspectives to those in government and business while building more effective tri-sector coalitions and partnerships that address human trafficking. This article explores how and why entrepreneurship can be a key vehicle for social change and innovations in combating human trafficking, along with providing a multi-ingredient recipe of prosperity for those most vulnerable.

  4. Human trafficking: review of educational resources for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Purcell, Genevieve; Konstantopoulos, Wendy Macias; McGahan, Anita; Cafferty, Elizabeth; Eckardt, Melody; Conn, Kathryn L; Cappetta, Kate; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-03-01

    Human trafficking is an increasingly well-recognized human rights violation that is estimated to involve more than 2 million victims worldwide each year. The health consequences of this issue bring victims into contact with health systems and healthcare providers, thus providing the potential for identification and intervention. A robust healthcare response, however, requires a healthcare workforce that is aware of the health impact of this issue; educated about how to identify and treat affected individuals in a compassionate, culturally aware, and trauma-informed manner; and trained about how to collaborate efficiently with law enforcement, case management, and advocacy partners. This article describes existing educational offerings about human trafficking designed for a healthcare audience and makes recommendations for further curriculum development. A keyword search and structured analysis of peer-reviewed and gray literature, conducted in 2011 and 2012, yielded 27 items that provide basic guidance to health professionals on human trafficking. The 27 resources differed substantially in format, length, scope, and intended audience. Topic areas covered by these resources included trafficking definitions and scope, health consequences, victim identification, appropriate treatment, referral to services, legal issues, and security. None of the educational resources has been rigorously evaluated. There is a clear need to develop, implement, and evaluate high-quality education and training programs that focus on human trafficking for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking—neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures. PMID:26538806

  6. Changes to cholesterol trafficking in macrophages by Leishmania parasites infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semini, Geo; Paape, Daniel; Paterou, Athina; Schroeder, Juliane; Barrios-Llerena, Martin; Aebischer, Toni

    2017-08-01

    Leishmania spp. are protozoan parasites that are transmitted by sandfly vectors during blood sucking to vertebrate hosts and cause a spectrum of diseases called leishmaniases. It has been demonstrated that host cholesterol plays an important role during Leishmania infection. Nevertheless, little is known about the intracellular distribution of this lipid early after internalization of the parasite. Here, pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled cholesteryl esterified to fatty acids bound to low-density lipoproteins indicated that retention of this source of cholesterol is increased in parasite-containing subcellular fractions, while uptake is unaffected. This is correlated with a reduction or absence of detectable NPC1 (Niemann-Pick disease, type C1), a protein responsible for cholesterol efflux from endocytic compartments, in the Leishmania mexicana habitat and infected cells. Filipin staining revealed a halo around parasites within parasitophorous vacuoles (PV) likely representing free cholesterol accumulation. Labeling of host cell membranous cholesterol by fluorescent cholesterol species before infection revealed that this pool is also trafficked to the PV but becomes incorporated into the parasites' membranes and seems not to contribute to the halo detected by filipin. This cholesterol sequestration happened early after infection and was functionally significant as it correlated with the upregulation of mRNA-encoding proteins required for cholesterol biosynthesis. Thus, sequestration of cholesterol by Leishmania amastigotes early after infection provides a basis to understand perturbation of cholesterol-dependent processes in macrophages that were shown previously by others to be necessary for their proper function in innate and adaptive immune responses. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seelke, Clare R; Siskin, Alison

    2008-01-01

    .... The overwhelming majority of those trafficked are women and children. According to the most recent Department of State estimates, roughly 800,000 people are trafficked across borders each year...

  8. Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Claire M

    2007-01-01

    .... The overwhelming majority of those trafficked are women and children. According to the most recent Department of State estimates, roughly 800,000 people are trafficked across borders each year...

  9. Attitudes About Human Trafficking: Individual Differences Related to Belief and Victim Blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is believed to oppress millions of people worldwide. Despite increased media attention and public awareness campaigns in recent years, no empirical research has examined public attitudes about human trafficking. The present study examined gender, sexual trauma history, and attitudes about human trafficking as they related to belief of a sex-trafficking scenario and willingness to blame the victim for the situation. Undergraduate students (N = 409) at a large private university in the Northeastern United States completed measures in which they responded to a vignette portraying sex trafficking in the United States. Participants also reported their personal trauma history and completed a Human Trafficking Myths Scale. Results indicated that gender and human trafficking myth acceptance, but not sexual trauma history, were significantly related to participants' belief of the sex-trafficking scenario and their perception of the victim's responsibility. Potential implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. A model for assessing the risk of human trafficking on a local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Amanda

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation that is difficult to quantify. Models for estimating the number of victims of trafficking presented by previous researchers depend on inconsistent, poor quality data. As an intermediate step to help current efforts by nonprofits to combat human trafficking, this project presents a model that is not dependent on quantitative data specific to human trafficking, but rather profiles the risk of human trafficking at the local level through causative factors. Businesses, indicated by the literature, were weighted based on the presence of characteristics that increase the likelihood of trafficking in persons. The mean risk was calculated by census tract to reveal the multiplicity of risk levels in both rural and urban settings. Results indicate that labor trafficking may be a more diffuse problem in Missouri than sex trafficking. Additionally, spatial patterns of risk remained largely the same regardless of adjustments made to the model.

  11. 76 FR 82028 - Request for Information for the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... are most needed. Freeing victims, preventing trafficking, and bringing traffickers to justice are the... such as poverty; lack of access to education and economic opportunity; and discrimination against women...

  12. Perspectives on Human Trafficking and Modern Forms of Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Kara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration, technology, law, and measurement are each among the most topical areas of enquiry in the global human trafficking field, with much work remaining to be done in these and other areas. Beneath these particular intersections lies a crucial truth—slavery is a global business that thrives on the callous exploitation of the labor activity of a vast and highly vulnerable subclass of people whose brutalization is tacitly accepted by every participant in the global economy, from corporations to consumers. I am deeply gratified to edit Social Inclusion’s second issue on human trafficking and modern slavery. The level of scholarly interest in these topics continues to grow, and in this issue the authors explore some of the most pressing manifestations of human trafficking around the world.

  13. Regulation of dopamine transporter trafficking by intracellular amphetamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlig, Kristopher M; Lute, Brandon J; Wei, Yuqiang

    2006-01-01

    -induced cell surface DAT redistribution may result in long-lasting changes in DA homeostasis. The molecular mechanism by which AMPH induces trafficking is not clear. Because AMPH is a substrate, we do not know whether extracellular AMPH stimulates trafficking through its interaction with DAT and subsequent...... alteration in DAT function, thereby triggering intracellular signaling or whether AMPH must be transported and then act intracellularly. In agreement with our previous studies, extracellular AMPH caused cytosolic redistribution of the wild-type human DAT (WT-hDAT). However, AMPH did not induce cytosolic...... redistribution in an uptake-impaired hDAT (Y335A-hDAT) that still binds AMPH. The divalent cation zinc (Zn(2+)) inhibits WT-hDAT activity, but it restores Y335A-hDAT uptake. Coadministration of Zn(2+) and AMPH consistently reduced WT-hDAT trafficking but stimulated cytosolic redistribution of Y335A...

  14. Human Trafficking in Nepal: Post-Earthquake Risk and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Keeling, June; Kallestrup, Per

    2017-04-01

    As Nepal mourns the 1-year commemoration of the April 2015 earthquake and its aftershocks that killed more than 8500 people and left thousands injured and displaced, other more hidden repercussions of the resultant chaotic environment need attention: the increased risk of human trafficking. Considering that natural disasters provide a milieu for this illicit trade, there is a need for a robust response from stakeholders such as donors, civil society organizations, and government organizations against human trafficking following disasters such as the Nepal earthquake. Responsibility to prevent and fight trafficking should be explicitly included in the mandate of relief and rehabilitation mechanisms set up at the national level to coordinate the disaster relief response, serving to support populations in both rural and urban areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:153-154).

  15. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todres, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter-though they may not identify-victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case scenario: criminal law, with a focus on conspiracy; service provider regulations, with a focus on mandatory reporting laws; and human rights law. In addition to imposing a legal mandate, the law can inform ethical considerations about how health care professionals should respond to human trafficking. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Territorial sovereignty and trafficking in the Indonesia-Malaysia borderlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This chapter aims to explore the role that anti-trafficking initiatives have played in attempts by the Indonesian state to reclaim authority along its territorial borders. Drawing on data collected between 2002-2007 through personal interviews, government reports and newspaper clippings, it docum...... negative consequences along a border where the mundane practices of undocumented labour migration are often not distinguished from the more exploitative practices of human trafficking......., it documents how increased criminalization and the prevention of unauthorized flows of cross-border labour migrants have come to the foreground of national rhetoric concerning border development, territorial sovereignty and security. The chapter argues that the anti-trafficking discourse has had unintended...

  17. Terrorism, Drug Trafficking, and the Globalization of Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Hernández

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study analyzes the diversification of both terrorist groups and drug traffickers and the convergence between the two types of organizations in recent decades. As financial markets have become globalized, so have opportunities for illicit groups to transact with each other. The article builds on the collapse of Lebanese Canadian Bank in 2011 after its designation by the U.S. Treasury Department as a money-laundering financial institution tied to global drug trafficking and to Hezbollah. It follows the trajectory of two Hezbollah-associated drug kingpins: Ayman Joumaa, who facilitated trade between Hezbollah and the Zetas, and Maroun Saade, who was apprehended attempting to connect Hezbollah to the Taliban. In its analysis of the histories, motivations, and relationships among these three groups, the article reflects on relationships currently in existence between terrorist and drug-trafficking organizations, and on the implications of the possible directions these relationships might take in the future.

  18. Squalestatin alters the intracellular trafficking of a neurotoxic prion peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Alun

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotoxic peptides derived from the protease-resistant core of the prion protein are used to model the pathogenesis of prion diseases. The current study characterised the ingestion, internalization and intracellular trafficking of a neurotoxic peptide containing amino acids 105–132 of the murine prion protein (MoPrP105-132 in neuroblastoma cells and primary cortical neurons. Results Fluorescence microscopy and cell fractionation techniques showed that MoPrP105-132 co-localised with lipid raft markers (cholera toxin and caveolin-1 and trafficked intracellularly within lipid rafts. This trafficking followed a non-classical endosomal pathway delivering peptide to the Golgi and ER, avoiding classical endosomal trafficking via early endosomes to lysosomes. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis demonstrated close interactions of MoPrP105-132 with cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 and cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1, enzymes implicated in the neurotoxicity of prions. Treatment with squalestatin reduced neuronal cholesterol levels and caused the redistribution of MoPrP105-132 out of lipid rafts. In squalestatin-treated cells, MoPrP105-132 was rerouted away from the Golgi/ER into degradative lysosomes. Squalestatin treatment also reduced the association between MoPrP105-132 and cPLA2/COX-1. Conclusion As the observed shift in peptide trafficking was accompanied by increased cell survival these studies suggest that the neurotoxicity of this PrP peptide is dependent on trafficking to specific organelles where it activates specific signal transduction pathways.

  19. Human trafficking of Amerindian women in Guyana: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, L

    2008-09-01

    This human-interest article aims to increase awareness of the root causes of Guyanese Amerindian vulnerability. In 2000, while working among the Wai Wai, Makushi and Wapishana tribes in the Rupununi, the author made a promise to a tribal Captain never to forget his people. Not only are the Amerindian people remembered, but their plight is being recognized and shared in an effort to end the exploitation of Guyanese Amerindian women. Every year, international humanitarian teams gain permission to provide health care and health education in Amerindian villages in Guyana. Ensuring that international health teams are informed about current Amerindian issues is vital to mission success. Lack of indigenous awareness with regard to human trafficking is evidence that Guyana's trafficking awareness campaign did not effectively reach the interior and therefore, international teams can be instrumental in bringing awareness to those most vulnerable to human traffickers. Improving indigenous and international awareness has the potential to reduce vulnerability, and to reduce the risk of humanitarian teams unknowingly sending silent victims back into a life of forced labour and sexual exploitation. Emphasis is placed on discriminatory institutional and cultural factors impacting on young indigenous women increasing the likelihood of exploitation by human traffickers. Policy and service activities are examined to ascertain Guyana's current capacity to address human trafficking and meet the needs of victims. Building institutional and community capacity, and empowering indigenous peoples to take ownership for individual, family and community awareness and action against human trafficking are important steps to take in reducing vulnerability, ending human rights violations and improving the status of indigenous women.

  20. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  1. The Health of Trafficked Women: A Survey of Women Entering Posttrafficking Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Hossain, Mazeda; Yun, Katherine; Gajdadziev, Vasil; Guzun, Natalia; Tchomarova, Maria; Ciarrocchi, Rosa Angela; Johansson, Anna; Kefurtova, Anna; Scodanibbio, Stefania; Motus, Maria Nenette; Roche, Brenda; Morison, Linda; Watts, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Trained counselors interviewed 192 women who had been trafficked and sexually exploited about abuse and evaluated their physical and mental health status within 14 days of entry into posttrafficking services. Most reported physical or sexual violence while trafficked (95%), pre-trafficking abuse (59%), and multiple posttrafficking physical and psychological problems. Newly identified trafficked women require immediate attention to address posttrauma symptoms and adequate recovery time before making decisions about participating in prosecutorial or immigration proceedings or returning home. PMID:18048781

  2. The Nexus of Extremism and Trafficking: Scourge of the World or So Much Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    well as contraband smug- gling of cigarettes , are all used to examine the extremist/criminal nexus. The connections become clear as the authors...types of trafficking, human trafficking statistics are the least defined with any accuracy. For example, estimated profits from human trafficking...human trafficker had been transiting between Malaysia , Singapore, India, Thailand, and several other countries, earning millions of rupees for LTTE by

  3. International news coverage of human trafficking arrests and prosecutions: a content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Trafficking in human beings is a growing phenomenon with an expanding body of literature. However, a gap is evident in this body of literature: original research focusing on specific incidents of human trafficking. At this time, the human trafficking literature is permeated with discussions of the sex trade, sexual exploitation, organized crime, global socioeconomic problems and human rights. While these issues are all pertinent to the human trafficking debate, the literature requires maturat...

  4. A Comparison of Psychological Symptoms in Survivors of Sex and Labor Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, E K; Gonzalez, L D

    2018-03-20

    Human trafficking is a form of interpersonal trauma that has significant mental health impacts on survivors. This study examined psychological symptoms in 131 survivors of sex and labor trafficking, including people trafficked into or within the U.S. High rates of depression (71%) and PTSD (61%) were identified. Two thirds of survivors also met criteria for multiple categories of Complex PTSD (C-PTSD), including affect dysregulation and impulsivity; alterations in attention and consciousness; changes in interpersonal relationships; revictimization; somatic dysregulation; and alterations in self-perception. Although there were not significant differences in the prevalence rates of diagnoses of PTSD or depression between survivors of sex and labor trafficking, important group differences were identified. Compared to survivors of labor trafficking, sex trafficking survivors had higher prevalence rates of pre-trafficking childhood abuse and a higher incidence of physical and sexual violence during trafficking. They reported more severe post-trauma reactions than labor trafficking survivors, including more PTSD and C-PTSD symptoms. They were also more likely to meet criteria for comorbid PTSD and depression, while labor trafficking survivors were more likely than sex trafficking survivors to meet criteria for depression alone. An analysis of gender differences found that trafficking survivors who identified as transgender endorsed more PTSD and C-PTSD symptoms, than male or female survivors. Childhood abuse exposure was linked to PTSD and C-PTSD in trafficking survivors, and trafficking type was predictive of the number of trauma-related symptoms beyond the role of pre-trafficking child abuse. Implications for assessment and intervention with trafficking survivors are discussed.

  5. Drug Trafficking and North Korea: Issues for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    Korea to drug trafficking . Such events, in the context of credible, but unproven, allegations of large-scale state sponsorship of drug production and...trafficking, raise important issues for the United States and its allies in combating international drug trafficking . The challenge to policy makers...country’s chronic food shortages. Another issue of rising concern is the degree to which profits from any North Korean drug trafficking , counterfeiting

  6. The law and economics of international sex slavery: prostitution laws and trafficking for sexual exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    International trafficking in humans for sexual exploitation is an eco- nomic activity driven by profit motives. Laws regarding commercial sex influence the profitability of trafficking and may thus affect the inflow of trafficking to a country. Using two recent sources of European cross country data we show that trafficking of persons for commercial sexual exploitation (as proxied by the data sets we are using) is least prevalent in coun...

  7. TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN AND GIRLS FOR THE SEX TRADE: THE CASE OF GREECE

    OpenAIRE

    Emke-Poulopoulos, Ira

    2003-01-01

    Trafficking in women and children for the commercial sex industry and pornography exists in all societies. Greece is an important destination and to a lesser degree transit country. After presenting estimates and statistics on legal and undocumented status, nationality, age, educational and family status, this paper analyses the causes of trafficking in the countries of origin and destination as well as the role of the traffickers. Trafficking is examined as a) a violation of fundamental huma...

  8. Organ economy: organ trafficking in Moldova and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Susanne

    2012-02-01

    Organ trafficking is an illegal means of meeting the shortage of transplants. The activity flourishes for several interacting reasons, such as medical needs, poverty and criminality. Other factors are fundamental conceptual structures such as the dream of the regenerative body as well as the view of the body as an object of utility and an object of value. The article aims to go behind the normative discussions that usually surround organ trafficking. Why this is happening, and what the societal consequences are, is examined through ethnographic fieldwork. The focus is on the shadow economies that govern existence and in which people, goods, weapons, money, bodies, etc. constitute components of the global market.

  9. Consequences of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear or Other Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Explosion of a nuclear yield device is probably the worst consequence of Illicit Trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials.The nuclear yield device might be a stolen nuclear weapon, or an improvised nuclear device. An improvised nuclear device requires nuclear material design, and construction ability. Use of a radioactive dispersal device probably would not result in large numbers of casualties.However economic losses can be enormous. Non-Technical effects of nuclear trafficking (e.g. public panic, work disruption, etc.) and political and psychological consequences can far exceed technical consequences

  10. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, most lipoproteins synthesized in the inner membrane (IM) are trafficked to the outer membrane (OM). The Lol pathway is the trafficking paradigm: LolCDE releases lipoproteins from the IM; LolA shuttles them between membranes to LolB in the OM. Several OM lipoproteins are essential for viability. In apparent concordance, the Lol proteins are each essential in wild-type cells. However, we show that Escherichia coli grows well without LolA and LolB in the absence of one...

  11. General Aspects Regarding the Crime of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Draghici

    2016-01-01

    Thus, according to article 210 of the Penal Code, the crime of human trafficking involves„recruiting, transportation, sheltering or receiving of a person with the purpose of exploiting.Forthe offense of human trafficking there may exist preparatory acts, but the law does not incriminatethese acts as crimes and does not punish them. The attempt is punished according to article 217 ofthe Penal Code, stating that the attempt to the offenses stipulated at articles 209- 211 and article213 paragraph 2 of the Penal Code shall be punished.

  12. Methodological debates in human rights research: a case study of human trafficking in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.

    2012-01-01

    Debates over human trafficking are riddled with methodological dilemmas. Agencies with vested interests in the anti-trafficking agenda advance claims about numbers of victims, level of organized trafficking and scale of exploitation, but with limited data and using questionable techniques. Skeptics,

  13. 75 FR 1267 - National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A..., as well as thousands within the United States. During National Slavery and Human Trafficking... around the world who are working to end human trafficking. The victims of modern slavery have many faces...

  14. 78 FR 76183 - Request for Information for the 2014; Trafficking in Persons Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ..., unless such conduct occurs in the context of human trafficking. Confidentiality: Please provide the name... General's Report to Congress and Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Human Trafficking..., and soldiers/peacekeepers) complicit in human trafficking by, for example, profiting from, taking...

  15. Reported human traffickers' profiles: a key step in the prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: a gap in comprehensive knowledge of trafficking in persons and the traffickers exists globally and in Tanzania in particular. Consequently, information on the profiles of human traffickers in the country is tremendously scanty. Methods: we conducted a baseline study in eight administrative regions of Tanzania ...

  16. 8 CFR 214.11 - Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prosecuting activity relating to human trafficking certifies that the presence of the alien in the United... trafficking in persons. 214.11 Section 214.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 214.11 Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons...

  17. 75 FR 11982 - Request for Information for the 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... context of human trafficking. Confidentiality: Please provide the name, phone number and e-mail address of....S government's anti-human trafficking policy. The Department prepares the TIP Report using... to Congress and Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Human Trafficking (``AG Report...

  18. Drug Trafficking and Drug Use among Urban African American Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships between drug trafficking (selling and delivering), cigarette and alcohol use, and illicit drug use among African-American adolescents. Found that drug trafficking is equally likely to occur with or without cigarette and alcohol use or illicit drug involvement, suggesting that intervention should extend to drug trafficking in…

  19. Scaffolding proteins in membrane trafficking : the role of ELKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular membrane trafficking is an essential cellular process that involves cooperation of many factors such as scaffolding proteins, GTPases and SNAREs. These proteins work together to ensure proper delivery of different membrane-enclosed cargoes to specific cellular destinations. In this

  20. Women trafficking and forced prostitution: The Nigerian experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the causes of women trafficking and forced prostitution in. Nigeria. The paper was unambiguous in respect of the superiority of the argument that these are as a result of the general level of poverty within the economy even though the problem is a social one. After an analysis of Nigeria's experience at

  1. Combating Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is widely believed that indigenous culture and tradition are at the root of the human trafficking and forced labour problem in Africa. Adherents to this viewpoint also claim that endogenous as opposed to exogenous forces impede efforts to eradicate the problem. This study employed a loglinear regression model to test the ...

