WorldWideScience

Sample records for understand key issues

  1. Understanding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Wilson, Nick; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-11-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies.

  2. Consumer understanding and nutritional communication: key issues in the context of the new EU legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Trijp, Hans C M

    2009-12-01

    Nutrition communication by means of nutrition and health claims and otherwise, holds the potential to contribute to public health by stimulating informed healthier food choices and enhanced health-focussed competition in the market place, provided that the health messages are trustworthy (i.e. scientifically substantiated) and correctly used and interpreted by the consumer. Not surprisingly, these two considerations constitute the cornerstone of the new EU legislation on nutrition and health claims, in which evidence for consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a new requirement. To review some of the key issues in consumer understanding of nutritional communication as a basis for reflection on the consumer understanding element of the new EU legislation on nutrition and health claims. There is a need for more methodologically advanced research in consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims as a basis for truly assessing the real-life use of such information and its actual effect on consumer food choices. Such approaches are pertinent in light of the evaluation and approval process of (new) nutrition and health claims as required under the new EU legislation on nutrition and health claims.

  3. Understanding Key Education Issues: How We Got Here and Where We Go from Here

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    In this age of education innovation and reform, schools must evolve and react to current policy trends. This accessible book offers research-based insights into six key educational trends and issues that are impacting K-12 learning today: year-round schooling, assessments, educating minorities, anti-intellectualism, issues of social promotion and…

  4. Italy's All-Volunteer Army: An Analytical Framework for Understanding the Key Policy Issues and Choices During the Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zanini, Michele

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation builds an analytical framework for understanding the key policy issues and tradeoffs affecting the Italian Army's transition from a mixed conscript/volunteer model to an All-Volunteer Force (AVF...

  5. Argumentation as a Strategy for Increasing Preservice Teachers’ Understanding of Climate Change, a Key Global Socioscientific Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Findings of this study suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in addressing complex socioscientific issues (i.e. global climate change). This research examined changes in preservice teachers’ knowledge and perceptions about climate change in an innovative undergraduate-level elementary science methods course. The preservice teachers’ understanding of fundamental concepts (e.g., the difference between weather and climate, causes of recent global warming, etc.) increas...

  6. Some Key Issues in Creating Inquiry-Based Instructional Practices that Aim at the Understanding of Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Zeger-Jan; Taconis, Ruurd; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Gravemeijer, Koeno

    2013-01-01

    Many students in secondary schools consider the sciences difficult and unattractive. This applies to physics in particular, a subject in which students attempt to learn and understand numerous theoretical concepts, often without much success. A case in point is the understanding of the concepts current, voltage and resistance in simple electric…

  7. Some Key Issues in Creating Inquiry-Based Instructional Practices that Aim at the Understanding of Simple Electric Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeger-Jan Kock; Koeno Gravemeijer; Dr. S. Bolhuis; Ruurd Taconis

    2011-01-01

    Many students in secondary schools consider the sciences difficult and unattractive. This applies to physics in particular, a subject in which students attempt to learn and understand numerous theoretical concepts, often without much success. A case in point is the understanding of the concepts

  8. Argumentation as a Strategy for Increasing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change, a Key Global Socioscientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Findings of this study suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in addressing complex socioscientific issues (i.e. global climate change). This research examined changes in preservice teachers' knowledge and perceptions about climate change in an innovative undergraduate-level elementary science methods course. The…

  9. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... about NICHD preeclampsia research in the sidebar.) Preterm Birth Preterm (premature) birth is birth before the baby ...

  10. A Cross-Continental Study on Children's Drawings of Football Players: Implications for Understanding Key Issues and Controversies in Human Figure Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluch, Bahman; Duffy, Linda J; Badami, Rokhsareh; Pereira, Elisangela C Ap

    2017-08-01

    Professionals examine various aspects of girls' and boys' drawings as a way of understanding their intelligence, personality and emotional state. However, the extent to which such measures could be universally generalised or attributed to a specific cultural norm is still a debatable issue. In the present study five key features of children's drawings namely: the size (height) of the drawings, profile or full face, figure in action or static, shaded or non-shaded and the nature of additional details were examined from a cross-cultural perspective, and by providing a topic (football) for which children's drawing of a human figure could provide opportunities for the latter indices to manifest and flourish. Children from three countries; England, Iran and Brazil, representing three continents took part in this study. The participants were asked to draw a football player from their own country and from the other participating countries. The results showed that Brazilian children differ from Iranian and English children by drawing significantly smaller figures and putting more football action in the drawings. Shading of the figure drawn was more prevalent amongst English children. Such findings have implications for the interpretation of key aspects of children's drawings in educational, clinical and therapeutic settings and from a universal vs. culturally-specific viewpoint.

  11. Understanding nuclear issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-09-01

    In our days technological progress for the benefit of society is slowed down by the fact that common citizens (opinion-forming media reporters, journalists, furthermore elected decision-makers) are underinformed about basic numerical facts concerning harms and benefits of high technology. Here a comparative risk study is presented about smoking, ozone hole, global warming, and ionizing radiation. This approach has turned out to be successful in educating the youth in Hungary; because school-going teenagers do understand numbers. (author)

  12. Understanding nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, G.

    1999-01-01

    In our days technological progress for the benefit of society is slowed down by the fact that common citizens (opinion-forming media reporters, journalists, furthermore elected decision-makers) are underinformed about basic numerical facts concerning harms and benefits of high technology. Here a comparative risk study is presented about smoking, ozone hole, global warming, and ionizing radiation. This approach has turned out to be successful in educating the youth in Hungary; because school-going teenagers do understand numbers. (author)

  13. Key issues in transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-02-24

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations.

  14. Key issues in transplant tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-01-01

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations. PMID:24175191

  15. Understanding Mathematics: Some Key Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asma Amanat; Reid, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is well known as a subject area where there can be problems in terms of understanding as well as retaining positive attitudes. In a large study involving 813 school students (ages approximately 10-12) drawn from two different school systems in Pakistan, the effect of limited working memory capacity on performance in mathematics was…

  16. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications. 15 or not managed, conflicts are likely to escalate and intensify. White et al. (2009:244) state: 'What distinguishes conflicts from mere disagreement is thus a behavioural expression of formerly latent attitudes where one party is perceived to take action at the ...

  17. Key Research Issues in Clostridium difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zhanel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is an emerging pathogen that causes C difficile-associated diarrhea, an important nosocomial infection. Control of this infection remains a challenge, and much needs to be determined about the antimicrobial resistance of the organism, antibiotic stewardship, contamination of the patient environment, and various host factors that determine susceptibility or resistance to infection. A national symposium focusing on C difficile infections, the Clostridium difficile Symposium on Emerging Issues and Research, was hosted on November 23, 2004, by the Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, in partnership with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. This symposium, which aimed to summarize key research issues regarding C difficile infections in Canada, had the following objectives: to provide a forum for learning and discussion about C difficile and its impact on the health of Canadians; to identify the key research issues that should be addressed; and to explore potential research funding opportunities and collaboration. The present report summarizes key research issues identified for C difficile infections in Canada by addressing four major themes: diagnosis and surveillance, infection prevention and control, antibiotic stewardship, and clinical management.

  18. Ocean energy: key legal issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Glen; Rochette, Julien; O'Hagan, Anne Marie; De Groot, Jiska; Leroy, Yannick; Soininen, Niko; Salcido, Rachael; Castelos, Montserrat Abad; Jude, Simon; Kerr, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Ocean energy is a novel renewable energy resource being developed as part of the push towards a 'Blue Economy'. The literature on ocean energy has focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. In this Issue Brief, we set out some key legal challenges for the development of ocean energy technologies, structured around the following core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources. (authors)

  19. Twelve key nutritional issues in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Ronan; Huber, Olivier; Azagury, Dan E; Pichard, Claude

    2016-02-01

    In morbidly obese patients, i.e. body mass index ≥35, bariatric surgery is considered the only effective durable weight-loss therapy. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) are associated with risks of nutritional deficiencies and malnutrition. Therefore, preoperative nutritional assessment and correction of vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies, as well as long-term postoperative nutritional follow-up, are advised. Dietetic counseling is mandatory during the first year, optional later. Planned and structured physical exercise should be systematically promoted to maintain muscle mass and bone health. In this review, twelve key perioperative nutritional issues are raised with focus on LRYGBP and LSG procedures, the most common current bariatric procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Climate Watchlist: Key issues for Cancun negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Siegele, Linda

    2010-11-15

    We must mitigate and adapt to climate change. On this, the international community is agreed. But exactly how to do that is still up for debate. There were high hopes that last year's UN climate talks in Copenhagen would deliver a legally binding agreement for action on climate change. But the outcome — the Copenhagen Accord — was instead a political 'statement of intent' that fell significantly short of expectations. Now, after a year of interim meetings and several negotiating texts, parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are gathering in Cancun, Mexico, to try again. Their success will largely depend on settling disputes — particularly between the developed and developing world — about six key issues: shared vision; adaptation; climate finance; technology transfer; reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation; and post-2012 emissions reduction targets.

  1. Key issues for sustainable urban stormwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, A E; Fernandes, J N; David, L M

    2012-12-15

    Since ancient times, it is understood that stormwater from constructed areas should be managed somehow. Waste and pollution transported by stormwater poses quantity and quality problems, affecting public health and the quality of the environment. Sanitation infrastructures in urbanized regions have different development levels and the perception of stormwater changed considerably during the centuries and especially in recent years. Still, there is an evident worldwide heterogeneity when analyzing the lack of studies on urban stormwater conducted in some Asian or African countries. Strategies for sustainable stormwater management are needed at different decision levels (political, regional or local scale, for instance) but all of them need information and a clear understanding of the possibilities that are at stake as well as the main consequences of each decision. A sound approach to stormwater management should be flexible, based on local characteristics, and should take into consideration temporal, spatial and administrative factors and law, among other issues. Economic or technical constraints define different decision scenarios. Best Management Practices should be seen as an opportunity for development and improvement of social, educational and environmental conditions in urbanized and surrounding areas. Therefore they require an ample perspective and the participation of different stakeholders. High-quality decision needs time and a fair overview of the problem: the purpose of this document is to contribute to sustainable stormwater management, informing on the most relevant factors that should be assessed and their interaction. A flowchart has been produced and is presented, indicating the most relevant steps, processes and information that should be taken into account in urban development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nickel exposure from keys: a Brazilian issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Keys are a significant source of exposure to metal allergens and can be a relevant problem for nickel-allergic individuals. This study aimed to perform nickel and cobalt spot testing among the 5 most common Brazilian brands of keys. Among the tested keys, 100% showed positive result to nickel spot test, 83,3% presented strong positive reaction. 50% exhibited cobalt release as well. Nickel release from keys is very common in our country and may cause a negative impact on sensitized individual's quality of life. Study's results highlight the importance of establishing directives to regulate nickel release in Brazil.

  3. Risk management of key issues of FPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Sun, Hai

    2012-12-01

    Risk analysis of key systems have become a growing topic late of because of the development of offshore structures. Equipment failures of offloading system and fire accidents were analyzed based on the floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) features. Fault tree analysis (FTA), and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) methods were examined based on information already researched on modules of relex reliability studio (RRS). Equipment failures were also analyzed qualitatively by establishing a fault tree and Boolean structure function based on the shortage of failure cases, statistical data, and risk control measures examined. Failure modes of fire accident were classified according to the different areas of fire occurrences during the FMEA process, using risk priority number (RPN) methods to evaluate their severity rank. The qualitative analysis of FTA gave the basic insight of forming the failure modes of FPSO offloading, and the fire FMEA gave the priorities and suggested processes. The research has practical importance for the security analysis problems of FPSO.

  4. Key issues regarding digital libraries evaluation and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Rao; Fox, Edward A

    2013-01-01

    This is the second book based on the 5S (Societies, Scenarios, Spaces, Structures, Streams) approach to digital libraries (DLs). Leveraging the first volume, on Theoretical Foundations, we focus on the key issues of evaluation and integration. These cross-cutting issues serve as a bridge for those interested in DLs, connecting the introduction and formal discussion in the first book, with the coverage of key technologies in the third book, and of illustrative applications in the fourth book. These two topics have central importance in the DL field, allowing it to be treated scientifically as well as practically. In the scholarly world, we only really understand something if we know how to measure and evaluate it. In the Internet era of distributed information systems, we only can be practical at scale if we integrate across both systems and their associated content. Evaluation of DLs must take place atmultiple levels,so we can address the different entities and their associated measures. Thus, for digital obj...

  5. Understanding culture: key messages for leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    It is crucial, in an era of healthcare mergers and acquisitions, that leaders understand organizational culture and the role it plays in major transitions. Research indicates that organizational factors can lead to either the success or failure of a major change. Too many failed mergers testify to the fact that cultures sometimes collide, rather than coalesce. Culture is the human dimension of an organization. Anytime an organization makes a major change, some of its employees will experience the change as chaos. But chaos is not necessarily a bad thing. It can free people from the constraints of the past, enabling them to create new structures. But, for this to happen, leaders must help employees separate essential from peripheral matters and specify their common values and beliefs. Good leaders are vital for change as significant as an acquisition or a merger. They may want to begin with assessments of their respective cultures. They will certainly give employees an opportunity to express their sense of loss. As early in the process as possible, they should create communications mechanisms that involve employees in the change process and share vision and values. And leaders should share themselves, both their strength and vulnerability, so that employees can see change as something all are experiencing together.

  6. U.S. Army War College Key Strategic Issues List

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The Key Strategic Issues List (KSIL) offers military and civilian researchers a ready reference of topics that are of particular interest to the Department of the Army and the Department of Defense...

  7. Trade Unions as Organisations: Key Issues and Problems of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper critically examines and evaluates inter alia Trade Unions as. Organisations and the key issues and problems of Internal Democracy within them. It transcends this analysis to assert that these core issues apply equally well to Political Organisations. Thus, from an ideological standpoint, Trade Unions play a great ...

  8. BENTO buffer development program in Finland - Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Korkiala-Tanttu, L.; Vaehaenen, M.; Koskinen, K.; Korkeakoski, P.; Haapala, K.

    2010-01-01

    key project in the programme. Another key part of development is the manufacturing of buffer components (MANU project), which is responsible of the manufacturing of buffer components for testing and final use in the repository. MANU covers the whole chain of events from raw material acquisition and management to manufacturing and emplacement of the final bentonite products. The development of design and manufacturing requires significant amount of research in order to define the processes that take place during buffer's lifespan from manufacturing to actual buffer function in deposition hole and evaluation of buffer performance. These processes need to be understood in order to define the essential design parameters that affect these processes. Therefore material research (MARE project) is essential requirement for successful design development. Modelling (MODE project) provides support for all other projects. It requires significant resources, comprehensive understanding of different modelling methods and approaches, intense supervision and coordination. The significant issues are issues, which have been identified by the BENTO programme group to be possibly significant for performance of the buffer. The significant issues that need to be resolved at present are as follows: 1. Buffer cementation; 2. Buffer mineral alteration; 3. Erosion of buffer; 4. Piping of inflows through the buffer; 5. Insufficient swelling pressure of the buffer in dry drift sections, effect on rock spalling; 6. Post-glacial erosion (loss of buffer from exposure to glacial melt waters); 7. Cement-bentonite interaction; 8. Iron-bentonite interaction; 9. Freezing and Thawing of buffer. (authors)

  9. Science Communication for the Public Understanding of Nuclear Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment represent characteristics of nuclear issues in the public arena. Nuclear issue, in the public arena, is a kind of risk rather than technology that we are willing to use for good purpose. There are uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment as characteristics of nuclear. The notion of the public, here is of active, sensitive, and sensible citizens, with power and influence. The public understands nuclear issues less through direct experience or education than through the filter of mass media. Trust has been a key issue on public understanding of nuclear issues. Trust belongs to human. The public understanding process includes perception, interpretation, and evaluation. Therefore, science communication is needed for public understanding. Unfortunately, science communication is rarely performed well, nowadays, There are three important actors-the public, experts, and media. Effective science communication means finding comprehensible ways of presenting opaque and complex nuclear issues. It makes new and strong demands on experts. In order to meet that requirement, experts should fulfill their duty about developing nuclear technology for good purpose, understand the public before expecting the public to understand nuclear issues, accept the unique culture of the media process, take the responsibility for any consequence which nuclear technologies give rise to, communicate with an access route based on sensibility and rationality, have a flexible angle in the science communication process, get creative leadership for the communication process with deliberation and disagreement, make efficient use of various science technologies for science communication. We should try to proceed with patience, because science communication makes for a more credible society

  10. EDITORIAL: 'Key issues' articles in Reports on Progress in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Laura H.

    2007-03-01

    The Editorial Board of Reports on Progress in Physics has commissioned a series of short articles from world leaders on key physics issues in their field. These essays may raise the key issues, or ask open questions or may even suggest wild ideas. Basically, they give world leading physicists the opportunity to write what they think about the key issues in their field, free from the usual requirement to provide the fair and balanced presentations of the subject normally found in articles in Reports on Progress in Physics. We believe that the readers of the journal will be interested to learn about these exciting ideas. Just as Hilbert's famous paper of 1900 set the agenda for the next century or more in mathematics, so we hope that this series of papers will define the key issues and open questions in physics for the 21st Century and that the articles will be widely cited and downloaded. The first of these articles—'Insights from simulations of star formation' by Richard B Larson (Yale University, USA)—is published in the current issue. We trust that readers will find this article and its successors in the series to appear through 2007 and beyond entertaining and stimulating.

  11. Social Work Practice with Latinos: Key Issues for Social Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, Rich; Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Rowan, Diana; Shukraft, Allison; Gragg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The Latino population is the fastest growing group in the United States; thus, it is imperative that social workers and other mental health practitioners be knowledgeable about the current literature on how to effectively serve this population. This article elucidates key issues and knowledge, such as immigration and migration concerns; discusses how to assess for levels of acculturation; examines cultural values; and highlights salient work issues and health disparities that Latinos experien...

  12. Village health volunteers: key issues facing agencies in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The participants discussed recruitment, training, rewards, retention, and roles of village health volunteers. This paper presents background data on village health volunteers in Malawi and elsewhere and reviews the key issues facing health care providers in working with village health volunteers. A copy of the workshop ...

  13. Social Work Practice with Latinos: Key Issues for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Rich; Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Rowan, Diana; Shukraft, Allison; Gragg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The Latino population is the fastest growing group in the United States; thus, it is imperative that social workers and other mental health practitioners be knowledgeable about the current literature on how to effectively serve this population. This article elucidates key issues and knowledge, such as immigration and migration concerns; discusses…

  14. Power quality event classification: an overview and key issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... used for PQ events' classifications. Various artificial intelligent techniques which are used in PQ event classification are also discussed. Major Key issues and challenges in classifying PQ events are critically examined and outlined. Keywords: Power quality, PQ event classifiers, artificial intelligence techniques, PQ noise, ...

  15. Key management issue in SCADA networks: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalhossein Rezai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA networks have a vital role in Critical Infrastructures (CIs such as public transports, power generation systems, gas, water and oil industries, so that there are concerns on security issues in these networks. The utilized Remote Terminal Units (RTUs and Intelligence Electronic Devices (IEDs in these networks have resource limitations, which make security applications a challenging issue. Efficient key management schemes are required besides lightweight ciphers for securing the SCADA communications. Many key management schemes have been developed to address the tradeoff between SCADA constrain and security, but which scheme is the most effective is still debatable. This paper presents a review of the existing key management schemes in SCADA networks, which provides directions for further researches in this field.

  16. Information Systems Management: an Australasian view of key issues - 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pervan

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of a longitudinal study of key information systems management issues, a survey of Australasia's largest 500 organisations was conducted to identify which issues were perceived by the IS executives as being important, problematic and critical over the next three to five years. The most critical issues were revealed to be a mix of technology management issues (IT infrastructure, communications, disaster recovery, strategic management issues (competitive advantage, IS planning, aligning the IS organisation, people management issues (organisational learning, educating senior management in IT, systems development and data management issues (effective use of the data resource, and end-user computing. This reflects the need for a balance of business, technical, and people skills in an IS executive. Non-critical issues were mostly related to systems development and the individual technologies which must be integrated and managed to ensure a responsive IT infrastructure. The study also reveals that some issues are much more important than problematic (disaster recovery, competitive advantage, information architecture, and IS alignment while others are much more problematic than important (end-user computing, IS role and contribution, and BPR. The former reflects a growing level of knowledge in handling these issues, while the latter reflects a continuing problem with them. The differences between this study and similar studies conducted in 1988 and 1992 show that there is a growing confidence in the IS executive's ability to manage the strategic issues, a continuing concern about providing a responsive IT infrastructure (especially communications, and a continuing concern with educating all 'customers' in the organisation in the effective use of IT, including senior management.

  17. Nanotechnologies for Climate Friendly Construction – Key Issues and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2009-01-01

    Expectations as to the climate potentials of nanotechnology are high, none the least related to the construction sector. This paper seeks to highlight key aspects in the early development and application of eco-innovative nanotech solutions in the construction sector, “nanoconstruction”. The paper...... provides a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and takes stock of current challenges. Eco-innovative nanoconstruction has the potential to simultaneously enhance the competitiveness and climate potential of the construction sector and could become a key strategic factor...

  18. Integrated assessment of climate change: Characterizing key policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.S.; O`Hara, F.M. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    A multidisciplinary, multiagency workshop was convened by the US Department of Energy in Washington, DC, June 29-30,1994. The goal of the workshop was to define key policy issues related to global climate change and the types of information pertaining to these issues that decision makers would find most useful. The workshop was organized by the Center for Global Environmental Studies and the Environmental Sciences Division, both of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in cooperation with a steering committee composed of seven national laboratories.

  19. Social work practice with Latinos: key issues for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Rich; Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Rowan, Diana; Shukraft, Allison; Gragg, Jennifer

    2009-04-01

    The Latino population is the fastest growing group in the United States; thus, it is imperative that social workers and other mental health practitioners be knowledgeable about the current literature on how to effectively serve this population. This article elucidates key issues and knowledge, such as immigration and migration concerns; discusses how to assess for levels of acculturation; examines cultural values; and highlights salient work issues and health disparities that Latinos experience. Recommendations on how agencies and universities can recruit and promote bilingual practitioners are introduced. Finally, culturally responsive strategies for professional use of self and fostering the therapeutic alliance are discussed.

  20. European key issues concerning natural gas: Dependence and vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymond, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Due to the high demand for natural gas from emerging countries and because natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource is electricity production, natural gas demand should increase. This paper re-examines the geopolitical key issues related to natural gas as well as the uneven distribution of natural gas resources on a worldwide scale. This paper proposes to define the significance of liquefied natural gas in gas exchanges and it analyses the problem of European gas vulnerability using several indicators

  1. Wildfire in the United Kingdom: status and key issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia. McMorrow

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of wildfire risk in the United Kingdom and examines some of the key issues in U.K. wildfire management. Wildfires challenge the resources of U.K. Fire and Rescue Services (FRSs), especially in dry years, yet FRSs are poorly equipped and trained to deal with wildfire. A brief geography of U.K. wildfires is presented using fire statistics...

  2. Human health effects of tetrachloroethylene: key findings and scientific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Kathryn Z; Hogan, Karen A; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Cooper, Glinda S; Bale, Ambuja S; Kopylev, Leonid; Barone, Stanley; Makris, Susan L; Glenn, Barbara; Subramaniam, Ravi P; Gwinn, Maureen R; Dzubow, Rebecca C; Chiu, Weihsueh A

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) in February 2012 in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). We reviewed key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of PCE described in the U.S. EPA's Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). The updated assessment of PCE synthesized and characterized a substantial database of epidemiological, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies. Key scientific issues were addressed through modeling of PCE toxicokinetics, synthesis of evidence from neurological studies, and analyses of toxicokinetic, mechanistic, and other factors (tumor latency, severity, and background rate) in interpreting experimental animal cancer findings. Considerations in evaluating epidemiological studies included the quality (e.g., specificity) of the exposure assessment methods and other essential design features, and the potential for alternative explanations for observed associations (e.g., bias or confounding). Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites that contribute to PCE toxicity. The exposure assessment approach-a key evaluation factor for epidemiological studies of bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma-provided suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity. Bioassay data provided conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Neurotoxicity was identified as a sensitive noncancer health effect, occurring at low exposures: a conclusion supported by multiple studies. Evidence was integrated from human, experimental animal, and mechanistic data sets in assessing adverse health effects of PCE. PCE is likely to be carcinogenic to humans. Neurotoxicity is a sensitive adverse health effect of PCE.

  3. Carcinogenicity of ethylene oxide: key findings and scientific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinot, Jennifer; Fritz, Jason M; Vulimiri, Suryanarayana V; Keshava, Nagalakshmi

    2018-06-01

    In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed an evaluation of the inhalation carcinogenicity of ethylene oxide (EtO) in December 2016. This article reviews key findings and scientific issues regarding the carcinogenicity of EtO in EPA's Carcinogenicity Assessment. EPA's assessment critically reviewed and characterized epidemiologic, laboratory animal, and mechanistic studies pertaining to the human carcinogenicity of EtO, and addressed some key scientific issues such as the analysis of mechanistic data as part of the cancer hazard evaluation and to inform the quantitative risk assessment. The weight of evidence from the epidemiologic, laboratory animal, and mechanistic studies supports a conclusion that EtO is carcinogenic in humans, with the strongest human evidence linking EtO exposure to lymphoid and breast cancers. Analyses of the mechanistic data establish a key role for genotoxicity and mutagenicity in EtO-induced carcinogenicity and reveal little evidence supporting other mode-of-action hypotheses. In conclusion, EtO was found to be carcinogenic to humans by inhalation, posing a potential human health hazard for lymphoid and breast cancers.

  4. Nanotechnologies for Climate Friendly Construction - Key Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M. M.; Geiker, M. R.

    Expectations as to the climate potentials of nanotechnology are high, none the least related to the construction sector. This paper seeks to highlight key aspects in the early development and application of eco-innovative nanotech solutions in the construction sector, “nanoconstruction”. The paper provides a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and takes stock of current challenges. Eco-innovative nanoconstruction has the potential to simultaneously enhance the competitiveness and climate potential of the construction sector and could become a key strategic factor for the sector ahead. However, the considerable lack of knowledge both on the eco-opportunities and risks of nanoconstruction and the industrial dynamics involved forms a serious barrier for pursuing nanoconstruction as a serious strategic target for business and policy.

  5. Issues in mHealth: findings from key informant interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn

    2012-10-02

    mHealth is enjoying considerable interest and private investment in the United States. A small but growing body of evidence indicates some promise in supporting healthy behavior change and self-management of long-term conditions. The unique benefits mobile phones bring to health initiatives, such as direct access to health information regardless of time or location, may create specific issues for the implementation of such initiatives. Other issues may be shared with general health information technology developments. To determine the important issues facing the implementation of mHealth from the perspective of those within the US health system and those working in mHealth in the United States. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 27 key informants from across the health and mHealth sectors in the United States. Interviewees were approached directly following an environmental scan of mHealth in the United States or recommendation by those working in mHealth. The most common issues were privacy and data security, funding, a lack of good examples of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of mHealth in practice, and the need for more high-quality research. The issues are outlined and categorized according to the environment within which they predominantly occur: policy and regulatory environments; the wireless industry; the health system; existing mHealth practice; and research. Many of these issues could be addressed by making the most of the current US health reform environment, developing a strategic and coordinated approach, and seeking to improve mHealth practice.

  6. Distributed Generation in Power Systems: An Overview and Key Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas

    2009-01-01

    quality, etc. However, depending on the system configuration and management, these advantages may not be true. Moreover, due to structural and managerial changes in the electricity supply industry motivated with introduction of completion, the role of small generations distributed in the low....../medium voltage network has gained importance. This paper adopts a systematic approach by focusing on the most important research areas related to the distributed generations. Various DG technologies are described and penetration of DGs in the Indian system has been discussed. This paper also highlights the key...... issues in the DG integration in power systems...

  7. Key Issues with Regard to Youth Housing and Homelessness in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Damian

    This paper from a symposium on shut out youth identifies some of the key social, cultural, and economic issues that must be considered to understand the phenomenon of youth homelessness. Researchers and practitioners address the problem of Europe's unmet housing needs. The factors which contribute to these needs and problems are the following: (1)…

  8. Maintaining Program Understanding - Issues, Tools, and Future Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas; Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    documentation tools are reviewed. The tools are selected on basis of relevance for the key documentation issues, and relative to the common attention and interest of the particular tool in the documentation communities. As a conclusion of the paper, and as a final contribution, a number of future directions....... One approach to maintaining program understanding is to document decisions and rationales behind a program as informal textual explanations---internal documentation. The starting point of this paper is a particular paradigm for program documentation called Elucidative Programming. As the first...... the distance between the documentation and the program. Documentation occasions are points in time for capturing and formulating the understanding of the program. During the years a large number of documentation tools have been developed. As the second contribution of the paper, a number of contemporary...

  9. The Key Issues of Labor Migration in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie JELINKOVA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight some often occurring failures that need to be eliminated when attempting to develop an integral and efficient policy on labor migration. As an example, a brief overview of the development of immigration policies and its critical shortcomings in the Czech Republic is provided. Following this, the paper analyzes two aspects: the protection of migrant workers and the trafficking in human beings. In particular, the paper deals with three crucial issues of labor migration which are: (1 the inconsistent aims of immigration policies, (2 the client system, and (3 the dependence on middlemen. The paper also focuses on the role of state, police, and NGO’s in the trafficking in human beings and forced labor or labor exploitation in the Czech Republic. In addition, the legislation on forced labor and the possibilities of assistance to trafficked person are analyzed.By comparing various aspects of immigration policy, this paper covers some, but certainly not all, of the key issues concerning the process of immigrant integration. Several suggestions are made that could improve the situation of labor migrants in a significant way.

  10. Understanding Game-Based Learning Cultures: Introduction to Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, Jason A.; Carr-Chellman, Alison

    2017-01-01

    This special issue expands our understanding of teaching and learning through video game play, with specific attention to culture. The issue gives insight into the ways educators, researchers, and developers should be discussing and designing for impactful learner-centered game-based learning experiences. The issue features forward-thinking…

  11. Key issues review: evolution on rugged adaptive landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolski, Uri; Ram, Yoav; Hadany, Lilach

    2018-01-01

    Adaptive landscapes represent a mapping between genotype and fitness. Rugged adaptive landscapes contain two or more adaptive peaks: allele combinations with higher fitness than any of their neighbors in the genetic space. How do populations evolve on such rugged landscapes? Evolutionary biologists have struggled with this question since it was first introduced in the 1930s by Sewall Wright. Discoveries in the fields of genetics and biochemistry inspired various mathematical models of adaptive landscapes. The development of landscape models led to numerous theoretical studies analyzing evolution on rugged landscapes under different biological conditions. The large body of theoretical work suggests that adaptive landscapes are major determinants of the progress and outcome of evolutionary processes. Recent technological advances in molecular biology and microbiology allow experimenters to measure adaptive values of large sets of allele combinations and construct empirical adaptive landscapes for the first time. Such empirical landscapes have already been generated in bacteria, yeast, viruses, and fungi, and are contributing to new insights about evolution on adaptive landscapes. In this Key Issues Review we will: (i) introduce the concept of adaptive landscapes; (ii) review the major theoretical studies of evolution on rugged landscapes; (iii) review some of the recently obtained empirical adaptive landscapes; (iv) discuss recent mathematical and statistical analyses motivated by empirical adaptive landscapes, as well as provide the reader with instructions and source code to implement simulations of evolution on adaptive landscapes; and (v) discuss possible future directions for this exciting field.

  12. Key issues on safety design basis selection and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, S.; Togo, Y.

    1976-01-01

    In current fast reactor design in Japan, four design accident conditions and four design seismic conditions are adopted as the design base classifications. These are classified by the considerations on both likelihood of occurrence and the severeness of the consequences. There are several major problem areas in safety design consideration such as core accident problems which include fuel sodium interaction, fuel failure propagation and residual decay heat removal, and decay heat removal systems problems which is more or less the problem of selection of appropriate system and of assurance of high reliability of the system. In view of licensing, two kinds of accidents are postulated in evaluating the adequacy of a reactor site. The one is the ''major accident'' which is the accident to give most severe radiation hazard to the public from technical point of view. The other is the ''hypothetical accident'', induced public accident of which is severer than that of major accident. While the concept of the former is rather unique to Japanese licensing, the latter is almost equivalent to design base hypothetical accident of the US practice. In this paper, design bases selections, key safety issues and some of the licensing considerations in Japan are described

  13. Trends between 1973 and 1988: Summary and key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The preceding chapters considered the evolution of activity, structure, energy intensity, and energy use between the early 1970s and 1988 for the manufacturing, transportation, residential, and service sectors. In this chapter, the author summarizes the changes that have taken place, and presents results of a cross-sectoral analysis of the effect of change in sectoral activity, structure, and energy intensity on energy use in the three largest OECD economies: the United States, Japan, and West Germany. He also addresses a number of key issues that have important implications for future energy use in the OECD countries and elsewhere. Between 1973 and 1988, final energy use in the five sectors studied (which account for around 90% of total energy use) grew by 3% in the United, States, 15% in Japan, and 3% in West Germany. Energy use in manufacturing declined by 10-20% in each country. Energy use for passenger travel grew by only 11% in the United States, but rose by 76% in Japan and by 56% in West Germany. There was moderate to strong growth in freight energy use in all three countries. There was very high growth in residential and services energy use in Japan, and moderate growth in these sectors in the United States and West Germany. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  14. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing for external peer review and public comment an important draft document reviewing the literature on the health effects of dioxin and related compounds (also referred to as 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). At the request of Administrator Jackson, EPA is in the process of re-assessing the science on the effects of dioxin, a toxic chemical that is emitted by multiple sources, on the public’s health. This draft dioxin report is EPA’s response to key comments and recommendations made by the National Academy of Sciences on the Agency’s draft dioxin reassessment. This assessment has been in progress for many years and raises health issues of broad interest to scientists and policymakers across the federal family. The Agency’s draft report includes significant new analyses on potential cancer and non-cancer human health effects that may result from exposures to dioxins and includes an oral reference dose for what is considered to be the most toxic of the dioxin-like compounds. EPA’s Science

  15. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V; Rohde, Luis A

    2016-06-01

    For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, and atomoxetine, and psychosocial interventions, to those seen in children and adolescents. As a result, awareness of ADHD in adults has rapidly increased and new clinical practice has emerged across the world. Despite this progress, treatment of adult ADHD in Europe and many other regions of the world is not yet common practice, and diagnostic services are often unavailable or restricted to a few specialist centres. This situation is remarkable given the strong evidence base for safe and effective treatments. Here we address some of the key conceptual issues surrounding the diagnosis of ADHD relevant to practising health-care professionals working with adult populations. We conclude that ADHD should be recognised in the same way as other common adult mental health disorders, and that failure to recognise and treat ADHD is detrimental to the wellbeing of many patients seeking help for common mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Key Geomechanics Issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANSEN, FRANCIS D.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical and hydrological properties of rock salt provide excellent bases for geological isolation of hazardous materials. Regulatory compliance determinations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) stand as testament to the widely held conclusion that salt provides excellent isolation properties. The WIPP saga began in the 1950s when the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) recommended a salt vault as a promising solution to the national problem of nuclear waste disposal. For over 20 years, the Scientific basis for the NAS recommendation has been fortified by Sandia National Laboratories through a series of large scale field tests and laboratory investigations of salt properties. These scientific investigations helped develop a comprehensive understanding of salt's 4 reformational behavior over an applicable range of stresses and temperatures. Sophisticated constitutive modeling, validated through underground testing, provides the computational ability to model long-term behavior of repository configurations. In concert with advancement of the mechanical models, fluid flow measurements showed not only that the evaporite lithology was essentially impermeable but that the WIPP setting was hydrologically inactive. Favorable mechanical properties ensure isolation of materials placed in a salt geological setting. Key areas of the geomechanics investigations leading to the certification of WIPP are in situ experiments, laboratory tests, and shaft seal design

  17. Knowledge management - A key issue for EnBW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    power facilities. Competent and motivated employees, a good safety culture, excellent knowledge management and good organised processes create a solid foundation. This is why knowledge management has been consistently and systematically integrated in the EnBW strategy for a number of years now. Examples for the implementation of knowledge management objectives in the nuclear energy operations of EnBW: 1) Cascading of corporate goals down to the individual company and clear-cut definition and broadly-based communication of the goals on the level of the nuclear generating company to ensure that employees understand the overall context and the key challenges. 2) Far-sighted personnel planning providing for overlaps between outgoing and new incoming employees, measures to promote the willingness to learn etc. 3) Human resource management/Maintenance of personnel levels exceeding official requirements. 4) Cooperation with other German energy supply companies in the creation of a 'nuclear energy expert network' to systematically support and promote the preservation of the nuclear technology infrastructure in the research landscape 5) Implementation of a special knowledge management project in connection with the dismantling of the Obrigheim facility. 6) Implementation of an indicator-based safety management system at all nuclear power plant locations of EnBW. 7) All processes that are key to operation are standardised in the form of a workflow model and documented in an electronic database system; appointment of responsible process officer. 8) Strategic and broadly based ageing management programme. 9) EnBW's nuclear power plants regularly undergo international reviews. (author)

  18. Offshore wind power experiences, potential and key issues for deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2009-01-15

    Wind power has been growing at spectacular rates. Today it is the largest non-hydro renewable power technology. Worldwide there is 74 GW of installed capacity which is 1.7% of power generation capacity and in 2006 it accounted for 0.82% of electricity production. However, offshore wind still only counts for a very small amount and development has only taken place in North European counties round the North Sea and the Baltic Sea over the last 15 years. Offshore wind is still some 50% more expensive than onshore wind, but more wind resources and lesser visual impacts from larger turbines are expected to compensate for the higher installation costs in the long term. Most offshore wind farms are installed in British, Swedish and Danish waters, and present-day costs of installing wind energy in the UK are between 1,200 to 1,600 GBP/kW (1,781 to 2,375 Euro/kW) offshore, while in Sweden investment costs were 1,800 Euro/kW, and in Denmark 1,200 to 1,700 Euro/kW, though investment costs for a new wind farm are expected be in the range of 2.0 to 2.2 mill. Euro/MW for a near-shore shallow depth facility. Future developments in offshore wind technology concerning aerodynamics, structural dynamics, structural design, machine elements, electrical design and grid integration could drive investment costs from present-day range of 1.9 to 2.2 mill. Euro/MW down to 1.35 - 1.54 mill.Euro/MW in 2050, which accounts for a reduction of costs of approx. 35%. In order to sum up progress and identify future research needs, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind agreement Task 11 should arrange a new meeting concerning long term research needs for reviewing 'the long term strategy for 2000 to 2020' from 2001, to come up with suggestions / recommendations on how to define and proceed with, the necessary research activities of the IEA Wind Agreement and governments involved on key wind issues related to offshore technologies. (au)

  19. Ethnosocial issues within the covers of "Knowledge. Understanding. Skill” Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Erokhina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article reviews the most interesting publications regarding the issues of actual ethnosocial processes published in the well-known Russian journal "Knowledge. Understanding, Skill” which marks its 10th anniversary this year.

