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Sample records for understand mathematics deeply

  1. Understanding in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinska, Anna

    1994-01-01

    The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.

  2. Understanding engineering mathematics

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    Cox, Bill

    2001-01-01

    * Unique interactive style enables students to diagnose their strengths and weaknesses and focus their efforts where needed* Ideal for self-study and tutorial work, building from an initially supportive approach to the development of independent learning skills * Free website includes solutions to all exercises, additional topics and applications, guide to learning mathematics, and practice materialStudents today enter engineering courses with a wide range of mathematical skills, due to the many different pre-university qualifications studied. Bill Cox''s aim is for students to gain a thorough understanding of the maths they are studying, by first strengthening their background in the essentials of each topic. His approach allows a unique self-paced study style, in which students Review their strengths and weaknesses through self-administered diagnostic tests, then focus on Revision where they need it, to finally Reinforce the skills required.The book is structured around a highly successful ''transition'' ma...

  3. Understanding Mathematics: Some Key Factors

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    Ali, Asma Amanat; Reid, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is well known as a subject area where there can be problems in terms of understanding as well as retaining positive attitudes. In a large study involving 813 school students (ages approximately 10-12) drawn from two different school systems in Pakistan, the effect of limited working memory capacity on performance in mathematics was…

  4. On Mathematical Understanding: Perspectives of Experienced Chinese Mathematics Teachers

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    Cai, Jinfa; Ding, Meixia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have long debated the meaning of mathematical understanding and ways to achieve mathematical understanding. This study investigated experienced Chinese mathematics teachers' views about mathematical understanding. It was found that these mathematics teachers embrace the view that understanding is a web of connections, which is a result…

  5. Understanding Understanding Mathematics. Artificial Intelligence Memo No. 488.

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    Michener, Edwina Rissland

    This document is concerned with the important extra-logical knowledge that is often outside of traditional discussions in mathematics, and looks at some of the ingredients and processes involved in the understanding of mathematics. The goal is to develop a conceptual framework in which to talk about mathematical knowledge and to understand the…

  6. Mathematics understanding and anxiety in collaborative teaching

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    Ansari, B. I.; Wahyu, N.

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to examine students’ mathematical understanding and anxiety using collaborative teaching. The sample consists of 51 students in the 7th-grade of MTs N Jeureula, one of the Islamic public junior high schools in Jeureula, Aceh, Indonesia. A test of mathematics understanding was administered to the students twice during the period of two months. The result suggests that there is a significant increase in mathematical understanding in the pre-test and post-test. We categorized the students into the high, intermediate, and low level of prior mathematics knowledge. In the high-level prior knowledge, there is no difference of mathematical understanding between the experiment and control group. Meanwhile, in the intermediate and low level of prior knowledge, there is a significant difference of mathematical understanding between the experiment and control group. The mathematics anxiety is at an intermediate level in the experiment class and at a high level in the control group. There is no interaction between the learning model and the students’ prior knowledge towards the mathematical understanding, but there are interactions towards the mathematics anxiety. It indicates that the collaborative teaching model and the students’ prior knowledge do not simultaneously impacts on the mathematics understanding but the mathematics anxiety.

  7. The role of mathematics for physics teaching and understanding

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    Pospiech, Gesche; Eylon, BatSheva; Bagno, Esther; Lehavi, Yaron; Geyer, Marie-Annette

    2016-05-01

    -1That mathematics is the "language of physics" implies that both areas are deeply interconnected, such that often no separation between "pure" mathematics and "pure" physics is possible. To clarify their interplay a technical and a structural role of mathematics can be distinguished. A thorough understanding of this twofold role in physics is also important for shaping physics education especially with respect to teaching the nature of physics. Herewith the teachers and their pedagogical content knowledge play an important role. Therefore we develop a model of PCK concerning the interplay of mathematics and physics in order to provide a theoretical framework for the views and teaching strategies of teachers. In an exploratory study four teachers from Germany and four teachers from Israel have been interviewed concerning their views and its transfer to teaching physics. Here we describe the results from Germany. Besides general views and knowledge held by all or nearly all teachers we also observe specific individual focus depending on the teachers' background and experiences. The results fit well into the derived model of PCK.

  8. The role of mathematics for physics teaching and understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospiech, G; Geyer, M.A.; Eylon, B.; Bagno, E.; Lehavi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    That mathematics is the “language of physics” implies that both areas are deeply interconnected, such that often no separation between “pure” mathematics and “pure” physics is possible. To clarify their interplay a technical and a structural role of mathematics can be distinguished. A thorough understanding of this twofold role in physics is also important for shaping physics education especially with respect to teaching the nature of physics. Herewith the teachers and their pedagogical content knowledge play an important role. Therefore we develop a model of PCK concerning the interplay of mathematics and physics in order to provide a theoretical framework for the views and teaching strategies of teachers. In an exploratory study four teachers from Germany and four teachers from Israel have been interviewed concerning their views and its transfer to teaching physics. Here we describe the results from Germany. Besides general views and knowledge held by all or nearly all teachers we also observe specific individual focus depending on the teachers’ background and experiences. The results fit well into the derived model of PCK.

  9. Understanding Mathematics Classroom Teaching: Hermeneutics Inquiry

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    Wang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand meaning of mathematics classroom teaching, this paper uses narrative to present the meaning through hermeneutics inquiry from the author's research experiences. There are two threads in the research experience: research on classroom teaching and students' understanding in classroom teaching. The narrative provides not only a…

  10. Understanding connections in the school mathematics curriculum

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    Willy Mwakapenda

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available I identify and discuss ways in which different types of connections are described in the South African mathematics National Curriculum Statement and its related documents, particularly at the Further Education and Training (FET level. I argue that connections are central to the way the discipline of mathematics, its learning outcomes, and assessment standards are conceptualised. The notions of representation and integration are found to be key aspects in understanding connections in mathematics. Using these two notions, I then analyse connections in the National Curriculum Statement and its related documents. Finally, theoretical and practical implications of connections in the curriculum are identified.

  11. Understanding Number Sequences Leads to Understanding Mathematics Concepts

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    Pasnak, Robert; Schmerold, Katrina Lea; Robinson, Melissa Fetterer; Gadzichowski, K. Marinka; Bock, Allison M.; O'Brien, Sarah Eva; Kidd, Julie K.; Gallington, Deb A.

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-six first grade students in an urban school system were tested in October and May on reading, mathematics, and their understanding of sequences of letters and numbers. A time lag analysis was subsequently conducted. In such analyses, cross-correlations between the first measurement of one variable and the second measurement of another are…

  12. Characterizing Students' Understandings of Mathematical Proof.

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    Knuth, Eric J.; Elliott, Rebekah L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of students' responses in terms of mathematical sophistication demonstrated that might be expected as they engage in a rich mathematical task that requires them to justify their solutions. (ASK)

  13. The influence of Missouri mathematics project on seventh grade students’ mathematical understanding ability

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    Rezeki, S.; Setyawan, A. A.; Amelia, S.

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical understanding ability is a primary goal of Indonesian national education goals. However, various sources has shown that Indonesian students’ mathematical understanding ability is still relatively low. This study used quasi-experimental research design to examine the effectiveness of the application of Missouri Mathematics Project (MMP) on students’ mathematical understanding ability. The participants of the study were seventh grade students in Pekanbaru, Riau Province, Indonesia. They were selected purposively and represented as high, medium, and low-quality schools. The result of this study indicated that there was a significant effect of MMP on the overall students’ mathematical understanding ability and in all categories, except for low school level.

  14. Drawing as a tool for an insight into mathematical understanding

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    Alenka Lipovec

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual representations allow us to interpret the meanings of mathematical concepts, relationships and processes, therefore they play an important role in mathematics education. In the present study, we analysed participants’ understanding of basic mathematical concepts through drawings. Symbolic representation of mathematical concept was provided (e.g., 17 – 9 to participants and they were asked to represent the given concept through a picture. We were interested if high school students and future teachers (N = 345 adequately (in accordance with mathematical definition depicted given mathematical concept. The data were analysed using a combination of qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results show that participants quite adequately depicted basic mathematical concepts. Less abstract concepts were depicted more accurately. It was also noted, that 4th year students, studying to teach at primary level, have performed better than others. In qualitative content analysis two themes emerged. Those themes illustrate two ways of mathematical understanding (instrumental and relational and two types of mathematical knowledge (procedural and conceptual. The research results can serve researchers in the creation of new research instruments for measuring mathematical understanding and help teachers to find new approaches that will offer them an insight into students’ mathematical understanding.

  15. Examining Preservice Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Understandings about Irrational Numbers

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    Guven, Bulent; Cekmez, Erdem; Karatas, Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an account of preservice elementary mathematics teachers' understandings about irrational numbers. Three dimensions of preservice mathematics teachers' understandings are examined: defining rational and irrational numbers, placing rational and irrational numbers on the number line, and operations with…

  16. Mathematical Understanding of the Underprivileged Students through GeoGebra

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    Amam, A.; Fatimah, A. T.; Hartono, W.; Effendi, A.

    2017-09-01

    A student’s mathematical understanding in high school from poor families in the district of Ciamis is still low. After reviews the various literature and earlier research, consequently, researchers convince that learning mathematics with GeoGebra can help students improve for the better understanding. Our long-term goal of this research is to support the implementation of new curriculum, namely ICT-based learning mathematics. Another goal is to give a basic mastery skill regarding mathematics software to students from underprivileged families. Moreover, the specific objective of this study is to examine the students’ mathematical understanding from underprivileged families after the implementation of learning with GeoGebra. We use a quantitative comparative research method to determine differences in the mathematical understanding of students’ from underprivileged families before and after mathematics learning with GeoGebra. Accordingly, the students of senior high school from underprivileged family in Baregbeg, Ciamis district, are the population of this study. This research is using purposive sampling. The instrument is in the form of a test question, which is the test of mathematical understanding. Research results show that the mathematical understanding students’ from underprivileged families after the mathematics learning with GeoGebra becomes better than before. The novelty of this research is that students understand the material of trigonometry through the use of modules, aided by GeoGebra in learning activities. Thus, the understanding has an impact on improving students’ mathematical understanding. Students also master the use of GeoGebra Software. Implementing these two things will be very useful for the next lesson.

  17. Profile of Metacognition of Mathematics and Mathematics Education Students in Understanding the Concept of Integral Calculus

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    Misu, La; Ketut Budayasa, I.; Lukito, Agung

    2018-03-01

    This study describes the metacognition profile of mathematics and mathematics education students in understanding the concept of integral calculus. The metacognition profile is a natural and intact description of a person’s cognition that involves his own thinking in terms of using his knowledge, planning and monitoring his thinking process, and evaluating his thinking results when understanding a concept. The purpose of this study was to produce the metacognition profile of mathematics and mathematics education students in understanding the concept of integral calculus. This research method is explorative method with the qualitative approach. The subjects of this study are mathematics and mathematics education students who have studied integral calculus. The results of this study are as follows: (1) the summarizing category, the mathematics and mathematics education students can use metacognition knowledge and metacognition skills in understanding the concept of indefinite integrals. While the definite integrals, only mathematics education students use metacognition skills; and (2) the explaining category, mathematics students can use knowledge and metacognition skills in understanding the concept of indefinite integrals, while the definite integrals only use metacognition skills. In addition, mathematics education students can use knowledge and metacognition skills in understanding the concept of both indefinite and definite integrals.

  18. Turning Points: Using Teachers' Mathematics Life Stories to Understand the Implementation of Mathematics Education Reform

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    Drake, Corey

    2006-01-01

    In this study, teachers' narrative descriptions of themselves as learners and teachers of mathematics were used to understand teachers' interpretations and implementations of a reform-oriented mathematics curriculum. Twenty elementary school teachers' mathematics life stories were categorized into six types, based on teachers' descriptions of both…

  19. Promoting the Understanding of Mathematics in Physics at Secondary Level

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    Thompson, Alaric

    2016-01-01

    This article explores some of the common mathematical difficulties that 11- to 16-year-old students experience with respect to their learning of physics. The definition of "understanding" expressed in the article is in the sense of transferability of mathematical skills from topic to topic within physics as well as between the separate…

  20. Developing Understanding of Mathematical Modeling in Secondary Teacher Preparation

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    Anhalt, Cynthia Oropesa; Cortez, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the evolution of 11 prospective teachers' understanding of mathematical modeling through the implementation of a modeling module within a curriculum course in a secondary teacher preparation program. While the prospective teachers had not previously taken a course on mathematical modeling, they will be expected to include…

  1. GeoGebra Tool for Building Conceptual Understanding in Mathematics

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    Daniela Velichová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 3rd millennium we are facing dramatic changes in the basic nature of teaching and learning strategies caused by massive use of new ICT. We can benefit from this development in general, and in mathematics especially, as currently available dynamic and visual learning environments as software GeoGebra could affect our perspective in terms of the content and comprehension of mathematics education. Few ideas are presented on how GeoGebra can be used as tool for creating cognitive connections between different representations of mathematical concepts, which form the necessary background for better conceptual understanding, steady knowledge and mathematical literacy.

  2. Literature Review of Applying Visual Method to Understand Mathematics

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    Yu Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new method to understand mathematics, visualization offers a new way of understanding mathematical principles and phenomena via image thinking and geometric explanation. It aims to deepen the understanding of the nature of concepts or phenomena and enhance the cognitive ability of learners. This paper collates and summarizes the application of this visual method in the understanding of mathematics. It also makes a literature review of the existing research, especially with a visual demonstration of Euler’s formula, introduces the application of this method in solving relevant mathematical problems, and points out the differences and similarities between the visualization method and the numerical-graphic combination method, as well as matters needing attention for its application.

  3. Understanding Immunology via Engineering Design: The Role of Mathematical Prototyping

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    David J. Klinke

    2012-01-01

    type 1 diabetes and the dynamics of dendritic cells in the lung. This paper is intended to illustrate some of the nuances associated with applying mathematical modeling to improve understanding of the dynamics of disease progression in humans.

  4. Improving students’ understanding of mathematical concept using maple

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    Ningsih, Y. L.; Paradesa, R.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to improve students’ understanding of mathematical concept ability through implementation of using Maple in learning and expository learning. This study used a quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design. The sample on this study was 61 students in the second semester of Mathematics Education of Universitas PGRI Palembang, South Sumatera in academic year 2016/2017. The sample was divided into two classes, one class as the experiment class who using Maple in learning and the other class as a control class who received expository learning. Data were collective through the test of mathematical initial ability and mathematical concept understanding ability. Data were analyzed by t-test and two ways ANOVA. The results of this study showed (1) the improvement of students’ mathematical concept understanding ability who using Maple in learning is better than those who using expository learning; (2) there is no interaction between learning model and students’ mathematical initial ability toward the improvement of students’ understanding of mathematical concept ability.

  5. Fostering Mathematical Understanding through Physical and Virtual Manipulatives

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    Loong, Esther Yook Kin

    2014-01-01

    When solving mathematical problems, many students know the procedure to get to the answer but cannot explain why they are doing it in that way. According to Skemp (1976) these students have instrumental understanding but not relational understanding of the problem. They have accepted the rules to arriving at the answer without questioning or…

  6. What Financial Dilemmas Reveal about Students' Social and Mathematical Understanding

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    Sawatzki, Carly

    2013-01-01

    Everyday financial dilemmas require us to draw on social, interdisciplinary, and mathematical understandings simultaneously and in synergy if we are to make informed financial decisions. Financial literacy is enjoying an elevated status across the "Australian Curriculum." This paper reviews some of the literature on financial literacy,…

  7. Characterizing Student Mathematics Teachers' Levels of Understanding in Spherical Geometry

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    Guven, Bulent; Baki, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an exploratory study aimed at the identification of students' levels of understanding in spherical geometry as van Hiele did for Euclidean geometry. To do this, we developed and implemented a spherical geometry course for student mathematics teachers. Six structured, "task-based interviews" were held with eight student…

  8. Mathematics and science teachers' understanding and practices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study reported in this paper was to reveal how Rwandan school teachers of Mathematics and science at the secondary school level understand and implement learner-centered pedagogy. The study was qualitative in nature. It employed qualitative methods of data collection including in-depth interviews and ...

  9. Mathematical vs. conceptual understanding: Where do we draw the line?

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    Sadaghiani, Homeyra; Aguilera, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This research involved high school physics students and how they learn to understand Newton's laws as they relate to falling bodies and projectile motion. Students in introductory, algebra-based, high school physics classes were evaluated based on their prior knowledge through a pretest, designed to assess their initial comprehension of the motion of falling bodies and projectiles. Groups were divided and taught separately with an emphasis on either mathematical derivation of equations, followed by brief conceptual discussions, or on thorough conceptual analysis, followed by a brief mathematical verification. After a posttest was given, an evaluation of the responses and explanations of each group of students was used to determine which method of instruction was more effective. Results indicate that after the conceptual group and math groups achieved similar scores on the pretest, the conceptual group obtained a slightly higher normalized gain of 25% on the posttest, compared to the mathematical group's normalized gain of 16% (unpaired two-tailed t-test P value for posttest results was 0.1037) and, while within standard deviations, also achieved higher overall scores on all posttest questions and higher normalized gains on all but one posttest question. Further, most students, even thoes in the mathematically-instructed group, were more inclined to give conceptually-based responses on postest questions than mathematically-based ones. In the context of this topic, the dominating difficulty for both groups was in analyzing two-dimensional projectile motion and, more specifically, the behavior of each onedimensional component of such motion.

  10. DESIGN OF LEARNING MATERIALS ON LIMIT FUNCTION BASED MATHEMATICAL UNDERSTANDING

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    Muchamad Subali Noto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In learning process, students are currently cannot be separated from learning difficulties, including the study material algebra limit function. It because the level of students' mathematical understanding regarding the material is still quite low. This study aimed to analyze the barriers to student learning, designing learning materials based on the material mathematics understanding algebra limit function is valid, determine teacher intervention during the implementation of learning materials and to analyze barriers to student learning after the implementation of learning materials. This research is a qualitative research study design using the form Didactical Design Research. Stages of research conducted: 1 analysis of the situation didactic before learning, 2 analysis of metapedadidatik and 3 the retrospective analysis. Data collection techniques used were tests, interviews, questionnaires, and documentation. The instrument used was a matter TKPM (Comprehension Mathematical Ability Test, interview, validation sheet materials, and documentation guidelines. Research results obtained are students experiencing obstacle to learning the material limit algebra functions. These obstacles are 1 students' difficulties in relating the material prerequisites to limit problems. 2 students can not write properly limit symbol, 3 students can not apply a limit theorem, 4 students are not able to determine the limit value at one point, and 5 students cannot determine the value of the limit at infinity. Learning materials that have been made have validation level of  with very valid criteria. The response was given when the student intervention, generally in accordance with response prediction so that interventions carried out in accordance with the design that has been made. After learning materials student learning obstacles implemented reduced/minimized.

  11. The Influence of Symbols and Equations on Understanding Mathematical Equivalence

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    Powell, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    Students with mathematics difficulty demonstrate lower mathematics performance than typical-performing peers. One contributing factor to lower mathematics performance may be misunderstanding of mathematics symbols. In several studies related to the equal sign (=), students who received explicit instruction on the relational definition (i.e.,…

  12. Examining What Teachers Do When They Display Their Best Practice: Teaching Mathematics for Understanding

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    Silver, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Despite several decades of research in psychology and mathematics education pointing to the importance of learning mathematics with understanding, other research on teachers' instructional practice in mathematics classrooms has found a remarkably consistent characterization of mathematics teaching in the United States as generally doing little to…

  13. Mathematical Representation by Students in Building Relational Understanding on Concepts of Area and Perimeter of Rectangle

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    Anwar, Rahmad Bustanul; Yuwono, Ipung; As'ari, Abdur Rahman; Sisworo; Dwi, Rahmawati

    2016-01-01

    Representation is an important aspect of learners in building a relational understanding of mathematical concepts. But the ability of a mathematical representation of students in building relational understanding is still very limited. The purpose of this research is to description of mathematical representation of students who appear in building…

  14. Examining Students' Mathematical Understanding of Geometric Transformations Using the Pirie-Kieren Model

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    Gülkilika, Hilal; Ugurlu, Hasan Hüseyin; Yürük, Nejla

    2015-01-01

    Students should learn mathematics with understanding. This is one of the ideas in the literature on mathematics education that everyone supports, from educational politicians to curriculum developers, from researchers to teachers, and from parents to students. In order to decide whether or not students understand mathematics we should first…

  15. Understanding the Chinese Approach to Creative Teaching in Mathematics Classrooms

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    Niu, Weihua; Zhou, Zheng; Zhou, Xinlin

    2017-01-01

    Using Amabile's componential theory of creativity as a framework, this paper analyzes how Chinese mathematics teachers achieve creative teaching through acquiring in-depth domain-specific knowledge in mathematics, developing creativity-related skills, as well as stimulating student interest in learning mathematics, through well-crafted,…

  16. Towards Understanding the Origins of Children's Difficulties in Mathematics Learning

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    Mulligan, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary research from a psychology of mathematics education perspective has turned increasing attention to the structural development of mathematics as an explanation for the wide differences in mathematical competence shown upon school entry and in the early school years. Patterning, multiplicative reasoning and spatial structuring are three…

  17. Building Bridges of Mathematical Understanding for All Children.

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    Price, Jack

    1996-01-01

    These remarks are adapted from the Presidential Address at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in April 1996. The common goal of improving mathematics education for all is stated, and the importance of connecting mathematics to real-life situations is discussed. (AIM)

  18. Grounded Blends and Mathematical Gesture Spaces: Developing Mathematical Understandings via Gestures

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    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how a person's gesture space can become endowed with mathematical meaning associated with mathematical spaces and how the resulting mathematical gesture space can be used to communicate and interpret mathematical features of gestures. We use the theory of grounded blends to analyse a case study of two teachers who used gestures…

  19. Beyond Motivation: Exploring Mathematical Modeling as a Context for Deepening Students' Understandings of Curricular Mathematics

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    Zbiek, Rose Mary; Conner, Annamarie

    2006-01-01

    Views of mathematical modeling in empirical, expository, and curricular references typically capture a relationship between real-world phenomena and mathematical ideas from the perspective that competence in mathematical modeling is a clear goal of the mathematics curriculum. However, we work within a curricular context in which mathematical…

  20. "As I deeply understand the importance and greatly admire the poetry of experiment..." (on the eve of P N Lebedev's anniversary)

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    Shcherbakov, R. N.

    2016-02-01

    Whatever we think of the eminent Russian physicist P N Lebedev, whatever our understanding of how his work was affected by circumstances in and outside of Russia, whatever value is placed on the basic elements of his twenty-year career and personal life and of his great successes and, happily, not so great failures, and whatever the stories of his happy times and his countless misfortunes, one thing remains clear — P N Lebedev's skill and talent served well to foster the development of global science and to improve the reputation of Russia as a scientific nation.

  1. President's Report: Building Bridges of Mathematical Understanding for All Children.

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    Price, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Remarks adapted from the Presidential Address at the 74th Annual Meeting of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in April 1996 charge educators with believing that every student can learn mathematics, every teacher must have adequate support and professional development opportunities, and every parent must have a vested interest in…

  2. Understanding Mathematics and Culture in Rural Contexts. ERIC Digest.

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    Bush, William S.

    This ERIC Digest provides an overview of concepts, writers, and tenets associated with the study of mathematics and culture and offers researchers a framework for the field, particularly with regard to rural contexts. (Author)

  3. Emotion and Disaffection with School Mathematics

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    Lewis, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports some initial findings from research designed to understand more deeply the motivational and emotional landscape of disaffection with school mathematics. A context is described in which there has been significant concern expressed about a number of aspects of mathematics education, but where affect is seen as salient to these…

  4. A structural equation modeling analysis of students' understanding in basic mathematics

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    Oktavia, Rini; Arif, Salmawaty; Ferdhiana, Ridha; Yuni, Syarifah Meurah; Ihsan, Mahyus

    2017-11-01

    This research, in general, aims to identify incoming students' understanding and misconceptions of several basic concepts in mathematics. The participants of this study are the 2015 incoming students of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science of Syiah Kuala University, Indonesia. Using an instrument that were developed based on some anecdotal and empirical evidences on students' misconceptions, a survey involving 325 participants was administered and several quantitative and qualitative analysis of the survey data were conducted. In this article, we discuss the confirmatory factor analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) on factors that determine the new students' overall understanding of basic mathematics. The results showed that students' understanding on algebra, arithmetic, and geometry were significant predictors for their overall understanding of basic mathematics. This result supported that arithmetic and algebra are not the only predictors of students' understanding of basic mathematics.

  5. Mathematical Model of the Public Understanding of Space Science

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    Prisniakov, V.; Prisniakova, L.

    The success in deployment of the space programs now in many respects depends on comprehension by the citizens of necessity of programs, from "space" erudition of country. Purposefulness and efficiency of the "space" teaching and educational activity depend on knowledge of relationships between separate variables of such process. The empirical methods of ``space'' well-information of the taxpayers should be supplemented by theoretical models permitting to demonstrate a ways of control by these processes. Authors on the basis of their experience of educational activity during 50- years of among the students of space-rocket profession obtain an equation of ``space" state of the society determining a degree of its knowledge about Space, about achievements in its development, about indispensable lines of investigations, rates of informatization of the population. It is supposed, that the change of the space information consists of two parts: (1) - from going of the information about practical achievements, about development special knowledge requiring of independent financing, and (2) from intensity of dissemination of the ``free" information of a general educational line going to the population through mass-media, book, in family, in educational institutions, as a part of obligatory knowledge of any man, etc. In proposed model the level space well-information of the population depends on intensity of dissemination in the society of the space information, and also from a volume of financing of space-rocket technology, from a part of population of the employment in the space-rocket programs, from a factor of education of the population in adherence to space problems, from welfare and mentality of the people, from a rate of unemployment and material inequality. Obtained in the report on these principles the equation of a space state of the society corresponds to catastrophe such as cusp, the analysis has shown which one ways of control of the public understanding of space

  6. Investigating Alignment between Elementary Mathematics Teacher Education and Graduates' Teaching of Mathematics for Conceptual Understanding

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    Jansen, Amanda; Berk, Dawn; Meikle, Erin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Amanda Jansen, Dawn Berk, and Erin Meikle investigate the impact of mathematics teacher education on teaching practices. In their study they interviewed six first-year teachers who graduated from the same elementary teacher education program and who were oriented toward teaching mathematics conceptually. They observed each teacher…

  7. Understanding Prospective Teachers' Mathematical Modeling Processes in the Context of a Mathematical Modeling Course

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    Zeytun, Aysel Sen; Cetinkaya, Bulent; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how prospective teachers develop mathematical models while they engage in modeling tasks. The study was conducted in an undergraduate elective course aiming to improve prospective teachers' mathematical modeling abilities, while enhancing their pedagogical knowledge for the integrating of modeling tasks into their future…

  8. How we understand mathematics conceptual integration in the language of mathematical description

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    Woźny, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    This volume examines mathematics as a product of the human mind and analyzes the language of "pure mathematics" from various advanced-level sources. Through analysis of the foundational texts of mathematics, it is demonstrated that math is a complex literary creation, containing objects, actors, actions, projection, prediction, planning, explanation, evaluation, roles, image schemas, metonymy, conceptual blending, and, of course, (natural) language. The book follows the narrative of mathematics in a typical order of presentation for a standard university-level algebra course, beginning with analysis of set theory and mappings and continuing along a path of increasing complexity. At each stage, primary concepts, axioms, definitions, and proofs will be examined in an effort to unfold the tell-tale traces of the basic human cognitive patterns of story and conceptual blending. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, teachers of mathematics, cognitive scientists, cognitive linguists, and anyone interested...

  9. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off nuclei

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    Voutier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) is the golden exclusive channel for the study of the partonic structure of hadrons, within the universal framework of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This paper presents the aim and general ideas of the DVCS experimental program off nuclei at the Jefferson Laboratory. The benefits of the study of the coherent and incoherent channels to the understanding of the EMC (European Muon Collaboration) effect are discussed, along with the case of nuclear targets to access neutron GPDs.

  10. Understanding Practices in Mathematics Education: Structure and Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Candia

    2014-01-01

    The practices of mathematics education can be investigated at a wide variety of levels: from the actions of individual students or teachers through classroom interactions, school structures, curriculum specifications and materials, teacher development programmes and local, national or international systems of instruction and assessment. These…

  11. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Understanding of the Base Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horzum, Tugba; Ertekin, Erhan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze what kind of conceptions prospective mathematics teachers (PMTs) have about the base concept (BC). One-hundred and thirty-nine PMTs participated in the study. In this qualitative research, data were obtained through open-ended questions, the semi-structured interviews and pictures of geometric figures drawn…

  12. Reflective Learning and Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Mathematical Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junsay, Merle L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental study that explored the effects of reflective learning on prospective teachers' conceptual understanding, critical thinking, problem solving, and mathematical communication skills and the relationship of these variables. It involved 60 prospective teachers from two basic mathematics classes of an institution of higher…

  13. Using Cooperative Teams-Game-Tournament in 11 Religious School to Improve Mathematics Understanding and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Md-Ali, Ruzlan; Chairany, Sitie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper was part of a larger study which looked into the effect of implementing Cooperative Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT) on understanding of and communication in mathematics. The study had identified the main and interaction effect of using Cooperative TGT for learning mathematics in religious secondary school classrooms. A…

  14. Exploring Positioning as an Analytical Tool for Understanding Becoming Mathematics Teachers' Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skog, Kicki; Andersson, Annica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how a sociopolitical analysis can contribute to a deeper understanding of critical aspects for becoming primary mathematics teachers' identities during teacher education. The question we ask is the following: How may power relations in university settings affect becoming mathematics teachers' subject…

  15. Comparison of Student Understanding of Line Graph Slope in Physics and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinic, Maja; Milin-Sipus, Zeljka; Katic, Helena; Susac, Ana; Ivanjek, Lana

    2012-01-01

    This study gives an insight into the differences between student understanding of line graph slope in the context of physics (kinematics) and mathematics. Two pairs of parallel physics and mathematics questions that involved estimation and interpretation of line graph slope were constructed and administered to 114 Croatian second year high school…

  16. Teaching with Procedural Variation: A Chinese Way of Promoting Deep Understanding of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mun Yee; Murray, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In mathematics education, there has been tension between deep learning and repetitive learning. Western educators often emphasize the need for students to construct a conceptual understanding of mathematical symbols and rules before they practise the rules (Li, 2006). On the other hand, Chinese learners tend to be oriented towards rote learning…

  17. A cognitive framework for analyzing and describing introductory students' use and understanding of mathematics in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuminaro, Jonathan

    Many introductory, algebra-based physics students perform poorly on mathematical problem solving tasks in physics. There are at least two possible, distinct reasons for this poor performance: (1) students simply lack the mathematical skills needed to solve problems in physics, or (2) students do not know how to apply the mathematical skills they have to particular problem situations in physics. While many students do lack the requisite mathematical skills, a major finding from this work is that the majority of students possess the requisite mathematical skills, yet fail to use or interpret them in the context of physics. In this thesis I propose a theoretical framework to analyze and describe students' mathematical thinking in physics. In particular, I attempt to answer two questions. What are the cognitive tools involved in formal mathematical thinking in physics? And, why do students make the kinds of mistakes they do when using mathematics in physics? According to the proposed theoretical framework there are three major theoretical constructs: mathematical resources, which are the knowledge elements that are activated in mathematical thinking and problem solving; epistemic games, which are patterns of activities that use particular kinds of knowledge to create new knowledge or solve a problem; and frames, which are structures of expectations that determine how individuals interpret situations or events. The empirical basis for this study comes from videotaped sessions of college students solving homework problems. The students are enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course. The videotapes were transcribed and analyzed using the aforementioned theoretical framework. Two important results from this work are: (1) the construction of a theoretical framework that offers researchers a vocabulary (ontological classification of cognitive structures) and grammar (relationship between the cognitive structures) for understanding the nature and origin of

  18. Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students' Understanding of Core Algebraic Concepts: Equal Sign and Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, Pamela; Stephens, Ana C.; Knuth, Eric J.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports results from a study focused on teachers' knowledge of students' understanding of core algebraic concepts. In particular, the study examined middle school mathematics teachers' knowledge of students' understanding of the equal sign and variable, and students' success applying their understanding of these concepts. Interview…

  19. Life on the Number Line: Routes to Understanding Fraction Magnitude for Students with Difficulties Learning Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, Russell; Schumacher, Robin F.; Jordan, Nancy C.

    2017-01-01

    Magnitude understanding is critical for students to develop a deep understanding of fractions and more advanced mathematics curriculum. The research reports in this special issue underscore magnitude understanding for fractions and emphasize number lines as both an assessment and an instructional tool. In this commentary, we discuss how number…

  20. Student’s mathematical understanding ability based on self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdhani, M. R.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.

    2017-11-01

    Materials in mathematics are provided not only as an ability to memorize, but also to train the ability of mathematical understanding. Students’ mathematical understanding ability is influenced by the students’ belief in solving the given problems. This research aim to determine the mathematical understanding ability of junior high school students. This research is descriptive qualitative research. Data collection was done through a test, questionnaire, and interview. The result showed that students with high self-efficacy category could master the three indicators of students’ mathematical understanding ability well, namely translation, interpretation, and exploration. Students with moderate self-efficacy category can master translation indicator and able to achieve interpretation indicator but they unable to reach exploration indicator. Students with low self-efficacy category only master the translation, but they cannot achieve the interpretation and exploration indicators. So, the students who have high, moderate or low self-efficacy master the indicator of mathematical understanding based on the level of understanding capabilities on each student.

  1. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment With Undergraduate Student By Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rippi Maya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports findings of  a  post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach  on improving students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subject of study were 56 undergradute students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course. Instrument of study were a set test of mathematical understanding ability, a set test of mathematical proving ability, and a set of students’ opinion scale on modified Moore learning approach. Data were analyzed by using two path ANOVA. The study found that proof construction process was more difficult than mathematical understanding  task  for all students, and students still posed some difficulties on constructing mathematical proof task.  The study also found there were not differences  between students’  abilities on mathematical understanding and on proving abilities of  the both classes, and both abilities were classified as mediocre. However, in modified Moore learning approach class there were more students who got above average grades on mathematical understanding than those of conventional class. Moreover, students performed positive  opinion toward  modified Moore learning approach. They  were  active in questioning and solving problems, and in explaining their works in front of class as well, while students of conventional teaching prefered to listen to lecturer’s explanation. The study also found that there was no interaction between learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability on mathematical understanding and proving abilities,  but  there were  quite strong  association between students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities.Keywords:  modified Moore learning approach, mathematical understanding ability, mathematical proving ability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.751.231-250

  2. An Investigation of Secondary Teachers’ Understanding and Belief on Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuli Eko Siswono, Tatag; Wachidul Kohar, Ahmad; Kurniasari, Ika; Puji Astuti, Yuliani

    2016-02-01

    Weaknesses on problem solving of Indonesian students as reported by recent international surveys give rise to questions on how Indonesian teachers bring out idea of problem solving in mathematics lesson. An explorative study was undertaken to investigate how secondary teachers who teach mathematics at junior high school level understand and show belief toward mathematical problem solving. Participants were teachers from four cities in East Java province comprising 45 state teachers and 25 private teachers. Data was obtained through questionnaires and written test. The results of this study point out that the teachers understand pedagogical problem solving knowledge well as indicated by high score of observed teachers‘ responses showing understanding on problem solving as instruction as well as implementation of problem solving in teaching practice. However, they less understand on problem solving content knowledge such as problem solving strategies and meaning of problem itself. Regarding teacher's difficulties, teachers admitted to most frequently fail in (1) determining a precise mathematical model or strategies when carrying out problem solving steps which is supported by data of test result that revealed transformation error as the most frequently observed errors in teachers’ work and (2) choosing suitable real situation when designing context-based problem solving task. Meanwhile, analysis of teacher's beliefs on problem solving shows that teachers tend to view both mathematics and how students should learn mathematics as body static perspective, while they tend to believe to apply idea of problem solving as dynamic approach when teaching mathematics.