  2. Factors Sustaining Human Trafficking In The Contemporary Society ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors sustaining human trafficking in the contemporary society were investigated. One hundred and forty participants were used in generating the items that formed the questionnaire. While four hundred participants were used for the main study, seven leading factors were endorsed by majority of the participants as ...

  3. Debate - Trafficking as a Floating Signifier: The view from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grupo Davida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The fact that the United Nations (UN Trafficking Protocol is not an autochthonous product of the Brazilian political system has resulted in its being brought into that system as a ‘floating signifier’: something that does not point to any actual object or agreed upon meaning.[1] People who wish to criminalise prostitution have attempted to bend the Protocol in that direction while prostitutes’ rights groups have used it to critique current Brazilian laws, emphasising the need to distinguish migration for voluntary, consensual sex work from trafficking. Groups concerned with organ trafficking (a crime for which there are practically no proven cases in Brazil have managed to push their banner to the fore in the trafficking debate. Meanwhile, Brazil’s long-established and relatively successful anti-slave labour movement has been loath to ‘change their brand’, having already gained a considerable degree of institutionalisation prior to Brazil’s ratification of the Protocol in 2004. [1] C Lévi-Strauss, ‘Introduction à l'oeuvre de Marcel Mauss’ in Mauss, Sociologie et Anthropologie, Paris, 1950.

  4. Cell biology symposium: Membrane trafficking and signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, membrane trafficking is a broad group of processes where proteins and other large molecules are distributed throughout the cell as well as adjacent extracellular spaces. Whereas signal transduction is a process where signals are transmitted through a series of chemical or molecular event...

  5. Trafficking and Syrian Refugee Smuggling: Evidence from the Balkan Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Mandic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As of March 2016, 4.8 million Syrian refugees were scattered in two dozen countries by the civil war. Refugee smuggling has been a major catalyst of human trafficking in the Middle East and Europe migrant crises. Data on the extent to which smuggling devolved into trafficking in this refugee wave is, however, scarce. This article investigates how Syrian refugees interact with smugglers, shedding light on how human smuggling and human trafficking interrelated on the Balkan Route. I rely on original evidence from in-depth interviews (n = 123 and surveys (n = 100 with Syrian refugees in Jordan, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, and Germany; as well as ethnographic observations in thirty-five refugee camps or other sites in these countries. I argue that most smugglers functioned as guides, informants, and allies in understudied ways—thus refugee perceptions diverge dramatically from government policy assumptions. I conclude with a recommendation for a targeted advice policy that would acknowledge the reality of migrant-smuggler relations, and more effectively curb trafficking instead of endangering refugees.

  6. Styles Of Parenting And Human Trafficking In Africa | Maliki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The act of parenting is the bedrock upon which a child\\'s future behaviour and what the child eventually becomes depend. Various styles of parenting exists and the efficacy of any depends on whether it is able to shape the child towards a useful living or pushes him into the path of trafficking. This article therefore, deals with ...

  7. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a permeability barrier and an intrinsic antibiotic resistance factor. Lipoproteins are OM components that function in cell wall synthesis, diverse secretion systems, and antibiotic efflux pumps. Moreover, each of the essential OM machines that assemble the barrier requires one or more lipoproteins. This dependence is thought to explain the essentiality of the periplasmic chaperone LolA and its OM receptor LolB that traffic lipoproteins to the OM. However, we show that in strains lacking substrates that are toxic when mislocalized, both LolA and LolB can be completely bypassed by activating an envelope stress response without compromising trafficking of essential lipoproteins. We identify the Cpx stress response as a monitor of lipoprotein trafficking tasked with protecting the cell from mislocalized lipoproteins. Moreover, our findings reveal that an alternate trafficking pathway exists that can, under certain conditions, bypass the functions of LolA and LolB, implying that these proteins do not perform any truly essential mechanistic steps in lipoprotein trafficking. Instead, these proteins’ key function is to prevent lethal accumulation of mislocalized lipoproteins. PMID:28416660

  8. Combating the Menace of Transnational Human Trafficking in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Savage neo-slave trade appears a befitting name for the current trafficking in persons which had dehumanized the homo-sapien. This is more savagery than its progeny, in which slaves were chained on their legs and necks and bound together in a convoy through Trans-Atlantic route to the white-man\\'s country. The new ...

  9. Gender issues in human trafficking in Edo State, Nigeria | Osezua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the predominance of human trafficking within a social cultural milieu in Nigeria, by taking into account gender issues that have reinforced the phenomenon in the region. The paper relied on primary data generated from an anthropological fieldwork conducted in the affected area. A total of 120 ...

  10. A Salmonella virulence protein that inhibits cellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiya, K; Barbieri, M A; Funato, K; Shah, A H; Stahl, P D; Groisman, E A

    1999-07-15

    Salmonella enterica requires a type III secretion system, designated Spi/Ssa, to survive and proliferate within macrophages. The Spi/Ssa system is encoded within the SPI-2 pathogenicity island and appears to function intracellularly. Here, we establish that the SPI-2-encoded SpiC protein is exported by the Spi/Ssa type III secretion system into the host cell cytosol where it interferes with intracellular trafficking. In J774 macrophages, wild-type Salmonella inhibited fusion of Salmonella-containing phagosomes with lysosomes and endosomes, and interfered with trafficking of vesicles devoid of the microorganism. These inhibitory activities required living Salmonella and a functional spiC gene. Purified SpiC protein inhibited endosome-endosome fusion in vitro. A Sindbis virus expressing the SpiC protein interfered with normal trafficking of the transferrin receptor in vivo. A spiC mutant was attenuated for virulence, suggesting that the ability to interfere with intracellular trafficking is essential for Salmonella pathogenesis.

  11. A global bioethical perspective on organ trafficking: Discrimination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, there is no national or global declaration that rejects organ trafficking because of the discriminatory and stigmatising results of the medical practice involved. The Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) addresses the ...

  12. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2017-05-02

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a permeability barrier and an intrinsic antibiotic resistance factor. Lipoproteins are OM components that function in cell wall synthesis, diverse secretion systems, and antibiotic efflux pumps. Moreover, each of the essential OM machines that assemble the barrier requires one or more lipoproteins. This dependence is thought to explain the essentiality of the periplasmic chaperone LolA and its OM receptor LolB that traffic lipoproteins to the OM. However, we show that in strains lacking substrates that are toxic when mislocalized, both LolA and LolB can be completely bypassed by activating an envelope stress response without compromising trafficking of essential lipoproteins. We identify the Cpx stress response as a monitor of lipoprotein trafficking tasked with protecting the cell from mislocalized lipoproteins. Moreover, our findings reveal that an alternate trafficking pathway exists that can, under certain conditions, bypass the functions of LolA and LolB, implying that these proteins do not perform any truly essential mechanistic steps in lipoprotein trafficking. Instead, these proteins' key function is to prevent lethal accumulation of mislocalized lipoproteins.

  13. Consequences of Women Trafficking as Perceived by Working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated consequences of women trafficking as perceived by working class people in Edo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling was employed to select 500 workers who were sampled from government workers from the various federal government ministries, self employed and traders. Six local ...

  14. Human Trafficking: A Call for Counselor Awareness and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Edward L., Jr.; Ramey, Luellen

    2009-01-01

    The counseling profession has given little attention to human trafficking, a form of modern slavery that is one of the most damaging forms of social injustice that exists today. Focusing on victims within the United States, the authors provide advocacy suggestions, treatment recommendations, and directions for research for this population.

  15. Factors Contributing to Human Trafficking, Contexts of Vulnerability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human trafficking has recently emerged as an exceedingly intricate international crime. Sub-Saharan Africa is the most vulnerable region from which a substantial amount of victims has been recruited for both continental and intercontinental transaction. This also holds true for Ethiopian men, women and children who have ...

  16. Galectin-3 guides intracellular trafficking of some human serotransferrin glycoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Carl Michael; Bengtson, Per; Cucak, Helena

    2013-01-01

    these transferrin glycoforms differently after preloading with exogenously added galectin-3. In all, this study provides the first evidence of a functional role for transferrin glycans, in intracellular trafficking after uptake. Moreover, the galectin-3 bound glycoform increased in cancer, suggesting...

  17. Human Trafficking: A Security Challenge in Nigeria. | Tor-Anyiin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines human trafficking, which is today rated as the third world organized crime after drugs and arms. The concept of the trade, which crosses internal and international borders, has also been discussed. The factors that facilitate the trade like poverty, personal and social are equally identified and discussed.

  18. Human trafficking: a variant of the historic slave trade in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human trafficking is as old as human existence and civilisation. It dates back to the time of old kingdoms where captivities of conquered empires were taking from into slavery and compelled to serve kings and princes of foreign kingdoms. This practice later changed to the sales of recalcitrant or sickly captives to other ...

  19. Human Trafficking in Edo State (Nigeria): A Socio- Economic Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essay is derived from a field study executed in 2009. Its focus is on. Benin City inhabited mostly by the Bini group although other groups like the Ishan, Etsako, Akoko-Edo, and Owan are also well represented. It is generally believed that Bini girls/women dominate the sex export to. Europe through human trafficking.

  20. Drug trafficking, use, and HIV risk: The need for comprehensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jessie Mbwambo, Sheryl A. McCurdy, Bronwyn Myers, Barrot Lambdin, Gad Paul Kilonzo, and Pamela Kaduri

    2012-12-06

    Dec 6, 2012 ... Keywords: drug trafficking, drug use, HIV risk, comprehensive interventions, Africa. Résumé ... users in Tanzania. For the last 25 years, her work has focused primarily on health and gender issues in Tanzania. ... He has been involved with initiatives looking at the impact of integrating. HIV services into ...

  1. “Diving for dope” : Controlling underwater drug trafficking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eski, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This paper will offer an ethnographic account of the everyday reality of controlling illegal underwater drug trafficking in the global Port of Rotterdam (PoR). In so doing, it will explore what it means for customs diving officers to do drug inspections under challenging circumstances in order to

  2. Human trafficking for labour exploitation: Interpreting the crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coster van Voorhout, J.E.B.

    2007-01-01

    The definition of human trafficking for labour exploitation, as follows from the European Council Framework Decision, proves to be unclear. Literal interpretation does not suffice, because it does not clarify all elements of what is deemed to be criminal behaviour, and hermeneutical interpretation

  3. Radiation protection aspects of the trafficking radionuclides contaminated metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouza, Z.

    1999-01-01

    This paper covers the legal base of the release in the environment of radionuclides containing materials and the radiation protection aspects of trafficking in radionuclides contaminated materials. Materials, substance and objects containing radionuclides or contaminated by them may be released into the environment, if they do not exceed values authorized by SONS (State Office of Nuclear Safety). Legislative measures should be taken against illicit trafficking of the nuclear material in all the areas. The creation of a sophisticated system for the control and regulation of all important radionuclides released into the environment should be based on the radiation protection limits, constraints, reference and exemption levels which are introduced in the legislative documents; the strong supervision of producers and users of the sealed sources by SONS side, in addition to the requirements of the licensing process of their sources; a complete data-base and information exchange system related to illicit trafficking in contaminated material; in this system all the authorities with jurisdiction should be involved. The responsibilities of the persons involved in metal scrap trafficking should include arrangement of appropriate monitoring, rules for transport of the metal scrap, an adequate measuring system to monitor metal scrap including monitoring to prevent processing or smelting of the radioactive material, control measures, etc. All of the above items of legislation are an important challenge for the Czech Republic. (author)

  4. Country Presentation on Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwandime, C.

    2010-01-01

    Assess the role of various agences in Kenya in fighting illicit traficking of nuclear materials. These includes the police, customs, National Council for Science and Technology, Radiation and Protection Board. Gives incidences of trafficking of various materials in Kenya and related activities like the 1998 terrorist attack of American Embassy in Nairobi and the Kikambala Tourist Hotel in Mombasa

  5. Stabilizing cinder gravels for heavily trafficked base course ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the investigation indicated that the optimum amount of cement required to achieve the minimum UCS of 3.0 MPa as specified in ERA and AACRA pavement design standards for heavily trafficked base course without adding fine soils is found to be 7% cement. However, this high cement requirement was ...

  6. Mandatory Reporting of Human Trafficking: Potential Benefits and Risks of Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking, including both sex and labor trafficking, has profound consequences for the safety, health, and well-being of victims and survivors. Efforts to address human trafficking through prevention, protection, and prosecution are growing but remain insufficient. Mandatory reporting has the potential to bring victims and survivors to the attention of social service and law enforcement agencies but may discourage trafficked persons from seeking help, thereby limiting the ability of health care professionals to establish trust and provide needed care. States' experience in implementing child abuse laws can be useful in assessing the potential risks and benefits of mandatory reporting of human trafficking. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Narco-scapes: Cocaine Trafficking and Deforestation in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrathall, D.; McSweeney, K.; Nielsen, E.; Pearson, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Narcotics trafficking and drug interdiction efforts have resulted in a well-documented social crisis in Central America, but more recently, has been tightly linked to environmental catastrophe and accelerated deforestation in transit zones. This talk will outline synthesis findings from multi-country, interdisciplinary research on cocaine trafficking as an engine of forest loss in Central America. During the "narco-boom" of the mid-2000s, we observed a geographical evolution of cocaine flows into Central America, and the transit of cocaine through new spaces, accompanied by specific patterns of social and environmental change in new nodes of transit. We coarsely estimated that the total amount of cocaine flowing through Central America increased from 70 metric tons in 2000 to 350 mt in 2012, implying that total cocaine trafficking revenue in the region increased from roughly 600 million dollars to 3.5 billion in that time. We describe the mechanism by which these locally captured cocaine rents resulted in a rapid conversion of forest into cattle pasture. Narco-traffickers are drawn to invest in the cattle economy, as a direct means of laundering and formalizing proceeds. Ranching is a land intensive activity, and new narco-enriched cattle pastures can be isolated from other forms forest loss solely by their spatial and temporal change characteristics. A preliminary forest change study in Honduras, for example, indicated that areas of accelerated deforestation were in close proximity to known narcotics trafficking routes and were thirteen times more extensive on average than other forest clearings. Deforested areas commonly appeared in isolated and biodiverse lowland tropical rainforest regions that often intersected with protected areas and indigenous reserves. We find that narco-deforestation is a readily identifiable signal of the extent and health of the cocaine economy. This talk will feature summaries of both ethnographic and land cover change we have observed

  8. A geographical analysis of trafficking on a popular darknet market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, Julian; Rhumorbarbe, Damien; Morelato, Marie; Staehli, Ludovic; Rossy, Quentin

    2017-08-01

    Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces, located on the darknet, that facilitate the trading of a variety of illegal goods, mostly drugs. While the literature essentially focus on drugs, various other goods and products related to financial or identity fraud, firearms, counterfeit goods, as well as doping products are also offered on these marketplaces. Through the analysis of relevant data collected on a popular marketplace in 2014-2015, Evolution, this research provides an analysis of the structure of trafficking (types and proportions of products, number of vendors and shipping countries). It also aims at highlighting geographical patterns in the trafficking of these products (e.g. trafficking flows, specialisation of vendors and assessment of their role in the distribution chain). The analysis of the flow of goods between countries emphasises the role of specific countries in the international and domestic trafficking, potentially informing law enforcement agencies to target domestic mails or international posts from specific countries. The research also highlights the large proportion of licit and illicit drug listings and vendors on Evolution, followed by various fraud issues (in particular, financial fraud), the sharing of knowledge (tutorials) and finally goods, currencies and precious metals (principally luxury goods). Looking at the shipping country, there seems to be a clear division between digital and physical products, with more specific information for physical goods. This reveals that the spatial analysis of trafficking is particularly meaningful in the case of physical products (such as illicit drugs) and to a lesser extent for digital products. Finally, the geographical analysis reveals that spatial patterns on Evolution tend to reflect the structure of the traditional illicit market. However, regarding illicit drugs, country-specificity has been observed and are presented in this article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microtubule and Actin Interplay Drive Intracellular c-Src Trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Arnette

    Full Text Available The proto-oncogene c-Src is involved in a variety of signaling processes. Therefore, c-Src spatiotemporal localization is critical for interaction with downstream targets. However, the mechanisms regulating this localization have remained elusive. Previous studies have shown that c-Src trafficking is a microtubule-dependent process that facilitates c-Src turnover in neuronal growth cones. As such, microtubule depolymerization lead to the inhibition of c-Src recycling. Alternatively, c-Src trafficking was also shown to be regulated by RhoB-dependent actin polymerization. Our results show that c-Src vesicles primarily exhibit microtubule-dependent trafficking; however, microtubule depolymerization does not inhibit vesicle movement. Instead, vesicular movement becomes both faster and less directional. This movement was associated with actin polymerization directly at c-Src vesicle membranes. Interestingly, it has been shown previously that c-Src delivery is an actin polymerization-dependent process that relies on small GTPase RhoB at c-Src vesicles. In agreement with this finding, microtubule depolymerization induced significant activation of RhoB, together with actin comet tail formation. These effects occurred downstream of GTP-exchange factor, GEF-H1, which was released from depolymerizing MTs. Accordingly, GEF-H1 activity was necessary for actin comet tail formation at the Src vesicles. Our results indicate that regulation of c-Src trafficking requires both microtubules and actin polymerization, and that GEF-H1 coordinates c-Src trafficking, acting as a molecular switch between these two mechanisms.

  10. Rapid glutamate receptor 2 trafficking during retinal degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yanhua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal degenerations, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD and retinitis pigmentosa (RP, are characterized by photoreceptor loss and anomalous remodeling of the surviving retina that corrupts visual processing and poses a barrier to late-stage therapeutic interventions in particular. However, the molecular events associated with retinal remodeling remain largely unknown. Given our prior evidence of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR reprogramming in retinal degenerations, we hypothesized that the edited glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2 subunit and its trafficking may be modulated in retinal degenerations. Results Adult albino Balb/C mice were exposed to intense light for 24 h to induce light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD. We found that prior to the onset of photoreceptor loss, protein levels of GluR2 and related trafficking proteins, including glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1 and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95, were rapidly increased. LIRD triggered neuritogenesis in photoreceptor survival regions, where GluR2 and its trafficking proteins were expressed in the anomalous dendrites. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed interaction between KIF3A and GRIP1 as well as PSD-95, suggesting that KIF3A may mediate transport of GluR2 and its trafficking proteins to the novel dendrites. However, in areas of photoreceptor loss, GluR2 along with its trafficking proteins nearly vanished in retracted retinal neurites. Conclusions All together, LIRD rapidly triggers GluR2 plasticity, which is a potential mechanism behind functionally phenotypic revisions of retinal neurons and neuritogenesis during retinal degenerations.

  11. The non-peptidic part determines the internalization mechanism and intracellular trafficking of peptide amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missirlis, Dimitris; Teesalu, Tambet; Black, Matthew; Tirrell, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are a class of amphiphilic molecules able to self-assemble into nanomaterials that have shown efficient in vivo targeted delivery. Understanding the interactions of PAs with cells and the mechanisms of their internalization and intracellular trafficking is critical in their further development for therapeutic delivery applications. PAs of a novel, cell- and tissue-penetrating peptide were synthesized possessing two different lipophilic tail architectures and their interactions with prostate cancer cells were studied in vitro. Cell uptake of peptides was greatly enhanced post-modification. Internalization occurred via lipid-raft mediated endocytosis and was common for the two analogs studied. On the contrary, we identified the non-peptidic part as the determining factor of differences between intracellular trafficking and retention of PAs. PAs composed of di-stearyl lipid tails linked through poly(ethylene glycol) to the peptide exhibited higher exocytosis rates and employed different recycling pathways compared to ones consisting of di-palmitic-coupled peptides. As a result, cell association of the former PAs decreased with time. Control over peptide intracellular localization and retention is possible by appropriate modification with synthetic hydrophobic tails. We propose this as a strategy to design improved peptide-based delivery systems.

  12. The non-peptidic part determines the internalization mechanism and intracellular trafficking of peptide amphiphiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Missirlis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peptide amphiphiles (PAs are a class of amphiphilic molecules able to self-assemble into nanomaterials that have shown efficient in vivo targeted delivery. Understanding the interactions of PAs with cells and the mechanisms of their internalization and intracellular trafficking is critical in their further development for therapeutic delivery applications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PAs of a novel, cell- and tissue-penetrating peptide were synthesized possessing two different lipophilic tail architectures and their interactions with prostate cancer cells were studied in vitro. Cell uptake of peptides was greatly enhanced post-modification. Internalization occurred via lipid-raft mediated endocytosis and was common for the two analogs studied. On the contrary, we identified the non-peptidic part as the determining factor of differences between intracellular trafficking and retention of PAs. PAs composed of di-stearyl lipid tails linked through poly(ethylene glycol to the peptide exhibited higher exocytosis rates and employed different recycling pathways compared to ones consisting of di-palmitic-coupled peptides. As a result, cell association of the former PAs decreased with time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Control over peptide intracellular localization and retention is possible by appropriate modification with synthetic hydrophobic tails. We propose this as a strategy to design improved peptide-based delivery systems.

  13. In silico investigation of ADAM12 effect on TGF-β receptors trafficking

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    LeMeur Nolwenn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transforming growth factor beta is known to have pleiotropic effects, including differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. However the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The regulation and effect of TGF-β signaling is complex and highly depends on specific protein context. In liver, we have recently showed that the disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM12 interacts with TGF-β receptors and modulates their trafficking among membranes, a crucial point in TGF-β signaling and development of fibrosis. The present study aims to better understand how ADAM12 impacts on TGF-β receptors trafficking and TGF-β signaling. Findings We extracted qualitative biological observations from experimental data and defined a family of models producing a behavior compatible with the presence of ADAM12. We computationally explored the properties of this family of models which allowed us to make novel predictions. We predict that ADAM12 increases TGF-β receptors internalization rate between the cell surface and the endosomal membrane. It also appears that ADAM12 modifies TGF-β signaling shape favoring a permanent response by removing the transient component observed under physiological conditions. Conclusion In this work, confronting differential models with qualitative biological observations, we obtained predictions giving new insights into the role of ADAM12 in TGF-β signaling and hepatic fibrosis process.