  20. Securing, Stabilizing, and Rebuilding Iraq: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    security infrastucture No Maint. conducted No organic transport capability Account/Issue items Forecast/Requisition supplies Maintain Stockage to...security assistance programs, the accountability requirements normally applicable to these programs— Issue Summary...government is providing assistance to address these shortfalls through long-term operations and maintenance programs for thermal and gas turbine

  1. Towards understanding the known-key security of block ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreeva, Elena; Bogdanov, Andrey; Mennink, Bart

    2014-01-01

    ciphers based on ideal components such as random permutations and random functions as well as propose new generic known-key attacks on generalized Feistel ciphers. We introduce the notion of known-key indifferentiability to capture the security of such block ciphers under a known key. To show its...... meaningfulness, we prove that the known-key attacks on block ciphers with ideal primitives to date violate security under known-key indifferentiability. On the other hand, to demonstrate its constructiveness, we prove the balanced Feistel cipher with random functions and the multiple Even-Mansour cipher...... with random permutations known-key indifferentiable for a sufficient number of rounds. We note that known-key indifferentiability is more quickly and tightly attained by multiple Even-Mansour which puts it forward as a construction provably secure against known-key attacks....

  2. Key IT management issues in hospitals: Results of a Delphi study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaana, Mirou; Tamim, Haitham; Paré, Guy; Teitelbaum, Mari

    2011-12-01

    To develop an authoritative list of IT management issues faced by CIOs and IT directors in public hospitals. The ranking-type Delphi method, which elicits the opinion of a panel of experts through iterative controlled feedback, was used in this study. Data collection involved three main steps during which three panels of experts in Ontario (n=13 in rural hospitals; n=9 in community hospitals; n=8 in academic hospitals) provided their input about the key IT management issues in hospitals and their relative importance. Attrition rate was minimal; 28 out of the 30 experts who participated in the study completed all three phases of the survey. During the brainstorming phase, the responses from the three panels were consolidated resulting in a list of 36 IT management issues; eleven were overlapping between the three panels. In the narrowing down phase, 18 issues were retained in the rural panel; 20 issues in the community panel; and 17 issues in the academic panel. The top issues retained in this phase included: managing demand and expectations for IT services (76% of participants); having sufficient funds (69% of participants); recognizing IT as a key stakeholder in major hospital decisions (65% of participants); and implementation of an EMR (62% of participants). In the ranking phase, a moderate level of consensus was obtained for all three panels: W=0.41 (rural panel); W=0.54 (community panel); and W=0.43 (academic panel). Despite the differences in the preoccupations between the three groups, there were similarities on certain IT management issues. Besides having sufficient funds, three of the top IT management issues relate to the strategic positioning of IT within the hospital: managing demands and expectations for IT services; IT competing with other clinical priorities for scarce resources; and recognizing IT as a key stakeholder in major hospital decisions. This study is the first to systematically and rigorously identify and prioritize critical IT management

  3. Developing an understanding between people: the key to global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Alina

    2010-05-01

    Global health and international health are prominent concepts within development issues today. Health is at the heart of many of the Millennium Development Goals, and the idea of a human right to health and health care has taken more hold in the forefronts of our minds. In acknowledgement of the globalised and interdependent society in which we live, this reflective piece uses personal experiences of anthropology and travel throughout the author's medical education to illustrate the pressing need for a better understanding between health workers and local populations. Experiences in Ecuador, Peru, India and Nepal, highlight the plurality of medicine. They show how medical education in the UK forms only one part of medical knowledge, and in particular how clinical practice requires the appreciation of a wider context. Within a multi-cultural society, it is essential that medical students learn new skills for the future. Teaching Anthropology and Sociology within the curriculum in the UK can educate students about how knowledge is created within a culture and to appreciate the diversity between cultures. Consideration of patients' backgrounds and beliefs allows health workers to develop relationships with the local population, which can be of invaluable use in making global health equality a reality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Key Issues in the Application of Knowledge Management in Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendoza, George A

    2005-01-01

    .... This shift in paradigms has made knowledge the key resource as organizations shift their focus from natural resources to intellectual assets, heralding the use of a concept called Knowledge Management (KM...

  5. A constructionist view on language innovation. Some key issues

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, Kristel; Research Seminar of the Modern Greek Dialect Research Laboratory

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an introduction into Construction Grammar and Construction Morphology. In the second part the constructionist framework is applied to the case study of the debonding of compound-like sequences with French clé 'key'.

  6. Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    .... It held elections in October 2005, with a presidential run-off vote in November -- a key step in a post-conflict transition and peace-building process that began following its second civil war in a decade...

  7. Key issues to consider in microalgae based biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Pant, Deepak; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2012-01-01

    All nations have been confronted with the energy crisis due to depletion of finite fossil fuels reserves, which results an increasing global demand of biofuels for energy security, economic stability and reduction in climate change effects, and generate the opportunity to explore new biomass....... However, in order to realize this, a complete analysis of full life cycle impact of algal biofuel production in the context of issues such as water resource management, land use impact, energy balance and air emissions are very necessary. The commercial-scale production of algae requires careful...... consideration of many issues that can be broadly categorized into four main areas: selecting algae species that produce high oil levels and grow well in specified environments, algae growth methods, water sources and related issues, and nutrient and growth inputs. © Sila Science....

  8. The key issues facing the electricity systems of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de

    1991-01-01

    This report covers a common project designed to investigate the major issues and possible future direction in the electricity systems of developing countries in AFRICA, ASIA and LATIN AMERICA. Individual centres each had responsibility for preparing a detailed report on the experiences and issues in their own country plus a regional report, in less detail, to cover neighbouring countries. In this disaggregated way, a picture of the whole of the developing world (with the exception of the Middle East, the problems of which are in some ways distinct from those of other developing countries) has been built up. 30 Refs.; 14 Figs.; 33 Tabs

  9. Implications of Key Performance Indicator Issues in Ontario Universities Explored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities in Ontario, Canada, has required that data on specific key performance indicators (KPIs) be made public by its publicly funded universities. The information is intended to be used by universities to demonstrate their achievements, to improve their programmes and services, and to…

  10. Key Issue: Teacher Hiring, Placement, and Assignment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Ellen; Coggshall, Jane G.

    2009-01-01

    The literature on teacher hiring and assignment tends to omit definitions of these key terms. An exception in Cohen-Vogel and Osborne-Lampkin (277), who define teacher assignment as "the reciprocal process between school management and teachers to guide decisions about who will teach, where they will teach, and what they will teach." But the…

  11. Ten Key Issues in Lexicography for the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birger Enevold; Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Whenever lexicographical scholars from five continents are gathered in the same room, there are bound to be divergent opinions about the issues discussed. Nevertheless, the above summary attests to the fact that input from a balanced representation of experts often lead to valuable conclusions an...

  12. Key issues to consider in microalgae based biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Pant, Deepak; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2012-01-01

    . However, in order to realize this, a complete analysis of full life cycle impact of algal biofuel production in the context of issues such as water resource management, land use impact, energy balance and air emissions are very necessary. The commercial-scale production of algae requires careful...

  13. working towards an african peacekeeping capability: key issues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arianne

    organisation, equipment, training, doctrine and capacities. It is also acknowledged that the Panel's contention that “[t]here are many tasks which United Nations peacekeeping forces should not be asked to undertake and many places they should go” – especially in Africa – necessitates serious consideration of those issues.

  14. Maintaining Program Understanding - Issues, Tools, and Future Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas; Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    The understanding of a program is a key aspect of software development. The understanding is a prerequisite for the initial development efforts. This paper is concerned with the challenge of maintaining the program understanding with the purpose of supporting later phases in the program life time....... One approach to maintaining program understanding is to document decisions and rationales behind a program as informal textual explanations---internal documentation. The starting point of this paper is a particular paradigm for program documentation called Elucidative Programming. As the first...

  15. Understanding Current Safety Issues for Trajectory Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael; Stewart, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Increases in procedural complexity were investigated as a possible contributor to flight path deviations in airline operations. Understanding current operational issues and their causes must be embraced to maintain current safety standards while increasing future functionality. ASRS data and expert narratives were used to discover factors relating to pilot deviations. Our investigation pointed to ATC intervention, automation confusion, procedure design, and mixed equipment as primary issues. Future work will need to include objective data and mitigation strategies.

  16. The European protocol on organ transplant: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2009-09-01

    What is interesting in the philosophy of the European Protocol is the search of a balanced position which acknowledges the medical progress brought by organ transplants and considers the necessity to ensure that human dignity and individual freedom are respected. However, the principles adopted for such regulations at the European level leave on some major issues a great margin of appreciation to the domestic legislation. This is particularly true in areas such as defining death or consenting to organ transplants including the situation of minors and the role of the family. A last point should also be stressed regarding the European protocol: its lack of efficiency concerning a neglected but important issue: organ trafficking.

  17. A note on parallel executions of restrictive blind issuing protocols for secret-key certificates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Brands (Stefan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe receiver in a restrictive blind certificate issuing protocol can blind the issued public key and the certificate but not a certain blinding-invariant predicate of the secret key. Recently a generally applicable technique was described for designing restrictive blind issuing protocols

  18. Key issues in achieving an integrative perspective on stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... An integrative perspective on molecular mechanisms of stress resistance requires understanding of these mechanisms not just in vitro or in the model organism in the research laboratory – but in the healthy or diseased human in society, in the cultivated plant or animal in agricultural production, and in ...

  19. Competence development: Key issues and trends in European competence policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    papers, reports, and communications that led to directives and resolutions concerning the development and recognition of skills and competences in a lifelong learning perspective. In 2005 this process led to the definition of a European Framework on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning - covering those...... competences that are given priority within the Union - as well as a European Qualification Framework, a reference tool for making qualifications - here described in terms of progressive levels of competence - transparent and transferable within the European borders. The aim of the paper is to investigate...

  20. Early electioneering highlights party differences on key issues of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-29

    The Clinton-Gore ticket is solidly pro-choice. Gore was an official co-sponsor of the Freedom of Choice Act, the democratic platform endorses the Act, and Clinton has pledged to sign the Act if he becomes president. He also has pledged to make abortion a service that will be available under a universal health care program. The Bush-Quayle ticket is solidly anti-choice. Bush, who as a member of Congress was pro-choice, claims that his position has evolved until he now wants to ban it in all cases except to save the life of the mother, rape, or incest. He also is strongly against any Federal funding for abortion, or even referral for abortion. Quayle maintains his anti-choice position even though he has admitted that he would support he own daughter's decision, even if she chose abortion. The Republican party is planning on having strong anti-choice language in its platform. The issue also promises to be the most controversial issue of their convention. Political analysts insist that abortion will not be a major issue in this years election; however, the right to abortion has never been so severely threatened. A pro-choice president could undo all the restrictions placed on abortion during the Reagan-Bush era. With the stroke of a pen, the new president could revoke the Title X gag rule and the Mexico City policy (the international gag rule), restore US contribution to the UN Population Fund, eliminate the ban on abortions in US military facilities overseas, lift the import pan on RU-486, and allow federal funding for fetal tissue research.

  1. Some key issues in the development of ergonomic intervention tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that tools facilitating the ergonomic intervention processes should be integrated into rationalization tools, particular if such tools are participative. Such a Tool has recently been developed as an add-in module to the Lean tool “Value Stream Mapping” (VSM). However......, in the investigated context this module seems not to have any direct impact on the generation of proposals with ergonomic consideration. Contextual factors of importance seem to be e.g. allocation of sufficient resources and if work environment issues are generally accepted as part of the VSM methodology...

  2. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  3. Body dysmorphic disorder: some key issues for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Wilhelm, Sabine; Koran, Lorrin M; Didie, Elizabeth R; Fallon, Brian A; Feusner, Jamie; Stein, Dan J

    2010-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a distressing or impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, has been described for more than a century and increasingly studied over the past several decades. This article provides a focused review of issues pertaining to BDD that are relevant to DSM-V. The review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: (1) Criterion A may benefit from some rewording, without changing its focus or meaning; (2) There are both advantages and disadvantages to adding a new criterion to reflect compulsive BDD behaviors; this possible addition requires further consideration; (3) A clinical significance criterion seems necessary for BDD to differentiate it from normal appearance concerns; (4) BDD and eating disorders have some overlapping features and need to be differentiated; some minor changes to DSM-IV's criterion C are suggested; (5) BDD should not be broadened to include body integrity identity disorder (apotemnophilia) or olfactory reference syndrome; (6) There is no compelling evidence for including diagnostic features or subtypes that are specific to gender-related, age-related, or cultural manifestations of BDD; (7) Adding muscle dysmorphia as a specifier may have clinical utility; and (8) The ICD-10 criteria for hypochondriacal disorder are not suitable for BDD, and there is no empirical evidence that BDD and hypochondriasis are the same disorder. The issue of how BDD's delusional variant should be classified in DSM-V is briefly discussed and will be addressed more extensively in a separate article. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  5. An understanding of environmental concepts and issues among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and understanding of Grade 10-12 students about selected environmental concepts and issues such as population, ozone layer, green house effect, and acid rain. Another aim of this study is to find out whether there is any difference between the knowledge and ...

  6. an understanding of environmental concepts and issues among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environmental knowledge, attitudes and concern are also conflicting. As there is disagreement about the direction of relationships between different variables, therefore, there is a need to investigate the understanding of environmental concepts and issues among Grade 10-12 students from rural and urban schools.

  7. Key Senators Issue Call for `Meaningful' Climate Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    With the U.S. Senate currently considering national energy legislation, Senators John McCain (R-Arizona) and Joseph Lieberman (D-Connecticut) plan to offer a modified version of their bipartisan, proposed Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) as an amendment. The amendment would establish a market driven system of greenhouse gas tradeable allowances to reduce emission. It would also provide for a program of scientific research on abrupt climate change in order to identify and understand past instances of abrupt change; and would establish a national greenhouse gas data base.

  8. Key issues in nutrition. Supplementation through adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, P J; Boltri, J M; Monk, J S

    1987-05-01

    A varied and balanced diet is usually adequate to meet the energy, protein, vitamin, and mineral requirements of adults and the elderly. However, some high-risk groups may require supplementation or special dietary recommendations. Some examples are persons on a weight-loss diet, alcoholics, premenopausal women, women taking oral contraceptives, postmenopausal women not taking estrogen, and patients with diminished immunity or cancer. An understanding of the nutritional needs of adult and elderly patients is vital if the primary care physician is to answer their questions and help them maintain good health through dietary adjustment or supplementation.

  9. Key issues in the outlook for minerals and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waring, T.; Love, G.; Hogan, J.; Gooday, P.

    1996-01-01

    The outlook for Australia's minerals and energy sector continues to be positive because of the flow-on effects of economic growth in the newly industrialized Asia. The East Asian share of mineral and energy commodities continues to expand reflecting the growing demand for consumer goods and new economic and social infrastructure. Uncertainties in the minerals and energy outlook include the future economic performance of the developed countries and the former Soviet Union, trade and environmental issues and the effects of changing technology on minerals and energy production and consumption. Encouraged by good prospects for exploration success and firmer markets, real exploration expenditure is forecast to continue to rise and the volume of Australian mine production is expected to rise by 14 percent between 1995-6 and 2000-1. Export earnings from mineral and energy commodities are expected to rise by $5.6 billion Australian (16 percent) from 1995-6 levels to reach $41.9 billion in real terms by 2000-1. (author). 2 tabs., 14 figs., 14 refs

  10. Ecotoxicology for risk assessment in arid zones: some key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, J W

    1997-01-01

    In the hot arid zones of the world, ecotoxicological research is in statu nascendi. In these zones, the major sources of contamination by toxicants are: (1) plant protection and vector control in wet zones; (2) large-scale crop protection campaigns in dry and ephemeral wet zones; (3) refuse and obsolete pesticides in dry zones; and (4) mining. Economic development in many of these zones requires an adequate knowledge of certain basic principles, i.e., where extrapolating existing knowledge does not apply. The vulnerability of ecosystems to contaminants is closely related to water flow. In dry areas, species are susceptible to factors that interfere with the ecophysiological properties regulating water loss. Most hot arid areas are found at low latitudes where temperatures show striking extremes both in time and space. Living organisms are physiologically resistant and/or show adaptive behavior to these temperature extremes. Very little is known about the effects of toxicants on these key resistant and adaptive functions, although by extrapolation a few assumptions can be made. The effects of hyperthermia, for instance, can be aggravated by GSH depleting substances, and the temporary disabling effects characteristic of many pesticides may prove fatal under these circumstances. Most wet areas show a spatial concentration of both human activity and wildlife. In mesic zones, the contamination of water represents a health risk to both humans and other living organisms. The vast majority of aquatic communities are those inhabiting temporary pools and streams. Their populations are characterized by short reproductive cycles and/or long dormant stages. Toxicants affecting growth in these areas have been shown to have a deleterious effect. In a synthesis of existing knowledge the most prominent gaps are identified and priorities for further research are made.

  11. Public engagement with CCS: barriers, key issues and ways forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenias, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Although Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is recognised as a crucial transition technology to a low-carbon world, it has not been popular with the public or some governments (e.g. the UK). Also, despite its use in industrial processes for decades, CCS remains and unfamiliar technology for most publics. It is therefore important to foster top-down and bottom-up acceptance of large scale CCS. In an exploratory round of interviews we canvassed the views of British, Dutch, German and Norwegian experts (N=13) with previous experience in public engagement with CCS. They identified barriers and drivers for CCS deployment and public engagement with CCS. Thematic analysis revealed a small number of recurrent issues, including: (a) lack of political leadership on CCS; (b) lack of public knowledge on relevant technologies and (c) difficulty communicating why CCS is necessary. Emphasis on these barriers varied with the level of experts' engagement with the public. More interestingly, although most experts agreed on the importance of public engagement, their views divided between 'why' engage and 'how' best to do this. In a subsequent expert survey (N=99) interview findings were reinforced: public support was seen as important for CCS roll-out (72%), though lower than political support and funding. The survey also showed that local public was expected to experience most risks, while global public will experience most benefits; whereas local business is seen to benefit more than global. Experts were overwhelmingly positive about CCS - risks outweigh benefits, and are confident that CCS will play a major role in climate change mitigation (along with reduced energy demand and renewables). These findings will be expanded on and triangulated in a follow-up public survey which will benefit those involved with public engagement with CCS.

  12. Why Physiology is now the key to understanding Evolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The standard Neo-Darwinist theory of evolution assumes that genetic change is random with respect to function. On this view physiology is ... further progress in understanding the evolution of life on earth now lies with research in the .... consists largely of semi-stable genetic elements that may be rearranged or even moved ...

  13. Translating key methodological issues into technological advancements when running in-situ experiments in sports: An example from sailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijms, J.P.; Canal Bruland, R.; Kats, S.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in capturing and understanding skilled performance by studying complex perceptual-motor skills. In this context, we identify and discuss key methodological issues that are particularly relevant when aiming to translate sport scientific knowledge

  14. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: understanding key radiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, S. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom); Benamore, R., E-mail: Rachel.Benamore@orh.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Many radiologists find it challenging to distinguish between the different interstitial idiopathic pneumonias (IIPs). The British Thoracic Society guidelines on interstitial lung disease (2008) recommend the formation of multidisciplinary meetings, with diagnoses made by combined radiological, pathological, and clinical findings. This review focuses on understanding typical and atypical radiological features on high-resolution computed tomography between the different IIPs, to help the radiologist determine when a confident diagnosis can be made and how to deal with uncertainty.

  15. Key Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Y Rieger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A few months ago, while I was participating in a conference about open access infrastructures, a delegate from a governmental agency asked, “Why does each library need to maintain a repository for their own scientists?” He was rightfully wondering if a broad collaboration in building a network of archives will provide a durable and extensible technology and service framework for ever-increasing digital scholarly content. The ensuing discussion did not offer a plausible response but accentuated that we do not have in place a plan for building an expandable infrastructure to facilitate communication and exchange of information among rapidly proliferating distinct instances of institutional and subject repositories.

  16. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Overview, FY2007 Budget in Brief, and Key Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Daniel; Behrens, Carl E

    2006-01-01

    .... The key issue for Congress is how NASA is implementing the Vision for Space Exploration, including whether it is maintaining a balanced portfolio of programs that include science and aeronautics...

  17. Key regulatory and safety issues emerging NEA activities. Lessons Learned from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS Accident - Key Regulatory and Safety Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakoski, John

    2013-01-01

    A presentation was provided on the key safety and regulatory issues and an update of activities undertaken by the NEA and its members in response to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power stations (NPS) on 11 March 2011. An overview of the accident sequence and the consequences was provided that identified the safety functions that were lost (electrical power, core cooling, and primary containment) that lead to units 1, 2, and 3 being in severe accident conditions with large off-site releases. Key areas identified for which activities of the NEA and member countries are in progress include accident management; defence-in-depth; crisis communication; initiating events; operating experience; deterministic and probabilistic assessments; regulatory infrastructure; radiological protection and public health; and decontamination and recovery. For each of these areas, a brief description of the on-going and planned NEA activities was provided within the three standing technical committees of the NEA with safety and regulatory mandates (the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities - CNRA, the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations - CSNI, and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health - CRPPH). On-going activities of CNRA include a review of enhancement being made to the regulatory aspects for the oversight of on-site accident management strategies and processes in light of the lessons learned from the accident; providing guidance to regulators on crisis communication; and supporting the peer review of the safety assessments of risk-significant research reactor facilities in light of the accident. Within the scope of the CSNI mandate, activities are being undertaken to better understand accident progression; characteristics of new fuel designs; and a benchmarking study of fast-running software for estimating source term under severe accident conditions to support protective measure recommendations. CSNI also has ongoing work in human

  18. Task-Based Pronunciation Teaching and Research: Key Issues and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Joan C.; Levkina, Mayya

    2017-01-01

    This article synthesizes the conclusions of the empirical studies in this special issue and outlines key questions in future research. The research reported in this volume has identified several fundamental issues in pronunciation-focused task design that are discussed in detail and on which suggestions for further research are outlined. One…

  19. International symposium on nuclear fuel cycle and reactor strategy: Adjusting to new realities. Key issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The key issue papers review the following issues: global energy outlook; present status and environmental implications of the different fuel cycles; future fuel cycle and reactor strategies; safety, health and environmental implications of the different fuel cycles; non-proliferation and safeguards aspects; international cooperation. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Financial reporting system outline of key issues in the energy industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    An outline is provided of key energy policy issues and topics that may be pertinent to potential uses of data collected by the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS). The outline is submitted in fulfillment of Task I of contract no. DE-AC01-81EI-10752. The outline will be followed in Task II by bibliographic search of the current literature on these key issues and in subsequent Tasks by an analysis of the applicability of FRS data to the relevant issues.

  1. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-01-01

    study the thermodynamic costs of adaptation for cells to maintain an accurate memory. The statistical physics based approach described here should be useful in understanding design principles for cellular biochemical circuits in general. (key issues review)

  2. Key issues of the common French-German safety approach for future PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Rohde, J.; Gros, G.; Queniart, D.

    1996-01-01

    The general common safety approach issued in May 1993 contains safety objectives, general principles and already some technical principles. Based on general safety approach, detailed recommendations have been developed in 1994 on key issues such as: system design and use of PSA; integrity of the primary circuit; external hazards; severe accidents and containment design; radiological consequences of reference accidents and low pressure core melt accidents. A selection of the detailed recommendations is presented in the full paper. (author)

  3. Hanford tank clean up: A guide to understanding the technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gephart, R.E.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the most difficult technical challenges in cleaning up the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State will be to process the radioactive and chemically complex waste found in the Site`s 177 underground storage tanks. Solid, liquid, and sludge-like wastes are contained in 149 single- and 28 double-shelled steel tanks. These wastes contain about one half of the curies of radioactivity and mass of hazardous chemicals found on the Hanford Site. Therefore, Hanford cleanup means tank cleanup. Safely removing the waste from the tanks, separating radioactive elements from inert chemicals, and creating a final waste form for disposal will require the use of our nation`s best available technology coupled with scientific advances, and an extraordinary commitment by all involved. The purpose of this guide is to inform the reader about critical issues facing tank cleanup. It is written as an information resource for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting to gain a basic understanding about the waste in Hanford`s tanks -- how the waste was created, what is in the waste, how it is stored, and what are the key technical issues facing tank cleanup. Access to information is key to better understanding the issues and more knowledgeably participating in cleanup decisions. This guide provides such information without promoting a given cleanup approach or technology use.

  4. Hanford tank clean up: A guide to understanding the technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the most difficult technical challenges in cleaning up the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State will be to process the radioactive and chemically complex waste found in the Site's 177 underground storage tanks. Solid, liquid, and sludge-like wastes are contained in 149 single- and 28 double-shelled steel tanks. These wastes contain about one half of the curies of radioactivity and mass of hazardous chemicals found on the Hanford Site. Therefore, Hanford cleanup means tank cleanup. Safely removing the waste from the tanks, separating radioactive elements from inert chemicals, and creating a final waste form for disposal will require the use of our nation's best available technology coupled with scientific advances, and an extraordinary commitment by all involved. The purpose of this guide is to inform the reader about critical issues facing tank cleanup. It is written as an information resource for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting to gain a basic understanding about the waste in Hanford's tanks -- how the waste was created, what is in the waste, how it is stored, and what are the key technical issues facing tank cleanup. Access to information is key to better understanding the issues and more knowledgeably participating in cleanup decisions. This guide provides such information without promoting a given cleanup approach or technology use

  5. Identification of Key Issues in Adopting a Web 2.0 E-Portfolio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Gary F.; Stansfield, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to identify key issues relating to best practice and sustainability in Web 2.0 as an e-Learning strategy for supporting e-portfolios in Higher Education. A practical guidelines framework was developed for best practices, which can be justified by the lack of available frameworks in the e-Learning literature. A…

  6. Training: Who Needs It? Research Report 1995. Key Issues for Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Training Co., London (England).

    Aimed at all those involved in the supply of training and vocational education for the hospitality industry, this report summarizes findings of the research report, "Training Who Needs It?" It draws out and explores in more detail key issues relating to the provision of training, support, and related initiatives for the industry. Section…

  7. Gestures and some key issues in the study of language development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gullberg, Marianne; de Bot, Kees; Volterra, Virginia; Gullberg, 28297

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current paper is to outline how gestures can contribute to the study of some key issues in language development. Specifically, we (1) briefly summarise what is already known about gesture in the domains of first and second language development, and development or changes over the

  8. Key Themes and Future Directions in Teaching English to Young Learners: Introduction to the Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copland, Fiona; Garton, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Despite being something of a "Cinderella" area of study, research into and informed discussion of teaching young learners is on the increase, perhaps mirroring the increasing numbers of children learning English globally in primary schools. This introductory article reviews key themes and issues in the teaching of English to young…

  9. Several key issues on using 137Cs method for soil erosion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work was to examine several key issues of using the cesium-137 method to estimate soil erosion rates in order to improve and standardize the method. Based on the comprehensive review and synthesis of a large body of published literature and the author’s extensive research experience, several k...

  10. Decommissioning: Regulatory activities and identification of key organizational and human factors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, N.E.; Melber, B.D.; Lekberg, A.

    2001-12-01

    In the late 1990's the Swedish government decided to shut down Unit 1 of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant. This report documents some of the efforts made by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to address human factors and organizational issues in nuclear safety during decommissioning of a nuclear facility. This report gives a brief review of the background to the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1 and points out key safety issues that can arise during decommissioning. The main regulatory activities that were undertaken were requirements that the plant provide special safety reports on decommissioning focusing on first, the operation of both units until closure of Unit 1 and second, the operation of Unit 2 when Unit 1 was closed. In addition, SKI identified areas that might be affected by decommissioning and called these areas out for special attention. With regard to these areas of special attention, SKI required that the plant provide monthly reports on changing and emerging issues as well as self-assessments of the areas to be addressed in the special safety reports. Ten key safety issues were identified and evaluated with regard to different stages of decommissioning and with regard to the actions taken by Barsebaeck. Some key conclusions from SKI's experience in regulating a decommissioning nuclear power plant conclude the report

  11. Understanding and Developing Controversial Issues in College Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.; Gainey, Randy R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses common controversial issues in different college disciplines, such as the death penalty and drug legalization. Also suggests useful methods for encouraging enlightening discussions, such as verbal and physical cues, student-centered activities, and text selection. (SLD)

  12. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  13. The Eastern Cape labour market in transition: Key issues and debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Wood

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This study represents an assessment of key issues relating to the labour market based on survey research conducted in an Eastern Cape secondary urban centre. This study was conducted at a time when South Africa was undergoing rapid social, economic and political transition. The primary focus of this study is on the specific implications of structural unemployment. Key sub-dimensions include the nature of divisions in the labour market, the extent of migrancy, survival strategies by the structurally unemployed, and perceptions of the union movement at a time when the latter’s role has become increasingly institutionalised.

  14. The Role of Gender in the Socialization of Emotion: Key Concepts and Critical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Amy Kennedy; Denham, Susanne A.

    2010-01-01

    Given the omnipresent role of gender in children's and adolescents' development, it seems necessary to better understand how gender affects the process of emotion socialization. In this introductory chapter, the authors discuss the overarching themes and key concepts discussed in this volume, as well as outline the distinct contribution of each…

  15. Alcohol & drug abuse: Revisiting employee assistance programs and substance use problems in the workplace: key issues and a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth S Levy; Volpe-Vartanian, Joanna; Horgan, Constance M; McCann, Bernard

    2007-10-01

    This column describes employee assistance program (EAPs) and identifies key issues for contemporary EAPs. These programs began as occupational alcohol programs and have evolved into more comprehensive resources. To better understand contemporary EAPs, the authors suggest a research agenda that includes descriptive studies to provide an up-to-date picture of services; investigations of how contemporary EAPs address substance use problems, including management consultation for early identification; further study of EAPs' effects on outcomes, such as productivity and work group outcomes; examination of the relationship between EAPs and other workplace resources; further examination of influences on EAP utilization; and development and testing of EAP performance measures.

  16. What Do People Know about Key Environmental Issues? A Review of Environmental Knowledge Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelia, Beth; Murphy, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results from 15 little publicized state and national environmental surveys in the US that used similar questions. Our analysis reveals trends in adult understanding of environmental issues. These trends indicate that many may have difficulty making informed decisions about environmental policy as citizens, voters, and…

  17. Nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics key processes and characterization issues, and nanoscale effects

    CERN Document Server

    Alguero, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the key issues in processing and characterization of nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics, and provides a comprehensive description of their properties, with an emphasis in differentiating size effects of extrinsic ones like boundary or interface effects. Recently described nanoscale novel phenomena are also addressed. Organized into three parts it addresses key issues in processing (nanostructuring), characterization (of the nanostructured materials) and nanoscale effects. Taking full advantage of the synergies between nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics, it covers materials nanostructured at all levels, from ceramic technologies like ferroelectric nanopowders, bulk nanostructured ceramics and thick films, and magnetoelectric nanocomposites, to thin films, either polycrystalline layer heterostructures or epitaxial systems, and to nanoscale free standing objects with specific geometries, such as nanowires and tubes at different levels of development. The book is developed from t...

  18. Sexuality in old age: key issues, gender differences and future proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Rouco, Noelia; Fernández-Fuertes, Andrés A.; González, Rodrigo J. Carcedo; Hatza, Nikki

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a brief overview of some of the most important issues related to sexuality during old age. First, it presents the state of the current situation, in order to later explore some of the elements that have been considered key factors in experiencing sexuality, specifically in this stage of life, while exploring certain needs and difficulties. Similarly, some of the differences between men and women, within this context, are presented. Finally, future proposals aimed at better ...

  19. Nuclear fuel cycle and reactor strategies: Adjusting to new realities. Key issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The international symposium ''Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Reactor Strategy: Adjusting to new Realities'' was organized to face the new realities in the nuclear fuel cycle and to consider options on how these new realities could be addressed. The Key Issue Papers treat the various subjects from both short and long term perspectives. In so doing, they address the likely development of all aspects concerning the nuclear fuel cycle up to the year 2050

  20. Key issues for the control of refueling outage duration and costs in PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrave, C.; Martin-Onraet, M.

    2000-01-01

    For several years, EDF, within the framework of the CIDEM project and in collaboration with some German Utilities, has undertaken a detailed review of the operating experience both of its own NPP and of foreign units, in order to improve the performances of future units under design, particularly the French-German European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project. This review made it possible to identify the key issues allowing to decrease the duration of refueling and maintenance outages. These key issues can be classified in 3 categories: Design; Maintenance and Logistic Support; Outage Management. Most key issues in the design field and some in the logistic support field have been studied and could be integrated into the design of any future PWR unit, as for the EPR project. Some of them could also be adapted to current plants, provided they are feasible and profitable. The organization must be tailored to each country, utility or period: it widely depends on the power production environment, particularly in a deregulation context. (author)

  1. Health care labor relations law--understanding the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, S P; Keith, C L

    1981-01-01

    The 1974 amendments to the Labor Management Relations Act have created new problems of statutory interpretation in the rapidly evolving area of health care labor law. By including nonprofit hospitals under the auspices of the Act, the amendments have opened up a new area for unionization and have given rise to questions concerning the types of bargaining units that are appropriate in health care facilities. In the following article, the authors discuss these questions and other current issues in health care labor relations law. The issues include the determination of relevant bargaining units, the status of state nursing associations as labor organizations, and the ten-day strike notice requirement of the Labor Management Relations Act.

  2. Understanding food security issues in remote Western Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Nyaradi, Anett; Lester, Matthew; Sauer, Kay

    2014-08-01

    Food insecurity in remote Western Australian (WA) Indigenous communities. This study explored remote community store managers' views on issues related to improving food security in order to inform health policy. A census of all remote WA Indigenous community store managers was conducted in 2010. Telephone interviews sought managers' perceptions of community food insecurity, problems with their store, and potential policy options for improving the supply, accessibility, affordability and consumption of nutritious foods. Descriptive analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows version 17.0. Managers stated that freight costs and irregular deliveries contributed to high prices and a limited range of foods. Poor store infrastructure, compromised cold chain logistics, and commonly occurring power outages affected food quality. Half of the managers said there was hunger in their community because people did not have enough money to buy food. The role of nutritionists beyond a clinical and educational role was not understood. Food security interventions in remote communities need to take into consideration issues such as freight costs, transport and low demand for nutritious foods. Store managers provide important local knowledge regarding the development and implementation of food security interventions. SO WHAT? Agencies acting to address the issue of food insecurity in remote WA Indigenous communities should heed the advice of community store managers that high food prices, poor quality and limited availability are mainly due to transport inefficiencies and freight costs. Improving healthy food affordability in communities where high unemployment and low household income abound is fundamental to improving food security, yet presents a significant challenge.

  3. Issues and Solutions of International Understanding Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li

    2013-01-01

    School in China has actively implemented International Understanding Education to foster a cosmopolitan perspective. The educational principle is to respect people of various socio-cultural backgrounds through comparing China's culture with that of other countries. However, my survey revealed that such education in practice is limited to…

  4. An Inquiry into the Issue of Understanding and Practicing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Democratic election which ought to be the hallmark of democracy has suffered so much in Nigeria. Lack of proper understanding of what it means to have democracy has been one of the major problems that plague our state Nigeria's experience in governance and politics since independence has been a struggle. As the ...

  5. Understanding Global / Local Cultural Leadership : Issues and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolsteeg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Cultural leaders sail between the Scylla and Charibdis of aggregated trans- and supranational cultural-political discourses and the cultural needs of local communities. How do these dynamics influence the work of cultural leaders? How can we understand the work of cultural leaders to connect

  6. Understanding Current and Future Issues in Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Stuart; Mattsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Sharing activities underpinned by the technologies of the Internet have become dominant in the activities of individuals, business and governments. Recently, such sharing activity has grown from information and media content to wider resources, including money, physical goods and services — coined...... collaborative consumption. Sustainability is often cited as a key driver, underpinned by economic, social and environmental benefits. If successful, the sharing of such resources is likely to have a potentially disruptive impact on incumbents in traditional supply chains. However, given the embryonic state...