  3. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-03-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

  4. Developing a Deeper Understanding of "Mathematics Teaching Expertise": An Examination of Three Chinese Mathematics Teachers' Resource Systems as Windows into Their Work and Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Birgit; Xu, Binyan; Trouche, Luc; Wang, Chongyang

    2017-01-01

    In order to develop a deeper understanding of mathematics teaching expertise, in this study we use the Documentational Approach to Didactics to explore the resource systems of three Chinese mathematics "expert" teachers. Exploiting the Western and Eastern literature we examine the notion of "mathematics teaching expertise", as…

  5. The Interaction of Procedural Skill, Conceptual Understanding and Working Memory in Early Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Gilmore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large individual differences in children’s mathematics achievement are observed from the start of schooling. Previous research has identified three cognitive skills that are independent predictors of mathematics achievement: procedural skill, conceptual understanding and working memory. However, most studies have only tested independent effects of these factors and failed to consider moderating effects. We explored the procedural skill, conceptual understanding and working memory capacity of 75 children aged 5 to 6 years as well as their overall mathematical achievement. We found that, not only were all three skills independently associated with mathematics achievement, but there was also a significant interaction between them. We found that levels of conceptual understanding and working memory moderated the relationship between procedural skill and mathematics achievement such that there was a greater benefit of good procedural skill when associated with good conceptual understanding and working memory. Cluster analysis also revealed that children with equivalent levels of overall mathematical achievement had differing strengths and weaknesses across these skills. This highlights the importance of considering children’s skill profile, rather than simply their overall achievement.

  6. The role of mathematical models in understanding pattern formation in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umulis, David M; Othmer, Hans G

    2015-05-01

    In a Wall Street Journal article published on April 5, 2013, E. O. Wilson attempted to make the case that biologists do not really need to learn any mathematics-whenever they run into difficulty with numerical issues, they can find a technician (aka mathematician) to help them out of their difficulty. He formalizes this in Wilsons Principle No. 1: "It is far easier for scientists to acquire needed collaboration from mathematicians and statisticians than it is for mathematicians and statisticians to find scientists able to make use of their equations." This reflects a complete misunderstanding of the role of mathematics in all sciences throughout history. To Wilson, mathematics is mere number crunching, but as Galileo said long ago, "The laws of Nature are written in the language of mathematics[Formula: see text] the symbols are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without whose help it is impossible to comprehend a single word." Mathematics has moved beyond the geometry-based model of Galileo's time, and in a rebuttal to Wilson, E. Frenkel has pointed out the role of mathematics in synthesizing the general principles in science (Both point and counter-point are available in Wilson and Frenkel in Notices Am Math Soc 60(7):837-838, 2013). We will take this a step further and show how mathematics has been used to make new and experimentally verified discoveries in developmental biology and how mathematics is essential for understanding a problem that has puzzled experimentalists for decades-that of how organisms can scale in size. Mathematical analysis alone cannot "solve" these problems since the validation lies at the molecular level, but conversely, a growing number of questions in biology cannot be solved without mathematical analysis and modeling. Herein, we discuss a few examples of the productive intercourse between mathematics and biology.

  7. Motion sensors in mathematics teaching: learning tools for understanding general math concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Woldron, Hildegard

    2015-05-01

    Incorporating technology tools into the mathematics classroom adds a new dimension to the teaching of mathematics concepts and establishes a whole new approach to mathematics learning. In particular, gathering data in a hands-on and real-time method helps classrooms coming alive. The focus of this paper is on bringing forward important mathematics concepts such as functions and rate of change with the motion detector. Findings from the author's studies suggest that the motion detector can be introduced from a very early age and used to enliven classes at any level. Using real-world data to present the main functions invites an experimental approach to mathematics and encourages students to engage actively in their learning. By emphasizing learning experiences with computer-based motion detectors and aiming to involve students in mathematical representations of real-world phenomena, six learning activities, which were developed in previous research studies, will be presented. Students use motion sensors to collect physical data that are graphed in real time and then manipulate and analyse them. Because data are presented in an immediately understandable graphical form, students are allowed to take an active role in their learning by constructing mathematical knowledge from observation of the physical world. By utilizing a predict-observe-explain format, students learn about slope, determining slope and distance vs. time graphs through motion-filled activities. Furthermore, exploring the meaning of slope, viewed as the rate of change, students acquire competencies for reading, understanding and interpreting kinematics graphs involving a multitude of mathematical representations. Consequently, the students are empowered to efficiently move among tabular, graphical and symbolic representation to analyse patterns and discover the relationships between different representations of motion. In fact, there is a need for further research to explore how mathematics teachers

  8. Growing understanding of undergraduate mathematics: a good frame produces better tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bill

    2011-10-01

    I lay a new theoretical framework across my own lecturing in order to understand what is happening. On the one hand, this is a test of the framework. On the other, I gain insights into both better practices and better course design. The framework constructs undergraduate teaching as the interaction between the discipline and the university pedagogical context. Overlaying this are three levels of teaching intent: pragmatic, epistemic, and heuristic. The resulting framework supports my growing understanding of lecturing practice. It also proves useful in analysing three characteristics of university mathematics: student responsibility for learning; enculturation of the discipline of mathematics; and the tyranny of examples. The framework is a tool for redesigning courses and developing delivery formats that are likely to enhance student learning and behaviour objectives of undergraduate mathematics. However, the analysis shows a deficiency of the framework in its paucity of attention to student learning in a university context. Extending the framework in this way is the next task.

  9. Understanding the Gender Gap in Mathematics Achievement: The Role of Self-Efficacy and Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwery, Denise; Hulac, David; Schweinle, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This literature review provides school psychologists with an understanding of the important issues related to the gender gap in mathematics achievement. The extant literature suggests that girls tend to receive lower scores than boys on standardized math tests, but in general these differences tend to be small. However, girls have better classroom…

  10. On the Axiomatization of Mathematical Understanding: Continuous Functions in the Transition to Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Daniel C.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction to general topology represents a challenging transition for students of advanced mathematics. It requires the generalization of their previous understanding of ideas from fields like geometry, linear algebra, and real or complex analysis to fit within a more abstract conceptual system. Students must adopt a new lexicon of…

  11. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment with Undergraduate Student by Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Rippi; Sumarmo, Utari

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach on improving students' mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subjects of study were 56 undergraduate students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course.…

  12. Shifting Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Understandings to Support Pedagogical Change in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letwinsky, Karim Medico; Cavender, Monica

    2018-01-01

    Many preservice teacher (PST) programs throughout the world are preparing students to implement the Core Standards, which require deeper conceptual understandings of mathematics and an informed approach for teaching. In this qualitative multi-case study, researchers explored the teaching methods for two university instructors and changes in PSTs…

  13. Understanding post-operative temperature drop in cardiac surgery: a mathematical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tindall, M. J.; Peletier, M. A.; Severens, N. M. W.; Veldman, D. J.; de Mol, B. A. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented to understand heat transfer processes during the cooling and re-warming of patients during cardiac surgery. Our compartmental model is able to account for many of the qualitative features observed in the cooling of various regions of the body including the central

  14. Mathematical modeling applied to understand the host-pathogen interaction of HIV infection in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sahani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The most urgent public health problem today is to devise effective strategies to minimize the destruction caused by the AIDS epidemic. The understanding of HIV infection through mathematical modeling have made a significant contribution. The interaction of host to pathogen have been determined by fitting mathematical models to experimental data. In Bangladesh, the increasing rate of HIV infection comparing to the other countries of the world is not so high. Among the most at risk population of Bangladesh the HIV prevalent is still considered to be low with prevalence 1 then HIV infection persists.

  15. "Bigger Number Means You Plus!"--Teachers Learning to Use Clinical Interviews to Understand Students' Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Mary Anne; Sudarshan, Akhila

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the perceptions and understandings of ten grades 1 and 2 Singapore mathematics teachers as they learned to use clinical interviews (Ginsburg, "Human Development" 52:109-128, 2009) to understand students' mathematical thinking. This study challenged teachers' pedagogical assumptions about what it means to teach for…

  16. Mathematical understanding of nature essays on amazing physical phenomena and their understanding by mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, V I

    2014-01-01

    This collection of 39 short stories gives the reader a unique opportunity to take a look at the scientific philosophy of Vladimir Arnold, one of the most original contemporary researchers. Topics of the stories included range from astronomy, to mirages, to motion of glaciers, to geometry of mirrors and beyond. In each case Arnold's explanation is both deep and simple, which makes the book interesting and accessible to an extremely broad readership. Original illustrations hand drawn by the author help the reader to further understand and appreciate Arnold's view on the relationship between math

  17. An introduction to mathematical finance with applications understanding and building financial intuition

    CERN Document Server

    Petters, Arlie O

    2016-01-01

    This textbook aims to fill the gap between those that offer a theoretical treatment without many applications and those that present and apply formulas without appropriately deriving them. The balance achieved will give readers a fundamental understanding of key financial ideas and tools that form the basis for building realistic models, including those that may become proprietary. Numerous carefully chosen examples and exercises reinforce the student’s conceptual understanding and facility with applications. The exercises are divided into conceptual, application-based, and theoretical problems, which probe the material deeper. The book is aimed toward advanced undergraduates and first-year graduate students who are new to finance or want a more rigorous treatment of the mathematical models used within. While no background in finance is assumed, prerequisite math courses include multivariable calculus, probability, and linear algebra. The authors introduce additional mathematical tools as needed. The entire...

  18. The effect of problem posing and problem solving with realistic mathematics education approach to the conceptual understanding and adaptive reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Rengga; Slamet, Isnandar; Budiyono

    2017-12-01

    One of the difficulties of students in learning mathematics is on the subject of geometry that requires students to understand abstract things. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of learning model Problem Posing and Problem Solving with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach to conceptual understanding and students' adaptive reasoning in learning mathematics. This research uses a kind of quasi experimental research. The population of this research is all seventh grade students of Junior High School 1 Jaten, Indonesia. The sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The test of the research hypothesis was analyzed by using t-test. The results of this study indicate that the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students' conceptual understanding significantly in mathematics learning. In addition tu, the results also showed that the model of Problem Solving learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students' adaptive reasoning significantly in learning mathematics. Therefore, the model of Problem Posing and Problem Solving learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is appropriately applied in mathematics learning especially on the subject of geometry so as to improve conceptual understanding and students' adaptive reasoning. Furthermore, the impact can improve student achievement.

  19. ASSESSING CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING IN MATHEMATICS: Using Derivative Function to Solve Connected Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin ORHUN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Open and distance education plays an important role in the actualization of cultural goals as well as in societal developments. This is an independent teaching and learning method for mathematics which forms the dynamic of scientific thinking. Distance education is an important alternative to traditional teaching applications. These contributions brought by technology enable students to participate actively in having access to information and questioning it. Such an application increases students’ motivation and teaches how mathematics can be used in daily life. Derivative is a mathematical concept which can be used in many areas of daily life. The aim of this study is to enable the concept of derivatives to be understood well by using the derivative function in the solution of various problems. It also aims at interpreting difficulties theoretically in the solution of problems and determining mistakes in terms of teaching methods. In this study, how various aspects of derivatives are understood is emphasized. These aspects concern the explanation of concepts and process, and also their application to certain concepts in physics. Students’ depth of understanding of derivatives was analyzed based on two aspects of understanding; theoretical analysis and contextual application. Follow-up interviews were conducted with five students. The results show that the students preferred to apply an algebraic symbolic aspect instead of using logical meanings of function and its derivative. In addition, in relation to how the graph of the derivative function affects the aspect of function, it was determined that the students displayed low performance.

  20. Inducing mental set constrains procedural flexibility and conceptual understanding in mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaro, Marci S

    2016-10-01

    An important goal in mathematics is to flexibly use and apply multiple, efficient procedures to solve problems and to understand why these procedures work. One factor that may limit individuals' ability to notice and flexibly apply strategies is the mental set induced by the problem context. Undergraduate (N = 41, Experiment 1) and fifth- and sixth-grade students (N = 87, Experiment 2) solved mathematical equivalence problems in one of two set-inducing conditions. Participants in the complex-first condition solved problems without a repeated addend on both sides of the equal sign (e.g., 7 + 5 + 9 = 3 + _), which required multistep strategies. Then these students solved problems with a repeated addend (e.g., 7 + 5 + 9 = 7 + _), for which a shortcut strategy could be readily used (i.e., adding 5 + 9). Participants in the shortcut-first condition solved the same problem set but began with the shortcut problems. Consistent with laboratory studies of mental set, participants in the complex-first condition were less likely to use the more efficient shortcut strategy when possible. In addition, these participants were less likely to demonstrate procedural flexibility and conceptual understanding on a subsequent assessment of mathematical equivalence knowledge. These findings suggest that certain problem-solving contexts can help or hinder both flexibility in strategy use and deeper conceptual thinking about the problems.

  1. The unique and shared contributions of arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation to children's mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terry Tin-Yau

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined the unique and shared contributions of arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation to children's mathematics achievement. A sample of 124 fourth graders was tested on their arithmetic operation understanding (as reflected by their understanding of arithmetic principles and the knowledge about the application of arithmetic operations) and their precision of rational number magnitude representation. They were also tested on their mathematics achievement and arithmetic computation performance as well as the potential confounding factors. The findings suggested that both arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation uniquely predicted children's mathematics achievement. The findings highlight the significance of arithmetic operation understanding in mathematics learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Mathematical Software to Introduce Fourier Transforms in Physical Chemistry to Develop Improved Understanding of Their Applications in Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tierney C.; Richardson, John N.; Kegerreis, Jeb S.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents an exercise that utilizes mathematical software to explore Fourier transforms in the context of model quantum mechanical systems, thus providing a deeper mathematical understanding of relevant information often introduced and treated as a "black-box" in analytical chemistry courses. The exercise is given to…

  3. Understanding the Technological, Pedagogical, and Mathematical Issues That Emerge as Secondary Mathematics Teachers Design Lessons That Integrate Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marggie Denise

    2016-01-01

    This multiple case study examines four groups of secondary mathematics teachers engaged in a Lesson Study approach to professional development where they planned and taught lessons that integrate technology. Informed by current literature, a framework was developed to focus on the dimensions of teacher's knowledge to teach mathematics with…

  4. Understanding Experimental LCMV Infection of Mice: The Role of Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Bocharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus infections represent complex biological systems governed by multiple-level regulatory processes of virus replication and host immune responses. Understanding of the infection means an ability to predict the systems behaviour under various conditions. Such predictions can only rely upon quantitative mathematical models. The model formulations should be tightly linked to a fundamental step called “coordinatization” (Hermann Weyl, that is, the definition of observables, parameters, and structures that enable the link with a biological phenotype. In this review, we analyse the mathematical modelling approaches to LCMV infection in mice that resulted in quantification of some fundamental parameters of the CTL-mediated virus control including the rates of T cell turnover, infected target cell elimination, and precursor frequencies. We show how the modelling approaches can be implemented to address diverse aspects of immune system functioning under normal conditions and in response to LCMV and, importantly, make quantitative predictions of the outcomes of immune system perturbations. This may highlight the notion that data-driven applications of meaningful mathematical models in infection biology remain a challenge.

  5. A Mathematical Model for the Hippocampus: Towards the Understanding of Episodic Memory and Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, I.; Yamaguti, Y.; Kuroda, S.; Fukushima, Y.; Tsukada, M.

    How does the brain encode episode? Based on the fact that the hippocampus is responsible for the formation of episodic memory, we have proposed a mathematical model for the hippocampus. Because episodic memory includes a time series of events, an underlying dynamics for the formation of episodic memory is considered to employ an association of memories. David Marr correctly pointed out in his theory of archecortex for a simple memory that the hippocampal CA3 is responsible for the formation of associative memories. However, a conventional mathematical model of associative memory simply guarantees a single association of memory unless a rule for an order of successive association of memories is given. The recent clinical studies in Maguire's group for the patients with the hippocampal lesion show that the patients cannot make a new story, because of the lack of ability of imagining new things. Both episodic memory and imagining things include various common characteristics: imagery, the sense of now, retrieval of semantic information, and narrative structures. Taking into account these findings, we propose a mathematical model of the hippocampus in order to understand the common mechanism of episodic memory and imagination.

  6. A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words: Examining learners’ illustrations to understand Attitudes towards Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Syyeda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents my experience of using pictures/images drawn by children as a form of data in research and discusses the merits and implications of employing this method. It comes from research of a mixed method exploratory case study to investigate the attitudes of 11 and 15 year old secondary school students (in the East Midlands towards Mathematics. The aim of this research was to gain an insight into the emotions, cognition, beliefs and behaviour of learners regarding Maths and the factors which influence their attitude. Besides using the tried and tested data collection tools such as focus groups and questionnaires, the children were asked to draw pictures illustrating their vision of Maths and its impact on their lives. The idea was to offer them an alternative medium of communication to exhibit their feelings and thoughts. Students used emoticons, numerals, figures, characters and mathematical symbols to show their favourable/unfavourable attitudes towards Maths and their understanding of the importance of Maths in future life. The results of visual data in this study conform to the findings of the other forms of data collected and show that boys and higher ability students have a more positive attitude towards Mathematics as compared to girls and low ability students.

  7. 100 commonly asked questions in math class answers that promote mathematical understanding, grades 6-12

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S (Steven); Germain-Williams, Terri L (Lynn); Paris, Elaine S; Lehmann, Ingmar H (Horst)

    2013-01-01

    100 ways to get students hooked on math! That one question got you stumped? Or maybe you have the answer, but it's not all that compelling. Al Posamentier and his coauthors to the rescue with this handy reference containing fun answers to students'100 most frequently asked math questions. Even if you already have the answers, Al's explanations are certain to keep kids hooked. The big benefits? You'll discover high-interest ways to Teach to the Common Core's math content standards Promote inquiry and process in mathematical thinking Build procedural skills and conceptual understanding Encourage

  8. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. A mathematical approach to understand bone remodeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameo, Yoshitaka; Adachi, Taiji

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that bone tissue can change its outer shape and internal structure by remodeling according to a changing mechanical environment. However, the mechanism of bone functional adaptation induced by the collaborative metabolic activities of bone cells in response to mechanical stimuli remains elusive. In this article, we focus on the hierarchy of bone structure and function from the microscopic cellular level to the macroscopic tissue level. We provide an overview of a mathematical approach to understand the adaptive changes in trabecular morphology under the application of mechanical stress.

  9. Description of Student’s Metacognitive Ability in Understanding and Solving Mathematics Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Herlina; Febryanti, Fatimah; Febryanti, Fatimah; Muthmainnah

    2018-01-01

    This research was conducted qualitative which was aim to describe metacognitive ability to understand and solve the problems of mathematics. The subject of the research was the first year students at computer and networking department of SMK Mega Link Majene. The sample was taken by purposive sampling technique. The data obtained used the research instrument based on the form of students achievements were collected by using test of student’s achievement and interview guidance. The technique of collecting data researcher had observation to ascertain the model that used by teacher was teaching model of developing metacognitive. The technique of data analysis in this research was reduction data, presentation and conclusion. Based on the whole findings in this study it was shown that student’s metacognitive ability generally not develops optimally. It was because of limited scope of the materials, and cognitive teaching strategy handled by verbal presentation and trained continuously in facing cognitive tasks, such as understanding and solving problem.

  10. Analysis of Undergraduate Students’ Mathematical Understanding Ability of the Limit of Function Based on APOS Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afgani, M. W.; Suryadi, D.; Dahlan, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to know the level of undergraduate students’ mathematical understanding ability based on APOS theory perspective. The APOS theory provides an evaluation framework to describe the level of students’ understanding and mental structure about their conception to a mathematics concept. The levels of understanding in APOS theory are action, process, object, and schema conception. The subjects were 59 students of mathematics education whom had attended a class of the limit of function at a university in Palembang. The method was qualitative descriptive with 4 test items. The result showed that most of students were still at the level of action conception. They could calculate and use procedure precisely to the mathematics objects that was given, but could not reach the higher conception yet.

  11. Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Sherman K

    2010-01-01

    Anyone can appreciate the beauty, depth, and vitality of mathematics with the help of this highly readable text, specially developed from a college course designed to appeal to students in a variety of fields. Readers with little mathematical background are exposed to a broad range of subjects chosen from number theory, topology, set theory, geometry, algebra, and analysis. Starting with a survey of questions on weight, the text discusses the primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, rationals and irrationals, tiling, tiling and electricity, probability, infinite sets, and many other topi

  12. Understanding and quantifying cognitive complexity level in mathematical problem solving items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAN E. EMBRETSON

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973 has been applied to a wide variety of new tests. When the LLTM application involves item complexity variables that are both theoretically interesting and empirically supported, several advantages can result. These advantages include elaborating construct validity at the item level, defining variables for test design, predicting parameters of new items, item banking by sources of complexity and providing a basis for item design and item generation. However, despite the many advantages of applying LLTM to test items, it has been applied less often to understand the sources of complexity for large-scale operational test items. Instead, previously calibrated item parameters are modeled using regression techniques because raw item response data often cannot be made available. In the current study, both LLTM and regression modeling are applied to mathematical problem solving items from a widely used test. The findings from the two methods are compared and contrasted for their implications for continued development of ability and achievement tests based on mathematical problem solving items.

  13. Mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demazure, M.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Center is composed of different research teams: analysis, Riemann geometry, group theory, formal calculus and algorithm geometry, dynamical systems, topology and singularity. For each team, the members, the research topics, the national and international cooperations, are given. The papers concerning the investigations carried out in 1988, are listed [fr

  14. Developing mathematics edutainment media for Android based on students’ understanding and interest: a teachers’ review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningrum, W.; Waryanto, N. H.

    2018-03-01

    This paper aimed to describe the development of interactive edutainment mathematics media using Construct 2 software for grade 7 Junior High School, and to determine the quality of the interactive edutainment media developed in regards to improve students’ understanding and interest. This research employs Research and Development design, which media was developed using ADDIE model consisting of analysing, designing, developing, implementing and evaluating. This paper focuses on the steps of development and validity of the interactive media from teachers’ point of view. The teachers review focuses on three aspects – instructional, audio-visual and operational design. The review suggested that the media was very good in regard to the three aspects, with the average score was 144.55 from the maximum score of 175. Several contexts used in the game, however, need to be adjusted to students age.

  15. Effects of Understanding the Problem Statement on Students' Mathematical Performance of Senior Secondary Schools in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banus, Abdullahi Audu; Dauda, Bala

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the relative effectiveness of understanding the problem statement on students' mathematical behaviours in Borno State Secondary Schools. The study was guided by an objective: to determine the Understanding the problem statement on student's performance in senior secondary school and a null hypothesis: there was no effect of…

  16. Hadronic final states in deeply inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlen, M.

    1995-08-01

    Results on hadronic final states in deeply inelastic scattering are reviewed. They comprise jet production and its interpretation in perturbative QCD, signatures to distinguish conventional QCD dynamics from possible new features of QCD at small x, and measurements of inclusive charged particle production. Theoretical developments such as color dipole emission and instanton induced final states are reported on. (orig.)

  17. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Second Grade Junior Students’ Mathematics Conceptual Understanding on Polyhedron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suarsana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Brain Based Learning on second grade junior high school students’ conceptual understanding on polyhedron. This study was conducted by using post-test only control group quasi-experimental design. The subjects of this study were 148 students that divided into three classes. Two classes were taken as sample by using cluster random sampling technique. One of the classes was randomly selected as an experimental group and the other as control group. There were 48 students in experimental group and 51 students in control group. The data were collected with post-test which contained mathematical conceptual understanding on fractions. The post-test consisted of 8 essay question types.  The normality and variance homogeny test result showed that the scores are normally distributed and have no difference in variance. The data were analyzed by using one tailed t-test with significance level of 5%. The result of data analysis revealed that the value of t-test = 6,7096 greater than t-table = 1,987, therefore; the null hypothesis is rejected. There is positive effect of of Brain Based Learning on second grade junior students’ conceptual understanding in polyhedron.

  18. How Syntactic Reasoners Can Develop Understanding, Evaluate Conjectures, and Generate Counterexamples in Advanced Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a highly successful student whose exploration of an advanced mathematical concept relies predominantly on syntactic reasoning, such as developing formal representations of mathematical ideas and making logical deductions. This student is observed as he learns a new mathematical concept and then completes…

  19. Improving Primary School Prospective Teachers' Understanding of the Mathematics Modeling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Aytgen Pinar; Doganay, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The development of mathematical thinking plays an important role on the solution of problems faced in daily life. Determining the relevant variables and necessary procedural steps in order to solve problems constitutes the essence of mathematical thinking. Mathematical modeling provides an opportunity for explaining thoughts in real life by making…

  20. Mathematics Teachers' Support and Retention: Using Maslow's Hierarchy to Understand Teachers' Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.; Royster, David

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger study, four mathematics teachers from diverse backgrounds and teaching situations report their ideas on teacher stress, mathematics teacher retention, and their feelings about the needs of mathematics teachers, as well as other information crucial to retaining quality teachers. The responses from the participants were used to…

  1. Deeply-Supervised CNN for Prostate Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Qikui; Du, Bo; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L .; Yan, Pingkun

    2017-01-01

    Prostate segmentation from Magnetic Resonance (MR) images plays an important role in image guided interven- tion. However, the lack of clear boundary specifically at the apex and base, and huge variation of shape and texture between the images from different patients make the task very challenging. To overcome these problems, in this paper, we propose a deeply supervised convolutional neural network (CNN) utilizing the convolutional information to accurately segment the prostate from MR image...

  2. Understanding Visceral Leishmaniasis Disease Transmission and its Control—A Study Based on Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Subramanian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transmission and control of visceral leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease that manifests in human and animals, still remains a challenging problem globally. To study the nature of disease spread, we have developed a compartment-based mathematical model of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis transmission among three different populations—human, animal and sandfly; dividing the human class into asymptomatic, symptomatic, post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and transiently infected. We analyzed this large model for positivity, boundedness and stability around steady states in different diseased and disease-free scenarios and derived the analytical expression for basic reproduction number (R0. Sensitive parameters for each infected population were identified and varied to observe their effects on the steady state. Epidemic threshold R0 was calculated for every parameter variation. Animal population was identified to play a protective role in absorbing infection, thereby controlling the disease spread in human. To test the predictive ability of the model, seasonal fluctuation was incorporated in the birth rate of the sandflies to compare the model predictions with real data. Control scenarios on this real population data were created to predict the degree of control that can be exerted on the sensitive parameters so as to effectively reduce the infected populations.

  3. Dienes AEM as an alternative mathematics teaching aid to enhance Indonesian students’ understanding of algebra concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, S.; Maarif, S.; Kurniawan, Y.; Raditya, A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the effect of Dienes AEM (Algebra Experience Materials) on the ability of understanding concept of algebra on the senior high school student in Indonesia. This research is an experimental research with subject of all high school students in Indonesia. The samples taken were high school students in three provinces namely DKI Jakarta Province, West Java Province and Banten Province. From each province was taken senior high school namely SMA N 9 Bekasi West Java, SMA N 94 Jakarta and SMA N 5 Tangerang, Banten. The number of samples in this study was 114 high school students of tenth grade as experimental class and 115 high school students of tenth grade as control class. Learning algebra concept is needed in learning mathematics, besides it is needed especially to educate students to be able to think logically, systematically, critically, analytically, creatively, and cooperation. Therefore in this research will be developed an effective algebra learning by using Dienes AEM. The result of this research is that there is a significant influence on the students’ concept comprehension ability taught by using Dienes AEM learning as an alternative to instill the concept of algebra compared to the students taught by conventional learning. Besides, the students’ learning motivation increases because students can construct the concept of algebra with props.

  4. Investigating a Link between Pre-Calculus Students' Uses of Graphing Calculators and Their Understanding of Mathematical Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Rachael H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined ways in which students make use of a graphing calculator and how use relates to comfort and understanding with mathematical symbols. Analysis involved examining students' words and actions in problem solving to identify evidence of algebraic insight. Findings suggest that some symbols and symbolic structures had strong…

  5. The Impact of Mathematics Teachers' Effectiveness on Students' Learning in the Two Realms of: Knowledge and Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Ramezani-Monfared

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective teachers focus on the students' appropriate academic achievement and have positive impact on their performance. The need to evaluate the effectiveness of teachers on students' performance and learning areas seems necessary. This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effectiveness of mathematics teachers on the learning of high school second-grade female students. Considering this purpose, survey research method was used. The population of this study included female mathematics teachers of girl high schools as well as female high school students of the zone 1 of Qom city during the school year 2013-2014. In the present study, quasi-cluster sampling method was used and the second grade was selected from among all the grades of the high schools in zone 1 of Qom city, and the study was conducted on 15 female mathematics teachers in this grade and 359 female students of these teachers. Using a questionnaire and a mathematics test, Mann-Whitney statistical results showed that mathematics scores of students who had effective teachers, were lower in the realm of knowledge compared to the students who did not have effective teachers, and mathematics scores of students who had effective teachers, in the realm of understanding were higher, compared to the students who did not have effective teachers.

  6. Helping Early Childhood Educators to Understand and Assess Young Children's Mathematical Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.

    2016-01-01

    This issue of "ZDM Mathematics Education" focuses on the formative assessment of young children's mathematical thinking, with an emphasis on computer-based approaches drawing upon on cognitive and educational research. The authors discuss several different assessment methods, including clinical interviewing, observation, and testing,…

  7. Using the Construct of the Didactic Contract to Understand Student Transition into University Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    In this article the concept of the Didactic Contract is used to investigate student "transition" from upper secondary into university mathematics education. The findings are anchored in data from the TransMaths project, more particularly the case of an ethnic minority student's journey from his school to a university mathematics course…

  8. Research on Mathematics and Science Education: From Beliefs to Cognition, from Problem Solving to Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtee, Maija, Ed.; Bjorkqvist, Ole, Ed.; Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.; Vatanen, Virpi, Ed.

    This book contains selected research papers presented at seminars held throughout the year 2000 in Finland by members of the Finnish Association for Research in Mathematics and Science Education (FARMSE) and students at the Finnish Graduate School of Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry Education. This volume also contains papers professor Laurence…

  9. Understanding the Influence of Two Mathematics Textbooks on Prospective Secondary Teachers' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the influence of reading and planning from two differently organized mathematics textbooks on prospective high school mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge of exponential functions. The teachers completed a pretest and two posttests. On the pretest, the teachers possessed an incomplete…

  10. Understanding Mathematics Achievement: An Analysis of the Effects of Student and Family Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Kate; Noltemeyer, Amity; Patton, Jon; Bush, Kevin R.; Bergen, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Educators are increasingly recognising the importance of improving students' mathematics achievement. Much of the current research focuses on the impact of instructional variables on mathematics achievement. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of less researched variables--family and student factors. Participants were 747…

  11. Profound Understanding of Emergent Mathematics: Broadening the Construct of Teachers' Disciplinary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brent; Renert, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the teachers' disciplinary knowledge of mathematics in this article, arguing two main points as we report on a 2-year study involving 22 practicing teachers. First we argue that teachers' knowledge of mathematics might be productively construed as a complex evolving form, a significant dimension of which is tacit knowledge. Second,…

  12. A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

  13. Exploring ESL Students' Understanding of Mathematics in the Early Years: Factors That Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more…

  14. Some aspects of executive functions as predictors of understanding textual mathematical tasks in students with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japundža-Milisavljević Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most significant segment during the process of solving mathematical tasks is translation from mathematical to native language, in the basis o which, among others, are the following factors: resistance to distraction and forming adequate verbal strategies. The goal of this research is to evaluate the contribution of some aspects of executive functions in explaining the variance of solving illustrative mathematical tasks in students with mild intellectual disability. The sample consists of 90 students with mild intellectual disability aged from 12 to 16 (M=14.7; SD=1.6, of both sexes (44.4% boys and 55.6% girls. The Twenty questions test and the Stroop test were used to estimate the executive functions. Verbal problem tasks were used for the purpose of understanding mathematical language The obtained results show that the estimated aspects of executive functions are significant predictors of understanding mathematical language in students with intellectual disabilities. The strongest predictor is distraction resistance (p=0.01.

  15. Using confirmatory factor analysis to understand executive control in preschool children: sources of variation in emergent mathematic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A; Sheffield, Tiffany D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize

    2011-07-01

    Latent variable modeling methods have demonstrated utility for understanding the structure of executive control (EC) across development. These methods are utilized to better characterize the relation between EC and mathematics achievement in the preschool period, and to understand contributing sources of individual variation. Using the sample and battery of laboratory tasks described in Wiebe, Espy and Charak (2008), latent EC was related strongly to emergent mathematics achievement in preschool, and was robust after controlling for crystallized intellectual skills. The relation between crystallized skills and emergent mathematics differed between girls and boys, although the predictive association between EC and mathematics did not. Two dimensions of the child 's social environment contributed to mathematics achievement: social network support through its relation to EC and environmental stressors through its relation with crystallized skills. These findings underscore the need to examine the dimensions, mechanisms, and individual pathways that influence the development of early competence in basic cognitive processes that underpin early academic achievement. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Metaphors We Do Math By: A Comparative Case Study of Public and Catholic School Teachers’ Understanding of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Branch, Jennifer Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The United States has undergone multiple mathematics reforms since the 1980s with each reform setting out to increase national test scores and improve mathematics education in the nation’s schools. The current reform, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM), seeks to create mathematically proficient students through a more active and rigorous curriculum. The goal of this yearlong study was to examine the understanding that intermediate and middle school math teachers make of t...

  17. The social competence of Latino kindergartners and growth in mathematical understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Claudia; Fuller, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    We know that social competence contributes to young children's adaptation to, and cognitive learning within, classroom settings. Yet initial evidence is mixed on the social competencies that Latino children bring to kindergarten and the extent to which these skills advance cognitive growth. Building from ecocultural and developmental-risk theory, this paper shows children's social competence to be adaptive to the normative expectations and cognitive requirements of culturally bounded settings in both the home and classroom. Latino socialization in the home may yield social competencies that teachers value rather than reflect "risk factors" that constrain children's school readiness. We draw on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, kindergarten cohort (N = 19,590) to detail 5 social competencies at entry to school--self-control, interpersonal skills, approaches to learning, internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors--and to examine variability among Latino subgroups. We then test the extent to which baseline variation in social competence accounts for children's cognitive growth during the kindergarten year. We find that Latino children from poor, but not middle-class, families display weaker social competencies vis-à-vis White children (all relationships p cognitive growth, which is shaped most strongly by positive approaches to learning. The disparities in competencies observed for Latino children from poor families, relative to White children, are significant yet much smaller than gaps in baseline levels of mathematical understanding. We discuss how the consonance or mismatch between competencies acquired at home and those valued by teachers must consider cultural differences, social-class position, and variation among diverse Latino subgroups. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  18. From everyday problem to a mathematical solution - understanding student reasoning by identifying their chain of reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyøe, Jonas; Larsen, Dorte Moeskær; Misfeldt, Morten

    2018-01-01

    students. In this analysis, we apply the idea of the chain of reference from the studies of Bruno Latour (1999) to the exploration, generation, and formalization of scientific knowledge. This framework allows us to combine knowledge from mathematics education about language and representations......This paper investigates a group of students’ reasoning in an inquiry-oriented and open mathematical investigation developed as a part of a large-scale intervention. We focus on the role of manipulatives, articulations, and representations in collaborative mathematical reasoning among grade 5......, manipulatives, and reasoning in a way that allows us to follow the material traces of students’ mathematical reasoning and hence discuss the possibilities, limitations, and pedagogical consequences of the application of Latour’s (1999) framework....

  19. Mathematics teachers' support and retention: using Maslow's hierarchy to understand teachers' needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.; Royster, David

    2016-10-01

    As part of a larger study, four mathematics teachers from diverse backgrounds and teaching situations report their ideas on teacher stress, mathematics teacher retention, and their feelings about the needs of mathematics teachers, as well as other information crucial to retaining quality teachers. The responses from the participants were used to develop a hierarchy of teachers' needs that resembles Maslow's hierarchy, which can be used to better support teachers in various stages of their careers. The interviews revealed both non content-specific and content-specific needs within the hierarchy. The responses show that teachers found different schools foster different stress levels and that as teachers they used a number of resources for reducing stress. Other mathematics-specific ideas are also discussed such as the amount of content and pedagogy courses required for certification.

  20. Understanding technology use and constructivist strategies when addressing Saudi primary students' mathematics difficulties.