  14. Perturbed cholesterol and vesicular trafficking associated with dengue blocking in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Vincent; Stainton, Kirsty; Rainey, Stephanie M; Ant, Thomas H; Dowle, Adam A; Larson, Tony; Hester, Svenja; Charles, Philip D; Thomas, Benjamin; Sinkins, Steven P

    2017-09-13

    Wolbachia are intracellular maternally inherited bacteria that can spread through insect populations and block virus transmission by mosquitoes, providing an important approach to dengue control. To better understand the mechanisms of virus inhibition, we here perform proteomic quantification of the effects of Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti mosquito cells and midgut. Perturbations are observed in vesicular trafficking, lipid metabolism and in the endoplasmic reticulum that could impact viral entry and replication. Wolbachia-infected cells display a differential cholesterol profile, including elevated levels of esterified cholesterol, that is consistent with perturbed intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Cyclodextrins have been shown to reverse lipid accumulation defects in cells with disrupted cholesterol homeostasis. Treatment of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti cells with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin restores dengue replication in Wolbachia-carrying cells, suggesting dengue is inhibited in Wolbachia-infected cells by localised cholesterol accumulation. These results demonstrate parallels between the cellular Wolbachia viral inhibition phenotype and lipid storage genetic disorders. Wolbachia infection of mosquitoes can block dengue virus infection and is tested in field trials, but the mechanism of action is unclear. Using proteomics, Geoghegan et al. here identify effects of Wolbachia on cholesterol homeostasis and dengue virus replication in Aedes aegypti.

  15. GABA type a receptor trafficking and the architecture of synaptic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M; Jacob, Tija C

    2018-03-01

    Ubiquitous expression of GABA type A receptors (GABA A R) in the central nervous system establishes their central role in coordinating most aspects of neural function and development. Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission manifests in a number of human health disorders and conditions that in certain cases can be alleviated by drugs targeting these receptors. Precise changes in the quantity or activity of GABA A Rs localized at the cell surface and at GABAergic postsynaptic sites directly impact the strength of inhibition. The molecular mechanisms constituting receptor trafficking to and from these compartments therefore dictate the efficacy of GABA A R function. Here we review the current understanding of how GABA A Rs traffic through biogenesis, plasma membrane transport, and degradation. Emphasis is placed on discussing novel GABAergic synaptic proteins, receptor and scaffolding post-translational modifications, activity-dependent changes in GABA A R confinement, and neuropeptide and neurosteroid mediated changes. We further highlight modern techniques currently advancing the knowledge of GABA A R trafficking and clinically relevant neurodevelopmental diseases connected to GABAergic dysfunction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 238-270, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Preventing trafficking in women and children in Asia: issues and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, T

    1999-09-01

    This article discusses the issues and options in the prevention of trafficking of women and children in Asia. Studies revealed a higher prevalence of trafficking in Asian countries such as Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Philippines, Cambodia, and Thailand. This is due to a huge population, growing urbanization, and poverty. Several programs by the government and nongovernmental organizations have been developed to address the trafficking problem. In Nepal, the Maiti program was organized to help trafficking victims return to their home country, while occupational alternatives and awareness campaigns were organized for young women vulnerable to trafficking. In Thailand, greater penalties were imposed to customers as compared to the sellers so as to discourage the continuance and decrease the prevalence of trafficking. Other strategies have also been identified, such as prosecution of procurers, community awareness through campaigns, poverty alleviation, and gender equalization to address the trafficking problem.

  17. Trafficking in women in Serbia and neighboring countries: Scope, characteristics and causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper scope, characteristics and causes of sex trafficking in women are analyzed. The analysis considers trafficking in women in Serbia and in its direct and indirect surrounding. Available data about distribution and channels of trafficking in women, as well as about methods of recruitment, transfer and victimization of women are analyzed. Also, some of characteristics of traffickers are considered. The special chapter deals with factors that contribute to sex trafficking in women. These factors are classified in three groups: push factors, pull factors and facilitating factors. In the conclusion, the author points out the importance of data exposed in this paper for building efficient system of struggle against as well as prevention of trafficking of human beings in general, and, of sex trafficking in women, in particular.

  18. Endosomal MR1 Trafficking Plays a Key Role in Presentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ligands to MAIT Cells.

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    Melanie J Harriff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT cells, present in high frequency in airway and other mucosal tissues, have Th1 effector capacity positioning them to play a critical role in the early immune response to intracellular pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. MR1 is a highly conserved Class I-like molecule that presents vitamin B metabolites to MAIT cells. The mechanisms for loading these ubiquitous small molecules are likely to be tightly regulated to prevent inappropriate MAIT cell activation. To define the intracellular localization of MR1, we analyzed the distribution of an MR1-GFP fusion protein in antigen presenting cells. We found that MR1 localized to endosomes and was translocated to the cell surface upon addition of 6-formyl pterin (6-FP. To understand the mechanisms by which MR1 antigens are presented, we used a lentiviral shRNA screen to identify trafficking molecules that are required for the presentation of Mtb antigen to HLA-diverse T cells. We identified Stx18, VAMP4, and Rab6 as trafficking molecules regulating MR1-dependent MAIT cell recognition of Mtb-infected cells. Stx18 but not VAMP4 or Rab6 knockdown also resulted in decreased 6-FP-dependent surface translocation of MR1 suggesting distinct pathways for loading of exogenous ligands and intracellular mycobacterially-derived ligands. We postulate that endosome-mediated trafficking of MR1 allows for selective sampling of the intracellular environment.

  19. Human Sirtuin 2 Localization, Transient Interactions, and Impact on the Proteome Point to Its Role in Intracellular Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budayeva, Hanna G; Cristea, Ileana M

    2016-10-01

    Human sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is an NAD + -dependent deacetylase that primarily functions in the cytoplasm, where it can regulate α-tubulin acetylation levels. SIRT2 is linked to cancer progression, neurodegeneration, and infection with bacteria or viruses. However, the current knowledge about its interactions and the means through which it exerts its functions has remained limited. Here, we aimed to gain a better understanding of its cellular functions by characterizing SIRT2 subcellular localization, the identity and relative stability of its protein interactions, and its impact on the proteome of primary human fibroblasts. To assess the relative stability of SIRT2 interactions, we used immunoaffinity purification in conjunction with both label-free and metabolic labeling quantitative mass spectrometry. In addition to the expected associations with cytoskeleton proteins, including its known substrate TUBA1A, our results reveal that SIRT2 specifically interacts with proteins functioning in membrane trafficking, secretory processes, and transcriptional regulation. By quantifying their relative stability, we found most interactions to be transient, indicating a dynamic SIRT2 environment. We discover that SIRT2 localizes to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), and that this recruitment requires an intact ER-Golgi trafficking pathway. Further expanding these findings, we used microscopy and interaction assays to establish the interaction and coregulation of SIRT2 with liprin-β1 scaffolding protein (PPFiBP1), a protein with roles in focal adhesions disassembly. As SIRT2 functions may be accomplished via interactions, enzymatic activity, and transcriptional regulation, we next assessed the impact of SIRT2 levels on the cellular proteome. SIRT2 knockdown led to changes in the levels of proteins functioning in membrane trafficking, including some of its interaction partners. Altogether, our study expands the knowledge of SIRT2 cytoplasmic functions to define a

  20. GLUT4 trafficking in a test tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Georg; James, David E

    2005-09-01

    Insulin regulates glucose transport in muscle and fat cells by stimulating the translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Holman and colleagues reconstitute this process in vitro, providing a system that promises new breakthroughs in our understanding of this important metabolic process.

  1. HIV prevalence and predictors of infection in sex-trafficked Nepalese girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Gupta, Jhumka; Maheshwari, Ayonija; Willis, Brian M; Raj, Anita

    2007-08-01

    Sex trafficking of girls and women is widespread across South Asia and is recognized as both a violent gender-based crime and major human rights violation. Inadequate empirical data exist to characterize this phenomenon and its related health consequences, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among repatriated sex-trafficked Nepalese girls and women and to identify trafficking-related predictors of such infection. Medical and case records of 287 repatriated girls and women reporting being trafficked from Nepal for sexual exploitation and receiving rehabilitative services between January 1997 and December 2005 at a major nongovernmental organization were systematically reviewed in January 2006. Major Nepalese nongovernmental organization providing shelter and care to repatriated survivors of sex trafficking. Prevalence of and risk for HIV based on demographic characteristics and on trafficking- and prostitution-related experiences. Among 287 repatriated Nepalese sex-trafficked girls and women, 109 (38.0%) tested positive for HIV. Among those with complete documentation of trafficking experiences (n = 225), median age at time of trafficking was 17.0 years, with 33 (14.7%) trafficked prior to age 15 years. Compared with those trafficked at 18 years or older, girls trafficked prior to age 15 years were at increased risk for HIV (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-10.34), with 20 of 33 (60.6%) infected among this youngest age group. Additional factors associated with HIV positivity included being trafficked to Mumbai (AOR, 4.85; 95% CI, 2.16-10.89) and longer duration of forced prostitution (AOR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; indicating increased risk per additional month of brothel servitude). In post hoc analyses, girls trafficked prior to age 15 years had increased odds of having been detained in multiple brothels (odds ratio [OR], 5.03; 95% CI, 1.96-12.93) and in brothels for a

  2. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffres, Christine; Mills, Edward; Joffres, Michel; Khanna, Tinku; Walia, Harleen; Grund, Darrin

    2008-09-25

    Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another or within states, India has also emerged as a international supplier of trafficked women and children to the Gulf States and South East Asia, as well as a destination country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation from Nepal and Bangladesh. Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is a highly profitable and low risk business that preys on particularly vulnerable populations. This paper presents an overview of the trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation (CSE) in India; identifies the health impacts of CSE; and suggest strategies to respond to trafficking and related issues.

  3. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walia Harleen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another or within states, India has also emerged as a international supplier of trafficked women and children to the Gulf States and South East Asia, as well as a destination country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation from Nepal and Bangladesh. Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is a highly profitable and low risk business that preys on particularly vulnerable populations. This paper presents an overview of the trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation (CSE in India; identifies the health impacts of CSE; and suggest strategies to respond to trafficking and related issues.

  4. Human trafficking: Commercial sexual exploitation and forced domestic labour in African literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urama Evelyn Nwachukwu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Just like social occurrences such as human sacrifice and slavery enhanced retardation of progress in Africa in the past, trafficking is another social occurrence addressed in contemporary African literature that impedes progress and tarnishes the image of the victims. Human trafficking is rampant in Africans and some part of the world in this 21st century. This paper examines how Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s Trafficked (2008 and Chika Unigwe’s On Black Sisters′ Street (2009 highlight social occurrences and how they contribute to the spread of girl trafficking in Africa. It also explores how both men and women are partners in trafficking, forming trafficking networks that lure girls from Nigeria to Europe and make huge profits from their misery. These pimps use ‘juju magic’ and rituals as a threat to exert complete control over the girls and also to ensure their compliance. The trafficked girls share their life experiences by telling their tales of woes exposing the shame that accompanies the sex trade and the stigmatization they suffer in the society. Their experiences are presented by the authors to highlight the trafficked girls′ pains, misery and struggle for freedom in order to appeal to everybody in the society to fight against human trafficking. The paper also examines how these exploited and depressed trafficked girls that have lost their self-esteem can still live fulfilled lives if government agencies and nongovernmental organizations come to their rescue.

  5. Drug trafficking and drug use among urban African-American adolescents: a causal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Feigelman, S; Stanton, B; Galbraith, J; Huang, W

    1998-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that involvement in drug trafficking leads to illicit drug use among urban African-American adolescents. Self-reports of substance use, illicit drug use, and drug trafficking were obtained at baseline and every 6 months for 24 months from 383 African-American early adolescents. Transitions between involvement in drug trafficking and illicit drug use over time were examined. Path analysis was conducted to examine the causal relation between drug trafficking and drug use. Among the 35 youth who were initially involved only in drug trafficking, 22 (67%) subsequently used illicit drugs. Of the 53 youth who were initially involved only in illicit drug use, only 19 (42%) continued using drugs at later waves (p drug trafficking had a strong effect on subsequent drug trafficking and drug use, whereas baseline drug use did not have an effect on subsequent drug use or drug trafficking. Initiation of drug trafficking by adolescents appears to lead to sustained involvement in drug-related activities, including continued drug trafficking and drug use. By contrast, initiation of drug use does not necessarily lead to continued involvement in drug-related behaviors.

  6. Sex Trafficking of Minors: What Schools Need to Know to Recognize and Respond to the Trafficking of Students. Best Practices in Homeless Education Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides educators with an overview of the issue of minor sex trafficking and suggests specific steps that schools can take to respond to signs of trafficking among its students. It also offers suggestions for how State Coordinators for Homeless Education and local homeless education liaisons can help guide their states' and school…

  7. Human trafficking: an evaluation of Canadian medical students' awareness and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janice C; Hong, Jonathan; Leung, Pearl; Yin, Penny; Stewart, Donna E

    2011-04-01

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation prevalent globally. Current guidelines highlight healthcare professionals' key role in responding to human trafficking, emphasizing the importance of medical education in raising awareness of trafficking. To assess pre-clerkship medical students' awareness of human trafficking and attitudes towards learning about trafficking in the medical curriculum at Canada's largest medical school. An anonymous, classroom-based questionnaire was designed, piloted and administered to first- and second-year medical students at one large Canadian medical school with a diverse student population. The questionnaire sought demographic data and information on students' self-perceived awareness of human trafficking and interest in learning about trafficking and other community health issues. 262 medical students completed the questionnaire (70.0% response). Most participants reported that they were not knowledgeable (48.5%) or only somewhat knowledgeable (45.4%) about human trafficking. 88.9% of participants were not familiar with signs and symptoms of trafficked persons. While students' responses indicated that they prioritized other social issues, a majority of participants (76.0%) thought that trafficking was important to learn about in medical school, especially identifying trafficked persons and their health needs. These medical students of one Canadian medical school demonstrated limited familiarity with the issue of human trafficking but largely felt that they should be taught more about this issue during their medical education. This assessment of early medical students' awareness of human trafficking is relevant to medical educators and the organizations that could develop the required educational curricula and resources.

  8. The trafficking of women and the role of the midwife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizard, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    Health can be contextualised in relation to globalisation. Economic and societal influences, increasing gaps between middle income and impoverished groups, mass media, culture sexualisation, consumerism, psychological control and criminal activities, such as the drugs and sex trades, amplify challenges to maintaining the health and wellbeing of populations (Lee 2004). UK policy makers develop tools to determine care pathways, in theory allowing those working in public health roles to support individuals to better long-term health. The health needs of trafficked women and the role of the midwife require particular consideration so that this group is not further exposed and unprotected. It requires partnership with a great number of agencies within healthcare itself, but also with charities, government bodies, external organisations and the police. This article explores the health problems associated with the trafficking of women and the clinical implications in the identification and treatment of these victims for the midwife in a public health capacity.

  9. Women and citizenship post-trafficking: the case of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane; Laurie, Nina; Poudel, Meena; Townsend, Janet

    2016-05-01

    This article analyses the relationship between gender, sexuality and citizenship embedded in models of citizenship in the Global South, specifically in South Asia, and the meanings associated with having - or not having - citizenship. It does this through an examination of women's access to citizenship in Nepal in the context of the construction of the emergent nation state in the 'new' Nepal 'post-conflict'. Our analysis explores gendered and sexualized constructions of citizenship in this context through a specific focus on women who have experienced trafficking, and are beginning to organize around rights to sustainable livelihoods and actively lobby for changes in citizenship rules which discriminate against women. Building from this, in the final section we consider important implications of this analysis of post-trafficking experiences for debates about gender, sexuality and citizenship more broadly.

  10. Women and citizenship post‐trafficking: the case of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane; Laurie, Nina; Poudel, Meena; Townsend, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article analyses the relationship between gender, sexuality and citizenship embedded in models of citizenship in the Global South, specifically in South Asia, and the meanings associated with having – or not having – citizenship. It does this through an examination of women's access to citizenship in Nepal in the context of the construction of the emergent nation state in the ‘new’ Nepal ‘post‐conflict’. Our analysis explores gendered and sexualized constructions of citizenship in this context through a specific focus on women who have experienced trafficking, and are beginning to organize around rights to sustainable livelihoods and actively lobby for changes in citizenship rules which discriminate against women. Building from this, in the final section we consider important implications of this analysis of post‐trafficking experiences for debates about gender, sexuality and citizenship more broadly. PMID:27642193

  11. Glycerolipid synthesis and lipid trafficking in plant mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Morgane; Prinz, William A; Jouhet, Juliette

    2017-02-01

    Lipid trafficking between mitochondria and other organelles is required for mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and signaling. This lipid exchange occurs by poorly understood nonvesicular mechanisms. In yeast and mammalian cells, this lipid exchange is thought to take place at contact sites between mitochondria and the ER or vacuolar membranes. Some proteins involved in the tethering between membranes or in the transfer of lipids in mitochondria have been identified. However, in plants, little is known about the synthesis of mitochondrial membranes. Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis is particularly important and noteworthy in plants as the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes is dramatically changed during phosphate starvation and other stresses. This review focuses on the principal pathways involved in the synthesis of the most abundant mitochondrial glycerolipids in plants and the lipid trafficking that is required for plant mitochondria membrane biogenesis. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  12. A Review of 'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex and Trafficking'

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    Dominic Davies

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This review offers an account of journalist Anne Elizabeth Moore’s short comics, co-authored with the Ladydrawers collective, relating to the fashion industry and global apparel and sex trades, and that have been recently collected together in book form. The review argues that the resulting book, 'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex & Trafficking' (2016, is evidence of the ability of the comics form to document social justice issues with nuance, yet without losing sight of the politically imperative calls for change that those issues demand.   'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex and Trafficking', by The Ladydrawers and Anne Elizabeth Moore, Portland: Microcosm Publishing, 2016. Paperback, 160 pages, 6 x 8, 2 colour interior (8.1 oz, Published May 3, 2016, ISBN: 978-1-62106-739-9

  13. International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking

  14. Investigative Journalism and Human Trafficking in West Africa

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    Veronika Gyuracz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigative journalism that aims to prise out information that the state or certain businesses want to keep undisclosed has been unthinkable under many postcolonial African regimes. However, since the promulgation of democratic constitutions, a generation of ambitious investigative journalists has grown up in Africa. In order to show how journalism has changed, the paper brings Anas Aremeyaw Anas’s activities into focus. Anas’s single-minded mission to bring justice has targeted organisations involved in human trafficking, smuggling, and forced labour in West African countries since 2010. Although his team’s way of gathering information raises moral concerns about undercover journalism, their efforts illustrate that human trafficking is widespread among the countries of West and Central Africa. Therefore, the author suggests that both the AU and ECOWAS must create a more stable legal environment for investigative journalists, as their reports can help these institutions and national governments protect human rights.

  15. Human trafficking and legalized prostitution in the Netherlands

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    Siegel Dina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available On 1 October 2000, the Netherlands became the first European country to legalize prostitution as a profession, with its rights and duties. On the other hand, this new Dutch law excluded those sex workers, who come from outside the EU. The majority of women working in the sex industry, who are considered illegal migrants in the Netherlands, had two choices: either leaving the country or disappearing into the illegal criminal circuit. For law enforcement and assistant services, it became extremely difficult to control the sector. In this paper, the consequences of the 'Brothel Law' are presented. What happens with illegal non-European sex workers in the Netherlands, how the problem of human trafficking is constructed in Dutch media and combated in the country, what could be learned from the 'Dutch case'? The paper aims to answer these questions and contribute to the general study on human trafficking and voluntary prostitution in Europe.

  16. The tinker, tailor, soldier in intracellular B12 trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ruma; Gherasim, Carmen; Padovani, Dominique

    2009-10-01

    The recognition of eight discrete genetic complementation groups among patients with inherited cobalamin disorders provided early insights into the complexity of a cofactor-processing pathway that supports only two known B(12)-dependent enzymes in mammals. With the identification of all eight genes now completed, biochemical interrogations of their functions have started and are providing novel insights into a trafficking pathway involving porters that tinker with and tailor the active cofactor forms and editors that ensure the fidelity of the cofactor loading process. The principles of sequestration and escorted delivery of a rare and reactive organometallic cofactor that are emerging from studies on B(12) might be of general relevance to other cofactor trafficking pathways.