  7. Key Regulatory Issues for Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, Kofi; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To help reduce the uncertainty associated with application of digital instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology in nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued six Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) documents that address the current regulatory positions on what are considered the significant digital I and C issues. These six documents address the following topics: Cyber Security, Diversity and Defense-in-Depth, Risk Informed Digital I and C Regulation, Communication issues, Human Factors and the Digital I and C Licensing Process (currently issued as Draft). After allowing for further refinement based on additional technical insight gathered by NRC staff through near-term research and detailed review of relevant experience, it is expected that updated positions ultimately will be incorporated into regulatory guides and staff review procedures. This paper presents an overview of the guidance provided by the NRC-issued ISGs on key technology considerations (i.e., the first five documents above) for safety-related digital I and C systems.

  8. Advancing Understanding on Industrial Relations in Multinational Companies: Key Research Challenges and the INTREPID Contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnigle, Patrick; Valeria, Pulignano; Edwards, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This paper has three principal aims. It firstly provides some theoretical background on the key current research issues and challenges in regard to industrial relations in multinational companies. It then presents a concise review of scholarship to date on industrial relations in multinational...... companies using INTREPID (Investigation of Transnationals’ Employment Practices: an International Database) data. Finally, the paper identifies some of the main industrial relations issues that remain to be addressed, in effect charting a form of research agenda for future work using the INTREPID data...

  9. Recent Key Issues in New Reactors Licensing Program and APR1400 Design Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hong; Oh, Seong Jong; Park, Moon Ghu

    2012-01-01

    The new reactor licensing process consists of first a design certification rulemaking under the 10 CFR Part 52. Through the process the NRC would review and approve a complete nuclear power plant design. Utilities could also seek an Early Site Permit (ESP), which would resolve lots of site-related issues earlier. A utility could seek the Combined License (COL) in a single license both a construction permit and an operating license. A key feature of the combined license was its incorporation of specified Inspections, Tests, Analyses and Acceptance Criteria (ITAAC). The ITAAC would be the acceptance criteria which the licensee should demonstrated it would be sufficient to provide the reasonable assurance that the facility had been constructed and would be operated in conformity with the design certification. Westinghouse's Advanced Passive plant design AP1000 is the first design being built licensed under the 10 CFR Part 52. NRC has done a great deal under the new rules. The Commission has issued many regulations incorporating recent experience of new findings by experiments and measurements particularly emphasizing the security issues since the events of 911. These rulemaking will require applicants for design certifications to submit a safety and security assessment addressing the relevant requirements that have been established 6 months before its submittal of Design Control Documents. This paper describes the summary of recent rulemaking process and the gap between the key revised rules and current APR1400 design

  10. Understanding and education of nuclear power development issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction of nuclear power to China; the understanding of nuclear power in China, education of nuclear power among chinese people. Through such efforts of The Chinese Nuclear Association the Chinese people already have the basic knowledge and support the nuclear power in general. But there are about fifty percent of people who do not know the nuclear power stations in China and thirty-six percent who do not know the benefit of nuclear power because of the vast and different education level in some undeveloped rural areas where the education can not reach

  11. Non-equilibrium physics and evolution—adaptation, extinction, and ecology: a Key Issues review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussell, E; Vucelja, M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics in nature constitute an immensely complex non-equilibrium process. We review the application of physical models of evolution, by focusing on adaptation, extinction, and ecology. In each case, we examine key concepts by working through examples. Adaptation is discussed in the context of bacterial evolution, with a view toward the relationship between growth rates, mutation rates, selection strength, and environmental changes. Extinction dynamics for an isolated population are reviewed, with emphasis on the relation between timescales of extinction, population size, and temporally correlated noise. Ecological models are discussed by focusing on the effect of spatial interspecies interactions on diversity. Connections between physical processes—such as diffusion, turbulence, and localization—and evolutionary phenomena are highlighted. (key issues reviews)

  12. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues, Greening the Grid (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues'. To foster sustainable, low-emission development, many countries are establishing ambitious renewable energy targets for their electricity supply. Because solar and wind tend to be more variable and uncertain than conventional sources, meeting these targets will involve changes to power system planning and operations. Grid integration is the practice of developing efficient ways to deliver variable renewable energy (VRE) to the grid. Good integration methods maximize the cost-effectiveness of incorporating VRE into the power system while maintaining or increasing system stability and reliability. When considering grid integration, policy makers, regulators, and system operators consider a variety of issues, which can be organized into four broad topics: New Renewable Energy Generation, New Transmission, Increased System Flexibility, and Planning for a High RE Future.

  13. The key physics and technology issues in the intense-beam proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Shin Ian; Guan Xia Ling

    2002-01-01

    Beam power is required to raise one order in the next generation spallation neutron source. There are still some physics and technology difficulties need to be overcome, even though no fatal obstacle exists due to the rapid development of the technology in intense-beam accelerator in recent years. Therefore, it is highly demanded to clarify the key issues and to lunch an R and D program to break through the technological barriers before start to build the expansive machine. The new technological challenge arises from the high beam current, the high accelerator power and the high demand on the reliability and stability of the accelerator operation. The will discuss these issues and the means to resolve them, as well as the state of the art in a few of major technological disciplines. Finally, the choice the framework of intense-beam accelerator is discussed

  14. The key physics and technology issues in the intense-beam proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Shinian; Fang Shouxian

    2002-01-01

    Beam power is required to raise one order in the next generation spallation neutron source. There are still some physics and technology difficulties need to be overcome, even though no fatal obstacle exists due to the rapid development of the technology in intense-beam accelerator in recent years. Therefore, it is highly demanded to clarify the key issues and to lunch an R and D program to break through the technological barriers before author start to build the expansive machine. The new technological challenge arises from the high beam current, the high accelerator power and the high demand on the reliability and stability of the accelerator operation. The author will discuss these issues and the means to resolve them, as well as the state of the art in a few of major technological disciplines. Finally, the choice the framework of intense-beam accelerator is discussed

  15. Understanding security failures of two authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheerendra

    2015-03-01

    Smart card based authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) enable doctors, nurses, patients and health visitors to use smart cards for secure login to medical information systems. In recent years, several authentication and key agreement schemes have been proposed to present secure and efficient solution for TMIS. Most of the existing authentication schemes for TMIS have either higher computation overhead or are vulnerable to attacks. To reduce the computational overhead and enhance the security, Lee recently proposed an authentication and key agreement scheme using chaotic maps for TMIS. Xu et al. also proposed a password based authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS using elliptic curve cryptography. Both the schemes provide better efficiency from the conventional public key cryptography based schemes. These schemes are important as they present an efficient solution for TMIS. We analyze the security of both Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s schemes. Unfortunately, we identify that both the schemes are vulnerable to denial of service attack. To understand the security failures of these cryptographic schemes which are the key of patching existing schemes and designing future schemes, we demonstrate the security loopholes of Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s scheme in this paper.

  16. The challenge of spin–orbit-tuned ground states in iridates: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Schlottmann, Pedro

    2018-04-01

    Effects of spin–orbit interactions in condensed matter are an important and rapidly evolving topic. Strong competition between spin–orbit, on-site Coulomb and crystalline electric field interactions in iridates drives exotic quantum states that are unique to this group of materials. In particular, the ‘J eff  =  ½’ Mott state served as an early signal that the combined effect of strong spin–orbit and Coulomb interactions in iridates has unique, intriguing consequences. In this Key Issues Review, we survey some current experimental studies of iridates. In essence, these materials tend to defy conventional wisdom: absence of conventional correlations between magnetic and insulating states, avoidance of metallization at high pressures, ‘S-shaped’ I–V characteristic, emergence of an odd-parity hidden order, etc. It is particularly intriguing that there exist conspicuous discrepancies between current experimental results and theoretical proposals that address superconducting, topological and quantum spin liquid phases. This class of materials, in which the lattice degrees of freedom play a critical role seldom seen in other materials, evidently presents some profound intellectual challenges that call for more investigations both experimentally and theoretically. Physical properties unique to these materials may help unlock a world of possibilities for functional materials and devices. We emphasize that, given the rapidly developing nature of this field, this Key Issues Review is by no means an exhaustive report of the current state of experimental studies of iridates.

  17. Are stomatal responses the key to understanding the cost of fungal disease resistance in plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Catherine M; Gay, Alan P; Mur, Luis A J

    2011-07-01

    Preventing disease in cereal crops is important for maintaining productivity and as the availability and efficacy of chemical control becomes reduced the emphasis on breeding for disease resistance increases. However, there is evidence that disease resistance may be physiologically costly to the plant and we ask if understanding stomatal responses to fungal attack is the key to minimising reductions in growth associated with disease resistance. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The sustainable use of tropical coastal resources - A key conservation issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdgate, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    The three papers covered in this review form a series, addressing broadly the same issues in increasing detail. The paper by Carl Gustaf Lundin and Olof Linden, on 'Coastal ecosystems: Attempts to manage a threatened resource', takes a wide view of the coastal zones (the regions between the seaward margins of the continental shelves, in water depths of around 200 m and the landward edge of the coastal plains at a comparable altitude above mean sea level), and the nature of the pressures upon them. The paper by Magnus A.K. Ngoile and Chris J. Horrill, on 'Coastal ecosystems productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management', focuses very much on these same issues of use and pressure in the Eastern Africa Region. The paper by M.C.Oehman, A. Rajasuriya and O. Linden, on 'Human disturbances on coral reefs in Sri Lanka: A case study' looks in some depth at the situation on three selected reef systems in the one country. All the papers address the key question of how the management of coastal resources should change, in order to avoid continuing degradation and the cost and impoverishment it is likely to bring. The three papers mentioned is published in this issue of Ambio, p. 461-480

  19. Mapping the key issues shaping the landscape of global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Yu, Gary; Hermosilla, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    A survey of global health experts attending an invited meeting provided a means to map key issues perceived to be shaping emerging global public health agendas. Eighty-five participants proposed three major issues likely to have the most significant impact on the field of global health in the coming years. Six raters grouped the resultant items, with multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis producing a composite two-dimensional map depicting the overall patterning of items. Thematic clusters were incorporated within four major domains: changing health and prevention needs (15% of items), globalisation and global health governance (33% of items), transforming health systems (30% of items) and innovations in science and technology (7% of items). The remaining 15% of items addressed forms of environmental change. The distribution of items across domains was not significantly influenced by the current professional role of participants, their current location in the 'global north' or 'global south' or their region of focus (although the latter approached threshold significance). The constraints on interpretation imposed by the biases influencing participation in the survey are noted. However, the exercise suggests the potential for coherently defining shared agendas for diverse stakeholders to address emerging priorities. The closer integration of environmental concerns with other global public issues is clearly warranted.

  20. Key Data Gaps Regarding the Public Health Issues Associated with Opioid Analgesics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Teresa D.; Haddox, J. David; Nielsen, Alexandra E.; Wakeland, Wayne; Fitzgerald, John

    2014-01-01

    Most pharmaceutical opioids are used to treat pain and they have been demonstrated to be effective medications for many. Their abuse and misuse pose significant public health concerns in the United States. Research has provided much insight into the prevalence, scope, and drivers of opioid abuse, but a holistic understanding is limited by a lack of available data regarding key aspects of this public health problem. Twelve data gaps were revealed during the creation of a systems-level computer model of medical use, diversion, nonmedical use, and the adverse outcomes associated with opioid analgesics in the United States. Data specific to these gaps would enhance the validity and real-world applications of systems-level models of this public health problem, and would increase understanding of the complex system in which use and abuse occur. This paper provides an overview of these gaps, argues for the importance of closing them, and provides specific recommendations for future data collection efforts. PMID:24554390

  1. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  2. Enhancing chronic disease management: a review of key issues and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Kevin D; Williams, Paul; Andrews, Gavin J

    2007-11-01

    This paper highlights three selected issues and potential strategies towards meeting chronic disease management needs. First, the orientation of the biomedical science model often gives insufficient attention to chronic health care needs. A second issue is that the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) may offer for some an opportunity to enhance their chronic disease management efforts. A third issue is that our understanding of this potential is limited, as many who use CAM do not disclose such use. With reference to proposed solutions/strategies, first, an improved focus to respect patient/client values and goals may encourage people to disclose their use of CAM. Second, a community-based participatory approach shows promise in enhancing communication plus helps integrate CAM within new models of chronic disease management. Lastly, those in public health could help facilitate such an approach plus be a monitor of CAM practices. Overall, this review provides a springboard for further research and practice in CAM and the management of chronic diseases.

  3. Fatca and its key provisions and the issues of its application in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sheppard Castillo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As an answer to the international tax evasion problem, the U.S. Congress issued the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act – Fatca. This Act aims to promote tax compliance among citizens and U.S. residents holding foreign bank accounts. To this effect, Fatca requires Foreign Financial Institutions to enter into an agreement with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS to provide the IRS information about the identity and the status of the bank accounts held by US persons. Entities not willing to enter into an agreement with the IRS will be subject to a 30% withholding on U.S. sourced income regardless of whether the income is tax exempt. The application of this Act in our country brings a lot of concern regarding some issues, such us extraterritoriality, bank secrecy, the application of civil and criminal law. Since the effective date of implementation of Fatca is July 1, 2014, we understand that an official opinion concerning these issues and the possibilityto enter into an Intergovernmental Agreement with the U.S. government will be forthcoming in the following months.

  4. Key issues in life cycle assessment of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass: Challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anoop; Pant, Deepak; Korres, Nicholas E; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Prasad, Shiv; Murphy, Jerry D

    2010-07-01

    Progressive depletion of conventional fossil fuels with increasing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have led to a move towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is available in massive quantities and provides enormous potential for bioethanol production. However, to ascertain optimal biofuel strategies, it is necessary to take into account environmental impacts from cradle to grave. Life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques allow detailed analysis of material and energy fluxes on regional and global scales. This includes indirect inputs to the production process and associated wastes and emissions, and the downstream fate of products in the future. At the same time if not used properly, LCA can lead to incorrect and inappropriate actions on the part of industry and/or policy makers. This paper aims to list key issues for quantifying the use of resources and releases to the environment associated with the entire life cycle of lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. International and cross-cultural issues: six key challenges for our professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of key challenges facing professionals who work with people who have communication disabilities. The challenges are related to working internationally and in a cross-culturally competent way. Each challenge is discussed, drawing on material from a range of sources, including the papers in the final 2003 edition of FOLIA PHONIATRICA ET LOGOPAEDICA ('International and Cross-Cultural Issues'). The challenges discussed cover how experiences from majority world countries can be used to benefit services elsewhere, 'mainstreaming' commitment to cross-cultural competence, learning from relationships with other professionals, influencing research practice, responding to requests to work internationally and finally, dealing with cultural differences that challenge working practices. Some solutions are suggested and additional questions posed. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. The diffusion of renewable energy technology: an analytical framework and key issues for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, S.; Johnson, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been a great deal of research on renewable energy technologies. It is commonly thought that very little has come out of this research in terms of commercially interesting technologies. The first objective of this paper is to demonstrate that this perception is no longer correct; in the 1990s there has been a double-digit growth rate in the market for some renewable energy technologies. The consequent alteration in the energy system, is, however, a slow, painful and highly uncertain process. This process, we argue, needs to be studied using an innovation system perspective where the focus is on networks, institutions and firms' perceptions, competencies and strategies. The second objective of the paper is therefore to present the bare bones of such an analytical framework. A third objective is to identify a set of key issues related to the speed and direction of that transformation process which needs to be studied further. (author)

  7. Higher Education Cloud Computing in South Africa: Towards Understanding Trust and Adoption issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Van Der Schyff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to study the views of key stakeholders on the issue of cloud information security within institutions of Higher Education. A specific focus is on understanding trust and the adoption of cloud computing in context of the unique operational requirements of South African universities. Contributions are made on both a methodological and theoretical level. Methodologically the study contributes by employing an Interpretivist approach and using Thematic Analysis in a topic area often studied quantitatively, thus affording researchers the opportunity to gain the necessary in-depth insight into how key stakeholders view cloud security and trust. A theoretical contribution is made in the form of a trust-centric conceptual framework that illustrates how the qualitative data relates to concepts innate to cloud computing trust and adoption. Both these contributions lend credence to the fact that there is a need to address cloud information security with a specific focus on the contextual elements that surround South African universities. The paper concludes with some considerations for implementing and investigating cloud computing services in Higher Education contexts in South Africa.

  8. Family-friendliness in business as a key issue for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzer, Erich

    2012-01-01

    These days family-friendliness is a key issue for the future of businesses. Investments in a family conscious personnel policy are considered as forward-looking decisions in companies. This happens against the background of a sustainable personnel policy in times of a decrease in the number of employable persons, an increasing shortage of skilled workers and an ageing workforce. Family-friendly working conditions are becoming a key factor in the competition for staff. When choosing an employer, family-friendliness has become a crucial topic. Employment participation and skills of women, especially of mothers, have greatly increased. To facilitate the realisation of their wish to return to paid employment, however, measures to reconcile work and family are required. Family-conscious measures have been proven to lead to higher employee productivity. Job satisfaction and motivation of employees and accumulation of human capital increase, absenteeism declines, the return of investment rises. Fields of activity for family-friendly measures in companies range from working arrangements, parental leave and re-entry programmes and various child care offers to services for families. In connection with the demographic development the demand for a better reconciliation of work and elder care should in future become ever more important, just as the upkeep of the occupational skills and working capacity of an ageing workforce. Family-friendliness has to become an integral part of corporate culture.

  9. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA.Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  10. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA. Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  11. Plutonium: key issue in nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshisaki, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The technical report is a 1993 update on weapons-grade plutonium, a key issue in nuclear disarmament. Its vital significance would again be discussed during the fifth and the last Review Conference on the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) for Nuclear Weapons which would end in 1995. Member States shall decide whether an indefinite or conditional extension of NPT is necessary for world peace and international security. Two Non-NPT States, Russia and U.S.A. are in the forefront working for the reduction of nuclear weapons through nuclear disarmament. Their major effort is focused on the implementation of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I and II or START I and II for world peace. The eventual implementation of START I and II would lead to the dismantling of plutonium from nuclear warheads proposed to be eliminated by both countries. This report gives three technical options to be derived from nuclear disarmament issues for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons: (a) indefinite storage - there is no guarantee that these will not be used in the future (b) disposal as wastes - possible only in principle, because of lack of experience in mixing plutonium with high level wastes, and (c) source of energy - best option in managing stored weapons materials, because it satisfies non-proliferation objectives. It means fuel for energy in Light Water Reactors (LWR) or Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). (author). 8 refs

  12. Understanding key influencers' attitudes and beliefs about healthy public policy change for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Vu-Nguyen, Karen; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; VanSpronsen, Eric; Reed, Shandy; Wild, T Cameron

    2014-11-01

    As overweight and obesity is a risk factor for chronic diseases, the development of environmental and healthy public policy interventions across multiple sectors has been identified as a key strategy to address this issue. In 2009, a survey was developed to assess the attitudes and beliefs regarding health promotion principles, and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent obesity and chronic diseases, among key policy influencers in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. Surveys were mailed to 1,765 key influencers from five settings: provincial government, municipal government, school boards, print media companies, and workplaces with greater than 500 employees. A total of 236 surveys were completed with a response rate of 15.0%. Findings indicate nearly unanimous influencer support for individual-focused policy approaches and high support for some environmental policies. Restrictive environmental and economic policies received weakest support. Obesity was comparable to smoking with respect to perceptions as a societal responsibility versus a personal responsibility, boding well for the potential of environmental policy interventions for obesity prevention. This level of influencer support provides a platform for more evidence to be brokered to policy influencers about the effectiveness of environmental policy approaches to obesity prevention. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  13. Partner Country Series: Understanding Energy Challenges in India - Policies, Players and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    A combination of rapidly increasing energy demand and fuel imports plus growing concern about economic and environmental consequences is generating growing calls for effective and thorough energy governance in India. Numerous policy reforms over the past 20 years have shifted the country’s energy sector from a state-dominated system towards one that is based on market principles. However, with the reform process left unfinished, India now finds itself trapped halfway along the transition to an open and well-performing energy sector. India suffered from the largest power outage ever in late July 2012, affecting nearly half of the population. While this incident highlights the importance of modern and smart energy systems, it indicates that the country is increasingly unable to deliver a secure supply of energy to its population, a quarter of which still lacks access to electricity. Understanding Energy Challenges in India aims to provide an informative and holistic understanding of India’s energy sector to stakeholders in India as well as the broad public. The publication explores in detail the policies, players and issues of the country’s power, coal, oil and gas, renewables and nuclear sectors. It also highlights the key challenges India faces, challenges that must be resolved for the evolution of the fast-growing country’s energy sector towards a sustainable energy future and eventually critical for the prospects of the Indian and global economies.

  14. Understanding key factors of users' intentions to repurchase and recommend digital items in social virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoungsoo

    2012-10-01

    Given to the remarkable profitability of digital items in social virtual worlds (SVWs), such as SecondLife, Cyworld, and Habbo Hotel, it has become crucial to understand SVW users' postadoption behaviors toward digital items. This study develops a theoretical framework to examine key antecedents of users' intentions to repurchase and recommend digital items. Data collected from 256 users of digital items were empirically tested against the research model. The analysis results indicate that both user satisfaction and a perceived value play an important role in establishing users' postadoption intentions about digital items. Moreover, the results clearly show what roles perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and perceived fee play in SVW environments.

  15. Uncertainty and Variability in Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models: Key Issues and Case Studies (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Uncertainty and Variability in Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models: Key Issues and Case Studies. This report summarizes some of the recent progress in characterizing uncertainty and variability in physi...

  16. Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C A; Smith, K L; Norris, S

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues associated with the application of currently available biota dose assessment methods to consideration of potential environmental impacts from geological disposal facilities. It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates.

  17. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    Living systems have to constantly sense their external environment and adjust their internal state in order to survive and reproduce. Biological systems, from as complex as the brain to a single E. coli cell, have to process these data in order to make appropriate decisions. How do biological systems sense external signals? How do they process the information? How do they respond to signals? Through years of intense study by biologists, many key molecular players and their interactions have been identified in different biological machineries that carry out these signaling functions. However, an integrated, quantitative understanding of the whole system is still lacking for most cellular signaling pathways, not to say the more complicated neural circuits. To study signaling processes in biology, the key thing to measure is the input-output relationship. The input is the signal itself, such as chemical concentration, external temperature, light (intensity and frequency), and more complex signals such as the face of a cat. The output can be protein conformational changes and covalent modifications (phosphorylation, methylation, etc), gene expression, cell growth and motility, as well as more complex output such as neuron firing patterns and behaviors of higher animals. Due to the inherent noise in biological systems, the measured input-output dependence is often noisy. These noisy data can be analysed by using powerful tools and concepts from information theory such as mutual information, channel capacity, and the maximum entropy hypothesis. This information theory approach has been successfully used to reveal the underlying correlations between key components of biological networks, to set bounds for network performance, and to understand possible network architecture in generating observed correlations. Although the information theory approach provides a general tool in analysing noisy biological data and may be used to suggest possible network architectures in

  18. Foundational Issues in Educating Young People for Understanding and Appreciation of the Religions in Their Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This is a conceptual paper considering some of the foundational issues that a teacher needs to have at least considered (if not resolved) when he or she sets out to encourage students to understand and appreciate the variety of religions in their communities. The first issue is that of what to call the enterprise; the second relates to assumed…

  19. Key Durability Issues with Mullite-Based Environmental Barrier Coatings for Si-Based Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2) and mullite/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) dual layer coatings have been developed to protect silicon -based ceramics from environmental attack. Mullite-based coating systems show excellent durability in air. However, in combustion environments, corrosive species such as molten salt or water vapor penetrate through cracks in the coating and attack the Si-based ceramics along the interface. Thus the modification of the coating system for enhanced crack-resistance is necessary for long-term durability in combustion environments. Other key durability issues include interfacial contamination and coating/substrate bonding. Interfacial contamination leads to enhanced oxidation and interfacial pore formation, while a weak coating/substrate bonding leads to rapid attack of the interface by corrosive species, both of which can cause a premature failure of the coating. Interfacial contamination can be minimized by limiting impurities in coating and substrate materials. The interface may be modified to improve the coating/substrate bond.

  20. Prospects and applications near ferroelectric quantum phase transitions: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, P.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Rowley, S. E.; Scott, J. F.

    2017-11-01

    The emergence of complex and fascinating states of quantum matter in the neighborhood of zero temperature phase transitions suggests that such quantum phenomena should be studied in a variety of settings. Advanced technologies of the future may be fabricated from materials where the cooperative behavior of charge, spin and current can be manipulated at cryogenic temperatures. The progagating lattice dynamics of displacive ferroelectrics make them appealing for the study of quantum critical phenomena that is characterized by both space- and time-dependent quantities. In this key issues article we aim to provide a self-contained overview of ferroelectrics near quantum phase transitions. Unlike most magnetic cases, the ferroelectric quantum critical point can be tuned experimentally to reside at, above or below its upper critical dimension; this feature allows for detailed interplay between experiment and theory using both scaling and self-consistent field models. Empirically the sensitivity of the ferroelectric T c’s to external and to chemical pressure gives practical access to a broad range of temperature behavior over several hundreds of Kelvin. Additional degrees of freedom like charge and spin can be added and characterized systematically. Satellite memories, electrocaloric cooling and low-loss phased-array radar are among possible applications of low-temperature ferroelectrics. We end with open questions for future research that include textured polarization states and unusual forms of superconductivity that remain to be understood theoretically.

  1. Doubly-Special Relativity: Facts, Myths and Some Key Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available I report, emphasizing some key open issues and some aspects that are particularly relevant for phenomenology, on the status of the development of “doubly-special” relativistic (“DSR” theories with both an observer-independent high-velocity scale and an observer-independent small-length/large-momentum scale, possibly relevant for the Planck-scale/quantum-gravity realm. I also give a true/false characterization of the structure of these theories. In particular, I discuss a DSR scenario without modification of the energy-momentum dispersion relation and without the қ-Poincaré Hopf algebra, a scenario with deformed Poincaré symmetries which is not a DSR scenario, some scenarios with both an invariant length scale and an invariant velocity scale which are not DSR scenarios, and a DSR scenario in which it is easy to verify that some observable relativistic (but non-special-relativistic features are insensitive to possible nonlinear redefinitions of symmetry generators.

  2. [Full attention to several key issues in surgical treatment for the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenggang

    2016-05-01

    With the development of population aging in our country, the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer is increasing. The risk of developing gastrointestinal cancer in elderly over 75 years was 5-6 times and the risk of death of gastrointestinal cancer was 7-8 times of the general population. As compared to non-elderly, the incidence of gastric cancer was not decreased obviously but the total incidence of colorectal cancer was increased more quickly. Therefore, screening of gastrointestinal cancer should be performed in the elderly for early discovery, diagnosis and treatment. Because of the insidious onset of the illness in elderly patients, gastrointestinal cancers are mostly diagnosed at advanced or late stage (stage III or IV). Well differentiated cancer is more common, such as papillary or tubular adenocarcinoma. Lauren type, Borrmann II or III are more common in gastric cancer, which are relatively favorable. Compared with non-elderly patients, many elderly patients also suffer from comorbid diseases with higher operation risk and postoperative complication rates. Therefore, we must pay great attention to the perioperative management and the surgical operation for the elderly patients. In this paper, several key issues involved the development trend of incidence and mortality of gastrointestinal cancer, the clinicopathological characteristics, the comorbidity and surgical treatment in the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer will be elaborated, aiming at promoting further attention to the clinical therapeutic strategies, management measures and prognostic factors for the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

  3. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials are crucial to improve cancer treatment but recruitment is difficult. Optimised patient information has been recognised as a key issue. In line with the increasing focus on patients' perspectives in health care, we aimed to study patients' opinions about the written information used...... for improvements, 21 key issues were defined and validated through a questionnaire in an independent group of breast cancer patient advocates. Clear messages, emotionally neutral expressions, careful descriptions of side effects, clear comparisons between different treatment alternatives and information about...... the possibility to discontinue treatment were perceived as the most important issues. Patients' views of the information in clinical trials provide new insights and identify key issues to consider in optimising future written information and may improve recruitment to clinical cancer trials....

  4. Key science issues after MESSENGER and current observation plans of BepiColombo MMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Go; Hayakawa, Hajime; Fujimoto, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Little had been known about the Hermean magnetosphere until MESSENGER explored the region. The region is formed as the weak planetary magnetic field stands against the intense solar wind in the close proximity of the Sun. Various prediction had been given by noting the difference in the parameters from the well-studied terrestiral magnetosphere of a similar setting and scaling the well-knowns to the Hermean environment. MESSENGER results, however, show a wide varieity of phenomena that are out of the scope of what one could have reasonably argued. The micro-magnetosphere of Mercury is much more dynamic than one had predicted. BepiColombo MMO, the JAXA spacecraft of the BepiColombo Mercury exploration mission which will be launched in 2018 and will arrive at Mercury in 2025, is equipped to study the space environment of the planet Mercury. BepiColombo MMO is mainly designed for plasma observations and is expected to extract essential elements of space plasma physics that become visible in the Hermean environment. MMO has large constraints on science operations, such as thermal issue and limited telemetry rate. Due to the thermal issue each science instrument cannot always be turned on. In addition, due to the low telemetry rate in average, only a part ( 20-30%) of science mission data with high resolution can be downlinked. Therefore, in order to maximize the scientific results and outcomes to be achieved by MMO, we are now working to optimize the science observation and downlink plans in detail. Here we review MESSENGER results and how MMO will contribute to deepen our understanding of space plasmas by addressing the puzzles raised by MESSEGNER.

  5. Transboundary Movements of Genetically Modified Organisms and the Cartagena Protocol: Key Issues and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile J Lim Tung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology or the engineering of the genetic material of species can give way to avenues of possibilities for the benefit of people, fauna and flora but also has the potential of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. One of the first attempts to legislate on international rules on biotechnology can be traced back to article 19 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 1992. The CBD is indeed the first international legal instrument apart from the then European Community’s relevant directives to suggest that biotechnology is a matter of concern for the international community while providing a basis upon which more detailed procedures would be elaborated in the field of biosafety. While the CBD includes international rules on access to genetic resources, access to and the transfer of technology, the handling of biotechnology and the distribution of its benefits, it does not include a detailed regulation on genetically modified organisms (GMOs and their possible adverse effects on the environment, human and animal health. It was only with the coming into existence of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (Cartagena Protocol to the CBD in 2000 that the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms (LMOs such as genetically engineered plants, animals, and microbes were at last being catered for, albeit leaving aside the broader categories of GMOs. Due to the need for the negotiators of this protocol to make compromises, there were still key issues on the international biosafety framework pertaining mainly to the scope of the GMOs to be covered by this protocol and by the Advanced Informed Agreement procedure; identification and traceability issues; and liability and redress issues. Nine years after the entry into force of the Cartagena Protocol the transboundary movements of GMOs have clearly increased with new categories of GMOs and genetically modified products to regulate. The

  6. The Water Risks of Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking): Key Issues from the New California Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    A key component of the Water-Energy Nexus is the effort over the past decade or so to quantify the volumes and form of water required for the energy fuel cycle from extraction to generation to waste disposal. The vast majority of the effort in this area has focused on the water needs of electricity generation, but other fuel-cycle components also entail significant water demands and threats to water quality. Recent work for the State of California (managed by the California Council on Science and Technology - CCST) has produced a new state-of-the-art assessment of a range of potential water risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and related oil and gas extraction, including volumetric water demands, methods of disposal of produced water, and aquifer contamination. For example, this assessment produced new information on the disposal of produced water in surface percolation pits and the potential for contamination of local groundwater (see Figure). Understanding these risks raises questions about current production and future plans to expand production, as well as tools used by state and federal agencies to manage these risks. This talk will summarize the science behind the CCST assessment and related policy recommendations for both water and energy managers.

  7. Key factors to understanding the conflictive situation in North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Urgell García

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to help expand our understanding of the armed conflicts and social tensions that exist in the Northeast of India, by examining the different levels at which conflict takes place, as well as by analysing some of the causes and factors involved in these contexts. To this end, the article is structured into three parts. In the first, the authors describe briefly the antecedents of the different conflicts and tensions, in order to establish a map of same and to contextualise them historically and socially. In the second part, five issues are analysed: armed conflicts as multifactorial realities that require examination in both regional and individual terms; the issue of demography as the constitutive factor of many discourses and accounts of the causes of disputes in the region; the Indian government’s responses to the conflicts; the role played by international regional actors and, finally, the dimension of gender in the conflicts. The third and final part includes some closing reflections, by way of a conclusion.

  8. North Korean nuclear issues and the LWR project; analysis of the key technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Koo; Kwack, E. H.; Shin, J. S.; An, J. S.; Lee, J. U.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, J. S.; Yoon, Y. C.

    2000-11-01

    Year 2000 will be remembered as an epoch making period between two Koreas. Korean nuclear industries became activated with the KEDO LWR main contracts entering into force in February, 2000. Respective design, manufacturing and construction activities are mobilized in accordance with the total project schedule of about 100 months. What started out as the nuclear power plant design standardization project in the early '80s, is now being implemented as repeat construction of KSNPs at Yonggwang and Ulchin sites as well as at Kumho site in the DPRK. However, the KEDO construction schedule and the past nuclear inconsistency issues are closely linked due to the nonproliferation concerns. In practice, the IAEA must come to the conclusion that the correctness and completeness must be fulfilled before delivery of the first key component for the KEDO LWR unit 1. While the IAEA verification process tends to focus on the nuclear materials accountancy control, longer term objective between two Koreas is bound to take the form of confidence building. It is necessary to analyse the nuclear research and production facilities in order to make proper evaluation of a nation's nuclear capabilities. Close assessment on development status of graphite moderated reactors and their operation history, spent fuel reprocessing facilities, and HEU production capabilities would be essential. In addition, illicit trafficking possibilities should be addressed. Chapter 1 describes the graphite moderated reactors in general; Chapter 2 describes various reprocessing processes and their detection capabilities; Chapter 3 contains possible uranium enrichment processes with their detection capabilities, and Chapter 4 summarizes the international treaties in illicit trafficking control with the IAEA database

  9. An Improved Methodology to Overcome Key Issues in Human Fecal Metagenomic DNA Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Manoj; Gupta, Shashank; Ahmed, Vasim; Bhambi, Manu; Pandey, Rajesh; Chauhan, Nar Singh

    2016-12-01

    Microbes are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and recent culture-independent studies have highlighted the significance of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Fecal DNA is the primary source for the majority of human gut microbiome studies. However, further improvement is needed to obtain fecal metagenomic DNA with sufficient amount and good quality but low host genomic DNA contamination. In the current study, we demonstrate a quick, robust, unbiased, and cost-effective method for the isolation of high molecular weight (>23kb) metagenomic DNA (260/280 ratio >1.8) with a good yield (55.8±3.8ng/mg of feces). We also confirm that there is very low human genomic DNA contamination (eubacterial: human genomic DNA marker genes=2 27.9 :1) in the human feces. The newly-developed method robustly performs for fresh as well as stored fecal samples as demonstrated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using 454 FLX+. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that compared to other DNA extraction methods tested, the fecal metagenomic DNA isolated with current methodology retains species richness and does not show microbial diversity biases, which is further confirmed by qPCR with a known quantity of spike-in genomes. Overall, our data highlight a protocol with a balance between quality, amount, user-friendliness, and cost effectiveness for its suitability toward usage for culture-independent analysis of the human gut microbiome, which provides a robust solution to overcome key issues associated with fecal metagenomic DNA isolation in human gut microbiome studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. An Improved Methodology to Overcome Key Issues in Human Fecal Metagenomic DNA Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and recent culture-independent studies have highlighted the significance of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Fecal DNA is the primary source for the majority of human gut microbiome studies. However, further improvement is needed to obtain fecal metagenomic DNA with sufficient amount and good quality but low host genomic DNA contamination. In the current study, we demonstrate a quick, robust, unbiased, and cost-effective method for the isolation of high molecular weight (>23 kb metagenomic DNA (260/280 ratio >1.8 with a good yield (55.8 ± 3.8 ng/mg of feces. We also confirm that there is very low human genomic DNA contamination (eubacterial: human genomic DNA marker genes = 227.9:1 in the human feces. The newly-developed method robustly performs for fresh as well as stored fecal samples as demonstrated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using 454 FLX+. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that compared to other DNA extraction methods tested, the fecal metagenomic DNA isolated with current methodology retains species richness and does not show microbial diversity biases, which is further confirmed by qPCR with a known quantity of spike-in genomes. Overall, our data highlight a protocol with a balance between quality, amount, user-friendliness, and cost effectiveness for its suitability toward usage for culture-independent analysis of the human gut microbiome, which provides a robust solution to overcome key issues associated with fecal metagenomic DNA isolation in human gut microbiome studies.

  11. Understanding key issues of sustainable wood production in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Seth M. White

    2005-01-01

    Researchers involved with the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station Sustainable Wood Production Initiative have outlined some of the barriers and opportunities for sustainable wood production in the region. Sustainable wood production is defined as the capacity of forests to produce wood, products, and services on a long-term basis and in the context of human...