    OpenAIRE

    Alabdulaziz, M.; Higgins, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper will investigate the relationship between technology use and the use of constructivist strategies when addressing Saudi primary students' mathematics difficulties. Semi-structured interviews and observations were used for the purpose of this research, which were undertaken with three mathematics teachers from school A which used technology, and the other three from school B, which did not use technology. We found that technology can support constructivist approach when teaching and...

  1. Teachers' Understanding of the Role of Executive Functions in Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychology research has suggested an important role for executive functions, the set of skills that monitor and control thought and action, in learning mathematics. However, there is currently little evidence about whether teachers are aware of the importance of these skills and, if so, how they come by this information. We conducted an online survey of teachers' views on the importance of a range of skills for mathematics learning. Teachers rated executive function skills, and in particular inhibition and shifting, to be important for mathematics. The value placed on executive function skills increased with increasing teaching experience. Most teachers reported that they were aware of these skills, although few knew the term “executive functions.” This awareness had come about through their teaching experience rather than from formal instruction. Researchers and teacher educators could do more to highlight the importance of these skills to trainee or new teachers. PMID:25674156

  2. Understanding Participation Rates in Post-16 Mathematics and Physics: Conceptualising and Operationalising the UPMAP Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael; Hoyles, Celia; Mujtaba, Tamjid; Riazi-Farzad, Bijan; Rodd, Melissa; Simon, Shirley; Stylianidou, Fani

    2011-01-01

    We report on a project currently in progress that aims to identify through research the range of factors (individual, school and out-of-school, including home) and their interactions that influence post-16 (i.e. post-compulsory) participation in mathematics and physics in the UK and to assess their relative importance among different student…

  3. Effects of Consistency and Adequacy of Language Information on Understanding Elementary Mathematics Word Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Che Kan; Jerred, Wendy D.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 91 children (ages 3-5) divided into more able and less able sub-groups found mathematical word problems containing inconsistent information were more difficult than those with consistent information. Word problems containing inadequate and redundant information were more difficult to explain than those items with just enough…

  4. Developing Conceptual Understanding and Definitional Clarity in Linear Algebra through the Three Worlds of Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, John; Stewart, Sepideh; Thomas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the first abstract mathematics courses that students encounter at university. Research shows that many students find the dense presentation of definitions, theorems and proofs difficult to comprehend. Using a case study approach, we report on a teaching intervention based on Tall's three worlds (embodied, symbolic and…

  5. Understanding Women's Underrepresentation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: The Role of Social Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganson, Valerie J.; Jones, Meghan P.; Major, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors is disproportionately small and declining. This study examines social coping to explain the gender gap. Women undergraduates reported using significantly more social coping than did men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that social coping was a stronger…

  6. Facilitating Student Understanding of Buffering by an Integration of Mathematics and Chemical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtright, Robert; Emry, Randall; Heaton, Ruth M.; Markwell, John

    2004-01-01

    We describe a simple undergraduate exercise involving the titration of a weak acid by a strong base using a pH meter and a micropipette. Students then use their data and carry out graphical analyses with a spreadsheet. The analyses involve using mathematical concepts such as first-derivative and semi-log plots and provide an opportunity for…

  7. Self-Determination Theory and Middle School Mathematics Teachers: Understanding the Motivation to Attain Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Amy K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to use Self-Determination Theory as a framework to analyze middle school mathematics teachers' motivation to attain effective professional development concerning Ohio's Learning Standards as well as other instructional aspects that affect the classroom. Teachers are exceptionally busy meeting…

  8. Exploring ESL students' understanding of mathematics in the early years: factors that make a difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more prominent for students who also have English as their second language (ESL). This paper explores the impact of the representations, oral language and engagement in mathematics (RoleM) learning experiences on ESL students' performance in mathematics in the early years (foundation-year 2). All students participating in the study are from disadvantaged contexts ( n = 461). The sample comprised 328 students who identified themselves as having English as a second language (ESL) and 133 mainstream students. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the commencement and completion of each school year. All students demonstrated a significant improvement on their post-test scores, with ESL students displaying greater gains than the mainstream students. Additionally, students' results were meeting norm-referenced expectations for students of the same age. A hypothesised taxonomy was developed to further investigate which types of test items foundation ESL students displayed greatest gains. ESL students again outperformed the mainstream cohort on all levels of test categorisation, including questions that were linguistically and conceptually challenging for foundation students.

  9. Teachers' Understanding of the Role of Executive Functions in Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychology research has suggested an important role for executive functions, the set of skills that monitor and control thought and action, in learning mathematics. However, there is currently little evidence about whether teachers are aware of the importance of these skills and, if so, how they come by this information. We conducted an…

  10. Mathematics Teaching Practices with Technology that Support Conceptual Understanding for Latino/a Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, William; Velazquez, Griselda; Moschkovich, Judit; Vahey, Phil; Lara-Meloy, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    We analyze how three seventh grade mathematics teachers from a majority Latino/a, linguistically diverse region of Texas taught the same lesson on interpreting graphs of motion as part of the Scaling Up SimCalc study (Roschelle et al., 2010). The students of two of the teachers made strong learning gains as measured by a curriculum-aligned…

  11. Can Executive Functions Help to Understand Children with Mathematical Learning Disorders and to Improve Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie; De Weerdt, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Working memory, inhibition and naming speed was assessed in 22 children with mathematical learning disorders (MD), 17 children with a reading learning disorder (RD), and 45 children without any learning problems between 8 and 12 years old. All subjects with learning disorders performed poorly on working memory tasks, providing evidence that they…

  12. Learning Fractions by Splitting: Using Learning Analytics to Illuminate the Development of Mathematical Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Taylor; Petrick Smith, Carmen; Forsgren, Nicole; Aghababyan, Ani; Janisiewicz, Philip; Baker, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The struggle with fraction learning in kindergarten through Grade 12 in the United States is a persistent problem and one of the major stumbling blocks to succeeding in higher mathematics. Research into this problem has identified several areas where students commonly struggle with fractions. While there are many theories of fraction learning,…

  13. Subtypes and comorbidity in mathematical learning disabilities: Multidimensional study of verbal and visual memory processes is key to understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, D

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that mathematical learning disability (MLD) is related to working memory impairment. Here, I organize part of this literature through a meta-analysis of 36 studies with 665 MLD and 1049 control participants. I demonstrate that one subtype of MLD is associated with reading problems and weak verbal short-term and working memory. Another subtype of MLD does not have associated reading problems and is linked to weak visuospatial short-term and working memory. In order to better understand MLD we need to precisely define potentially modality-specific memory subprocesses and supporting executive functions, relevant for mathematical learning. This can be achieved by taking a multidimensional parametric approach systematically probing an extended network of cognitive functions. Rather than creating arbitrary subgroups and/or focus on a single factor, highly powered studies need to position individuals in a multidimensional parametric space. This will allow us to understand the multidimensional structure of cognitive functions and their relationship to mathematical performance. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mathematical models are a powerful method to understand and control the spread of Huanglongbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Taylor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB, or citrus greening, is a global citrus disease occurring in almost all citrus growing regions. It causes substantial economic burdens to individual growers, citrus industries and governments. Successful management strategies to reduce disease burden are desperately needed but with so many possible interventions and combinations thereof it is difficult to know which are worthwhile or cost-effective. We review how mathematical models have yielded useful insights into controlling disease spread for other vector-borne plant diseases, and the small number of mathematical models of HLB. We adapt a malaria model to HLB, by including temperature-dependent psyllid traits, “flushing” of trees, and economic costs, to show how models can be used to highlight the parameters that require more data collection or that should be targeted for intervention. We analyze the most common intervention strategy, insecticide spraying, to determine the most cost-effective spraying strategy. We find that fecundity and feeding rate of the vector require more experimental data collection, for wider temperatures ranges. Also, the best strategy for insecticide intervention is to spray for more days rather than pay extra for a more efficient spray. We conclude that mathematical models are able to provide useful recommendations for managing HLB spread.

  15. Mathematical models are a powerful method to understand and control the spread of Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel A; Mordecai, Erin A; Gilligan, Christopher A; Rohr, Jason R; Johnson, Leah R

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening, is a global citrus disease occurring in almost all citrus growing regions. It causes substantial economic burdens to individual growers, citrus industries and governments. Successful management strategies to reduce disease burden are desperately needed but with so many possible interventions and combinations thereof it is difficult to know which are worthwhile or cost-effective. We review how mathematical models have yielded useful insights into controlling disease spread for other vector-borne plant diseases, and the small number of mathematical models of HLB. We adapt a malaria model to HLB, by including temperature-dependent psyllid traits, "flushing" of trees, and economic costs, to show how models can be used to highlight the parameters that require more data collection or that should be targeted for intervention. We analyze the most common intervention strategy, insecticide spraying, to determine the most cost-effective spraying strategy. We find that fecundity and feeding rate of the vector require more experimental data collection, for wider temperatures ranges. Also, the best strategy for insecticide intervention is to spray for more days rather than pay extra for a more efficient spray. We conclude that mathematical models are able to provide useful recommendations for managing HLB spread.

  16. A mathematical model towards understanding the mechanism of neuronal regulation of wake-NREMS-REMS states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Kumar

    Full Text Available In this study we have constructed a mathematical model of a recently proposed functional model known to be responsible for inducing waking, NREMS and REMS. Simulation studies using this model reproduced sleep-wake patterns as reported in normal animals. The model helps to explain neural mechanism(s that underlie the transitions between wake, NREMS and REMS as well as how both the homeostatic sleep-drive and the circadian rhythm shape the duration of each of these episodes. In particular, this mathematical model demonstrates and confirms that an underlying mechanism for REMS generation is pre-synaptic inhibition from substantia nigra onto the REM-off terminals that project on REM-on neurons, as has been recently proposed. The importance of orexinergic neurons in stabilizing the wake-sleep cycle is demonstrated by showing how even small changes in inputs to or from those neurons can have a large impact on the ensuing dynamics. The results from this model allow us to make predictions of the neural mechanisms of regulation and patho-physiology of REMS.

  17. Understanding electricity generation in osmotic microbial fuel cells through integrated experimental investigation and mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Mohan; Ping, Qingyun; Lu, Yaobin; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    Osmotic microbial fuel cells (OsMFCs) are a new type of MFCs with integrating forward osmosis (FO). However, it is not well understood why electricity generation is improved in OsMFCs compared to regular MFCs. Herein, an approach integrating experimental investigation and mathematical model was adopted to address the question. Both an OsMFC and an MFC achieved similar organic removal efficiency, but the OsMFC generated higher current than the MFC with or without water flux, resulting from the lower resistance of FO membrane. Combining NaCl and glucose as a catholyte demonstrated that the catholyte conductivity affected the electricity generation in the OsMFC. A mathematical model of OsMFCs was developed and validated with the experimental data. The model predicated the variation of internal resistance with increasing water flux, and confirmed the importance of membrane resistance. Increasing water flux with higher catholyte conductivity could decrease the membrane resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relational Understanding of the Derivative Concept through Mathematical Modeling: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Zulal; Aydogan Yenmez, Arzu; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three second-year graduate students' awareness and understanding of the relationships among the "big ideas" that underlie the concept of derivative through modeling tasks and Skemp's distinction between relational and instrumental understanding. The modeling tasks consisting of warm-up,…

  19. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattawy, M.

    2015-01-01

    The 4 He nucleus is of particular interest to study nuclear GPDs (Generalized Parton Distributions) as its partonic structure is described by only one chirally-even GPD. It is also a simple few-body system and has a high density that makes it the ideal target to investigate nuclear effects on partons. The experiment described in this thesis is JLab-E08-24, which was carried out in 2009 by the CLAS collaboration during the 'EG6' run. In this experiment, a 6 GeV longitudinally-polarized electron beam was scattered onto a 6 atm 4 He gaseous target. During this experiment, in addition to the CLAS detector, a Radial Time Projection Chamber (RTPC), to detect low-energy nuclear recoils, and an Inner Calorimeter (IC), to improve the detection of photons at very forward angles, were used. We carried out a full analysis on our 6 GeV dataset, showing the feasibility of measuring exclusive nuclear Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) reactions. The analysis included: the identification of the final-state particles, the DVCS event selection, the π 0 background subtraction. The beam-spin asymmetry was then extracted for both DVCS channels and compared to the ones of the free-proton DVCS reaction, and to theoretical predictions from two models. Finally, the real and the imaginary parts of the 4 He CFF (Compton Form Factor) HA have been extracted. Different levels of agreement were found between our measurements and the theoretical calculations. This thesis is organized as follows: In chapter 1, the available theoretical tools to study hadronic structure are presented, with an emphasis on the nuclear effects and GPDs. In chapter 2, the characteristics of the CLAS spectrometer are reviewed. In chapter 3, the working principle and the calibration aspects of the RTPC are discussed. In chapter 4, the identification of the final-state particles and the Monte-Carlo simulation are presented. In chapter 5, the selection of the DVCS events, the background subtraction, and

  20. Mathematical and Statistical Opportunities in Cyber Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza, Juan; Campbell, Scott; Bailey, David

    2009-03-23

    The role of mathematics in a complex system such as the Internet has yet to be deeply explored. In this paper, we summarize some of the important and pressing problems in cyber security from the viewpoint of open science environments. We start by posing the question 'What fundamental problems exist within cyber security research that can be helped by advanced mathematics and statistics'? Our first and most important assumption is that access to real-world data is necessary to understand large and complex systems like the Internet. Our second assumption is that many proposed cyber security solutions could critically damage both the openness and the productivity of scientific research. After examining a range of cyber security problems, we come to the conclusion that the field of cyber security poses a rich set of new and exciting research opportunities for the mathematical and statistical sciences.

  1. Assessing the Impact of Computer Programming in Understanding Limits and Derivatives in a Secondary Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the development of student's conceptual understandings of limit and derivative when utilizing specifically designed computational tools. Fourteen students from a secondary Advanced Placement Calculus AB course learned and explored the limit and derivative concepts from differential calculus using visualization tools in the…

  2. Bridging the Gap: Fraction Understanding Is Central to Mathematics Achievement in Students from Three Different Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeyns, Joke; Schneider, Michael; Xin, Ziqiang; Siegler, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical understanding and arithmetic skills are easier to acquire for whole numbers than fractions. The "integrated theory of numerical development" posits that, in addition to these differences, whole numbers and fractions also have important commonalities. In both, students need to learn how to interpret number symbols in terms of…

  3. Developing Essential Understanding of Multiplication and Division for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 3-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Albert; Caldwell, Janet; Hancock, Sarah Wallus; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2011-01-01

    This book identifies and examines two big ideas and related essential understandings for teaching multiplication and division in grades 3-5. Big Idea 1 captures the notion that multiplication is usefully defined as a scalar operation. Problem situations modeled by multiplication have an element that represents the scalar and an element that…

  4. Developing Essential Understanding of Functions for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Gwendolyn; Beckmann, Sybilla; Zbiek, Rose Mary; Cooney, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Are sequences functions? What can't the popular "vertical line test" be applied in some cases to determine if a relation is a function? How does the idea of rate of change connect with simpler ideas about proportionality as well as more advanced topics in calculus? Helping high school students develop a robust understanding of functions requires…

  5. The role of visual representations in college students' understanding of mathematical notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagi, Natsuki; DeWolf, Melissa; Stigler, James W; Johnson, Scott P

    2016-09-01

    Developing understanding of fractions involves connections between nonsymbolic visual representations and symbolic representations. Initially, teachers introduce fraction concepts with visual representations before moving to symbolic representations. Once the focus is shifted to symbolic representations, the connections between visual representations and symbolic notation are considered to be less useful, and students are rarely asked to connect symbolic notation back to visual representations. In 2 experiments, we ask whether visual representations affect understanding of symbolic notation for adults who understand symbolic notation. In a conceptual fraction comparison task (e.g., Which is larger, 5 / a or 8 / a? ), participants were given comparisons paired with accurate, helpful visual representations, misleading visual representations, or no visual representations. The results show that even college students perform significantly better when accurate visuals are provided over misleading or no visuals. Further, eye-tracking data suggest that these visual representations may affect performance even when only briefly looked at. Implications for theories of fraction understanding and education are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Understanding circadian regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in Arabidopsis using mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alex A R; Satake, Akiko

    2015-04-01

    C3 plants assimilate carbon by photosynthesis only during the day, but carbon resources are also required for growth and maintenance at night. To avoid carbon starvation, many plants store a part of photosynthetic carbon in starch during the day, and degrade it to supply sugars for growth at night. In Arabidopsis, starch accumulation in the day and degradation at night occur almost linearly, with the shape of this diel starch profile adaptively changing to allow continuous supply of sugar even in long-night conditions. The anticipation of dawn required to ensure linear consumption of starch to almost zero at dawn presumably requires the circadian clock. We review the links between carbon metabolism and the circadian clock, and mathematical models aimed at explaining the diel starch profile. These models can be considered in two classes, those that assume the level of available starch is sensed and the system ensures linearity of starch availability, and those in which sugar sensing is assumed, yielding linearity of starch availability as an emergent property of sucrose homeostasis. In the second class of model the feedback from starch metabolism to the circadian clock is considered to be essential for adaptive response to diverse photoperiods, consistent with recent empirical data demonstrating entrainment of the circadian clock by photosynthesis. Knowledge concerning the mechanisms regulating the dynamics of starch metabolism and sugar homeostasis in plants is required to develop new theories about the limitations of growth and biomass accumulation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. UNDERSTANDING STUDENTS' OPINION ON CO-OPERATIVE LEARNING IMPLEMENTATION IN MATHEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    Shefali Pandya

    2017-01-01

    The study seeks to understand students’ opinion about implementation of co-operative learning approach. An experiment on co-operative learning approach was conducted on 78 students of standard IX studying in schools affiliated to the SSC Board and with English as the medium of instruction. It has used one tool, namely, Co-operative Learning Implementation Opinionnaire. It was found that on the whole, students are substantially satisfied with the implementation of co-operative learning approac...

  8. Earthquakes - a danger to deep-lying repositories?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at geological factors concerning earthquakes and the safety of deep-lying repositories for nuclear waste. The geological processes involved in the occurrence of earthquakes are briefly looked at and the definitions for magnitude and intensity of earthquakes are discussed. Examples of damage caused by earthquakes are given. The earthquake situation in Switzerland is looked at and the effects of earthquakes on sub-surface structures and deep-lying repositories are discussed. Finally, the ideas proposed for deep-lying geological repositories for nuclear wastes are discussed

  9. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...

  10. The utility of simple mathematical models in understanding gene regulatory dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Michael C.; Santillán, Moisés; Tyran-Kamińska, Marta; Zeron, Eduardo S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this review, we survey work that has been carried out in the attempts of biomathematicians to understand the dynamic behaviour of simple bacterial operons starting with the initial work of the 1960’s. We concentrate on the simplest of situations, discussing both repressible and inducible systems and then turning to concrete examples related to the biology of the lactose and tryptophan operons. We conclude with a brief discussion of the role of both extrinsic noise and so-called intrinsic noise in the form of translational and/or transcriptional bursting. PMID:25402755

  11. THE APPLICATION OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING METHOD FOR IMPROVING THE UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICS CONCEPT OF 7TH GRADE STUDENTS SMP NEGERI 2 DEPOK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Bagus Argikas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to: (1 describe the implementation of learning mathematics with Reciprocal Teaching methods that is for improving the concept of learning understanding mathematic in class VIIA SMP Negeri 2 Depok. (2 Knowing the increased understanding of student learning in class VIIA SMP Negeri 2 Depok use Reciprocal Teaching methods. This research constitutes an action in class that is according along the teacher. The data of research was collated by sheet observations and each evaluation of cycles. That is done in two cycles. The first was retrieved the average value of student learning achievement of 70.96%. The second was retrieved achievement of 90.32%. Thus this learning model can increase student learning understanding.   Key word: The understanding of Mathematical Concept, Reciprocal Teaching Method.

  12. Using mathematical models to understand the effect of nanoscale roughness on protein adsorption for improving medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan B

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Batur Ercan,1 Dongwoo Khang,2 Joseph Carpenter,3 Thomas J Webster1 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2School of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for PRC and RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea; 3School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract: Surface roughness and energy significantly influence protein adsorption on to biomaterials, which, in turn, controls select cellular adhesion to determine the success and longevity of an implant. To understand these relationships at a fundamental level, a model was originally proposed by Khang et al to correlate nanoscale surface properties (specifically, nanoscale roughness and energy to protein adsorption, which explained the greater cellular responses on nanostructured surfaces commonly reported in the literature today. To test this model for different surfaces from what was previously used to develop that model, in this study we synthesized highly ordered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid surfaces of identical chemistry but altered nanoscale surface roughness and energy using poly(dimethylsiloxane molds of polystyrene beads. Fibronectin and collagen type IV adsorption studies showed a linear adsorption behavior as the surface nanoroughness increased. This supported the general trends observed by Khang et al. However, when fitting such data to the mathematical model established by Khang et al, a strong correlation did not result. Thus, this study demonstrated that the equation proposed by Khang et al to predict protein adsorption should be modified to accommodate for additional nanoscale surface property contributions (ie, surface charge to make the model more accurate. In summary, results from this study provided an important step in developing future mathematical models that can correlate surface properties (such as nanoscale roughness and surface energy to initial protein adsorption events important to

  13. Learning and Assessing Mathematics through Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna

    2008-01-01

    Students learn mathematics more effectively and more deeply when reading and writing is directed at learning mathematics. Although reading and writing in mathematics may necessitate more skills and practice to master, the mathematical learning derived from reading and writing mathematics far outweighs the burden it places on teachers and students.…

  14. Understanding XPO1 target networks using systems biology and mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqbil, Irfana; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Azmi, Asfar S

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear transport protein Exportin 1 (XPO1), also called chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1), is over-expressed 2- 4 fold in cancer. XPO1 is one of seven nuclear exporter proteins, and is solely responsible for the transport of the major tumor suppressor proteins (TSPs) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. XPO1 exports any protein that carries a leucine-rich, hydrophobic nuclear export sequence (NES). A number of inhibitors have been discovered that block XPO1 function and thereby restore TSPs to the nucleus of both malignant and normal cells. However, natural product, irreversible XPO1 antagonists such as leptomycin B (LMB) have proven toxic in both preclinical models and in the clinic. Recently, orally bioavailable, drug-like small molecule, potent and selective inhibitors of XPO1 mediated nuclear export ("SINE") have been designed and are undergoing clinical evaluations in both humans and canines with cancer. The breadth of clinical applicability and long-term viability of an XPO1 inhibition strategy requires a deeper evaluation of the consequence of global re-organization of proteins in cancer and normal cells. Unfortunately, most of the studies on XPO1 inhibitors have focused on evaluating a limited number of TSPs or other proteins. Because XPO1 carries ~220 mammalian proteins out of the nucleus, such reductionism has not permitted a global understanding of cellular behavior upon drug-induced disruption of XPO1 function. The consequence of XPO1 inhibition requires holistic investigations that consider the entire set of XPO1 targets and their respective pathways modulated without losing key details. Systems biology is one such holistic approach that can be applied to understand XPO1 regulated proteins along with the downstream players involved. This review provides comprehensive evaluations of the different computational tools that can be utilized in the better understanding of XPO1 and its target. We anticipate that such holistic approaches can allow for

  15. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Gordon D.

    2008-08-01

    The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of ΔΣ in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  16. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Gordon D.

    2008-10-15

    The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of {delta}{sigma} in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  17. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, David Francis

    2010-03-01

    This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep→epγ interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A UL and A LU which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A LL dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin φ and cos(0φ) amplitudes are observed for A UL and A LL respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2φ) amplitude for A UL . The results for the A UL and A LL asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A LU amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)

  18. Understanding the Program Effectiveness of Early Mathematics Interventions for Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Environments: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aubrey H.; Firmender, Janine M.; Power, Joshua R.; Byrnes, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The early childhood years are critical in developing early mathematics skills, but the opportunities one has to learn mathematics tend to be limited, preventing the development of significant mathematics learning. By conducting a meta-analysis of 29 experimental and quasi-experimental studies that have been published since 2000,…

  19. Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: Understanding the Influence of Teaching in a STEAM Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreiros, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Many elementary mathematics teachers hold beliefs about the teaching and learning of mathematics and enact practices that are not aligned with the recommendations of reform efforts in the field of mathematics education (Stigler & Hiebert, 2009). For standards-based reform to gain any significant success, many teachers will have to alter the…

  20. Implementation of cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach to understanding of mathematical concept student state junior high school in Pekanbaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Dian Mita; Hartono

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine whether there is a difference in the ability of understanding the concept of mathematics between students who use cooperative learning model Student Teams Achievement Division type with Realistic Mathematic Education approach and students who use regular learning in seventh grade SMPN 35 Pekanbaru. This study was quasi experiments with Posttest-only Control Design. The populations in this research were all the seventh grade students in one of state junior high school in Pekanbaru. The samples were a class that is used as the experimental class and one other as the control class. The process of sampling is using purposive sampling technique. Retrieval of data in this study using the documentation, observation sheets, and test. The test use t-test formula to determine whether there is a difference in student's understanding of mathematical concepts. Before the t-test, should be used to test the homogeneity and normality. Based in the analysis of these data with t0 = 2.9 there is a difference in student's understanding of mathematical concepts between experimental and control class. Percentage of students experimental class with score more than 65 was 76.9% and 56.4% of students control class. Thus be concluded, the ability of understanding mathematical concepts students who use the cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach better than students using the regular learning. So that cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach is well used in learning process.

  1. Design and Development Computer-Based E-Learning Teaching Material for Improving Mathematical Understanding Ability and Spatial Sense of Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjanah; Dahlan, J. A.; Wibisono, Y.

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to make a design and development computer-based e-learning teaching material for improving mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students. Furthermore, the particular aims are (1) getting teaching material design, evaluation model, and intrument to measure mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (2) conducting trials computer-based e-learning teaching material model, asessment, and instrument to develop mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (3) completing teaching material models of computer-based e-learning, assessment, and develop mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense of junior high school students; (4) resulting research product is teaching materials of computer-based e-learning. Furthermore, the product is an interactive learning disc. The research method is used of this study is developmental research which is conducted by thought experiment and instruction experiment. The result showed that teaching materials could be used very well. This is based on the validation of computer-based e-learning teaching materials, which is validated by 5 multimedia experts. The judgement result of face and content validity of 5 validator shows that the same judgement result to the face and content validity of each item test of mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense. The reliability test of mathematical understanding ability and spatial sense are 0,929 and 0,939. This reliability test is very high. While the validity of both tests have a high and very high criteria.

  2. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, David Francis

    2010-06-15

    This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep{yields}ep{gamma} interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A{sub UL} and A{sub LU} which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL} dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin {phi} and cos(0{phi}) amplitudes are observed for A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2{phi}) amplitude for A{sub UL}. The results for the A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A{sub LU} amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)

  3. Pelvic angles: a mathematically rigorous definition which is consistent with a conventional clinical understanding of the terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R

    2001-02-01

    The most common definition of pelvic angles in conventional gait analysis uses the sequence tilt, obliquity, rotation. This is used in most commercially available gait analysis software. This definition of angles, however, is not in agreement with the conventional clinical understanding of the terms when both tilt and rotation are large. This paper shows that by using the sequence rotation, obliquity, tilt it is possible to make a mathematically rigorous definition of pelvic angles which it is consistent with that conventional clinical usage. A model of the pelvis in which the hips are maintained level is developed. It is shown that as tilt and rotation are varied, in a clinically relevant range, that obliquity measured using the conventional sequence can be as much as 10 degrees. By definition it is 0 degrees for the new sequence. A case study shows that measures of obliquity correlate better with the relative height of the hips using the new sequence than the conventional one. It is proposed that use of the new sequence would lead to data which is easier to interpret clinically.

  4. Mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten

    2004-01-01

    modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive......Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...

  5. Predicting Scientific Understanding of Prospective Elementary Teachers: Role of Gender, Education Level, Courses in Science, and Attitudes toward Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David D.; Morris, John D.

    2005-01-01

    A multiple regression analysis of the relationship between prospective teachers' scientific understanding and Gender, Education Level (High School, College), Courses in Science (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science, Astronomy, and Agriculture), Attitude Towards Science, and Attitude Towards Mathematics is reported. Undergraduate elementary…

  6. Why Is the Learning of Elementary Arithmetic Concepts Difficult? Semiotic Tools for Understanding the Nature of Mathematical Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Juan D.; Font, Vicenc; Wilhelmi, Miguel R.; Lurduy, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    The semiotic approach to mathematics education introduces the notion of "semiotic system" as a tool to describe mathematical activity. The semiotic system is formed by the set of signs, the production rules of signs and the underlying meaning structures. In this paper, we present the notions of system of practices and configuration of objects and…

  7. 21st-Century Urban Renewal: Mathematical Understanding of Real-World Graphical Data Using Geospatial Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBay, Dennis J.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of real-world, meaningful tasks in mathematics classrooms promises to create opportunities for enhancing students' learning through active engagement with mathematical ideas; however, researchers have given little consideration to the contexts in which urban high-school students live. The case study of three students reported in…

  8. New JLab/Hall A Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defurne, Maxime [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPhN/LSN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

    2015-08-01

    New data points for unpolarized Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering cross sections have been extracted from the E00-110 experiment at Q2=1.9 GeV2 effectively doubling the statistics available in the valence region. A careful study of systematic uncertainties has been performed.

  9. Are we winning? Improving perinatal outcomes at a deeply rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Are we winning? Improving perinatal outcomes at a deeply rural district hospital in South Africa. CB Gaunt. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.3699 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  10. the role of mathematical modelling in understanding the epidemiology and control of sheep transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbins, S.; Touzeau, S.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    To deal with the incompleteness of observations and disentangle the complexities of transmission much use has been made of mathematical modelling when investigating the epidemiology of sheep transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and, in particular, scrapie. Importantly, these modelling

  11. Climate change promotes hybridisation between deeply divergent species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Canestrelli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rare hybridisations between deeply divergent animal species have been reported for decades in a wide range of taxa, but have often remained unexplained, mainly considered chance events and reported as anecdotal. Here, we combine field observations with long-term data concerning natural hybridisations, climate, land-use, and field-validated species distribution models for two deeply divergent and naturally sympatric toad species in Europe (Bufo bufo and Bufotes viridis species groups. We show that climate warming and seasonal extreme temperatures are conspiring to set the scene for these maladaptive hybridisations, by differentially affecting life-history traits of both species. Our results identify and provide evidence of an ultimate cause for such events, and reveal that the potential influence of climate change on interspecific hybridisations goes far beyond closely related species. Furthermore, climate projections suggest that the chances for these events will steadily increase in the near future.

  12. Deeply virtual Compton scattering: How to test handbag dominance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gousset, T.; Gousset, T.; Diehl, M.; Pire, B.; Diehl, M.; Ralston, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    We propose detailed tests of the handbag approximation in exclusive deeply virtual Compton scattering. Those tests make no use of any prejudice about parton correlations in the proton which are basically unknown objects and beyond the scope of perturbative QCD. Since important information on the proton substructure can be gained in the regime of light cone dominance we consider that such a class of tests is of special relevance. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  13. Persistence of deeply sourced iron in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Tristan J; Williams, Helen M; Hein, James R; Saito, Mak A; Burton, Kevin W; Halliday, Alex N; Nielsen, Sune G

    2015-02-03

    Biological carbon fixation is limited by the supply of Fe in vast regions of the global ocean. Dissolved Fe in seawater is primarily sourced from continental mineral dust, submarine hydrothermalism, and sediment dissolution along continental margins. However, the relative contributions of these three sources to the Fe budget of the open ocean remains contentious. By exploiting the Fe stable isotopic fingerprints of these sources, it is possible to trace distinct Fe pools through marine environments, and through time using sedimentary records. We present a reconstruction of deep-sea Fe isotopic compositions from a Pacific Fe-Mn crust spanning the past 76 My. We find that there have been large and systematic changes in the Fe isotopic composition of seawater over the Cenozoic that reflect the influence of several, distinct Fe sources to the central Pacific Ocean. Given that deeply sourced Fe from hydrothermalism and marginal sediment dissolution exhibit the largest Fe isotopic variations in modern oceanic settings, the record requires that these deep Fe sources have exerted a major control over the Fe inventory of the Pacific for the past 76 My. The persistence of deeply sourced Fe in the Pacific Ocean illustrates that multiple sources contribute to the total Fe budget of the ocean and highlights the importance of oceanic circulation in determining if deeply sourced Fe is ever ventilated at the surface.

  14. Comparison of the Effects of Computer-Based Practice and Conceptual Understanding Interventions on Mathematics Fact Retention and Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanive, Rebecca; Nelson, Peter M.; Burns, Matthew K.; Ysseldyke, James

    2014-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to determine the effects of computer-based practice and conceptual interventions on computational fluency and word-problem solving of fourth- and fifth-grade students with mathematics difficulties. A randomized pretest-posttest control group design found that students assigned to the computer-based practice intervention…

  15. Instructional Experiences That Align with Conceptual Understanding in the Transition from High School Mathematics to College Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Carol H.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Hazari, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the first National study on high school preparation for college calculus success, the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) project, this article connects student high school instructional experiences to college calculus performance. The findings reported here reveal that students were better prepared for…

  16. Developing an Understanding of What Constitutes Mathematics Teacher Educator PCK: A Case Study of a Collaboration between Two Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Tracey; Wells, Jill; Chick, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Previous research into the knowledge required for teaching has focused primarily on pre-service and in-service teachers' knowledge. What is less researched, however, is the role of the teacher educator in helping pre-service teachers (PSTs) develop the knowledge needed in order to teach mathematics to students. The focus thus shifts from examining…

  17. DISH CODE A deeply simplified hydrodynamic code for applications to warm dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-08-22

    DISH is a 1-dimensional (planar) Lagrangian hydrodynamic code intended for application to experiments on warm dense matter. The code is a simplified version of the DPC code written in the Data and Planning Center of the National Institute for Fusion Science in Toki, Japan. DPC was originally intended as a testbed for exploring equation of state and opacity models, but turned out to have a variety of applications. The Dish code is a "deeply simplified hydrodynamic" code, deliberately made as simple as possible. It is intended to be easy to understand, easy to use and easy to change.

  18. Note-Taking in a Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoong, Leong Yew; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Fwe, Yap Sook; Luen, Tong Cherng; Toh, Wei Yeng Karen; Chia, Alexander; Teck, Ong Yao

    2014-01-01

    The authors are a team of teachers and teacher educators who are deeply interested in helping mathematically-challenged students improve in their learning of mathematics. In Singapore, depending on their performance at the end of a nationwide Year 6 examination, students are channelled into three ability streams for Years 7 to 10: Express (60%),…

  19. The concept of resources and documents as means to understand mathematics teachers use of digital platforms in the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov

    2018-01-01

    Currently, digital learning platforms are being implemented in Danish elementary schools. These platforms are developed with a dual aim of both supporting teachers’ planning and classroom teaching. This paper investigates and discusses the opportunities of using the documentational approach...... to study Danish mathematics teachers’ use of these platforms for classroom teaching and preliminary findings here of in the context of an ongoing PhD project....

  20. Seismic response analysis for a deeply embedded nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.W.H.; Chatterjee, M.; Day, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    One of the important aspect of the aseimic design of nuclear power plants is the evaluation of the seismic soil-structure interaction effect due to design earthquakes. The soil-structure interaction effect can initiate rocking and result in different soil motions compared to the free field motions, thus significantly affecting the structural response. Two methods are generally used to solve the seismic soil-structure interaction problems: the direct finite element method (FLUSH) and the substructure or impedance approach. This paper presents the results of the horizontal seismic soil-structure interaction analysis using the impedance aproach and the direct finite element method for a deeply embedded nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  1. Beam-charge azimuthal asymmetry and deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bailey, P.; Balin, D.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Borysenko, A.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Chen, T.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; Demey, M.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Devitsin, E.; di Nezza, P.; Dreschler, J.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Funel, A.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garrow, K.; Gaskell, D.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Grebeniouk, O.; Gregor, I. M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hesselink, W. H. A.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Hristova, I.; Iarygin, G.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, H.; Lu, J.; Lu, S.; Ma, B.-Q.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C. R.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Michler, T.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Ohsuga, H.; Osborne, A.; Pickert, N.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Savin, I.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Sinram, K.; Sommer, W.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Tait, P.; Tanaka, H.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, C.; Volmer, J.; Wang, S.; Wendland, J.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2007-01-01

    The first observation of an azimuthal cross section asymmetry with respect to the charge of the incoming lepton beam is reported from a study of hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The data have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY, in which the HERA 27.6 GeV electron or positron beam scattered off an unpolarized hydrogen gas target. The observed asymmetry is attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process. The interference term is sensitive to DVCS amplitudes, which provide the most direct access to generalized parton distributions.