  17. The preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbri, T.; Aasmann, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains the situation of legislation, practical border-control and equipment of different relevant authorities dealing with the control of radioactive materials in Estonia. The overview of legislation concerning radiation and radiation protection is given. The roles of Estonian Customs Authority, Estonian border Guard, National Rescue Board and Police Authority in the preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are shown. The incidents of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are listed. Also the most important border-crossing points and the types of equipment used there are shown. Finally the problems of controlling the borders in Estonia and the future plans in order to make the controlling system more efficient are discussed. (author)

  18. Wildlife Poaching: Africa’s Surging Trafficking Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    customs bureaus, and even some politicians, have been implicated in wild - life trafficking. African statesmen and political leaders need to bring...people who innocently do it thinking that it makes life easy, it makes easy money, but they lose their lives. —Joaquim Chissano, former President of...necessary to analyze ranger deployments, poaching patterns, and biometric and forensic data on wildlife remains. However, technology should not eclipse

  19. What Explains the Patterns of Diversification in Drug Trafficking Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    similar research design developed by John Stuart Mill.37 For this thesis, my intent is to use a mixture of sources that I have found on corporate...and a fourth (Eduardo) was apprehended in 2008.176 175 Ibid. 176 Julie Marie Bunck and Michael...apjinternational/apj-s/2009/3tri09/brandseng.htm. Bunck, Julie Marie , and Michael Ross Fowler. Bribes, Bullets, and Intimidation Drug Trafficking and the Law

  20. United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    homeless youth lack a strong support network and run to unfamiliar environments where trafficking flourishes.85 A study in Chicago found that seventy-two...United States.2 For instance, the International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that almost 21 million people are victims of forced labor, but...according to the Walk Free Foundation’s 2014 Global Slavery Index, 35.8 million people globally live in some form of modern slavery.3 The Foundation

  1. Women trafficking for sexual exploitation in Portugal: Life narratives.

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative research about women trafficking for sexual exploitation in Portugal. The life experiences of a group of Brazilian women were characterised through the use of a comprehensive methodology – life narratives. The evidences found in this study, analysed and interpreted discursively from a feminist critical perspective, show us an unmistakable and intricate articulation between gender issues and poverty and social exclusion. Those conditions seem to establish the...

  2. The Need to Communicate: Fighting Human Trafficking in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    that occur in the Greater Mekong Sub-region, to include sex trafficking, forced marriage, adoption, begging, debt bondage, domestic servitude, and...The details behind these cases are horrific, such as an increasing trend of foreigners visiting Vietnam for what UNIAP refers to as “child sex ... tourism ”. 12 Another horrifying practice is common in deep-sea fishing throughout Asia, as children as young as 10 years old are forced to dive as deep

  3. Regulatory Requirements to Combat Illicit Trafficking of Hazardous Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2011-01-01

    Since more than a decade illicit Trafficking of hazardous ( CBRNE), materials ( chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive ) has been identified as a key threat in national, regional, inter regional and international strategies. An Effective response to hazardous materials (CBRNE) risk and threat were realized to require a very high level of cooperation and coordination between various governments and their responsible organizations and authorities of regional and international partner. While improper policy of actions may easily be exploited by non- state members to (CBRNE) trafficking which may lead to develop weapon of mass destruction (WMD). Such strategy are of paramount important between all levels of the states and among regional agreements through comprehensive tailored assistance packages (e.g. export control, illicit trafficking of hazardous materials, redirection of scientist, emergency planning, crisis response safety and security culture. Capacity building, action plans and instruments for stability are necessary actions for efficient combating against illicit trafficking of hazardous materials. Regarding the needs of assessment phase, assistance must be based on data collection, analysis and prioritization of implanting the regulatory controls. Several activities have to be conducted to reduce CBRNE threat. The one- by- one approach, covering either nuclear and radioactive or chemical or biological materials has to be implanted on the country basis performance to mitigate CBRNE hazardous risk. On several consequent phases of intervention dealing with CBRNE risk mitigation the country has to establish a network of local, regional and international capabilities. Such network is setting up the mechanism for the country needs identifications, the guidelines for data collection, for data platform maintenance and update, the data assessment and the competent and operative organizations. This network will be to strengthen the long - term

  4. Drug Trafficking Organizations and Local Economic Activity in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    González, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between illegal firms and local economic activity. In this paper I study changes in satellite night lights across Mexican municipalities after the arrival of large drug trafficking organizations in the period 2000-2010. After accounting for state trends and differences in political regimes, results indicate no significant change in night lights after the arrival of these illegal firms. Estimated coefficients are precise, robust, and similar across differ...

  5. The HPV16 E5 oncogene inhibits endocytic trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, P; van Deurs, B; Norrild, B

    2000-01-01

    The small hydrophobic E5 protein of Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) binds to the 16-kDa subunit of the V-H+-ATPase. This binding has been suggested to interfere with acidification of late endocytic structures. We here used video microscopy, ratio imaging and confocal microscopy of living C127...... perturbs trafficking from early to late endocytic structures rather than acidification....

  6. Gender Issues in Human trafficking in Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DENCES élevées de la traite des êtres humains dans la région. Mots clés: Trafic d 'êtres humains, État d 'Edo, polygynie, sexualité feminine, système héréditaire. Introduction. Human trafficking can best be described as a global problem and a modern form of slavery. Women and children are the key target groups because ...

  7. Debate - Trafficking as a Floating Signifier: The view from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Grupo Davida

    2015-01-01

    The fact that the United Nations (UN) Trafficking Protocol is not an autochthonous product of the Brazilian political system has resulted in its being brought into that system as a ‘floating signifier’: something that does not point to any actual object or agreed upon meaning.[1] People who wish to criminalise prostitution have attempted to bend the Protocol in that direction while prostitutes’ rights groups have used it to critique current Brazilian laws, emphasising the need to distinguish ...

  8. Myosin IIb-dependent Regulation of Actin Dynamics Is Required for N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Trafficking during Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yunfei; Wang, Ning; Wang, Shaoli; Sheng, Tao; Tian, Tian; Chen, Linlin; Pan, Weiwei; Zhu, Minsheng; Luo, Jianhong; Lu, Wei

    2015-10-16

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) synaptic incorporation changes the number of NMDARs at synapses and is thus critical to various NMDAR-dependent brain functions. To date, the molecules involved in NMDAR trafficking and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we report that myosin IIb is an essential molecule in NMDAR synaptic incorporation during PKC- or θ burst stimulation-induced synaptic plasticity. Moreover, we demonstrate that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent actin reorganization contributes to NMDAR trafficking. The findings from additional mutual occlusion experiments demonstrate that PKC and MLCK share a common signaling pathway in NMDAR-mediated synaptic regulation. Because myosin IIb is the primary substrate of MLCK and can regulate actin dynamics during synaptic plasticity, we propose that the MLCK- and myosin IIb-dependent regulation of actin dynamics is required for NMDAR trafficking during synaptic plasticity. This study provides important insights into a mechanical framework for understanding NMDAR trafficking associated with synaptic plasticity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Combating Rhino Horn Trafficking: The Need to Disrupt Criminal Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Haas

    Full Text Available The onslaught on the World's wildlife continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. We build a model that integrates rhino horn trade with rhino population dynamics in order to evaluate the impact of various management policies on rhino sustainability. In our model, an agent-based sub-model of horn trade from the poaching event up through a purchase of rhino horn in Asia impacts rhino abundance. A data-validated, individual-based sub-model of the rhino population of South Africa provides these abundance values. We evaluate policies that consist of different combinations of legal trade initiatives, demand reduction marketing campaigns, increased anti-poaching measures within protected areas, and transnational policing initiatives aimed at disrupting those criminal syndicates engaged in horn trafficking. Simulation runs of our model over the next 35 years produces a sustainable rhino population under only one management policy. This policy includes both a transnational policing effort aimed at dismantling those criminal networks engaged in rhino horn trafficking-coupled with increases in legal economic opportunities for people living next to protected areas where rhinos live. This multi-faceted approach should be the focus of the international debate on strategies to combat the current slaughter of rhino rather than the binary debate about whether rhino horn trade should be legalized. This approach to the evaluation of wildlife management policies may be useful to apply to other species threatened by wildlife trafficking.

  10. EUROPEAN POLICIES REGARDING THE CONTROL OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai M. ȘTEFĂNOAIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of human trafficking presents great interest not only at European level, in extra – communitary contexts, but also at international level. Through the Commission, the European Union is actively involved in all kinds of actions organized by the UNO, OSCE, the Pact for Stability in South - Eastern Europe or by the European Council. In this respect, the proposals of the Commission for the Council and the adoption by the latter of two decisions regarding the Convention of the European Council in the fight against human trafficking, become very relevant. In June 2004, the Council adopted the Decision which authorizes the Commission to negotiate, on behalf of the European Union, the convention project, for those issues which, according to the Community law, are included in the first pylon. All these matters indicate the fact that, at the European Union level, human trafficking is a highly important issue, not only in the relations between the member states, but also in relation to the terts, all due to its global nature.

  11. Combating Rhino Horn Trafficking: The Need to Disrupt Criminal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Timothy C; Ferreira, Sam M

    2016-01-01

    The onslaught on the World's wildlife continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. We build a model that integrates rhino horn trade with rhino population dynamics in order to evaluate the impact of various management policies on rhino sustainability. In our model, an agent-based sub-model of horn trade from the poaching event up through a purchase of rhino horn in Asia impacts rhino abundance. A data-validated, individual-based sub-model of the rhino population of South Africa provides these abundance values. We evaluate policies that consist of different combinations of legal trade initiatives, demand reduction marketing campaigns, increased anti-poaching measures within protected areas, and transnational policing initiatives aimed at disrupting those criminal syndicates engaged in horn trafficking. Simulation runs of our model over the next 35 years produces a sustainable rhino population under only one management policy. This policy includes both a transnational policing effort aimed at dismantling those criminal networks engaged in rhino horn trafficking-coupled with increases in legal economic opportunities for people living next to protected areas where rhinos live. This multi-faceted approach should be the focus of the international debate on strategies to combat the current slaughter of rhino rather than the binary debate about whether rhino horn trade should be legalized. This approach to the evaluation of wildlife management policies may be useful to apply to other species threatened by wildlife trafficking.

  12. Correlates of sex trafficking in three Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking of human beings has reached epidemic proportions: There are approximately 20 to 30 million slaves in the world today whereas the total value of the trade has been estimated to be around $32 billion. Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Bulgaria have been particularly hit by human slavery. The author has investigated the common correlates that have facilitated the problem in these countries, such as long term poverty, passive societies, low resistance to bribery, high levels of corruption, and weak legal framework. Obstacles rising from the inability to proceed with cross-national prosecutions in combination with low sentences imposed on traffickers in both developed and developing European countries, have rendered the situation explosive. Despite the European Union’s effort to implement the new rules of the Anti-Trafficking Directive which proposes higher penalties for offenders, increased protection for victims and facilitates cross-border prosecution, only six out of the 27 EU members have fully transposed it into their national legislation.

  13. Ubiquilin 1 modulates amyloid precursor protein trafficking and Abeta secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Mikko; Lu, Alice; Thomas, Anne V; Romano, Donna M; Kim, Minji; Jones, Phill B; Xie, Zhongcong; Kounnas, Maria Z; Wagner, Steven L; Berezovska, Oksana; Hyman, Bradley T; Tesco, Giuseppina; Bertram, Lars; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2006-10-27

    Ubiquilin 1 (UBQLN1) is a ubiquitin-like protein, which has been shown to play a central role in regulating the proteasomal degradation of various proteins, including the presenilins. We recently reported that DNA variants in UBQLN1 increase the risk for Alzheimer disease, by influencing expression of this gene in brain. Here we present the first assessment of the effects of UBQLN1 on the metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). For this purpose, we employed RNA interference to down-regulate UBQLN1 in a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines. We demonstrate that down-regulation of UBQLN1 accelerates the maturation and intracellular trafficking of APP, while not interfering with alpha-, beta-, or gamma-secretase levels or activity. UBQLN1 knockdown increased the ratio of APP mature/immature, increased levels of full-length APP on the cell surface, and enhanced the secretion of sAPP (alpha- and beta-forms). Moreover, UBQLN1 knockdown increased levels of secreted Abeta40 and Abeta42. Finally, employing a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay, we show that UBQLN1 and APP come into close proximity in intact cells, independently of the presence of the presenilins. Collectively, our findings suggest that UBQLN1 may normally serve as a cytoplasmic "gatekeeper" that may control APP trafficking from intracellular compartments to the cell surface. These findings suggest that changes in UBQLN1 steady-state levels affect APP trafficking and processing, thereby influencing the generation of Abeta.

  14. Establishing capabilities for combating illicit trafficking: the Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Suman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 80 's, Syria has been taking steps towards combating illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement involving radioactive or nuclear material within the country or across its border. By applying the proper combination of technical and procedural measures, an acceptable level of performance has been achieved. The measures undertaken by AECS include anticipative measures, which aim at identifying potential loss of control over radioactive sources and potential illicit trafficking within the country, as well as defensive measures which aim at detection of and response to events of illicit trafficking. In addition, a tight follow up of radiation source along their entire lifetime in the Syrian territory, supported by proper data analysis is one of the most efficient tools for identifying potential loss of control over sources. AECS has established Border Monitoring Centers (BMC) in almost all border crossings. They work in close cooperation with the customs and other relevant authorities at the Syrian borders. AECS has been also providing the necessary training for the front-line officers. (author)

  15. Illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmazer, A.; Yuecel, A.; Yavuz, U.

    2001-01-01

    As it is known, for the fact that the illicit trafficking and trading of nuclear materials are being increased over the past few years because of the huge demand of third world states. Nuclear materials like uranium, plutonium, and thorium are used in nuclear explosives that have very attractive features for crime groups, terrorist groups and, the states that are willing to have this power. Crime groups that make illegal trade of nuclear material are also trying to market strategic radioactive sources like red mercury and Osmium. This kind of illegal trade threats public safety, human health, environment also it brings significant threat on world peace and world public health. For these reasons, both states and international organizations should take a role in dealing with illicit trafficking. An important precondition for preventing this kind of incidents is the existence of a strengthened national system for control of all nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. Further, Governments are responsible for law enforcement within their borders for prevention of illegal trading and trafficking of nuclear materials and radiation sources

  16. A versatile optical tool for studying synaptic GABAA receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M; Wilcox, Madeleine R; Zhang, Ming; Larsen, Mads B; Pilli, Jyotsna; Schmidt, Brigitte F; Bruchez, Marcel P; Johnson, Jon W; Waggoner, Alan S; Watkins, Simon C; Jacob, Tija C

    2017-11-15

    Live-cell imaging methods can provide critical real-time receptor trafficking measurements. Here, we describe an optical tool to study synaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABA A R) dynamics through adaptable fluorescent-tracking capabilities. A fluorogen-activating peptide (FAP) was genetically inserted into a GABA A R γ2 subunit tagged with pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (γ2 pH FAP). The FAP selectively binds and activates Malachite Green (MG) dyes that are otherwise non-fluorescent in solution. γ2 pH FAP GABA A Rs are expressed at the cell surface in transfected cortical neurons, form synaptic clusters and do not perturb neuronal development. Electrophysiological studies show γ2 pH FAP GABA A Rs respond to GABA and exhibit positive modulation upon stimulation with the benzodiazepine diazepam. Imaging studies using γ2 pH FAP-transfected neurons and MG dyes show time-dependent receptor accumulation into intracellular vesicles, revealing constitutive endosomal and lysosomal trafficking. Simultaneous analysis of synaptic, surface and lysosomal receptors using the γ2 pH FAP-MG dye approach reveals enhanced GABA A R turnover following a bicucculine-induced seizure paradigm, a finding not detected by standard surface receptor measurements. To our knowledge, this is the first application of the FAP-MG dye system in neurons, demonstrating the versatility to study nearly all phases of GABA A R trafficking. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Techniques for studying protein trafficking and molecular motors in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shanxi; Arnold, Don B

    2016-09-01

    This review focused on techniques that facilitated the visualization of protein trafficking. In the mid-1990s the cloning of GFP allowed fluorescently tagged proteins to be expressed in cells and then visualized in real time. This advance allowed a glimpse, for the first time, of the complex system within cells for distributing proteins. It quickly became apparent, however, that time-lapse sequences of exogenously expressed GFP-labeled proteins can be difficult to interpret. Reasons for this include the relatively low signal that comes from moving proteins and high background rates from stationary proteins and other sources, as well as the difficulty of identifying the origins and destinations of specific vesicular carriers. In this review a range of techniques that have overcome these issues to varying degrees was reviewed and the insights into protein trafficking that they have enabled were discussed. Concentration will be on neurons, as they are highly polarized and, thus, their trafficking systems tend to be accessible for study. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ungendering and Regendering Shelters for Survivors of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Hacker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on intensive fieldwork in the two Israeli shelters designated for victims of human trafficking and slavery. The shelters, one for women and one for men, are a refuge for survivors of sex trafficking; labor migrants subjected to severe exploitation by their employers; and asylum seekers who arrived in Israel after experiencing severe physical and emotional abuse at the hands of kidnappers and smugglers en route to Israel. The study included interviews with policy makers and professionals, and with women and men who resided at the shelters, as well as an analysis of the relevant legislation and official reports. The article explores the problematic gendered differentiations between the two shelters. Most significantly, while support for residents of the shelter for women is anchored by emotional and psychological rehabilitation, residents of the shelter for men do not receive any therapeutic support. At the same time, while staff in the shelter for men put significant effort into the reintegration of the men into the labor force, the women’s employment prospects receive less attention. Based on these and other findings, the article cautions against gender-biased rehabilitation services for victims of human trafficking and slavery, and calls for a gender-sensitive rehabilitation theory and practice.

  19. ASIAN PUBLIC INTELLECTUALS’ ROLES IN COMBATTING TRAFFICKING IN ASEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Shahriyani Shahrullah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Economic Community which facilitates free movement of people among ASEAN countries may cause a more progressive migration. One of the unintended consequences of migration is human trafficking. This paper suggests that there should be a collaborative measure taken by public intellectuals of ASEAN countries to combat human trafficking. Public intellectuals from receiving and sending countriesin ASEAN should share their information, knowledge, roles, responsibilities, resources, and services. This paper emphasizes that Asian public intellectuals as the member community in curbing human trafficking in the ASEAN region should involve government agencies, NGOs and communities.   Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN yang menfasilitasi kebebasan penduduk negara anggota ASEAN untuk berpindah dapat menyebabkan terjadinya suatu migrasi besar-besaran. Salah satu konsekwensi yang tidak dikehendaki dari migrasi adalah perdagangan orang. Makalah ini menyarankan perlunya suatu langkah kerjasama yang dilakukan oleh intelektual publik di negara ASEAN untuk memerangi perdagangan orang. Intelektual publik dari negara penerima dan pengirim di ASEAN perlu untuk membagi informasi, pengetahuan, peranan, tanggung jawab, sumber daya, dan pelayanan mereka. Makalah ini menekankan bahwa intelektual publik Asia perlu melibatkan pemerintah, LSM and warga masyarakat.

  20. ASIAN PUBLIC INTELLECTUALS’ ROLES IN COMBATTING TRAFFICKING IN ASEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Shahriyani Shahrullah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Economic Community which facilitates free movement of people among ASEAN countries may cause a more progressive migration. One of the unintended consequences of migration is human trafficking. This paper suggests that there should be a collaborative measure taken by public intellectuals of ASEAN countries to combat human trafficking. Public intellectuals from receiving and sending countriesin ASEAN should share their information, knowledge, roles, responsibilities, resources, and services. This paper emphasizes that Asian public intellectuals as the member community in curbing human trafficking in the ASEAN region should involve government agencies, NGOs and communities. Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN yang menfasilitasi kebebasan penduduk negara anggota ASEAN untuk berpindah dapat menyebabkan terjadinya suatu migrasi besar-besaran. Salah satu konsekwensi yang tidak dikehendaki dari migrasi adalah perdagangan orang. Makalah ini menyarankan perlunya suatu langkah kerjasama yang dilakukan oleh intelektual publik di negara ASEAN untuk memerangi perdagangan orang. Intelektual publik dari negara penerima dan pengirim di ASEAN perlu untuk membagi informasi, pengetahuan, peranan, tanggung jawab, sumber daya, dan pelayanan mereka. Makalah ini menekankan bahwa intelektual publik Asia perlu melibatkan pemerintah, LSM and warga masyarakat.

  1. Establishing capabilities for combating illicit trafficking: the Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Suman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 80's, Syria has been taking steps towards combating illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement involving radioactive or nuclear material within the country or across its border. By applying the proper combination of technical and procedural measures, an acceptable level of performance has been achieved. The measures undertaken by AECS include anticipative measures, which aim at identifying potential loss of control over radioactive sources and potential illicit trafficking within the country, as well as defensive measures which aim at detection of and response to events of illicit trafficking. In addition, a tight follow up of radiation source along their entire lifetime in the Syrian territory, supported by proper data analysis is one of the most efficient tools for identifying potential loss of control over sources. AECS has established Border Monitoring Centers (BMC) in almost all border crossings. They work in close cooperation with the customs and other relevant authorities at the Syrian borders. AECS has been also providing the necessary training for the frontline officers. (author)

  2. Membrane Trafficking in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Feyder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM, or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC, and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway. Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway. Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes.

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis phagosome maturation arrest: selective targeting of PI3P-dependent membrane trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Isabelle; Chua, Jennifer; Deretic, Vojo

    2003-09-01

    The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to enter host macrophages, and reside in a phagosome, which does not mature into a phagolysosome, is central to the spread of tuberculosis and the associated pandemic involving billions of people worldwide. Tuberculosis can be viewed as a disease with a significant intracellular trafficking and organellar biogenesis component. Current understanding of the block in M. tuberculosis phagosome maturation also sheds light on fundamental aspects of phagolysosome biogenesis. The maturation block involves interference with the recruitment and function of rabs, rab effectors (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases and tethering molecules such as EEA1), SNAREs (Syntaxin 6 and cellubrevin) and Ca2+/calmodulin signaling. M. tuberculosis analogs of mammalian phosphatidylinositols interfere with these systems and associated processes.