  12. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel P Springer

    Full Text Available Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent

  13. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  14. Competency, confidence and conflicting evidence: key issues affecting health visitors' use of research evidence in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calnan Michael

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health visitors play a pivotal position in providing parents with up-to-date evidence-based care on child health. The recent controversy over the safety of the MMR vaccine has drawn attention to the difficulties they face when new research which raises doubts about current guidelines and practices is published. In the aftermath of the MMR controversy, this paper investigates the sources health visitors use to find out about new research evidence on immunisation and examines barriers and facilitators to using evidence in practice. It also assesses health visitors' confidence in using research evidence. Methods Health visitors were recruited from the 2007 UK Community Practitioners' and Health Visitors' Association conference. All delegates were eligible to complete the questionnaire if in their current professional role they advise parents about childhood immunisation or administer vaccines to children. Of 228 who were eligible, 185 completed the survey (81.1%. Results These health visitors used a wide range of resources to find out about new research evidence on childhood immunisation. Popular sources included information leaflets and publications, training days, nursing journals and networking with colleagues. A lack of time was cited as the main barrier to searching for new evidence. The most common reason given for not using research in practice was a perception of conflicting research evidence. Understanding the evidence was a key facilitator. Health visitors expressed less confidence about searching and explaining research on childhood immunisation than evidence on weaning and a baby's sleep position. Conclusion Even motivated health visitors feel they lack the time and, in some cases, the skills to locate and appraise research evidence. This research suggests that of the provision of already-appraised research would help to keep busy health professionals informed, up-to-date and confident in responding to public

  15. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P.; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R.; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D.; Huber, Patrick R.; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F.; Tomich, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today’s globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly—depending largely on the stakeholder perspective—as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 “integrated” issues—24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues —that are composed of 318 “component” issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them

  16. SARNET. Severe Accident Research Network - key issues in the area of source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, P.; Micaelli, J.C.; Haste, T.; Herranz, L.

    2005-01-01

    About fifty European organisations integrate in SARNET (Network of Excellence of the EU 6 th Framework Programme) their research capacities in resolve better the most important remaining uncertainties and safety issues concerning existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) under hypothetical Severe Accident (SA) conditions. Wishing to maintain a long-lasting cooperation, they conduct three types of activities: integrating activities, spreading of excellence and jointly executed research. This paper summarises the main results obtained by the network after the first year, giving more prominence to those from jointly executed research in the Source Term area. Integrating activities have been performed through different means: the ASTEC integral computer code for severe accident transient modelling, through development of PSA2 methodologies, through the setting of a structure for definition of evolving R and D priorities and through the development of a web-network of data bases that hosts experimental data. Such activities have been facilitated by the development of an Advanced Communication Tool. Concerning spreading of excellence, educational courses covering Severe Accident Analysis Methodology and Level 2 PSA have been set up, to be given in early 2006. A detailed text book on Severe Accident Phenomenology has been designed and agreed amongst SARNET members. A mobility programme for students and young researchers is being developed, some detachments are already completed or in progress, and examples are quoted. Jointly executed research activities concern key issues grouped in the Corium, Containment and Source Term areas. In Source Term, behaviour of the highly radio-toxic ruthenium under oxidising conditions (like air ingress) for HBU and MOX fuel has been investigated. First modelling proposals for ASTEC have been made for oxidation of fuel and of ruthenium. Experiments on transport of highly volatile oxide ruthenium species have been performed. Reactor

  17. Key issues in the computational simulation of GPCR function: representation of loop domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, E. L.; Periole, X.; Hassan, S. A.; Weinstein, H.

    2002-11-01

    Some key concerns raised by molecular modeling and computational simulation of functional mechanisms for membrane proteins are discussed and illustrated for members of the family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Of particular importance are issues related to the modeling and computational treatment of loop regions. These are demonstrated here with results from different levels of computational simulations applied to the structures of rhodopsin and a model of the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor, 5-HT2AR. First, comparative Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are reported for rhodopsin in vacuum and embedded in an explicit representation of the membrane and water environment. It is shown that in spite of a partial accounting of solvent screening effects by neutralization of charged side chains, vacuum MD simulations can lead to severe distortions of the loop structures. The primary source of the distortion appears to be formation of artifactual H-bonds, as has been repeatedly observed in vacuum simulations. To address such shortcomings, a recently proposed approach that has been developed for calculating the structure of segments that connect elements of secondary structure with known coordinates, is applied to 5-HT2AR to obtain an initial representation of the loops connecting the transmembrane (TM) helices. The approach consists of a simulated annealing combined with biased scaled collective variables Monte Carlo technique, and is applied to loops connecting the TM segments on both the extra-cellular and the cytoplasmic sides of the receptor. Although this initial calculation treats the loops as independent structural entities, the final structure exhibits a number of interloop interactions that may have functional significance. Finally, it is shown here that in the case where a given loop from two different GPCRs (here rhodopsin and 5-HT2AR) has approximately the same length and some degree of sequence identity, the fold adopted by the loops can be similar. Thus

  18. Experimental Study and Computational Simulations of Key Pebble Bed Thermo-mechanics Issues for Design and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Potirniche, Gabriel; Cogliati, Joshua; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2014-07-08

    An experimental and computational study, consisting of modeling and simulation (M&S), of key thermal-mechanical issues affecting the design and safety of pebble-bed (PB) reactors was conducted. The objective was to broaden understanding and experimentally validate thermal-mechanic phenomena of nuclear grade graphite, specifically, spheres in frictional contact as anticipated in the bed under reactor relevant pressures and temperatures. The contact generates graphite dust particulates that can subsequently be transported into the flowing gaseous coolent. Under postulated depressurization transients and with the potential for leaked fission products to be adsorbed onto graphite 'dust', there is the potential for fission products to escape from the primary volume. This is a design safety concern. Furthermore, earlier safety assessment identified the distinct possibility for the dispersed dust to combust in contact with air if sufficient conditions are met. Both of these phenomena were noted as important to design review and containing uncertainty to warrant study. The team designed and conducted two separate effects tests to study and benchmark the potential dust-generation rate, as well as study the conditions under which a dust explosion may occure in a standardized, instrumented explosion chamber.

  19. Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

  20. Response to Key Issues Raised in the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghes, David; Hindle, Mike

    2004-01-01

    This article is a detailed response to the issues raised by the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry in the UK. It aims to debate some of the central issues in mathematics teaching in the UK, including recruitment and retention of mathematics teachers, the curriculum content, national assessment, teaching resources (including ICT) and national strategies…

  1. International Policy Framework for Protecting Critical Information Infrastructure: A Discussion Paper Outlining Key Policy Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, B.; Goetz, E.; Verhoest, P.; Helmus, S.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Bruce, R.; Dynes, S.; Brechbuhl, H.

    2005-01-01

    Cyber security is a uniquely challenging policy issue with a wide range of public and private stakeholders within countries and beyond national boundaries. This executive summary and the full discussion paper delineate the need on a high priority basis to address cyber security issues and develop an

  2. Industry Issue Paper: Understanding the Shared Operation of Commuter Rail Transit and Freight Railroads

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rongfang; Yang, Fei; Chen, Mei

    2004-01-01

    Seeking a thorough understanding of shared operation between commuter rail transit and freight railroads, a nationwide survey was conducted of transit and rail freight interaction. This survey contacted and received responses from all 21 commuter rail services in North America. In addition to a general understanding of the shared-use practices, this paper presents the key factors that contribute or impede successful shared-use operations between commuter rail and freight railroads by examinin...

  3. Security and skills: the two key issues in health worker migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posy Bidwell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration of health workers from Africa continues to undermine the universal provision of quality health care. South Africa is an epicentre for migration – it exports more health workers to high-income countries than any other African country and imports health workers from its lower-income neighbours to fill the gap. Although an inter-governmental agreement in 2003 reduced the very high numbers migrating from South Africa to the United Kingdom, migration continues to other high-income English-speaking countries and few workers seem to return although the financial incentive to work abroad has lessened. A deeper understanding of reasons for migration from South Africa and post-migration experiences is therefore needed to underpin policy which is developed in order to improve retention within source countries and encourage return. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 South African doctors and nurses who had migrated to the United Kingdom. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to migrate and post-migration experiences. Results: Salary, career progression, and poor working conditions were not major push factors for migration. Many health workers reported that they had previously overcome these issues within the South African healthcare system by migrating to the private sector. Overwhelmingly, the major push factors were insecurity, high levels of crime, and racial tension. Although the wish to work and train in what was perceived to be a first-class care system was a pull factor to migrate to the United Kingdom, many were disappointed by the experience. Instead of obtaining new skills, many (particularly nurses felt they had become ‘de-skilled’. Many also felt that working conditions and opportunities for them in the UK National Health Service (NHS compared unfavourably with the private sector in South Africa. Conclusions: Migration from South Africa seems unlikely to diminish until the major

  4. Security and skills: the two key issues in health worker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Posy; Laxmikanth, Pallavi; Blacklock, Claire; Hayward, Gail; Willcox, Merlin; Peersman, Wim; Moosa, Shabir; Mant, David

    2014-01-01

    Migration of health workers from Africa continues to undermine the universal provision of quality health care. South Africa is an epicentre for migration--it exports more health workers to high-income countries than any other African country and imports health workers from its lower-income neighbours to fill the gap. Although an inter-governmental agreement in 2003 reduced the very high numbers migrating from South Africa to the United Kingdom, migration continues to other high-income English-speaking countries and few workers seem to return although the financial incentive to work abroad has lessened. A deeper understanding of reasons for migration from South Africa and post-migration experiences is therefore needed to underpin policy which is developed in order to improve retention within source countries and encourage return. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 South African doctors and nurses who had migrated to the United Kingdom. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to migrate and post-migration experiences. Salary, career progression, and poor working conditions were not major push factors for migration. Many health workers reported that they had previously overcome these issues within the South African healthcare system by migrating to the private sector. Overwhelmingly, the major push factors were insecurity, high levels of crime, and racial tension. Although the wish to work and train in what was perceived to be a first-class care system was a pull factor to migrate to the United Kingdom, many were disappointed by the experience. Instead of obtaining new skills, many (particularly nurses) felt they had become 'de-skilled'. Many also felt that working conditions and opportunities for them in the UK National Health Service (NHS) compared unfavourably with the private sector in South Africa. Migration from South Africa seems unlikely to diminish until the major concerns over security, crime, and racial tensions are resolved

  5. A Discussion with Sandy O'Sullivan about Key Issues for the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article takes the form of an interview with Sandy O'Sullivan, who is a partner on the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network, about key issues that have arisen through Network discussions. She is a Wiradjuri woman and a Senior Aboriginal researcher at the Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education. O'Sullivan…

  6. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the 75 FR 35800 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... AGENCY Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments... Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments'' (EPA/600/R-10/038A) for independent external review, and... result from exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). These analyses have not been in...

  7. Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade: Key Issues for the 108th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kapp, Lawrence; Lum, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    .... The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon dramatically altered the U.S. political environment, pushing issues of war and homeland security to the top of the policy agenda...

  8. Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade: Key Issues for the 110th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Clare M; Vaughn, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    .... A major issue confronting the new Congress is what to do in Iraq. The Baker/Hamilton-led Iraq Study Group recommended pursuing a new diplomatic initiative, including negotiations with Iran and Syria...

  9. Conference communication. Managing change in tourism destinations: Key issues and current trends.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, M.M.; Buhalis, Dimitrios; Longhi, C.; Vitouladiti, O.

    2013-01-01

    This conference communication illustrates the major outcomes emerging from the EIASM Conference on Tourism Management and Tourism Related Issues held in Nice (France), September 20-21, 2012. While a number of managerial issues pertaining to the tourism field were dealt with, this communication covers three specific areas of interest for destination management and marketing: (1) the increasing competition among tourism destinations and the rise and consolidation of BRIC countries as outbound t...

  10. The detection of deception within investigative contexts: Key challenges and core issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannou, Maria; Hammond, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A large and continually-growing body of research has explored the ways in which deception might be detected. The area is developing rapidly, opening up new avenues of study. This special issue of the Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling brings together an exciting array of papers on the detection of deception within investigative contexts, examining a wide range of issues including; the efficacy of different interviewing techniques, the reliability of statement veracity ...

  11. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O

    2011-01-01

    for improvements, 21 key issues were defined and validated through a questionnaire in an independent group of breast cancer patient advocates. Clear messages, emotionally neutral expressions, careful descriptions of side effects, clear comparisons between different treatment alternatives and information about...... in three clinical trials for breast cancer. Primary data collection was done in focus group interviews with breast cancer patient advocates. Content analysis identified three major themes: comprehensibility, emotions and associations, and decision making. Based on the advocates' suggestions...... the possibility to discontinue treatment were perceived as the most important issues. Patients' views of the information in clinical trials provide new insights and identify key issues to consider in optimising future written information and may improve recruitment to clinical cancer trials....

  12. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…

  13. Advancing Our Understanding of Cross-Cultural Issues in Consumer Science and Consumer Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, H.; Torelli, Carlos J.; van Herk, Hester; Torelli, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has resulted in a more complex marketplace. Growing multi-culturalism of consumer markets and increased global competition are pushing marketing scholars to better understand cross-cultural issues in consumer science and consumer psychology. The chapters in this book cover the field to

  14. College Students' Use of Science Content during Socioscientific Issues Negotiation: Impact of Evolution Understanding and Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Samantha R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the evolution science content used during college students' negotiation of biology-based socioscientific issues (SSI) and examine how it related to students' conceptual understanding and acceptance of biological evolution. Specific research questions were, (1a) what specific evolutionary science content do…

  15. Western Australian High School Students' Understandings about the Socioscientific Issue of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to…

  16. Several key issues on implementing delay line based TDCs using FPGAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jinyuan; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Several topics in FPGA delay line based TDCs are discussed in this document. First, FPGA specific issues such as considerations on the delay line choice in different FPGA families, Wave Union Launchers, 'bubble proof' encoding logic, etc. are examined. Next, common problems for both FPGA TDCs and ASIC TDCs such as schemes of coarse time counter implementation, bin-by-bin calibration and noise issues due to single ended signals are discussed. Several resource/power saving design approaches for various processing stages are described in the document.

  17. Assessing stakeholder's experience and sensitivity on key issues for the economic growth of organic aquaculture production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lembo, Giuseppe; Jokumsen, Alfred; Spedicato, Maria Teresa

    2018-01-01

    Participatory management is widely recognised as a working method of paramount importance, based on the principles of knowledge sharing, accountability and legitimacy. Hence, it is broadly considered suitable for addressing issues related to the sustainable development of the seafood industry...... expressed by the participants revealed both competence and awareness, despite the complexity of the subject. Several ideas and useful suggestions emerged regarding unresolved technical issues. In addition, the need for a targeted communication strategy on the quality of organic aquaculture products...... and the necessity of fostering European/national programs to support the production and marketing of organic aquaculture products were highlighted...

  18. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O; Malmström, P; Carlsson, C

    2011-07-01

    Clinical trials are crucial to improve cancer treatment but recruitment is difficult. Optimised patient information has been recognised as a key issue. In line with the increasing focus on patients' perspectives in health care, we aimed to study patients' opinions about the written information used in three clinical trials for breast cancer. Primary data collection was done in focus group interviews with breast cancer patient advocates. Content analysis identified three major themes: comprehensibility, emotions and associations, and decision making. Based on the advocates' suggestions for improvements, 21 key issues were defined and validated through a questionnaire in an independent group of breast cancer patient advocates. Clear messages, emotionally neutral expressions, careful descriptions of side effects, clear comparisons between different treatment alternatives and information about the possibility to discontinue treatment were perceived as the most important issues. Patients' views of the information in clinical trials provide new insights and identify key issues to consider in optimising future written information and may improve recruitment to clinical cancer trials. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. The Key Factors Affecting Grade 5 Achievement in Laos: Emerging Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Postlethwaite, Neville T.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors employed a multilevel analysis procedure to examine the key pupil- and school-level factors that influenced reading and mathematics achievement among Grade 5 primary school pupils in Laos. The data for this study were collected in 2007 as part of a major project (known as Laos Grade 5 Survey) that sought to examine the…

  1. Supporting Minority Women and Girls: Key Frames of Reference and Understanding for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Recent high-profile rape cases in Australia involving Muslim and Indigenous minority groups have heightened contention around issues of culture, gender and justice. The article critically examines the culturalising of rape as an ethnic minority issue in the public and legal discourse associated with these cases. This examination problematises the…

  2. EFFICIENT OFFICIAL STATISTICS AS A KEY TO THE ISSUE OF POST-CRISIS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Pashintseva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Measures implemented by the Federal State Statistics Service aimed at regular monitoring of the situation in the territory of the Russian Federation have been considered in the paper. Issues related to unemployment and investment activity by enterprises in the context of the financial and economic crisis have been analyzed.

  3. The Development of Resources of Students in Adolescence as a Key Issue in Contemporary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosk, Urszula; Kuracki, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    In the presented paper, the issue of recognition and building of resources in adolescent pupils was discussed, referring to salutogenic concept of A. Antonovsky and Conservation of Resources Theory of S. E. Hobfoll. Coming out from developmental pedagogy and positive orientation in social sciences, benefits of scientific and educational actions…

  4. Can Competency-Based Training Fly?: An Overview of Key Issues for "Ab Initio" Pilot Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Peter; Hay, Stephen; Mavin, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Competency-based training (CBT) for pilots was formally introduced in 1999 by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) for training leading to the issue of aeroplane private and commercial pilot licences. This initiative followed the Australian government's introduction of CBT policy for vocational and workplace training in the late 1980's.…

  5. Key issues of public relations of Europe: findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.; Zerfass, A.

    2014-01-01

    European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with

  6. U.S. Army War College Key Strategic Issues List 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    for Early Indications & Warnings of Biological Threats. In July 2012, President Obama issued a national strategy for biosurveillance that directs...the need for innovative biosurveillance , including the 2001 anthrax letters, 2003 SARS outbreak, 2009 bird flu pandemic and2011 Japan nuclear

  7. Producer responsibility for e-waste management: key issues for consideration - learning from the Swiss experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetriwal, Deepali Sinha; Kraeuchi, Philipp; Widmer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    E-waste, a relatively recent addition to the waste stream in the form of discarded electronic and electric equipment, is getting increasing attention from policy makers as the quantity being generated is rising rapidly. One of the most promising policy options to address this issue is to extend the producers responsibility for their products beyond the point of sale, until end-of-product-life. This paper briefly introduces the concept of extended producer responsibility (EPR) and its applicability in the area of the end-of-life management of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE). It then examines the decade-long experience of Switzerland in using EPR to manage its e-waste, elaborating on the experience of the Swiss system in overcoming specific issues, and finally wrapping up with a synopsis of the lessons for policy makers. We consider each issue as an enquiry of questions confronting a policy maker and the choices that may present themselves. The five issues discussed are: (i) the challenges in getting an EPR based system started; (ii) securing financing to ensure a self-sustaining and smooth functioning system; (iii) organising a logistics network for the take back and collection of the e-waste; (iv) ensuring compliance of the various actors involved; and finally (v) reducing the threat of monopolistic practices.

  8. The Medical Image Perception Society Update on Key Issues for Image Perception Research1

    OpenAIRE

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Berbaum, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    To guide future investigations, the 2007 Medical Image Perception Society meeting held panel discussions to consider the current state of our knowledge of medical image perception and identify important questions to advance our understanding.

  9. Strategic management and organizational behavior in dental education: reflections on key issues in an environment of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, David G; Durham, Timothy M; Lange, Brian M; Aksu, Mert N

    2009-06-01

    With issues such as shrinking revenue, access to care, faculty workloads, and graying faculty, dental schools are faced with difficult challenges that fall to dental school deans to manage. Do dental school deans have the organizational skill sets and ethical frameworks necessary to address the challenges now facing dental schools? The purpose of this article is to pose questions and suggestions regarding some of the key issues in dental colleges today and to stimulate discussion in the dental community about needed changes in dental education.

  10. BIOPROTA: international collaboration on key technical issues in biosphere aspects of long-term radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.; Kerrigan, E.L.; Degnan, P.

    2006-01-01

    BIOPROTA is an international collaborative project which was set up to address key uncertainties in biosphere aspects of assessment of the long-term impact of contaminant releases associated with radioactive waste management. The project began in 2002 and has benefited from the knowledge and experience of organisations from Canada, Finland, France, Japan, Russia, Spain, Sweden, UK and the USA. This paper describes the BIOPROTA objectives and scope, the on-going work programme and methods of work. (author)

  11. Key issues of public relations of Europe: Findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Vercic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with the digital evolution and social web, building and maintaining trust, dealing with the demand for more transparency and active audiences, and dealing with the speed and volume of information flow. Perception of the importance of various issues for the practice of public relations is largely dependent on the gender, geography (division between Northern and Western vs. Southern and Eastern Europe, and sector in which a practitioner works (corporate, government, NGO or agency. While gender and sectorial differences studied in academic public relations literature, divisions in public relations practice between North-Western and South-Eastern Europe are largely ignored.

  12. Habitability during long-duration space missions - Key issues associated with a mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuster, Jack

    1989-01-01

    Isolation and confinement conditions similar to those of a long-duration mission to Mars are examined, focusing on 14 behavioral issues with design implications. Consideration is given to sleep, clothing, exercise, medical support, personal hygiene, food preparation, group interaction, habitat aesthetics, outside communications, recreational opportunities, privacy, waste disposal, onboard training, and the microgravity environment. The results are used to develop operational requirements and habitability design guidelines for interplanetary spacecraft.

  13. Key issues in making and using satellite-based maps in ecology: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin S. Fassnacht; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas A. Spies

    2006-01-01

    The widespread availability of satellite imagery and image processing software has made it relatively easy for ecologists to use satellite imagery to address questions at the landscape and regional scales. However, as often happens with complex tools that are rendered easy to use by computer software, technology may be misused or used without an understanding of some...

  14. Key issues concerning changes in the radiological protection system: some thoughts from the French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, the International Radiological Protection Association (IRPA) asked for contributions to the debate on future changes to the radiological protection system proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In response, the Board of the French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP) created a working group to deal specifically with this issue. It met on several occasions between April and July and its findings were presented at the IRPA Congress in May 2000. They were also published in the French journal Radioprotection and in the British Journal of Radiological Protection. To further its discussions, the Board of the SFRP decided to create a second working group which became operational in September 2001. It has around 20 members representing the major players in the radiological protection field in France: authorities, experts and professionals from the nuclear, medical and research fields as well as one association representative (the list of members can be found at the end of this document). The working group was set up to produce proposals relating to the key issues likely to be raised, particularly by the ICRP, concerning the development of new radiological protection recommendations. The members of the working group analysed the ICRP memorandum published in the June 2001 edition of the Journal of Radiological Protection and used their own experience to determine what these key issues would be. The following issues were discussed: General thoughts on the new radiological protection system proposed by the ICRP, Individual and collective approaches to the radiological risk, Comparison with chemical risk management, Radiological protection of the environment, Changes in exposure levels and units of measurement. This paper, which has been approved by the Board of the SFRP, gives the main conclusions of the working group on the key issues in these areas. It is intended to reflect the various opinions expressed during the groups

  15. Management of graphite material: a key issue for High Temperature Gas Reactor system (HTGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdeloie, C.; Marimbeau, P.; Robin, J.C.; Cellier, F.

    2005-01-01

    Graphite material is used in nuclear High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR, Fig.1) as moderator, thermal absorber and also as structural components of the core (Fig.2). This type of reactor was selected by the Generation IV forum as a potential high temperature provider for supplying hydrogen production plants and is under development in France in the frame of the AREVA ANTARES program. In order to select graphite grades to be used in these future reactors, the requirements for mechanical, thermal, physical-chemical properties must match the internal environment of the nuclear core, especially with regard to irradiation effect. Another important aspect that must be addressed early in design is the waste issue. Indeed, it is necessary to reduce the amount of nuclear waste produced by operation of the reactor during its lifetime. Preliminary assessment of the nuclear waste output for an ANTARES type 280 MWe HTGR over 60 year-lifetime gives an estimated 6000 m 3 of activated graphite waste. Thus, reducing the graphite waste production is an important issue for any HTGR system. First, this paper presents a preliminary inventory of graphite waste fluxes coming from a HTGR, in mass and volume, with magnitudes of radiological activities based on activation calculations of graphite during its stay in the core of the reactor. Normalized data corresponding to an output of 1 GWe.year electricity allows comparison of the waste production with other nuclear reactor systems. Second, possible routes to manage irradiated graphite waste are addressed in both the context of French nuclear waste management rules and by comparison to other national regulations. Routes for graphite waste disposal studied in different countries (concerning existing irradiated graphite waste) will be discussed with regard to new issues of large graphite waste from HTGR. Alternative or complementary solutions aiming at lowering volume of graphite waste to be managed will be presented. For example

  16. The Development of Resources of Students in Adolescence as a Key Issue in Contemporary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosk Urszula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper, the issue of recognition and building of resources in adolescent pupils was discussed, referring to salutogenic concept of A. Antonovsky and Conservation of Resources Theory of S. E. Hobfoll. Coming out from developmental pedagogy and positive orientation in social sciences, benefits of scientific and educational actions concentrated on identifying pupils’ resources and supporting them in generating them, were shown. On the basis of Polish and foreign literature, empirical research treating about pupils’ resource, was analyzed, with special attention put to the sense of coherence and its components, stress management and behavior fostering health.

  17. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Tritium in the environment. The IRSN's opinion on key issues and on research and development perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report states the opinion of the IRSN on issues related to the behaviour of tritium in the environment, and to the associated risks. This report is based on a set of studies and researches performed on this radionuclide. Thus, the authors address the status of knowledge on the evolution of tritium released by nuclear activities (measurement techniques), the risk of bioaccumulation of tritium by living organisms within ecosystems (behaviour of tritium in the atmosphere, in soils, in ground plants, in continental and sea aquatic media), and the knowledge of risks due to tritium absorbed by living organisms (dose assessment, knowledge of tritium harmful effects and relative biological effectiveness)

  20. Argumentation in elementary science education: addressing methodological issues and conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ebru

    2017-11-01

    In this review essay I respond to issues raised in Mijung Kim and Wolff-Michael Roth's paper titled "Dialogical argumentation in elementary science classrooms", which presents a study dealing with dialogical argumentation in early elementary school classrooms. Since there is very limited research on lower primary school students' argumentation in school science, their paper makes a contribution to research on children's argumentation skills. In this response, I focus on two main issues to extend the discussion in Kim and Roth's paper: (a) methodological issues including conducting a quantitative study on children's argumentation levels and focusing on children's written argumentation in addition to their dialogical argumentation, and (b) investigating children's conceptual understanding along with their argumentation levels. Kim and Roth emphasize the difficulty in determining the level of children's argumentation through the Toulmin's Argument Pattern and lack of high level arguments by children due to their difficulties in writing texts. Regarding these methodological issues, I suggest designing quantitative research on coding children's argument levels because such research could potentially provide important findings on children's argumentation. Furthermore, I discuss alternative written products including posters, figures, or pictures generated by children in order to trace children's arguments, and finally articulating argumentation and conceptual understanding of children.

  1. The Legitimacy of Constitutional Jurisdiction From Its Utility on a Democratic State : Three Key Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorli João Carlos Marques

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In a State ruled by democracy and the search for the effectiveness of fundamental rights, constitutional jurisdiction arises as an institution guaranteeing the effectiveness of the Constitution. However, when analyzing the constitutional adjudicative power placing it at the level of tensions between the powers and the democratic exercise of popular participation, it is possible that its function worsens face issues arising out of its political and democratic aspects of legitimacy, and order limit. This article looks at three issues of constitutional jurisdiction, namely, its democratic degree, its legitimacy and the limits of its exercise, from its usefulness as a corollary of the current state structure. To this end, the paradigm of the Democratic Constitutional State of Rights was used, based on the principle of legitimacy, as well as the approach points and spacing between law and politics in a constitutional perspective. It concluded the necessity of dialogue between the study of constitutional jurisdiction and its usefulness in the Democratic State of Rights.

  2. Managing the nation's high-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    To date, no unified national plan has been adopted to develop and implement a comprehensive system of management and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Growing public concern about this problem has resulted in a number of recent efforts to develop a national high-level waste management policy. The 96th Congress strove to resolve the central issues, but ultimately failed to pass legislation, partly because of disagreements about the appropriate role of states in the siting of repositories for military waste. Outside government, a number of organizations convened representatives of diverse groups concerned with national high-level radioactive waste management to seek agreement on the major elements of national policy. One such organization was RESOLVE, Center for Environmental Conflict Resolution, which in May 1981 was merged into The Conservation Foundation. RESOLVE convened Forum II, a series of discussions among representatives of environmental, industrial, governmental, and citizen interest groups, in 1981 specifically to address the issues blocking Congressional agreement on high-level waste policy. This report contains the recommendations which resulted from these deliberations. Reprocessing, interim storage, respository development, and licensing requirements are addressed. Federal, state, and public participation in decision making are also discussed

  3. Procuring, maintaining and using equipment: the key issues in controlling exposure to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendra, I.R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Radiological equipment is not purpose-built for each individual application. Thus, not only are acceptance criteria directly related to the design of equipment and the quality assurance exercised during its manufacture, but also the performance, safety and reliability of equipment must feature in the requirements for procuring new equipment. In the UK this issue is dealt with under the Department of Health and Social Security Manufacturer Registration Scheme for Medical Equipment in its application to radiological equipment. Similarly the continuing reliability of equipment in service is directly related to the quality of maintenance services. This is determined largely by the manner in which such services are procured. In the UK this issue has been considered by one of four Working Parties commissioned by the South-East Thames Regional Health Authority who are the ''Centre of Responsibility'' for diagnostic imaging equipment. The report prepared from the first phase of activity of this working group describes features of a procurement specification for maintenance services and prescribes the complementary duties of contractors and customers. The use in X-ray departments of the kind of manufacturing quality system that is used by most reputable equipment manufacturers has the potential for a dramatic reduction in exposure to patients. (author)

  4. Adapting planning and scheduling concepts to an engineering perspective: Key issues and successful techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnegan, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional approaches to engineering planning are slanted toward the formats and interests of downstream implementation, and do not always consider the form and criticality of the front-end engineering development process. These processes and scopes are less defined and more subjective than most construction and operations tasks, and require flexible scheduling methods. This paper discusses the characteristics and requirement of engineering schedules, presents concepts for approaching planning in this field, and illustrates simple methods for developing and analyzing engineering plans, and evaluating schedule performance. Engineering plans are structured into a schedule hierarchy which delineates appropriate control and responsibilities, and is governed by key evaluation and decision milestones. Schedule risk analysis considers the uncertainty of engineering tasks, and critical resource constraints. Methods to evaluate schedule performance recognize that engineers and managers are responsible for adequate planning and forecasting, and quality decisions, even if they cannot control all factors influencing schedule results

  5. Adapting oecd aquatic toxicity tests for use with manufactured nanomaterials: key issues and consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Elijah J.; Diamond, Stephen A.; Kennedy, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    . Scientifically based risk assessment for MNs necessitates development of reproducible, standardized hazard testing methods such as those provided by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Currently, there is no comprehensive guidance on how to best address testing issues specific to MN...... particulate, fibrous, or colloidal properties. This paper summarizes the findings from an expert workshop convened to develop a guidance document that addresses the difficulties encountered when testing MNs using aquatic and sediment OECD test guidelines. Critical components were identified by workshop...... participants that require specific guidance for MN testing: preparation of dispersions, dose metrics, the importance and challenges associated with maintaining and monitoring exposure levels, and the need for reliable methods to quantify MNs in complex media. To facilitate a scientific advance...

  6. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-01

    To foster sustainable, low-emission development, many countries are establishing ambitious renewable energy targets for their electricity supply. Because solar and wind tend to be more variable and uncertain than conventional sources, meeting these targets will involve changes to power system planning and operations. Grid integration is the practice of developing efficient ways to deliver variable renewable energy (VRE) to the grid. Good integration methods maximize the cost-effectiveness of incorporating VRE into the power system while maintaining or increasing system stability and reliability. When considering grid integration, policy makers, regulators, and system operators consider a variety of issues, which can be organized into four broad topics: New Renewable Energy Generation, New Transmission, Increased System Flexibility, Planning for a High RE Future.

  7. Selection of a new nuclear unit for Slovakia: possibilities and key technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.

    2009-01-01

    Plans for construction of new nuclear unit at Jaslovske Bohunice brings forward the issue of selection of reactor design. This paper compares technical characteristics (safety and operational) of pressurized water reactors that are at present available in the market, such as AP 1000 (WEC), EPR (AREVA), AES 2006 (ASE), APWR 1700 (Mitsubishi) and APR 1400 (Korea Hydro and Nuclear). Selected parameters that require close attention in future negotiations with potential suppliers are discussed in detail. Compared are parameters as type of the reactor, reactor output power, quantified level of safety, compliance with national legislature and international safety requirements, operational flexibility in meeting requirements of the grid, using of verified technology, measures for coping with severe accidents, resistance against extreme external conditions etc. (authors)

  8. Western Australian High School Students' Understandings about the Socioscientific Issue of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2015-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to participate in this discourse. The purpose of this study was to examine Western Australian high school students' understanding of climate change and the greenhouse effect, in order to identify their alternative conceptions about climate change science and provide a baseline for more effective teaching. A questionnaire designed to elicit students' understanding and alternative conceptions was completed by 438 Year 10 students (14-15 years old). A further 20 students were interviewed. Results showed that students know different features of both climate change and the greenhouse effect, however not necessarily all of them and the relationships between. Five categories of alternative conceptions were identified. The categories were (1) the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer; (2) types of greenhouse gases; (3) types of radiation; (4) weather and climate and (5) air pollution. These findings provide science educators a basis upon which to develop strategies and curriculum resources to improve their students' understanding and decision-making skills about the socioscientific issue, climate change.

  9. Secondary School Students' Understanding of the Socio- Emotional Nature of the New Zealand Key Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudevold-Iversen, Tessa; Peterson, Elizabeth R.; Cartwright, Claire

    2013-01-01

    In its 2007 curriculum, New Zealand introduced Key Competencies (KCs) that are intended to ensure students' future participation in the economy, communities, and also to introduce metacognitive and socio-emotional dimensions to learning. The KCs also have important implications for contributing to students' wellbeing and resilience. However, they…

  10. Understanding the cultures of fishing communities: a key to fisheries management and food security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGoodwin, James R

    2001-01-01

    ... of sustaining small-scale fishers' rights of access to resources and integration of cultural considerations into fisheries-management policies and practices. Six contemporary case studies from distinct cultural regions of the world are annexed, richly exemplifying many of the issues discussed in the paper.

  11. Resources for our Future. Key issues and best practices in resource efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, R.; Bastein, T.; Tukker, A. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Rademaker, M.; De Ridder, M. [The Hague Centre for Strategic studies HCSS, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    This book provides an analysis of the issues surrounding international resources and inspiring accounts of industrial best practices. The book consists of two distinct parts. The first part of the book brings together the results of years of research into the geopolitical, economic and ecological dimensions of material scarcity and resource efficiency. Chapter 2 discusses the main challenges and constraints related to the use of energy resources, water and land, industrial and metallic minerals, construction minerals and biotic resources, including water use and ecosystem degradation. The chapter also addresses important linkages between these various resources. Chapter 3 describes the international trends that are shaping the geopolitics of natural resources and looks at the implications for Europe and the Netherlands. Chapter 4 presents a wide range of strategies by which governments, producers and consumers may contribute to the more sustainable use of natural resources. The second part of the book describes 21 inspiring best practices in resource efficiency in a variety of industrial sectors. Based on a series of interviews with industrial pioneers, these chapters relate their first-hand experiences in improving resource efficiency. These business cases demonstrate that innovation and entrepreneurship can result in substantial improvements in resource efficiency. Chapter 5 focuses on best practices in the built environment, where substantial amounts of energy and minerals are used. Chapter 6 presents four ambitious strategies to promote sustainable food production and consumption. Chapter 7 describes recent developments in the chemical process industry, which produces most of the ingredients, compounds and semi-products for the vast range of products used by society. Chapter 8 provides four examples of the state-of-the-art in resource efficiency in the metal and high-tech industries. This chapter presents four business cases highlighting the benefits of the

  12. Key issues in estimating energy and greenhouse gas savings of biofuels: challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Rathore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for biofuels has encouraged the researchers and policy makers worldwide to find sustainable biofuel production systems in accordance with the regional conditions and needs. The sustainability of a biofuel production system includes energy and greenhouse gas (GHG saving along with environmental and social acceptability. Life cycle assessment (LCA is an internationally recognized tool for determining the sustainability of biofuels. LCA includes goal and scope, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment, and interpretation as major steps. LCA results vary significantly, if there are any variations in performing these steps. For instance, biofuel producing feedstocks have different environmental values that lead to different GHG emission savings and energy balances. Similarly, land-use and land-use changes may overestimate biofuel sustainability. This study aims to examine various biofuel production systems for their GHG savings and energy balances, relative to conventional fossil fuels with an ambition to address the challenges and to offer future directions for LCA based biofuel studies. Environmental and social acceptability of biofuel production is the key factor in developing biofuel support policies. Higher GHG emission saving and energy balance of biofuel can be achieved, if biomass yield is high, and ecologically sustainable biomass or non-food biomass is converted into biofuel and used efficiently.

  13. Key technical issues for the proliferation resistance of Generation 4. Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomanin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Many nations believe that nuclear energy will play a key role in the future of energy production because it is an economic and non-greenhouse-gas-emitting way of producing electricity (and also high temperature process heat and hydrogen). To ensure nuclear energy penetration into future energy production it is necessary for this technology to develop technically advanced solutions in order to be more safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation resistant. The main idea is that the new generation of Nuclear Energy Systems will provide competitively priced and reliable energy production whilst satisfactorily addressing concerns over nuclear safety, waste, proliferation and public perception. This essay is focused on the most relevant characteristics of proliferation resistance and physical protection of the Generation 4. Nuclear Energy Systems. It presents the context in which these systems are developed, and the context of research programmes focused on their proliferation resistance aspects. In particular, it refers to the Generation 4. International Forum research programme (G.I.F.), which selected the six most promising systems with respect to the Generation 4. goals. The proliferation resistance characteristics of these systems are evaluated with respect to the criteria used by the G.I.F. to select them.