  2. Leptonic current structure and azimuthal asymmetry in deeply inelastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Fei; Sun, Zhan

    2017-08-01

    We present a compact form of the leptonic currents for the computation of the processes involving an initial virtual boson (photon, W± , or Z0). For deeply inelastic scattering, once the azimuthal angle of the plane expanded by the initial- and final-state leptons is integrated over in the boson-proton center-of-mass frame, the azimuthal-asymmetric terms vanish, which, however, is not true when some physical quantities (such as the transverse momentum of the observed particle) are specified in the laboratory frame. The misuse of the symmetry may lead to wrong results.

  3. Speed mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud

  4. ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XU, J.; MILLER, C.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.; GRAVES, H. NRC.

    2005-01-01

    Several of the new generation nuclear power plant designs have structural configurations which are proposed to be deeply embedded. Since current seismic analysis methodologies have been applied to shallow embedded structures (e.g., ASCE 4 suggest that simple formulations may be used to model embedment effect when the depth of embedment is less than 30% of its foundation radius), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory with the objective of investigating the extent to which procedures acceptable for shallow embedment depths are adequate for larger embedment depths. This paper presents the results of a study comparing the response spectra obtained from two of the more popular analysis methods for structural configurations varying from shallow embedment to complete embedment. A typical safety related structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized in the study and the depths of burial (DOB) considered range from 25-100% the height of the structure. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of a simplified analysis and a detailed approach for the SSI analyses of a structure with various DOB, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different DOBs between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of deeply embedded structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice

  5. VEDIC MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is very difficult to motivate students when it comes to a school subject like Mathematics. Teachers spend a lot of time trying to find something that will arouse interest in students. It is particularly difficult to find materials that are motivating enough for students that they eagerly wait for the next lesson. One of the solutions may be found in Vedic Mathematics. Traditional methods of teaching Mathematics create fear of this otherwise interesting subject in the majority of students. Fear increases failure. Often the traditional, conventional mathematical methods consist of very long lessons which are difficult to understand. Vedic Mathematics is an ancient system that is very flexible and encourages the development of intuition and innovation. It is a mental calculating tool that does not require a calculator because the calculator is embedded in each of us. Starting from the above problems of fear and failure in Mathematics, the goal of this paper is to do research with the control and the experimental group and to compare the test results. Two tests should be done for each of the groups. The control group would do the tests in the conventional way. The experimental group would do the first test in a conventional manner and then be subjected to different treatment, that is to say, be taught on the basis of Vedic Mathematics. After that, the second group would do the second test according to the principles of Vedic Mathematics. Expectations are that after short lectures on Vedic mathematics results of the experimental group would improve and that students will show greater interest in Mathematics.

  6. Mathematical Modeling Using MATLAB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Donovan

    1998-01-01

    .... Mathematical Modeling Using MA MATLAB acts as a companion resource to A First Course in Mathematical Modeling with the goal of guiding the reader to a fuller understanding of the modeling process...

  7. Mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Eck, Christof; Knabner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models are the decisive tool to explain and predict phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. With this book readers will learn to derive mathematical models which help to understand real world phenomena. At the same time a wealth of important examples for the abstract concepts treated in the curriculum of mathematics degrees are given. An essential feature of this book is that mathematical structures are used as an ordering principle and not the fields of application. Methods from linear algebra, analysis and the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations are thoroughly introduced and applied in the modeling process. Examples of applications in the fields electrical networks, chemical reaction dynamics, population dynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory and crystal growth are treated comprehensively.

  8. Earthquake response of nuclear reactor buildings deeply embedded in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masao, T.; Takasaki, Y.; Hirasawa, M.; Okajima, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Kawata, E.; Koori, Y.; Ochiai, S.; Shimizu, N.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is concerned with experimental and analytical studies to investigate dynamic behavior of deeply embedded structures such as nuclear reactor buildings. The principal points studied are as follows: (1) Examination of stiffness and radiation damping effects according to embedded depth, (2) verification for distributions of earth pressure according to embedded depth, (3) differences of response characteristics during oscillation according to embedded depth, and (4) proposal of an analytical method for seismic design. Experimental studies were performed by two ways: forced vibration test, and earthquake observation against a rigid body model embedded in soil. Three analytical procedures were performed to compare experimental results and to examine the relation between each procedure. Finally, the dynamic behavior for nuclear reactor buildings with different embedded depths were evaluated by an analytical method. (orig.)

  9. Deeply virtual compton scattering on a virtual pion target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrath, D.; Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Lansberg, J.P. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique]|[Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-07-15

    We study deeply virtual Compton scattering on a virtual pion that is emitted by a proton. Using a range of models for the generalized parton distributions of the pion, we evaluate the cross section, as well as the beam spin and beam charge asymmetries in the leading-twist approximation. Studying Compton scattering on the pion in suitable kinematics puts high demands on both beam energy and luminosity, and we find that the corresponding requirements will first be met after the energy upgrade at Jefferson Laboratory. As a by-product of our study, we construct a parameterization of pion generalized parton distributions that has a non-trivial interplay between the x and t dependence and is in good agreement with form factor data and lattice calculations. (orig.)

  10. Deeply virtual compton scattering in color dipole formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Magno V.T. [Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bage, RS (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    In this contribution we summarize recent investigations on the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) within the color dipole approach. The color dipole cross section is implemented through the phenomenological saturation model. The role played by its QCD evolution and skewedness effects in the DVCS cross section are discussed. The results are compared with the recent H1 and ZEUS Collaborations data. The skewing factor, defined as the ratio of the imaginary parts of the amplitudes Im A({gamma}* p {yields} {gamma}* p)/ Im A({gamma}* p {yields} {gamma} p) can be extracted from the data using recent DVCS and the inclusive inelastic cross section measurements at DESY-HERA. We report on this experimental extraction and compare the results to the theoretical predictions for NLO QCD and the color dipole approach. (author)

  11. Deep-lying hole states in the optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevansky, S.P.; Lemmer, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The strength function for deep-lying hole states in an optical potential is studied by the method of Green's functions. The role of isospin is emphasized. It is shown that, while the main trends of the experimental data on hole states in isotopes of Sn and Pd can be described by an energy independent optical potential, intermediate structures in these data indicate the specific nuclear polarization effects have to be included. This is done by introducing doorway states of good isospin into the optical model potential. Such states consist of neutron hole plus proton core vibrations as well as more complicated excitations that are analog states of proton hole plus neutron core vibrations of the parent nuclear system. Specific calculations for 115 Sn and 103 Pd give satisfactory fits to the strength function data using optical model and doorway state parameters that are reasonable on physical grounds

  12. Kinematics of current region fragmentation in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different kinematical regions of semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes correspond to different underlying partonic pictures, and it is important to understand the transition between them. We find criteria in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering (SIDIS) for identifying the current fragmentation region — the kinematical region where a factorization picture with fragmentation functions is appropriate, especially for studies of transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) functions. This region is distinguished from the central (soft) and target fragmentation regions. The basis of our argument is in the errors in approximations used in deriving factorization. As compared with previous work, we show that it is essential to take account of the transverse momentum of the detected hadron, and we find a much more restricted range for genuine current fragmentation. We show that it is important to develop an extended factorization formulation to treat hadronization in the central region, as well as the current and target fragmentation regions, and to obtain a unified formalism spanning all rapidities for the detected hadron.

  13. REVIEW OF PRACTICE FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED/BURIED NPP STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO SEISMIC LOADINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XU, J.; HOFMAYER, C.; MILLER, C.; GRAVES, H.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by many design considerations, several conceptual designs for advanced reactors have proposed that the entire reactor building and a significant portion of the steam generator building will be either partially or completely embedded below grade. For the analysis of seismic events, the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect and passive earth pressure for these types of deeply embedded structures will have a significant influence on the predicted seismic response. Sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a research program to assess the significance of these proposed design features for advanced reactors, and to evaluate the existing analytical methods to determine their applicability and adequacy in capturing the seismic behavior of the proposed designs. This paper summarizes a literature review performed by BNL to determine the state of knowledge and practice for seismic analyses of deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear containment type structures. Included in the paper is BNL's review of the open literature of existing standards, tests, and practices that have been used in the design and analysis of DEB structures. The paper also provides BNL's evaluation of available codes and guidelines with respect to seismic design practice of DEB structures. Based on BNL's review, a discussion is provided to highlight the applicability of the existing technologies for seismic analyses of DEB structures and to identify gaps that may exist in knowledge and potential issues that may require better understanding and further research

  14. Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions and Lived Experiences on Mathematical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Defne; Aydin, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical thinking skills and meaningful mathematical understanding are among the goals of current mathematics education. There is a wide consensus among scholars about the purpose of developing mathematical understanding and higher order thinking skills in students. However, how to develop those skills in classroom settings is an area that…

  15. Mathematics and fisheries: Match or mismatch?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon T. Schnute

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics plays a major role in contemporary fisheries management. Stock assessments often depend on elaborate models used to set catch levels and address other policy objectives. In recent years, the collapse of various important fish stocks has caused some critics to suggest that mathematical models actually obscure the truth by narrowing scientific understanding to the realm of quantifiable events. In the words of one fisherman, ``Mathematics has highjacked the definition and position of real science.'' In this paper, I present a number of typical fishery models, examine their limitations, discuss controversies about their use, and explore possible alternatives. I draw on examples from economics and investment theory to illustrate the problem of making credible predictions about an uncertain future. The constraints of the real world, where people care deeply about policy consequences, have altered my scientific perspective as an applied mathematician. This paper reflects the evolution of thought that has accompanied my experience working for 28 years at the Pacific Biological Station in Nanaimo, B.C., the host city for this conference.

  16. Profile of Metacognition of Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers in Understanding the Concept of Integral Calculus with Regard Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misu, L.; Budayasa, I. K.; Lukito, A.

    2018-01-01

    This research is to describe metacognition profile of female and male mathematics’ pre-service teachers in understanding the concept of integral calculus. The subjects of this study are one female and 1 male mathematics’ pre-service teachers who have studied integral calculus. This research type is an explorative study with the qualitative approach. The main data collection of this research was obtained by using Interview technique. In addition, there are supporting data which is the result of the written work of research subjects (SP) in understanding the question of integral calculus. The results of this study are as follows: There is a difference in metacognition profiles between male and female mathematics’ pre-service teachers in the understanding concept of integral calculus in the interpreting category, especially the definite integral concept. While in the category of exemplifying, there is no difference in metacognition profile between male and female mathematics’ pre-service teachers either the definite integral concept and the indefinite integral concept.

  17. Radial confinement of deeply trapped particles in a non-symmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Wrick; Weitzner, Harold

    2018-02-01

    Quasisymmetry and omnigeneity of an equilibrium magnetic field are two distinct properties proposed to ensure radial localization of collisionless trapped particles in any stellarator. These constraints are incompletely explored, but have stringent restrictions on a magnetic geometry. This work employs an analytical approach to understand the implications of the constraints. The particles move in an intrinsically three dimensional equilibrium whose representation is given by the earlier work of Weitzner and its extension here. For deeply trapped particles, a local equilibrium expansion around a minimum of the magnetic field strength along a magnetic line suffices. This analytical non-symmetric equilibrium solution enables explicit representation of the constraints. The results show that it is far easier to satisfy the omnigeneity condition than the quasisymmetry requirement. Correspondingly, there exists a large class of equilibrium close to quasisymmetry that remains omnigeneous while allowing inclusion of error fields, which may destroy quasisymmetry.

  18. Mechanical compaction of deeply buried sandstones of the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Quentin J.; Casey, Martin; Clennell, M. Ben; Knipe, Robert J. [Leeds Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    Sandstones experience mechanical compaction when the overburden load exceeds the compressive strength. Petrographic evidence is rarely sufficient to determine the timing of mechanical compaction. It is often assumed from indirect evidence, such as regional porosity-depth trends, that mechanical compaction is a process that occurs exclusively during shallow or intermediate burial ( < 2.5 km). However, mechanical compaction, with or without extensive grain fracturing, may also affect more deeply buried sediments. Mechanical compaction without grain fracturing may occur at depth following pervasive framework grain dissolution and/or if anomalously high porosity has been preserved due to the presence of small amounts of cement. We describe examples from the Fulmar Sandstone Formation of the Central Graben, North Sea that experienced late stage mechanical compaction following sponge spicule dissolution and microcrystalline quartz cementation. Deep burial mechanical compaction involving grain crushing may occur if the rate of grain-contact quartz dissolution and/or quartz overgrowth development cannot compete with the rate of stress increase at grain contacts. Some Rotliegendes sandstones of the Southern North Sea that have been buried to > 4.5 km offer a good example where the suppression of chemical compaction, due to the presence of grain-coating clays, resulted in pervasive grain fracturing. Mineral veins are frequently associated with sandstones that have experienced pervasive mechanical compaction during deep burial. These may reflect the sudden development of overpressure resulting from the transfer of load to the fluid during collapse of the sandstone framework. (Author)

  19. Understanding early serum hepatitis D virus and HBsAg kinetics during pegylated interferon-alfa therapy via mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Jeremie; Rotman, Yaron; Cotler, Scott J.; Koh, Christopher; Schmid, Peter; Albrecht, Jeff; Haynes-Williams, Vanessa; Liang, Jake T.; Hoofnagle, Jay H.; Heller, Theo; Dahari, Harel

    2014-01-01

    There is little information on the early kinetics of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) during interferon-α therapy. Here a mathematical model was developed and fitted to frequent HDV and HBsAg kinetic data from 10 patients during the first 28 weeks of pegylated-interferon-α2a (peg-IFN) therapy. Three patients achieved a complete virological response (CVR), defined as undetectable HDV 6 months after treatment stopped with loss of HBsAg and anti-HBsAg seroconversion. After initiation of therapy a median delay of 9 days (interquartile range IQR:[5;15]) was observed with no significant changes in HDV level. Thereafter, HDV declined in a biphasic manner, where a rapid first-phase lasting for 25 days (IQR:[23;58]) was followed by a slower or plateau second-phase. The model predicts that the main effect of peg-IFN is to reduce HDV production/release with a median effectiveness of 96% (IQR:[93;99.8]). Median serum HDV half-life (t1/2) was estimated to 2.9 days (IQR:[1.5;5.3]) with pretreatment production and clearance of about 1010 (IQR:[109.8-1010.8]) virions/day. None of the patients with flat 2nd phase in HDV achieved CVR. HBsAg kinetics of decline paralleled the second-phase of HDV decline consistent with HBsAg-productive-infected cells being the main source of production of HDV, with a median t1/2 of 135 days (IQR:[20-460]. The interferon lambda-3 polymorphism (rs12979860) was not associated with kinetic parameters. Conclusions Modeling results provide insights into HDV-host dynamics, the relationship between serum HBsAg levels and HBsAg-infected cells, IFN's mode of action and its effectiveness. The observation that a flat second phase in HDV and HBsAg kinetics was associated with failure to achieve CVR provides the basis to develop early stopping rules during peg-IFN treatment in HDV-infected patients. PMID:25098971

  20. Pluralism in mathematics a new position in philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Friend, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    This book is about philosophy, mathematics and logic, giving a philosophical account of Pluralism which is a family of positions in the philosophy of mathematics. There are four parts to this book, beginning with a look at motivations for Pluralism by way of Realism, Maddy's Naturalism, Shapiro's Structuralism and Formalism. In the second part of this book the author covers: the philosophical presentation of Pluralism; using a formal theory of logic metaphorically; rigour and proof for the Pluralist; and mathematical fixtures. In the third part the author goes on to focus on the transcendental presentation of Pluralism, and in part four looks at applications of Pluralism, such as a Pluralist approach to proof in mathematics and how Pluralism works in regard to together-inconsistent philosophies of mathematics. The book finishes with suggestions for further Pluralist enquiry. In this work the author takes a deeply radical approach in developing a new position that will either convert readers, or act as a stron...

  1. Utah's New Mathematics Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Utah has adopted more rigorous mathematics standards known as the Utah Mathematics Core Standards. They are the foundation of the mathematics curriculum for the State of Utah. The standards include the skills and understanding students need to succeed in college and careers. They include rigorous content and application of knowledge and reflect…

  2. Learning Environments in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Vanshelle E.

    2017-01-01

    Learning mathematics is problematic for most primary school age children because mathematics is rote and the memorization of steps rather than an approach to seeing relationships that builds inquiry and understanding. Therefore, the traditional "algorithmic" way of teaching mathematics has not fully prepared students to be critical…

  3. Operating experience in processing of differently sourced deeply depleted uranium oxide and production of deeply depleted uranium metal ingots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, S.; Ladola, Y.S.; Sharma, S.; Chowdhury, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Roy, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium Metal Plant (UMP) of BARC had first time experience on production of three Depleted Uranium Metal (DUM) ingots of 76kg, 152kg and 163kg during March 1991. These ingots were produced by processing depleted uranyl nitrate solution produced at Plutonium Plant (PP), Trombay. In recent past Uranium Metal Plant (UMP), Uranium Extraction Division (UED), has been assigned to produce tonnage quantity of Deeply DUM (DDUM) from its oxide obtained from PP, PREFRE and RMP, BARC. This is required for shielding the high radioactive source of BHABHATRON Tele-cobalt machine, which is used for cancer therapy. The experience obtained in processing of various DDU oxides is being utilized for design of large scale DDU-metal plant under XIth plan project. The physico- chemical characteristics like morphology, density, flowability, reactivity, particle size distribution, which are having direct effect on reactivity of the powders of the DDU oxide powder, were studied and the shop-floor operational experience in processing of different oxide powder were obtained and recorded. During campaign trials utmost care was taken to standardized all operating conditions using the same equipment which are in use for natural uranium materials processing including safety aspects both with respect to radiological safety and industrial safety. Necessary attention and close monitoring were specially arranged and maintained for the safety aspects during the trial period. In-house developed pneumatic transport system was used for powder transfer and suitable dust arresting system was used for reduction of powder carry over

  4. Achilles' Head: Understanding the Challenges in Implementing Dependable and Secure Deeply Networked Military Embedded Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarji, David K

    2008-01-01

    ... (IT) systems has made it abundantly clear that computing systems are subject to attacks, and that including security in the design process is a critical component in the development of new systems...

  5. Mathematics Curriculum, the Philosophy of Mathematics and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is my observation that the current school mathematics curriculum in Ethiopia is not producing competent mathematics students. Many mathematicians in Ethiopia and other part of the world have often expressed grief that the majority of students do not understand mathematical concepts, or do not see why mathematical ...

  6. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  7. To What Extent Is Mathematical Ability Predictive of Performance in a Methodology and Statistics Course? Can an Action Research Approach Be Used to Understand the Relevance of Mathematical Ability in Psychology Undergraduates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Research methods and statistical analysis is typically the least liked and most anxiety provoking aspect of a psychology undergraduate degree, in large part due to the mathematical component of the content. In this first cycle of a piece of action research, students' mathematical ability is examined in relation to their performance across…

  8. Assessment and realistic mathematics education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.H.A.M. van den

    1996-01-01

    This book describes the consequences of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) for assessing students’ understanding of mathematics in primary school. RME is the Dutch answer to the worldwide need to reform mathematics education. Changed ideas about mathematics as a school subject, its goals,

  9. Finding Meaning in Mathematical Mnemonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey; Obara, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    A mathematical mnemonic is a visual cue or verbal strategy that is used to aid initial memorisation and recall of a mathematical concept or procedure. Used wisely, mathematical mnemonics can benefit students' performance and understanding. Explorations into how mathematical mnemonics work can also offer students opportunities to engage in proof…

  10. Mathematical Competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphael, Henning; Mogensen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In this article we present the notion of Mathematical competences as a tool to describe the mathematically gifted students.......In this article we present the notion of Mathematical competences as a tool to describe the mathematically gifted students....

  11. Understanding Mathematics-A Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 3. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  12. Mathematics for the imagination

    CERN Document Server

    Higgins, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Mathematics for the Imagination provides an accessible and entertaining investigation into mathematical problems in the world around us. From world navigation, family trees, and calendars to patterns, tessellations, and number tricks, this informative and fun new book helps you to understand the maths behind real-life questions and rediscover your arithmetical mind.This is a follow-up to the popular Mathematics for the Curious, Peter Higgins's first investigation into real-life mathematical problems.A highly involving book which encourages the reader to enter into the spirit of mathematical ex

  13. Deeply Virtual Compton scattering at CERN. What is the size of the proton?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerg, Philipp

    2017-04-27

    Tremendous efforts have been made to understand the Englert-Brout-Higgs-Guralnik-Hagen-Kibble mechanism, which led to the successful discovery of the Higgs Boson and the clarification of the origin of the mass of fundamental particles. However, it is often forgotten that the vast majority of visible matter is given by baryons, which gain most of their mass dynamically within poorly known non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics processes. The best laboratory to study the underlying mechanisms of non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics is still given by the nucleon and the central question of how the macroscopic properties of a nucleon like its mass, spin and size can be comprehensively decomposed into the microscopic description in terms of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains still open. A major part of the COMPASS-II program is dedicated to the investigation of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), which aim for the most complete description of the partonic structure of the nucleon, comprising both, spacial and kinematic distributions. By including transverse degrees of freedom, a three dimensional picture of baryonic matter is created, which will revolutionise our understanding of what comprises 99 percent of the visible matter. GPDs are experimentally accessible via lepton-induced exclusive reactions, in particular the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP). At COMPASS, those processes are investigated using a high intensity muon beam of 160 GeV/c together with a 2.5 m-long liquid hydrogen target and an open field two stage spectrometer, to detect and identify charged and neutral particles. In order to optimize the selection of exclusive reactions at those energies, the target is surrounded by a new barrel-shaped time-of-flight system, which detects the recoiling target particles. A pilot run dedicated to the measurement of Generalized Parton distributions performed in 2012 allows for detailed performance studies

  14. EFFECT OF MATHEMATICS LEARNING ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICS CREATIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Jyoti Sharma

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical study done in Indian classrooms to understand the effect of mathematics learning experiences on the development of mathematics creativity. The study was designed in two stages, at stage I, it was planned to find out scope, practice and promotion of creative thinking in mathematics classroom; teachers’ own engagements with creative mathematical task and teachers’ attitude towards mathematics creativity. Stage II was designed to find out responses of students and...

  15. Tracing the Construction of Mathematical Activity with an Advanced Graphing Calculator to Understand the Roles of Technology Developers, Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article examines mathematical activity with digital technology by tracing it from its development through its use in classrooms. Drawing on material-semiotic approaches from the field of Science and Technology Studies, it examines the visions of mathematical activity that developers had for an advanced graphing calculator. It then follows the…

  16. Propensity Score Matching Helps to Understand Sources of DIF and Mathematics Performance Differences of Indonesian, Turkish, Australian, and Dutch Students in PISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Serkan; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Yagmur, Kutlay

    2018-01-01

    We examined Differential Item Functioning (DIF) and the size of cross-cultural performance differences in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 mathematics data before and after application of propensity score matching. The mathematics performance of Indonesian, Turkish, Australian, and Dutch students on released items was…

  17. How Do Higher-Education Students Use Their Initial Understanding to Deal with Contextual Logic-Based Problems in Discrete Mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, Asrin; Nasution, Andrea Arifsyah

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical reasoning in logical context has now received much attention in the mathematics curriculum documents of many countries, including Indonesia. In Indonesia, students start formally learning about logic when they pursue to senior-high school. Before, they previously have many experiences to deal with logic, but the earlier assignments do…

  18. Analysis of Student Understanding of Science Concepts Including Mathematical Representations: Ph Values and the Relative Differences of pH Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    In general, mathematical representations such as formulae, numbers, and graphs are the inseparable components in science used to better describe or explain scientific phenomena or knowledge. Regardless of their necessity and benefit, science seems to be difficult for some students, as a result of the mathematical representations and problem…

  19. Earthquakes - a danger to deep-lying repositories?; erdbeben: eine gefahr fuer tiefenlager?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at geological factors concerning earthquakes and the safety of deep-lying repositories for nuclear waste. The geological processes involved in the occurrence of earthquakes are briefly looked at and the definitions for magnitude and intensity of earthquakes are discussed. Examples of damage caused by earthquakes are given. The earthquake situation in Switzerland is looked at and the effects of earthquakes on sub-surface structures and deep-lying repositories are discussed. Finally, the ideas proposed for deep-lying geological repositories for nuclear wastes are discussed.

  20. Diagenetic Variations between Upper Cretaceous Outcrop and Deeply Buried Reservoir Chalks of the North Sea Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2007-01-01

    In the central North Sea Basin hydrocarbon-bearing chalks are deeply buried (2-3 km) whereas chalks in the rim areas are cropping out in the surrounding countries. The differing diagenetic histories between buried and outcrop chalk result in different rock properties, which is of great importance...... when simulating reservoir conditions using outcrop chalks as models. In general deeply buried reservoir chalks show significant overgrowth as witnessed by reshaping of particles together with strengthening of particle contacts. Most outcrop chalks are moderately affected with looser inter...... has been replaced by kaolinite. These diagenetic variations are explained by higher temperatures and pressures in the deeply buried reservoir chalks....

  1. Mathematics, anxiety, and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Tindle, Richard; Ansari, Zaheda; Doyle, Margery J; Hewedi, Doaa H; Eissa, Abeer

    2017-05-24

    Given that achievement in learning mathematics at school correlates with work and social achievements, it is important to understand the cognitive processes underlying abilities to learn mathematics efficiently as well as reasons underlying the occurrence of mathematics anxiety (i.e. feelings of tension and fear upon facing mathematical problems or numbers) among certain individuals. Over the last two decades, many studies have shown that learning mathematical and numerical concepts relies on many cognitive processes, including working memory, spatial skills, and linguistic abilities. In this review, we discuss the relationship between mathematical learning and cognitive processes as well as the neural substrates underlying successful mathematical learning and problem solving. More importantly, we also discuss the relationship between these cognitive processes, mathematics anxiety, and mathematics learning disabilities (dyscalculia). Our review shows that mathematical cognition relies on a complex brain network, and dysfunction to different segments of this network leads to varying manifestations of mathematical learning disabilities.

  2. Meaning in mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, Paola; Hoyles, Celia; Skovsmose, Ole

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean to know mathematics? How does meaning in mathematics education connect to common sense or to the meaning of mathematics itself? How are meanings constructed and communicated and what are the dilemmas related to these processes? There are many answers to these questions, some of which might appear to be contradictory. Thus understanding the complexity of meaning in mathematics education is a matter of huge importance. There are twin directions in which discussions have developed - theoretical and practical - and this book seeks to move the debate forward along both dimensions while seeking to relate them where appropriate. A discussion of meaning can start from a theoretical examination of mathematics and how mathematicians over time have made sense of their work. However, from a more practical perspective, anybody involved in teaching mathematics is faced with the need to orchestrate the myriad of meanings derived from multiple sources that students develop of mathematical knowledge.

  3. FINITE ELEMENT MODELS FOR COMPUTING SEISMIC INDUCED SOIL PRESSURES ON DEEPLY EMBEDDED NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU, J.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.

    2006-06-26

    PAPER DISCUSSES COMPUTATIONS OF SEISMIC INDUCED SOIL PRESSURES USING FINITE ELEMENT MODELS FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED AND OR BURIED STIFF STRUCTURES SUCH AS THOSE APPEARING IN THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS OF STRUCTURES FOR ADVANCED REACTORS.

  4. Clinical Prediction of Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis before Surgery: Is It Feasible? A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mendonça Carneiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endometriosis is a chronic benign gynecologic disease that can cause pelvic pain and infertility affecting almost 10% of reproductive-age women. Deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE is a specific entity responsible for painful symptoms which are related to the anatomic location of the lesions. Definitive diagnosis requires surgery, and histological confirmation is advisable. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature regarding the possibility of diagnosing DIE accurately before surgery. Despite its low sensitivity and specificity, vaginal examination and evaluation of specific symptoms should not be completely omitted as a basic diagnostic tool in detecting endometriosis and planning further therapeutic interventions. Recently, transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS has been reported as an excellent tool to diagnose DIE lesions in different locations (rectovaginal septum, retrocervical and paracervical areas, rectum and sigmoid, and vesical wall with good accuracy. Conclusion. There are neither sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms nor diagnostic tests for the clinical diagnosis of DIE, resulting in a great delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Digital examination, in addition to TVS, may help to gain better understanding of the anatomical extent and dimension of DIE which is of crucial importance in defining the best surgical approach.

  5. [The discussion of the infiltrative model of mathematical knowledge to genetics teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Luo, Pei-Gao

    2011-11-01

    Genetics, the core course of biological field, is an importance major-basic course in curriculum of many majors related with biology. Due to strong theoretical and practical as well as abstract of genetics, it is too difficult to study on genetics for many students. At the same time, mathematics is one of the basic courses in curriculum of the major related natural science, which has close relationship with the establishment, development and modification of genetics. In this paper, to establish the intrinsic logistic relationship and construct the integral knowledge network and to help students improving the analytic, comprehensive and logistic abilities, we applied some mathematical infiltrative model genetic knowledge in genetics teaching, which could help students more deeply learn and understand genetic knowledge.

  6. Ideation in mathematical writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers idea generation during the mathematical writing process. Two contrasting explanations of the creative potential in connection to writing is presented; writing as a process of setting and obtaining rhetorical goals and writing as a process of discovery. These views...... are then related to two empirically found categories of functions that writing serves researchers in the field of mathematics, concluding that both views contributes to understanding the creative potential in relation to mathematical writing....

  7. Maths Games Workshop--Part Thirteen: Types of Mathematical Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Dave

    1989-01-01

    Presented are mathematical games in six categories of mathematical objectives: learn the language of mathematics; use mathematical notation; know facts; develop skills; understand concepts; and devise strategies. Numbers of players, rules, and diagrams are provided for each problem. (YP)

  8. Mathematics for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Vince, John

    2006-01-01

    Helps you understand the mathematical ideas used in computer animation, virtual reality, CAD, and other areas of computer graphics. This work also helps you to rediscover the mathematical techniques required to solve problems and design computer programs for computer graphic applications

  9. Einstein Meets Hilbert: At the Crossroads of Physics and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David E.

    One of the most famous episodes in the early history of general relativity involves the ``race'' in November 1915 between Albert Einstein and David Hilbert to uncover the ``correct'' form for the ten gravitational field equations. In light of recent archival findings, however, this story now has become a topic of renewed interest and controversy among historians of physics and mathematics. Drawing on recent studies and newly found sources, the present essay takes up this familiar tale from a new perspective, one that has seldom received due attention in the standard literature, namely, the mathematical issues at the heart of Einstein's theory. Told from this angle, the leading actors are Einstein's collaborator Marcel Grossmann, his critic Tullio Levi-Civita, his competitor David Hilbert, and several other mathematicians, many of them connected with Hilbert's Göttingen colleagues such as Hermann Weyl, Felix Klein, and Emmy Noether. As Einstein was the first to admit, Göttingen was far more important than Berlin as an active center for research in general relativity. Any account which, like this one, tries to understand both the actions and motives of the leading players must confront the problem of interpreting the rather sparse documentary evidence available. The interpretation offered herein, whatever its merits, aims first and foremost to show how mathematical issues deeply permeated the early history of general relativity.

  10. Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Advanced Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic).Aims: To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors…

  11. Mathematical Footprints Discovering Mathematics Everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    1999-01-01

    MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent

  12. The pragmatics of mathematics education vagueness and mathematical discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Rowland, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on philosophy of language and recent linguistic theory, Rowland surveys several approaches to classroom communication in mathematics. Are students intimidated by the nature of mathematics teaching? Many students appear fearful of voicing their understanding - is fear of error part of the linguistics of mathematics? The approaches explored here provide a rationale and a method for exploring and understanding speakers'' motives in classroom mathematics talk. Teacher-student interactions in mathematics are analysed, and this provides a toolkit that teachers can use to respond to the intellectual vulnerability of their students.

  13. Connecting Advanced and Secondary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Eileen; Baldinger, Erin; Wasserman, Nicholas; Broderick, Shawn; White, Diana

    2017-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate among scholars in understanding what mathematical knowledge secondary teachers should have in order to provide effective instruction. We explore connections between advanced and secondary mathematics as an entry point into this debate. In many cases, advanced mathematics is considered relevant for secondary teachers…

  14. "We Don't Understand English That Is Why We Prefer English": Primary School Students' Preference for the Language of Instruction in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ernest Kofi; Bishop, Alan J.; Seah, Wee Tiong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which sought to investigate how social and political influences affect students' preference for language of instruction in mathematics in Ghana, where the language of instruction from grade 4 onwards in school is not the students' main language. 4 focus group interviews were carried out with 16 primary school…

  15. Understanding the Doctoral Experience of Asian International Students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields: An Exploration of One Institutional Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tam; Gardner, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we explored the experience of Asian international doctoral students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields at one research-extensive university. We found that Asian international doctoral students in the STEM fields at this institution were often isolated from their peers and faculty, faced an array…

  16. Advanced Mathematical Thinking and Students' Mathematical Learning: Reflection from Students' Problem-Solving in Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangpom, Wasukree; Suthisung, Nisara; Kongthip, Yanin; Inprasitha, Maitree

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical teaching in Thai tertiary education still employs traditional methods of explanation and the use of rules, formulae, and theories in order for students to memorize and apply to their mathematical learning. This results in students' inability to concretely learn, fully comprehend and understand mathematical concepts and practice. In…

  17. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  18. Mathematical narrative: from history to literature

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Yi-Wen; Horng, Wann-Sheng; Huang, Jyun-Wei; Chen, Yuh-Fen

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Mathematical narrative is a concept that has gradually been attracting the attention of school teachers and mathematics educators in especially recent years. The term ‘mathematical narrative' in this workshop proposal refers to a form of narrative that is used to communicate or construct mathematical meaning or understanding. By introducing certain metaphors, a narrator may induce or promote learners' or listeners' mathematical understanding. This teaching tool can be ...

  19. Further development of thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka

    1995-03-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma. Separate abstracts were prepared for 2 of the papers in this report. The remaining 32 papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  20. Designing a Deeply Digital Science Curriculum: Supporting Teacher Learning and Implementation with Organizing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Heather; Severance, Samuel; Penuel, William R.; Quigley, David; Sumner, Tamara; Devaul, Holly

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of technology (e.g., Chromebooks, Google Drive) on teacher learning and student activity in the development and implementation of a deeply digital high school biology unit. Using design-based implementation research, teachers co-designed with researchers and curriculum specialists a student-centered unit aligned to…

  1. Providing high-quality HIV care in a deeply rural setting – the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Providing high-quality HIV care in a deeply rural setting – the Zithulele experience. C Young, B Gaunt. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/sajhivmed.1035 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  2. Effective medium approximation for deeply subwavelength all-dielectric multilayers: when does it break down?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    We report on theoretical analysis and experimental validation of the applicability of the effective medium approximation to deeply subwavelength (period ⩽λ/30) all-dielectric multilayer structures. Following the theoretical prediction of the anomalous breakdown of the effective medium approximati...

  3. Mastering mathematics for Edexcel GCSE

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Heather; Liggett, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Help students to develop their knowledge, skills and understanding so that they can reason mathematically, communicate mathematical information and apply mathematical techniques in solving problems; with resources developed specifically for the Edexcel GCSE 2015 specification with leading Assessment Consultant Keith Pledger and a team of subject specialists. - Supports you and your students through the new specifications, with topic explanations and new exam-style questions, to support the new assessment objectives. - Builds understanding and measures progress throughout the course with plenty

  4. Classroom assessment in Chinese primary school mathematics education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413577805

    2018-01-01

    In mainland China, where there exists a deeply-rooted examination culture, an assessment reform promoting the use of assessment to support teaching and learning has been carried out since 2001. After a decade, however, only a few studies have been done that focus on primary school mathematics

  5. Mathematics disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  6. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  7. Authority, Identity, and Collaborative Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer-Osuna, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    The field of mathematics education research has seen a resurgence of interest in understanding collaborative learning because students in K-12 classrooms are increasingly expected to make sense of mathematics problems together. This Research Commentary argues for the importance of understanding student authority relations in collaborative…

  8. Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and JHS teachers toward mathematics, both upper primary and JHS teachers were found to have significantly more positive attitudes toward mathematics than the lower primary teachers. The study recommended the need to encourage lower primary school teachers to develop more positive attitudes toward mathematics.