  4. Subversion of trafficking, apoptosis, and innate immunity by type III secretion system effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Benoit; Young, Joanna C; Pallett, Mitchell; Endres, Robert G; Clements, Abigail; Frankel, Gad

    2013-08-01

    Injection of effector proteins by a type III secretion system (T3SS) is a common infection strategy employed by many important human pathogens, including enteric Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Yersinia, and Shigella, to subvert cell signaling and host responses. In recent years, great advances have been made in understanding how the T3SS effectors function and execute the diverse infection strategies employed by these pathogens. In this review, we focus on effectors that subvert signaling pathways that impact on endosomal trafficking, cell survival, and innate immunity, particularly phagocytosis, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways and the inflammasome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. International law, national policymaking, and the health of trafficked people in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Siân; Zimmerman, Cathy; Adams, Brad; Busza, Joanna

    2011-12-15

    Human trafficking has been recognized both by the international community and many individual states around the world as a serious violation of human rights. Trafficking is associated with extreme violence and a range of physical, mental, and sexual health consequences. Despite the extreme nature of the harm caused by human trafficking, harm is not a concept that is integrated in the definition of trafficking or in policies to address the health of trafficked people. This paper examines the United Kingdom's response to human trafficking as a case study to explore national policy responses to the health needs of trafficked people and assess the willingness of UK authorities to implement international and regional law in securing trafficked people's health rights. Between 2007 and 2010, data on the development of the UK response to trafficking were obtained through 46 interviews with key trafficking policy stakeholders and health care providers, participant observation at 41 policy-relevant events, and document collection. Framework analysis was used to analyze the data. International and regional instruments specifically protect the health rights of trafficked people. Yet, UK engagement with trafficked people's health rights has been limited to granting, under certain circumstances, free access to health care services. Changes to trafficked people's entitlements to free health care occurred following the ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings, but had limited impact on trafficked people's access to medical care. International and regional instruments that provide specific or mandated instruction about states' health care obligations can be effective in furthering the health rights of vulnerable migrant groups. The UK government has demonstrated limited appetite for exceeding its minimum obligations to provide for the health of trafficked people, however, and key principles for promoting the health rights of

  6. LEGAL PROTECTION AGAINST CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN CIANJUR DISTRICT STUDIED BY HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Nuraeny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking in persons is a modern form of slavery. The eradication of human trafficking has been on the agenda in law enforcement because of its effects can interfere with social welfare. One form of trafficking in persons who lately is rampant child trafficking. The problems that can be studied is how the perspective of Human Rights in providing protection to children who are victims of trafficking and whether the implementation of legal protection for child victims of trafficking in Cianjur is in line with the concept of human rights. This study uses normative juridical approach and specification of descriptive analysis. Results from this study is the protection of child victims of trafficking in persons has been referred to the concept of human rights which the regional government make policies on prevention of trafficking, rehabilitation, counseling and empowerment of victims of human trafficking.

  7. International technical working group cooperation to counter illicit nuclear trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international group of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. ITWG members include policy and decision makers, law enforcement personnel, and scientists with expertise in, and responsibility for, nuclear forensics. It remains an association of active practitioners of nuclear forensics underwritten by funding from sponsoring countries and organizations. While the primary mission of the ITWG continues to be advancing the science and techniques of nuclear forensics and sharing technical and information resources to combat nuclear trafficking, recently the ITWG has focused on improvements to its organization and outreach. Central is the establishment of guidelines for best practices in nuclear forensics, conducting international exercises, promoting research and development, communicating with external organizations, providing a point-of-contact for nuclear forensics assistance, and providing mutual assistance in nuclear forensics investigations. By its very nature nuclear trafficking is a transboundary problem; nuclear materials

  8. Human trafficking education for nurse practitioners: Integration into standard curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Rebecca M

    2018-02-01

    Human trafficking is a crime resulting in serious negative health outcomes for the victims. To provide optimal care, thus improving health outcomes, healthcare providers must be able to identify victims as they seek care for acute and chronic physical illness, communicable diseases, sexually transmitted infections, and mental health disorders (Lederer and Wetzel, 2014; Oram et al., 2012). Unfortunately, healthcare providers lack appropriate knowledge of clues that would lead to victim identification. This may result in a failure to identify victims (Beck et al., 2015; Ross et al., 2015; Konstantopoulos et al., 2013; Chisolm-Straker et al., 2012). Increasing the number of healthcare providers able to identify, treat, and refer victims of trafficking for further care is imperative. The study evaluated the knowledge level of student nurse practitioners enrolled in an adult, family, or pediatric clinical course. Knowledge domains included the definitions, laws, prevalence, identification, treatment, and community and social service resources. The study was designed as a non-probability sampling of adult, family, and pediatric nurse practitioner students (n=73). Participants included students enrolled in the Adult & Older Adult I or the Primary Care of the Child & Adolescent I course at a large public university. The study was designed as a one hour educational intervention intended for presentation in a lecture-style format. The educational intervention included a PowerPoint lecture and embedded videos. The pre-survey, designed as a paper survey, contained a demographic section followed by six survey questions covering the six domains of interest. Following the intervention, participants completed the post-survey prior to leaving the classroom. Pre-survey results pinpointed knowledge gaps across all six domains under investigation. Post-survey results revealed an increase in knowledge across all six domains of interest. The educational intervention increased knowledge

  9. Evaluation of the Department of Defense Combating Trafficking in Persons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-16

    DODIG-2014-079 │ 1 Introduction Prior to 2000, allegations of sexual slavery, sex with minors, and human trafficking involving U.S. contractors in...a report alleging that women trafficked from the Philippines, Russia, and Eastern Europe were forced into prostitution in bars in South Korea...U.S. forces’ involvement in sexual slavery, human trafficking , and debt bondage. Background and Criteria Federal Law In 2000, the President signed

  10. Forces of Habit: Global SOF's Role in Countering Illicit Drug Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rexton Kan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Illicit drug trafficking is a prominent national security issue in a globalizing world. Drug trafficking intersects with major security issues such as rogue and narco-states, weak and failing states, insurgencies and terrorism, transnational organized crime and protracted intrastate conflicts. These are the same issues that sets the operational environment for the deployment of SOF. Rather than treating drug trafficking as a singular and separate security issue, global SOF counternarcotics operations must adapt previous approaches to new realities.

  11. Unpacking Mobility, Sex Trafficking, and HIV Vulnerability in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenberg, Shira Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sex trafficking is a human rights abuse that carries particularly negative health and social consequences, including HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While HIV/STI infection and sex trafficking have been linked in Asia, the context of these associations and their applicability in Mexico is poorly understood.Aims: Aims of this dissertation were to (1) Critically review evidence linking mobility, trafficking, and HIV vulnerability in Mexico and Central America; (2) Ex...

  12. THE CHALLENGES FACED BY THE ENFORCEMENT BODIES IN MALAYSIA ON HUMAN TRAFFICKING

    OpenAIRE

    Ab Hamid, Zuraini; Mohamad Amin, Noor Shuhadawati; Ab Aziz, Norjihan

    2017-01-01

    Excellencein the implementation of the legal framework on human trafficking by theenforcement bodies is one important benchmark that determines the success ofMalaysia in the Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report. The responsibility toenforce this framework is led by the Royal Malaysian Police (RMP) followed bythe Immigration Department, the Customs Department, the Malaysian MaritimeEnforcement Agency (MMEA), and the Department of Labour. Accordingly,Anti-Trafficking in Person unit is establishe...

  13. Human trafficking: Commercial sexual exploitation and forced domestic labour in African literature

    OpenAIRE

    Urama Evelyn Nwachukwu; Nwachukwu Chukwuka Ogbu

    2017-01-01

    Just like social occurrences such as human sacrifice and slavery enhanced retardation of progress in Africa in the past, trafficking is another social occurrence addressed in contemporary African literature that impedes progress and tarnishes the image of the victims. Human trafficking is rampant in Africans and some part of the world in this 21st century. This paper examines how Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s Trafficked (2008) and Chika Unigwe’s On Black Sisters′ Street (2009) highlight social occ...

  14. Methodological debates in human rights research: a case study of human trafficking in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Vigneswaran, D.

    2012-01-01

    Debates over human trafficking are riddled with methodological dilemmas. Agencies with vested interests in the anti-trafficking agenda advance claims about numbers of victims, level of organized trafficking and scale of exploitation, but with limited data and using questionable techniques. Skeptics, pour water on these claims, by subjecting them to basic social scientific tests of validity, reliability and representativity. Yet, the same critics proffer few ways of developing valid generaliza...

  15. HUMAN BEINGS TRAFFICKING IN THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS CASE-LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2017-01-01

    After last year’s analysis regarding the European Union’s commitment to fight against the human beings trafficking, we have considered to further explore the human beings trafficking approach in the European Court of Human Rights case-law, the most developped regional jurisdiction on human rights. Surprisingly, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms does not make an express reference to the human beings trafficking. However, we have to bear in mind...

  16. Protocol at the Crossroads: Rethinking anti-trafficking law from an Indian labour law perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Prabha Kotiswaran

    2015-01-01

    As we approach the fifteenth anniversary of the United Nations Trafficking Protocol, we can discern several phases of its diffusion, materialisation and interpretation in domestic criminal law regimes across the world. Although not exclusively preoccupied with sex work and sex trafficking anymore, the fact remains that the inordinate attention on trafficking in Western industrialised economies is disproportionate to the extent of the problem. Only 7% of the world’s 20.9 million forced laboure...

  17. Human trafficking in Southeast Asia and U.S. national security

    OpenAIRE

    Snoke, Joshua H.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States government finds human trafficking to be an important subject and is placing increasing focus on the issue. The Southeast Asian portion of the Western Pacific encompasses a substantial portion of global trafficking, much of which has a final destination in the United States. This thesis asks the following question: How does trafficking in persons (TIP) affect U.S. national security interests and regional stability in ...

  18. Relevant Etiological Factors Involved in Human Trafficking in order to Practice Prostitution

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Boroi

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking (especially women and young girls, though men count equally among the victims) are recently developed worldwide. The situation in certain regions of Central and Eastern Europe (with the opening of borders, increasing unemployment and poverty, dislocations and reducing state control structures) tend to favour the development of all forms of trafficking, especially of human trafficking forsexual exploitation. To adopt appropriate measures to prevent and combat we have to know ...

  19. Health outcomes among women trafficked for sex in the United States: a closer look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftic, Lisa R; Finn, Mary A

    2013-06-01

    Human trafficking is recognized as a major public health problem and a tragic transnational crime. Little is known about the health outcomes of victims of human trafficking. This study identifies the relationship of risk factors to physical, sexual, and mental health outcomes in three groups of women (N = 38) exploited for sex in the United States: international trafficking victims, domestic trafficking victims, and nontrafficked sex workers. To date this is the first study to examine the impact of risk factors on health outcomes using a sample of women trafficked for sex in the United States that includes both domestic and international victims. Overall, findings suggest that the experiences in sex work of domestic trafficking victims were dissimilar to those of international trafficking victims. Moreover, domestic trafficking victims displayed poorer health outcomes compared to international trafficking victims. In terms of risk factors, a higher percentage of women involved in street prostitution reported sexual health problems, co-occurring health issues, and addiction. Childhood physical/sexual victimization was related to poor physical health.

  20. Protocol at the Crossroads: Rethinking anti-trafficking law from an Indian labour law perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Kotiswaran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As we approach the fifteenth anniversary of the United Nations Trafficking Protocol, we can discern several phases of its diffusion, materialisation and interpretation in domestic criminal law regimes across the world. Although not exclusively preoccupied with sex work and sex trafficking anymore, the fact remains that the inordinate attention on trafficking in Western industrialised economies is disproportionate to the extent of the problem. Only 7% of the world’s 20.9 million forced labourers are in developed economies while 56% are in Asia Pacific. Yet in BRIC countries like India, with a substantial majority of the world’s trafficked victims and where 90% of all trafficking is domestic, trafficking has gained policy resonance only relatively recently. Even as India remains an active site for sexual humanitarianism with international and local abolitionist groups actively targeting sex workers, the article argues that less developed countries like India can play a crucial role in reorienting international anti-trafficking law and policy. Towards that goal, this article offers India’s bonded, contract and migrant labour laws as a robust labour law model against trafficking in contrast to the criminal justice model propagated by the Trafficking Protocol worldwide.

  1. Relevant Etiological Factors Involved in Human Trafficking in order to Practice Prostitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Boroi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking (especially women and young girls, though men count equally among the victims are recently developed worldwide. The situation in certain regions of Central and Eastern Europe (with the opening of borders, increasing unemployment and poverty, dislocations and reducing state control structures tend to favour the development of all forms of trafficking, especially of human trafficking forsexual exploitation. To adopt appropriate measures to prevent and combat we have to know first the causes and conditions that generate human beings trafficking. Analysis of case studies and police statistics allowed the structuring of categories of causes and conditions that generate and sustain the phenomenon of traffickingin order to practice prostitution.

  2. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko; Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G.; Zorec, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  3. Risk Factors for Domestic Child Sex Trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, Lisa; Williamson, Celia; Perdue, Tasha

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased effort to respond to human trafficking at national and state levels, very little empirical research has been conducted on domestic child sex trafficking. This study retrospectively examines associations between multiple risk factors and domestic child sex trafficking (i.e., entry into the commercial sex industry under the age of 18) in a sample of individuals aged 16 and older currently involved in the commercial sex industry ( N = 273). Two primary research questions are addressed: (1) What set of risk factors, prior to entering the commercial sex industry, are associated with domestic child sex trafficking and (2) what group differences, if any, exist in risk factors between current or former domestic child sex-trafficking victims and non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry? A cross-sectional survey was administered using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) in five cities in one Midwestern state. Overall, 115 participants (48.3%) were identified as current or former domestic child sex-trafficking victims. Bivariate results suggest that childhood emotional and sexual abuse, rape, ever running away from home, having family members in sex work, and having friends who purchased sex were significantly associated with domestic child sex trafficking. Multivariate results indicate that domestic child sex trafficking victims were significantly more likely to have ever run away and to be a racial/ethnic minority than non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry. Findings can inform state-level policies on human trafficking and assist child protection and juvenile justice agencies in developing prevention and intervention responses to commercial sexual exploitation.

  4. Sex trafficking, sexual risk, sexually transmitted infection and reproductive health among female sex workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; McCauley, Heather L; Phuengsamran, Dusita; Janyam, Surang; Silverman, Jay G

    2011-04-01

    The trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is an internationally recognised form of gender-based violence, and is thought to confer unique sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities. To date, little research has compared sexual risk or health outcomes among female sex workers (FSWs) on the basis of experiences of sex trafficking. To compare experiences of sexual risk and sexual and reproductive health outcomes among FSWs on the basis of experiences of trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Data from a national sample of FSWs in Thailand (n=815) was used to assess (a) the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism into sex work and (b) associations of sex trafficking with sexual risk and health outcomes. Approximately 10% of FSWs met criteria for trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Compared with their non-trafficked counterparts, sex-trafficked FSWs were more likely to have experienced sexual violence at initiation to sex work (adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 2.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.72), recent workplace violence or mistreatment (ARR 1.38, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.67), recent condom failure (ARR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.80), condom non-use (ARR 3.35, 95% CI 1.49 to 7.52) and abortion (ARR 2.83, 95% CI 1.48 to 5.39). Both the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work and the threats to sexual and reproductive health observed on the basis of trafficking status show the need for comprehensive efforts to identify and support this vulnerable population. Moreover, existing STI/HIV-prevention programming may be stymied by the limited condom-use capacity and high levels of violence observed among those trafficked into sex work.

  5. The trafficking of women and girls in Taiwan: characteristics of victims, perpetrators, and forms of exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanying

    2017-11-09

    Prior to the passing of 2009 Human Trafficking Prevention Act (HTPA), human trafficking was underestimated in Taiwan. In the past, domestic trafficking in women and girls often targeted vulnerable groups such as young girls from poor families or minority groups. Since the 1990s, an increasing flow of immigrant women, mainly from Vietnam and Indonesia and some from China, into Taiwan has created a new group of Human Trafficking victims. The current study intends to identify, describe, and categorize reported and prosecuted human trafficking cases involving women and girls according to the HTPA in Taiwan. Using the court proceedings of prosecuted trafficking in women and girls cases under Taiwan's HTPA from all 21 districts in Taiwan from 2009 to 2012 under the title keyword of 'Human Trafficking', this current study aims to categorize different patterns of existing trafficking in women and girls in Taiwan. The analysis is based on 37 court cases, involving 195 victimized women and girls and 118 perpetrators. This study identifies six forms of Human Trafficking victims according to their country of origin, vulnerability status, and means of transport. This study found that women and girls suffer from both labor and sexual exploitation, from mainly domestic male perpetrators. While sexual exploitation is more evenly distributed among citizens and immigrants and affects both adults and minors, labor exploitation seems to be an exclusive phenomenon among women immigrant workers in the data. Human Trafficking cases in Taiwan share many of the similarities of Human Trafficking in other regions, which are highly associated with gender inequality and gender-based vulnerability.

  6. Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community Based Responses and Challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meckl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the following book: Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community based responses and challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, Bremen 2012

  7. Regulation of N-Formyl Peptide Receptor Signaling and Trafficking by Arrestin-Src Kinase Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brant M Wagener

    Full Text Available Arrestins were originally described as proteins recruited to ligand-activated, phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs to attenuate G protein-mediated signaling. It was later revealed that arrestins also mediate GPCR internalization and recruit a number of signaling proteins including, but not limited to, Src family kinases, ERK1/2, and JNK3. GPCR-arrestin binding and trafficking control the spatial and temporal activity of these multi-protein complexes. In previous reports, we concluded that N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR-mediated apoptosis, which occurs upon receptor stimulation in the absence of arrestins, is associated with FPR accumulation in perinuclear recycling endosomes. Under these conditions, inhibition of Src kinase and ERK1/2 prevented FPR-mediated apoptosis. To better understand the role of Src kinase in this process, in the current study we employed a previously described arrestin-2 (arr2 mutant deficient in Src kinase binding (arr2-P91G/P121E. Unlike wild type arrestin, arr2-P91G/P121E did not inhibit FPR-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that Src binding to arrestin-2 prevents apoptotic signaling. However, in cells expressing this mutant, FPR-mediated apoptosis was still blocked by inhibition of Src kinase activity, suggesting that activation of Src independent of arrestin-2 binding is involved in FPR-mediated apoptosis. Finally, while Src kinase inhibition prevented FPR-mediated-apoptosis in the presence of arr2-P91G/P121E, it did not prevent FPR-arr2-P91G/P121E accumulation in the perinuclear recycling endosome. On the contrary, inhibition of Src kinase activity mediated the accumulation of activated FPR-wild type arrestin-2 in recycling endosomes without initiating FPR-mediated apoptosis. Based on these observations, we conclude that Src kinase has two independent roles following FPR activation that regulate both FPR-arrestin-2 signaling and trafficking.

  8. Fetomaternal trafficking in the mouse increases as delivery approaches and is highest in the maternal lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Yutaka; Johnson, Kirby L; Tighiouart, Hocine; Peter, Inga; Bianchi, Diana W

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand in more detail the natural history of fetomaternal cell trafficking in healthy pregnant mice. Our goal was to identify the best target organs and days during pregnancy for further mechanistic studies of the role of fetal cells in maternal disease and injury. C57BL/6J wild-type virgin females (n = 54) were mated with congenic enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic males. During pregnancy and after delivery, female mice were euthanized, and eight organs and blood were analyzed for the presence of fetal GFP+ cells with flow cytometry and real-time quantitative PCR. Maternal lungs, liver, and spleen were also analyzed by fluorescent stereomicroscopy. Fetal GFP+ cells were first found at low frequency at Embryonic Day 11, increased to a maximum at Embryonic Day 19, and decreased rapidly postpartum. These fetal cell dynamics were significantly reproducible among all mice studied. In addition, there was a consistent distribution of fetal cells within maternal organs, with lung, liver, blood, and spleen having the greatest concentrations; these were highly correlated at all time points (P < 0.0001). Maternal lung contained 10- to 100-fold more fetal cells than any other organ, and using all three techniques, the number of fetal cells detected was the most consistent and reproducible in this organ. Stereomicroscopy showed that within the lung, fetal cells were widely and apparently randomly distributed. Using a murine model, our data demonstrate that fetomaternal cellular trafficking occurs in reproducible patterns, is maximal near term delivery, and has predilection for the maternal lung.

  9. Nucleolar protein trafficking in response to HIV-1 Tat: rewiring the nucleolus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Jarboui

    Full Text Available The trans-activator Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein essential for HIV-1 replication. Tat trafficks to the nucleoplasm and the nucleolus. The nucleolus, a highly dynamic and structured membrane-less sub-nuclear compartment, is the site of rRNA and ribosome biogenesis and is involved in numerous cellular functions including transcriptional regulation, cell cycle control and viral infection. Importantly, transient nucleolar trafficking of both Tat and HIV-1 viral transcripts are critical in HIV-1 replication, however, the role(s of the nucleolus in HIV-1 replication remains unclear. To better understand how the interaction of Tat with the nucleolar machinery contributes to HIV-1 pathogenesis, we investigated the quantitative changes in the composition of the nucleolar proteome of Jurkat T-cells stably expressing HIV-1 Tat fused to a TAP tag. Using an organellar proteomic approach based on mass spectrometry, coupled with Stable Isotope Labelling in Cell culture (SILAC, we quantified 520 proteins, including 49 proteins showing significant changes in abundance in Jurkat T-cell nucleolus upon Tat expression. Numerous proteins exhibiting a fold change were well characterised Tat interactors and/or known to be critical for HIV-1 replication. This suggests that the spatial control and subcellular compartimentaliation of these cellular cofactors by Tat provide an additional layer of control for regulating cellular machinery involved in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Pathway analysis and network reconstruction revealed that Tat expression specifically resulted in the nucleolar enrichment of proteins collectively participating in ribosomal biogenesis, protein homeostasis, metabolic pathways including glycolytic, pentose phosphate, nucleotides and amino acids biosynthetic pathways, stress response, T-cell signaling pathways and genome integrity. We present here the first differential profiling of the nucleolar proteome of T-cells expressing HIV-1 Tat. We

  10. MHC class I endosomal and lysosomal trafficking coincides with exogenous antigen loading in dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genc Basha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DCs is a crucial prerequisite for effective priming of cytotoxic T-cell responses against bacterial, viral and tumor antigens; however, this antigen presentation pathway remains poorly defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to develop a comprehensive understanding of this process, we tested the hypothesis that the internalization of MHC class I molecules (MHC-I from the cell surface is directly involved in cross-presentation pathway and the loading of antigenic peptides. Here we provide the first examination of the internalization of MHC-I in DCs and we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of MHC-I appears to act as an addressin domain to route MHC-I to both endosomal and lysosomal compartments of DCs, where it is demonstrated that loading of peptides derived from exogenously-derived proteins occurs. Furthermore, by chasing MHC-I from the cell surface of normal and transgenic DCs expressing mutant forms of MHC-I, we observe that a tyrosine-based endocytic trafficking motif is required for the constitutive internalization of MHC-I molecules from the cell surface into early endosomes and subsequently deep into lysosomal peptide-loading compartments. Finally, our data support the concept that multiple pathways of peptide loading of cross-presented antigens may exist depending on the chemical nature and size of the antigen requiring processing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that DCs have 'hijacked' and adapted a common vacuolar/endocytic intracellular trafficking pathway to facilitate MHC I access to the endosomal and lysosomal compartments where antigen processing and loading and antigen cross-presentation takes place.