  14. Analysis of the key issues in establishing the Russian-based high technological companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Zinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the reasons that prevent a competitive export-oriented Russian domestic development of the robot surgical complex from being industrially prototyped and serially released for the domestic and global market. The development is completed within the framework of a «priority project» which was also highlighted as of significant importance in the Forecast analysis of the scientific-technological development of Russia for the period of up until 2030 and in the road maps of the National technological initiative and other strategic documents. The project was financed by nearly all development funds and institutes in Russia. A conclusion is drawn that the key reason behind the significant increase in a life span of a high-tech market product is the absence of a target setting and a programme of coordinated actions from committed ministries and governmental agencies, as well as the lack of a large high tech company in Russia, capable of producing in industrial volumes the export-oriented products and ensure their global sales.

  15. Origins of life: a problem for physics, a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imari Walker, Sara

    2017-09-01

    The origins of life stands among the great open scientific questions of our time. While a number of proposals exist for possible starting points in the pathway from non-living to living matter, these have so far not achieved states of complexity that are anywhere near that of even the simplest living systems. A key challenge is identifying the properties of living matter that might distinguish living and non-living physical systems such that we might build new life in the lab. This review is geared towards covering major viewpoints on the origin of life for those new to the origin of life field, with a forward look towards considering what it might take for a physical theory that universally explains the phenomenon of life to arise from the seemingly disconnected array of ideas proposed thus far. The hope is that a theory akin to our other theories in fundamental physics might one day emerge to explain the phenomenon of life, and in turn finally permit solving its origins.

  16. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  17. Conceptual design activities and key issues on LHD-type reactor FFHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, A.; Mitarai, O.; Imagawa, S.; Morisaki, T.; Tanaka, T.; Mizuguchi, N.; Dolan, T.; Miyazawa, J.; Takahata, K.; Chikaraishi, H.; Yamada, S.; Seo, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Masuzaki, S.; Muroga, T.; Yamada, H.; Fukada, S.; Hashizume, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Mito, T.; Kaneko, O.; Mutoh, T.; Ohyabu, N.; Noda, N.; Komori, A.; Sudo, S.; Motojima, O.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of conceptual design activities on the LHD-type helical reactor FFHR is presented, mainly focusing on optimization studies on the reactor size and the proposal of a long-life blanket. A major radius of around 15 m is the present candidate under the constraints of the energy confinement achieved in LHD, a maximum magnetic field around 13 T with a current density around 30 A/mm 2 and a neutron wall loading around 1.5 MW/m 2 . R and D on super-conducting magnet systems of large scale, high field and high current-density are new challenging targets based on the LHD. The development of new design tools has been started aiming at establishing a virtual power plant (VPP) and a virtual reality system for 3D design assisting. Next design issues are mainly on engineering optimization of the first wall thickness, the detailed 3D blanket system, and unscheduled replacements of breeder blankets

  18. Key scientific issues in developing drinking water guidelines for perfluoroalkyl acids: Contaminants of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Gloria B; Gleason, Jessie A; Cooper, Keith R

    2017-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a group of synthetic organic chemicals with industrial and commercial uses, are of current concern because of increasing awareness of their presence in drinking water and their potential to cause adverse health effects. PFAAs are distinctive among persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) contaminants because they are water soluble and do not break down in the environment. This commentary discusses scientific and risk assessment issues that impact the development of drinking water guidelines for PFAAs, including choice of toxicological endpoints, uncertainty factors, and exposure assumptions used as their basis. In experimental animals, PFAAs cause toxicity to the liver, the immune, endocrine, and male reproductive systems, and the developing fetus and neonate. Low-dose effects include persistent delays in mammary gland development (perfluorooctanoic acid; PFOA) and suppression of immune response (perfluorooctane sulfonate; PFOS). In humans, even general population level exposures to some PFAAs are associated with health effects such as increased serum lipids and liver enzymes, decreased vaccine response, and decreased birth weight. Ongoing exposures to even relatively low drinking water concentrations of long-chain PFAAs substantially increase human body burdens, which remain elevated for many years after exposure ends. Notably, infants are a sensitive subpopulation for PFAA's developmental effects and receive higher exposures than adults from the same drinking water source. This information, as well as emerging data from future studies, should be considered in the development of health-protective and scientifically sound guidelines for PFAAs in drinking water.

  19. The crisis in access to essential medicines in India: key issues which call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Anurag; Kalantri, S P

    2013-01-01

    The government is planning to introduce free generic and essential medicines in public health facilities. Most people in India buy healthcare from the private sector, a compulsion that accounts for a high proportion of healthcare-related expenditure. To reduce the burden of healthcare costs, the government must improve availability and affordability of generic and essential medicines in the market. It can do so because India's large pharmaceutical industry is a major source of generic medicines worldwide. In this article, we discuss three factors that have impeded access to generic and essential medicines: (1) mistaken notions among policymakers, prescribers and patients about branded drugs and generic drugs in India; (2) high prices of medicines due to the progressive dismantling of the system of regulation of medicine prices, and (3) a drug approval and regulatory system that allows medicines (including fixed dose combinations) of doubtful efficacy, rationale, safety and public health relevance to dominate the market at the cost of access to affordable generic and essential medicines. The consequences of ill-health and wasted expenditure on drugs raise issues of public health ethics.Improving access to essential medicines in India is an urgent public health and ethical imperative. This should include improved public provisioning, a system of regulation of drug prices, and an evidence-based drug approval process.

  20. A Review on Key Issues and Challenges in Devices Level MEMS Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review provides information relevant to issues and challenges in MEMS testing techniques that are implemented to analyze the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS behavior for specific application and operating conditions. MEMS devices are more complex and extremely diverse due to the immersion of multidomains. Their failure modes are distinctive under different circumstances. Therefore, testing of these systems at device level as well as at mass production level, that is, parallel testing, is becoming very challenging as compared to the IC test, because MEMS respond to electrical, physical, chemical, and optical stimuli. Currently, test systems developed for MEMS devices have to be customized due to their nondeterministic behavior and complexity. The accurate measurement of test systems for MEMS is difficult to quantify in the production phase. The complexity of the device to be tested required maturity in the test technique which increases the cost of test development; this practice is directly imposed on the device cost. This factor causes a delay in time-to-market.

  1. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers′ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country′s reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  2. Ten key research issues for integrated and sustainable wastewater reuse in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomar, Basem; Dare, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Wastewater management is not limited to the technology used to collect and treat wastewater. It begins with the early planning phase of building a society and includes considerations of how that society will grow. Therefore, history, culture, religion, and socioeconomy are important components to include in any relevant and integrated studies of wastewater management and reuse. Engineering, health, chemistry, biology, food production, cultural heritage, and the needs of people of all ages should be considered together when making management decisions regarding issues so intimately tied with humanity as water and sanitation. Other escalating challenges such as poverty, food, and water scarcity, migration and instability, flooding and catastrophes, diseases and mortality, etc. should also be considered as part of wastewater management and reuse planning. Emerging contaminants could be associated with the urbanization, modernization, and industrialization of several countries. Several arid countries have developed water security strategies where wastewater reuse is a major component. The existing wastewater treatment technologies in these countries are, in most cases, unable to remove such contaminants which may affect irrigation waters, industrial products, groundwater, etc. People would have to accept that the food on their tables could be irrigated with treated wastewater that they generated a few months ago, even if very advanced technologies were used to treat it. The purpose of this review is to highlight multidisciplinary areas of research on wastewater and to propose applicable and affordable mechanisms by which we may consider wastewater as a legitimate resource.

  3. Categorisation of Practices and Sources- A Key Issue in Licensing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M.; Vokal, B.; Petrovic, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of a radioactive sources inventory in countries with a nuclear programme usually comprises nearly all possible man-made sources available today, from sources related to nuclear power plants to calibration sources used for educational purposes. The risk based licensing process of radiation sources and exposures is a demanding task which could be internationally harmonised by introducing sources and practice related categorisation. The detailed categorisation of radioisotopes, replacing [1], was recently published [2]. The activity ratio (A/D ratio) is used as a basic parameter which is proportional to a risk involved in a use of a radioisotope. Radioisotopes as well as related practices are categorised. No categorisation of ionising sources related to electrical apparatus producing ionising radiation without radioisotopes has been given in literature. In addition, licensees usually perform many different activities with a specific source, so the categorisation of practice should be done, based on a risk involved with a specific practice. The risk is related to the probability of a specific event as well as to the consequences of that event. It is strongly related to the categorisation of source. The main issues related to a licensing process of sources and practices are presented. The review of possible categorisation of radioisotopes and related practices is given and a proposal of a combined harmonised approach of categorisation of sources and practices, based on risk, is given. (Author) 19 refs

  4. Tritium retention in candidate next-step protection materials: engineering key issues and research requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Andrew, P.L.; Wu, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Although a considerable volume of valuable data on the behaviour of tritium in beryllium and carbon-based armours exposed to hydrogenic fusion plasmas has been compiled over the past years both from operation of present-day tokamaks and from laboratory simulations, knowledge is far from complete and tritium inventory predictions for these materials remain highly uncertain. In this paper we elucidate the main mechanisms responsible for tritium trapping and release in next-step D-T tokamaks, as well as the applicability of some of the presently known data bases for design purposes. Owing to their strong anticipated implications on tritium uptake and release, attention is focused mainly on the interaction of tritium with neutron damage induced defects, on tritium codeposition with eroded carbon and on the effects of oxide and surface contaminants. Some preliminary quantitative estimates are presented based on most recent experimental findings and latest modelling developments as well. The influence of important working conditions such as target temperature, loading particle fluxes, erosion and redeposition rates, as well as material characteristics such as the type of morphology of the protection material (i.e. amorphous plasma-sprayed beryllium vs. solid forms), and design dependent parameters are discussed in this paper. Remaining issues which require additional effort are identified. (orig.)

  5. Procuring, maintaining and using equipment: the key issues in controlling exposure to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendra, I.R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Not only are acceptance criteria directly related to the design of medical x-ray equipment and quality assurance exercised during its manufacture, but also its performance, safety and reliability must feature in requirements for procuring new equipment. In the UK this issue is dealt with under the Department of Health and Social Security Manufacturer Registration Scheme for Medical Equipment in its application to radiological equipment. In the UK quality of maintenance services has been considered by one of our Working Parties commissioned by the South-East Thames Regional Health Authority who are the ''Centre of Responsibility'' for diagnostic imaging equipment in the National Health Service. The report prepared from the first phase of activity of this working group describes features of a procurement specification for maintenance services and prescribes complementary duties of contractors and customers. Radiograph reject analysis has indicated human error outweighs unsatisfactory equipment performance as the reason for rejecting poor radiographs. The use in X-ray departments of the kind of manufacturing quality system used by most reputable equipment manufacturers has the potential for a dramatic reduction in exposure. (author)

  6. End-use fuel substitution: Review of regulatory approaches and key policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, S.; Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Both customers and utilities can profit from properly conceived fuel substitution policies. This examination of existing practice may help state regulators grapple with a thorny issue. Some demand-side management advocates argue that state regulators should require electric utilities to pursue cost-effective fuel substitution to natural gas aggressively and have the utilities - i.e., electric ratepayers - finanace conversions. Others maintain that electric utilities should only promote and pay for incentives to encourage the use of electricity and that natural gas utilities should only promote and pay for incentives to encourage the use of natural gas, because this arrangement maintains the fundamental forces of competition on which a market system is based. This article explores the fuel substitution experiences of several state regulatory commissions. The authors conclude that: (1) opportunities for fuel substitution exist which are beneficial to the customers of both the gas company and the competing electric company, and (2) regulatory intervention can sometimes stimulate utilities to find win-win fuel substitution opportunities.

  7. Parenting gifted and talented children: what are the key child behaviour and parenting issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R

    2008-09-01

    The literature on gifted and talented children is limited. Little is known about the types and nature of difficulties experienced by gifted and talented children, and even less known about parenting issues related to parenting a gifted and talented child. The aim of the present study was to describe children's behavioural and emotional adjustment, and the factors that contribute to children's difficulties, as well as to examine the styles of discipline used by parents of gifted and talented children and their level of confidence in managing specific parenting tasks. A survey of parents of gifted and talented children was conducted, with 211 parents meeting criteria for the study. For a community sample, in general gifted and talented children exhibit no more behavioural difficulties than do other children. But children in this sample seemed to show higher levels of emotional symptoms and peer problems. Children's behavioural and emotional difficulties were best predicted by parenting factors, particularly parental confidence. Parents reported that they were less likely to be permissive with their child, but they tended to use a more authoritarian style of parenting characterized by lecturing and a strong reaction to any problems. There are a number of implications for future research, clinical practice, and the development of parenting interventions for this group of parents.

  8. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  9. Toward a national policy for managing low-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, C.J.; Mantell, M.; Thompson, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    The Conservation Foundation, a not-for-profit research and public education organization, asked individuals with diverse backgrounds and viewpoints to come together under Foundation leadership as a Dialogue Group on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management. The group, including persons who represent waste generators, concerned citizens, state regulators, and environmentalists, met over an 18-month period to discuss issues crucial to the development of a national policy on low-level wastes. The Dialogue Group agreed that three principles, if accepted broadly, would form the basis of a sound national policy for managing low-level radioactive wastes: with proper implementation, technology exists to manage low-level waste safely; generators and their customers should pay disposal costs; and greater public involvement at all stages can improve the disposal system. These principles acted as polestars for the group as it worked toward a series of policy recommendations in four main areas: (1) cleaning up closed commercial sites; (2) remodeling a system for defining and classifying low-level radioactive waste; (3) siting new low-level waste disposal facilities; and (4) decommissioning, long-term care, and liability. This report presents an extensive discussion of these recommendations covering qualifications, limitations, and alternatives

  10. Understanding Key Determinants of Brand Loyalty in Full Service Restaurants in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Omuudu OTENGEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the key determinants of brand loyalty in full service restaurants in Uganda. The study used a quantitative research approach and adopted a cross sectional correlation survey design to test the study hypotheses. A total of 348 completed questionnaires collected from 116 restaurants were used in the analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to propose a model that examines the key determinants of brand loyalty in full service restaurants in Uganda. The findings from the study revealed that dining experience and restaurant image were significant predictors of brand loyalty in full service restaurants in Uganda and customer satisfaction was not a significant predictor of guest loyalty. Despite its managerial implications, several limitations of the study call for further empirical enquiry.

  11. Understanding the Key Tenets of Heidegger’s Philosophy for Interpretive Phenomenological Research

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Horrigan-Kelly; Michelle Millar; Maura Dowling

    2016-01-01

    Martin Heidegger’s phenomenology provides methodological guidance for qualitative researchers seeking to explicate the lived experience of study participants. However, most phenomenological researchers apply his philosophy loosely. This is not surprising because Heidegger’s phenomenological philosophy is challenging and the influence of his philosophy in shaping the conduct of interpretive phenomenological research is broadly debated. This article presents an exploration of Dasein, a key tene...

  12. Adequate antigen availability: a key issue for novel approaches to tumor vaccination and tumor immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accolla, Roberto S; Tosi, Giovanna

    2013-03-01

    A crucial parameter for activation of the anti-tumor immune response is an adequate antigen availability (AAA) defined here as the optimal tumor antigen dose and related antigen processing and MHC-II-restricted presentation necessary to efficiently trigger tumor-specific TH cells. We will discuss two distinct experimental systems: a) a preventive anti-tumor vaccination system; b) a therapy-induced anti-tumor vaccination approach. In the first case tumor cells are rendered constitutively MHC-II+ by transfecting them with the MHC-II transcriptional activator CIITA. Here AAA is generated by the function of tumor's newly expressed MHC-II molecules to present tumor-associated antigens to tumor-specific TH cells. In the second case, AAA is generated by treating established tumors with neovasculature-targeted TNFα. In conjuction with Melphalan, targeted TNFα delivery produces extensive areas of tumor necrosis that generate AAA capable of optimally activate tumor-specific TH cells which in turn activate CTL immune effectors. In both experimental systems tumor rejection and persistent and long-lived TH cell anti-tumor memory, responsible of defending the animals from subsequent challenges with tumor cells, are achieved. Based on these and other investigators' results we propose that AAA is a key element for triggering adaptive immune functions resulting in subversion from a pro-tumor to an anti-tumor microenvironment, tumor rejection and acquisition of anti-tumor immune memory. Hypotheses of neuro-immune networks involved in these approaches are discussed. These considerations are important also for the comprehension of how chemotherapy and/or radiation therapies may help to block and/or to eradicate the tumor and for the construction of suitable anti-tumor vaccine strategies.

  13. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  14. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: Actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf eTeschke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  15. Key issues for estimating the impact and cost-effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Newall, Anthony T; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Many countries have considered or are considering modifying their seasonal influenza immunization policies. Estimating the impact of such changes requires understanding the existing clinical and economic burden of influenza, as well as the potential impact of different vaccination options. Previous studies suggest that vaccinating clinical risk groups, health care workers, children and the elderly may be cost-effective. However, challenges in such estimation include: (1) potential cases are not usually virologically tested; (2) cases have non-specific symptoms and are rarely reported to surveillance systems; (3) endpoints for influenza proxies (such as influenza-like illness) need to be matched to case definitions for treatment costs, (4) disease burden estimates vary from year to year with strain transmissibility, virulence and prior immunity, (5) methods to estimate productivity losses due to influenza vary, (6) vaccine efficacy estimates from trials differ due to variation in subtype prevalence, vaccine match and case ascertainment, and (7) indirect (herd) protection from vaccination depends on setting-specific variables that are difficult to directly measure. Given the importance of knowing the impact of changes to influenza policy, such complexities need careful treatment using tools such as population-based trial designs, meta-analyses, time-series analyses and transmission dynamic models.

  16. Current as the Key Concept of Taiwanese Students' Understandings of Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Hsing; Chen, Hsueh-Yu; Chou, Ching-Yang; Lain, Kuen-Der

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the results of a nationwide survey of Taiwanese high schools students' understandings about electric circuits. The study involved two stratified random samples consisting of 7,145 students in Grades 8 and 9, and 2,857 students in Grade 11, accounting for about 2.3% of the total enrolment in the corresponding…

  17. Embarrassment as a key to understanding cultural differences. Basic principles of cultural analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    1995-01-01

    I introduce here the principles I use in my investigation of intercultural marketing and management. I explain how I discovered them, and show how they spring from a theoretical understanding of the dynamic of cultural differences. One of the basic methodological principles for my analysis...

  18. Cancer as robust intrinsic state shaped by evolution: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ruoshi; Zhu, Xiaomei; Wang, Gaowei; Li, Site; Ao, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Cancer is a complex disease: its pathology cannot be properly understood in terms of independent players—genes, proteins, molecular pathways, or their simple combinations. This is similar to many-body physics of a condensed phase that many important properties are not determined by a single atom or molecule. The rapidly accumulating large ‘omics’ data also require a new mechanistic and global underpinning to organize for rationalizing cancer complexity. A unifying and quantitative theory was proposed by some of the present authors that cancer is a robust state formed by the endogenous molecular-cellular network, which is evolutionarily built for the developmental processes and physiological functions. Cancer state is not optimized for the whole organism. The discovery of crucial players in cancer, together with their developmental and physiological roles, in turn, suggests the existence of a hierarchical structure within molecular biology systems. Such a structure enables a decision network to be constructed from experimental knowledge. By examining the nonlinear stochastic dynamics of the network, robust states corresponding to normal physiological and abnormal pathological phenotypes, including cancer, emerge naturally. The nonlinear dynamical model of the network leads to a more encompassing understanding than the prevailing linear-additive thinking in cancer research. So far, this theory has been applied to prostate, hepatocellular, gastric cancers and acute promyelocytic leukemia with initial success. It may offer an example of carrying physics inquiring spirit beyond its traditional domain: while quantitative approaches can address individual cases, however there must be general rules/laws to be discovered in biology and medicine.

  19. Key issues in the persistence of poliomyelitis in Nigeria: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Tara D; Aylward, R Bruce; Mwanza, Michael; Gasasira, Alex; Abanida, Emmanuel; Pate, Muhammed A; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2014-02-01

    The completion of poliomyelitis eradication is a global emergency for public health. In 2012, more than 50% of the world's cases occurred in Nigeria following an unanticipated surge in incidence. We aimed to quantitatively analyse the key factors sustaining transmission of poliomyelitis in Nigeria and to calculate clinical efficacy estimates for the oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) currently in use. We used acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance data from Nigeria collected between January, 2001, and December, 2012, to estimate the clinical efficacies of all four OPVs in use and combined this with vaccination coverage to estimate the effect of the introduction of monovalent and bivalent OPV on vaccine-induced serotype-specific population immunity. Vaccine efficacy was determined using a case-control study with CIs based on bootstrap resampling. Vaccine efficacy was also estimated separately for north and south Nigeria, by age of the children, and by year. Detailed 60-day follow-up data were collected from children with confirmed poliomyelitis and were used to assess correlates of vaccine status. We also quantitatively assessed the epidemiology of poliomyelitis and programme performance and considered the reasons for the high vaccine refusal rate along with risk factors for a given local government area reporting a case. Against serotype 1, both monovalent OPV (median 32.1%, 95% CI 26.1-38.1) and bivalent OPV (29.5%, 20.1-38.4) had higher clinical efficacy than trivalent OPV (19.4%, 16.1-22.8). Corresponding data for serotype 3 were 43.2% (23.1-61.1) and 23.8% (5.3-44.9) compared with 18.0% (14.1-22.1). Combined with increases in coverage, this factor has boosted population immunity in children younger than age 36 months to a record high (64-69% against serotypes 1 and 3). Vaccine efficacy in northern states was estimated to be significantly lower than in southern states (p≤0.05). The proportion of cases refusing vaccination decreased from 37-72% in 2008 to 21

  20. Material properties of biofilms – key methods for understanding permeability and mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Nicole; Birjiniuk, Alona; Samad, Tahoura S.; Doyle, Patrick S.; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms can form biofilms, which are multicellular communities surrounded by a hydrated extracellular matrix of polymers. Central properties of the biofilm are governed by this extracellular matrix, which provides mechanical stability to the three-dimensional biofilm structure, regulates the ability of the biofilm to adhere to surfaces, and determines the ability of the biofilm to adsorb gasses, solutes, and foreign cells. Despite their critical relevance for understanding and eliminating of biofilms, the materials properties of the extracellular matrix are understudied. Here, we offer the reader a guide to current technologies that can be utilized to specifically assess the permeability and mechanical properties of the biofilm matrix and its interacting components. In particular, we highlight technological advances in instrumentation and interactions between multiple disciplines that have broadened the spectrum of methods available to conduct these studies. We review pioneering work that furthers our understanding of the material properties of biofilms. PMID:25719969

  1. Senior expert symposium on electricity and the environment, Helsinki, Finland, 13-17 May 1991. Key issues papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This volume contains the four Key Issues Papers prepared as background papers by international expert groups for the Senior Expert Symposium on Electricity and the Environment held in Helsinki, Finland in May 1991. The papers are on topics selected as the central themes of the symposium: energy and electricity supply and demand - implications for the global environment; energy sources and technologies for electricity generation; comparative environmental and health effects of different energy systems for electricity generation; and the incorporation of environmental and health impacts into policy, planning and decision making for the electricity sector. The four papers have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. The expulsion of Jesuits from Nueva Granada in 185Oas key for understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Cortés Guerrero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the confrontation between the liberal ideology of the mid nineteenth century and the conservative positions of the time as a result of the expulsion of the Society of Jesus from the Nueva Granada. The expulsion of the Jesuits encapsulates several key aspects of liberal ideology: the need to break with the colonial past; progress and civilization as attainable objectives; education as a neutral in terms of religious instruction; and the separation of the Catholic Church from the State as an important factor for reaching modernization and modernity. With the expulsion of the Jesuits one can also see the aligning of the nascent political parties, some defended the expulsión, others opposed it vehemently.

  3. Virtual gravitational dipoles: The key for the understanding of the Universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, Dragan Slavkov

    2014-01-01

    Before the end of this decade, three competing experiments (ALPHA, AEGIS and GBAR) will discover if atoms of antihydrogen fall up or down. We wonder what the major changes in astrophysics and cosmology would be if it is experimentally confirmed that antimatter falls upwards. The key point is: If antiparticles have negative gravitational charge, the quantum vacuum, well established in the Standard Model of Particles and Fields, contains virtual gravitational dipoles. The main conclusions are: (1) the physical vacuum enriched with gravitational dipoles is compatible with a cyclic universe alternatively dominated by matter and antimatter, without initial singularity and without need for cosmic inflation; (2) the virtual dipoles might explain the phenomena usually attributed to dark matter and dark energy. While what we have presented is still far from a complete theory, hopefully it can stimulate a radically different and potentially important way of thinking.

  4. Understanding tourists’ perceptions of distance: a key to reducing the environmental impacts of tourism mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber; Guiver, Jo W

    2013-01-01

    , as are emissions, with little evidence of the reductions required to comply with emission reduction targets. This research used discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with Danish tourists to explore how they understand distance. Respondents rarely referred to physical distance (e.g. kilometres), but instead...... from links tourists make between physical distance and reaching cultural dissimilarity. Sometimes travel itself was integral with the holiday experience. While cost and time savings were important, the total holiday price was more important than the journey price. Measures are suggested for reducing...

  5. Iron: A Key Element for Understanding the Origin and Evolution of Interstellar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2016-01-01

    The origin and depletion of iron differ from all other abundant refractory elements that make up the composition of the interstellar dust. Iron is primarily synthesized in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and in core collapse supernovae (CCSN), and is present in the outflows from AGB (Asymptotic Giant Branch) stars. Only the latter two are observed to be sources of interstellar dust, since searches for dust in SN Ia have provided strong evidence for the absence of any significant mass of dust in their ejecta. Consequently, more than 65 percent of the iron is injected into the ISM (Inter-Stellar Matter) in gaseous form. Yet, ultraviolet and X-ray observations along many lines of sight in the ISM show that iron is severely depleted in the gas phase compared to expected solar abundances. The missing iron, comprising about 90 percent of the total, is believed to be locked up in interstellar dust. This suggests that most of the missing iron must have precipitated from the ISM gas by cold accretion onto preexisting silicate, carbon, or composite grains. Iron is thus the only element that requires most of its growth to occur outside the traditional stellar condensation sources. This is a robust statement that does not depend on our evolving understanding of the dust destruction efficiency in the ISM. Reconciling the physical, optical, and chemical properties of such composite grains with their many observational manifestations is a major challenge for understanding the nature and origin of interstellar dust.

  6. IRON: A KEY ELEMENT FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwek, Eli, E-mail: eli.dwek@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Lab., Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-07-10

    The origin and depletion of iron differ from all other abundant refractory elements that make up the composition of interstellar dust. Iron is primarily synthesized in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and in core collapse supernovae (CCSN), and is present in the outflows from AGB stars. Only the latter two are observed to be sources of interstellar dust since searches for dust in SN Ia have provided strong evidence for the absence of any significant mass of dust in their ejecta. Consequently, more than 65% of the iron is injected into the ISM in gaseous form. Yet ultraviolet and X-ray observations along many lines of sight in the ISM show that iron is severely depleted in the gas phase as compared to expected solar abundances. The missing iron, comprising about 90% of the total, is believed to be locked up in interstellar dust. This suggests that most of the missing iron must have precipitated from the ISM gas by a cold accretion onto preexisting silicate, carbon, or composite grains. Iron is thus the only element that requires most of its growth to occur outside the traditional stellar condensation sources. This is a robust statement that does not depend on our evolving understanding of the dust destruction efficiency in the ISM. Reconciling the physical, optical, and chemical properties of such composite grains with their many observational manifestations is a major challenge for understanding the nature and origin of interstellar dust.

  7. Recognition and understanding of goals and roles: The key internal features of mental health court teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mary; Skubby, David; Bonfine, Natalie; Munetz, Mark R; Teller, Jennifer L S

    2011-01-01

    The increasing involvement of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system has led to the formation of specialty programs such as mental health courts (hereafter MHCs). We discuss MHCs and the teams serving these courts. Specifically, we examine team members' perceptions of MHC goals and their own and others' roles on the MHC team. Using a semi-structured interview instrument, we conducted 59 face-to-face interviews with criminal justice and mental health treatment personnel representing 11 Ohio MHCs. Findings from our qualitative data analyses reveal that MHC personnel understand individuals' roles within the teams, recognize and appreciate the importance of different roles, and share common goals. MHCs could foster this level of understanding and agreement by working to recruit and retain individuals with experience in or willingness to learn about both the criminal justice and mental health systems. Future research should explore the impact of MHC team functioning on client outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiological Data Management during an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease: Key Issues and Observations from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owada, Kei; Eckmanns, Tim; Kamara, Kande-Bure O’Bai; Olu, Olushayo Oluseun

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Leone experienced intense transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD) from May 2014 to November 2015 during which a total of 8,704 confirmed cases and over 3,589 confirmed deaths were reported. Our field observation showed many issues in the EVD data management system, which may have contributed to the magnitude and long duration of the outbreak. In this perspective article, we explain the key issues with EVD data management in the field, and the resulting obstacles in analyzing key epidemiological indicators during the outbreak response work. Our observation showed that, during the latter part of the EVD outbreak, surveillance and data management improved at all levels in the country as compared to the earlier stage. We identified incomplete filling and late arrival of the case investigation forms at data management centers, difficulties in detecting double entries and merging identified double entries in the database, and lack of clear process of how death of confirmed cases in holding, treatment, and community care centers are reported to the data centers as some of challenges to effective data management. Furthermore, there was no consolidated database that captured and linked all data sources in a structured way. We propose development of a new application tool easily adaptable to new occurrences, regular data harmonization meetings between national and district data management teams, and establishment of a data quality audit system to assure good quality data as ways to improve EVD data management during future outbreaks. PMID:27551675

  9. New standard on safety for hydrogen systems in spanish. Keys for understanding and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis Aprea, Jose [CNEA, Argentine Atomic Energy Commission - AAH - IRAM - Comahue University, CC 805 - Neuquen (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    The present paper approaches all the preliminary, normative and additional elements observed during the work carried out by the Argentine standardization board to count in the country with a normative document that covers the expectations of the local community of users and other Spanish-speaking user, about the integral safety for the hydrogen systems. The antecedents and the process of adoption of an international standard and its adaptation to the local media are analyzed. The result has been the Standard IRAM/ISO 15916 that intends to offer, to all the users and especially to those who are not familiar with the technology, a base to understand the subject of safety, thus enhancing the education of the general public in hydrogen safety matters. (author)

  10. Morphological keys to advance the understanding of protostrongylid biodiversity in caribou (Rangifer spp. at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Kafle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Protostrongylidae is a diverse family of nematodes capable of causing significant respiratory and neuromuscular disease in their ungulate and lagomorph hosts. Establishing the species diversity and abundance of the protostrongylid fauna has been hindered because the first stage larvae, commonly referred as dorsal spined larvae (DSL, that are shed in the feces are morphologically very similar among several genera. We aimed to determine the protostrongylid diversity and distribution in caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus and R. t. pearyi in the central and high Canadian Arctic. We first developed, tested and validated a morphological diagnostic guide for the DSL of two important protostrongylids, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni and Varestrongylus eleguneniensis, and then applied this guide to determine the prevalence and intensity of infection of these parasites in fecal samples from 242 caribou. We found that DSL of V. eleguneniensis and P. andersoni can be differentiated morphologically based on the structural differences at the caudal extremity. The presentation and morphology of the dorsal spine, and caudoventral bulging at the start of the tail extension were identified as the key identifying features. The two species were found in caribou on the arctic mainland and southern Victoria Island in single and co-infections, but the prevalence and intensity of infection was low. No protostrongylids were detected in caribou from the high arctic islands. Through this study, we provide a simple, efficient, and robust method to distinguish the DSL of the two protostrongylids, and present the current status of infection in different herds of caribou of the central Canadian Arctic. We report new geographic and host records for P. andersoni infection in Dolphin and Union caribou herd. Keywords: Parelaphostrongylus andersoni, Varestrongylus eleguneniensis, Diagnostic parasitology, Morphological diagnosis, Dorsal spined larvae, Canadian Arctic

  11. The hydrogeochemical evolution of a barrier island freshwater reservoir: Conceptual understanding and identification of key processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Stephan; Holt, Tobias; Greskowiak, Janek; Freund, Holger; Böttcher, Michael E.; Massmann, Gudrun

    2017-04-01

    Coastal aquifers play an important role in satisfying the water demands for many people in the world. However, exposition to storm surges, climate change and extensive abstraction pose a threat to current and future use of these valuable water resources in many cases. To mitigate water quality constraints and ensure safe water supply applications, an in-depth understanding of relevant process that determine the water quality is required. We investigated two freshwater reservoirs below the barrier island Spiekeroog, Germany. The main freshwater reservoir is located at the western part of the island, ˜350 years old and has a vertical extension of ˜45m. The other investigated freshwater reservoir is located at the east of Spiekeroog, only a few decades old and has a vertical extension pH values ranging between 7.5-8.5 confirm that groundwater at Spiekeroog is in equilibrium with calcite and underline that calcite dissolution is an important process. With respect to the redox system, the data indicates oxygen and nitrate reduction within the first meters of the saturated zone but Mn-Oxide and Fe-Oxide reduction rates seem to be low in the aquifer based on measured dissolved Mn(2+) and Fe(2+) concentrations. The absence of dissolved Fe(2+) could be explained by the formation of iron sulfide minerals which is in agreement with observed sulfate reduction at greater depth indicated by elevated H2S concentrations and PHREEQC speciation calculations.

  12. Understanding Lolium rigidum Seeds: The Key to Managing a Problem Weed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Steadman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 40 million hectare southern Australian winter cropping region suffers from widespread infestation by Lolium rigidum (commonly known as annual or rigid ryegrass, a Mediterranean species initially introduced as a pasture plant. Along with its high competitiveness within crops, rapid adaptability and widespread resistance to herbicides, the dormancy of its seeds means that L. rigidum is the primary weed in southern Australian agriculture. With the individuals within a L. rigidum population exhibiting varying levels of seed dormancy, germination can be staggered across the crop-growing season, making complete weed removal virtually impossible, and ensuring that the weed seed bank is constantly replenished. By understanding the processes involved in induction and release of dormancy in L. rigidum seeds, it may be possible to develop strategies to more effectively manage this pest without further stretching herbicide resources. This review examines L. rigidum seed dormancy and germination from a weed-management perspective and explains how the seed bank can be depleted by control strategies encompassing all stages in the lifecycle of a seed, from development to germination.

  13. Experience-Dependent Brain Development as a Key to Understanding the Language System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Gert

    2016-04-01

    An influential view of the nature of the language system is that of an evolved biological system in which a set of rules is combined with a lexicon that contains the words of the language together with a representation of their context. Alternative views, usually based on connectionist modeling, attempt to explain the structure of language on the basis of complex associative processes. Here, I put forward a third view that stresses experience-dependent structural development of the brain circuits supporting language as a core principle of the organization of the language system. In this view, embodied in a recent neuroconstructivist neural network of past tense development and processing, initial domain-general predispositions enable the development of functionally specialized brain structures through interactions between experience-dependent brain development and statistical learning in a structured environment. Together, these processes shape a biological adult language system that appears to separate into distinct mechanism for processing rules and exceptions, whereas in reality those subsystems co-develop and interact closely. This view puts experience-dependent brain development in response to a specific language environment at the heart of understanding not only language development but adult language processing as well. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Understanding the System You Are in Is Key to Improving It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plsek, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Front-line ownership (FLO) is an approach to change that is consistent with what we know about complex adaptive systems (CAS), such as a healthcare organization. Traditional change approaches can fail because they are based in the "organization as a machine" metaphor of traditional, scientific management. Both metaphors have their application. It depends on how closely the work naturally resembles a predictable machine. Often, the drive for detailed standardization is a misguided effort to make a human CAS behave more like a machine, so that our traditional approaches to change will work. FLO is a more appropriate tool in a CAS, where shared agreement at the level of a few simple rules (minimum specifications) and allowing flexibility for adaptation within local context is more appropriate than detailed standardization. Because humans in a CAS maintain some control over their discretionary effort, change advocates desiring sustainable change must work with stakeholders to co-create cases for change that resonate with the values of those being asked to change. FLO facilitates the emergence of this level of understanding of shared values.

  15. Understanding key factors affecting electronic medical record implementation: a sociotechnical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciniello, Maria; Lapsley, Irvine; Nasi, Greta; Pagliari, Claudia

    2015-07-17

    Recent health care policies have supported the adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) but examples of failed ICT projects in this sector have highlighted the need for a greater understanding of the processes used to implement such innovations in complex organizations. This study examined the interaction of sociological and technological factors in the implementation of an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system by a major national hospital. It aimed to obtain insights for managers planning such projects in the future and to examine the usefulness of Actor Network Theory (ANT) as a research tool in this context. Case study using documentary analysis, interviews and observations. Qualitative thematic analysis drawing on ANT. Qualitative analyses revealed a complex network of interactions between organizational stakeholders and technology that helped to shape the system and influence its acceptance and adoption. The EMR clearly emerged as a central 'actor' within this network. The results illustrate how important it is to plan innovative and complex information systems with reference to (i) the expressed needs and involvement of different actors, starting from the initial introductory phase; (ii) promoting commitment to the system and adopting a participative approach; (iii) defining and resourcing new roles within the organization capable of supporting and sustaining the change and (iv) assessing system impacts in order to mobilize the network around a common goal. The paper highlights the organizational, cultural, technological, and financial considerations that should be taken into account when planning strategies for the implementation of EMR systems in hospital settings. It also demonstrates how ANT may be usefully deployed in evaluating such projects.