  9. Teachers' Conceptions of Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Heather

    2013-01-01

    The release of the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics" in 2010 resulted in a new focus on mathematical modeling in United States curricula. Mathematical modeling represents a way of doing and understanding mathematics new to most teachers. The purpose of this study was to determine the conceptions and misconceptions held by…

  10. Panel Debate: Technics and technology in mathematics and mathematics education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    new technologies enter mathematics as a discipline and mathematics education as a societal practice. Our analysis suggests a focus on continuities in time and place in the sense that it is necessary to understand the history of “tool use” in mathematics and the various ways that scholastic and non...... guidelines and conclusions regarding the use of computer technology in mathematics education.......The use of computer technology for teaching and learning of mathematics has several consequences and does sometimes give rise to both controversies and misunderstandings. We address these problems by both a philosophical and a historical approach, investigating what it actually is that goes on when...

  11. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  12. First aid in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sulley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Achieve the best possible standard with this bestselling book of traditional practice and guidance - now in colour!. First Aid in Mathematics provides all the help and support needed for learning and practising Mathematics. It offers comprehensive coverage of core mathematical topics in clear and accessible language. It is suitable for both native English speakers and students of English as a second language and can be used in class, or as a reference and revision book. - Develops a strong basis of understanding with core topics covered in clear and accessible language. - Improves student's ab

  13. Mathematics year 5 answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena; Poggo, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Features the complete set of answers to the exercises in Mathematics Year 5, to save you time marking work and enable you to identify areas requiring further attention. The book includes diagrams and workings where necessary, to ensure pupils understand how to present their answers. Also available from Galore Park www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics Year 5. - Mathematics Year 6. - 11+ Maths Practice Exercises. - 11+ Maths Revision Guide. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 8-10. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 9-11. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Age 8-10. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Ag

  14. The reality of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligomenides, Panos A.

    2009-05-01

    The power of mathematics is discussed as a way of expressing reasoning, aesthetics and insight in symbolic non-verbal communication. The human culture of discovering mathematical ways of thinking in the enterprise of exploring the understanding of the nature and the evolution of our world through hypotheses, theories and experimental affirmation of the scientific notion of algorithmic and non-algorithmic [`]computation', is examined and commended upon.

  15. Mathematics and linguistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  16. Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2015-01-01

    Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…

  17. Understanding why women are under-represented in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM within Higher Education: a regional case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Christie

    Full Text Available Abstract Participation rates of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM is comparatively low and their attrition rates high. An obvious solution is to attract more women to study such subjects. In 2016 the authors undertook research to find out why so few women enrolled in STEM subjects and investigate ways of increasing their recruitment and retention in this area. The informants in our study were enrolled in a tertiary preparation course as well as nursing and education programs. A critique of the literature was used to develop a survey that informed focus group and interview schedules which were used in collecting data. Our study found that many of the factors that hindered women from applying for STEM courses twenty years ago still apply today and recommends actions that can help increase recruitment of women into STEM and assist their retention and graduation in those areas of tertiary education.

  18. Deeply-Virtual Compton Scattering on Deuterium and Neon at HERMES

    OpenAIRE

    Ellinghaus, F.; Shanidze, R.; Volmer, J.; collaboration, for the HERMES

    2002-01-01

    We report the first observation of azimuthal beam-spin asymmetries in hard electroproduction of real photons off nuclei. Attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the deeply-virtual Compton scattering process, the asymmetry gives access to the latter at the amplitude level. This process appears to be the theoretically cleanest way to access generalized parton distributions. The data presented here have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY, scattering th...

  19. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mathematics everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Aigner, Martin; Spain, Philip G

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics is all around us. Often we do not realize it, though. Mathematics Everywhere is a collection of presentations on the role of mathematics in everyday life, through science, technology, and culture. The common theme is the unique position of mathematics as the art of pure thought and at the same time as a universally applicable science. The authors are renowned mathematicians; their presentations cover a wide range of topics. From compact discs to the stock exchange, from computer tomography to traffic routing, from electronic money to climate change, they make the "math inside" unde

  1. Mathematical scandals

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    1997-01-01

    In this highly readable volume of vignettes of mathematical scandals and gossip, Theoni Pappas assembles 29 fascinating stories of intrigue and the bizarre ? in short, the human background of the history of mathematics. Might a haberdasher have changed Einstein's life? Why was the first woman mathematician murdered? How come there's no Nobel Prize in mathematics?Mathematics is principally about numbers, equations, and solutions, all of them precise and timeless. But, behind this arcane matter lies the sometimes sordid world of real people, whose rivalries and deceptions

  2. Financial mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Jothi, A Lenin

    2009-01-01

    Financial services, particularly banking and insurance services is the prominent sector for the development of a nation. After the liberalisation of financial sector in India, the scope of getting career opportunities has been widened. It is heartening to note that various universities in India have introduced professional courses on banking and insurance. A new field of applied mathematics has come into prominence under the name of Financial Mathematics. Financial mathematics has attained much importance in the recent years because of the role played by mathematical concepts in decision - m

  3. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  4. Discrete mathematics using a computer

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Cordelia

    2000-01-01

    Several areas of mathematics find application throughout computer science, and all students of computer science need a practical working understanding of them. These core subjects are centred on logic, sets, recursion, induction, relations and functions. The material is often called discrete mathematics, to distinguish it from the traditional topics of continuous mathematics such as integration and differential equations. The central theme of this book is the connection between computing and discrete mathematics. This connection is useful in both directions: • Mathematics is used in many branches of computer science, in applica­ tions including program specification, datastructures,design and analysis of algorithms, database systems, hardware design, reasoning about the correctness of implementations, and much more; • Computers can help to make the mathematics easier to learn and use, by making mathematical terms executable, making abstract concepts more concrete, and through the use of software tools su...

  5. Handbook of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bronshtein, I N; Musiol, Gerhard; Mühlig, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    This guide book to mathematics contains in handbook form the fundamental working knowledge of mathematics which is needed as an everyday guide for working scientists and engineers, as well as for students. Easy to understand, and convenient to use, this guide book gives concisely the information necessary to evaluate most problems which occur in concrete applications. In the newer editions emphasis was laid on those fields of mathematics that became more important for the formulation and modeling of technical and natural processes, namely Numerical Mathematics, Probability Theory and Statistics, as well as Information Processing. Besides many enhancements and  new paragraphs,  new sections on Geometric and Coordinate Transformations, Quaternions and Applications, and Lie Groups and Lie Algebras were added for the sixth edition.

  6. African American Mathematics Teachers as Agents in Their African American Students' Mathematics Identity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lawrence M.; Badertscher, Eden M.; Napp, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Recent research in mathematics education has employed sociocultural and historical lenses to better understand how students experience school mathematics and come to see themselves as capable mathematics learners. This work has identified mathematics classrooms as places where power struggles related to students'…

  7. An Investigation of Mathematical Modeling with Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Emily Plunkett

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to investigate and enhance our understanding of what occurs while pre-service mathematics teachers engage in a mathematical modeling unit that is broadly based upon mathematical modeling as defined by the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council…

  8. Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Zudilin, Wadim

    2009-06-26

    One of the most effective techniques of experimental mathematics is to compute mathematical entities such as integrals, series or limits to high precision, then attempt to recognize the resulting numerical values. Recently these techniques have been applied with great success to problems in mathematical physics. Notable among these applications are the identification of some key multi-dimensional integrals that arise in Ising theory, quantum field theory and in magnetic spin theory.

  9. Mathematics 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kodaira, Kunihiko

    1996-01-01

    This is the translation from the Japanese textbook for the grade 11 course, "General Mathematics". It is part of the easier of the three elective courses in mathematics offered at this level and is taken by about 40% of students. The book covers basic notions of probability and statistics, vectors, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions, and an introduction to differentiation and integration.

  10. Mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Kleene, Stephen Cole

    1967-01-01

    Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.

  11. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Mathematics unbound

    CERN Document Server

    Parshall, Karen Hunger

    2002-01-01

    Although today's mathematical research community takes its international character very much for granted, this "global nature" is relatively recent, having evolved over a period of roughly 150 years-from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century. During this time, the practice of mathematics changed from being centered on a collection of disparate national communities to being characterized by an international group of scholars for whom the goal of mathematical research and cooperation transcended national boundaries. Yet, the development of an international community was far from smooth and involved obstacles such as war, political upheaval, and national rivalries. Until now, this evolution has been largely overlooked by historians and mathematicians alike. This book addresses the issue by bringing together essays by twenty experts in the history of mathematics who have investigated the genesis of today's international mathematical community. This includes not only develo...

  13. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  14. Mathematics Competency and Situational Mathematics Anxiety: What are the Links and How Do These Links Affect Teacher Education Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Audrey; Hurst, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The issue of mathematics anxiety and its possible links to mathematical competence have long been of concern to mathematics educators, particularly with the potential of the effects of mathematics anxiety to be transmitted from teacher to student. Hence it is in the interests of teacher educators to understand the nature of mathematics anxiety and…

  15. Novice Mathematics Teachers Create Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz Oppenheimer, Orna; Dvir, Nurit

    2018-01-01

    This study presents a qualitative research based on three narratives written by novice mathematics teachers. We examine their unique professional world during their first year of work. The methodology of narrative framework, on which this article is based, helps to gain better understanding of the need for novice mathematics teachers to have…

  16. Mathematization in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmia, Suzanne M.

    Mathematization is central to STEM disciplines as a cornerstone of the quantitative reasoning that characterizes these fields. Introductory physics is required for most STEM majors in part so that students develop expert-like mathematization. This dissertation describes coordinated research and curriculum development for strengthening mathematization in introductory physics; it blends scholarship in physics and mathematics education in the form of three papers. The first paper explores mathematization in the context of physics, and makes an original contribution to the measurement of physics students' struggle to mathematize. Instructors naturally assume students have a conceptual mastery of algebra before embarking on a college physics course because these students are enrolled in math courses beyond algebra. This paper provides evidence that refutes the validity of this assumption and categorizes some of the barriers students commonly encounter with quantification and representing ideas symbolically. The second paper develops a model of instruction that can help students progress from their starting points to their instructor's desired endpoints. Instructors recognize that the introductory physics course introduces new ideas at an astonishing rate. More than most physicists realize, however, the way that mathematics is used in the course is foreign to a large portion of class. This paper puts forth an instructional model that can move all students toward better quantitative and physical reasoning, despite the substantial variability of those students' initial states. The third paper describes the design and testing of curricular materials that foster mathematical creativity to prepare students to better understand physics reasoning. Few students enter introductory physics with experience generating equations in response to specific challenges involving unfamiliar quantities and units, yet this generative use of mathematics is typical of the thinking involved in

  17. Understanding early serum hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B surface antigen kinetics during pegylated interferon-alpha therapy via mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Jeremie; Rotman, Yaron; Cotler, Scott J; Koh, Christopher; Schmid, Peter; Albrecht, Jeff; Haynes-Williams, Vanessa; Liang, T Jake; Hoofnagle, Jay H; Heller, Theo; Dahari, Harel

    2014-12-01

    There is little information on the early kinetics of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) during interferon-α therapy. Here a mathematical model was developed and fitted to frequent HDV and HBsAg kinetic data from 10 patients during the first 28 weeks of pegylated-interferon-α2a (peg-IFN) therapy. Three patients achieved a complete virological response (CVR), defined as undetectable HDV 6 months after treatment stopped with loss of HBsAg and anti-HBsAg seroconversion. After initiation of therapy, a median delay of 9 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 5-15) was observed with no significant changes in HDV level. Thereafter, HDV declined in a biphasic manner, where a rapid first phase lasting for 25 days (IQR: 23-58) was followed by a slower or plateau second phase. The model predicts that the main effect of peg-IFN is to reduce HDV production/release with a median effectiveness of 96% (IQR: 93-99.8). Median serum HDV half-life (t1/2 ) was estimated as 2.9 days (IQR: 1.5-5.3) corresponding to a pretreatment production and clearance of about 10(10) (IQR: 10(9.7) -10(10.7) ) virions/day. None of the patients with flat second phase in HDV achieved CVR. HBsAg kinetics of decline paralleled the second phase of HDV decline consistent with HBsAg-productive-infected cells being the main source of production of HDV, with a median t1/2 of 135 days (IQR: 20-460). The interferon lambda-3 polymorphism (rs12979860) was not associated with kinetic parameters. Modeling results provide insights into HDV-host dynamics, the relationship between serum HBsAg levels and HBsAg-infected cells, IFN's mode of action, and its effectiveness. The observation that a flat second phase in HDV and HBsAg kinetics was associated with failure to achieve CVR provides the basis to develop early stopping rules during peg-IFN treatment in HDV-infected patients. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. This article has been contributed to by U

  18. Measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering using the ZEUS detector at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowska-Bold, I.

    2004-08-01

    The cross sections for deeply virtual compton scattering in the reaction ep → e'γp' has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using integrated luminosities of 95 pb -1 of e + p and 17 pb -1 of e - p collisions. Cross sections are presented as a function of the exchanged photon virtuality, Q 2 , and the centre-of-mass energy, W, of the γ * p system in the region 5 2 2 and 40 < W < 140 GeV. The obtained results are compared to QCD-based calculations. (orig.)

  19. Transformation of Holes Emission Paths under Negative Bias Temperature Stress in Deeply Scaled pMOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the impact of negative bias temperature (NBT stress on the fluctuations in ID and IG for deeply scaled pMOSFETs and find that the relative high NBT stress triggers IG-RTN and ID-step. Through the analysis of the field dependence of emission constant and the carrier separation measurement, it is found that under the relative high NBT stress some traps keep charged state for very long time, as observing step-like behaviors in ID, while other traps emit charged holes to the gate side through TAT process, which originate both ID-step and ID-RTN.

  20. Vision in elementary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, W W

    2003-01-01

    Sure-fire techniques of visualizing, dramatizing, and analyzing numbers promise to attract and retain students' attention and understanding. Topics include basic multiplication and division, algebra, word problems, graphs, negative numbers, fractions, many other practical applications of elementary mathematics. 1964 ed. Answers to Problems.

  1. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  2. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics required for engineering study and practiceNow in its seventh edition, Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams.John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure

  3. Relationship between Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Achievement of Junior Secondary School Students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. ... Journal of Educational Foundations ... Fear of failure in mathematics test and examination was the main reason why students were anxious of mathematics.

  4. [Mathematics - astronomy - astrology special library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluch, Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    About 1560 Elector August of Saxony created an unusual library--one distinguished within its period by both its specialization and location. Situated within the Kunstkammer this library was mostly dedicated to the mathematical sciences and related disciplines. It contained works by the most important authors on mathematics, astronomy, and astrology from the classical, medieval, and early modern periods. This essay traces the formation and composition of August's library, and examines its function: What kind of relationship existed between the library and the Kunstkammer? In what way did the library mirror the interests of the Elector, and to what extend does it permit inferences regarding the Elector's knowledge of mathematics? From the analysis August emerges not as a specialist with a deep understanding of mathematics, but as a particular aficionado of mathematical applications. As a practitioner and general follower of the mathematical arts he took part in a far-reaching intellectual network the center of which lay in the University of Wittenberg. Here, Melanchthon had effectively strengthened the importance of the mathematical disciplines within the university curriculum. He regarded mathematics as the foremost science, arguing that before all other disciplines its method enabled man to recognize the harmonic order of the world, and to discern divine providence. Thus, mathematics offered consoling stability and support in an often seemingly chaotic world torn by religious controversies. This kind of esteem for the mathematical sciences did not presuppose expert knowledge. Hence, the fact that August does not appear to have read the mathematical books he collected does not come as a contradiction. On the contrary, for August it sufficed to recognize the potential of the mathematical sciences, which he brought into life through the creation of a specialized library that developed a rhetoric of its own. The collection of his Kunstkammer library spoke of a

  5. What makes deeply encoded items memorable? Insights into the levels of processing framework from neuroimaging and neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eGalli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When we form new memories, their mnestic fate largely depends upon the cognitive operations set in train during encoding. A typical observation in experimental as well as everyday life settings is that if we learn an item using semantic or deep operations, such as attending to its meaning, memory will be better than if we learn the same item using more shallow operations, such as attending to its structural features. In the psychological literature, this phenomenon has been conceptualised within the levels of processing framework and has been consistently replicated since its original proposal by Craik and Lockhart in 1972. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the memory advantage for deeply encoded items are not yet entirely understood. A cognitive neuroscience perspective can add to this field by clarifying the nature of the processes involved in effective deep and shallow encoding and how they are instantiated in the brain, but so far there has been little work to systematically integrate findings from the literature. This work aims to fill this gap by reviewing, first, some of the key neuroimaging findings on the neural correlates of deep and shallow episodic encoding and second, emerging evidence from studies using neuromodulatory approaches such as psychopharmacology and non invasive brain stimulation. Taken together, these studies help further our understanding of levels of processing. In addition, by showing that deep encoding can be modulated by acting upon specific brain regions or systems, the reviewed studies pave the way for selective enhancements of episodic encoding processes

  6. What makes deeply encoded items memorable? Insights into the levels of processing framework from neuroimaging and neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    When we form new memories, their mnestic fate largely depends upon the cognitive operations set in train during encoding. A typical observation in experimental as well as everyday life settings is that if we learn an item using semantic or "deep" operations, such as attending to its meaning, memory will be better than if we learn the same item using more "shallow" operations, such as attending to its structural features. In the psychological literature, this phenomenon has been conceptualized within the "levels of processing" framework and has been consistently replicated since its original proposal by Craik and Lockhart in 1972. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the memory advantage for deeply encoded items are not yet entirely understood. A cognitive neuroscience perspective can add to this field by clarifying the nature of the processes involved in effective deep and shallow encoding and how they are instantiated in the brain, but so far there has been little work to systematically integrate findings from the literature. This work aims to fill this gap by reviewing, first, some of the key neuroimaging findings on the neural correlates of deep and shallow episodic encoding and second, emerging evidence from studies using neuromodulatory approaches such as psychopharmacology and non-invasive brain stimulation. Taken together, these studies help further our understanding of levels of processing. In addition, by showing that deep encoding can be modulated by acting upon specific brain regions or systems, the reviewed studies pave the way for selective enhancements of episodic encoding processes.

  7. Machine Learning via Mathematical Programming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mamgasarian, Olivi

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical programming approaches were applied to a variety of problems in machine learning in order to gain deeper understanding of the problems and to come up with new and more efficient computational algorithms...

  8. Constraining the physical structure of the inner few 100 AU scales of deeply embedded low-mass protostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M. V.; Harsono, D.; Tobin, J. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Murillo, N.; Lai, S.-P.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The physical structure of deeply embedded low-mass protostars (Class 0) on scales of less than 300 AU is still poorly constrained. While molecular line observations demonstrate the presence of disks with Keplerian rotation toward a handful of sources, others show no hint of rotation. Determining the structure on small scales (a few 100 AU) is crucial for understanding the physical and chemical evolution from cores to disks. Aims: We determine the presence and characteristics of compact, disk-like structures in deeply embedded low-mass protostars. A related goal is investigating how the derived structure affects the determination of gas-phase molecular abundances on hot-core scales. Methods: Two models of the emission, a Gaussian disk intensity distribution and a parametrized power-law disk model, are fitted to subarcsecond resolution interferometric continuum observations of five Class 0 sources, including one source with a confirmed Keplerian disk. Prior to fitting the models to the de-projected real visibilities, the estimated envelope from an independent model and any companion sources are subtracted. For reference, a spherically symmetric single power-law envelope is fitted to the larger scale emission (~1000 AU) and investigated further for one of the sources on smaller scales. Results: The radii of the fitted disk-like structures range from ~90-170 AU, and the derived masses depend on the method. Using the Gaussian disk model results in masses of 54-556 × 10-3 M⊙, and using the power-law disk model gives 9-140 × 10-3 M⊙. While the disk radii agree with previous estimates the masses are different for some of the sources studied. Assuming a typical temperature distribution (r-0.5), the fractional amount of mass in the disk above 100 K varies from 7% to 30%. Conclusions: A thin disk model can approximate the emission and physical structure in the inner few 100 AU scales of the studied deeply embedded low-mass protostars and paves the way for

  9. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  10. Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The language barrier education in Africa: The challenge of learning and teaching mathematics in a second language · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J Ibe, K Ekpo, O Akpan, UE Uyoata ...

  11. Mathematical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.

  12. Algorithmic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hougardy, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

  13. Earthquake response characteristics of large structure 'JOYO' deeply embedded in quaternary ground, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Hiroshi; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Hanada, Kazutake; Sawada, Makoto.

    1987-01-01

    In order to examine aseismicity of embedded structure and to clarify embedment effect, earthquake observations of the large structure 'JOYO' are carried out which is deeply embedded in quaternary ground, and the results are summarized as follows. (1) Amplification factors of horizontal component in ground surface is about 3 to 4 times against the bedrock. Contrastively on the structure, any amplification is not observed at the underground portion, however, little amplification exists at the ground portion of structure. (2) Transfer function of structure has several predominant peaks at frequencies of 4.3 Hz and 8.0 Hz which are well coincided with values obtained from force excitation tests. It is shown that transfer function between basement and ground surface is similar to that between ground of same level to basement and ground surface, suggesting the behavior of basement to be able to estimate by these under ground earthquake motion. (3) According to earthquake motion analysis using S-R models, without regard to consider or not the side ground stiffness, the calculated response values do not so much differ in each model and mostly correspond with observation data, provided that the underground earthquake motion at same level to basement is used as a input wave. Consequently, the behavior of these deeply embedded structure is subject to setting method of input wave rather than modeling method, and it is very useful in design that the most simple model without side ground stiffness can roughly represent the embedment effect. (author)

  14. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off a deuterium target at the HERMES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsisyan, Aram

    2011-05-01

    Deeply virtual Compton scattering is studied in this report, using all data collected at the HERMES experiment from 1996 to 2005. Azimuthal asymmetries with respect to beam-helicity, beam-charge and target polarization alone and also to their different combinations for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons in deep-inelastic scattering from a both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized deuterium targets are measured. The asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The asymmetries are observed in the exclusive region -(1.5) 2 GeV 2 2 X 2 GeV 2 of the squared missing mass. The dependences of these asymmetries on -t, x N , or Q 2 are investigated. The results include the coherent process ed→edγ and the incoherent process ed→epnγ where in addition a nucleon may be excited to a resonance. For an unpolarized deuterium target, the leading Fourier amplitude of the beam-helicity asymmetry that is sensitive to the interference term is found to be substantial, but no significant t dependence is observed. The leading amplitude of the beam-charge asymmetry is substantial at large -t, but becomes small at small values of -t. The amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetry that are sensitive to the squared DVCS term are found to be consistent with zero. The deuteron Compton form factor H 1 appears to have a similar behavior as H of the proton. (orig.)

  15. Deciphering the recent phylogenetic expansion of the originally deeply rooted Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Solomon A; Namouchi, Amine; Zegeye, Ephrem Debebe; Holm-Hansen, Carol; Norheim, Gunnstein; Abebe, Markos; Aseffa, Abraham; Tønjum, Tone

    2016-06-30

    A deeply rooted phylogenetic lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) termed lineage 7 was discovered in Ethiopia. Whole genome sequencing of 30 lineage 7 strains from patients in Ethiopia was performed. Intra-lineage genome variation was defined and unique characteristics identified with a focus on genes involved in DNA repair, recombination and replication (3R genes). More than 800 mutations specific to M. tuberculosis lineage 7 strains were identified. The proportion of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in 3R genes was higher after the recent expansion of M. tuberculosis lineage 7 strain started. The proportion of nsSNPs in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism was significantly higher before the expansion began. A total of 22346 bp deletions were observed. Lineage 7 strains also exhibited a high number of mutations in genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, transcription, energy production and conversion. We have identified unique genomic signatures of the lineage 7 strains. The high frequency of nsSNP in 3R genes after the phylogenetic expansion may have contributed to recent variability and adaptation. The abundance of mutations in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism before the expansion period may indicate an adaptive response of lineage 7 strains to enable survival, potentially under environmental stress exposure. As lineage 7 strains originally were phylogenetically deeply rooted, this may indicate fundamental adaptive genomic pathways affecting the fitness of M. tuberculosis as a species.

  16. Time-Domain Sub-mm Astronomy. Measuring the Accretion Variability of Deeply Embedded Protostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    During the protostellar phase of stellar evolution, accretion is expected to be variable, but this variability has been difficult to detect because protostars are deeply embedded. We have undertaken a 3-year dedicated JCMT/SCUBA-2 monitoring program of eight nearby star-forming regions (Herczeg et al. 2017) to search for sub-mm brightness variations as a proxy of episodic accretion. Here, we describe a sub-mm luminosity burst of the Class I protostar EC 53 in Serpens Main (Yoo et al. 2017). The change in sub-mm brightness of EC 53 is interpreted as dust heating in the envelope, generated by a luminosity increase of the protostar. The sub-mm lightcurve resembles the historical K-band lightcurve, which varies by a factor of ˜6 with a 543 period and is interpreted as accretion variability excited by interactions between the accretion disk and a close binary system. We further compare archival SCUBA-2 observations against the first year of our survey (Mairs et al. 2017) and perform a statistical analysis of the first eighteen months of the survey (Johnstone et al. 2017). We conclude that greater than 5% of the known deeply embedded protostars are found to vary in the sub-mm.

  17. Subarcsecond resolution observations of warm water towards three deeply embedded low-mass protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2012-01-01

    and shocks. In this paper we probe the mechanism regulating the warm gas-phase water abundance in the innermost hundred AU of deeply embedded (Class~0) low-mass protostars, and investigate its chemical relationship to other molecular species during these stages. Millimeter wavelength thermal emission from...... the para-H2-18O 3(1,3)-2(2,0) (Eu=203.7 K) line is imaged at high angular resolution (0.75"; 190 AU) with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer towards the deeply embedded low-mass protostars NGC 1333-IRAS2A and NGC 1333-IRAS4A. Compact H2-18O emission is detected towards IRAS2A and one of the components...... in the IRAS4A binary; in addition CH3OCH3, C2H5CN, and SO2 are detected. Extended water emission is seen towards IRAS2A, possibly associated with the outflow. The detections in all systems suggests that the presence of water on 96 %) is frozen out on dust grains at these scales. The derived abundances of CH3...

  18. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18...

  19. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15...

  20. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  1. Mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pestman, Wiebe R

    2009-01-01

    This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

  2. Mathematical foundation for computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Vashanti, M

    2013-01-01

    "Mathematical Foundation For Computer Science", a textbook covers mathematical logic, Normal Forms, Graphs, Trees and Relations. The emphasis in the book is on the presentation of fundamentals and theoretical concepts in an intelligible and easy to understand manner. Every topic is illustrated with a number of problems of increasing complexities which will help the beginner understand the fundamentals involved and enable them to solve various problems.

  3. Significance of Learner's Externalization and Argumentation in Research on Mathematics Education : Based on epistemology of mathematics and epistemology in mathematics education

    OpenAIRE

    松島, 充

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to investigate relation between externalization by oral language and understanding in mathematics education, and to clarify epistemology in mathematics education whichhas deep relation in a Jigsaw method. Method of this study is literature study on epistemology. Epistemology of mathematics and epistemology in mathematics education are analyzed from the standpoints of the relation between externalization by oral language and understanding in mathematics education...

  4. Mathematics for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Dennery, Philippe

    1967-01-01

    ""A fine example of how to present 'classical' physical mathematics."" - American ScientistWritten for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this volume provides a thorough background in the mathematics needed to understand today's more advanced topics in physics and engineering. Without sacrificing rigor, the authors develop the theoretical material at length, in a highly readable, and, wherever possible, in an intuitive manner. Each abstract idea is accompanied by a very simple, concrete example, showing the student that the abstraction is merely a generalization from easily understo

  5. Mathematical modelling of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gombert, Andreas Karoly; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical models of the cellular metabolism have a special interest within biotechnology. Many different kinds of commercially important products are derived from the cell factory, and metabolic engineering can be applied to improve existing production processes, as well as to make new processes...... available. Both stoichiometric and kinetic models have been used to investigate the metabolism, which has resulted in defining the optimal fermentation conditions, as well as in directing the genetic changes to be introduced in order to obtain a good producer strain or cell line. With the increasing...... availability of genomic information and powerful analytical techniques, mathematical models also serve as a tool for understanding the cellular metabolism and physiology....

  6. Reading--Study Skills in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Thomas G.

    Some general suggestions for the teaching of mathematics study skills are provided in this paper. The suggestions offered are as follows: (1) teach the specialized mathematical vocabulary directly, (2) show students how the mathematical symbol system works, (3) give practice in understanding graphics, (4) give practice in spotting unstated…

  7. Why Do Spatial Abilities Predict Mathematical Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Dale, Philip S.; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance.…

  8. Nine Actions to Build Students' Mathematics Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Kenna

    2010-01-01

    The author was asked to develop a list of actions that teachers could take to build students' mathematics abilities. Too many students fail to graduate and fail to pass state assessments as a result of weak mathematics skills. Even many students who do graduate leave high school lacking sufficient understanding of mathematics to pass college…

  9. Missing the Promise of Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) have exerted enormous pressure on every participant in a child's education. Students are struggling to meet new standards for mathematics learning, and parents are struggling to understand how to help them. Teachers are growing in their capacity to develop new mathematical competencies, and…

  10. Research mathematicians’ practices in selecting mathematical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2015-01-01

    Developing abilities to create, inquire into, qualify, and choose among mathematical problems is an important educational goal. In this paper, we elucidate how mathematicians work with mathematical problems in order to understand this mathematical process. More specifically, we investigate how ma...... in problem solving and students’ conceptions of solvability and relevance of or interest in a mathematical problem are areas of research suggested by our study.......Developing abilities to create, inquire into, qualify, and choose among mathematical problems is an important educational goal. In this paper, we elucidate how mathematicians work with mathematical problems in order to understand this mathematical process. More specifically, we investigate how...... and suggest that mathematics education research could further investigate how students select and develop problems, work with multiple problems over a longer period of time, and use the solutions to problems to support the development of new problems. Furthermore, the negative emotional aspects of being stuck...

  11. Mathematics for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, John; Jamshidi, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Designed for the 21st century classroom, this textbook poses, refines, and analyzes questions of sustainability in a quantitative environment. Building mathematical knowledge in the context of issues relevant to every global citizen today, this text takes an approach that empowers students of all disciplines to understand and reason with quantitative information. Whatever conclusions may be reached on a given topic, this book will prepare the reader to think critically about their own and other people’s arguments and to support them with careful, mathematical reasoning. Topics are grouped in themes of measurement, flow, connectivity, change, risk, and decision-making. Mathematical thinking is at the fore throughout, as students learn to model sustainability on local, regional, and global scales. Exercises emphasize concepts, while projects build and challenge communication skills. With no prerequisites beyond high school algebra, instructors will find this book a rich resource for engaging all majors in the...

  12. Basic mathematics for biochemists

    CERN Document Server

    Cornish-Bowden, Athel

    1981-01-01

    Some teachers of biochemistry think it positively beneficial for students to struggle with difficult mathematics. I do not number myself among these people, although I have derived much personal pleasure from the study of mathematics and from applying it to problems that interest me in biochemistry. On the contrary, I think that students choose courses in biochemistry out of interest in biochemistry and that they should not be encumbered with more mathematics than is absolutely required for a proper understanding of biochemistry. This of course includes physical chemistry, because a biochemist ignorant of physical chemistry is no biochemist. I have been guided by these beliefs in writing this book. I have laid heavy emphasis on those topics, such as the use of logarithms, that play an important role in biochemistry and often cause problems in teaching; I have ignored others, such as trigonometry, that one can manage without. The proper treatment of statistics has been more difficult to decide. Although it cle...

  13. Deeply infiltrating endometriosis: Evaluation of retro-cervical space on MRI after vaginal opacification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiaschetti, Valeria; Crusco, Sonia; Meschini, Alessandro; Cama, Valentina; Di Vito, Livio; Marziali, Massimiliano; Piccione, Emilio; Calabria, Ferdinando; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate diagnostic value and tolerability of MRI after intra-vaginal gel opacification for diagnosis and preoperative assessment of deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Methods: Sixty-three women with clinical suspicion of deeply infiltrating endometriosis were previously examined with trans-vaginal ultrasonography and then with MRI pre and post administration of vaginal gel. We evaluated the tolerability of this procedure with a scoring scale from 0 to 3. We also assessed with a score from 1 to 4 the visibility of four regions: Douglas-pouch, utero-sacral-ligaments, posterior-vaginal-fornix and recto-vaginal-septum. All patients underwent laparoscopic surgery after MRI. Results: Five patients considered procedure intolerable. Visibility of utero-sacral-ligaments and posterior-vaginal-fornix showed to be increased with gel (p < 0.001). In 57 out of 80 patients the MRI has allowed us to diagnose deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Overall, the percentages of MRI-sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were respectively 67.8%, 95.3%, 89.4 and 83.5% without gel, and 90.8%, 94.6%, 90.8% and 94.6% with gel; trans-vaginal ultrasonography sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 57.5%, 96.6%, 90.9% and 79.5%. In evaluation of utero-sacral-ligaments trans-vaginal ultrasonography, MRI without gel and with gel sensitivity was respectively 61.9%, 47.6% and 81%; for recto-vaginal-septum these values were 12.5%, 68.7% and 93.7%; for pouch of Douglas 82%, 87% and 97.4%; finally for posterior-vaginal-fornix 27.3%, 36.4% and 81.8%. Conclusions: MRI with gel opacification of vagina should be recommended for suspicion of deep infiltrating endometriosis, in particular for the added value in evaluation of recto-vaginal septum, utero-sacral ligaments and posterior vaginal fornix.

  14. Deeply infiltrating endometriosis: Evaluation of retro-cervical space on MRI after vaginal opacification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiaschetti, Valeria; Crusco, Sonia [Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico ' Tor Vergata' , Viale Oxford 81, Rome (Italy); Meschini, Alessandro, E-mail: a.mesko@libero.it [Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico ' Tor Vergata' , Viale Oxford 81, Rome (Italy); Cama, Valentina; Di Vito, Livio [Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico ' Tor Vergata' , Viale Oxford 81, Rome (Italy); Marziali, Massimiliano; Piccione, Emilio [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Fondazione Policlinico ' Tor Vergata' , Viale Oxford 81, Rome (Italy); Calabria, Ferdinando [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy); Simonetti, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico ' Tor Vergata' , Viale Oxford 81, Rome (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate diagnostic value and tolerability of MRI after intra-vaginal gel opacification for diagnosis and preoperative assessment of deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Methods: Sixty-three women with clinical suspicion of deeply infiltrating endometriosis were previously examined with trans-vaginal ultrasonography and then with MRI pre and post administration of vaginal gel. We evaluated the tolerability of this procedure with a scoring scale from 0 to 3. We also assessed with a score from 1 to 4 the visibility of four regions: Douglas-pouch, utero-sacral-ligaments, posterior-vaginal-fornix and recto-vaginal-septum. All patients underwent laparoscopic surgery after MRI. Results: Five patients considered procedure intolerable. Visibility of utero-sacral-ligaments and posterior-vaginal-fornix showed to be increased with gel (p < 0.001). In 57 out of 80 patients the MRI has allowed us to diagnose deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Overall, the percentages of MRI-sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were respectively 67.8%, 95.3%, 89.4 and 83.5% without gel, and 90.8%, 94.6%, 90.8% and 94.6% with gel; trans-vaginal ultrasonography sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 57.5%, 96.6%, 90.9% and 79.5%. In evaluation of utero-sacral-ligaments trans-vaginal ultrasonography, MRI without gel and with gel sensitivity was respectively 61.9%, 47.6% and 81%; for recto-vaginal-septum these values were 12.5%, 68.7% and 93.7%; for pouch of Douglas 82%, 87% and 97.4%; finally for posterior-vaginal-fornix 27.3%, 36.4% and 81.8%. Conclusions: MRI with gel opacification of vagina should be recommended for suspicion of deep infiltrating endometriosis, in particular for the added value in evaluation of recto-vaginal septum, utero-sacral ligaments and posterior vaginal fornix.