  11. Estradiol-induced estrogen receptor-alpha trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Galyna; Kuo, John; Hamid, Naheed; Micevych, Paul

    2009-12-02

    Estradiol has rapid actions in the CNS that are mediated by membrane estrogen receptors (ERs) and activate cell signaling pathways through interaction with metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Membrane-initiated estradiol signaling increases the free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) that stimulates the synthesis of neuroprogesterone in astrocytes. We used surface biotinylation to demonstrate that ERalpha has an extracellular portion. In addition to the full-length ERalpha [apparent molecular weight (MW), 66 kDa], surface biotinylation labeled an ERalpha-immunoreactive protein (MW, approximately 52 kDa) identified by both COOH- and NH(2)-directed antibodies. Estradiol treatment regulated membrane levels of both proteins in parallel: within 5 min, estradiol significantly increased membrane levels of the 66 and 52 kDa ERalpha. Internalization, a measure of membrane receptor activation, was also increased by estradiol with a similar time course. Continuous treatment with estradiol for 24-48 h reduced ERalpha levels, suggesting receptor downregulation. Estradiol also increased mGluR1a trafficking and internalization, consistent with the proposed ERalpha-mGluR1a interaction. Blocking ER with ICI 182,780 or mGluR1a with LY 367385 prevented ERalpha trafficking to and from the membrane. Estradiol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) flux was also significantly increased at the time of peak ERalpha activation/internalization. These results demonstrate that ERalpha is present in the membrane and has an extracellular portion. Furthermore, membrane levels and internalization of ERalpha are regulated by estradiol and mGluR1a ligands. The pattern of trafficking into and out of the membrane suggests that the changing concentration of estradiol during the estrous cycle regulates ERalpha to augment and then terminate membrane-initiated signaling.

  12. Estradiol-induced estrogen receptor-α trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Galyna; Kuo, John; Hamid, Naheed; Micevych, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Estradiol has rapid actions in the central nervous system, which are mediated by membrane estrogen receptors (ERs) and activate cell signaling pathways through interaction with metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Membrane-initiated estradiol signaling increases the free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) that stimulates the synthesis of neuroprogesterone in astrocytes. We used surface biotinylation to demonstrate that ERα has an extracellular portion. In addition to the full length ERα (apparent M.W. 66 kDa), surface biotinylation labeled an ERα-immunoreactive protein (M.W. ~ 52 kDa) identified by both COOH- and NH2-directed antibodies. Estradiol treatment regulated membrane levels of both proteins in parallel: within 5 min, estradiol significantly increased membrane levels of the 66 kDa and 52 kDa ERα. Internalization, a measure of membrane receptor activation, was also increased by estradiol with a similar time course. Continuous treatment with estradiol for 24–48 hr reduced ERα levels, suggesting receptor down-regulation. Estradiol also increased mGluR1a trafficking and internalization, consistent with the proposed ERα-mGluR1a interaction. Blocking ER with ICI 182,780 or mGluR1a with LY 367385 prevented ERα trafficking to and from the membrane. Estradiol-induced [Ca2+]i flux was also significantly increased at the time of peak ERα activation/internalization. These results demonstrate that ERα is present in the membrane and has an extracellular portion. Furthermore, membrane levels and internalization of ERα are regulated by estradiol and mGluR1a ligands. The pattern of trafficking into and out of the membrane suggests that the changing concentration of estradiol during the estrous cycle regulates ERα to augment and then terminate membrane-initiated signaling. PMID:19955385

  13. Financial Capability and Sociodemographic Factors among Survivors of Human Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okech, David; McGarity, Stephen Vandiver; Hansen, Nathan; Burns, Abigail C; Howard, Waylon

    2018-01-01

    Improving the economic well-being of the girls and women is a key to reducing re-trafficking and in providing stability that survivors can use to rebuild their lives. The study looks at how various sociodemographic traits affected the financial capability of n = 144 women and girls who received intervention at a residential care facility in Ghana, West Africa. Three domain of financial capability are assessed in this, i.e., financial risk, financial planning, and financial saving. A scaled likelihood ratio test (chi-square difference test) was used to evaluate the significance of each direct covariate effect(%). Each of the overall goodness-of-fit indices suggested that the initial CFA model fit the data well, χ 2 (19, N = 144)  = 31.45, p = 0.04, RMSEA = 0.067 (90% CI: 0.017-0.108), TLI = 0.923, CFI = 0.948. Older women reported lower levels of financial savings than younger women. We found that women with secondary school education or higher reported significantly higher financial risk than women with less education. Women with children reported lower levels of financial saving than women without children. Married women indicated significantly more financial saving than single women. There was a significant negative effect of time spent in trafficking conditions on financial saving, indicating the highest average level of financial savings at intervention and decreased thereafter. Programs and policies in resource-scarce contexts that aim to assist trafficking survivors must go beyond providing psychosocial counseling and focus also on economic development opportunities.

  14. The Declaration of Istanbul on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Organ commercialism, which targets vulnerable populations (such as illiterate and impoverished persons, undocumented immigrants, prisoners, and political or economic refugees) in resource-poor countries, has been condemned by international bodies such as the World Health Organization for decades. Yet in recent years, as a consequence of the increasing ease of Internet communication and the willingness of patients in rich countries to travel and purchase organs, organ trafficking and transplant tourism have grown into global problems. For example, as of 2006, foreigners received two-thirds of the 2000 kidney transplants performed annually in Pakistan. The Istanbul Declaration proclaims that the poor who sell their organs are being exploited, whether by richer people within their own countries or by transplant tourists from abroad. Moreover, transplant tourists risk physical harm by unregulated and illegal transplantation. Participants in the Istanbul Summit concluded that transplant commercialism, which targets the vulnerable, transplant tourism, and organ trafficking should be prohibited. And they also urged their fellow transplant professionals, individually and through their organizations, to put an end to these unethical activities and foster safe, accountable practices that meet the needs of transplant recipients while protecting donors. Countries from which transplant tourists originate, as well as those to which they travel to obtain transplants, are just beginning to address their respective responsibilities to protect their people from exploitation and to develop national self-sufficiency in organ donation. The Declaration should reinforce the resolve of governments and international organizations to develop laws and guidelines to bring an end to wrongful practices. "The legacy of transplantation is threatened by organ trafficking and transplant tourism. The Declaration of Istanbul aims to combat these activities and to preserve the nobility of organ

  15. Understanding the nature and threats of drug trafficking to national and regional security in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwesi Aning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several West African states are threatened by increasingly powerful transnational organised criminal networks. Yet, scholarly work on the nature, characteristics and strength of these groups and how their activities threaten states remains sparse, leading to misunderstandings and inadequate appreciation of the precise nature of the threats they pose to West Africa. This paper seeks to fill these lacunae in our knowledge. It focuses on the nexus between drugs, crime and terrorism. It argues that, the financial spin-offs from criminal activities contribute to the development of opportunistic relationships between criminals and extremist groups that threatens West Africa’s fragile states. The analyses are based on evidence from several West African states, but employ the ongoing crisis in the Sahel, particularly Mali, as an empirical case, to demonstrate how ‘profitable collusion’ among different actors permits hollow states to become edifices that allows corruption, criminality and impunity to flourish.

  16. The Importance of Justice Restorative to Combat Drug Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Ribeiro Cardoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the criminal model of retributive justice has been challenged for not being suitable for the prevention and repression of criminality in Brazil. The high incarceration rate has increased with the number of drug trafficking prisoners which leads to, consequently, a formulation of criminal policy on the standard punitive model rather effective alternative forms, or less harmful for solving the problem. Its commercial nature at the same time reveals the importance for the consummation of the crime opening the possibilities for insertion of the extensive restorative practices, which exceeds the legally allowed.

  17. A Salmonella virulence protein that inhibits cellular trafficking.

    OpenAIRE

    Uchiya, K; Barbieri, M A; Funato, K; Shah, A H; Stahl, P D; Groisman, E A

    1999-01-01

    Salmonella enterica requires a type III secretion system, designated Spi/Ssa, to survive and proliferate within macrophages. The Spi/Ssa system is encoded within the SPI-2 pathogenicity island and appears to function intracellularly. Here, we establish that the SPI-2-encoded SpiC protein is exported by the Spi/Ssa type III secretion system into the host cell cytosol where it interferes with intracellular trafficking. In J774 macrophages, wild-type Salmonella inhibited fusion of Salmonella-con...

  18. Trafficking of Sendai virus nucleocapsids is mediated by intracellular vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raychel Chambers

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Paramyxoviruses are assembled at the plasma membrane budding sites after synthesis of all the structural components in the cytoplasm. Although viral ribonuclocapsid (vRNP is an essential component of infectious virions, the process of vRNP translocation to assembly sites is poorly understood.To analyze real-time trafficking of vRNPs in live infected cells, we created a recombinant Sendai virus (SeV, rSeVLeGFP, which expresses L protein fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP. The rSeVLeGFP showed similar growth kinetics compared to wt SeV, and newly synthesized LeGFP could be detected as early as 8 h postinfection. The majority of LeGFP co-localized with other components of vRNPs, NP and P proteins, suggesting the fluorescent signals of LeGFP represent the locations of vRNPs. Analysis of LeGFP movement using time-lapse digital video microscopy revealed directional and saltatory movement of LeGFP along microtubules. Treatment of the cells with nocodazole restricted vRNP movement and reduced progeny virion production without affecting viral protein synthesis, suggesting the role of microtubules in vRNP trafficking and virus assembly. Further study with an electron microscope showed close association of vRNPs with intracellular vesicles present in infected cells. In addition, the vRNPs co-localized with Rab11a protein, which is known to regulate the recycling endocytosis pathway and Golgi-to-plasma membrane trafficking. Simultaneous movement between LeGFP and Rab11a was also observed in infected cells, which constitutively express mRFP-tagged Rab11a. Involvement of recycling endosomes in vRNP translocation was also suggested by the fact that vRNPs move concomitantly with recycling transferrin labeled with Alexa 594.Collectively, our results strongly suggest a previously unrecognized involvement of the intracellular vesicular trafficking pathway in vRNP translocation and provide new insights into the transport of viral structural

  19. Radiant business. Hazards of international, illicit trafficking with nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attali, J.

    1996-03-01

    Since the Cold War has been terminated, public media increasingly come out with reports about cases of illicit trafficking with nuclear technology and nuclear materials. So far, the potential hazard has not been exploding into the big disaster, but imagine what may happen if uranium or plutonium falls into the hands of terrorists, fanatics, or Mafia-type organisations ? The author has been investigating into this problem on behalf of the Secretary General of the UN. He has been travelling all around the world in pursuit of information and indications, and now presents us with the essential results of his mission, compiled in this explosive report. (orig./HP) [de

  20. The social representation of drug trafficking like laborer optionAt first glance, the State of Baja California (Mexico and the Department of Valle del Cauca (Colombia do not have much in common. They belong to different countries and have significant di

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Paola Ovalle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available At first glance, the State of Baja California (Mexico and the Department of Valle del Cauca (Colombia do not have much in common. They belong to different countries and have significant differences in their history and their social, cultural, political and economic structures. However these places have a commonality--namely the fact that for more than three decades they have become epicenters of drug trafficking. In both of these territories, trafficking groups and international business networks have appropriated the region in order to frame their illegal project. This paper summarizes the findings of field research conducted during December 2008. Knowing and comparing the social representations of drug trafficking in these two territories, offers significant elements that help understand the integration processes and social penetration of drug trafficking in local contexts—and shed light on processes that have helped consolidate these practices as viable labor options.

  1. Vesicular trafficking of immune mediators in human eosinophils revealed by immunoelectron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Rossana C.N.; Weller, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM)-based techniques are mostly responsible for our current view of cell morphology at the subcellular level and continue to play an essential role in biological research. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, EM has helped to understand how cells package and release mediators involved in immune responses. Ultrastructural investigations of human eosinophils enabled visualization of secretory processes in detail and identification of a robust, vesicular trafficking essential for the secretion of immune mediators via a non-classical secretory pathway associated with secretory (specific) granules. This vesicular system is mainly organized as large tubular-vesicular carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles – EoSVs) actively formed in response to cell activation and provides a sophisticated structural mechanism for delivery of granule-stored mediators. In this review, we highlight the application of EM techniques to recognize pools of immune mediators at vesicular compartments and to understand the complex secretory pathway within human eosinophils involved in inflammatory and allergic responses. - Highlights: • Application of EM to understand the complex secretory pathway in human eosinophils. • EM techniques reveal an active vesicular system associated with secretory granules. • Tubular vesicles are involved in the transport of granule-derived immune mediators.

  2. Vesicular trafficking of immune mediators in human eosinophils revealed by immunoelectron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rossana C.N., E-mail: rossana.melo@ufjf.edu.br [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, ICB, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-900 (Brazil); Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, CLS 943, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Weller, Peter F. [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, CLS 943, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Electron microscopy (EM)-based techniques are mostly responsible for our current view of cell morphology at the subcellular level and continue to play an essential role in biological research. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, EM has helped to understand how cells package and release mediators involved in immune responses. Ultrastructural investigations of human eosinophils enabled visualization of secretory processes in detail and identification of a robust, vesicular trafficking essential for the secretion of immune mediators via a non-classical secretory pathway associated with secretory (specific) granules. This vesicular system is mainly organized as large tubular-vesicular carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles – EoSVs) actively formed in response to cell activation and provides a sophisticated structural mechanism for delivery of granule-stored mediators. In this review, we highlight the application of EM techniques to recognize pools of immune mediators at vesicular compartments and to understand the complex secretory pathway within human eosinophils involved in inflammatory and allergic responses. - Highlights: • Application of EM to understand the complex secretory pathway in human eosinophils. • EM techniques reveal an active vesicular system associated with secretory granules. • Tubular vesicles are involved in the transport of granule-derived immune mediators.

  3. Debate: Forced Labour, Slavery and Human Trafficking: When do definitions matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Plant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We can spend a lot of time debating the connections or essential differences between the concepts of trafficking, forced labour, slavery and modern slavery, or slavery-like practices. Some insist that trafficking is a subset of forced labour, others the reverse. The arguments between academics, bureaucracies and even government agencies have often been vitriolic.

  4. Lifestyles and routine activities of South African teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutya, Thozama Mandisa

    2010-12-01

    The United Nations estimates that 79% of teenage girls trafficked globally every year are forced into involuntary prostitution. About 247 000 South African children work in exploitative conditions; about 40 000 South African female teenagers work as prostitutes. This paper investigates lifestyles and routine activities of teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution. The key concepts involuntary prostitution, intergenerational sex and exploitative conditions are defined in relation to the lifestyles and routine activities of South African female teenagers. Human trafficking for involuntary prostitution is described, based on a literature review. Lifestyle exposure and routine activities theories help to explain the potential victimisation of these teenagers in human trafficking for involuntary prostitution. Actual lifestyle and routine activities of South African teenagers and risky behaviours (substance abuse, intergenerational sex and child prostitution) are discussed as factors that make teens vulnerable to such trafficking. This paper recommends that human trafficking prevention efforts (awareness programmes and information campaigns) be directed at places frequented by human traffickers and teenagers in the absence of a capable guardian to reduce victimisation, as traffickers analyse the lifestyles and routine activities of their targets. South Africa should also interrogate entrenched practices such as intergenerational sex.

  5. A method based on temporal concept analysis for detecting and profiling human trafficking suspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Elzinga, P.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Hamza, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking and forced prostitution are a serious problem for the Amsterdam-Amstelland police (the Netherlands). In this paper, we present a method based on Temporal Concept Analysis for detecting and profiling human trafficking suspects. Using traditional Formal Concept Analysis, we first

  6. JUVENILE CRIMES CONNECTED WITH NARCOTICS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES TRAFFICKING: CRIMINOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Irina V. Tseveleva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with criminological aspects of juvenile crime in the narcotics and psychotropic substances trafficking. The authors analyzed the main reasons of committing these crimes by teenagers. The proposals for the prevention of minors’ criminal behavior in drug trafficking are drafted.

  7. Searching for best practice: a study on trafficking in persons in west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High levels of human trafficking remain a serious cause for concern, both globally and in many regions. On the African continent, Southern African countries, specifically South Africa, and countries in West Africa, are susceptible to human trafficking, because of their status as countries of origin, transit and destination.

  8. An empirical framework of control methods of victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannou, Maria; Oostinga, Miriam Sharon Daniëlle

    2015-01-01

    Although human trafficking for sexual exploitation is a frequently discussed area in current research, especially on the way that human traffickers control their victims, a recurrent problem is the lack of empirical basis. The present study examines control methods (or conditions) used against 137

  9. Sexual Trafficking in the United States: A Domestic Problem with Transnational Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The trafficking of young women and children for prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation is one of the most significant human rights abuses in contemporary society. In keeping with the social work profession's commitment to social justice, this article examines the issue of sexual trafficking in the United States. The transnational…

  10. The relationship of trauma to mental disorders among trafficked and sexually exploited girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy; Abas, Melanie; Light, Miriam; Watts, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    We explored the association between traumatic events and mental health among girls and women trafficked for sexual exploitation. We used subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire to interview 204 trafficked girls and women in 7 posttrafficking service settings. Multivariate logistic regression models based on interview data were fitted for depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) separately and adjusted for pretrafficking abuse to determine impact of trafficking-related trauma exposures. Injuries and sexual violence during trafficking were associated with higher levels of PTSD, depression, and anxiety. Sexual violence was associated with higher levels of PTSD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 25.4). More time in trafficking was associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety (AOR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 4.5). More time since trafficking was associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety but not of PTSD. Our findings inform the emerging field of mental health care for trafficked persons by highlighting the importance of assessing severity and duration of trafficking-related abuses and need for adequate recovery time. Therapies for anxiety, PTSD, and mood disorders in low-resource settings should be evaluated.

  11. 77 FR 9295 - Determination With Respect to Foreign Governments' Efforts Regarding Trafficking in Persons-Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination With Respect to Foreign Governments' Efforts Regarding Trafficking in Persons--Burma Pursuant to section 110 of Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A, Pub. L. 106-386), as amended (the...

  12. The Politics of Drug Trafficking in Mexican and Mexico-Related Narconovelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaversich, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This essay traces the emergence of the Mexican and Mexico-related narconovela. It examines perspectives on drug trafficking and traffickers expressed in novels by Elmer Mendoza, Leonides Alfaro, Gerardo Cornejo, Homero Aridjis, Arturo Perez-Reverte, and Paul Flores. The variety of positions taken refutes the tendency of the Mexican mainstream…

  13. Real-time trafficking and signaling of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Sarah Noerklit; Wismann, Pernille; Underwood, Christina Rye

    2014-01-01

    . A fundamental mechanism controlling the signaling capacity of GPCRs is the post-endocytic trafficking of receptors between recycling and degradative fates. Here, we combined microscopy with novel real-time assays to monitor both receptor trafficking and signaling in living cells. We find that the human GLP-1R...

  14. The 'dirty downside' of global sporting events: focus on human trafficking for sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, R; Finkel, M L

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is as complex human rights and public health issue. The issue of human trafficking for sexual exploitation at large global sporting events has proven to be elusive given the clandestine nature of the industry. This piece examines the issue from a public health perspective. This is a literature review of the 'most comprehensive' studies published on the topic. A PubMed search was done using MeSH terms 'human traffickings' and 'sex trafficking' and 'human rights abuses'. Subheadings included 'statistics and numerical data', 'legislation and jurispudence', 'prevention and control', and 'therapy'. Only papers published in English were reviewed. The search showed that very few well-designed empirical studies have been conducted on the topic and only one pertinent systematic review was identified. Findings show a high prevalence of physical violence among those trafficked compared to non-trafficked women. Sexually transmitted infections and HIV AIDS are prevalent and preventive care is virtually non-existent. Quantifying human trafficking for sexual exploitation at large global sporting events has proven to be elusive given the clandestine nature of the industry. This is not to say that human trafficking for sex as well as forced sexual exploitation does not occur. It almost certainly exists, but to what extent is the big question. It is a hidden problem on a global scale in plain view with tremendous public health implications. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dijk, J.J.M. van , Estimating human trafficking worldwide: a multi-mode strategy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Jan

    In this article, the author presents the results of an in-depth analysis of the production of statistics by Eurostat on formally identified victims of trafficking in human beings in Europe. He concludes that the concept of an identified victim of trafficking in human beings has different meanings in

  16. Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: A Scoping Review to Identify Gaps in Service Delivery, Research, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Dana C; Choi, Kristen R; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Lori, Jody R

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking. There were also some reports of organ trafficking and other closely related human rights violations, such as child marriage, child soldiering, and exploitative intercountry adoption. Risk factors for trafficking included push factors (poverty, political instability, economic problems, and gender discrimination) and pull factors (demand for cheap labor). Trafficking was associated with poor health and economic outcomes for victims. Key recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy are identified, including establishing comprehensive services for survivor rehabilitation and reintegration, conducting quantitative health outcomes research, and reforming policy around migration and trafficking. Implementing the recommendations identified by this review will allow policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to take meaningful steps toward confronting human trafficking in Ethiopia.