  16. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (II) Mesozoic ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Iran is a mosaic of continental terranes of Cadomian (520-600 Ma) age, stitched together along sutures decorated by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. Here we present the current understanding of the Mesozoic (and rare Cenozoic) ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience. We summarize field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran are mostly Cretaceous in age and are related to the Neotethys and associated backarc basins on the S flank of Eurasia. These ophiolites can be subdivided into five belts: 1. Late Cretaceous Zagros outer belt ophiolites (ZOB) along the Main Zagros Thrust including Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Maku-Khoy-Salmas ophiolites in NW Iran as well as Kermanshah-Kurdistan, Neyriz and Esfandagheh (Haji Abad) ophiolites, also Late Cretaceous-Eocene ophiolites along the Iraq-Iran border; 2. Late Cretaceous Zagros inner belt ophiolites (ZIB) including Nain, Dehshir, Shahr-e-Babak and Balvard-Baft ophiolites along the southern periphery of the Central Iranian block and bending north into it; 3. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites of NE Iran; 4. Early to Late Cretaceous Birjand-Nehbandan-Tchehel-Kureh ophiolites in eastern Iran between the Lut and Afghan blocks; and 5. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Makran ophiolites of SE Iran including Kahnuj ophiolites. Most Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures, indicating that SW Asia was a site of plate convergence during Late Mesozoic time, but also include a significant proportion showing ocean-island basalt affinities, perhaps indicating the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  17. The social construction of chronicity--a key to understanding chronic care transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carmel M; Peterson, Chris

    2009-06-01

    health systems is taking place without an understanding and discourse about the nature of their construction. Ad hoc eclectism with unquestioning adoption of the dominant EBM paradigm is driving a new health culture based on disease-based performance incentives, which is intrusive beyond the medical model and pays little attention to narratives of illness and even less to the whole social reconstruction of illness and wellness. Health care systems cannot afford to avoid, and should actively embrace the critiques of social theory and analyses in the transformations of health systems to improve chronic care. Creative tensions between empirical and intellectual critique, and a synthetic middle ground are likely to lead to more realistic and innovative approaches spanning the nature of chronicity and the transformation of Primary Care.

  18. Perception and Understanding of Invasive Alien Species Issues by Nature Conservation and Horticulture Professionals in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Piqueray, Julien; Halford, Mathieu; Nulens, Greet; Vincke, Jan; Mahy, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine how two professional sectors in Belgium, horticulture professionals and nature reserve managers (those directly involved in conservation), view the issues associated with invasive plant species. We developed and utilized a questionnaire that addressed the themes of awareness, concept and use of language, availability of information, impacts and, finally, control and available solutions. Using co-inertia analyses, we tested to what extent the perception of invasive alien species (IAS) was dependent upon the perception of Nature in general. Only forty-two percent of respondent horticulture professionals and eighty-two percent of nature reserve managers had a general knowledge of IAS. Many individuals in both target groups nonetheless had an accurate understanding of the scientific issues. Our results therefore suggest that the manner in which individuals within the two groups view, or perceive, the IAS issue was more the result of lack of information than simply biased perceptions of target groups. Though IAS perceptions by the two groups diverged, they were on par with how they viewed Nature in general. The descriptions of IAS by participants converged with the ideas and concepts frequently found in the scientific literature. Both managers and horticulture professionals expressed a strong willingness to participate in programs designed to prevent the spread of, and damage caused by, IAS. Despite this, the continued commercial availability of many invasive species highlighted the necessity to use both mandatory and voluntary approaches to reduce their re-introduction and spread. The results of this study provide stakeholders and conservation managers with practical information on which communication and management strategies can be based.

  19. Perception and understanding of invasive alien species issues by nature conservation and horticulture professionals in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Piqueray, Julien; Halford, Mathieu; Nulens, Greet; Vincke, Jan; Mahy, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine how two professional sectors in Belgium, horticulture professionals and nature reserve managers (those directly involved in conservation), view the issues associated with invasive plant species. We developed and utilized a questionnaire that addressed the themes of awareness, concept and use of language, availability of information, impacts and, finally, control and available solutions. Using co-inertia analyses, we tested to what extent the perception of invasive alien species (IAS) was dependent upon the perception of Nature in general. Only forty-two percent of respondent horticulture professionals and eighty-two percent of nature reserve managers had a general knowledge of IAS. Many individuals in both target groups nonetheless had an accurate understanding of the scientific issues. Our results therefore suggest that the manner in which individuals within the two groups view, or perceive, the IAS issue was more the result of lack of information than simply biased perceptions of target groups. Though IAS perceptions by the two groups diverged, they were on par with how they viewed Nature in general. The descriptions of IAS by participants converged with the ideas and concepts frequently found in the scientific literature. Both managers and horticulture professionals expressed a strong willingness to participate in programs designed to prevent the spread of, and damage caused by, IAS. Despite this, the continued commercial availability of many invasive species highlighted the necessity to use both mandatory and voluntary approaches to reduce their re-introduction and spread. The results of this study provide stakeholders and conservation managers with practical information on which communication and management strategies can be based.

  20. Key issues for the development and application of the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) model for ecological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Fu-Liu; Li, Yi-Long; Wang, Yin

    2015-01-01

    The species sensitivity distribution (SSD) model is one of the most commonly used methods for ecological risk assessment based on the potentially affected fraction (PAF) of and the combined PAF (msPAF) as quantitative indicators. There are usually four steps for the development of SSD models...... fractions (msPAFs) for the joint ecological risk assessment of multiple pollutants. Among the above mentioned four steps, the first two steps are paramount. In the present study, the following six key issues are discussed: (1) how to select the appropriate species, (2) how to preprocess the toxicity data...... for invertebrates. The concentration addition or response addition were discussed to calculate msPAF according to the toxic model of action (TMoA). The uncertainties of the SSD models for five heavy metals and for eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed. The comparison of the coefficients...

  1. KEY ISSUES OF CONCEPTS' FORMATION OF THE NETWORK OF RESOURCE CENTER OF DISTANCE EDUCATION OF GENERAL EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy M. Bogachkov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of constructing a network of resource centers for Distance Education to meet the needs of general secondary schools is presented. Modern educational trends in the use of Internet services in education are viewed.  Main contradictions, solution of which helps to create a network of resource centers, are identified. The definition of key terms related to the range of issues are given. The basic categories of participants, who  implementation of e-learning and networking are oriented on. There are considered the basic tasks of  distance education resource centers' functioning and types of supporting: personnel, regulatory, informative, systematic and  technical etc. The review of possible models of implementation of  students' distance education is reviewed . Three options for business models of resource centers, depending on funding  sources are offered.

  2. Summary of Key Issues Raised in the Technology for Early Awareness of Addiction and Mental Illness (TEAAM-I) Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Baker, Justin; Birnbaum, Michael L; Christensen, Helen; De Choudhury, Munmun; Mohr, David C; Muench, Fred; Schlosser, Danielle; Titov, Nick; Kane, John M

    2018-01-16

    Technology provides an unparalleled opportunity to remove barriers to earlier identification and engagement in services for mental and addictive disorders by reaching people earlier in the course of illness and providing links to just-in-time, cost-effective interventions. Achieving this opportunity, however, requires stakeholders to challenge underlying assumptions about traditional pathways to mental health care. In this Open Forum, the authors highlight key issues discussed in the Technology for Early Awareness of Addiction and Mental Illness (TEAAM-I) meeting-held October 13-14, 2016, in New York City-that are related to three identified areas in which technology provides important and unique opportunities to advance early identification, increase service engagement, and decrease the duration of untreated mental and addictive disorders.

  3. Key issues and barriers to obstetrical anesthesia care in Ontario community hospitals with fewer than 2,000 deliveries annually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Pamela; Kurtz Landy, Christine; Murthy, Yamini; Cino, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Lack of the availability of anesthesia services may be a factor in the closure of maternity services in rural Canada, limiting the capacity for Cesarean delivery and intensifying the urbanization of maternity care. Unlike other professions involved in maternal newborn care, health services research in obstetrical anesthesia is virtually non-existent. This study explored barriers physicians encountered in providing obstetrical anesthesia care in Ontario community hospitals experiencing low volumes (fewer than 2,000) deliveries per annum (PA). Solutions proposed by a mixed focus group of academic and community hospital leaders were also described. Following Research Ethics Board approval, the authors performed a secondary analysis of qualitative data from 18 anesthesiologists and family practitioner (FP/GP) anesthetists who had participated in a larger provincial study that was also conducted by the authors. Participants were leaders from community hospitals with fewer than 2000 deliveries PA and university-based teaching programs from across Ontario. Fourteen community physicians participated in focus groups that explored key issues and barriers to care and their potential solutions. A final group of eight academic and community physician key informants further explored solutions. Three themes emerged: Obstetrical Anesthesia in the "Periphery", "Key Issues and Barriers to Obstetrical Anesthesia Care", and "A Multi-faceted but Context-Specific Solution is Required." The physicians identified barriers within the greater context of those encountered during the provision of anesthesia services in the periphery, including lack of time, need for continuing medical education (CME), need for hospital infrastructure support to develop and implement best practice protocols, and need for resources and anesthesia mentorship supports from the system. Difficulties were greatest for FP/GP anesthetists in rural communities who described lack of locums, need for relevant CME, and

  4. Key practical issues in strengthening safety culture. INSAG-15. A report by the International Safety Advisory Group [Russian Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the essential practical issues to be considered by organizations aiming to strengthen safety culture. It is intended for senior executives, managers and first line supervisors in operating organizations. Although safety culture cannot be directly regulated, it is important that members of regulatory bodies understand how their actions affect the development of attempts to strengthen safety culture and are sympathetic to the need to improve the less formal human related aspects of safety. The report is therefore of relevance to regulators, although not intended primarily for them. The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) introduced the concept of safety culture in its INSAG-4 report in 1991. Since then, many papers have been written on safety culture, as it relates to organizations and individuals, its improvement and its underpinning prerequisites. Variations in national cultures mean that what constitutes a good approach to enhancing safety culture in one country may not be the best approach in another. However, INSAG seeks to provide pragmatic and practical advice of wide applicability in the principles and issues presented in this report. Nuclear and radiological safety are the prime concerns of this report, but the topics discussed are so general that successful application of the principles should lead to improvements in other important areas, such as industrial safety, environmental performance and, in some respects, wider business performance. This is because many of the attitudes and practices necessary to achieve good performance in nuclear safety, including visible commitment by management, openness, care and thoroughness in completing tasks, good communication and clarity in recognizing major issues and dealing with them as a priority, have wide applicability

  5. Key practical issues in strengthening safety culture. INSAG-15. A report by the International Safety Advisory Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the essential practical issues to be considered by organizations aiming to strengthen safety culture. It is intended for senior executives, managers and first line supervisors in operating organizations. Although safety culture cannot be directly regulated, it is important that members of regulatory bodies understand how their actions affect the development of attempts to strengthen safety culture and are sympathetic to the need to improve the less formal human related aspects of safety. The report is therefore of relevance to regulators, although not intended primarily for them. The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) introduced the concept of safety culture in its INSAG-4 report in 1991. Since then, many papers have been written on safety culture, as it relates to organizations and individuals, its improvement and its underpinning prerequisites. Variations in national cultures mean that what constitutes a good approach to enhancing safety culture in one country may not be the best approach in another. However, INSAG seeks to provide pragmatic and practical advice of wide applicability in the principles and issues presented in this report. Nuclear and radiological safety are the prime concerns of this report, but the topics discussed are so general that successful application of the principles should lead to improvements in other important areas, such as industrial safety, environmental performance and, in some respects, wider business performance. This is because many of the attitudes and practices necessary to achieve good performance in nuclear safety, including visible commitment by management, openness, care and thoroughness in completing tasks, good communication and clarity in recognizing major issues and dealing with them as a priority, have wide applicability

  6. A perspective of some key issues related to the evolution of safeguards, the state level and regional concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Moreno, S.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation is focused on the implementation of safeguards at present and the directions that they could be taken in the future. There are some key questions to be answered in the implementation of international safeguards that are aimed at helping to determine more clearly what safeguards will be more effective and efficient under the so called 'state-level concept' (SLC). A first and important step is to agree on a definition and scope of the SLC and to determine how the IAEA and relevant States could achieve a smooth transition from the historic criteria based safeguards systems to a new one based on the SLC that would be more flexible, but yet technically oriented and non-discriminatory. A second issue is to fully reflect on the factors that are influencing safeguards developments and that impact on their future shape. Some suggestions about enhancing safeguard implementation at present and in the future include first: a fresh look to the approach to safeguards cooperation: the IAEA has to revisit its activities to assist states in establishing good SSAC (State Systems of Accounting and Control), and secondly: investigating and promoting the development of concepts and technologies to share its verification capabilities with states and regional organizations. Another key consideration to the future of safeguards is the people. Adequate staff and the existence of appropriate training and education in safeguards are very important considerations to ensure effective and professional safeguards. Highly technically qualified staff in nuclear sciences is vital to build competence in safeguards in states, the IAEA, and regional organizations. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  7. Understanding Ethical Issues of Research Participation from the Perspective of Participating Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion E.

    2017-01-01

    Background The past twenty years have seen distinct shifts in the way the participation of children and adolescents in research is viewed. This has been emphasized by the growing pediatric research enterprise. Additional information on children’s and adolescents’ experiences during research participation is needed to better inform researchers on the ethical conduct of research with this vulnerable population. Aims The objective of this analysis was to examine ethical issues in research with children and adolescents from their perspective as participants, including: assent, parental consent, risk perception, impact of research participation, and incentives. Methods This systematic review was conducted per the Long et al. framework by means of an iterative searching process. Using the key words ‘research ethics’ and ‘child or pediatric or adolescent’, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases were searched to identify articles. Limitations placed on the original searches were: English language, year of publication between 2003–2014, humans, abstract available, and age birth–18 years. Findings Twenty-three empiric studies were identified and formed the sample. Included studies represented a diverse range of areas of research, methods, settings, sample demographics, authors, and journals. Discussion Even young children demonstrated the ability to understand essential elements of research, although there is variability in children’s level of understanding. Trust was a significant contributing factor to children’s and adolescents’ participation in research, and also shaped their assessments of risk. Research participation was mainly beneficial for children and adolescents. Incentives were mainly viewed positively, although concerns of possible undue influence were expressed. Linking Evidence to Action This systematic review highlights the importance of including the perspectives of children and adolescents and provides researchers and nurse clinicians

  8. Key issues in the microchemical systems-based methanol fuel processor: Energy density, thermal integration, and heat loss mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Keyur; Besser, R. S.

    Microreactor technology is a promising approach in harnessing the high energy density of hydrocarbons and is being used to produce hydrogen-rich gases by reforming of methanol and other liquid hydrocarbons. However, on-demand H 2 generation for miniature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems has been a bottleneck problem, which has limited the development and demonstration of the PEMFC for high-performance portable power. A number of crucial challenges exist for the realization of practical portable fuel processors. Among these, the management of heat in a compact format is perhaps the most crucial challenge for portable fuel processors. In this study, a silicon microreactor-based catalytic methanol steam reforming reactor was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated in the context of complete thermal integration to understand this critical issue and develop a knowledge base required to rationally design and integrate the microchemical components of a fuel processor. Detailed thermal and reaction experiments were carried out to demonstrate the potential of microreactor-based on-demand H 2 generation. Based on thermal characterization experiments, the heat loss mechanisms and effective convective heat coefficients from the planar microreactor structure were determined and suggestions were made for scale up and implementation of packaging schemes to reduce different modes of heat losses.

  9. Furthering better communication and understanding of nuclear issues through public education: a public school teacher's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danfelser, M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent reports of national commissions and study groups have pointed out that the American educational system is not meeting the needs of its students. Uniformly, the reports call for a new instructional focus designed to achieve the goal of ''universal scientific and technological literacy for citizenship.'' The population's inability to deal with numerous controversial science-related social issues forms the basis for this call for educational reform. Foremost on the list of science-related social issues are nuclear issues in general and the storage of nuclear waste in particular. The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) 1983 publication ''Guidelines for Teaching Science Related Social Issues'' was designed to encourage stronger instructional emphasis on science-related social issues, and to provide social studies teachers with a rational and structure for the presentation of the issues. This paper discusses the dilemmas faced by educators who attempt to deal with science-related social issues. Also, it addresses the need for instructional materials in order to effectively address nuclear issues in the classroom

  10. Preservice Teachers Develop an Understanding of Diversity Issues through Multicultural Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetton, Tamara L.; Savage-Davis, Emma M.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores issues of multicultural education and diversity. The authors present a preservice teacher education program that uses multicultural literature to prepare young teachers to better serve their students. The authors discuss the curriculum design of the program to help preservice teachers become more sensitive to the issues of…

  11. OI Issues: Type I - Understanding the Mildest Form of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flu shots and pneumonia vaccines are often recommended. Social, Emotional, and Family Issues Many people with OI ... Miembro Activo del Equipo de Cuidados de la Salud (FDA) Home Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget’s ...

  12. A simple technique to identify key recruitment issues in randomised controlled trials: Q-QAT - Quanti-Qualitative Appointment Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, Sangeetha; Strong, Sean; Wilson, Caroline; Campbell, Bruce; Blazeby, Jane M; Donovan, Jenny L

    2015-03-11

    Recruitment to pragmatic randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is acknowledged to be difficult, and few interventions have proved to be effective. Previous qualitative research has consistently revealed that recruiters provide imbalanced information about RCT treatments. However, qualitative research can be time-consuming to apply. Within a programme of research to optimise recruitment and informed consent in challenging RCTs, we developed a simple technique, Q-QAT (Quanti-Qualitative Appointment Timing), to systematically investigate and quantify the imbalance to help identify and address recruitment difficulties. The Q-QAT technique comprised: 1) quantification of time spent discussing the RCT and its treatments using transcripts of audio-recorded recruitment appointments, 2) targeted qualitative research to understand the obstacles to recruitment and 3) feedback to recruiters on opportunities for improvement. This was applied to two RCTs with different clinical contexts and recruitment processes. Comparisons were made across clinical centres, recruiters and specialties. In both RCTs, the Q-QAT technique first identified considerable variations in the time spent by recruiters discussing the RCT and its treatments. The patterns emerging from this initial quantification of recruitment appointments then enabled targeted qualitative research to understand the issues and make suggestions to improve recruitment. In RCT1, presentation of the treatments was balanced, but little time was devoted to describing the RCT. Qualitative research revealed patients would have considered participation, but lacked awareness of the RCT. In RCT2, the balance of treatment presentation varied by specialists and centres. Qualitative research revealed difficulties with equipoise and confidence among recruiters presenting the RCT. The quantitative and qualitative findings were well-received by recruiters and opportunities to improve information provision were discussed. A blind coding

  13. Putting Oneself in the Shoes of Another: Issues of Empathy and Intercultural Understanding in the Australian Geography Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Geography is about the places that make up the world. A key focus of the new geography curriculum in Australia is on different ways of finding knowledge about those places. Yet there is limited demonstration in the curriculum and its elaborations of just how students might understand those places outside the realm of their own experience. In…

  14. Familienfreundlichkeit als Zukunftsfrage in Unternehmen [Family-friendliness in business as a key issue for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stutzer, Erich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] These days family-friendliness is a key issue for the future of businesses. Investments in a family conscious personnel policy are considered as forward-looking decisions in companies. This happens against the background of a sustainable personnel policy in times of a decrease in the number of employable persons, an increasing shortage of skilled workers and an ageing workforce. Family-friendly working conditions are becoming a key factor in the competition for staff. When choosing an employer, family-friendliness has become a crucial topic. Employment participation and skills of women, especially of mothers, have greatly increased. To facilitate the realisation of their wish to return to paid employment, however, measures to reconcile work and family are required.Family-conscious measures have been proven to lead to higher employee productivity. Job satisfaction and motivation of employees and accumulation of human capital increase, absenteeism declines, the return of investment rises. Fields of activity for family-friendly measures in companies range from working arrangements, parental leave and re-entry programmes and various child care offers to services for families. In connection with the demographic development the demand for a better reconciliation of work and elder care should in future become ever more important, just as the upkeep of the occupational skills and working capacity of an ageing workforce. Family-friendliness has to become an integral part of corporate culture. [german] Familienfreundlichkeit wird heute als wesentliche Zukunftsfrage für Unternehmen diskutiert und Investitionen in eine familienbewusste Personalpolitik gelten als zukunftsweisende Entscheidungen in Unternehmen. Dies geschieht vor dem Hintergrund einer zukunftsfähigen Personalpolitik in Zeiten zurückgehender Erwerbspersonenzahlen, eines zunehmenden Fachkräftemangels und der Alterung der Belegschaften. Familienfreundliche Arbeitsbedingungen werden

  15. Understanding Campus Culture and Student Coping Strategies for Mental Health Issues in Five Canadian Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamos, Dimitris; Lee, Alex Young Soo; Suleiman, Amanda; Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand campus mental health culture and student mental health coping strategies, and to identify the mental health needs of students as well as gaps in mental health services within postsecondary education. A videovoice method was used to identify and document health-related issues and advocate for change. Forty-one…

  16. Students' Participation in an Interdisciplinary, Socioscientific Issues Based Undergraduate Human Biology Major and Their Understanding of Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Jennifer L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Sherwood, Robert D.; Schlegel, Whitney M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether Socioscientific Issues (SSI) based learning environments affect university students' epistemological understanding of scientific inquiry differently from traditional science educational contexts. We identify and compare conceptions of scientific inquiry of students participating in an…

  17. A Dialogue About Race and Ethnicity in Education: Struggling To Understand Issues in Cross-Cultural Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carolyn M.; Larocque, Linda J.; Oberg, Steven Lynn

    2002-01-01

    A dialogic approach explores some of the complex issues related to race and ethnicity to identify implications for more effective cross-cultural leadership in diverse schools. Revisited field notes, as well as data from interviews and surveys from various research projects, provide the background about the difficulties of understanding race and…

  18. Couples' joint decision-making: the construction and validation of a key proxy for understanding gender relations in contemporary families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender relations have become a key dimension in family studies, and understanding gender relations as both determining and resulting from outcome of new family configurations requires the use of specific surveys aimed at the dynamics of couples. Unfortunately, nationally representative surveys of this type are not available for Latin American countries. Nonetheless, the most recent versions of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS include a section called "Women's Status and Empowerment", which can provide information about gender relations as well. This study aims at assessing the construct of gender relations in terms of couples' joint decision-making for all five Brazilian geographical regions. To this end, a step-by-step multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA was applied in order to verify whether this concept can be compared across Brazilian regions. Results show that the DHS items can be used reliably for measuring couples' joint decision-making and that this construct can be meaningfully compared over the regions. These findings will contribute to further demographic and sociological research on gender relations which can use this concept and other indicators provided by the DHS to identify the causal processes related to it.

  19. Understanding the political economy and key drivers of energy access in addressing national energy access priorities and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, I.H.; Kar, Abhishek; Banerjee, Manjushree; Kumar, Preeth; Shardul, Martand; Mohanty, Jeevan; Hossain, Ijaz

    2012-01-01

    Globally, 1.5 billion people lack access to electricity and nearly 3 billion lack access to modern cooking energy options. Of the world’s “energy poor”, 95% are in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Within Asia, almost 80% of electricity-deprived and 86% of biomass-dependent populations are in the “Big 5” countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan. In this paper, we discuss the broad contours of the political economy of energy access in these countries. The political economy is assessed through an examination of three sustainability objectives: accessibility of physical infrastructure; energy service delivery; and conformance to social goals. The key areas of concern include emphasis on supply-driven grid electricity; vested power dynamics favouring affluent and urban areas; unreliability of energy service provision; and misdirected and misappropriated subsidies. The above-mentioned issues are responsible for limiting accelerated achievement of universal energy access in the “Big 5” countries and need to be addressed through innovative approaches. The paper emphasizes the need for firm commitments, policy convergence, and the implementation of 'pro-poor' equitable energy policies through a broad-based energy framework of bench-marked, technology-neutral energy provisioning that ensures reliability and equity. It highlights the need for reorienting of the subsidy regime and incorporating energy service delivery indicators in monitoring and reporting mechanisms. - Highlights: ► Limited emphasis on improved cooking programmes relative to electrification schemes. ► Strong disparity between rural and urban electrification and LPG access. ► Grid extension and subsidy on cooking fuels has limited success. ► Electricity access does not indicate transition to better cooking options. ► Technology neutrality in choosing suitable alternatives may led to improved access. ► There is need to re-orient energy subsidies and incentives.

  20. Mexican Americans' Educational Barriers and Progress: Is the Magic Key within Reach? PERSPECTIVAS: Issues in Higher Education Policy and Practice. Issue No. 5, Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana, Ruth Enid; Hurtado, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    This policy brief is based on the edited book "The Magic Key: The Educational Journey of Mexican Americans from K-12 to College and Beyond" (Zambrana & Hurtado, 2015a), which focuses on the experiences of Mexican Americans in education. Drawing from an interdisciplinary corpus of work, the authors move beyond the rhetoric of progress…

  1. Understanding "Great Expectations": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlin, George

    More than 100 years after being written, "Great Expectations" is still one of the most widely studied works of fiction. This casebook of historical documents, collateral readings and essays brings to life both Charles Dickens' masterpiece and the social issues surrounding his work. The interdisciplinary approach in the casebook offers…

  2. Understanding "The Merchant of Venice": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halio, Jay L.

    "The Merchant of Venice," even in its own time, was considered William Shakespeare's most controversial play. Now, one of the most popular read and performed works, the play raises even more important issues for today, particularly anti-Semitism and the treatment of Jews. The analysis of the play in this casebook helps students interpret…

  3. The Interface of Opinion, Understanding and Evaluation While Learning about a Socioscientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzig, Stephen B.; Halverson, Kristy L.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific literacy is an important goal for science education, especially within controversial socioscientific issues. In this study, we analysed 143 students' research reports about stem cell research (SCR) for how they addressed specific source evaluation criteria provided within the assignment. We investigated students' opinions about SCR, how…

  4. Supporting Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Understanding and Coping with Complex Social Emotional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Kaitlyn P.; Gabrielsen, Terisa P.; Lewis, Danielle; Brady, Anna M.; Litchford, April

    2017-01-01

    Core deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) center around social communication and behavior. For those with ASD, these deficits complicate the task of learning how to cope with and manage complex social emotional issues. Although individuals with ASD may receive sufficient academic and basic behavioral support in school settings, supports for…

  5. Understanding Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control: A Guide to the Issues. New Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Teena

    Intended for secondary and college level students and teachers, this guide discusses the nuclear arms control issue. There are four sections. Section I discusses U.S. nuclear strategy from 1945 to the present, strategic nuclear weapons competition between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), U.S.…

  6. The Future We Want: Key Issues on Sustainable Development in Higher Education after Rio and the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Manolas, Evangelos; Pace, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a description of the achievements of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) with a focus on higher education, and it describes some of the key issues which will guide sustainable development in the coming years. Design/methodology/approach: The paper initially…

  7. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  8. The integration of the risk in the governance of urban projects: a key issue for a resilient city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, E.; Deroubaix, J.-F.

    2012-04-01

    Despite a severe regulation concerning the building in flooding areas, 80% of these areas are already built in the Greater Paris (Paris, Val-de-Marne, Hauts-de-Seine and Seine-Saint-Denis). The land use in flooding area is presented as one of the main solutions to solve the ongoing real estate pressure. For instance some of the industrial wastelands located along the river are currently in redevelopment and residential buildings are planned. So landuse in the flooding areas is currently a key issue in the development of the Greater Paris area. Tools and measures, structural or non-structural such as warning systems, barriers, etc do exist and could be a smart way to improve the resilience of the new urbanised areas. The technical solutions are available and efficient, but we notice that these tools are not much implemented. There is a lack of flood risk concern among the stakeholders and the inhabitants1. How landuse stakeholders could integrate the flood risk in the decision making process throughout the implementation of the urban project? Which type of governance favours an efficient development of good flood risk policy including prevention, protection and the management of the crisis? What is the "good" governance of the urban project e.g. enabling to take into account or not to forget the flood risk and to empower the (future) inhabitants? This inhabitants' empowerment includes the improvement of awareness (i.e. inhabitants being aware that they live in a flooded area) and the improvement of concern (i.e. inhabitants adopting the "right" behaviour when the risk occurs). In order to investigate how flood risk is or could be integrated in the project governance, we interviewed stakeholders (elected representatives, architects, property developers, etc.) and observed the integration or the vanishing of the risk throughout the project. In order to develop this topic we rely on a case study. The "Ardoines" is a project aiming at redeveloping an industrial site

  9. Military Suicide: Developing an Understanding of Basic Issues to Provide a Lower Risk Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    prevention programs may not fully address the underlying mental health issues associated with the young adult population. As a result, the services may be inadvertently recruiting service members with increased risk....preventing suicides for currently serving service members. An exploration of available research and demographic data identifies specific...populations present specific trends in behavior and demographics that lead to suicidal behaviors. The research suggests that a significant proportion

  10. Issues In-Depth: Advancing Understanding of Drug Addiction and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2009-01-01

    While most school districts utilize a drug abuse resistance curriculum, as science teachers, it is our responsibility to understand the science behind drug addiction in order to most effectively educate our students against drug abuse. In the last two decades, increases in scientific technology have permitted significant discoveries surrounding…

  11. Understanding Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" Online: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Thomas

    This casebook of materials about William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" will enrich students' understanding of the historical context of the play and encourage interpretations of its cultural meaning. Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" reflects perennial cultural concerns about order and freedom, particularly as they clash in the…

  12. A Phenomenological Study: Understanding the Management of Social Categorization Diversity Issues Associated with College Athletic Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickelman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…

  13. Introduction to the Special Issue: Ungulates and invasive species: quantifying impacts and understanding interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossey, Bernd; Gorchov, David L

    2017-11-01

    White-tailed deer are emblematic ungulates that, due to anthropogenic modification of landscapes, currently occur at elevated densities. Elevated deer densities often co-occur with non-native plants, but it is not known if plant invasions are a consequence of deer impacts or occur independent of deer impacts on ecosystems, or whether these two stressors are synergistic. A colloquium on 'Interactions of white-tailed deer and invasive plants in forests of eastern North America' explored these topics at the 2016 annual meeting of the Botanical Society of America. Nine of those presentations are published in this special issue of AoB PLANTS .

  14. 75 FR 28610 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... clarity in selection of key data sets for analysis; and (3) transparency, thoroughness, and clarity in... Risk Information System (IRIS) program, and thus, the new IRIS process announced in May 2009 ( http://www.epa.gov/iris/process/ ) is being followed. Per the May 2009 process, this draft report is...

  15. Key Issues in Building Design: How to Get Started in Planning a Project. Library Buildings and Equipment Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Anders C.; Eigenbrodt, Olaf; Latimer, Karen; Romero, Santi

    2009-01-01

    Based on the IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) Library Buildings and Equipment Section's Library Building Guidelines published in 2007, this short publication summarises the key points to take into consideration when designing a new or refurbished library building. The aim of the brochure is not to replace…

  16. Customer orientation of cruise destinations in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada – exploring key issues for ports and the cruise lines

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, John S.; Losekoot, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the customer needs of cruise passengers in a context of industry ports in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The study was conducted for the Cruise Association of Newfoundland and Labrador (CANAL) providing primary data as part of their assessment for their Port Readiness Program. The results are generated from a survey of 34 key decision-makers working in 24 ports in the province. Another survey representing the views of 12 cruise lines operating in these...

  17. Towards re-reforming the EU cohesion policy: Key issues in the debate and some thoughts on peripheral regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foutakis Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two years after the inception of the fourth programming period, the debate on post-2013 cohesion policy has already been launched. In fact, public consultation was launched in 2007 and considerable steps have followed since then, while others are about to start. At the same time, the new strategic guidelines and rules that guide cohesion policy have only been in place for a short period and as yet their impacts are not clear. Critical events and major political issues that concern the whole EU structure are the main factors behind this evolution. In particular, the economic recession in addition to the prospects for the new EU Treaty could be considered decisive elements in the launch of the debate on future cohesion policy. More specifically, among the issues highlighted in this context are the distinction between efficiency and equity objectives, the need for a place-based strategy, high growth sectors and their contribution to cohesion, and the potential for creativity and innovation. Overall, it seems like old dilemmas of spatial development recur, while contemporary ones also gain ground. The outcome of this debate is of significant importance for all EU regions not only in budgetary terms, but also in terms of strategic policy goals. This paper examines the above future policy issues with an emphasis on regions faced with particular difficulties such as less favored regions as well as those in the EU periphery.

  18. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-08-01

    Among other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses) and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word). A significant number of names (61.3%) failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words) and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words) contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  19. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAmong other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word. A significant number of names (61.3% failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  20. Teaching Information Privacy in Marketing Courses: Key Educational Issues for Principles of Marketing and Elective Marketing Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Milne, George R.; Phelps, Joseph E.; Barrett, Jennifer T.

    2010-01-01

    An "information privacy gap" exists in marketing education, with little research addressing the state of information privacy and how appropriate privacy strategies and tactics should be communicated to students. The primary purpose of this article is to provide educators an understanding of information privacy and how they can incorporate this…

  1. Enhancing health-care workers' understanding and thinking about people living with co-occurring mental health and substance use issues through consumer-led training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussy, Véronique; Thomacos, Nikos; Rudd, Annette; Crockett, Belinda

    2015-10-01

    Stigma and judgemental assumptions by health workers have been identified as key barriers to accessing health care for people living with co-occurring mental health and substance use issues (dual diagnosis). To evaluate the effectiveness of consumer-led training by people with dual diagnosis in improving the knowledge, understanding and role adequacy of community health staff to work with this consumer group. A controlled before-and-after study design with four waves of quantitative data collection was used. Qualitative data were collected to explore participants' views about training. Participants were staff from two community health services from Victoria, Australia. Recruitment occurred across various work areas: reception, oral health, allied health, counselling and health promotion. At baseline, all participants attended a 4-h clinician-led training session. The intervention consisted of a 3-h consumer-led training session, developed and delivered by seven individuals living with dual diagnosis. Outcome measures included understanding of dual diagnosis, participants' feelings of role adequacy and role legitimacy, personal views, and training outcomes and relevance. Consumer-led training was associated with a significant increase in understanding. The combination of clinician-led and consumer-led training was associated with a positive change in role adequacy. Consumer-led training is a promising approach to enhance primary health-care workers' understanding of the issues faced by dual-diagnosis consumers, with such positive effects persisting over time. Used alongside other organizational capacity building strategies, consumer-led training has the potential to help address stigma and judgemental attitudes by health workers and improve access to services for this consumer group. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Strengthening and redesigning flood risk governance in Europe: an overview of seven key issues and how they are being dealt with in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegger Dries

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European countries, especially urban areas, face increasing flood risks due to urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of Flood Risk Management Strategies (FRMSs makes countries more flood resilient. The latter requires innovations in existing Flood Risk Governance Arrangements, development of new arrangements and the coordination of these arrangements, but it also requires these arrangements to be tailored to their physical and institutional context. Within the EU FP7 project STAR-FLOOD (2012-2016, a comparative analysis and evaluation of flood risk governance in Belgium, England, France, The Netherlands, Poland and Sweden has been conducted. The project identified at least seven key issues that are relevant for all researched countries (and probably also beyond. These key issues deal with the topics of (i diversifying Flood Risk Management Strategies (ii establishing connectivity between actors, levels and sectors through what we coin “bridging mechanisms” (iii achieving coproduction between public and private actors; (iv improving fragmented and often non-enforceable rule systems; (v optimising available resources for FRM; (vi operationalising the notion of “diversification of FRM strategies” in a country-specific way; (vii follow general design principles for improving FRM that are sufficiently tailored to local circumstances. Drawing on all project deliverables, this paper will briefly review each key issue, discuss salient similarities and differences between the countries and point at ways forward.

  3. Understanding and Mitigating Multicore Performance Issues on theAMD Opteron Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, John; Larkin, Jeff; Foster, Martyn; Glenski, Joe; Geissler, Garry; Whalen, Stephen; Waldecker, Brian; Carter, Jonathan; Skinner, David; He, Helen; Wasserman, Harvey; Shalf, John; Shan,Hongzhang; Strohmaier, Erich

    2007-03-07

    Over the past 15 years, microprocessor performance hasdoubled approximately every 18 months through increased clock rates andprocessing efficiency. In the past few years, clock frequency growth hasstalled, and microprocessor manufacturers such as AMD have moved towardsdoubling the number of cores every 18 months in order to maintainhistorical growth rates in chip performance. This document investigatesthe ramifications of multicore processor technology on the new Cray XT4?systems based on AMD processor technology. We begin by walking throughthe AMD single-core and dual-core and upcoming quad-core processorarchitectures. This is followed by a discussion of methods for collectingperformance counter data to understand code performance on the Cray XT3?and XT4? systems. We then use the performance counter data to analyze theimpact of multicore processors on the performance of microbenchmarks suchas STREAM, application kernels such as the NAS Parallel Benchmarks, andfull application codes that comprise the NERSC-5 SSP benchmark suite. Weexplore compiler options and software optimization techniques that canmitigate the memory bandwidth contention that can reduce computingefficiency on multicore processors. The last section provides a casestudy of applying the dual-core optimizations to the NAS ParallelBenchmarks to dramatically improve their performance.

  4. Preservice special education teachers' understandings, enactments, views, and plans for scientific inquiry: Issues and hopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajlakshmi

    This study examined the understandings, enactments, views, and plans for scientific inquiry held by preservice special education teachers enrolled in a K--8 general science methods course. Sixteen participants from four special education concentration areas---Mild to Moderate Educational Needs, Moderate to Intense Educational Needs, Mild to Moderate Educational Needs with Language Arts and Reading Emphasis, and Early Childhood Intervention---participated in this study. Qualitative data were collected from questionnaires, interviews, teaching videos, lesson plans, planning commentaries, and reflection papers. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) and compared against the theoretical view of inquiry as conceptualized by the National Research Council (NRC, 2000). The participants held unique interpretations of inquiry that only partially matched with the theoretical insights provided by the NRC. The participants' previous science learning experiences and experiences in special education played an important role in shaping their conceptualizations of inquiry as learned in the science methods class. The impacts of such unique interpretations are discussed with reference to both science education and special education, and implications for teacher education are provided.