  15. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations

  16. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations.

  17. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations

  18. Mathematics for Parents: Facilitating Parents' and Children's Understanding in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil, Marta; Guevara, Cristi; Allexsaht-Snider, Martha

    The study examines ethnically and linguistically diverse parents' learning in an eight-week Math for Parents course on fractions, decimals and percentages. Analysis of classroom observations, interviews, focus groups, written feedback, videotapes, and task-based/clinical interviews provided rich data yielding findings about both parents' affective…

  19. Mathematical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: ·         simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure ·         by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics ·         together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective ·         to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...

  20. Study on vertical seismic response characteristics of deeply embedded reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, H.; Nakamura, N.; Uchiyama, S.; Fukuoka, A.; Ishizaki, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes vertical response characteristics, especially effects of embedment, and analytical methods for seismic design of a deeply embedded reactor building. The influence of embedment on vertical response was found to be minimal by evaluating results of forced vibration tests of a reactor building model and performing simplified analyses. Subsequently, simulation analyses of the forced vibration test and actual earthquake induced response were performed using both the axisymmetric FEM model and the simplified mass and spring model. It was concluded that the analytical models taking the embedment into the consideration closely simulated the observation records, and the omission of embedment in the analyses tended to increase the predicted response which was conservative in respect an actual design consideration. (author)

  1. Beam-helicity asymmetry arising from deeply virtual Compton scattering measured with kinematically complete event reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2012-06-15

    The beam-helicity asymmetry in exclusive electroproduction of real photons by the longitudinally polarized HERA positron beam scattering off an unpolarized hydrogen target is measured at HERMES. The asymmetry arises from deeply virtual Compton scattering and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. Azimuthal amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetry are extracted from a data sample consisting of ep{yields}ep{gamma} events with detection of all particles in the final state including the recoiling proton. The installation of a recoil detector, while reducing the acceptance of the experiment, allows the elimination of resonant background that was estimated to contribute an average of about 12% to the signal in previous HERMES publications. The removal of the resonant background from the present data sample is shown to increase the magnitude of the leading asymmetry amplitude by 0.054{+-}0.016 to -0.328{+-}0.027(stat.){+-}0.045(syst.).

  2. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18)O and δ(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  3. One-particle inclusive processes in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Graudenz, Dirk

    1994-01-01

    Abstract: The one-particle inclusive cross section in deeply inelastic lepton--nucleon scattering, expressed in terms of parton densities and fragmentation functions being differential in the invariant mass of the observed hadron and of the incoming nucleon, diverges if this invariant mass vanishes. This divergence can be traced back to the kinematical configuration where the parent parton of the observed hadron is emitted collinearly from the incoming parton of the QCD subprocess. By using the concept of ``fracture functions'', which has recently been introduced by Trentadue and Veneziano, it is possible to absorb this divergence in these new distribution functions as long as the observed hadron is not soft. This procedure allows the determination of a finite one-particle inclusive cross section in next-to-leading order QCD perturbation theory. We give details of the calculation and the explicit form of the bare fracture functions in terms of the renormalized ones.

  4. Measurement of azimuthal asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on an unpolarized deuterium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Amarian, M.; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 00-689 Warsaw (Poland); Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Avetisyan, E. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Ball, B. [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Belostotski, S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad region 188300 (Russian Federation); Bianchi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boettcher, H. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Borissov, A. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bowles, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Bryzgalov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region 142281 (Russian Federation); Burns, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Capiluppi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Capitani, G.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2010-04-11

    Azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of a real photon from an unpolarized deuterium target are measured with respect to beam helicity and charge. They appear in the distribution of these photons in the azimuthal angle phi around the virtual-photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The extracted asymmetries are attributed to either the deeply virtual Compton scattering process or its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. They are compared with earlier results on the proton target. In the measured kinematic region, the beam-charge asymmetry amplitudes and the leading amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetries on an unpolarized deuteron target are compatible with the results from unpolarized protons.

  5. Search for deeply bound pionic states in 208Pb via radiative atomic capture of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raywood, K.J.; Lange, J.B.; Jones, G.; Pavan, M.; Sevior, M.E.; Hutcheon, D.A.; Olin, A.; Ottewell, D.; Yen, S.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, K.S.; Altman, A.; Friedman, E.; Trudel, A.

    1997-01-01

    A search for narrow, deeply bound pionic atom states via atomic radiative capture of negative pions in a target of 208 Pb was carried out for pion kinetic energies of 20 and 25 MeV. Although no clear signature of any such gamma ray emission could be observed in the data, fits of the gamma ray spectra between the energies of 12 and 42 MeV involving a quadratic background together with a pair of peaks (1s, 2p) whose relative intensity was taken from theory yielded an overall strength for the peaks which are consistent (to a 67% confidence level) with radiative capture whose integrated cross section is 20.0 ± 10.0 μb/sr at 90 degree for 20 MeV incident pions. A lower probability (40% confidence level) result was obtained when the fit was carried out without the peaks included, just the continuum background. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Physical mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Unique in its clarity, examples and range, Physical Mathematics explains as simply as possible the mathematics that graduate students and professional physicists need in their courses and research. The author illustrates the mathematics with numerous physical examples drawn from contemporary research. In addition to basic subjects such as linear algebra, Fourier analysis, complex variables, differential equations and Bessel functions, this textbook covers topics such as the singular-value decomposition, Lie algebras, the tensors and forms of general relativity, the central limit theorem and Kolmogorov test of statistics, the Monte Carlo methods of experimental and theoretical physics, the renormalization group of condensed-matter physics and the functional derivatives and Feynman path integrals of quantum field theory.

  7. Mathematical writing

    CERN Document Server

    Vivaldi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student.   The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition.   Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...

  8. Mathematical tapas

    CERN Document Server

    Hiriart-Urruty, Jean-Baptiste

    This book contains a collection of exercises (called “tapas”) at undergraduate level, mainly from the fields of real analysis, calculus, matrices, convexity, and optimization. Most of the problems presented here are non-standard and some require broad knowledge of different mathematical subjects in order to be solved. The author provides some hints and (partial) answers and also puts these carefully chosen exercises into context, presents information on their origins, and comments on possible extensions. With stars marking the levels of difficulty, these tapas show or prove something interesting, challenge the reader to solve and learn, and may have surprising results. This first volume of Mathematical Tapas will appeal to mathematicians, motivated undergraduate students from science-based areas, and those generally interested in mathematics.

  9. Mathematical biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This book presents concise descriptions and analysis of the classical and modern models used in mathematical biophysics. The authors ask the question "what new information can be provided by the models that cannot be obtained directly from experimental data?" Actively developing fields such as regulatory mechanisms in cells and subcellular systems and electron transport and energy transport in membranes are addressed together with more classical topics such as metabolic processes, nerve conduction and heart activity, chemical kinetics, population dynamics, and photosynthesis. The main approach is to describe biological processes using different mathematical approaches necessary to reveal characteristic features and properties of simulated systems. With the emergence of powerful mathematics software packages such as MAPLE, Mathematica, Mathcad, and MatLab, these methodologies are now accessible to a wide audience. Provides succinct but authoritative coverage of a broad array of biophysical topics and models Wr...

  10. Jet shapes in charm photoproduction and deeply inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grell, Brian Rosenvold

    2010-09-15

    This analysis investigates charm production processes in photoproduction and deeply inelastic scattering. The analysed data was collected with the H1 detector at the HERA accelerator in the years 1999-2000 for photoproduction and 2004-2007 for deeply inelastic scattering, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 83 pb{sup -1}, respectively 348 pb{sup -1}. Dijet events are selected with jet transverse momenta of at least 5 GeV, respectively 4 GeV, in the central rapidity region. One jet is tagged by a D{sup *} meson to be initiated by a charm quark. The other is studied with respect to its mean integrated jet shape in order to deduce to which fraction it is initiated by a quark or a gluon. The jet shape is described by the fraction {psi}(r) of the jet energy inside a cone of radius r around the jet axis; it is found that for r=0:6, {psi}(r) is most sensitive to differences between charm and light quark or gluon jets. The shape is measured as a function of various kinematic variables such as the jet energy and pseudorapidity, photon virtuality and x{sub {gamma}}{sup obs}, the fraction of the photon momentum entering the hard interaction. The photoproduction data is compared to Pythia, the DIS data to RapGap Monte Carlo simulations. In the Monte Carlo calculation, direct and resolved photon processes are simulated separately to compare samples with an enriched fraction of quark, respectively gluon initiated jets. Deviations at low x{sub {gamma}}{sup obs} are observed for higher values of Q{sup 2}, where direct and resolved expectations are nearly identical, hinting at an overestimation of gluon initiated jets. In most regions of phase space though, the resolution of the measurement excels the difference between direct and resolved predictions, allowing a distinction of such event samples. (orig.)

  11. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off a deuterium target at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movsisyan, Aram

    2011-05-15

    Deeply virtual Compton scattering is studied in this report, using all data collected at the HERMES experiment from 1996 to 2005. Azimuthal asymmetries with respect to beam-helicity, beam-charge and target polarization alone and also to their different combinations for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons in deep-inelastic scattering from a both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized deuterium targets are measured. The asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The asymmetries are observed in the exclusive region -(1.5){sup 2} GeV{sup 2}

  12. Fossilization and degradation of archaeal intact polar tetraether lipids in deeply buried marine sediments (Peru Margin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengger, Sabine K; Hopmans, Ellen C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids are part of the cellular membranes of Thaumarchaeota, an archaeal phylum composed of aerobic ammonia oxidizers, and are used in the paleotemperature proxy TEX86 . GDGTs in live cells possess polar head groups and are called intact polar lipids (IPL-GDGTs). Their transformation to core lipids (CL) by cleavage of the head group was assumed to proceed rapidly after cell death, but it has been suggested that some of these IPL-GDGTs can, just like the CL-GDGTs, be preserved over geological timescales. Here, we examined IPL-GDGTs in deeply buried (0.2-186 mbsf, ~2.5 Myr) sediments from the Peru Margin. Direct measurements of the most abundant IPL-GDGT, IPL-crenarchaeol, specific for Thaumarchaeota, revealed depth profiles, which differed per head group. Shallow sediments (1 m) marine sediments, which only reported glycosidic and no phosphate-containing IPL-GDGTs. TEX86 values of CL-GDGTs did not markedly change with depth, and the TEX86 of IPL-derived GDGTs decreased only when the proportions of monohexose- to dihexose-GDGTs changed, likely due to the enhanced preservation of the monohexose GDGTs. Our results support the hypothesis that in situ GDGT production and differential IPL degradation in sediments is not substantially affecting TEX86 paleotemperature estimations based on CL-GDGTs and indicates that likely only a small amount of IPL-GDGTs present in deeply buried sediments is part of cell membranes of active archaea. The amount of archaeal biomass in the deep biosphere based on these IPLs may have been substantially overestimated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Imaging of Au nanoparticles deeply buried in polymer matrix by various atomic force microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kuniko; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Recently, some papers reported successful imaging of subsurface features using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Some theoretical studies have also been presented, however the imaging mechanisms are not fully understood yet. In the preceeding papers, imaging of deeply buried nanometer-scale features has been successful only if they were buried in a soft matrix. In this paper, subsurface features (Au nanoparticles) buried in a soft polymer matrix were visualized. To elucidate the imaging mechanisms, various AFM techniques; heterodyne force microscopy, ultrasonic atomic force microscopy (UAFM), 2nd-harmonic UAFM and force modulation microscopy (FMM) were employed. The particles buried under 960 nm from the surface were successfully visualized which has never been achieved. The results elucidated that it is important for subsurface imaging to choose a cantilever with a suitable stiffness range for a matrix. In case of using the most suitable cantilever, the nanoparticles were visualized using every technique shown above except for FMM. The experimental results suggest that the subsurface features buried in a soft matrix with a depth of at least 1 µm can affect the local viscoelasticity (mainly viscosity) detected as the variation of the amplitude and phase of the tip oscillation on the surface. This phenomenon presumably makes it possible to visualize such deeply buried nanometer-scale features in a soft matrix. - Highlights: • We visualized subsurface features buried in soft matrix, and investigated its imaging mechanism. • AFM techniques; UAFM, FMM, HFM and 2nd-harmonic UAFM were applied to elucidate the mechanism. • Au nanoparticles buried under 960 nm from surface were visualized, which has never been achieved. • Imaging at contact resonance using a cantilever of suitable stiffness is important. • Subsurface features in a soft matrix affect surface viscoelasticity, which are detected by AFM

  14. Mathematical Lives

    CERN Document Server

    Bartocci, Claudio; Guerraggio, Angelo; Lucchetti, Roberto; Williams, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Steps forward in mathematics often reverberate in other scientific disciplines, and give rise to innovative conceptual developments or find surprising technological applications. This volume brings to the forefront some of the proponents of the mathematics of the twentieth century, who have put at our disposal new and powerful instruments for investigating the reality around us. The portraits present people who have impressive charisma and wide-ranging cultural interests, who are passionate about defending the importance of their own research, are sensitive to beauty, and attentive to the soci

  15. Mathematical papers

    CERN Document Server

    Green, George

    2005-01-01

    An almost entirely self-taught mathematical genius, George Green (1793 -1841) is best known for Green's theorem, which is used in almost all computer codes that solve partial differential equations. He also published influential essays, or papers, in the fields of hydrodynamics, electricity, and magnetism. This collection comprises his most significant works.The first paper, ""An Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism,"" which is also the longest and perhaps the most Important, appeared In 1828. It introduced the term potential as desig

  16. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able....... Having completed this the student is able to carry out the following: Expressions and sets: Define a set; define a logic expression; negate a logic expression; combine logic expressions; construct a truth table for a logic expression; apply reduction rules for logic expressions. Apply these concepts...

  17. Motivated Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Aubin, J.-P.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematics seems to be treated at IIASA as if it were some sort of shameful disease, carefully hidden away in departments labelled with trendy but unrevealing names. Any debate about the role of mathematics and mathematicians at IIASA appears fated to be confused by the introduction of many seemingly unrelated issues, by the fact that many of the protagonists have their own vested interests to protect, and by the fact--why not admit it--that there are many dark fears of the more "esoteric" s...

  18. Mathematical stereochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Shinsaku

    2015-01-01

    Chirality and stereogenicity are closely related concepts and their differentiation and description is still a challenge in chemoinformatics. A new stereoisogram approach, developed by the author, is introduced in this book, providing a theoretical framework for mathematical aspects of modern stereochemistry. The discussion covers point-groups and permutation symmetry and exemplifies the concepts using organic molecules and inorganic complexes.

  19. Mathematical quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Weaver, Nik

    2001-01-01

    With a unique approach and presenting an array of new and intriguing topics, Mathematical Quantization offers a survey of operator algebras and related structures from the point of view that these objects are quantizations of classical mathematical structures. This approach makes possible, with minimal mathematical detail, a unified treatment of a variety of topics.Detailed here for the first time, the fundamental idea of mathematical quantization is that sets are replaced by Hilbert spaces. Building on this idea, and most importantly on the fact that scalar-valued functions on a set correspond to operators on a Hilbert space, one can determine quantum analogs of a variety of classical structures. In particular, because topologies and measure classes on a set can be treated in terms of scalar-valued functions, we can transfer these constructions to the quantum realm, giving rise to C*- and von Neumann algebras.In the first half of the book, the author quickly builds the operator algebra setting. He uses this ...

  20. Outdoor Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    One of the most interesting developments in teaching has been the growing importance of the outdoor environment. Whether it be playground, garden or field, the outdoors offers a range of challenging experiences, especially in the delivery of early mathematics. Oral feedback to parents, together with photographic displays, can show them that…

  1. Noncommutative mathematics for quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Noncommutative mathematics is a significant new trend of mathematics. Initially motivated by the development of quantum physics, the idea of 'making theory noncommutative' has been extended to many areas of pure and applied mathematics. This book is divided into two parts. The first part provides an introduction to quantum probability, focusing on the notion of independence in quantum probability and on the theory of quantum stochastic processes with independent and stationary increments. The second part provides an introduction to quantum dynamical systems, discussing analogies with fundamental problems studied in classical dynamics. The desire to build an extension of the classical theory provides new, original ways to understand well-known 'commutative' results. On the other hand the richness of the quantum mathematical world presents completely novel phenomena, never encountered in the classical setting. This book will be useful to students and researchers in noncommutative probability, mathematical physi...

  2. The language of mathematics telling mathematical tales

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Everyday mathematical ideas are expressed differently in different languages. This book probes those differences and explores their implications for mathematics education, arguing for alternatives to how we teach and learn mathematics.

  3. Psychology's Role in Mathematics and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Nora S.; Ambady, Nalini; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Gomez, Louis; Klahr, David; Linn, Marcia; Miller, Kevin; Mix, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Improving mathematics and science education in the United States has been a matter of national concern for over half a century. Psychology has a vital role to play in this enterprise. In this article, the authors review the kinds of contributions that psychology can make in four areas: (a) early understanding of mathematics, (b) understanding of…

  4. Mathematical Investigations in the Reviewed Basic School Curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematics teachers are called upon to use innovative teaching methods capable of developing mathematical understanding, inquiry, problem solving skills, and interest in children. This paper examines the role of investigations in the child's mathematical development. It looks at the nature of mathematical investigations ...

  5. The Language of Mathematics: The Importance of Teaching and Learning Mathematical Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomini, Paul J.; Smith, Gregory W.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Fries, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary understanding is a major contributor to overall comprehension in many content areas, including mathematics. Effective methods for teaching vocabulary in all content areas are diverse and long standing. Teaching and learning the language of mathematics is vital for the development of mathematical proficiency. Students' mathematical…

  6. High school mathematics teachers' perspectives on the purposes of mathematical proof in school mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, David S.; Doerr, Helen M.

    2014-12-01

    Proof serves many purposes in mathematics. In this qualitative study of 17 high school mathematics teachers, we found that these teachers perceived that two of the most important purposes for proof in school mathematics were (a) to enhance students' mathematical understanding and (b) to develop generalized thinking skills that were transferable to other fields of endeavor. We found teachers were divided on the characteristics (or features) of proofs that would serve these purposes. Teachers with less experience tended to believe that proofs in the high school should adhere to strict standards of language and reasoning while teachers with more experience tended to believe that proofs based on concrete or visual features were well suited for high school mathematics. This study has implications for teacher preparation because it appears that there is a wide variation in how teachers think about proof. It seems likely that students would experience proof very differently merely because they were seated in different classrooms.

  7. Science and Mathematics in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolack, Edward

    2009-01-01

    A brief historical introduction to the development of observational astronomy will be presented. The close historical relationship between the successful application of mathematical concepts and advances in astronomy will be presented. A variety of simple physical demonstrations, hands-on group activities, and puzzles will be used to understand how the properties of light can be used to understand the contents of our universe.

  8. Written feedback to mathematics homework

    OpenAIRE

    Žitko, Urša

    2017-01-01

    This diploma thesis is about teachers’ feedback to students’ mathematics homework. In the theoretical part I present the purpose and history of homework assignments as well as various classifications of types of homework. In general, homework assignments are intended for students to learn and refresh the subject matter they have learnt in class, to gain further understanding, to practice various mathematical processes, and to prepare the student for a forthcoming subject matter. By doing home...

  9. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelec, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  10. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  11. A readable introduction to real mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, Daniel; Rosenthal, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Designed for an undergraduate course or for independent study, this text presents sophisticated mathematical ideas in an elementary and friendly fashion. The fundamental purpose of this book is to engage the reader and to teach a real understanding of mathematical thinking while conveying the beauty and elegance of mathematics. The text focuses on teaching the understanding of mathematical proofs. The material covered has applications both to mathematics and to other subjects. The book contains a large number of exercises of varying difficulty, designed to help reinforce basic concepts and to motivate and challenge the reader. The sole prerequisite for understanding the text is basic high school algebra; some trigonometry is needed for Chapters 9 and 12. Topics covered include: * mathematical induction * modular arithmetic * the fundamental theorem of arithmetic * Fermat's little theorem * RSA encryption * the Euclidean algorithm * rational and irrational numbers * complex numbers * cardinality * Euclidean pl...

  12. Understanding Islam: Perspectives of a Turkish Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunel, Elvan

    2008-01-01

    Students come from many different family, cultural, and religious backgrounds. Learning about Islam can help U.S. teachers to understand their students and their own society, as well as to more deeply comprehend history and better interpret current events. In this article, the author recommends some websites (and occasionally books) that can…

  13. Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction Analyses of a Deeply Embedded Model Reactor – SASSI Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie J.; Braverman J.; Costantino, M.

    2013-10-31

    This report summarizes the SASSI analyses of a deeply embedded reactor model performed by BNL and CJC and Associates, as part of the seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) simulation capability project for the NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) Program of the Department of Energy. The SASSI analyses included three cases: 0.2 g, 0.5 g, and 0.9g, all of which refer to nominal peak accelerations at the top of the bedrock. The analyses utilized the modified subtraction method (MSM) for performing the seismic SSI evaluations. Each case consisted of two analyses: input motion in one horizontal direction (X) and input motion in the vertical direction (Z), both of which utilized the same in-column input motion. Besides providing SASSI results for use in comparison with the time domain SSI results obtained using the DIABLO computer code, this study also leads to the recognition that the frequency-domain method should be modernized so that it can better serve its mission-critical role for analysis and design of nuclear power plants.

  14. The interventional diagnosis and therapy for thyroid disease should be studied deeply and developed prudently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wei; Cheng Yongde

    2007-01-01

    Many details concerning the interventional diagnosis and therapy of thyroid disease need to be studied deeply and carefully; for example, the thyroid applied anatomy, especially the anatomical imageology study of the thyroid arterial anastomosis involving the therapeutic effects and complications, the thyroid artery embolization treatment, presently as a substitution or the supplement therapy for the traditional classical therapy of Graves disease. There are many exploration to extend the indication scope, the therapeutic effect, embolization scope in intervention for Graves disease due to having no accurate individual quantification standard, and so on. The thyroid arterial embolization for Graves disease is to reduce the main cause of thyroxin secretion. Simultaneously, the comprehensive therapeutic effects might have possibly produce the thyroidcytic apoptosis and immune adjustments. Serious complications such as the cerebral infarction, the hyperthyroidism crisis, the hypocalcemia, the periodic paralysis, and so on commonly occured in thyroid arterial embolization. It is necessary to keep strictly the procedure rule and the indication. The mid-and long- term therapeutic effect of thyroid artery embolization for Graves disease is good, but still need more extensive and prudent research for the prospective achievement. (authors)

  15. Experimental setup for deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) experiment in hall A at Jefferson Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camsonne, A.

    2005-11-01

    The Hall A Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) experiment used the 5.757 GeV polarized electron beam available at Jefferson Laboratory and ran from september until december 2004. Using the standard Hall A left high resolution spectrometer three kinematical points were taken at a fixed x b (jorken) = 0.32 value for three Q 2 values: 1.5 GeV 2 , 1.91 GeV 2 , 2.32 GeV 2 . An electromagnetic Lead Fluoride calorimeter and a proton detector scintillator array designed to work at a luminosity of 10 37 cm -2 s -1 were added to ensure the exclusivity of the DVCS reaction. In addition to the new detectors new custom electronics was used: a calorimeter trigger module which determines if an electron photon coincidence has occurred and a sampling system allowing to deal with pile-up events during the offline analysis. Finally the data from the kinematic at Q 2 = 2.32 GeV 2 and s = 5.6 GeV 2 allowed to get a preliminary result for the exclusive π 0 electroproduction on the proton. (author)

  16. Coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering off 3He and neutron generalized parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Matteo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been recently proposed to study coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS off 3He nuclei to access neutron generalized parton distributions (GPDs. In particular, it has been shown that, in Impulse Approximation (IA and at low momentum transfer, the sum of the quark helicity conserving GPDs of 3He, H and E, is dominated by the neutron contribution. This peculiar result makes the 3He target very promising to access the neutron information. We present here the IA calculation of the spin dependent GPD H See Formula in PDF of 3He. Also for this quantity the neutron contribution is found to be the dominant one, at low momentum transfer. The known forward limit of the IA calculation of H See Formula in PDF , yielding the polarized parton distributions of 3He, is correctly recovered. The extraction of the neutron information could be anyway non trivial, so that a procedure, able to take into account the nuclear effects encoded in the IA analysis, is proposed. These calculations, essential for the evaluation of the coherent DVCS cross section asymmetries, which depend on the GPDs H,E and H See Formula in PDF , represent a crucial step for planning possible experiments at Jefferson Lab.

  17. Deeply virtual Compton scattering with the CLAS detector for the study of generalized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, F.X.

    2006-12-01

    The structure of the nucleon, among the first fundamental problems in hadronic physics, is the subject of a renewed interest. The lightest baryonic state has historically been described in two complementary approaches: through elastic scattering, measuring form factors which reflect the spatial shape of charge distributions, and through deep inelastic scattering, providing access to parton distribution functions which encode the momentum content carried by the constituents. The recently developed formalism of Generalized Parton Distributions unifies those approaches and provides access to new informations. The cleanest process sensitive to GPDs is the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) contributing to the ep → epγ reaction. This work deals with a dedicated experiment accomplished with the CLAS detector, completed with two specific equipments: a lead tungstate calorimeter covering photon detection at small angles, and a superconducting solenoid actively shielding the electromagnetic background. The entire project is covered: from the upgrade of the experimental setup, through the update of the software, data taking and analysis, up to a first comparison of the beam spin asymmetry to model predictions. (author)

  18. Many-Objective Robust Decision Making: Managing Water in a Deeply Uncertain World of Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Water resources planning and management has always required the consideration of uncertainties and the associated system vulnerabilities that they may cause. Despite the long legacy of these issues, our decision support frameworks that have dominated the literature over the past 50 years have struggled with the strongly multiobjective and deeply uncertain nature of water resources systems. The term deep uncertainty (or Knightian uncertainty) refers to factors in planning that strongly shape system risks that maybe unknown and even if known there is a strong lack of consensus on their likelihoods over decadal planning horizons (population growth, financial stability, valuation of resources, ecosystem requirements, evolving water institutions, regulations, etc). In this presentation, I will propose and demonstrate the many-objective robust decision making (MORDM) framework for water resources management under deep uncertainty. The MORDM framework will be demonstrated using an urban water portfolio management test case. In the test case, a city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley managing population and drought pressures must cost effectively maintain the reliability of its water supply by blending permanent rights to reservoir inflows with alternative strategies for purchasing water within the region's water market. The case study illustrates the significant potential pitfalls in the classic Cost-Reliability conception of the problem. Moreover, the proposed MORDM framework exploits recent advances in multiobjective search, visualization, and sensitivity analysis to better expose these pitfalls en route to identifying highly robust water planning alternatives.

  19. Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and its t-dependence at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering gamma* p -> gamma p using e-p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 145 pb^-1. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q^2 of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the gamma*p system in the kinematic domain 6.5 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2, where t denotes the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The cross section is determined differentially in t for different Q^2 and W values and exponential t-slope parameters are derived. The measurements are compared to a NLO QCD calculation based on generalised parton distributions. In the context of the dipole approach, the geometric scaling property of the DVCS cross section is studied for different values of t.

  20. Hydration adjacent to a deeply subducting slab: The roles of nominally anhydrous minerals and migrating fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Laura B.; Montési, Laurent G. J.

    2013-11-01

    transport of water into the mantle has significant dynamical and geochemical implications. Dehydration of hydrous phases within the slab can introduce water into the transition zone and lower mantle, potentially hydrating nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) and impacting the viscosity and density structure of the mantle over a wide area. We present models of fluid transport and mantle hydration in the vicinity of a deeply subducting slab, focusing on the fate of water released by deep dehydration reaction in the subducted serpentinized mantle. A sharp decrease in water storage capacity across the lower boundary of the transition zone may produce "secondary dehydration" of hydrated NAM, leading to precipitation of a hydrous fluid and heterogeneous hydration of the transition zone. Rapid fluid migration relative to the solid flow field can lead to a broad region of diffuse hydration within the upper mantle wedge and the potential for localized melt regions at the top of the transition zone coincident with fluid pathways. Slower fluid migration instead implies that the fluid phase can be transported deep into the lower mantle. Water stabilized in NAM and as a free fluid can initiate upwelling within and above the transition zone. A less abrupt change in water storage capacity across the base of the transition zone leads to high NAM water contents in a channel adjacent to the slab where viscosity is reduced. However, seismic and electromagnetic observations of hydration in the transition zone are most compatible with a sudden drop of water storage capacity.

  1. Measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering and its t-dependence at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Insitute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania)]|[Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Aktas, A. [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Insitute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (RO)] (and others)

    2007-09-15

    A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering {gamma}{sup *}p {yields} {gamma}p using e{sup -}p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 145 pb{sup -1}. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q{sup 2} of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the {gamma}{sup *}p system in the kinematic domain 6.5

  2. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off an unpolarised hydrogen target at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jonathan R.T.

    2010-08-15

    Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) i.e. ep {yields} ep{gamma} is the simplest interaction that allows access to Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), a theoretical framework describing nucleon structure. The strong interest in GPDs results from the fact that they can be used to determine the total angular momentum of quarks inside the nucleon and provide a 3-dimensional picture of nucleon structure. The measurement of the DVCS process is facilitated by the interference with a competing interaction known as the Bethe-Heitler process which has the same nal state. DVCS information is obtained from the asymmetrical in distribution of the real photon around the azimuthal angle {phi} at HERMES. Beam charge and beam helicity asymmetries, extracted from DVCS events with an unpolarised hydrogen target recorded during the 2006-2007 and 1996-2007 data taking periods, are presented in this thesis. The asymmetry amplitudes are presented over the range of HERMES kinematic acceptance, with their dependence on kinematic variables t, x{sub B} and Q{sup 2} also shown and compared to a phenomenological model. (orig.)

  3. The HERMES recoil photon detector and the study of deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulse, Charlotte van

    2011-03-15

    The study of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) gives information about the contribution of the quark orbital angular momentum to the spin of the proton. DVCS has been studied at the HERMES experiment at DESY in Hamburg. Here 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons and positrons were scattered off a gaseous proton target. For the analysis of DVCS the recoiling proton could not be detected, but was reconstructed via its missing mass. This method suffers, however, from a 14% background contribution, mainly originating from associated DVCS. In this process the proton does not stay in its ground state but is excited to a {delta}{sup +} resonance. In order to reduce the background contribution down to less than 1%, a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment beginning of 2006. This detector consists of three subcomponents, of which one is the photon detector. The main function of the photon detector is the detection of {delta}{sup +} decay photons. The photon detector was started up and commissioned for the analysis of (associated) DVCS. Subsequently DVCS and associated DVCS were analyzed using the recoil detector. (orig.)

  4. Partial melting of deeply subducted eclogite from the Sulu orogen in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Kusky, Timothy M; Polat, Ali; Wang, Songjie; Jiang, Xingfu; Zong, Keqing; Wang, Junpeng; Deng, Hao; Fu, Jianmin

    2014-12-17

    We report partial melting of an ultrahigh pressure eclogite in the Mesozoic Sulu orogen, China. Eclogitic migmatite shows successive stages of initial intragranular and grain boundary melt droplets, which grow into a three-dimensional interconnected intergranular network, then segregate and accumulate in pressure shadow areas and then merge to form melt channels and dikes that transport magma to higher in the lithosphere. Here we show, using zircon U-Pb dating and petrological analyses, that partial melting occurred at 228-219 Myr ago, shortly after peak metamorphism at 230 Myr ago. The melts and residues are complimentarily enriched and depleted in light rare earth element (LREE) compared with the original rock. Partial melting of deeply subducted eclogite is an important process in determining the rheological structure and mechanical behaviour of subducted lithosphere and its rapid exhumation, controlling the flow of deep lithospheric material, and for generation of melts from the upper mantle, potentially contributing to arc magmatism and growth of continental crust.

  5. Sex reversal assessments reveal different vulnerability to endocrine disruption between deeply diverged anuran lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Lehmann, Andreas; Lymberakis, Petros; Hoffmann, Frauke; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-03-31

    Multiple anthropogenic stressors cause worldwide amphibian declines. Among several poorly investigated causes is global pollution of aquatic ecosystems with endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). These substances interfere with the endocrine system and can affect the sexual development of vertebrates including amphibians. We test the susceptibility to an environmentally relevant contraceptive, the artificial estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), simultaneously in three deeply divergent systematic anuran families, a model-species, Xenopus laevis (Pipidae), and two non-models, Hyla arborea (Hylidae) and Bufo viridis (Bufonidae). Our new approach combines synchronized tadpole exposure to three EE2-concentrations (50, 500, 5,000 ng/L) in a flow-through-system and pioneers genetic and histological sexing of metamorphs in non-model anurans for EDC-studies. This novel methodology reveals striking quantitative differences in genetic-male-to-phenotypic-female sex reversal in non-model vs. model species. Our findings qualify molecular sexing in EDC-analyses as requirement to identify sex reversals and state-of-the-art approaches as mandatory to detect species-specific vulnerabilities to EDCs in amphibians.

  6. Measurement of azimuthal asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on a longitudinally polarized deuterium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany)] [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 00-689 Warsaw (Poland); Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Avetisyan, E. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Belostotski, S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad region 188300 (Russian Federation); Bianchi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Borissov, A. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bowles, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Brodski, I. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Bryzgalov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region 142281 (Russian Federation); Burns, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Capiluppi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Capitani, G.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cisbani, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione Roma 1, Gruppo Sanita and Physics Laboratory, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Roma (Italy); Ciullo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    Azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of a real photon from a longitudinally polarized deuterium target are measured with respect to target polarization alone and with respect to target polarization combined with beam helicity and/or beam charge. The asymmetries appear in the distribution of the real photons in the azimuthal angle {phi} around the virtual photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The asymmetries arise from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. The results for the beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries from a tensor polarized deuterium target with vanishing vector polarization are shown to be compatible with those from an unpolarized deuterium target, which is expected for incoherent scattering dominant at larger momentum transfer. Furthermore, the results for the single target-spin asymmetry and for the double-spin asymmetry are found to be compatible with the corresponding asymmetries previously measured on a hydrogen target. For coherent scattering on the deuteron at small momentum transfer to the target, these findings imply that the tensor contribution to the cross section is small. Furthermore, the tensor asymmetry is found to be compatible with zero.

  7. Transverse Extension of Partons in the Proton probed by Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Akhunzyanov, R.; The COMPASS collaboration; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Antoshkin, A.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Burtsev, V.E.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chumakov, A.G.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Dünnweber, W.; Dusaev, R.R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; jr., M.Finger; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giarra, J.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grasso, A.; Gridin, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Juraskova, K.; Kabuß, E.; Kerbizi, A.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Kuznetsov, I.I.; Kveton, A.; Lednev, A.A.; Levchenko, E.A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mamon, S.A.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Moretti, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Pešková, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rogacheva, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thiel, A.; Tomsa, J.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Vasilishin, B.I.; Vauth, A.; Veit, B.M.; Veloso, J.; Vidon, A.; Virius, M.; Wallner, S.; Wilfert, M.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of exclusive single-photon muoproduction on the proton by COMPASS using 160 GeV/$c$ polarized $\\mu^+$ and $\\mu^-$ beams of the CERN SPS impinging on a liquid hydrogen target. We determine the dependence of the average of the measured $\\mu^+$ and $\\mu^-$ cross sections for deeply virtual Compton scattering on the squared four-momentum transfer $t$ from the initial to the final final proton. The slope $B$ of the $t$-dependence is fitted with a single exponential function, which yields $B=(4.3 \\ \\pm \\ 0.6_{\\text{stat}}\\ _{- \\ 0.3}^{+ \\ 0.1}\\big\\rvert_{\\text{sys}})\\,(\\text{GeV}/c)^{-2}$. This result can be converted into an average transverse extension of partons in the proton, $\\sqrt{\\langle r_{\\perp}^2 \\rangle} = (0.58 \\ \\pm \\ 0.04_{\\text{stat}}\\ _{- \\ 0.02}^{+ \\ 0.01}\\big\\rvert_{\\text{sys}}) \\text{fm}$. For this measurement, the average virtuality of the photon mediating the interaction is $\\langle Q^2 \\rangle = 1.8\\,(\\text{GeV/}c)^2$ and the average value of the Bjorken va...