  17. Editorial: The Presence of the Past: Lessons of history for anti-trafficking work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia O’Connell Davidson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Anti-Trafficking Review is concerned with some of the histories that created, and that continue to shape, both the present-day phenomena discussed under the rubric of trafficking, and the contemporary discourse of trafficking itself. One such history is that of transatlantic slavery. Since the millennium, numerous NGOs have been founded in the US, Australia and Europe with a mission to end what they call ‘modern slavery’. Their campaigns have overlapped with, and played a significant role in shaping, the development of media, NGO, policy and political discourse on human trafficking, which is, according to the antislavery NGO Free the Slaves, ‘the modern day slave trade—the process of enslaving a person’.1 In this discourse, the history of transatlantic slavery is invoked by means of visual as well as textual references in order to emphasise the severity of trafficking (and other phenomena included under the umbrella of ‘modern slavery’ as a human rights violation. The message has been communicated so effectively that although in international law slavery is held to be only one of several possible outcomes of trafficking, in the anti-trafficking rhetoric emanating from national and international policy agencies, as well as NGOs, trafficking is now frequently said to be ‘modern slavery’.2

  18. Affective Economies in the Governance of Trafficking and Sex Work in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voelkner, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Since Vietnam's advances in “capitalist globalisation” in the late 1980s, it is argued to have become a source and destination country of trafficking in men, women and children. Considered a global problem, human trafficking draws together an array of national and international actors, governing

  19. Trafficking in human beings, enslavement, crimes against humanity: unravelling the concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual relationship between trafficking in human beings, enslavement and crimes against humanity. The analysis of case law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the European Court on Human Rights reveals that, while trafficking in human

  20. The Nexus of Terrorism and Drug Trafficking in the Golden Crescent: Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-15

    The nexus of terrorism and drug trafficking in the Golden Crescent region of Southwest Asia and the broader Middle East is Afghanistan. As the...Afghanistan’s narcotics problem; increases in opium poppy production and price after the fall of the Taliban; and the relationship between drug trafficking , the

  1. The Counter Trafficking in Persons Architecture in Kenya: a security governance perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael; Owiso, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The many and nuanced strategies adopted by Human traffickers has rendered the management of the crime to require complexity in approach. This is because of the inner workings and the multiplicity of actors; individuals, governments, non-governmental organizations, criminal networks - traffickers,...

  2. The fight against human trafficking in the Amsterdam Red Light District

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spapens, A.C.M.; Rijken, C.R.J.J.

    The Amsterdam Red Light District is famous for its sex-oriented businesses. Although prostitution was legalized in 2000, this did not end some of its criminal side effects, particularly the trafficking in women. In an effort to combat human trafficking in the district, the local authorities launched

  3. The role of the military in combating human trafficking: a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human trafficking is a complex and diverse crime affecting both individuals and countries across the world. As a significant facet of transnational organised crime and one of the most lucrative criminal enterprises globally, human trafficking was ranked as the second most profitable crime around the world in 2015, making it ...

  4. Quantification of the Force of Nanoparticle-Cell Membrane Interactions and Its Influence on Intracellular Trafficking of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasir, Jaspreet K.; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with the cell membrane and their trafficking through cells is imperative to fully explore the use of NPs for efficient intracellular delivery of therapeutics. Here, we report a novel method of measuring the force of NP-cell membrane interactions using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Poly(dl-lactide co-glycolide, PLGA) NPs functionalized with poly-l-lysine were used as a model system, to demonstrate that this force determines the adhesive interaction of NPs with the cell membrane and in turn the extent of cellular uptake of NPs, and hence that of the encapsulated therapeutic. Cellular uptake of NPs was monitored using AFM imaging, and the dynamics of their intracellular distribution was quantified using confocal microscopy. Results demonstrated that the functionalized NPs have a five-fold greater force of adhesion with the cell membrane and the time-lapse AFM images show their rapid internalization than unmodified NPs. The intracellular trafficking study showed that the functionalized NPs escape more rapidly and efficiently from late endosomes than unmodified NPs and result in 10-fold higher intracellular delivery of the encapsulated model protein. The findings described herein enhance our basic understanding of the NP-cell membrane interaction on the basis of physical phenomena that could have wider applications in developing efficient nanocarrier systems for intracellular delivery of therapeutics. PMID:18692238

  5. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    OpenAIRE

    Marika McAdam

    2013-01-01

    International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in ide...

  6. Poly-drug trafficking: Estimating the scale, trends and harms at the Australian border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth; Chalmers, Jenny; Bright, David Anthony; McFadden, Michael

    2016-05-01

    International drug law enforcement agencies have identified an apparent rise in high level drug traffickers choosing to deal in multiple different drugs. It is hypothesised that this may be a "deliberate modus operandi" and that the formation of "portfolios of trades" may make such traffickers more profitable, harmful and resilient to changes in drug supply and policing. In this paper we provide the first exploration of the extent, nature and harms of poly-drug trafficking at Australian borders. Two different methods were used. First, we used Australian Federal Police (AFP) data on all commercial level seizures at the Australian border from 1999 to 2012 to identify the proportion of seizures that were poly-drug and trends over time. Second, we used unit-record data on a sub-set of 20 drug trafficking cases and linked-cases (defined as the original drug trafficking case and all other criminal cases that were connected via common offenders and/or suspects) to compare the profiles of poly-drug and mono-drug traffickers, including: the total weight and type of drug seized, the value of assets seized, and the level of involvement in other crime (such as money laundering and corruption). Between 5% and 35% of commercial importations at the Australian border involved poly-drug trafficking. Poly-drug trafficking occurred in almost every year of analysis (1999-2012), but it increased only slightly over time. Compared to mono-drug traffickers poly-drug traffickers were characterised by: larger quantities of drugs seized, larger networks, longer criminal histories and more involvement in other types of serious crime. Some fears about poly-drug traffickers may have been overstated particularly about the inherent escalation of this form of trafficking. Nevertheless, this suggests poly-drug traffickers are likely to pose added risks to governments and law enforcement than mono-drug traffickers. They may necessitate different types of policy responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  7. Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking at Hotspots by Focusing on People Smuggled to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Ventrella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that smuggling of migrants is associated with human trafficking. Hence, victims of human trafficking amongst smuggled migrants should be identified by EU Member States at hotspots established by the European Commission, to overcome the migrant and refugee crisis. Identified victims should be given a visa and a programme of protection to escape their traffickers. In order to achieve these objectives, research suggests that EU law on migrant smuggling should be amended and the Temporary Protection Directive should be applied to smuggled persons when there is an indication that they may be victims of human trafficking. This approach should be adopted by the EASO in cooperation with police forces investigating smuggling and trafficking at hotspots.

  8. [Concepts in women trafficking for sexual exploitation: a survey with institutional representatives in Brazil and Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúquete, Jose Gonçalo Pais Estrela da Silveira; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2016-10-20

    This study focuses on concepts involved in women trafficking for sexual exploitation according to representatives of government and nongovernmental institutions working with policies to confront and prevent trafficking and assist victims in Brazil and Portugal. An exploratory qualitative study was performed to identify the institutional discourses on women trafficking using thematic analysis. Interviewees displayed conceptual imprecision concerning women trafficking, sometimes ignoring the rights of sex workers to migrate and work in other countries. There is no consensus among the institutions on the profile of trafficking victims, marked by stereotypes, and the definition is influenced by legislation and border controls. Greater conceptual precision would minimize the role of moral values, orient more adequate and efficient public policies, and facilitate staff action in assisting victims.

  9. Socio-Economic Inequality, Human Trafficking, and the Global Slave Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Barner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss human trafficking within the broader framework of socio-economic inequality. The presence of socio-economic inequality in the world creates a system where those in power very easily dominate and take advantage of those people without power. One of the most serious contemporary effects of inequalities between and within nations is the phenomenon of global sex trade or human trafficking for the purposes of sex. Deriving from unequal power relations, human trafficking is a serious global crime that involves the exploitation of many, but mostly females and children. This paper provides an extensive discussion of inequality and its links with human trafficking as contemporary slavery. In conclusion, the paper provides a list of selected intra-national and multi-national service organizations that are adopting strategies for combating trafficking through the reduction of social and economic inequality. Implications for social welfare advocates and international collaborative efforts are highlighted.

  10. Implications of human trafficking in Asia: a scoping review of aftercare initiatives centered on economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Meghan A; Barner, John R; Okech, David

    2018-01-01

    The trafficking of persons is one of the most egregious violations of human rights in modern society. Given the disproportionate effects across demographic categories of age and gender, as well as concentrated impacts within the developing world, there is a strong need for research and literature on program effectiveness and appropriate aftercare efforts for those persons whose lives and livelihoods have been impacted by trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide a scoping review of what is known about effectively helping survivors of human trafficking experiencing lack of economic opportunity and the implications for practice and future research regarding the absence of literature. From over 14,000 initial search results, this article focuses on those initiatives (N = 16) that support economic development of the individual or family after being trafficked. Implications arising from the review for trafficking policy, areas for further research, and implications for practitioners are highlighted and discussed.

  11. The Prominent Role of National Judges in Interpreting the International Definition of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luuk B Esser

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been much discussion of the scope of the concept of human trafficking in international literature, the part played by national courts in interpreting definitions based on the international definition of human trafficking in the UN Trafficking Protocol has received little attention. When a judge interprets an offence, he or she clarifies or adds new meaning to it. The space for this is even greater when the underlying definition is broadly formulated, as in the case of the international definition of human trafficking. This article demonstrates that, although this international definition establishes the outer parameters within which conduct must be made a criminal offence, domestic courts still have room to flesh out the definition in national contexts. The role of national judges needs more consideration in today’s discourse on the legal definition of human trafficking.

  12. Protection motivation theory and adolescent drug trafficking: relationship between health motivation and longitudinal risk involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Stanton, Bonita F; Li, Xiaoming; Galbraith, Jennifer; Cole, Matthew L

    2005-03-01

    To assess health protection motivation as explained by the constructs of protection motivation theory (PMT) and its association with drug trafficking over 2 years. The sample included 817 African American youth (13-16 years old) participating in an adolescent risk-reduction program. We developed an instrument measuring the level of health protection motivation (LHPM) using factor analysis. Changes in LHPM over time were examined among drug traffickers, abstainers, initiators, and nonrisk youths. In sum, 151 participants reported selling and/or delivering drugs during the study period. The significant inverse correlation between drug-trafficking intention and health protection motivation was consistent with PMT. Changes in LHPM were strongly associated with the dynamics of behavior over 2 years. Adolescent drug trafficking can be predicted by an overall level of health protection motivation. PMT and related theories should be considered in the design of drug-trafficking prevention intervention.

  13. International technical working group cooperation to counter illicit nuclear trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.; Niemeyer, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international group of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. ITWG members include policy and decision makers, law enforcement personnel, and scientists with expertise in, and responsibility for, nuclear forensics. (author)

  14. Eps15: a multifunctional adaptor protein regulating intracellular trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Bergen en Henegouwen Paul MP

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over expression of receptor tyrosine kinases is responsible for the development of a wide variety of malignancies. Termination of growth factor signaling is primarily determined by the down regulation of active growth factor/receptor complexes. In recent years, considerable insight has been gained in the endocytosis and degradation of growth factor receptors. A crucial player in this process is the EGFR Protein tyrosine kinase Substrate #15, or Eps15. This protein functions as a scaffolding adaptor protein and is involved both in secretion and endocytosis. Eps15 has been shown to bind to AP-1 and AP-2 complexes, to bind to inositol lipids and to several other proteins involved in the regulation of intracellular trafficking. In addition, Eps15 has been detected in the nucleus of mammalian cells. Activation of growth factor receptors induces tyrosine phosphorylation and mono-ubiquitination of Eps15. The role of these post translational modifications of Eps15 is still a mystery. It is proposed that Eps15 and its family members Eps15R and Eps15b are involved in the regulation of membrane morphology, which is required for intracellular vesicle formation and trafficking.

  15. Complex lipid trafficking in Niemann-Pick disease type C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanier, Marie T

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an atypical lysosomal storage disease resulting from mutations in one of two genes, either NPC1 or NPC2. Although a neurovisceral disorder, it is above all a neurodegenerative disease in the vast majority of patients. Not an enzyme deficiency, it is currently conceived as a lipid trafficking disorder. Impaired egress of cholesterol from the late endosomal/lysosomal (LE/L) compartment is a specific and key element of the pathogenesis, but other lipids, more specially sphingolipids, are also involved, and there are indications for further abnormalities. The full function of the NPC1 and NPC2 proteins is still unclear. This review provides a reappraisal of lipid storage and lysosomal enzymes activities in tissues/cells from NPC patients and animal models. It summarizes the current knowledge on the NPC1 and NPC2 proteins and their function in transport of cholesterol within the late endosomal-lysosomal compartment, with emphasis on differences between systemic organs and the brain; it also discusses regulation by membrane lipids of the NPC2-mediated cholesterol trafficking, interplay between cholesterol and sphingomyelin, the metabolic origin of glycosphingolipids stored in brain, and the putative role of free sphingoid bases in pathogenesis. Brief mention is finally made of diseases affecting other genes that were very recently shown to impact the "NPC pathway".

  16. Can yoga therapy stimulate stem cell trafficking from bone marrow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitya Shree

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs from bone marrow enter the peripheral circulation intermittently for possible tissue regeneration, repair and to take care of daily wear and tear. This is evident from the detection of MSCs from peripheral blood. The factors governing this migration remain elusive. These MSCs carry out the work of policing and are supposed to repair the injured tissues. Thus, these cells help in maintaining the tissue and organ homeostasis. Yoga and pranayama originated in India and is now being practiced all over the world for positive health. So far, the chemical stimulation of bone marrow has been widely used employing injection of colony stimulating factor. However, the role of physical factors such as mechanical stimulation and stretching has not been substantiated. It is claimed that practicing yoga delays senescence, improves the physiological functions of heart and lung and yoga postures make the body elastic. It remains to be seen whether the yoga therapy promotes trafficking of the stem cells from bone marrow for possible repair and regeneration of worn out and degenerating tissues. We cover in this short review, mainly the role of physical factors especially the yoga therapy on stem cells trafficking from bone marrow.

  17. Can yoga therapy stimulate stem cell trafficking from bone marrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shree, Nitya; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    It has been established that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from bone marrow enter the peripheral circulation intermittently for possible tissue regeneration, repair and to take care of daily wear and tear. This is evident from the detection of MSCs from peripheral blood. The factors governing this migration remain elusive. These MSCs carry out the work of policing and are supposed to repair the injured tissues. Thus, these cells help in maintaining the tissue and organ homeostasis. Yoga and pranayama originated in India and is now being practiced all over the world for positive health. So far, the chemical stimulation of bone marrow has been widely used employing injection of colony stimulating factor. However, the role of physical factors such as mechanical stimulation and stretching has not been substantiated. It is claimed that practicing yoga delays senescence, improves the physiological functions of heart and lung and yoga postures make the body elastic. It remains to be seen whether the yoga therapy promotes trafficking of the stem cells from bone marrow for possible repair and regeneration of worn out and degenerating tissues. We cover in this short review, mainly the role of physical factors especially the yoga therapy on stem cells trafficking from bone marrow. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Semi-automated knowledge discovery: identifying and profiling human trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelmans, Jonas; Elzinga, Paul; Ignatov, Dmitry I.; Kuznetsov, Sergei O.

    2012-11-01

    We propose an iterative and human-centred knowledge discovery methodology based on formal concept analysis. The proposed approach recognizes the important role of the domain expert in mining real-world enterprise applications and makes use of specific domain knowledge, including human intelligence and domain-specific constraints. Our approach was empirically validated at the Amsterdam-Amstelland police to identify suspects and victims of human trafficking in 266,157 suspicious activity reports. Based on guidelines of the Attorney Generals of the Netherlands, we first defined multiple early warning indicators that were used to index the police reports. Using concept lattices, we revealed numerous unknown human trafficking and loverboy suspects. In-depth investigation by the police resulted in a confirmation of their involvement in illegal activities resulting in actual arrestments been made. Our human-centred approach was embedded into operational policing practice and is now successfully used on a daily basis to cope with the vastly growing amount of unstructured information.

  19. Cellular Localization and Trafficking of the Human ABCG1 Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Edward B.; O’Brien, Katherine; Walts, Avram D.; Stonik, John A.; Demosky, Steven J.; Malide, Daniela; Combs, Christian A.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a suitable heterologous cell expression system to study the localization, trafficking, and site(s) of function of the human ABCG1 transporter. Increased plasma membrane (PM) and late endosomal (LE) cholesterol generated by ABCG1 was removed by lipoproteins and liposomes, but not apoA-I. Delivery of ABCG1 to the PM and LE was required for ABCG1-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux. ABCG1 LEs frequently contacted the PM, providing a collisional mechanism for transfer of ABCG1-mobilized cholesterol, similar to ABCG1-mediated PM cholesterol efflux to lipoproteins. ABCG1-mobilized LE cholesterol also trafficked to the PM by a non-vesicular pathway. Transfer of ABCG1-mobilized cholesterol from the cytoplasmic face of LEs to the PM and concomitant removal of cholesterol from the outer leaflet of the PM bilayer by extracellular acceptors suggests that ABCG1 mobilizes cholesterol on both sides of the lipid bilayer for removal by acceptors. ABCG1 increased uptake of HDL into LEs, consistent with a potential ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux pathway involving HDL resecretion. Thus, ABCG1 at the PM mobilizes PM cholesterol and ABCG1 in LE/LYS generates mobile pools of cholesterol that can traffic by both vesicular and non-vesicular pathways to the PM where it can also be transferred to extracellular acceptors with a lipid surface. PMID:25405320

  20. Human trafficking for labour exploitation:
    Interpreting the crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill E.B. Coster van Voorhout

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of human trafficking for labour exploitation, as follows from the European Council Framework Decision, proves to be unclear. Literal interpretation does not suffice, because it does not clarify all elements of what is deemed to be criminal behaviour, and hermeneutical interpretation also falls short discouraging the aim of this legislation, namely harmonisation. Hence, another solution is required. This article does so by firstly challenging assumptions about human trafficking for labour exploitation that are generally pertinent, but nonetheless untrue. This accurate appraisal of the crime’s nature is followed by a synopsis of national legislation and adjudication in three Member States, so as to also focus on these actualities regarding the crime that are commonly not conceived. This article examines two countries that have implemented the Framework Decision, namely Belgium and the Netherlands, and one that has not yet done so, the United Kingdom. Thereafter remaining unexplained elements of the Framework Decision’s definition are interpreted with use of international, pan-European and European legislation and adjudication. Based upon all this, a suggested interpretation of the Framework Decision’s definition is provided so as to overcome all identified difficulties with it.

  1. Captured ‘Realities’ of Human Trafficking: Analysis of photographs illustrating stories on trafficking into the sex industry in Serbian media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Krsmanovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Past research has looked at how the media frames human trafficking, but has seldom included analysis of visual representations. To bridge this gap, this paper scrutinises stereotypical representations of persons trafficked into the sex industry in photographs published in Serbian online media from 2011 to 2014. To uncover characteristics of dominant tropes in this sample, a method of semiotic analysis is applied. The analysis argues that images are dominated by portrayals of trafficked persons that fit into one of two frames: powerless victim or unworthy prostitute. Male figures are rarely presented in these photographs, but when present, they are shown to hurt or control the women depicted alongside them. Chains, padlocks, barcodes, whip marks, and other symbols associated with slavery are present to a lesser extent. However, they testify to the tendency to link human trafficking to slavery and to use the moral potential of the anti-slavery rhetoric. Photographs are too easily seen as authentic, factual transcripts of reality. This paper suggests that these images tell us more about societal fear of insecurity, ideas about gender, erotic obsessions and morality than about human trafficking itself. It also argues that the meaning of trafficking is shaped by the deeply embedded codes of patriarchy and hidden misogyny present in Serbian society.