  5. A socioecological framework to understand weight-related issues in Aboriginal children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Noreen D; Hanley, Anthony J G; Delormier, Treena

    2012-02-01

    Obesity prevention efforts in Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, or Inuit) communities in Canada should focus predominantly on children given their demographic significance and the accelerated time course of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Aboriginal population. A socioecological model to address childhood obesity in Aboriginal populations would focus on the numerous environments at different times in childhood that influence weight status, including prenatal, sociocultural, family, and community environments. Importantly, for Aboriginal children, obesity interventions need to also be situated within the context of a history of colonization and inequities in the social determinants of health. This review therefore advocates for the inclusion of a historical perspective and a life-course approach to obesity prevention in Aboriginal children in addition to developing interventions around the socioecological framework. We emphasize that childhood obesity prevention efforts should focus on promoting maternal health behaviours before and during pregnancy, and on breastfeeding and good infant and child nutrition in the postpartum and early childhood development periods. Ameliorating food insecurity by focusing on improving the sociodemographic risk factors for it, such as increasing income and educational attainment, are essential. More research is required to understand and measure obesogenic Aboriginal environments, to examine how altering specific environments modifies the foods that children eat and the activities that they do, and to examine how restoring and rebuilding cultural continuity in Aboriginal communities modifies the many determinants of obesity. This research needs to be done with the full participation of Aboriginal communities as partners in the research.

  6. A critical review of gender issues in understanding prolonged disability related to musculoskeletal pain: how are they relevant to rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Daniel; Coutu, Marie-France

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this critical review is to describe the available theoretical models for understanding the gender issues in prolonged work disability related to persistent musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. A critical literature review was conducted in medicine, health sciences, and social sciences databases (MEDLINE, CINHAL, PsychINFO and SOCINDEX) using specific keywords. After screening titles and abstracts, followed by methodological quality assessment, a total of 55 references were retained for content analysis. Gender issues in disability related to persistent MSK pain show that men and women may experience pain and rehabilitation process in different ways. Three main themes were exftracted and further described: (1) the experience of distrust; (2) the self-identity process; and (3) the domestic strain. Each of these themes has a specific and potentially different impact on men and women, and we report that experiential differences may strongly impact the rehabilitation process and outcomes such as return to work. This critical review provides insight into gender issues in the process of rehabilitation and outcomes such as return to work. We suggest that work and family considerations are the two most important issues in the rehabilitation process and that differences between men and women are likely to occur.

  7. Understanding consumer participation in mental health: Issues of power and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Wanda; Cross, Wendy; Bloomer, Melissa

    2011-06-01

    Consumer participation occurs in all Victorian public mental health services. Area mental health services employ consumer consultants to enhance consumer participation across the network. Ongoing support of management is essential to the success of consumer participation. This project aimed to explore understandings of consumer participation from a manager's perspective. Semistructured interviews were conducted with seven participants in this qualitative, interpretive study. The thematic analysis revealed the complexities around defining consumer participation and demonstrated the difficulties and possible reasons as to why there is no real clarity between managers, service providers, and consumers as to what consumer participation should look like. Power and change were the primary themes. Power and the overwhelming consensus that the medical model and those working within it hold the most power was strongly represented in this study. Legislation and workplace settings were seen as considerable factors adding to the disempowerment of consumers within an already disempowering mental health system. Change was the other main theme that emerged, with culture and attitudes of the old 'institutionalized' thinking that still pervades some pockets of mental health services being seen as the major barriers to change. The role of the consumer consultant was a prominent subtheme, with their role in training and the education of workers seen as an essential and positive way to progress consumer participation. These findings demonstrate that managers consider there to be hope for consumers, brought about by collective action and lobbying, and through consumer participation in less-restrictive parts of the service (community settings). © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  8. Research and Teaching: Correlations between Students' Written Responses to Lecture-Tutorial Questions and Their Understandings of Key Astrophysics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, Jeffrey; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the correlations between students' understandings of introductory astronomy concepts and the correctness and coherency of their written responses to targeted Lecture-Tutorial questions.

  9. The active role played by human learners is key to understanding the efficacy of teaching in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfard, Samuel; Harris, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    The early developing capacity of human learners to seek out reliable informants, initiate pedagogical episodes, and monitor and redirect ongoing instruction is critical to understanding humans' remarkable capacity for cumulative culture.

  10. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.

  11. A Policy Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Key Issues Arising from Climate Change Negotiations Following COP 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)

  12. A Policy Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Key Issues Arising from Climate Change Negotiations Following COP 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, J. M

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)

  13. Understanding the political economy and key drivers of energy access in addressing national energy access priorities and policies: African Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khennas, Smail

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the key drivers of energy access in North and sub-Saharan Africa which are characterized by huge discrepancies in terms of energy access to modern forms of energy. The paper points out that long term development strategies and large programmes with significant financial resources are essential to achieving substantial results in terms of energy access. The paper argues that building up the energy infrastructure (power plants, grid interconnections and small-scale decentralized energy options in rural areas.) is a pre-condition for economic growth and ultimately for energy access. It underlines that historically there is a trend towards more efficient, convenient and cost effective forms of energy. Low carbon path and above all renewable will therefore play an increasing role in the energy mix in the next couple of decades. Manufacturing of capital goods for the renewable energy industry in Africa will be a key challenge to achieving energy security economic growth and energy access. - Highlights: ► Sharp differences of energy access situation and approaches between North and Sub Saharan Africa. ► Energy infrastructure is a pre-condition to economic growth and energy access. ► Interconnections and small-scale decentralized energy schemes are a good mechanism to increasing energy access. ► However interconnections will only contribute marginally to the urban-rural energy divide. ► Manufacturing of capital goods is a key challenge to economic development.

  14. Understanding the cognitive basis for human-wildlife relationships as a key to successful protected-area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teel, Tara L.; Manfredo, Michael J.; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    . Hierarchical linear modeling of these data supports a societal-level shift from domination to mutualism in response to modernization. Second, a 2007-8 exploratory application of outdoor approach in ten European countries provides further evidence of the role of value orientations in shaping individual response...... to wildlife issues. Together, these studies highlight the importance of multilevel models for exploring the social aspects of wildlife and protected-area management....

  15. Key issues surrounding the health impacts of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and other sources of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; Cahn, Zachary; Kennedy, Rosemary; Liber, Alex C; Stoklosa, Michal; Henson, Rosemarie; Douglas, Clifford E; Drope, Jacqui

    2017-11-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Over the last decade, the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including the electronic cigarette or e-cigarette, has grown rapidly. More youth now use ENDS than any tobacco product. This extensive research review shows that there are scientifically sound, sometimes competing arguments about ENDS that are not immediately and/or completely resolvable. However, the preponderance of the scientific evidence to date suggests that current-generation ENDS products are demonstrably less harmful than combustible tobacco products such as conventional cigarettes in several key ways, including by generating far lower levels of carcinogens and other toxic compounds than combustible products or those that contain tobacco. To place ENDS in context, the authors begin by reviewing the trends in use of major nicotine-containing products. Because nicotine is the common core-and highly addictive-constituent across all tobacco products, its toxicology is examined. With its long history as the only nicotine product widely accepted as being relatively safe, nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) is also examined. A section is also included that examines snus, the most debated potential harm-reduction product before ENDS. Between discussions of NRT and snus, ENDS are extensively examined: what they are, knowledge about their level of "harm," their relationship to smoking cessation, the so-called gateway effect, and dual use/poly-use. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:449-471. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. Incentive-Based Conservation Programs in Developing Countries: A Review of Some Key Issues and Suggestions for Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepalz, Sanjay K.

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation in developing countries has been a challenge because of the combination of rising human populations, rapid technological advances, severe social hardships, and extreme poverty. To address the social, economic, and ecological limitations of people-free parks and reserves, incentives have been incorporated into conservation programs in the hopes of making conservation meaningful to local people. However, such incentive-based programs have been implemented with little consideration for their ability to fulfill promises of greater protection of biodiversity. Evaluations of incentive-based conservation programs indicate that the approach continually falls short of the rhetoric. This article provides an overview of the problems associated with incentive-based conservation approaches in developing countries. It argues that existing incentive-based programs (IBPs) have yet to realize that benefits vary greatly at different “community” scales and that a holistic conceptualization of a community is essential to incorporate the complexities of a heterogeneous community when designing and implementing the IBPs. The spatial complexities involved in correctly identifying the beneficiaries in a community and the short-term focus of IBPs are two major challenges for sustaining conservation efforts. The article suggests improvements in three key areas: accurate identification of “target” beneficiaries, greater inclusion of marginal communities, and efforts to enhance community aptitudes.

  17. Understanding Unintended Consequences and Health Information Technology:. Contribution from the IMIA Organizational and Social Issues Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemsky, C E; Randell, R; Borycki, E M

    2016-11-10

    No framework exists to identify and study unintended consequences (UICs) with a focus on organizational and social issues (OSIs). To address this shortcoming, we conducted a literature review to develop a framework for considering UICs and health information technology (HIT) from the perspective of OSIs. A literature review was conducted for the period 2000- 2015 using the search terms "unintended consequences" and "health information technology". 67 papers were screened, of which 18 met inclusion criteria. Data extraction was focused on the types of technologies studied, types of UICs identified, and methods of data collection and analysis used. A thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to UICs. We identified two overarching themes. One was the definition and terminology of how people classify and discuss UICs. Second was OSIs and UICs. For the OSI theme, we also identified four sub-themes: process change and evolution, individual-collaborative interchange, context of use, and approaches to model, study, and understand UICs. While there is a wide body of research on UICs, there is a lack of overall consensus on how they should be classified and reported, limiting our ability to understand the implications of UICs and how to manage them. More mixed-methods research and better proactive identification of UICs remain priorities. Our findings and framework of OSI considerations for studying UICs and HIT extend existing work on HIT and UICs by focusing on organizational and social issues.

  18. Understanding School Health Environment through Interviews with Key Stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in…

  19. Understanding How Key Institutional Agents Provide Southeast Asian American Students with Access to Social Capital in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Mueller, M. Kalehua.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we focus on understanding how institutional agents can and do foster success among Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students in higher education. Specifically, qualitative methods were utilized to examine the experiences of 34 SEAA undergraduate students at 5 public 4-year colleges and universities across the United States and…

  20. I metadati nelle biblioteche digitali: concetti chiave e prospettive Metadata issues in Digital Libraries: key concepts and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Solodovnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    L'articolo si propone di esaminare il significato, il ruolo e le implicazioni di alcuni approcci utilizzati nella gestione della biblioteca digitale.

    L'innovazione nella gestione delle risorse online e il miglioramento della loro interoperabilità si può ottenere con una normalizzazione degli schemi di metadati attraverso l'uso di standard interoperabili e vocabolari internazionali e condivisi, e con l'arricchimento dato da ontologie e linked data, che sono alla base delle riflessioni sul web semantico e sulla costruzione di livelli semantici sulle descrizioni dei metadati.

    Attraverso l'esame di alcune metodologie innovative di rappresentazione dell'informazione (LODe-BD, SWAP, l'articolo mostra alcune modalità di creazione della conoscenza in ambiente digitale, con particolare riferimento ai dati bibliografici.

    The article sets out to investigate the meaning, role and implications of some information management approaches used in Digital Library practice. A greater focus on innovation in managing online resources and on improving their interoperability can be achieved by normalizing metadata schemas through interoperable standards, world-wide accepted controlled vocabularies as well as by their enrichment through qualitatively constructed ontologies and linked data, which are key to the expansion of the semantic reasoning on the web through building and connection of additional semantic layers on top of metadata descriptions. Reviewing some innovative methods of information representation (LODe-BD, SWAP, the paper tries to lead the reader to discover some new ways of knowledge creation in digital information environment, in particular what concerns digital bibliographic records.

  1. Security of supply in liberated electricity markets - key issues and experiences in OECD countries (work in progress)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridbaek, Ulrik

    2005-06-01

    Security of supply of electricity could in principle refer to any parts of the value chain from fuel input to delivery of electricity to the final costumer with the expected quality. Concerns about security of supply are usually focused on three aspects: Timely and adequate supply of the input fuel for electricity generation is a prerequisite - security of energy supply. There has to be timely and adequate infrastructure in place to transform the input fuel into electricity and transport it to the final costumer - adequacy of generation and transmission capacity. Finally, it is an operational challenge to make the electricity system work and deliver at the expected quality - secure operation of the electricity system. Security of supply becomes relevant in a policy context from concerns about market failures in any parts of the value chain or, indeed, from the perspective that policy will set the framework for markets to serve as an instrument to secure the supply. This paper discusses some of the experiences with security of supply concerns and market failures in these three basic segments of the value chain; fuel input, adequate generation and transmission capacity and secure operation of the system, with an emphasis on the role of the market to serve as an efficient instrument. In the aftermath of the large black outs of electricity systems in North America, Italy and Sweden/Denmark IEA initiated a project on 'Transmission Reliability and Power System Security in Competitive Electricity Markets'. The results of this work will be published towards the end of 2005. After a decade with liberalised electricity markets in some pioneer regions, IEA now also finds it timely to analyse some of the lessons in a forthcoming publication. Recent and ongoing IEA-work thereby covers all the main aspects of security of supply. This paper summarises the key findings and messages, with a focus on the work in progress on lessons from liberalisation

  2. Understanding the cognitive basis for human-wildlife relationships as a key to successful protected-area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teel, Tara L.; Manfredo, Michael J.; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    underlying conservation effectiveness, including the nature of people's relationships with wildlife. These relationships stem from the cognitive foundation that shapes human behavior toward wildlife. Our theory of wildlife value orientations contents that, at an individual level, broad cultural ideals...... or value orientations form basis for more specific cognitions that in turn drive individual action. We extend this cognitive hierarchy framework to account for the rolke of societal forces that give rise to cultural values and their orientations over time. Using empirical data from two cases, we surview...... to wildlife issues. Together, these studies highlight the importance of multilevel models for exploring the social aspects of wildlife and protected-area management....

  3. Key Issues in Essential Tremor Genetics Research: Where Are We Now and How Can We Move Forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Testa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetics research is an avenue towards understanding essential tremor (ET. Advances have been made in genetic linkage and association: there are three reported ET susceptibility loci, and mixed but growing data on risk associations. However, causal mutations have not been forthcoming. This disappointing lack of progress has opened productive discussions on challenges in ET genetics research, including fundamental assumptions in the field. This article reviews the ET genetics literature, results to date, the open questions in ET genetics and the current challenges in addressing them. Several inherent ET features complicate genetic linkage and association studies: high potential phenocopy rates, inaccurate tremor self-reporting, and ET misdiagnoses are examples. Increasing use of direct exam data for subjects, family members and controls is one current response. Smaller moves towards expanding ET phenotype research concepts into non-tremor features, clinically disputed ET subsets, and testing phenotype features instead of clinical diagnosis against genetic data are gradually occurring. The field has already moved to considering complex trait mechanisms requiring detection of combinations of rare genetic variants. Hypotheses may move further to consider novel mechanisms of inheritance, such as epigenetic. It is an exciting time in ET genetics as investigators start moving past assumptions underlying both phenotype and genetics experimental contributions, overcoming challenges to collaboration, and engaging the ET community. Multicenter collaborative efforts comprising rich longitudinal prospective phenotype data and neuropathologic analysis combined with the latest in genetics experimental design and technology will be the next wave in the field.

  4. Understanding the nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooradian, A.J.

    1976-06-01

    Nuclear power is presented as a necessary power source for the transition from fossil fuels to a no-growth society of the future. It is already economic and on-stream all over the world. Radiation is a very tractable hazard. New fuel cycles would provide extraordinary increases in our nuclear fuel reserves. (E.C.B.)

  5. Understanding the physics that causes hysteresis in carbon nanotube transistors, a key step toward high performance and energy-efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rebecca

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration is a promising technology that achieves higher energy efficiency, higher performance, and smaller footprint than today's planar, 2D technology. In particular, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) enable monolithic 3D integration due to its low-temperature processing (digital systems, large hysteresis has long remained a challenge. Our approach to eliminating hysteresis is based on our understanding of the physics that lead to hysteresis: Understanding the sources of hysteresis: We develop a novel measurement technique called the Pulsed Time-Domain Measurement (PTDM) which enables quantification of charged traps responsible for hysteresis. Leveraging a physics-based model, we study the mechanism of the charge trapping process. Eliminating hysteresis: After gaining a deeper understanding of the sources of hysteresis, we are able to develop a VLSI-compatible, solid-state fabrication method that mitigates the effect of traps. On average, we achieve hysteresis of less than 0.5% of the gate-source voltage sweep range.

  6. The role of the Department of Health and other key institutions in the promotion of equal opportunities, multi-cultural and anti-racist issues in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolchand, M K

    2000-08-01

    Equal opportunities, multi-cultural and anti-racist issues have been discussed in nurse education for at least two decades. This paper discusses the extent to which the Department of Health (DoH), United Kingdom Central Council (UKCC) and the English National Board (ENB) have developed, implemented and evaluated the above policies in nurse education. A brief overview of the wider roles of the key institutions are outlined. More specifically, some of the major health and social policies implemented during the last two decades are reviewed. This review concludes that the major policies have neglected or marginalized equal opportunities and multi-cultural issues. This is especially so for anti-racism. It argues that the ideologies which underpin social and health policies reinforce white superiority and that these ideologies are rooted in Britain's history of colonialism.

  7. Two books on dementia care: Risk Assessment and management for living well with dementia, and Key issues in evolving dementia care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Manthorpe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk Assessment and Management for Living Well with Dementia. Charlotte L. Clarke, Heather Wilkinson, John Keady and Catherine E. Gibb. Foreword by Murna Downs. Part of the Bradford Dementia Group Good Practice Guides series. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2011, pp. 128, ISBN: 978-1-84905-005-0Key Issues in Evolving Dementia Care. International Theory-based Policy and Practice. Edited by Anthea Innes, Fiona Kelly and Louise McCabe. Foreword by Professor June Andrews. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2012, pp. 264, ISBN: 978-1-84905-242-9

  8. Understanding the cognitive basis for human-wildlife relationships as a key to successful protected-area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teel, Tara L.; Manfredo, Michael J.; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife is a critical component of protected areas worldwide. It can serve not only as a primary attraction or an enjoyable part of the visitor experience but also as source of conflict. Managing wildlife in this context requires a broadbased approach that can account for the myriad factors...... this micro-macro approach and explore its implications for protected-area management. First, data from nineteen-state study conducted in 2004 via mail survey in the united States show how two contrasting orientations - dominations and mutualism - produce different attitudes and behaviors toward wildlife...... to wildlife issues. Together, these studies highlight the importance of multilevel models for exploring the social aspects of wildlife and protected-area management....

  9. Subtypes and comorbidity in mathematical learning disabilities: Multidimensional study of verbal and visual memory processes is key to understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, D

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that mathematical learning disability (MLD) is related to working memory impairment. Here, I organize part of this literature through a meta-analysis of 36 studies with 665 MLD and 1049 control participants. I demonstrate that one subtype of MLD is associated with reading problems and weak verbal short-term and working memory. Another subtype of MLD does not have associated reading problems and is linked to weak visuospatial short-term and working memory. In order to better understand MLD we need to precisely define potentially modality-specific memory subprocesses and supporting executive functions, relevant for mathematical learning. This can be achieved by taking a multidimensional parametric approach systematically probing an extended network of cognitive functions. Rather than creating arbitrary subgroups and/or focus on a single factor, highly powered studies need to position individuals in a multidimensional parametric space. This will allow us to understand the multidimensional structure of cognitive functions and their relationship to mathematical performance. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding the continuous renal replacement therapy circuit for acute renal failure support: a quality issue in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Martin; Baldwin, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Delivery of renal replacement therapy is now a core competency of intensive care nursing. The safe and effective delivery of this form of therapy is a quality issue for intensive care, requiring an understanding of the principles underlying therapy and the functioning of machines used. Continuous hemofiltration, first described in 1977, used a system where blood flowed from arterial to venous cannulas through a small-volume, low-resistance, and high-flux filter. Monitoring of these early systems was limited, and without a machine interface, less nursing expertise was required. Current continuous renal replacement therapy machines offer user-friendly interfaces, cassette-style circuits, and comprehensive circuit diagnostics and monitoring. Although these machines conceal complexity behind a user-friendly interface, it remains important that nurses have sufficient knowledge for their use and the ability to compare and contrast circuit setups and functions for optimal and efficient treatment.

  11. Understanding Technology and People Issues in Hospital Information System (HIS) Adoption: Case study of a tertiary hospital in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nasriah; Mohd Yusof, Shafiz Affendi

    Hospital Information Systems (HIS) can improve healthcare outcome quality, increase efficiency, and reduce errors. The government of Malaysia implemented HIS across the country to maximize the use of technology to improve healthcare delivery, however, little is known about the benefits and challenges of HIS adoption in each institution. This paper looks at the technology and people issues in adopting such systems. The study used a case study approach, using an in-depth interview with multidisciplinary medical team members who were using the system on a daily basis. A thematic analysis using Atlas.ti was employed to understand the complex relations among themes and sub-themes to discover the patterns in the data. . Users found the new system increased the efficiency of workflows and saved time. They reported less redundancy of work and improved communication among medical team members. Data retrieval and storage were also mentioned as positive results of the new HIS system. Healthcare workers showed positive attitudes during training and throughout the learning process. From a technological perspective, it was found that medical workers using HIS has better access and data management compared to the previously used manual system. The human issues analysis reveals positive attitudes toward using HIS among the users especially from the physicians' side. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. 'Understanding' as a practical issue in sexual health education for people with intellectual disabilities: a study using two qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, W M L; Rohleder, Poul; Taylor, Natalie; Culfear, Hollie

    2015-04-01

    Sexual health education is important in addressing the health and social inequalities faced by people with intellectual disabilities. However, provision of health-related advice and education to people with various types and degrees of linguistic and learning difficulties involves addressing complex issues of language and comprehension. This article reports an exploratory study using 2 qualitative methods to examine the delivery of sexual health education to people with intellectual disabilities. Four video-recordings of sexual health education sessions were collected. Conversation analysis was used to examine in detail how such education occurs as a series of interactions between educators and learners. Interviews with 4 educators were carried out and analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis shows how educators anticipate problems of comprehension and how they respond when there is evidence that a person does not understand the activity or the educational message. This occurs particularly when verbal prompts involve long sentences and abstract concepts. We show a characteristic pattern that arises in these situations, in which both educator and learner jointly produce a superficially correct response. Although interviews allows us some insight into contextual issues, strategy, and aspects of sexual health education that occur outside of the actual teaching sessions, analysis of actual interactions can show us patterns that occur in interactions between educators and learners when comprehension is in question. Addressing how sexual health education is delivered in practice and in detail provides valuable lessons about how such education can be improved. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A Qualitative Analysis of Implementation of Antimicrobial Stewardship at 3 Academic Hospitals: Understanding the Key Influences on Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Lianne; Thampi, Nisha; Maione, Maria; Steinberg, Marilyn; Morris, Andrew M; Bell, Chaim M

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate use of antimicrobials is linked to the development and spread of drug-resistant pathogens and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, lengths of hospital stay, and health care costs. "Antimicrobial stewardship" is the umbrella term for an evidence-based knowledge translation strategy involving comprehensive quality improvement activities to optimize the use of antimicrobials, improve patient outcomes, reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance and hospital-acquired infections such as Clostridium difficile, and decrease health care costs. To assess the perceptions and experiences of antimicrobial stewardship program leaders in terms of clinicians' attitudes toward and behaviours related to antimicrobial prescribing. In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews were conducted with 6 antimicrobial stewards (2 physicians and 4 pharmacists) at 3 academic hospitals between June and August 2013. The following 3 key themes emerged from the interviews: getting the right people on board, building collegial relationships, and rapidly establishing a track record. The study results elucidated the role and mechanisms that the program leader and other antimicrobial stewards used to influence other clinicians to engage in effective utilization of antimicrobials. The results also highlighted the methods employed by members of the antimicrobial stewardship team to tailor their strategies to the local context and to stakeholders of participating units; to gain credibility by demonstrating the impact of the antimicrobial stewardship program on clinical outcomes and cost; and to engage senior leaders to endorse and invest in the antimicrobial stewardship program, thereby adding to the antimicrobial stewards' credibility and their ability to influence the uptake of effective antimicrobial use. Collectively, these results offer insight into processes and mechanisms of influence employed by antimicrobial stewards to enhance antimicrobial use among

  14. The concept of transcortical cell assemblies: a key to the understanding of cortical lateralization and interhemispheric interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, F; Mohr, B

    1996-01-01

    According to Hebb, elements of higher cognitive processes, such as concepts, words and mental images, are realized in the brain as cortical cell assemblies, i.e. large and strongly connected neuron populations that form functional units. Neurons belonging to such assemblies may be scattered over wide cortical areas, and some cell assemblies may even comprise neurons of both hemispheres (transcortical assemblies). If full activation (ignition) of an assembly leads to fast circulation of neuronal activity in the assembly, this process should be visible in high-frequency cortical responses. Some evidence will be reviewed that cell assembly ignition indeed leads to changes in high-frequency cortical responses which can be recorded in the EEG and MEG. Within the cell assembly-framework, the question of cortical laterality translates into the question of how neurons of transcortical assemblies are balanced between the hemispheres. This approach allows for different degrees of laterality. Recent evidence is summarized that the degree of laterality indeed differs between language units. For example, the cortical representation of certain words appears to be strongly lateralized to the left hemisphere while those of others are less lateralized. If neurons of both hemispheres are part of one assembly bihemispheric processing should lead to a processing advantage compared to processing in the dominant hemisphere alone. The latter appears to be the case for lexical processing, as revealed by recent behavioral studies. In conclusion, the cell assembly-framework suggests a more fine-grained description of the issue of cortical laterality; it is not appropriate to ask whether "modules" supporting higher cortical functions are located either in the left or right hemisphere. Rather, it appears fruitful to ask how the neurons of transcortical cell assemblies are balanced between the hemispheres.

  15. III. Cellular ultrastructures in situ as key to understanding tumor energy metabolism: biological significance of the Warburg effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewicz, Halina; Oh, Phil; Schnitzer, Jan E

    2013-01-01

    Despite the universality of metabolic pathways, malignant cells were found to have their metabolism reprogrammed to generate energy by glycolysis even under normal oxygen concentrations (the Warburg effect). Therefore, the pathway energetically 18 times less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation was implicated to match increased energy requirements of growing tumors. The paradox was explained by an abnormally high rate of glucose uptake, assuming unlimited availability of substrates for tumor growth in vivo. However, ultrastructural analysis of tumor vasculature morphogenesis showed that the growing tissue regions did not have continuous blood supply and intermittently depended on autophagy for survival. Erythrogenic autophagy, and resulting ATP generation by glycolysis, appeared critical to initiating vasculature formation where it was missing. This study focused on ultrastructural features that reflected metabolic switch from aerobic to anaerobic. Morphological differences between and within different types of cells were evident in tissue sections. In cells undergoing nucleo-cytoplasmic conversion into erythrosomes (erythrogenesis), gradual changes led to replacing mitochondria with peroxisomes, through an intermediate form connected to endoplasmic reticulum. Those findings related to the issue of peroxisome biogenesis and to the phenomenon of hemogenic endothelium. Mitochondria were compacted also during mitosis. In vivo, cells that lost and others that retained capability to use oxygen coexisted side-by-side; both types were important for vasculature morphogenesis and tissue growth. Once passable, the new vasculature segment could deliver external oxygen and nutrients. Nutritional and redox status of microenvironment had similar effect on metabolism of malignant and non-malignant cells demonstrating the necessity to maintain structure-energy equivalence in all living cells. The role of glycolysis in initiating vasculature formation, and in progression of

  16. Understanding school health environment through interviews with key stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-04-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in three one-on-one interviews and 14 natural group interviews. Six themes emerged that centered on insufficient resources as reasons for suboptimal health conditions. At the individual level, participants mentioned the deficiency of personal resources to cope with cold weather and poor diet. At the school level, the lack of physical resources such as water purifiers and latrines was discussed. Interviewees also pointed out the schools' overdependence on external resources and therefore the lack of sustainability. Last, the shortage of health services at the school and community level was commonly mentioned. Based on these results, we believe that the basic concept of HPSs should also be applied when working with schools in LMICs. In conclusion, there was a lack of perception of the importance of policy and capacity development programs, which are important in developing HPSs. Therefore, future school health programs should stress improving these elements. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. PP064. Total vascular resistances in early pregnancy: A key to understand abnormal cardiovascular adaptation associated with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Damiano; Scala, Roberta Licia; Tiralongo, Grazia Maria; Pisani, Ilaria; Gagliardi, Giulia; Novelli, Gian Paolo; Vasapollo, Barbara; Valensise, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    From early pregnancy, maternal hemodynamic profile begins to change. The absence of these changes leads to increased risk of complication during the gestation. Aim of this study is to understand in early pregnancy the behaviour of total vascular resistances (TVR) as a sign of maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy. A cross section study was conducted. We followed 160 healthy women with singleton pregnancy during the first trimester of gestation. We evaluated cardiac output (CO) and TVR at 7, 9 and 11 weeks of gestation. We obtained the following haemodynamic measurements with the USCOM system, a non invasive method: heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), CO and TVR. 160 healthy pregnant women were selected, 8 patients, were excluded for a bad signal. Absolute values of the haemodynamic measures are shown in Fig. 1. 41 patients underwent spontaneous embryonic demise. This last group of patients showed in 54% (group A) TVR values within the normal limits (TVR1200) and CO values below the normal adaptation to pregnancy. Table 1 shows hemodynamic measures for the group A and group B; we found differences in term of CO, TVR and PAS between the two groups. Elevated TVR might indicate an abnormal vascular adaptation already in first weeks of pregnancy. Moreover, in women who undergo to abortion, elevated TVR could be use to distinguish genetic or environmental causes of miscarriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Understanding Is Key: An Analysis of Factors Pertaining to Trust in a Real-World Automation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfe, Nora; Sharples, Sarah; Wilson, John R

    2018-03-01

    This paper aims to explore the role of factors pertaining to trust in real-world automation systems through the application of observational methods in a case study from the railway sector. Trust in automation is widely acknowledged as an important mediator of automation use, but the majority of the research on automation trust is based on laboratory work. In contrast, this work explored trust in a real-world setting. Experienced rail operators in four signaling centers were observed for 90 min, and their activities were coded into five mutually exclusive categories. Their observed activities were analyzed in relation to their reported trust levels, collected via a questionnaire. The results showed clear differences in activity, even when circumstances on the workstations were very similar, and significant differences in some trust dimensions were found between groups exhibiting different levels of intervention and time not involved with signaling. Although the empirical, lab-based studies in the literature have consistently found that reliability and competence of the automation are the most important aspects of trust development, understanding of the automation emerged as the strongest dimension in this study. The implications are that development and maintenance of trust in real-world, safety-critical automation systems may be distinct from artificial laboratory automation. The findings have important implications for emerging automation concepts in diverse industries including highly automated vehicles and Internet of things.

  19. Understanding reflection behavior as a key for interpreting complex signals in FBRM monitoring of microparticle preparation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, Kerstin; Friess, Wolfgang; Scheler, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    The application of focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was studied in a larger scale PLGA microparticle preparation process for monitoring changes of the particle size and the particles' surface properties. Further understanding how these parameters determine the chord length distribution (CLD) was gained by means of single object measurements and data of monodisperse microparticles. It was evaluated how the FBRM signal is influenced by the surface characteristics of the tested materials and the measuring conditions. Particles with good scattering properties provided comparable values for the CLD and the particle size distribution. Translucent particles caused an overestimation of the particle size by FBRM, whereas the values for transparent emulsion droplets were too low. Despite a strong dependence of FBRM results on the optical properties of the samples, it is a beneficial technique for online monitoring of microparticle preparation processes. The study demonstrated how changing reflection properties can be used to monitor structural changes during the solidification of emulsion droplets and to detect process instabilities by FBRM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Key process issues in Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP): translation of an evidence-based model into clinical practice and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Dina; Salwen, Jessica

    2013-09-01

    Our "desired outcome" in writing this article was to present not only key process issues stemming from the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP; McCullough, 2000), but to highlight those therapy maneuvers that we, a "seasoned" clinician/supervisor and a clinical trainee, find most useful in delivering treatment and in conducting supervision. We strongly believe that it is only through the translation of evidence-based therapeutic models, such as CBASP, into effective training that a true integration of science and practice can be obtained. Thus, the congruence of trainer's and trainee's views on what constitute top process issues in therapy is important in evaluating the reliability of a therapy model; with this in mind, we focus on three process issues, as follows: (1) problems are anchored to the "here and now" and to specific situational outcomes; (2) patients are encouraged to identify the role they play in affecting their distressing outcomes and to take responsibility for "fixing" them; and (3) the therapist planfully engages in the process of change via disciplined personal involvement. Research and theory supporting these maneuvers are presented, in conjunction with clinical examples. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Microbial Life in the Subseafloor at Mid-Ocean Ridges: A Key to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems on Earth and Elsewhere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baross, J. A.; Delaney, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    Some planets and moons in our solar system were similar to Earth in their geological properties during the first few hundred million years after accretion. This is the period when life arose and became established on Earth. It follows that understanding the geophysical and geochemical characteristics of early Earth could provide insight into life-supporting environments on other solar bodies that have not evolved "Garden of Eden" conditions. Hydrothermal systems are primordial and their emergence coincided with the accumulation of liquid water on Earth. The interactions of water and rock associated with hydrothermal systems result in predictable suites of dissolved elements and volatiles. While the concentrations of these chemicals vary at different vent locations and were certainly different during the early Archaean, the overall chemical composition of aqueous hydrothermal fluid is likely to be the same because of the basaltic nature of oceanic crust. In present-day hydrothermal systems, those environments not contaminated by electron acceptors produced from pelagic photosynthesis would most closely mimic the earliest conditions on Earth. These conditions include the subseafloor and high temperature, anaerobic environments associated with hydrothermal systems. The microorganisms associated with these environments derive energy from sulfur, iron, hydrogen and organic compounds. New seafloor eruptions and diffuse flow vents provide unprecedented access to deep subseafloor microbial communities. For example, 12 new eruptions have occurred in the past 15 years including five in the Northeast Pacific. Hyperthermophiles were isolated from 5-30oC diffuse vent fluids from new eruption sites at CoAxial within months of the June, 1993 eruption and from the 1998 eruption at Axial Volcano, and from plume fluids within days of the February, 1996 eruption at the N. Gorda Ridge. The presence of such organisms in fluids that are 20 to 50°C below their minimum growth temperature

  2. Understanding the “black box” of a health-promotion program: Keys to enable health among older persons aging in the context of migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelie Barenfeld

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the need to make health services more accessible to persons who have migrated has been identified, knowledge about health-promotion programs (HPPs from the perspective of older persons born abroad is lacking. This study explores the design experiences and content implemented in an adapted version of a group-based HPP developed in a researcher–community partnership. Fourteen persons aged 70–83 years or older who had migrated to Sweden from Finland or the Balkan Peninsula were included. A grounded theory approach guided the data collection and analysis. The findings showed how participants and personnel jointly helped raise awareness. The participants experienced three key processes that could open doors to awareness: enabling community, providing opportunities to understand and be understood, and confirming human values and abilities. Depending on how the HPP content and design are being shaped by the group, the key processes could both inhibit or encourage opening doors to awareness. Therefore, this study provides key insights into how to enable health by deepening the understanding of how the exchange of health-promoting messages is experienced to be facilitated or hindered. This study adds to the scientific knowledge base of how the design and content of HPP may support and recognize the capabilities of persons aging in the context of migration.

  3. Secret-key certificates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Brands (Stefan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe notion of secret-key certificate schemes is introduced and formalized. As with public-key certificates, triples consisting of a secret key, a corresponding public key, and a secret-key certificate on the public key can only be retrieved by engaging in an issuing protocol with the

  4. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  5. ENVIROSUITE: USING STATE-OF-THE-ART SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SCIENCE ISSUES AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FITTS, J.P.; KALB, P.D.; FRANCIS, A.J.; FUHRMANN, M.; DODGE, C.J.; GILLOW, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Although DOE's Environmental Management program has made steady progress in cleaning up environmental legacies throughout the DOE complex, there are still significant remediation issues that remain to be solved. For example, DOE faces difficult challenges related to potential mobilization of radionuclides (e.g., actinides) and other hazardous contaminants in soils, removal and final treatment of high-level waste and residuals from leaking tanks, and the long-term stewardship of remediated sites and engineered disposal facilities, to name just a few. In some cases, new technologies and technology applications will be required based on current engineering expertise. In others, however, basic scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms of how contaminants behave under specific conditions and how they interact with the environment, from which new engineering solutions can emerge. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Stony Brook University, scientists have teamed to use state-of-the-art synchrotron techniques to help understand the basic interactions of contaminants in the environment. Much of this work is conducted at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which is a user facility that provides high energy X-ray and ultraviolet photon beams to facilitate the examination of contaminants and materials at the molecular level. These studies allow us to determine how chemical speciation and structure control important parameters such as solubility, which in turn drive critical performance characteristics such as leaching. In one study for example, we are examining the effects of microbial activity on actinide contaminants under conditions anticipated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. One possible outcome of this research is the identification of specific microbes that can trap uranium or other contaminants within the intracellular structure and help mitigate mobility. In another study, we are exploring the interaction of contaminants with

  6. Critical Issues and Key Points from the Survey to the Creation of the Historical Building Information Model: the Case of Santo Stefano Basilica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnetti, C.; Dubbini, M.; Ricci, P. C.; Rivola, R.; Giannini, M.; Capra, A.