  8. Inductive and ultrasonic multi-tier interface for low-power, deeply implantable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanni, Ayodele; Vilches, Antonio; Toumazou, C

    2012-08-01

    We report the development of a novel multi-tier interface which enables the wireless, noninvasive transfer of sufficient amounts of power as well as the collection and transmission of data from low-power, deeply implantable analog sensors. The interface consists of an inductive coupling subsystem and an ultrasonic subsystem. The designed and experimentally verified inductive subsystem ensures that 5 W of power is transferred across 10 mm of air gap between a single pair of PCB spiral coils with an efficiency of 83% using our prototype CMOS logic gate-based driver circuit. The implemented ultrasonic subsystem, based on ultrasonic PZT ceramic discs driven in their low-frequency, radial/planar-excitation mode, further ensures that 29 μW of power is delivered 70 mm deeper inside a homogenous liquid environment-with no acoustic matching layer employed-with an efficiency of 1%. Overall system power consumption is 2.3 W. The implant is intermittently powered every 800 msec; charging a capacitor which provides sufficient power for a duration of ~ 18 msec; sufficient for an implant μC operating at a frequency of 500 KHz to transmit a nibble (4 bits) of digitized sensed data.

  9. Dilemma in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Kamaruddin, Nafisah Kamariah; Md Amin, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    The challenge in mathematics education is finding the best way to teach mathematics. When students learn the reasoning and proving in mathematics, they will be proficient in mathematics. Students must know mathematics before they can apply it. Symbolism and logic is the key to both the learning of mathematics and its effective application to…

  10. International Workshop on Exotic Hadronic Atoms, Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States and Antihydrogen : Present Results, Future Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Widmann, E; Curceanu, C; Trento 2006; Trento06

    2006-01-01

    These are the miniproceedings of the workshop "Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound kaonic nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results, future challenges," which was held at the European Centre for Theoretical Nuclear Physics and Related Studies (ECT*), Trento (Italy), June 19-24, 2006. The document includes a short presentation of the topics, the list of participants, and a short contribution from each speaker.

  11. Doing Mathematics with Purpose: Mathematical Text Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Hannah M.; Robinson, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical literacy includes learning to read and write different types of mathematical texts as part of purposeful mathematical meaning making. Thus in this article, we describe how learning to read and write mathematical texts (proof text, algorithmic text, algebraic/symbolic text, and visual text) supports the development of students'…

  12. Teachers' Mathematics as Mathematics-at-Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Nadine; Proulx, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Through recognising mathematics teachers as professionals who use mathematics in their workplace, this article traces a parallel between the mathematics enacted by teachers in their practice and the mathematics used in workplaces found in studies of professionals (e.g. nurses, engineers, bankers). This parallel is developed through the five…

  13. Teaching Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ritu; Shrivastava, Keerty; Bhardwaj, Ramakant

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is not only a subject but it is also a language consisting of many different symbols and relations. Taught as a compulsory subject up the 10th class, students are then able to choose whether or not to study mathematics as a main subject. The present paper discusses mathematical modeling in mathematics education. The article provides…

  14. Research in collegiate mathematics education V

    CERN Document Server

    Selden, Annie; Harel, Guershon; Hitt, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    This fifth volume of Research in Collegiate Mathematics Education presents state-of-the-art research on understanding, teaching, and learning mathematics at the post-secondary level. The articles in RCME are peer-reviewed for two major features: (1) advancing our understanding of collegiate mathematics education, and (2) readability by a wide audience of practicing mathematicians interested in issues affecting their own students. This is not a collection of scholarly arcana, but a compilation of useful and informative research regarding the ways our students think about and learn mathematics.

  15. Research in collegiate mathematics education VI

    CERN Document Server

    Selden, Annie; Harel, Guershon; Hauk, Shandy

    2006-01-01

    The sixth volume of Research in Collegiate Mathematics Education presents state-of-the-art research on understanding, teaching, and learning mathematics at the postsecondary level. The articles advance our understanding of collegiate mathematics education while being readable by a wide audience of mathematicians interested in issues affecting their own students. This is a collection of useful and informative research regarding the ways our students think about and learn mathematics. The volume opens with studies on students' experiences with calculus reform and on the effects of concept-based

  16. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  17. Effective inelastic scattering cross-sections for background analysis in HAXPES of deeply buried layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risterucci, P., E-mail: paul.risterucci@gmail.com [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Renault, O., E-mail: olivier.renault@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Zborowski, C. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005, Paris (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Bertrand, D.; Torres, A. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rueff, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005, Paris (France); Ceolin, D. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Grenet, G. [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Tougaard, S. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • An effective approach for quantitative background analysis in HAXPES spectra of buried layer underneath complex overlayer structures is proposed. • The approach relies on using a weighted sum of inelastic scattering cross section of the pure layers. • The method is validated by the study of an advanced power transistor stack after successive annealing steps. • The depth distribution of crucial elements (Ti, Ga) is determined reliably at depths up to nearly 50 nm. - Abstract: Inelastic background analysis of HAXPES spectra was recently introduced as a powerful method to get access to the elemental distribution in deeply buried layers or interfaces, at depth up to 60 nm below the surface. However the accuracy of the analysis highly relies on suitable scattering cross-sections able to describe effectively the transport of photoelectrons through overlayer structures consisting of individual layers with potentially very different scattering properties. Here, we show that within Tougaard’s practical framework as implemented in the Quases-Analyze software, the photoelectron transport through thick (25–40 nm) multi-layer structures with widely different cross-sections can be reliably described with an effective cross-section in the form of a weighted sum of the individual cross-section of each layer. The high-resolution core-level analysis partly provides a guide for determining the nature of the individual cross-sections to be used. We illustrate this novel approach with the practical case of a top Al/Ti bilayer structure in an AlGaN/GaN power transistor device stack before and after sucessive annealing treatments. The analysis provides reliable insights on the Ti and Ga depth distributions up to nearly 50 nm below the surface.

  18. Minimizing the regrets of long-term urban floodplain management decisions under deeply uncertain climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, J. S.; Kirshen, P. H.; Vogel, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Making long-term floodplain management decisions under uncertain climate change is a major urban planning challenge of the 21stcentury. To support these efforts, we introduce a screening-level optimization model that identifies adaptation portfolios by minimizing the regrets associated with their flood-control and damage costs under different climate change trajectories that are deeply uncertain, i.e. have probabilities that cannot be specified plausibly. This mixed integer program explicitly considers the coupled damage-reduction impacts of different floodwall designs and property-scale investments (first-floor elevation, wet floodproofing of basements, permanent retreat and insurance), recommends implementation schedules, and assesses impacts to stakeholders residing in three types of homes. An application to a stylized municipality illuminates many nonlinear system dynamics stemming from large fixed capital costs, infrastructure design thresholds, and discharge-depth-damage relationships. If stakeholders tolerate mild damage, floodwalls that fully protect a community from large design events are less cost-effective than portfolios featuring both smaller floodwalls and property-scale measures. Potential losses of property tax revenue from permanent retreat motivate municipal property-tax initiatives for adaptation financing. Yet, insurance incentives for first-floor elevation may discourage locally financed floodwalls, in turn making lower-income residents more vulnerable to severe flooding. A budget constraint analysis underscores the benefits of flexible floodwall designs with low incremental expansion costs while near-optimal solutions demonstrate the scheduling flexibility of many property-scale measures. Finally, an equity analysis shows the importance of evaluating the overpayment and under-design regrets of recommended adaptation portfolios for each stakeholder and contrasts them to single-scenario model results.

  19. CXOGBS J174954.5-294335: a new deeply eclipsing intermediate polar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher B.; Torres, M. A. P.; Hynes, R. I.; Jonker, P. G.; Heinke, C.; Maccarone, T.; Britt, C. T.; Steeghs, D.; Wevers, T.; Wu, J.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of a photometric and spectroscopic analysis of the Galactic Bulge Survey X-ray source CXOGBS J174954.5-294335 (hereafter, referred to as CX19). CX19 is a long period, eclipsing intermediate polar-type cataclysmic variable with broad, single-peaked Balmer and Paschen emission lines along with He II λ4686 and Bowen blend emission features. With coverage of one full and two partial eclipses and archival photometry, we determine the ephemeris for CX19 to be HJD(eclipse) = 2455691.8581(5) + 0.358704(2) × N. We also recovered the white dwarf spin period of Pspin = 503.32(3) s that gives a Pspin/Porb = 0.016(6), comparable to several confirmed, long-period intermediate polars. CX19 also shows a clear X-ray eclipse in the 0.3-8.0 keV range observed with Chandra. Two optical outbursts were observed lasting between 6 and 8 h (lower limits) reaching ˜1.3 mag in amplitude. The outbursts, both in duration and magnitude, the accretion disc-dominated spectra and hard X-ray emission are reminiscent of the intermediate polar V1223 Sgr sharing many of the same characteristics. If we assume a main-sequence companion, we estimate the donor to be an early G-type star and find a minimum distance of d ≈ 2.1 kpc and a 0.5-10.0 keV X-ray luminosity upper limit of 2.0 × 1033 erg s-1. Such an X-ray luminosity is consistent with a white dwarf accretor in a magnetic cataclysmic variable system. To date, CX19 is only the second deeply eclipsing intermediate polar with X-ray eclipses and the first that is optically accessible.

  20. OVERVIEW ON BNL ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODS FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XU, J.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.; GRAVES, H.

    2007-01-01

    A study was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), to determine the applicability of established soil-structure interaction analysis methods and computer programs to deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. This paper provides an overview of the BNL study including a description and discussions of analyses performed to assess relative performance of various SSI analysis methods typically applied to NPP structures, as well as the importance of interface modeling for DEB structures. There are four main elements contained in the BNL study: (1) Review and evaluation of existing seismic design practice, (2) Assessment of simplified vs. detailed methods for SSI in-structure response spectrum analysis of DEB structures, (3) Assessment of methods for computing seismic induced earth pressures on DEB structures, and (4) Development of the criteria for benchmark problems which could be used for validating computer programs for computing seismic responses of DEB NPP structures. The BNL study concluded that the equivalent linear SSI methods, including both simplified and detailed approaches, can be extended to DEB structures and produce acceptable SSI response calculations, provided that the SSI response induced by the ground motion is very much within the linear regime or the non-linear effect is not anticipated to control the SSI response parameters. The BNL study also revealed that the response calculation is sensitive to the modeling assumptions made for the soil/structure interface and application of a particular material model for the soil

  1. Unexpected Expectations The Curiosities of a Mathematical Crystal Ball

    CERN Document Server

    Wapner, Leonard M

    2012-01-01

    Unexpected Expectations: The Curiosities of a Mathematical Crystal Ball explores how paradoxical challenges involving mathematical expectation often necessitate a reexamination of basic premises. The author takes you through mathematical paradoxes associated with seemingly straightforward applications of mathematical expectation and shows how these unexpected contradictions may push you to reconsider the legitimacy of the applications. The book requires only an understanding of basic algebraic operations and includes supplemental mathematical background in chapter appendices. After a history o

  2. The Impact of Technology on High School Mathematics Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Alacacı, Cengiz; McDonald, Gaby

    2014-01-01

    The infusion of technology into school mathematics has intensified in the last two decades. This article discusses the effects of this infusion on the mathematics curriculum. After a review of the different roles technology plays in mathematics and the diversity of the tools and their functions in teaching and learning mathematics, an epistemological perspective is offered to understand how technology could affect our cognition and perception while doing mathematics. With this background, spe...

  3. Meeting in mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne; Georgiev, Vladimir; Ulovec, Andreas

    To encourage many more young people to appreciate the real nature and spirit of mathematics and possibly to be enrolled in mathematics study it is important to involve them in doing mathematics (not just learning about mathematics). This goal could be achieved if mathematics teachers are prepared...... to identify and work with mathematically gifted students (without loosing the rest). The book offers chapters on gifted students, mathematical competences and other issues....

  4. Mathematical Rigor in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandyke, Michael; Bassichis, William

    2011-10-01

    Calculus-based introductory physics courses intended for future engineers and physicists are often designed and taught in the same fashion as those intended for students of other disciplines. A more mathematically rigorous curriculum should be more appropriate and, ultimately, more beneficial for the student in his or her future coursework. This work investigates the effects of mathematical rigor on student understanding of introductory mechanics. Using a series of diagnostic tools in conjunction with individual student course performance, a statistical analysis will be performed to examine student learning of introductory mechanics and its relation to student understanding of the underlying calculus.

  5. The use of mathematical models in teaching wastewater treatment engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Arvin, Erik; Vanrolleghem, P.

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of wastewater treatment processes has become increasingly popular in recent years. To prepare students for their future careers, environmental engineering education should provide students with sufficient background and experiences to understand and apply mathematical models...

  6. Early predictors of high school mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S; Duncan, Greg J; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Chen, Meichu

    2012-07-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.

  7. 9th International Congress on Mathematical Education

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Yoshihiko; Hodgson, Bernard; Lee, Peng; Lerman, Stephen; Sawada, Toshio

    2004-01-01

    Mathematics as a discipline has a long history, emerging from many cultures, with a truly universal character. Mathematicians throughout the world have a fundamentally common understanding of the nature of mathematics and of its central problems and methods. Research mathematicians in any part of the world are part of a cohesive intellectual community that communicates fluently. Mathematics education in contrast has a variable and culturally based character, and this is certainly true of educational organization and practice. Educational research is both an applied social science and a multidisciplinary domain of theoretical scholarship. Among organizations devoted to mathematics education, The International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI) is distinctive because of its close ties to the mathematics community. The great challenges now facing mathematics education around the world demand a deeper and more sensitive involvement of disciplinary mathematicians than we now have, both in the work of ed...

  8. The mathematics behind biological invasions

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Mark A; Potts, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates the mathematical analysis of biological invasions. Unlike purely qualitative treatments of ecology, it draws on mathematical theory and methods, equipping the reader with sharp tools and rigorous methodology. Subjects include invasion dynamics, species interactions, population spread, long-distance dispersal, stochastic effects, risk analysis, and optimal responses to invaders. While based on the theory of dynamical systems, including partial differential equations and integrodifference equations, the book also draws on information theory, machine learning, Monte Carlo methods, optimal control, statistics, and stochastic processes. Applications to real biological invasions are included throughout. Ultimately, the book imparts a powerful principle: that by bringing ecology and mathematics together, researchers can uncover new understanding of, and effective response strategies to, biological invasions. It is suitable for graduate students and established researchers in mathematical ecolo...

  9. Mathematical foundation of computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, YN

    2005-01-01

    The interesting feature of this book is its organization and structure. That consists of systematizing of the definitions, methods, and results that something resembling a theory. Simplicity, clarity, and precision of mathematical language makes theoretical topics more appealing to the readers who are of mathematical or non-mathematical background. For quick references and immediate attentions¾concepts and definitions, methods and theorems, and key notes are presented through highlighted points from beginning to end. Whenever, necessary and probable a visual approach of presentation is used. The amalgamation of text and figures make mathematical rigors easier to understand. Each chapter begins with the detailed contents, which are discussed inside the chapter and conclude with a summary of the material covered in the chapter. Summary provides a brief overview of all the topics covered in the chapter. To demonstrate the principles better, the applicability of the concepts discussed in each topic are illustrat...

  10. The Language of Mathematics Utilizing Math in Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Baber, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    A new and unique way of understanding the translation of concepts and natural language into mathematical expressions Transforming a body of text into corresponding mathematical expressions and models is traditionally viewed and taught as a mathematical problem; it is also a task that most find difficult. The Language of Mathematics: Utilizing Math in Practice reveals a new way to view this process-not as a mathematical problem, but as a translation, or language, problem. By presenting the language of mathematics explicitly and systematically, this book helps readers to learn mathematics¿and i

  11. Mathematics, the Computer, and the Impact on Mathematics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooke, D. James

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the connection between mathematics and the computer; mathematics curriculum; mathematics instruction, including teachers learning to use computers; and the impact of the computer on learning mathematics. (LRW)

  12. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  13. Mathematics++ selected topics beyond the basic courses

    CERN Document Server

    Kantor, Ida; Šámal, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics++ is a concise introduction to six selected areas of 20th century mathematics providing numerous modern mathematical tools used in contemporary research in computer science, engineering, and other fields. The areas are: measure theory, high-dimensional geometry, Fourier analysis, representations of groups, multivariate polynomials, and topology. For each of the areas, the authors introduce basic notions, examples, and results. The presentation is clear and accessible, stressing intuitive understanding, and it includes carefully selected exercises as an integral part. Theory is comp

  14. Authenticity of Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dung; Dougherty, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Some students leave high school never quite sure of the relevancy of the mathematics they have learned. They fail to see links between school mathematics and the mathematics of everyday life that requires thoughtful decision making and often complex problem solving. Is it possible to bridge the gap between school mathematics and the mathematics in…

  15. Longitudinal target-spin azimuthal asymmetry in Deeply-Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopytin, M.

    2006-08-22

    As a generalization of the usual Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), introduced a decade ago, contain additional information about quark and gluon distributions in the plane transverse to the direction of motion of the nucleon. Strong interest in GPDs was triggered by the work of X. Ji who demonstrated that in the forward limit GPDs can give information about the total angular momentum carried by quarks (gluons) in the nucleon. The hard exclusive electroproduction of a real photon, called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), appears to be the theoretically cleanest way to access GPDs experimentally. This process has a final state identical to that of the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process where the photon is radiated from either incoming or outgoing lepton. Both processes are experimentally indistinguishable as their amplitudes interfere. The interference term involves linearly the amplitudes of the DVCS process giving access to GPDs. In this thesis results from HERMES are reported on an azimuthal asymmetry with respect to the spin of the proton target, which is attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the DVCS process. The asymmetry, also referred to as the longitudinal target-spin asymmetry (LTSA), gives access mainly to the polarized GPD H. The kinematic dependences of the LTSA on t, x{sub B} and Q{sup 2} are measured and compared with the corresponding measurements on the deuteron. The results are compared with theoretical calculations and with the recent CLAS measurements. The data, used for analysis in this thesis, have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY scattering the HERA 27.6 GeV positron beam off hydrogen and deuterium gas targets. Additionally, production tests of the HELIX128 3.0 chip are discussed. The chip is the frontend readout chip of the silicon recoil detector. The latter is a part of the HERMES recoil detector, which is built around the target area in order to

  16. Serum and peritoneal interleukin-33 levels are elevated in deeply infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santulli, Pietro; Borghese, Bruno; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Vaiman, Daniel; Borderie, Didier; Streuli, Isabelle; Goffinet, François; de Ziegler, Dominique; Weill, Bernard; Batteux, Frédéric; Chapron, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a cytokine involved in fibrotic disorders. We have analyzed IL-33 levels in the sera and peritoneal fluids of women with various forms of endometriosis and investigated the correlation with disease activity. We conducted a prospective laboratory study in a tertiary-care university hospital between January 2005 and December 2010. Five hundred and ten women with histologically proven endometriosis and 132 endometriosis-free controls were enrolled in this study. Complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity was performed in each patient. Blood samples and peritoneal fluids were obtained before and during surgical procedures, respectively. IL-33 was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera and peritoneal fluids, and the concentrations correlated with the extent and the severity of endometriotic lesions. IL-33 was detectable in 23.1% of serum samples from all 642 women studied and 75.0% of peritoneal fluid samples studied (44 women with endometriosis and 36 controls). Serum IL-33 was higher in deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) (median, 104.9 pg/ml; range, 8.0-104.9) than in endometriosis-free women (median, 61.3 pg/ml; range, 7.5-526.0; P = 0.022) or in women affected by superficial endometriosis (median, 36.8 pg/ml; range, 7.5-179.0; P Peritoneal IL-33 was higher in DIE than in endometriosis-free women (median, 642.0 pg/ml; range, 25.9-3350.6 versus median, 194.2 pg/ml; range, 12.7-1818.2, respectively; P = 0.003). We found positive correlations between serum IL-33 concentration and intensity of dysmenorrhea (r = 0.174; P = 0.028) and gastrointestinal symptoms (r = 0.199; P = 0.027), total number of DIE lesions (r = 0.224; P = 0.016) and the worst DIE lesion (r = 0.299; P endometriosis and principally in DIE. Elevated serum IL-33 is correlated with the intensity of preoperative painful symptoms, and with the extent and severity of the DIE. IL-33 may be considered as a novel cytokine involved in the

  17. Longitudinal target-spin azimuthal asymmetry in Deeply-Virtual Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopytin, M.

    2006-01-01

    As a generalization of the usual Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), introduced a decade ago, contain additional information about quark and gluon distributions in the plane transverse to the direction of motion of the nucleon. Strong interest in GPDs was triggered by the work of X. Ji who demonstrated that in the forward limit GPDs can give information about the total angular momentum carried by quarks (gluons) in the nucleon. The hard exclusive electroproduction of a real photon, called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), appears to be the theoretically cleanest way to access GPDs experimentally. This process has a final state identical to that of the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process where the photon is radiated from either incoming or outgoing lepton. Both processes are experimentally indistinguishable as their amplitudes interfere. The interference term involves linearly the amplitudes of the DVCS process giving access to GPDs. In this thesis results from HERMES are reported on an azimuthal asymmetry with respect to the spin of the proton target, which is attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the DVCS process. The asymmetry, also referred to as the longitudinal target-spin asymmetry (LTSA), gives access mainly to the polarized GPD H. The kinematic dependences of the LTSA on t, x B and Q 2 are measured and compared with the corresponding measurements on the deuteron. The results are compared with theoretical calculations and with the recent CLAS measurements. The data, used for analysis in this thesis, have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY scattering the HERA 27.6 GeV positron beam off hydrogen and deuterium gas targets. Additionally, production tests of the HELIX128 3.0 chip are discussed. The chip is the frontend readout chip of the silicon recoil detector. The latter is a part of the HERMES recoil detector, which is built around the target area in order to detect the

  18. Overburden stripping from deeply buried orebodies by controlled nuclear explosive casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saperstein, L.W.; Mishra, R.

    1970-01-01

    Previous schemes to strip the overburden from a deeply-buried orebody by nuclear explosives have been hampered by various constraints. These are the notions that surface topography should slope in the desired direction to facilitate casting; that the orebody should be stripped all at once, meaning that an unsafe and unnaturally high yield will be detonated; or that the overburden be broken and cast, in a manner akin to conventional blasting, with a series of explosions linked by milli-second delays, such delays being an unproven and, perhaps non-permissible technology; and, finally, that the schemes leave an excessive amount of overburden to be removed by conventional means. It is proposed that deep orebodies, idealized by a 250-ft. thick copper porphyry under 600 feet of cover, be stripped in successive rows, using available row-charge technology. A first row, of greater magnitude than those succeeding, is used to expose the orebody. The second row is placed so as to throw overburden into the void created by the first. All rows are placed so as not to damage the ore. Except for the first row, all rows utilize directed throwing. After a row is detonated, the ore beneath it would be removed by conventional means. The void thus created would provide space for the successive row to fire into. Further, the additional free-face provided by the void imparts a major direction to the ejecta. Because of the directed nature of the throw, ore removal does not have to proceed directly beneath the row slope. Advantages to this scheme are its adaptability to terrain; its reduction in overburden to be removed by conventional methods; its increased speed in uncovering ore; its reduction of unit costs; audits adaptability to production rates. An example, utilizing the idealized orebody shows that production of ore can begin within a year of project approval versus four or five years for the same orebody developed conventionally; that no more than eight percent of the overburden has

  19. AI and Mathematical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times, the history of human beings has developed by a succession of steps and sometimes jumps, until reaching the relative sophistication of the modern brain and culture. Researchers are attempting to create systems that mimic human thinking, understand speech, or beat the best human chess player. Understanding the mechanisms of intelligence, and creating intelligent artifacts are the twin goals of Artificial Intelligence (AI. Great mathematical minds have played a key role in AI in recent years; to name only a few: Janos Neumann (also known as John von Neumann, Konrad Zuse, Norbert Wiener, Claude E. Shannon, Alan M. Turing, Grigore Moisil, Lofti A. Zadeh, Ronald R. Yager, Michio Sugeno, Solomon Marcus, or Lászlo A. Barabási. Introducing the study of AI is not merely useful because of its capability for solving difficult problems, but also because of its mathematical nature. It prepares us to understand the current world, enabling us to act on the challenges of the future.

  20. Chance Encounters: Probability in Games and Simulations. Seeing and Thinking Mathematically in the Middle Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Glenn; Zweig, Karen

    With the Seeing and Thinking Mathematically materials, students learn mathematics by doing mathematics, by using and connecting mathematical ideas, and by actively constructing their own understandings. In this unit students learn to see probability through a mathematical lens by exploring and creating games and simulations and by applying the…

  1. Calling for Research Collaborations and the Use of Dis/ability Studies in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Paulo; Kastberg, Signe

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, the authors find that despite discussions of "mathematics for all," opportunities that support the development of mathematical reasoning and understanding of mathematics as a human endeavor often do not exist for mathematics learners identified in schools as having dis/abilities. Indeed, mathematics for all is…

  2. Cultural horizons for mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Kay; Paraides, Patricia; Jannok Nutti, Ylva; Johansson, Gunilla; Bennet, Maria; Doolan, Pat; Peckham, Ray; Hill, John; Doolan, Frank; O'Sullivan, Dominic; Murray, Libbey; Logan, Patricia; McNair, Melissa; Sunnari, Vappu; Murray, Beatrice; Miller, Alissa; Nolan, John; Simpson, Alca; Ohrin, Christine; Doolan, Terry; Doolan, Michelle; Taylor, Paul

    2011-06-01

    As a result of a number of government reports, there have been numerous systemic changes in Indigenous education in Australia revolving around the importance of partnerships with the community. A forum with our local Dubbo community established the importance of working together and developed a model which placed the child in an ecological perspective that particularly noted the role of Elders and the place of the child in the family. However, there was also the issue of curriculum and mathematics education to be addressed. It was recognised that a colonised curriculum reduces the vision of what might be the potential for Indigenous mathematics education. This paper reports on the sharing that developed between our local community and some researchers and teachers from Sweden, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. It has implications for recognising the impact of testing regimes, the teaching space, understanding the ways children learn, the curriculum, and teacher education. As a result of these discussions, a critical pedagogy that considers culture and place is presented as an ecocultural perspective on mathematics education. This perspective was seen as critical for the curriculum and learning experiences of Indigenous children.

  3. Mathematical foundations of biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of biomechanics is the analysis of the structure and function of humans, animals, and plants by means of the methods of mechanics. Its foundations are in particular embedded in mathematics, physics, and informatics. Due to the inherent multidisciplinary character deriving from its aim, biomechanics has numerous connections and overlapping areas with biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology, along with clinical medicine, so its range is enormously wide. This treatise is mainly meant to serve as an introduction and overview for readers and students who intend to acquire a basic understanding of the mathematical principles and mechanics that constitute the foundation of biomechanics; accordingly, its contents are limited to basic theoretical principles of general validity and long-range significance. Selected examples are included that are representative for the problems treated in biomechanics. Although ultimate mathematical generality is not in the foreground, an attempt is made to derive the theory from basic principles. A concise and systematic formulation is thereby intended with the aim that the reader is provided with a working knowledge. It is assumed that he or she is familiar with the principles of calculus, vector analysis, and linear algebra.

  4. Mathematics and Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H

    2010-01-01

    The universality of mathematics and Maxwell's equations is not shared by specific plasma models. Computations become more reliable, efficient and transparent if specific plasma models are used to obtain only the information that would otherwise be missing. Constraints of high universality, such as those from mathematics and Maxwell's equations, can be obscured or lost by integrated computations. Recognition of subtle constraints of high universality is important for (1) focusing the design of control systems for magnetic field errors in tokamaks from perturbations that have little effect on the plasma to those that do, (2) clarifying the limits of applicability to astrophysics of computations of magnetic reconnection in fields that have a double periodicity or have B-vector =0 on a surface, as in a Harris sheet. Both require a degree of symmetry not expected in natural systems. Mathematics and Maxwell's equations imply that neighboring magnetic field lines characteristically separate exponentially with distance along a line. This remarkably universal phenomenon has been largely ignored, though it defines a trigger for reconnection through a critical magnitude of exponentiation. These and other examples of the importance of making distinctions and understanding constraints of high universality are explained.

  5. IGCSE core mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Give your core level students the support and framework they require to get their best grades with this book dedicated to the core level content of the revised syllabus and written specifically to ensure a more appropriate pace. This title has been written for Core content of the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus for first teaching from 2013. ? Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of practice questions. ? Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every book. We are working with Cambridge

  6. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  7. Envelope structure of deeply embedded young stellar objects in the Serpens Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerheijde, M. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Salverda, J. M.; Blake, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    Aperture-synthesis and single-dish (sub-) millimeter molecular-line and continuum observations reveal in great detail the envelope structure of deeply embedded young stellar objects (SMM 1 = FIRS 1, SMM 2, SMM 3, SMM 4) in the densely star-forming Serpens Molecular Cloud. SMM 1, 3, and 4 show partially resolved (>2" = 800 AU) continuum emission in the beam of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array at lambda = 3.4-1.4 mm. The continuum visibilities accurately constrain the density structure in the envelopes, which can be described by a radial power law with slope -2.0 +/- 0.5 on scales of 300 to 8000 AU. Inferred envelope masses within a radius of 8000 AU are 8.7, 3.0, and 5.3 Msolar for SMM 1, 3, and 4, respectively. A point source with 20%-30% of the total flux at 1.1 mm is required to fit the observations on long baselines, corresponding to warm envelope material within approximately 100 AU or a circumstellar disk. No continuum emission is detected interferometrically toward SMM 2, corresponding to an upper limit of 0.2 Msolar assuming Td = 24 K. The lack of any compact dust emission suggests that the SMM 2 core does not contain a central protostar. Aperture-synthesis observations of the 13CO, C18O, HCO+, H13CO+, HCN, H13CN, N2H+ 1-0, SiO 2-1, and SO 2(2)-1(1) transitions reveal compact emission toward SMM 1, 3, and 4. SMM 2 shows only a number of clumps scattered throughout the primary field of view, supporting the conclusion that this core does not contain a central star. The compact molecular emission around SMM 1, 3, and 4 traces 5"-10" (2000-4000 AU) diameter cores that correspond to the densest regions of the envelopes, as well as material directly associated with the molecular outflow. Especially prominent are the optically thick HCN and HCO+ lines that show up brightly along the walls of the outflow cavities. SO and SiO trace shocked material, where their abundances may be enhanced by 1-2 orders of magnitude over dark-cloud values. A total of 31 molecular

  8. Figures of thought mathematics and mathematical texts

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, David

    2003-01-01

    Examines the ways in which mathematical works can be read as texts, examines their textual strategiesand demonstrates that such readings provide a rich source of philosophical debate regarding mathematics.

  9. Attitudes towards Graphing Calculators in Developmental Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Shaun Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine instructor and student attitudes towards the use of the graphing calculator in the developmental mathematics classroom. A focus of the study was to see if instructors or students believed there were changes in the conceptual understanding of mathematics as a result of graphing calculator…

  10. Electromagnetic Concepts in Mathematical Representation of Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albe, Virginie; Venturini, Patrice; Lascours, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the use of mathematics when studying the physics of electromagnetism. Focuses on common electromagnetic concepts and their associated mathematical representation and arithmetical tools. Concludes that most students do not understand the significant aspects of physical situations and have difficulty using relationships and models specific…

  11. Gestures and Insight in Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding--in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities.…

  12. Mathematics Didn't Just Happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightner, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines several periods of world history including Greece, the middle ages, and the 17th century to gain a better understanding of the development of mathematics and share this information with students so that they can learn mathematics as a product of the people who lived their lives surrounded by the cultural influences and distractions of…

  13. Teaching Mathematics and Language to English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Chad; Rose, Elena; King, Tony

    2016-01-01

    To create a classroom learning community in which all students are engaged and inspired, a mathematics teacher's mastery of the content must be matched by an awareness of the needs of individual students and an understanding of the instructional strategies that will enable all learners to develop their mathematical knowledge and skills. Yet when…

  14. Turning Origami into the Language of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipoletti, Beth; Wilson, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1989) proposes using everyday objects, such as paper, to enable students to explore geometric relationships and vocabulary. Paper-folding and other types of hands-on activities have been found to increase students' ability to communicate mathematically and foster their understanding of mathematical…

  15. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  16. Introducing philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Friend, Michele

    2014-01-01

    What is mathematics about? Does the subject-matter of mathematics exist independently of the mind or are they mental constructions? How do we know mathematics? Is mathematical knowledge logical knowledge? And how is mathematics applied to the material world? In this introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, Michele Friend examines these and other ontological and epistemological problems raised by the content and practice of mathematics. Aimed at a readership with limited proficiency in mathematics but with some experience of formal logic it seeks to strike a balance between conceptual acc

  17. Mathematics for Life: Sustainable Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renert, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Ecological sustainability has not been a major focus of mathematics education research, even though it has attracted considerable attention in other areas of educational research in the past decade. The connections between mathematics education and ecological sustainability are not readily apparent. This paper explores how mathematics educators…

  18. Mathematical Modelling Approach in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseven, Ayla

    2015-01-01

    The topic of models and modeling has come to be important for science and mathematics education in recent years. The topic of "Modeling" topic is especially important for examinations such as PISA which is conducted at an international level and measures a student's success in mathematics. Mathematical modeling can be defined as using…

  19. Potential Beneficiaries of the Obama Administration’s Executive Action Programs Deeply Embedded in US Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Obama administration has developed two broad programs to defer immigration enforcement actions against undocumented persons living in the United States: (1 Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA; and (2 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA. The DACA program, which began in August 2012, was expanded on November 20, 2014. DAPA and the DACA expansion (hereinafter referred to as “DACA-plus” are currently under review by the US Supreme Court and subject to an active injunction.This paper offers a statistical portrait of the intended direct beneficiaries of DAPA, DACA, and DACA-plus. It finds that potential DAPA, DACA, and DACA-plus recipients are deeply embedded in US society, with high employment rates, extensive US family ties, long tenure, and substantial rates of English-language proficiency. The paper also notes various groups that would benefit indirectly from the full implementation of DAPA and DACA or, conversely, would suffer from the removal of potential beneficiaries of these programs. For example, all those who would rely on the retirement programs of the US government will benefit from the high employment rates and relative youth of the DACA population, while many US citizens who rely on the income of a DAPA-eligible parent would fall into poverty or extreme poverty should that parent be removed from the United States.This paper offers an analysis of potential DAPA and DACA beneficiaries. In an earlier study, the authors made the case for immigration reform based on long-term trends related to the US undocumented population, including potential DAPA and DACA beneficiaries (Warren and Kerwin 2015. By contrast, this paper details the degree to which these populations have become embedded in US society. It also compares persons eligible for the original DACA program with those eligible for DACA-plus.As stated, the great majority of potential DAPA and DACA recipients enjoy strong family

  20. The history of mathematics a brief course

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Roger

    2005-01-01

    This new edition brings the fascinating and intriguing history of mathematics to life. The Second Edition of this internationally acclaimed text has been thoroughly revised, updated, and reorganized to give readers a fresh perspective on the evolution of mathematics. Written by one of the world's leading experts on the history of mathematics, the book details the key historical developments in the field, providing an understanding and appreciation of how mathematics influences today's science, art, music, literature, and society. In the first edition, each chapter was devoted to a single cultu

  1. Mathematical modelling in science and mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Vítor Duarte; Neves, Rui Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research involves mathematical modelling in the context of an interactive balance between theory, experiment and computation. However, computational methods and tools are still far from being appropriately integrated in the high school and university curricula in science and mathematics. In this paper, it is discussed the relevance of mathematical modelling and illustrated how a computer modelling tool (Modellus, a free tool available on the Internet and developed at FCTUNL) can be used to embed modelling in high school and undergraduate courses. Modellus allows students to create and explore mathematical models using functions, differential and iterative equations, and visualize the behaviour of mathematical objects.