  2. Combating Trafficking in Women and Children: A Review of International and National Legislation, Coordination Failures and Perverse Economic Incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); R.K.Q. Akee (Randall); A.K. Basu (Arnab); N.H. Chau (Nancy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In this review, we argue that the pattern of trafficking needs to be understood through the impact of legislative forces and human rights policies in place in the host countries of trafficking. Analyzing trafficking patterns solely through the lens of economic, labor market and

  3. Child trafficking and the European migration crisis: The role of forensic practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obertová, Zuzana; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Trafficking in children is one of the worst forms of human rights violation and is categorised as a serious crime. Children at high risk of becoming victims of trafficking are runaways, children with a history of abuse, and migrant children. Internationally, cases of child trafficking are increasing the most in Europe, which is likely the result of the current migration crisis. In crises, preventing and combating human trafficking needs to be prioritized, considering that the aims of humanitarian action include saving lives, easing suffering and preserving human dignity. The involvement of forensic practitioners in investigations of cases of child trafficking mainly concerning the identification of victims may save lives and certainly alleviate suffering of the child victims and their families searching for them. Moreover, by aiding the prosecution process through thorough documentation and expert reporting forensic practitioners may contribute to the protection, rehabilitation and possibly compensation of the child victims, and thus to the restoration of their rights and dignity. So far, forensic practitioners were rarely specifically mentioned as actors in the counter-trafficking efforts in the multitude of policies, regulations, guidelines and recommendations concerning different aspects of child trafficking. This seems surprising considering that the expertise and experience of practitioners from forensic sciences including cyber forensics, document analysis, forensic biology, anthropology, and medicine can be utilised for gathering intelligence in cases of suspected human trafficking, for identifying the victims as well as perpetrators, and for securing evidence for legal proceedings as this paper shows. While this article mainly discusses the role of forensic pathologists and anthropologists, with a specific focus on the identification of child victims of trafficking in the context of the European migration crisis, the notions regarding the contribution of

  4. A Novel Nuclear Trafficking Module Regulates the Nucleocytoplasmic Localization of the Rabies Virus Interferon Antagonist, P Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksayan, Sibil; Wiltzer, Linda; Rowe, Caitlin L.; Blondel, Danielle; Jans, David A.; Moseley, Gregory W.

    2012-01-01

    Regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins is central to cellular function and dysfunction during processes such as viral infection. Active protein trafficking into and out of the nucleus is dependent on the presence within cargo proteins of intrinsic specific modular signals for nuclear import (nuclear localization signals, NLSs) and export (nuclear export signals, NESs). Rabies virus (RabV) phospho (P) protein, which is largely responsible for antagonising the host anti-viral response, is expressed as five isoforms (P1–P5). The subcellular trafficking of these isoforms is thought to depend on a balance between the activities of a dominant N-terminal NES (N-NES) and a distinct C-terminal NLS (C-NLS). Specifically, the N-NES-containing isoforms P1 and P2 are cytoplasmic, whereas the shorter P3–P5 isoforms, which lack the N-NES, are believed to be nuclear through the activity of the C-NLS. Here, we show for the first time that RabV P contains an additional strong NLS in the N-terminal region (N-NLS), which, intriguingly, overlaps with the N-NES. This arrangement represents a novel nuclear trafficking module where the N-NLS is inactive in P1 but becomes activated in P3, concomitant with truncation of the N-NES, to become the principal targeting signal conferring nuclear accumulation. Understanding this unique switch arrangement of overlapping, co-regulated NES/NLS sequences is vital to delineating the critical role of RabV P protein in viral infection. PMID:22700958

  5. Regulation of serotonin-induced trafficking and migration of eosinophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bit Na Kang

    Full Text Available Association of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT with the pathogenesis of allergic asthma is well recognized and its role as a chemoattractant for eosinophils (Eos in vitro and in vivo has been previously demonstrated. Here we have examined the regulation of 5-HT-induced human and murine Eos trafficking and migration at a cellular and molecular level. Eos from allergic donors and bone marrow-derived murine Eos (BM-Eos were found to predominantly express the 5-HT2A receptor. Exposure to 5-HT or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI, a 5-HT2A/C selective agonist, induced rolling of human Eos and AML14.3D10 human Eos-like cells on vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 under conditions of flow in vitro coupled with distinct cytoskeletal and cell shape changes as well as phosphorylation of MAPK. Blockade of 5-HT2A or of ROCK MAPK, PI3K, PKC and calmodulin, but not G(αi-proteins, with specific inhibitors inhibited DOI-induced rolling, actin polymerization and changes in morphology of VCAM-1-adherent AML14.3D10 cells. More extensive studies with murine BM-Eos demonstrated the role of 5-HT in promoting rolling in vivo within inflamed post-capillary venules of the mouse cremaster microcirculation and confirmed that down-stream signaling of 5-HT2A activation involves ROCK, MAPK, PI3K, PKC and calmodulin similar to AML14.3D10 cells. DOI-induced migration of BM-Eos is also dependent on these signaling molecules and requires Ca(2+. Further, activation of 5-HT2A with DOI led to an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ levels in murine BM-Eos. Overall, these data demonstrate that 5-HT (or DOI/5-HT2A interaction regulates Eos trafficking and migration by promoting actin polymerization associated with changes in cell shape/morphology that favor cellular trafficking and recruitment via activation of specific intracellular signaling molecules (ROCK, MAPK, PI3K and the PKC-calmodulin pathway.

  6. BPIFB6 Regulates Secretory Pathway Trafficking and Enterovirus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosky, Stefanie; Lennemann, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) fold-containing family B, member 3 (BPIFB3) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized host factor that negatively regulates coxsackievirus B (CVB) replication through its control of the autophagic pathway. Here, we show that another member of the BPIFB family, BPIFB6, functions as a positive regulator of CVB, and other enterovirus, replication by controlling secretory pathway trafficking and Golgi complex morphology. We show that similar to BPIFB3, BPIFB6 localizes exclusively to the ER, where it associates with other members of the BPIFB family. However, in contrast to our findings that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of BPIFB3 greatly enhances CVB replication, we show that silencing of BPIFB6 expression dramatically suppresses enterovirus replication in a pan-viral manner. Mechanistically, we show that loss of BPIFB6 expression induces pronounced alterations in retrograde and anterograde trafficking, which correlate with dramatic fragmentation of the Golgi complex. Taken together, these data implicate BPIFB6 as a key regulator of secretory pathway trafficking and viral replication and suggest that members of the BPIFB family participate in diverse host cell functions to regulate virus infections. IMPORTANCE Enterovirus infections are associated with a number of severe pathologies, such as aseptic meningitis, dilated cardiomyopathy, type I diabetes, paralysis, and even death. These viruses, which include coxsackievirus B (CVB), poliovirus (PV), and enterovirus 71 (EV71), co-opt the host cell secretory pathway, which controls the transport of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, to facilitate their replication. Here we report on the identification of a novel regulator of the secretory pathway, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) fold-containing family B, member 6 (BPIFB6), whose expression is required for enterovirus replication. We show that loss of

  7. The golgin GMAP-210 is required for efficient membrane trafficking in the early secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roboti, Peristera; Sato, Keisuke; Lowe, Martin

    2015-04-15

    Golgins are coiled-coil proteins that participate in membrane-tethering events at the Golgi complex. Golgin-mediated tethering is thought to be important for vesicular trafficking and Golgi organization. However, the degree to which individual golgins contribute to these processes is poorly defined, and it has been proposed that golgins act in a largely redundant manner. Previous studies on the golgin GMAP-210 (also known as TRIP11), which is mutated in the rare skeletal disorder achondrogenesis type 1A, have yielded conflicting results regarding its involvement in trafficking. Here, we re-investigated the trafficking role of GMAP-210, and found that it is indeed required for efficient trafficking in the secretory pathway. GMAP-210 acts at both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex during anterograde trafficking, and is also required for retrograde trafficking to the ER. Using co-depletion experiments, we also found that GMAP-210 acts in a partially redundant manner with the golgin GM130 to ensure efficient anterograde cargo delivery to the cis-Golgi. In summary, our results indicate a role for GMAP-210 in several trafficking steps at the ER-Golgi interface, some of which are partially redundant with another golgin, namely GM130 (also known as GOLGA2). © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Identifying Human Trafficking Victims on a Psychiatry Inpatient Service: a Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong T; Lamkin, Joanna; Coverdale, John H; Scott, Samuel; Li, Karen; Gordon, Mollie R

    2017-10-02

    Human trafficking is a serious and prevalent human rights violation that closely intersects with mental health. Limited empirical attention has been paid to the presentations and identification of trafficking victims in psychiatric settings. The primary goal of this paper is to describe the varied presentations of trafficking victims on an urban inpatient psychiatric unit. A literature review was conducted to identify relevant empirical articles to inform our examination of cases. Adult inpatient cases meeting criteria for known or possible human trafficking were systematically identified and illustrative cases were described. Six cases were identified including one male and five females. Two had been labor trafficked and four were suspected or confirmed to have been sex trafficked. The cases demonstrated a tremendous diversity of demographic and psychiatric identifying factors. These cases indicate the importance of routinely screening for trafficking victims in inpatient psychiatry settings. Identification of cases is a requisite step in providing informed and evidence-based treatments and enabling the secondary prevention of re-exploitation. Additional research is warranted given the limited current empirical research on this topic area.

  9. Human Trafficking: A Guide to Identification and Approach for the Emergency Physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandro, Jamie; Chisolm-Straker, Makini; Duber, Herbert C; Findlay, Shannon Lynn; Munoz, Jessica; Schmitz, Gillian; Stanzer, Melanie; Stoklosa, Hanni; Wiener, Dan E; Wingkun, Neil

    2016-10-01

    Human trafficking is a significant human rights problem that is often associated with psychological and physical violence. There is no demographic that is spared from human trafficking. Traffickers maintain control of victims through physical, sexual, and emotional violence and manipulation. Because victims of trafficking seek medical attention for the medical and psychological consequences of assault and neglected health conditions, emergency clinicians are in a unique position to recognize victims and intervene. Evaluation of possible trafficking victims is challenging because patients who have been exploited rarely self-identify. This article outlines the clinical approach to the identification and treatment of a potential victim of human trafficking in the emergency department. Emergency practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion when evaluating patients who appear to be at risk for abuse and violence, and assess for specific indicators of trafficking. Potential victims should be evaluated with a multidisciplinary and patient-centered technique. Furthermore, emergency practitioners should be aware of national and local resources to guide the approach to helping identified victims. Having established protocols for victim identification, care, and referrals can greatly facilitate health care providers' assisting this population. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Trafficking Identification and Service Provision in the Medical and Social Service Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Corinne; Unruh, Erik; Cronin, Katie; Evans-Simpson, Sarah; Britton, Hannah; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2016-06-01

    The medical sector presents a unique opportunity for identification and service to victims of human trafficking. In this article, we describe local and site-specific efforts to develop an intervention tool to be used in an urban hospital's emergency department in the midwestern United States. In the development of our tool, we focused on both identification and intervention to assist trafficked persons, through a largely collaborative process in which we engaged local stakeholders for developing site-specific points of intervention. In the process of developing our intervention, we highlight the importance of using existing resources and services in a specific community to address critical gaps in coverage for trafficked persons. For example, we focus on those who are victims of labor trafficking, in addition to those who are victims of sex trafficking. We offer a framework informed by rights-based approaches to anti-trafficking efforts that addresses the practical challenges of human trafficking victim identification while simultaneously working to provide resources and disseminate services to those victims.

  11. Constraints to a Robust Evidence Base for Anti-Trafficking Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Harkins

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over fifteen years after the UN Trafficking Protocol was adopted, the evidence available to determine how much progress has been made in combatting human trafficking remains very limited. This paper provides a practitioner’s perspective on some of the main reasons for the continuing lack of meaningful results documented in the context of anti-trafficking projects. A key finding is that limitations in the practice of monitoring and evaluation (M&E pose the greatest constraint rather than the clandestine nature of trafficking in persons. There are currently few incentives to be rigorous in pursuing evidence, especially of the contribution made to long-term reductions in human trafficking. Bean counting the direct outputs of activities rather than assessing the outcomes that are intended to flow from them remains the core approach to M&E in the sector. Because the collection and analysis of data has not been prioritised, anti-trafficking initiatives without a strong empirical basis are reflexively continued for years–particularly notable in some of the untested assumptions about the central importance of an effective criminal justice response. Increased commitment by donors and practitioners to raise their standards of evidence for anti-trafficking projects is necessary to move beyond basic accountability and start leveraging learning, including greater willingness to document in rich detail where interventions have failed to produce their intended outcomes.

  12. Trafficking of Women in Mexico and Their Health Risk: Issues and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Acharya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking in women is one of the most corrosive forms of human rights violation. It results in the gradual destruction of a woman’s personal identity and her right to live as a free human. The victim is subjected to violence, humiliation and violation of her personal integrity, which may result in life threatening diseases like HIV/AIDS, STDs or lifelong trauma, drug addiction or personality disintegration. It can also be seen as denial of the right to liberty and security of the person, and the right to freedom from torture, violence, cruelty or degrading treatment. Over the last few decades, international trafficking of women has been given more attention by researchers. However at present internal trafficking is drawing more attention and concern from researchers. The complexity of obtaining visas and strict patrolling on international borders has caused a boom of internal trafficking around the world. Thus, the current paper aims to investigate trafficking of women for sexual exploitation including the recruitment process, methods of trafficking and working conditions of the victims; as well as to explore the determinants of sexual violence and its impact on the health of trafficked women in Monterrey, Mexico. For the present study a total of 60 women were interviewed using a snowball method between 2007 and 2013.

  13. Physical protection as the most important part of the national system of combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: It is now obvious today that illicit trafficking, including its most dangerous manifestations proliferation of nuclear weapons, smuggling of nuclear materials and equipment - present a serious threat to the international community. To defeat this evil is possible only by joint efforts, by undertaken protective measures on national and international level. Joint efforts should be directed at fulfilling three main tasks as follows: safe and reliable handling of nuclear material, effective measures of its physical protection, accountancy and control in order to prevent proliferation; joint activities of intelligence customs and law-enforcement authorities directed at prevention of international trafficking and marketing of stolen goods; joint activities directed at identification and prevention of illegal supply and demand of fissionable materials counteracting thereby various criminal structures. In order to solve these problems an international regime should be established. Such regime will define a number of criteria and demands to be met by-the states to ensure effective combat illicit trafficking. The international regime should be based on national systems of combating illicit trafficking, which include measures for prevention, detection and response regarding illicit trafficking in each specific state of across its borders. When undertaking these measures one should take into account specific characteristics of the state, its unique features and its geography, political and economic situation, as well as different types of potential threat of proliferation of nuclear weapons; availability of materials subjected to illicit trafficking in this state, general situation of criminal trafficking in this state, general situation of criminal trafficking with radioactive materials, potential consumers and suppliers, market features, possible incentives for crime etc. In the paper I would like to reflect the vital components of national systems for combating

  14. Cell wall assembly and intracellular trafficking in plant cells are directly affected by changes in the magnitude of gravitational acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebli, Youssef; Pujol, Lauranne; Shojaeifard, Anahid; Brouwer, Iman; van Loon, Jack J W A; Geitmann, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Plants are able to sense the magnitude and direction of gravity. This capacity is thought to reside in selected cell types within the plant body that are equipped with specialized organelles called statoliths. However, most plant cells do not possess statoliths, yet they respond to changes in gravitational acceleration. To understand the effect of gravity on the metabolism and cellular functioning of non-specialized plant cells, we investigated a rapidly growing plant cell devoid of known statoliths and without gravitropic behavior, the pollen tube. The effects of hyper-gravity and omnidirectional exposure to gravity on intracellular trafficking and on cell wall assembly were assessed in Camellia pollen tubes, a model system with highly reproducible growth behavior in vitro. Using an epi-fluorescence microscope mounted on the Large Diameter Centrifuge at the European Space Agency, we were able to demonstrate that vesicular trafficking is reduced under hyper-gravity conditions. Immuno-cytochemistry confirmed that both in hyper and omnidirectional gravity conditions, the characteristic spatial profiles of cellulose and callose distribution in the pollen tube wall were altered, in accordance with a dose-dependent effect on pollen tube diameter. Our findings suggest that in response to gravity induced stress, the pollen tube responds by modifying cell wall assembly to compensate for the altered mechanical load. The effect was reversible within few minutes demonstrating that the pollen tube is able to quickly adapt to changing stress conditions.

  15. Three Basic Residues of Intracellular Loop 3 of the Beta-1 Adrenergic Receptor Are Required for Golgin-160-Dependent Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gilbert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Golgin-160 is a member of the golgin family of proteins, which have been implicated in the maintenance of Golgi structure and in vesicle tethering. Golgin-160 is atypical; it promotes post-Golgi trafficking of specific cargo proteins, including the β-1 adrenergic receptor (β1AR, a G protein-coupled receptor. Here we show that golgin-160 binds directly to the third intracellular loop of β1AR and that this binding depends on three basic residues in this loop. Mutation of the basic residues does not affect trafficking of β1AR from the endoplasmic reticulum through the Golgi complex, but results in reduced steady-state levels at the plasma membrane. We hypothesize that golgin-160 promotes incorporation of β1AR into specific transport carriers at the trans-Golgi network to ensure efficient delivery to the cell surface. These results add to our understanding of the biogenesis of β1AR, and suggest a novel point of regulation for its delivery to the plasma membrane.

  16. The cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factors requires co-ordinated signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gina A; Fearnley, Gareth W; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-08-18

    VEGFs (vascular endothelial growth factors) are a family of conserved disulfide-linked soluble secretory glycoproteins found in higher eukaryotes. VEGFs mediate a wide range of responses in different tissues including metabolic homoeostasis, cell proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis. Such responses are initiated by VEGF binding to soluble and membrane-bound VEGFRs (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases) and co-receptors. VEGF and receptor splice isoform diversity further enhances complexity of membrane protein assembly and function in signal transduction pathways that control multiple cellular responses. Different signal transduction pathways are simultaneously activated by VEGFR-VEGF complexes with membrane trafficking along the endosome-lysosome network further modulating signal output from multiple enzymatic events associated with such pathways. Balancing VEGFR-VEGF signal transduction with trafficking and proteolysis is essential in controlling the intensity and duration of different intracellular signalling events. Dysfunction in VEGF-regulated signal transduction is important in chronic disease states including cancer, atherosclerosis and blindness. This family of growth factors and receptors is an important model system for understanding human disease pathology and developing new therapeutics for treating such ailments. © 2015 Authors.

  17. Cell wall assembly and intracellular trafficking in plant cells are directly affected by changes in the magnitude of gravitational acceleration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Chebli

    Full Text Available Plants are able to sense the magnitude and direction of gravity. This capacity is thought to reside in selected cell types within the plant body that are equipped with specialized organelles called statoliths. However, most plant cells do not possess statoliths, yet they respond to changes in gravitational acceleration. To understand the effect of gravity on the metabolism and cellular functioning of non-specialized plant cells, we investigated a rapidly growing plant cell devoid of known statoliths and without gravitropic behavior, the pollen tube. The effects of hyper-gravity and omnidirectional exposure to gravity on intracellular trafficking and on cell wall assembly were assessed in Camellia pollen tubes, a model system with highly reproducible growth behavior in vitro. Using an epi-fluorescence microscope mounted on the Large Diameter Centrifuge at the European Space Agency, we were able to demonstrate that vesicular trafficking is reduced under hyper-gravity conditions. Immuno-cytochemistry confirmed that both in hyper and omnidirectional gravity conditions, the characteristic spatial profiles of cellulose and callose distribution in the pollen tube wall were altered, in accordance with a dose-dependent effect on pollen tube diameter. Our findings suggest that in response to gravity induced stress, the pollen tube responds by modifying cell wall assembly to compensate for the altered mechanical load. The effect was reversible within few minutes demonstrating that the pollen tube is able to quickly adapt to changing stress conditions.

  18. Moving Beyond "Slaves, Sinners, and Saviors": An Intersectional Feminist Analysis of US Sex-Trafficking Discourses, Law and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie N. Baker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes stories and images of sex trafficking in current mainstream US public discourses, including government publications, NGO materials, news media, and popular films. Noting the similarities and differences among these discourses, the first part demonstrates that they often frame sex trafficking using a rescue narrative that reiterates traditional beliefs and values regarding gender, sexuality, and nationality, relying heavily on patriarchal and orientalist tropes. Reflecting this rescue narrative, mainstream public policies focus on criminal justice solutions to trafficking. The second part suggests alternative frameworks that empower rather than rescue trafficked people. The article argues that the dominant criminal justice approach to trafficking—the state rescuing victims and prosecuting traffickers—will not alone end the problem of sex trafficking, but that public policies must address the structural conditions that create populations vulnerable to trafficking and empower those communities to dismantle inequalities that are the root causes of trafficking.

  19. Human trafficking, labor brokering, and mining in southern Africa: responding to a decentralized and hidden public health disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Many southern African economies are dependent on the extractive industries. These industries rely on low-cost labor, often supplied by migrants, typically acquired through labor brokers. Very little attention has so far been paid to trafficking of men into extractive industries or its connection with trafficked women in the region's mining hubs. Recent reports suggest that labor-brokering practices foster human trafficking, both by exposing migrant men to lack of pay and exploitative conditions and by creating male migratory patterns that generate demand for sex workers and associated trafficking of women and girls. While trafficking in persons violates human rights, and thus remains a priority issue globally, there is little or no evidence of an effective political response to mine-related trafficking in southern Africa. This article concludes with recommendations for legal and policy interventions, as well as an enhanced public health response, which if implemented would help reduce human trafficking toward mining sites.

  20. The Retromer Supports AMPA Receptor Trafficking During LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Paul; Morishita, Wade; Goswami, Debanjan; Arendt, Kristin; Chen, Lu; Malenka, Robert

    2017-04-05

    Alterations in the function of the retromer, a multisubunit protein complex that plays a specialized role in endosomal sorting, have been linked to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, yet little is known about the retromer's role in the mature brain. Using in vivo knockdown of the critical retromer component VPS35, we demonstrate a specific role for this endosomal sorting complex in the trafficking of AMPA receptors during NMDA-receptor-dependent LTP at mature hippocampal synapses. The impairment of LTP due to VPS35 knockdown was mechanistically independent of any role of the retromer in the production of Aβ from APP. Finally, we find surprising differences between Alzheimer's- and Parkinson's-disease-linked VPS35 mutations in supporting this pathway. These findings demonstrate a key role for the retromer in LTP and provide insights into how retromer malfunction in the mature brain may contribute to symptoms of common neurodegenerative diseases. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.