  2. Sport and Mathematics: A Definition and Delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    There are many areas within sport studies that require using mathematical analyses, which would foster a fuller understanding of the structure and strategy of sport and the development of quantitatively viable theories of motor development. (CJ)

  3. General relativity, strings, and mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Porrati, Massimo

    1999-01-01

    We give a historical review of some aspects of string theory relevant to our present understanding of general relativity, and connected with Einstein's unification program. We also point out to various mathematical fallouts of $9 string theory. (31 refs).

  4. Learning to Calculate and Learning Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley-Sander, Desmond

    1980-01-01

    A calculator solution of a simple computational problem is discussed with emphasis on its ramifications for the understanding of some fundamental theorems of pure mathematics and techniques of computing. (Author/MK)

  5. Cognitive correlates of performance in advanced mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

    2012-03-01

    Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic). To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors (including cognitive factors) are important for acquiring advanced mathematics. We recruited 80 undergraduates from four universities in Beijing. The current study investigated the associations between students' performance on a test of advanced mathematics and a battery of 17 cognitive tasks on basic numerical processing, complex numerical processing, spatial abilities, language abilities, and general cognitive processing. The results showed that spatial abilities were significantly correlated with performance in advanced mathematics after controlling for other factors. In addition, certain language abilities (i.e., comprehension of words and sentences) also made unique contributions. In contrast, basic numerical processing and computation were generally not correlated with performance in advanced mathematics. Results suggest that spatial abilities and language comprehension, but not basic numerical processing, may play an important role in advanced mathematics. These results are discussed in terms of their theoretical significance and practical implications. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Mathematics and art a cultural history

    CERN Document Server

    Gamwell, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This is a cultural history of mathematics and art, from antiquity to the present. Mathematicians and artists have long been on a quest to understand the physical world they see before them and the abstract objects they know by thought alone. Taking readers on a tour of the practice of mathematics and the philosophical ideas that drive the discipline, Lynn Gamwell points out the important ways mathematical concepts have been expressed by artists. Sumptuous illustrations of artworks and cogent math diagrams are featured in Gamwell’s comprehensive exploration. Gamwell begins by describing mathematics from antiquity to the Enlightenment, including Greek, Islamic, and Asian mathematics. Then focusing on modern culture, Gamwell traces mathematicians’ search for the foundations of their science, such as David Hilbert’s conception of mathematics as an arrangement of meaning-free signs, as well as artists’ search for the essence of their craft, such as Aleksandr Rodchenko’s monochrome paintings. She shows t...

  7. Ethnomathematics: the cultural aspects of mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomathematics studies the cultural aspects of mathematics. It presents mathematical concepts of the school curriculum in a way in which these concepts are related to the students¿ cultural and daily experiences, thereby enhancing their abilities to elaborate meaningful connections and deepening their understanding of mathematics. Ethnomathematical approaches to mathematics curriculum are intended to make school mathematics more relevant and meaningful for students and to promote the overall quality of their education. In this context, the implementation of an ethnomathematical perspective in the school mathematics curriculum helps to develop students' intellectual, social, emotional, and political learning by using their own unique cultural referents to impart their knowledge, skills, and attitudes. This kind of curriculum provides ways for students to maintain their identity while succeeding academically.

  8. A Multifaceted Mathematical Approach for Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, F.; Anitescu, M.; Bell, J.; Brown, D.; Ferris, M.; Luskin, M.; Mehrotra, S.; Moser, B.; Pinar, A.; Tartakovsky, A.; Willcox, K.; Wright, S.; Zavala, V.

    2012-03-07

    Applied mathematics has an important role to play in developing the tools needed for the analysis, simulation, and optimization of complex problems. These efforts require the development of the mathematical foundations for scientific discovery, engineering design, and risk analysis based on a sound integrated approach for the understanding of complex systems. However, maximizing the impact of applied mathematics on these challenges requires a novel perspective on approaching the mathematical enterprise. Previous reports that have surveyed the DOE's research needs in applied mathematics have played a key role in defining research directions with the community. Although these reports have had significant impact, accurately assessing current research needs requires an evaluation of today's challenges against the backdrop of recent advances in applied mathematics and computing. To address these needs, the DOE Applied Mathematics Program sponsored a Workshop for Mathematics for the Analysis, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Systems on September 13-14, 2011. The workshop had approximately 50 participants from both the national labs and academia. The goal of the workshop was to identify new research areas in applied mathematics that will complement and enhance the existing DOE ASCR Applied Mathematics Program efforts that are needed to address problems associated with complex systems. This report describes recommendations from the workshop and subsequent analysis of the workshop findings by the organizing committee.

  9. A history of Japanese mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David E

    2004-01-01

    One of the first books to show Westerners the nature of Japanese mathematics, this survey highlights the leading features in the development of the wasan, the Japanese system of mathematics. Topics include the use of the soroban, or abacus; the application of sangi, or counting rods, to algebra; the discoveries of the 17th-century sage Seki Kowa; the yenri, or circle principle; the work of 18th-century geometer Ajima Chokuyen; and Wada Nei's contributions to the understanding of hypotrochoids. Unabridged republication of the classic 1914 edition. 74 figures. Index.

  10. The mathematics of various entertaining subjects

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenhouse, Jason

    Volume 1 : The history of mathematics is filled with major breakthroughs resulting from solutions to recreational problems. Problems of interest to gamblers led to the modern theory of probability, for example, and surreal numbers were inspired by the game of Go. Yet even with such groundbreaking findings and a wealth of popular-level books exploring puzzles and brainteasers, research in recreational mathematics has often been neglected. The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects brings together authors from a variety of specialties to present fascinating problems and solutions in recreational mathematics. Contributors to the book show how sophisticated mathematics can help construct mazes that look like famous people, how the analysis of crossword puzzles has much in common with understanding epidemics, and how the theory of electrical circuits is useful in understanding the classic Towers of Hanoi puzzle. The card game SET is related to the theory of error-correcting codes, and simple tic-tac-toe tak...

  11. Mathematics Connection: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum to promote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seek to enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics ... Faculty of Social Sciences, Methodist University, Accra Prof. B. K. Gordor, Department of Mathematics (UCC), Cape Coast ...

  12. Mathematics through Millenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2005-01-01

    A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations.......A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations....

  13. Mathematics through millenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations.......A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations....

  14. World Mathematical Year 2000

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2001-08-10

    World Mathematical Year 2000. (July 23 to August 10, 2001) at Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 sponsored by National Board for Higher Mathematics, organised by Department of Mathematics and. TIFR Centre, Indian Institute of Science. Prof. J L Bona, Department of Mathematics, University of Texas at ...

  15. Chanting as mathematical enculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Watson

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Unison response is a major teaching strategy in mathematics throughout the world. The spoken word is the dominant source of mathematical stimulus, the dominant shaper of the mathematical environment in which school learners construct mathematical meaning. The teachers’ utterances are intended to be expert, and the creation of learner responses is intended to involve learning of some kind.

  16. It's all just mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegmark, Max

    2014-02-01

    The world can be described using mathematical equations and numbers, but why does maths do it so well? In his new book Our Mathematical Universe, a section of which is abridged and edited here, Max Tegmark makes the radical proposal that our reality isn't just described by mathematics - it is mathematics.

  17. Visual Representations in Mathematics Teaching: An Experiment with Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrenti, Edith

    2015-01-01

    General problem-solving skills are of central importance in school mathematics achievement. Word problems play an important role not just in mathematical education, but in general education as well. Meaningful learning and understanding are basic aspects of all kinds of learning and it is even more important in the case of learning mathematics. In…

  18. Reflective Awareness in Mathematics Teachers' Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Olive

    2015-01-01

    The nature of mathematics teachers' knowledge specific to teaching mathematics [MTK] is of ongoing concern in mathematics education research. This article contributes to our under-standing of this knowledge with particular focus on reflective awareness. It discusses MTK based on ways it has been used in research. It highlights reflective awareness…

  19. Using Five-Frames in Preschool Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizer, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics education is a critical part of instruction for students around the globe. The foundation for understanding basic mathematical concepts begins early in life. Preschool classrooms can provide the early skills in mathematical reasoning that will be needed later in life. In this study, the author sought to determine if the use of…

  20. Succeeding at teaching secondary mathematics your first year

    CERN Document Server

    Roddick, Cheryl D

    2010-01-01

    This practical resource helps beginning secondary mathematics teachers design a curriculum that is meaningful, differentiate instruction, engage students, meet standards, assess student understanding, and more.

  1. A discrete transition to advanced mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, Bettina

    2009-01-01

    As the title indicates, this book is intended for courses aimed at bridging the gap between lower-level mathematics and advanced mathematics. The text provides a careful introduction to techniques for writing proofs and a logical development of topics based on intuitive understanding of concepts. The authors utilize a clear writing style and a wealth of examples to develop an understanding of discrete mathematics and critical thinking skills. While including many traditional topics, the text offers innovative material throughout. Surprising results are used to motivate the reader. The last thr

  2. Feedback from deeply embedded low- and high-mass protostars. Surveying hot molecular gas with Herschel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Protostars interact violently with their natal cocoons within dense molecular clouds. Characterizing this feedback is key to understanding the efficiency of the star formation process and the chemical processing of material that will be available for planet formation. In this thesis, the imprints

  3. Identity as an Analytical Tool to Explore Students’ Mathematical Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    Learning to communicate in, with and about mathematics is a key part of learning mathematics (Niss & Højgaard, 2011). Therefore, understanding how students’ mathematical writing is shaped is important to mathematics education research. In this paper the notion of ‘writer identity’ (Ivanič, 1998......; Burgess & Ivanič, 2010) is introduced and operationalised in relation to students’ mathematical writing and through a case study it is illustrated how this analytic tool can facilitate valuable insights when exploring students’ mathematical writing....

  4. Forms of Mathematical Interaction in Different Social Settings: Examples from Students' Teachers' and Teacher-Students' Communication about Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhrenborger, Marcus; Steinbring, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The study presented in this article investigates forms of "mathematical" interaction in different social settings. One major interest is to better understand mathematics teachers' joint professional discourse while observing and analysing young students mathematical interaction followed by teacher's intervention. The teachers' joint professional…

  5. Comparative Studies on U. S. and Chinese Mathematics Learning and the Implications for Standards-Based Mathematics Teaching Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Lin, Emily

    2005-01-01

    Chinese students often outperform U.S. students on international tests in mathematics. Chinese students' mathematics performances are assumed to be related directly to their teachers' deep mathematics understanding and ability to represent concepts flexibly in their classrooms, which, in turn, are thought to be influenced by Chinese mathematics…

  6. Nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal beam-helicity and beam-charge asymmetries in deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetisyan, E.; Ball, B.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Bowles, J.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; Leo, R. De; Nardo, L. De; Sanctis, E. De; Diefenthaler, M.; Nezza, P. Di; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Guler, H.; Guzey, V.; Haan, S.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; López Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, X.-G.; Lu, X.-R.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manaenkov, S. I.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; de La Ossa, A. Martinez; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Movsisyan, A.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Raithel, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Shanidze, R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Taroian, S.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Haarlem, Y. Van; Hulse, C. Van; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, H.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.; sHERMES Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal cross-section asymmetries with respect to charge and longitudinal polarization of the lepton beam is studied for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The observed beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler and the deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. For various nuclei, the asymmetries are extracted for both coherent and incoherent-enriched regions, which involve different (combinations of) generalized parton distributions. For both regions, the asymmetries are compared to those for a free proton, and no nuclear-mass dependence is found.

  7. Nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal beam-helicity and beam-charge asymmetries in deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal cross section asymmetries with respect to charge and longitudinal polarization of the lepton beam is studied for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The observed beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler and deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. For various nuclei, the asymmetries are extracted for both coherent and incoherent-enriched regions, which involve different (combinations of) generalized parton distributions. For both regions, the asymmetries are compared to those for a free proton, and no nuclear-mass dependence is found. (orig.)

  8. University Science and Mathematics Education in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole; Valero, Paola; Christensen, Ole Ravn

    More than ever, our time is characterized by rapid changes in the organization and the production of knowledge. This movement is deeply rooted in the evolution of the scientific endeavor, as well as in the transformation of the political, economic and cultural organization of society It is also....... Although educational change is ultimately implemented in everyday teaching and learning situations, other parallel dimensions influencing these situations cannot be forgotten. An understanding of the actual potentialities and limitations of educational transformations are highly dependent on the network...

  9. Mathematical modeling in realistic mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, B.; Zulkardi; Putri, R. I. I.; Darmawijoyo

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to produce Mathematical modelling in Realistics Mathematics Education of Junior High School. This study used development research consisting of 3 stages, namely analysis, design and evaluation. The success criteria of this study were obtained in the form of local instruction theory for school mathematical modelling learning which was valid and practical for students. The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis method as follows: (1) walk through, analysis based on the expert comments in the expert review to get Hypothetical Learning Trajectory for valid mathematical modelling learning; (2) analyzing the results of the review in one to one and small group to gain practicality. Based on the expert validation and students’ opinion and answers, the obtained mathematical modeling problem in Realistics Mathematics Education was valid and practical.

  10. Genetic Architecture of Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels Uncovered Applying Deeply Sequenced Large Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Bjarnason, Helgi; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Spars?, Thomas; Albrechtsen, Anders; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Tian, Geng; Cao, Hongzhi

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architectu...

  11. Enabling collaboration on semiformal mathematical knowledge by semantic web integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, C

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics is becoming increasingly collaborative, but software does not sufficiently support that: Social Web applications do not currently make mathematical knowledge accessible to automated agents that have a deeper understanding of mathematical structures. Such agents exist but focus on individual research tasks, such as authoring, publishing, peer-review, or verification, instead of complex collaboration workflows. This work effectively enables their integration by bridging the document-oriented perspective of mathematical authoring and publishing, and the network perspective of threaded

  12. The Stages of Student Mathematical Imagination in Solving Mathematical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Teguh; Sutawidjaja, Akbar; As'ari, Abdur Rahman; Sulandra, I. Made

    2017-01-01

    This research is a qualitative study that aimed to describe the stages of students mathematical imagination in solving mathematical problems. There are three kinds of mathematical imagination in solving mathematical problems, namely sensory mathematical imagination, creative mathematical imagination and recreative mathematical imagination.…

  13. Mathematics without boundaries surveys in pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this volume have been written by eminent scientists from the international mathematical community and present significant advances in several theories, methods and problems of Mathematical Analysis, Discrete Mathematics, Geometry and their Applications. The chapters focus on both old and recent developments in Functional Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Complex Analysis, Operator Theory, Combinatorics, Functional Equations, Differential Equations as well as a variety of Applications. The book also contains some review works, which could prove particularly useful for a broader audience of readers in Mathematical Sciences, and especially to graduate students looking for the  latest information.

  14. Teaching Statistics in Middle School Mathematics Classrooms: Making Links with Mathematics but Avoiding Statistical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Annie; Manuel, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Statistics is a domain that is taught in Mathematics in all school levels. We suggest a potential in using an interdisciplinary approach with this concept. Thus the development of the understanding of a situation might mean to use both mathematical and statistical reasoning. In this paper, we present two case studies where two middle school…

  15. Just-in-Time Mathematics: Integrating the Teaching of Finance Theory and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichett, Gordon D.; Feinstein, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a course that integrates the teaching of finance theory and mathematics. Concludes that this marriage of mathematics and finance reflects the current state of the investments profession and produces a deeper understanding of both fields. Contains 18 references. (Author/ASK)

  16. Mathematics and Mathematics Education as Triadic Communication? A Semiotic Framework Exemplified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongstad, Sigmund

    2006-01-01

    The article investigates in the first part critically dyadic and essentialist understanding of signs and utterances in mathematics and mathematics education as opposed to a triadic view. However even Peircean semiotics, giving priority to triadic, dynamic sign may face challenges, such as explaining the sign as a pragmatic act and how signs are…

  17. Deeply virtual Compton scattering and its beam charge asymmetry in e{sup {+-}}p collisions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Aldaya Martin, M. [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (RO)] (and others)

    2009-07-15

    A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering {gamma}{sup *}p{yields}{gamma}p using e{sup +}p and e{sup -}p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 306 pb{sup -1}, almost equally shared between both beam charges. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q{sup 2} of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the {gamma}{sup *}p system in the kinematic domain 6.5 < Q{sup 2} < 80 GeV{sup 2}, 30deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. Experimental results are discussed in the context of two different models, one based on generalised parton distributions and one based on the dipole approach. (orig.)

  18. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and its Beam Charge Asymmetry in $e^{\\pm} p$ Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering gamma* p -> gamma p using e^+ p and e^- p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 306 pb^-1, almost equally shared between both beam charges. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q^2 of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the gamma* p system in the kinematic domain 6.5 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2, where t denotes the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The cross section is determined differentially in t for different Q^2 and W values and exponential t-slope parameters are derived. Using e^+ p and e^- p data samples, a beam charge asymmetry is extracted for the first time in the low Bjorken x kinematic domain. The observed asymmetry is attributed to the interference between Bethe-Heitler and deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. Experimental results are dis...

  19. The migration law of overlay rock and coal in deeply inclined coal seam with fully mechanized top coal caving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Chen, Shan-Le; Wang, Hua-Jun; Li, Yu-Cheng; Geng, Xiaowei

    2015-07-01

    In a mine area, some environment geotechnics problems always occure, induced by mined-out region such as the subsidence and cracks at ground level, deformation and destruction of buildings, landslides destruction of water resources and the ecological environment. In order to research the migration of surrounding rock and coal in steeply inclined super high seams which used fully mechanized top coal caving, a working face of a certain mine was made as an example, analyzed the migration law of the overlay rock and coal under different caving ratio of fully mechanized top coal caving with numerical simulation analysis. The results suggest that the laws of overlay rock deformation caused by deeply inclined coal seam were different from horizontal coal seam. On the inclined direction, with an increase of dip angle and caving ratio, the vertical displacement of overlay rock and coal became greater, the asymmetric phenomenon of vertical displacement became obvious. On the trend direction, active region and transition region in goaf became smaller along with the increase of mining and caving ratio. On the contrary, the stable region area became greater. Therefore, there was an essential difference between the mechanism of surface movement deformation with deeply inclined coal seam and that with horizontal coal seam.

  20. Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of the Mathematics Courses Included in the Primary School Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Mehmet Koray; Incikabi, Semahat

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics educators have reported on many issues regarding students' mathematical education, particularly students who received mathematics education at different departments such as engineering, science or primary school, including their difficulties with mathematical concepts, their understanding of and preferences for mathematical concepts.…

  1. Differences in the Mathematics-Vocabulary Knowledge of Fifth-Grade Students with and without Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Suzanne R.; Powell, Sarah R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the impact of mathematics and reading learning difficulties on the mathematics-vocabulary understanding of fifth-grade students. Students (n = 114) completed three measures: mathematics computation, general vocabulary, and mathematics vocabulary. Based on performance on the mathematics computation and…

  2. Mathematics for Language, Language for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazkova, Lenka Tejkalova

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the balance and mutual influence of the language of instruction and mathematics in the context of CLIL, Content and Language Integrated Learning. Different aspects of the relationship of language and Mathematics teaching and learning are discussed: the benefits of using a foreign language of instruction, as well as the…

  3. Deeply torpid bats can change position without elevation of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonička, Tomáš; Bandouchova, Hana; Berková, Hana; Blažek, Ján; Lučan, Radek; Horáček, Ivan; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, Jiri; Řehák, Zdeněk; Zukal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Because body temperature is tightly coupled to physiological function, hibernating animals entering deep torpor are typically immobile. We analysed thermal behaviour and locomotory activity of hibernating greater mouse-eared bats Myotis myotis and found two types of movement behaviour related to body temperature, i.e. movement at high fur temperature and at low fur temperatures (Tflow; body temperature. Distance travelled, flight duration and speed of locomotion during Tflow events was lower than in high fur temperature events. Such behaviour could allow bats to save energy long-term and prolong torpor bouts. Tflow movement in torpid bats significantly changes our understanding of basic hibernation principles and we strongly recommend further studies on the subject. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Mathematics education and the dignity of being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola; García, Gloria; Camelo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    the dilemma of how the historical insertion of school mathematics in relation to the Colonial project of assimilation of Latin American indigenous peoples into the episteme of the Enlightenment and Modernity is in conflict with the possibility of the promotion of a social subjectivity in mathematics...... classrooms. We illustrate a pedagogical possibility to move towards a mathematics education for social subjectivity with our work in reassembling the notion of geometrical space in the Colombian secondary school mathematics curriculum with notions of space from critical geography and the problem......On the grounds of our work as researchers, teacher educators and teachers engaging with a socio-political approach in mathematics education in Colombia, we propose to understand democracy in terms of the possibility of constructing a social subjectivity for the dignity of being. We address...

  5. A course in mathematical methods for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Russell L

    2014-01-01

    Based on the author’s junior-level undergraduate course, this introductory textbook is designed for a course in mathematical physics. Focusing on the physics of oscillations and waves, A Course in Mathematical Methods for Physicists helps students understand the mathematical techniques needed for their future studies in physics. It takes a bottom-up approach that emphasizes physical applications of the mathematics. The book offers: •A quick review of mathematical prerequisites, proceeding to applications of differential equations and linear algebra •Classroom-tested explanations of complex and Fourier analysis for trigonometric and special functions •Coverage of vector analysis and curvilinear coordinates for solving higher dimensional problems •Sections on nonlinear dynamics, variational calculus, numerical solutions of differential equations, and Green's functions

  6. Mathematics education and the dignity of being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Valero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available On the grounds of our work as researchers, teacher educators and teachers engaging with a socio-political approach in mathematics education in Colombia, we propose to understand democracy in terms of the possibility of constructing a social subjectivity for the dignity of being. We address the dilemma of how the historical insertion of school mathematics in relation to the Colonial project of assimilation of Latin American indigenous peoples into the episteme of the Enlightenment and Modernity is in conflict with the possibility of the promotion of a social subjectivity in mathematics classrooms. We illustrate a pedagogical possibility to move towards a mathematics education for social subjectivity with our work in reassembling the notion of geometrical space in the Colombian secondary school mathematics curriculum with notions of space from critical geography and the problem of territorialisation, and Latin American epistemology with the notion of intimate space as an important element of social subjectivity.

  7. Ethnomathematics: the cultural aspects of mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Rosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomathematics studies the cultural aspects of mathematics. It presents mathematical concepts of the school curriculum in a way in which these concepts are related to the students’ cultural and daily experiences, thereby enhancing their abilities to elaborate meaningful connections and deepening their understanding ofmathematics. Ethnomathematical approaches to mathematics curriculum are intended to make school mathematics more relevant and meaningful for students and to promote the overall quality of their education.In this context, the implementation of an ethnomathematical perspective in the school mathematics curriculum helps to develop students’ intellectual, social, emotional, and political learning by using their own unique cultural referents to impart their knowledge, skills, and attitudes. This kind of curriculum providesways for students to maintain their identity while succeeding academically.

  8. Mathematics education and the dignity of being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Valero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the grounds of our work as researchers, teacher educators and teachers engaging with a socio-political approach in mathematics education in Colombia, we propose to understand democracy in terms of the possibility of constructing a social subjectivity for the dignity of being. We address the dilemma of how the historical insertion of school mathematics in relation to the Colonial project of assimilation of Latin American indigenous peoples into the episteme of the Enlightenment and Modernity is in conflict with the possibility of the promotion of a social subjectivity in mathematics classrooms. We illustrate a pedagogical possibility to move towards a mathematics education for social subjectivity with our work in reassembling the notion of geometrical space in the Colombian secondary school mathematics curriculum with notions of space from critical geography and the problem of territorialisation, and Latin American epistemology with the notion of intimate space as an important element of social subjectivity.

  9. University Science and Mathematics Education in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole; Valero, Paola; Christensen, Ole Ravn

    of science and mathematics education in the current information society and provides insight essential for developing possibilities to improve science and mathematics education in universities all around the world. The uniquely broad treatment offered by University Science and Mathematics Education...... configuration poses to scientific knowledge, to universities and especially to education in mathematics and science. Traditionally, educational studies in mathematics and science education have looked at change in education from within the scientific disciplines and in the closed context of the classroom....... Although educational change is ultimately implemented in everyday teaching and learning situations, other parallel dimensions influencing these situations cannot be forgotten. An understanding of the actual potentialities and limitations of educational transformations are highly dependent on the network...

  10. Developing My Mathematics Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assuming the role of storyteller, the author uses her experiences as a graduate student and beginning teacher to reflect critically on issues related to mathematics, mathematics education, gender, and diversity.

  11. Journal of applied mathematics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    "[The] Journal of Applied Mathematics is a refereed journal devoted to the publication of original research papers and review articles in all areas of applied, computational, and industrial mathematics...

  12. Semiotic Scaffolding in Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mikkel Willum; Misfeldt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the notion of semiotic scaffolding in relation to mathematics by considering its influence on mathematical activities, and on the evolution of mathematics as a research field. We will do this by analyzing the role different representational forms play in mathematical...... cognition, and more broadly on mathematical activities. In the main part of the paper, we will present and analyze three different cases. For the first case, we investigate the semiotic scaffolding involved in pencil and paper multiplication. For the second case, we investigate how the development of new...... in both mathematical cognition and in the development of mathematics itself, but mathematical cognition cannot itself be reduced to the use of semiotic scaffolding....

  13. The argument of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Aberdein, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive investigation into the relationship between argumentation theory and the philosophy of mathematical practice. It offers large array of examples ranging from the history of mathematics to formal proof verification.

  14. Mathematical knowledge in teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Rowland, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This book examines issues of considerable significance in addressing global aspirations to raise standards of teaching and learning in mathematics by developing approaches to characterizing, assessing and developing mathematical knowledge for teaching.

  15. Mathematics for the nonmathematician

    CERN Document Server

    Kline, Morris

    1967-01-01

    Erudite and entertaining overview follows development of mathematics from ancient Greeks to present. Topics include logic and mathematics, the fundamental concept, differential calculus, probability theory, much more. Exercises and problems.

  16. Modern mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  17. Mathematical modeling using Maple

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchamp, Robert Edward.

    1996-01-01

    The area of higher mathematics begins with successive courses in calculus; however, rarely does the calculus student recognize the applications or impetus for the mathematical skills that are taught. Giordano and Weir produced A First Course in Mathematical Modeling, the first text which addressed this shortcoming in the curriculum of every science and engineering field. With the advent of powerful classroom computers, Fox, Maddox, Giordano and Weir produced Mathematical Modeling With Minitab...

  18. Our Mathematical Universe?

    OpenAIRE

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This is a discussion of some themes in Max Tegmark's recent book, Our Mathematical Universe. It was written as a review for Plus Magazine, the online magazine of the UK's national mathematics education and outreach project, the Mathematics Millennium Project. Since some of the discussion (about symmetry breaking, and Pythagoreanism in the philosophy of mathematics) went beyond reviewing Tegmark's book, the material was divided into three online articles. This version combines those three arti...

  19. The challenge of inadequate achievement in mathematics: Focus on a meta-approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobus Maree

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As is the case elsewhere in the world, all stakeholders in South Africa are deeply concerned about the level and scope of underachievement in mathematics, not only at Grade 12 level, but, indeed, at University, University of Technology and Further Education and Training levels. These concerns assume a deeper dimension in light of the fact that inadequate achievement in mathematics inevitably will have a ripple effect on the academic situation in any country: inadequate achievement in mathematics precludes learners from applying for admission to sought-after fi elds of study, which, in turn, prevents numerous learners from realising their true potential and, eventually, from being happy and successful in careers that they might otherwise have been able to execute successfully. It goes without saying that inadequate achievement in mathematics will impact negatively on the overall economic situation in any country (even more so in a developing country such as South Africa. Truth being, achievement in mathematics amounts to equipping oneself with survival skills. In this article, the spotlight shifts from a narrow and outdated focus on problems that are associated with inadequate achievement in mathematics to possible solutions for this disconcerting situation and the implied challenge it raises. The focus is thus on three levels that collectively underpin and impact on achievement in mathematics, viz. the macro level, the meso level and the micro level. The macro level refers mainly to the input by the national government (and, by default, the National Department of Education. In the fi rst instance, it is the responsibility of the state to provide adequate schooling facilities for all learners, irrespective of where they fi nd themselves. Furthermore, it is the duty of the state to ensure that every learner has access to basic facilities, including food, water, sanitation and housing. The state (via the National Department of Education is also

  20. Rifts of deeply eroded Hawaiian basaltic shields: a structural analog for large Martian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.D.; Walker, G.P.L.; Mouginis-Mark, P.J.; Rowland, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    Recently derived morphologic evidence suggests that intrusive events have not only influenced the growth of young shield volcanoes on Mars but also the distribution of volatiles surrounding these volcanoes: in addition to rift zones and flank eruptions on Arsia Mons and Pavonis Mons, melt water channels were identified to the northwest of Hecates Tholus, to the south of Hadriaca Patera, and to the SE of Olympus Mons. Melt water release could be the surface expression of tectonic deformation of the region or, potentially, intrusive events associated with dike emplacement from each of these volcanoes. In this study the structural properties of Hawaiian shield volcanoes were studied where subaerial erosion has removed a sufficient amount of the surface to enable a direct investigation of the internal structure of the volcanoes. The field investigation of dike morphology and magma flow characteristics for several volcanoes in Hawaii is reported. A comprehensive investigation was made of the Koolau dike complex that passes through the summit caldera. A study of two other dissected Hawaiian volcanoes, namely Waianae and East Molokai, was commenced. The goal is not only to understand the emplacement process and magma flow within these terrestrial dikes, but also to explore the possible role that intrusive events may have played in volcano growth and the distribution of melt water release on Mars

  1. The Importance of Dialogic Processes to Conceptual Development in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Sibel; Wegerif, Rupert; Fujita, Taro

    2015-01-01

    We argue that dialogic theory, inspired by the Russian scholar Mikhail Bakhtin, has a distinct contribution to the analysis of the genesis of understanding in the mathematics classroom. We begin by contrasting dialogic theory to other leading theoretical approaches to understanding conceptual development in mathematics influenced by Jean Piaget…

  2. Manipulative Apps to Support Students with Disabilities in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Working, Christopher; Bone, Erin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding mathematical concepts is important for all students, although often challenging for many students with disabilities. Historically, educators have used concrete manipulatives to support and build conceptual understanding. Mobile devices provide a valuable option to support students with disabilities in mathematics through app-based…

  3. Masculinities in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Mendick, Heather

    2006-01-01

    The study of mathematics, with other ''gendered'' subjects such as science and engineering, usually attracts more male than female pupils. This book explores this phenomenon, addressing the important question of why more boys than girls choose to study mathematics. It illuminates what studying mathematics means for both students and teachers.

  4. Mathematics of Risk Taking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. K B Athreya1 2 M G Nadkarni3. Department of Mathematics Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa; I M I, Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India. Department of Mathematics, University of Mumbai Kalina, Mumbai, 400098, India.

  5. Mathematical Sciences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jan; Muchatuta, Michelle; Wood, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates enrolment trends in mathematical sciences in Australian universities. Data has been difficult to extract and the coding for mathematical disciplines has made investigation challenging. We show that the number of mathematics major undergraduates in Australia is steadily declining though the number studying…

  6. Students' Mathematical Noticing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Joanne; Hohensee, Charles; Rhodehamel, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Even in simple mathematical situations, there is an array of different mathematical features that students can attend to or notice. What students notice mathematically has consequences for their subsequent reasoning. By adapting work from both cognitive science and applied linguistics anthropology, we present a focusing framework, which treats…

  7. Mathematics Connection: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Kofi Mereku Executive Editor Department of Mathematics Education, UCE Mathematical Association of Ghana, C/o Department of Mathematics Education University College of Education of Winneba P. O. Box 25, Winneba, Ghana Phone: +233244961318. Email: dkmereku@uew.edu.gh ...

  8. Mathematical Discovery: Hadamard Resurected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In 1943 Jacques Hadamard gave a series of lectures on mathematical invention at the Ecole Libre des Hautes Etudes in New York City. These talks were subsequently published as The Psychology of Mathematical Invention in the Mathematical Field (Hadamard, 1945). In this article I present a study that mirrors the work of Hadamard. Results both…

  9. Making Mathematics Culturally Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examines three strands of elementary mathematics--numerals and counting, recording and calculating, and mathematics exploration and play--and provides ways to integrate culture and mathematics experiences in each area. Specific topics include Egyptian methods for multiplication, the abacus, and the words for the numbers 1-10 in seven different…

  10. Contrasts in Mathematical Challenges in A-Level Mathematics and Further Mathematics, and Undergraduate Mathematics Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Ellie

    2014-01-01

    This article describes part of a study which investigated the role of questions in students' approaches to learning mathematics at the secondary-tertiary interface, focussing on the enculturation of students at the University of Oxford. Use of the Mathematical Assessment Task Hierarchy taxonomy revealed A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics…

  11. Mathematics and mysticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Ralph

    2015-12-01

    Is there a world of mathematics above and beyond ordinary reality, as Plato proposed? Or is mathematics a cultural construct? In this short article we speculate on the place of mathematical reality from the perspective of the mystical cosmologies of the ancient traditions of meditation, psychedelics, and divination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Teaching Mathematics as Agape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Joel C.

    2011-01-01

    What happens when the problem of inequitable access to mathematics is addressed by agape (pronounced agapa) or attending to the relationships students develop with mathematics? To respond to this question, this paper offers a description of the journey towards teaching mathematics as agape. First, I organized examples of equity pedagogy around the…

  13. MATHEMATICS AND MUSIC

    OpenAIRE

    ESİ, Ayten

    2017-01-01

    One of the areas where mathematics and art are related is music. Throughout human history, many mathematicians have been interested in music. In this study, the relations between mathematics and music were examined and tried to be explained with various examples that these two are inseparable parts of the each other, and it was tried to be emphasized that mathematics is in the music

  14. Creating Words in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, Linda

    2016-01-01

    A "National Numeracy Report" and the Australian Curriculum (2014) have recognised the importance of language in mathematics. The general capabilities contained within the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" (2014) highlight literacy as an important tool in the teaching and learning of mathematics, from the interpretation of…

  15. Defining Mathematical Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical paper outlines the process of defining "mathematical giftedness" for a present study on how primary school teaching shapes the mindsets of children who are mathematically gifted. Mathematical giftedness is not a badge of honour or some special value attributed to a child who has achieved something exceptional.…

  16. Mathematics Teaching Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tami S.; Speer, William R.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes features, consistent messages, and new components of "Mathematics Teaching Today: Improving Practice, Improving Student Learning" (NCTM 2007), an updated edition of "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" (NCTM 1991). The new book describes aspects of high-quality mathematics teaching; offers a model for observing,…

  17. Mathematics of Risk Taking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Mathematics of Risk Taking. K B Athreya and M G Nadkarni. Keywords. Investor, risk taking, fair game, martingale, random walk, gam- bling, population. (left) K B Athreya is a visiting professor at IMI,. Mathematics Department,. IISc, Bangalore and is also a professor of mathematics and statistics at Iowa State. University ...

  18. Graphing Calculator Exposure of Mathematics Learning in a Partially Technology Incorporated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuddin, Azrul Fazwan; Ismail, Noor Azina

    2017-01-01

    Integrating technology in the mathematics curriculum has become a necessary task for curriculum developers as well as mathematics practitioners across the world and time. In general research studies seeking a better understanding of how best to integrate mathematics analysis tools with mathematics subject matter normally observe mathematics…

  19. Emphasis on Conceptual Knowledge and Its Impact on Mathematics Anxiety for Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoule, Alioune

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between conceptual knowledge and mathematics anxiety of remedial mathematics students in an urban community college. The impact that conceptual understanding has on mathematics achievement was also examined. The study sample consisted of 105 remedial mathematics students from four elementary algebra courses.…

  20. Public Conceptions of Algorithms and Representations in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanna, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms and representations have been an important aspect of the work of mathematics, especially for understanding concepts and communicating ideas about concepts and mathematical relationships. They have played a key role in various mathematics standards documents, including the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. However, there have…