    2017-05-01

    The new era of designing in architecture and civil engineering applications lies in the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach, based on a 3D geometric model including a 3D database. This is easier for new constructions whereas, when dealing with existing buildings, the creation of the BIM is based on the accurate knowledge of the as-built construction. Such a condition is allowed by a 3D survey, often carried out with laser scanning technology or modern photogrammetry, which are able to guarantee an adequate points cloud in terms of resolution and completeness by balancing both time consuming and costs with respect to the request of final accuracy. The BIM approach for existing buildings and even more for historical buildings is not yet a well known and deeply discussed process. There are still several choices to be addressed in the process from the survey to the model and critical issues to be discussed in the modeling step, particularly when dealing with unconventional elements such as deformed geometries or historical elements. The paper describes a comprehensive workflow that goes through the survey and the modeling, allowing to focus on critical issues and key points to obtain a reliable BIM of an existing monument. The case study employed to illustrate the workflow is the Basilica of St. Stefano in Bologna (Italy), a large monumental complex with great religious, historical and architectural assets.

  7. Cancer Patient Experience in the Teenage Young Adult Population- Key Issues and Trends Over Time: An Analysis of the United Kingdom National Cancer Patient Experience Surveys 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Caroline L; Smith, Lesley; Morris, Eva; Brocklehurst, Caroline; Daly, Sasha; Hough, Rachael E

    2017-09-01

    Improving outcomes for teenagers and young adults (TYA) with cancer is a key element of the national cancer strategy in England. Recognition of the unique needs of this group has led to the development of recommendations for specific models of care and delivery of this care through the provision of dedicated clinical units in principal treatment centers (PTCs) across the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to understand the current cancer patient experience for this patient group. We aimed to determine whether treatment experience is influenced by place of treatment and whether it has changed over time using patient-reported data from national cancer patient experience surveys. This study highlights that a prolonged pathway to diagnosis remains an issue for the TYA group and identifies areas on which quality improvement measures for TYA services should focus, including communication and involvement of the patient in treatment decisions. Positive experiences for the TYA group such as involvement in research were also highlighted. Treatment within a TYA PTC was associated with positive patient perception in a number of key areas highlighting the need for future studies to fully elucidate the impact of the full range of TYA services now available in the United Kingdom on both patient experience and outcome.

  8. Synthesizing Nanomaterials for Energy Applications: Probing Activity as a Function of Composition, Morphology and Purity to Address Key Issues Associated with Fuel Cells and Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Megan Elaine

    With the growing need to find alternative clean energy sources to fossil fuels, research into developing efficient fuel cells and batteries stands at the forefront of this grand effort. However, before mass commercialization, fundamental key issues need to be addressed. For example, fuel cells are subject to high catalyst costs and poor durability of the underlying carbon support. As a way to alleviate these issues, we have synthesized ultrathin one-dimensional (1D) alloy nanowires to probe the effect of composition, purity, and one-dimensionality upon the observed overall activity, performance, and durability. In terms of chemical composition, crystalline ultrathin PtM alloy nanowires (NWs) ('M' = Fe, Co, Ru, Cu, and Au) were generated and subsequently evaluated for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Additionally, ternary-based catalysts were synthesized (PtRuFe) in order to analyze how chemical composition influences CO tolerance as well as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) activities. In both cases, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method for the fabrication of chemically pure and crystalline systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy NWs. Moreover, in these studies, our NW systems exhibit favorable synergistic electronic effects with respect to controls. To address another fundamental issue associated with the durability of fuel cells, we have synthesized various metal oxide and perovskite materials of different sizes and chemical compositions as supports for Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Specifically, we have demonstrated favorable metal support interactions between the Pt NPs and the SrRuO3 NP supports, which lead to increased MOR activity as compared with not only the other metal oxide supports tested but also the commercial Pt NP/C standard. In terms of Li-ion batteries, LiFePO4 materials have become increasingly popular as a cathode material due to the many benefits they possess

  9. Eco-innovation, international trade, WTO and climate: Key issues for an ecological industrial policy. Documentation of a workshop on March 12, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Jutta; Kahlenborn, Walter [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Gather, Corinna (eds.) [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Within the meeting of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau, Federal Republic of Germany) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Natural Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 12th March, 2008, the following reports were held: (a) Trade Policy and Climate Change - An overview from the perspective of an ecological industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe et al.); (b) Kyoto, Post-Kyoto and the WTO (Malena Sell); (c) Climate change, trade and competitiveness (Aaron Cosby, John Drexhage); (d) Unilateral climate policy and implications for trade policy (Susanne Droege); (e) Trade in environmental goods and services relevant to climate-change mitigation: Opportunities and challenges for new industries in the European Union (Mahesh Sugathan); (f) The relevance of WTO activities and rules in the climate change debate (Ludivine Tamiotti); (g) Like-products, energy standards and labelling (Roland Ismer); (h) EC Trade policy and climate challenges: An overview of EC trade policy approaches to climate change (Ditte Juul-Joergensen); (i) Opportunities and constraints for an integrated European climate and trade policy (Ulrich Hoffmann); (j) Climate change, eco-innovation, and EU trade policy: a critical assessment (Daniel Mittler); (k) Resume: Key Issues for an Ecological Industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe, Walter Kahlenborn).

  10. Social risk, stigma and space: key concepts for understanding HIV vulnerability among black men who have sex with men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Caroline M; Garcia, Jonathan; Philbin, Morgan M; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    Black men who have sex with men in the USA face disproportionate incidence rates of HIV. This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study conducted in New York City that explored the structural and socio-cultural factors shaping men's sexual relationships with the goal of furthering understandings of their HIV-related vulnerability. Methods included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 31 Black men who have sex with men (three times each) and 17 key informants. We found that HIV vulnerability is perceived as produced through structural inequalities including economic insecurity, housing instability, and stigma and discrimination. The theoretical concepts of social risk, intersectional stigma, and the social production of space are offered as lenses through which to analyse how structural inequalities shape HIV vulnerability. We found that social risk shaped HIV vulnerability by influencing men's decisions in four domains: 1) where to find sexual partners, 2) where to engage in sexual relationships, 3) what kinds of relationships to seek, and 4) whether to carry and to use condoms. Advancing conceptualisations of social risk, we show that intersectional stigma and the social production of space are key processes through which social risk generates HIV vulnerability among Black men who have sex with men.

  11. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  12. [Reports on the impact of objects emitting electromagnetic fields on the environment: issues concerning their better understanding by non-specialists in telecommunication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieńkowski, Paweł

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents issues concerning a better understanding of reports on the impact of objects emitting electromagnetic fields on the environment among non-specialists in telecommunication. A proposed universal model of the radiation pattern of antenna base stations to widen the information contained in environmental audits as well as a vocabulary of basic technical terms in colloquial language are discussed.

  13. Toward a Greater Understanding: Utilizing Book Discussions to Effectively Engage Students in the Exploration of Women and Leadership Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Heather Inez Ricks

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the use of a book discussion as an instructional tool for developing leadership competency skills in female university students. A book discussion centered on Sheryl Sandberg's book "Lean In" was held as a means to conceptualize discourse regarding leadership issues in the arena of women and leadership in a…

  14. Understanding Domestic Violence Resource Utilization and Survivor Solutions Among Immigrant and Refugee Women. Introduction to the Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Rupaleem; Senturia, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    The articles in this issue of the "Journal of Interpersonal Violence" were generated using community-based participatory action research to explore how different cultural communities interpret and respond to DV. This partnership began in 1999 and involved Public Health?Seattle and King County, several community-based agencies, and researchers at…

  15. Do African and European energy stakeholders agree on key energy drivers in Africa? Using Q methodology to understand perceptions on energy access debates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinga, Margaret N.; Pinedo-Pascua, Irene; Vervaeke, Jonathan; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Szabó, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Q methodology to reveal stakeholder perceptions on how best to address energy issues in Africa. We sampled a group of stakeholders involved in various energy sub-sectors to uncover perspectives on how to achieve and promote access to modern energy, energy efficiency and renewable energy in Africa, whether the perceptions could be correlated to educational or geographical background and implications such patterns could have on policies and current dialogues. We found that all stakeholders agree on the need to prioritise sustainability but had different views on how to achieve sustainable energy for all in Africa, depending on the relevance given to each energy driver. Stakeholders could be categorised into four groups: (I) preference of large-scale high-impact projects; (II) supporters of targeted sectoral solutions with preference for small-scale technology and microfinance; (III) supporters of centralised solutions with preference for grid extension, and (IV) supporters of local entrepreneurship with scepticism about centralised solutions. The results show that differences in stakeholders’ perceptions can be associated with respondents’ educational but not geographical background. This implies that dialogues on energy in Africa should focus on inter-disciplinary understanding while further examining the trans-continent consensus that appears to have been established. - Highlights: • We use Q-methodology to reveal stakeholder perceptions on energy issues in Africa. • We assess whether background results in different perceptions among stakeholders. • We identify four main factor groups and only one group supports grid extension. • Results challenge assumptions that African and European viewpoints differ. • More interdisciplinary dialogue is needed while supporting geographic consensus

  16. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  17. Translating PrEP effectiveness into public health impact: key considerations for decision-makers on cost-effectiveness, price, regulatory issues, distributive justice and advocacy for access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Catherine; Macklin, Ruth; Warren, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The extraordinary feat of proving the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical trials in different populations in a variety of settings may prove to have been easier than ensuring it is used well. Decision-makers must make difficult choices to realize the promise of antiretroviral prophylaxis for their countries. This paper outlines key economic, regulatory and distributive justice issues that must be addressed for effective and acceptable PrEP implementation. In considering the role that PrEP can play in combination prevention programmes, decision-makers must determine who can benefit most from PrEP, how PrEP can be provided safely and efficiently, and what kind of health system support will ensure successful implementation. To do this, they need contextualized information on disease burden by population, analyses of how PrEP services might best be delivered, and projections of the human resource and infrastructure requirements for each potential delivery model. There are cost considerations, varying cost-effectiveness results and regulatory challenges. The principles of ethics can inform thorny discussions about who should be prioritized for oral PrEP and how best to introduce it fairly. We describe the cost-effectiveness of PrEP in different populations at higher risk of HIV exposure, its price in low- and middle-income countries, and the current regulatory situation. We explore the principles of ethics that can inform resource allocation decision-making about PrEP anchored in distributive justice, at a time when universal access to antiretroviral treatment remains to be assured. We then highlight the role of advocacy in moving the PrEP agenda forward. The time is ripe now for decisions about whether, how and for whom PrEP should be introduced into a country's HIV response. It has the potential to contribute significantly to high impact HIV prevention if it is tailored to those who can most benefit from it and if current regulatory and

  18. Procedural Issues regarding the Audit of the Management and Control of EU Funds, in Terms of Specific Key Requirements of the New Funding Period 2014 - 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Selișteanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In practice, planning the audit of management and control for each operational program and for the whole programming period, will perform during substantiation audit strategy, based on analysis and risk assessment, made at the entities involved in implementing the operational program. In what follows, we propose an assessment guidelines for the 2014- 2020 programming period, especially in terms of explanation addressed key requirements that must be used, explaining the evaluation criteria for each key requirement, providing guidance for drawing conclusions for each key requirement by each authority and finally making recommendations for establishing general conclusions regarding the management and control.

  19. Remote sensing and climate data as a key for understanding fasciolosis transmission in the Andes: review and update of an ongoing interdisciplinary project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Màrius V. Fuentes

    2006-11-01

    incorporated into these GIS projects, which should be considered the key in understanding fasciolosis transmission in the Andes.

  20. Italy’s All-Volunteer Army: An Analytical Framework for Understanding the Key Policy Issues and Choices During the Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    contribution (importo aggiuntivo pensionabile mensile, or IAPM), and an operational allowance (indennita’ impiego operativo , or 110) .62 Basic pay...1483-ARPA, 1974. Nones, Michele, L’efficienza del Sistema Difesa, Rome, Italy: Documenti IAI, 1996. O’Keefe, Mary, W. Kip Viscusi, and Richard J

  1. Mine water pollution - acid mine decant, effluent and treatment: a consideration of key emerging issues that may impact the state of the environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A major environmental problem relating to mining in many parts of the world is uncontrolled discharge of contaminated water (or decant) from abandoned mines. This document provides information on emerging issues that may affect the future state...

  2. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  3. Geochemical assessments and classification of coal mine spoils for better understanding of potential salinity issues at closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Li, Xiaofang; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas; Kirsch, Bernie

    2013-06-01

    Coal mining wastes in the form of spoils, rejects and tailings deposited on a mine lease can cause various environmental issues including contamination by toxic metals, acid mine drainage and salinity. Dissolution of salt from saline mine spoil, in particular, during rainfall events may result in local or regional dispersion of salts through leaching or in the accumulation of dissolved salts in soil pore water and inhibition of plant growth. The salinity in coal mine environments is from the geogenic salt accumulations and weathering of spoils upon surface exposure. The salts are mainly sulfates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium and sodium. The objective of the research is to investigate and assess the source and mobility of salts and trace elements in various spoil types, thereby predicting the leaching behavior of the salts and trace elements from spoils which have similar geochemical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis, total digestion, sequential extraction and column experiments were conducted to achieve the objectives. Sodium and chloride concentrations best represented salinity of the spoils, which might originate from halite. Electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the leachate decreased sharply with increasing leaching cycles. Leaching of trace elements was not significant in the studied area. Geochemical classification of spoil/waste defined for rehabilitation purposes was useful to predict potential salinity, which corresponded with the classification from cluster analysis based on leaching data of major elements. Certain spoil groups showed high potential salinity by releasing high sodium and chloride concentrations. Therefore, the leaching characteristics of sites having saline susceptible spoils require monitoring, and suitable remediation technologies have to be applied.

  4. Analysis of Variance of the Effects of a Project’s Location on Key Issues and Challenges in Post-Disaster Reconstruction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzulkarnaen Ismail

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available After a disaster, the reconstruction phase is driven by immediate challenges. One of the main challenges in the post-disaster period is the way that reconstruction projects are implemented. Reconstruction cannot move forward until some complex issues are settled. The purposes of this research are to highlight the issues and challenges in post-disaster reconstruction (PDR projects and to determine the significant differences between the issues and challenges in different locations where PDR projects are carried out. The researchers collected data within international non-governmental organisations (INGOs on their experience of working with PDR projects. The findings of this research provide the foundation on which to build strategies for avoiding project failures; this may be useful for PDR project practitioners in the future.

  5. Mine water pollution - acid mine decant, effluent and treatment: a consideration of key emerging issues that may impact the State of the Environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Field. For instance, in April 2006 the NSW 4 MINING: ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH CONCERNS Government issued BHP Billiton a five-ye a r coal exploration licence covering 344 squar e kms at Caroona in the Liver pool Plains region of NSW. In August 2008..., Criminal Law and Environmental Law. Amicus Books An Introduction Amicus Books is the initiative of the Icfai University Press to publish a series of books in various segments of law with a special focus on emerging issues. These books seek to provide...

  6. Key Findings and Recommendations from the Coös Youth Study: Research from the First Half of the Study. Regional Issue Brief Number 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Michael S.; Jaffee, Eleanor M.

    2014-01-01

    In this brief, authors Michael Staunton and Eleanor Jaffee review the key findings and recommendations from research conducted in the first half of the Coös Youth Study, which began in 2008 and is planned to continue through 2018. The study explores young people's decisions about their educational and job opportunities in rural northern New…

  7. Understanding environmental and climatic influences on regional differences and spatio-temporalscale issues of dengue fever transmission in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serman, E. A.; Akanda, A. S. S.; Ginsberg, H. S.; Couret, J.

    2015-12-01

    Each year, there are an estimated 50-100 million cases of dengue fever worldwide, roughly 30 times the number of cases as 50 years ago, with some estimates even higher. Puerto Rico (PR) has experienced epidemic dengue activity since 1963, and the disease is currently endemic. Since 1990 there have been 4 large epidemics, the most recent in 2010 where there were nearly 27,000 cases reported, amounting to almost 1% of the island's total population. Because no vaccine is currently available, effective control is dependent on our ability to understand the complex relationship between environmental factors, mosquito vector ecology, and disease epidemiology. Dengue virus is transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, as humans are the preferred host for Ae. aegypti. The purpose of our analysis is to assess temporal and spatial patterns of dengue transmission in PR and relate this to both climatic and anthropogenic factors. Unlike past studies, which have used San Juan to represent the island as a whole, our research will investigate regional dynamics in dengue transmission, as preliminary results have shown significant differences in population density, disease incidence, and environmental and climatic variables. Data from the Passive Dengue Surveillance System of CDC, meteorological observations from NCDC, and remote sensing data from USGS and NASA will be used together to identify relationships between climate, urbanization, and dengue incidence for PR at various spatial and temporal scales. Preliminary climatic factors considered include precipitation, temperature, humidity, and soil moisture. Finally, we will assess measures of urbanization such as land cover, land use, population density, and infrastructure that can make regional differences in dengue incidence each year. Results from this study could help create early warning systems for dengue surveillance in Puerto Rico, and develop techniques that can be applied to other areas of the world.

  8. Chiropractic Health Care: A National Study of Cost of Education, Service Utilization, Number of Practicing Doctors of Chiropractic, and Other Key Policy Issues. Volumes I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kuster, Thomas, Jr.

    Results from the first federally sponsored study of the chiropractic health care profession are presented, and a broad range of facts and issues of concern to policy-makers, the profession, and the public are described. The two-year project included three national surveys of: service providers (doctors of chiropractic in practice more than two…

  9. New Approaches for Analyzing Two Key and Related Issues in Faculty Salaries: Compression and Cost of Living. IR Applications, Volume 26, June 1, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    In the university setting, the issue of faculty morale typically has been linked to a variety of perceived inequities, including inequities in faculty salary. New approaches for analyzing two different, but related, types of inequity are proposed. One approach addresses whether salary compression, often perceived by faculty to exist, actually does…

  10. From the feasibility assessment to the licensing: application organisation of the safety case interactive development of engineering/pa/knowledge management, key issues addressed by geoscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahen, B.; Voinis, S.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis conducted within the Dossier 2005 exercise (ANDRA 2005b) shows that in all envisioned situations (normal or altered) through complementary indicators, the repository and surrounding host rock fulfill the three major safety functions, without relying excessively on any single component no elements that jeopardize the technical feasibility. In any event, the Callovo- Oxfordian host rock plays a major role in immobilizing radionuclides and in delaying and reducing their migration to the environment. In all scenarios even accidental or altered the repository performance provides significant margins to the dose objective recommended by the RFS III.2.f. In conclusion, Dossier 2005 Argile supports, with both qualitative and quantitative arguments as results from a robust methodology and a multidisciplinary iterative process, the feasibility of a reversible and safe repository in Meuse-Haute-Marne Callovo-Oxfordian clay. Some key design features and orientations have been developed to meet safety requirements. The various reviews of the ANDRA Dossier Argile that was published in 2005 and the existing design experience has helped to identify the key areas needing further development and design evolution in order to apply for a license to build a repository in 2015 according to the new French Act of 2006. (A.L.B.)

  11. Male Depression: Understanding the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the time? Drinking too much? These unhealthy coping strategies may be clues that you have male depression. ... Engage in activities you enjoy, such as ball games, fishing or a hobby. Health. Live a healthy ...

  12. [Key issues in researching spirituality and religiosity in the light of the ASPIRES instrument (Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments) Developed by Ralph Piedmont].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcsányi, Teodóra; Ittzés, András; Horváth-Szabó, Katalin; Martos, Tamás; Szabó, Tünde

    2010-01-01

    Our article reviews the major questions raised by the psychological research of spirituality and religion, as well as the historical background of this research area. In our view the scientific exploration of spirituality and religion constitutes a process that allows for both empirical and hermeneutical approaches and as such it is open for a dialogue with other branches of social sciences. The most important topics addressed by the article include: 1. possible conceptualizations of the terms spirituality and religion; the connection between the two; similarities and differences; 2. the interpretation of spirituality as a dimension of the personality; 3. the question of measurement of spirituality and tools of its measurement; 4. the effects of spirituality; and 5. the culture relatedness of research data. Finally we demonstrate how the ASPIRES scale recently developed by R. Piedmont, its theoretical approach, development process, and empirical results try to answer these key questions.

  13. Comparability and Usability: Key issues in the design of internet forms for New Zealand’s 2006 Census of Populations and Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Potaka

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing internet questionnaires to collect data that will ultimately be comparable with the data collected from paper questionnaires can present a number of challenges for developers. This paper discusses the design and development of internet forms for use in a mixed-mode Census in New Zealand in 2006. Using experiences from the design and testing of prototype forms, it describes design features intended to take full advantage of the capabilities of the internet mode, while preserving the qualities of paper based responding to help prevent mode effects. The discussion also highlights the role of usability testing as a key tool in evaluating the success of those design strategies and ensuring that the forms would be simple and easy to use.

  14. Furthering the quality agenda in Aboriginal community controlled health services: understanding the relationship between accreditation, continuous quality improvement and national key performance indicator reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, Beverly; Gardner, Karen; McAullay, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A rapidly expanding interest in quality in the Aboriginal-community-controlled health sector has led to widespread uptake of accreditation using more than one set of standards, a proliferation of continuous quality improvement programs and the introduction of key performance indicators. As yet, there has been no overarching logic that shows how they relate to each other, with consequent confusion within and outside the sector. We map the three approaches to the Framework for Performance Assessment in Primary Health Care, demonstrating their key differences and complementarity. There needs to be greater attention in both policy and practice to the purposes and alignment of the three approaches if they are to embed a system-wide focus that supports quality improvement at the service level.

  15. Key issues in development of thermoelectric power generators: High figure-of-merit materials and their highly conducting interfaces with metallic interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswal, Dinesh K.; Basu, Ranita; Singh, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This review summarizes recent progress made on the fabrication of efficient thermoelectric power generators, including the scientific and technological challenges involved therein. - Highlights: • Issues with the development of efficient thermoelectric power generators are discussed. • High figure-of-merit p-/n-type materials and their highly conducting interface with metallic interconnect is necessary. • Present status of low, mid and high temperature thermoelectric materials and power generators is summarized. - Abstract: Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are devices that convert temperature differences into electrical energy, which work on the thermoelectric phenomena known as Seebeck effect. The thermoelectric phenomena have widely been used for heating and cooling applications, however electric power generation has only been limited to niche applications e.g. thermoelectric power generators for space missions. TEG provides one of cleanest energy conversion method, which is noise-free, virtually maintenance free and can continuously produces power for several years under ambient conditions. In recent years, energy generation through thermoelectric harvesting has witnessed an increased interest for various applications, including tapping waste heat from the exhaust of vehicles, from industries, etc. The development of an efficient TEG requires the fulfillment of several factors, which includes availability of n- and p-type thermoelectric materials with high figure-of-merit (ZT), preparation of ohmic contacts between thermoelements and metallic interconnects and management of maximum heat transfer though the device. In this review, we present an overview on the various aspects of device development i.e. from synthesis of high ZT thermoelectric materials to issues & design aspects of the TEG. A discussion on the various strategies employed to improve ZT is described. It is shown that a ZT of >2 has widely been reported in literature, which

  16. Preparing tomorrow's network today: RTE at the crossroads of the European electricity system. Cross-border electricity interconnections Key issues and figures - 2014 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    The interconnected electricity transmission network is a key element for ensuring security of supply, the creation of a single market and the integration of renewable energies. RTE and its European partners provide strengthened coordination by the use of interconnections to ensure solidarity between European countries. Interconnections also allow an electricity supplier to sell its energy to a customer located in another country in Europe. They contribute on a European scale to optimising the use of production means and in particular the integration of variable renewable energies. RTE, within the EnTSo-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity), contributes to the publication of a common vision of the future of networks by 2030. The needs for new interconnection capacity are identified in the ten-year European network development plan (TYnDP) on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis. France is interconnected to all its neighbours via many cross-border links. However interconnection capacity with the various countries and its use differ widely. The usage profile of the interconnections is specific to each border and varies according to: - the characteristics of the production mix of each country, and in particular the level of production of renewable energies. - the level of consumption, which depends on the season, the type of day (working or non-working) the time of day, etc. - import and export capacity, which may be different depending on the internal constraints of the networks of each country

  17. A String Number-Line Lesson Sequence to Promote Students' Relative Thinking and Understanding of Scale, Key Elements of Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    This article describes part of a study in which researchers designed lesson sequences based around using a string number line to help teachers support children's development of relative thinking and understanding of linear scale. In the first year of the study, eight teachers of Years 3-5 participated in four one-day professional development…

  18. "Like a Distant Cousin": Bi-Cultural Negotiation as Key Perspective in Understanding the Evolving Relationship of Future Reform Rabbis with Israel and the Jewish People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszkat-Barkan, Michal; Grant, Lisa D.

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the impact of a year studying in Israel on Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (HUC-JIR) rabbinical students' emotional connection toward and knowledge about the State of Israel and the Jewish People. We want to better understand the students' beliefs, ideas, and behaviors that emerge from their experience…

  19. EnerFuture Energy Scenarios to 2035 'Understanding our Energy Future'. Key graphs and analysis, Enerdata - Global Energy Forecasting - February 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The EnerFuture service provides projections to 2035 of energy supply and demand across the world, powered by the POLES model, to help you with what to expect in the energy industry in the mid-term. Our energy forecasting team have developed three key energy scenarios (Balance, Emergence and Renaissance) to illustrate possible futures. Balance scenario: Balance provides an outlook of the energy system up to 2035 based on current policies and trends. Sustained growth of China and other emerging countries is a powerful driver of global energy demand, but confirmed energy policy commitments in several regions play a key role in controlling the pace of growth. However, non-coordinated policies result in soaring CO 2 emissions across the world and energy prices rise. Emergence scenario: This scenario explores the implications of more stringent climate policies, with more ambitious efforts on energy efficiency, initiatives to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and a real emergence of renewable technologies. Europe goes beyond its -20% targets by 2020, and the OECD and emerging countries meet their Copenhagen objectives. Following this, a new green deal is launched to reduce world emissions by a factor of 2 by 2050. Renaissance scenario: With strong efforts in the exploitation and production of unconventional oil and gas resources, the world encounters a fossil fuels renaissance with the appearance of new key actors and ultimately new geopolitical configurations changing the energy independence of several countries. For climate efforts, this new paradigm leads to progressively weaker policies. Further analysis and key findings are available here: - Increasing economic activity and wealth drives energy consumption, in a balance between energy prices and innovation; - As Non-OECD exceeds OECD oil demand, massive financial flows underlie the shifts in global oil trade; - Optimistic resource assumptions and moderate production costs would lead to an oil production Renaissance

  20. Review of Current State of the Art and Key Design Issues With Potential Solutions for Liquid Hydrogen Cryogenic Storage Tank Structures for Aircraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Arnold, Steven M.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Manderscheid, Jane M.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2006-01-01

    Due to its high specific energy content, liquid hydrogen (LH2) is emerging as an alternative fuel for future aircraft. As a result, there is a need for hydrogen tank storage systems, for these aircraft applications, that are expected to provide sufficient capacity for flight durations ranging from a few minutes to several days. It is understood that the development of a large, lightweight, reusable cryogenic liquid storage tank is crucial to meet the goals of and supply power to hydrogen-fueled aircraft, especially for long flight durations. This report provides an annotated review (including the results of an extensive literature review) of the current state of the art of cryogenic tank materials, structural designs, and insulation systems along with the identification of key challenges with the intent of developing a lightweight and long-term storage system for LH2. The broad classes of insulation systems reviewed include foams (including advanced aerogels) and multilayer insulation (MLI) systems with vacuum. The MLI systems show promise for long-term applications. Structural configurations evaluated include single- and double-wall constructions, including sandwich construction. Potential wall material candidates are monolithic metals as well as polymer matrix composites and discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. For short-duration flight applications, simple tank designs may suffice. Alternatively, for longer duration flight applications, a double-wall construction with a vacuum-based insulation system appears to be the most optimum design. The current trends in liner material development are reviewed in the case that a liner is required to minimize or eliminate the loss of hydrogen fuel through permeation.

  1. Epidemiology: Past, Present, and Future Impacts on Understanding Disease Dynamics and Improving Plant Disease Management-A Summary of Focus Issue Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiambo, P S; Yuen, J; van den Bosch, F; Madden, L V

    2017-10-01

    Epidemiology has made significant contributions to plant pathology by elucidating the general principles underlying the development of disease epidemics. This has resulted in a greatly improved theoretical and empirical understanding of the dynamics of disease epidemics in time and space, predictions of disease outbreaks or the need for disease control in real-time basis, and tactical and strategic solutions to disease problems. Availability of high-resolution experimental data at multiple temporal and spatial scales has now provided a platform to test and validate theories on the spread of diseases at a wide range of spatial scales ranging from the local to the landscape level. Relatively new approaches in plant disease epidemiology, ranging from network to information theory, coupled with the availability of large-scale datasets and the rapid development of computer technology, are leading to revolutionary thinking about epidemics that can result in considerable improvement of strategic and tactical decision making in the control and management of plant diseases. Methods that were previously restricted to topics such as population biology or evolution are now being employed in epidemiology to enable a better understanding of the forces that drive the development of plant disease epidemics in space and time. This Focus Issue of Phytopathology features research articles that address broad themes in epidemiology including social and political consequences of disease epidemics, decision theory and support, pathogen dispersal and disease spread, disease assessment and pathogen biology and disease resistance. It is important to emphasize that these articles are just a sample of the types of research projects that are relevant to epidemiology. Below, we provide a succinct summary of the articles that are published in this Focus Issue .

  2. Understanding key performance indicators for breast support: An analysis of breast support effects on biomechanical, physiological and subjective measures during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risius, Debbie; Milligan, Alexandra; Berns, Jason; Brown, Nicola; Scurr, Joanna

    2017-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of breast support previous studies monitored breast kinematics and kinetics, subjective feedback, muscle activity (EMG), ground reaction forces (GRFs) and physiological measures in isolation. Comparing these variables within one study will establish the key performance variables that distinguish between breast supports during activities such as running. This study investigates the effects of changes in breast support on biomechanical, physiological and subjective measures during running. Ten females (34D) ran for 10 min in high and low breast supports, and for 2 min bare breasted (2.8 m·s -1 ). Breast and body kinematics, EMG, expired air and heart rate were recorded. GRFs were recorded during 10 m overground runs (2.8 m·s -1 ) and subjective feedback obtained after each condition. Of the 62 variables measured, 22 kinematic and subjective variables were influenced by changes in breast support. Willingness to exercise, time lag and superio-inferior breast velocity were most affected. GRFs, EMG and physiological variables were unaffected by breast support changes during running. Breast displacement reduction, although previously advocated, was not the most sensitive variable to breast support changes during running. Instead breast support products should be assessed using a battery of performance indicators, including the key kinematic and subjective variables identified here.

  3. Integrative understanding of emergent brain properties, quantum brain hypotheses and connectome alterations in dementia are key challenges to conquer Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo O Kuljiš

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The biological substrate for cognition remains a challenge as much as defining this function of living beings. Here, we examine some of the challenges to understand normal and disordered cognition in humans. We use aspects of Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders to illustrate how the wealth of information at many conceptually separate, even decoupled, physical scales — in particular at the Molecular Neuroscience versus Systems Neuroscience/Neuropsychology levels — presents a challenge in terms of true interdisciplinary integration towards a coherent understanding. These unresolved dilemmas include critically the as yet untested Quantum Brain hypothesis, and the embryonic attempts to develop and define the so-called Connectome in humans and in non-human models of disease. To mitigate these challenges, we propose a scheme incorporating the vast array of scales of the space and time (space-time manifold from at least the subatomic through cognitive-behavioral dimensions of inquiry, to achieve a new understanding of both normal and disordered cognition, that is essential for a new era of progress in the Generative Sciences and its application to translational efforts for disease prevention and treatment.

  4. Integrative Understanding of Emergent Brain Properties, Quantum Brain Hypotheses, and Connectome Alterations in Dementia are Key Challenges to Conquer Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljiš, Rodrigo O

    2010-01-01

    The biological substrate for cognition remains a challenge as much as defining this function of living beings. Here, we examine some of the difficulties to understand normal and disordered cognition in humans. We use aspects of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders to illustrate how the wealth of information at many conceptually separate, even intellectually decoupled, physical scales - in particular at the Molecular Neuroscience versus Systems Neuroscience/Neuropsychology levels - presents a challenge in terms of true interdisciplinary integration towards a coherent understanding. These unresolved dilemmas include critically the as yet untested quantum brain hypothesis, and the embryonic attempts to develop and define the so-called connectome in humans and in non-human models of disease. To mitigate these challenges, we propose a scheme incorporating the vast array of scales of the space and time (space-time) manifold from at least the subatomic through cognitive-behavioral dimensions of inquiry, to achieve a new understanding of both normal and disordered cognition, that is essential for a new era of progress in the Generative Sciences and its application to translational efforts for disease prevention and treatment.

  5. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Methods Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990–2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. Results We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. Conclusions In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may

  6. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Charles, Joanna Mary; Lloyd-Williams, Huw

    2013-10-24

    If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990-2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may find it useful to think in this broader

  7. Modern Microbial Ecosystems are a Key to Understanding Our Biosphere's Early Evolution and its Contributions To The Atmosphere and Rock Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The survival of our early biosphere depended upon efficient coordination anion- diverse microbial populations. Microbial mats exhibit a 3.46-billion-year fossil record, thus they are the oldest known ecosystems. Photosynthetic microbial mats were key because, today, sunlight powers more than 99 percent of global primary productivity. Thus photosynthetic ecosystems have affected the atmosphere profoundly and have created the most pervasive, easily-detected fossils. Photosynthetic biospheres elsewhere will be most detectible via telescopes or spacecraft. As a part of the Astrobiology Institute, our Ames Microbial Ecosystems group examines the roles played by ecological processes in the early evolution of our biosphere, as recorded in geologic fossils and in the macromolecules of living cells: (1) We are defining the microbial mat microenvironment, which was an important milieu for early evolution. (2) We are comparing mats in contrasting environments to discern strategies of adaptation and diversification, traits that were key for long-term survival. (3) We have selected sites that mimic key environmental attributes of early Earth and thereby focus upon evolutionary adaptations to long-term changes in the global environment. (4) Our studies of gas exchange contribute to better estimates of biogenic gases in Earth's early atmosphere. This group therefore directly addresses the question: How have the Earth and its biosphere influenced each other over time Our studies strengthen the systematics for interpreting the microbial fossil record and thereby enhance astrobiological studies of martian samples. Our models of biogenic gas emissions will enhance models of atmospheres that might be detected on inhabited extrasolar planets. This work therefore also addresses the question: How can other biospheres be recogniZed" Our choice of field sites helps us explore Earth's evolving early environment. For example, modern mats that occupy thermal springs and certain freshwater

  8. BIOPROTA Key Issues in Biosphere Aspects of Assessment of the Long-term Impact of Contaminant Releases Associated with Radioactive Waste Management. Theme 2: Task 7: Modelling Processes in the Geosphere Biosphere Interface Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Smith, G.; Aguero, A.; Albrecht, A.; Bath, A.; Benhabderrahmane, H.; Van Dorp, F.; Kautsky, U.; Klos, R.; Laciok, A.; Milodowski, T.; Selroos, J.O.; Simon, I.; Texier, D.; Thorne, M.; Willans, M.

    2005-01-01

    This document reports on BIOPROTA Theme 2, task 7 which investigated modelling processes in the geosphere- biosphere interface zone (GBIZ) during performance assessments. Modelling issues in the treatment of the GBIZ are identified. A large proportion of the identified issues concern modelling radionuclide behaviour in near surface aquifers which are subject to relatively high gradients in chemical and other conditions. Other key issues concern transfer of radionuclides through the unsaturated zone above aquifers, bearing in mind the scope for erosion and variations in the level of the phreatic surface and also the consideration of environmental change. A number of research areas are highlighted that are aimed at addressing each of the identified issues in the treatment of GBIZ. These include (i) Developing of a current statement of continuing problems, and hence clarify and justify the need to do more; (ii) Conducting a review of site investigations as they have been done already, and determine whether they meet performance assessment requirements; (iii) Identifying scenarios and FEPs considered in current treatments; and, (iv) Conducting source-pathway-receptor analysis to demonstrate comprehensiveness of the overall scenario identification process. The objectives of these activities would be to determine the potential to reduce uncertainties and/or conservative assumptions in assessment of radionuclide transfer from the geosphere to biosphere domains, taking account of environmental change; and to develop guidance on site-characterisation needs at different types of site, as regards the near-surface features. (Author) 23 refs

  9. BIOPROTA Key Issues in Biosphere Aspects of Assessment of the Long-term Impact of Contaminant Releases Associated with Radioactive Waste Management Theme 2: Task 7:Modelling Processes in the Geosphere Biosphere Interface Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo, P.; Smith, G.; Aguero, A.; Albrecht, A.; Bath, A.; Benhabderrahmane, H.; Van Dorp, F.; Kautsky, U.; Klos, R.; Laciok, A.; Milodowski, T.; Selroos, J.O.; Simon, I.; Texier, D.; Thorne, M.; Willans, M.

    2005-07-01

    This document reports on BIOPROTA Theme 2, task 7 which investigated modelling processes in the geosphere- biosphere interface zone (GBIZ) during performance assessments. Modelling issues in the treatment of the GBIZ are identified. A large proportion of the identified issues concern modelling radionuclide behaviour in near surface aquifers which are subject to relatively high gradients in chemical and other conditions. Other key issues concern transfer of radionuclides through the unsaturated zone above aquifers, bearing in mind the scope for erosion and variations in the level of the phreatic surface and also the consideration of environmental change. A number of research areas are highlighted that are aimed at addressing each of the identified issues in the treatment of GBIZ. These include (i) Developing of a current statement of continuing problems, and hence clarify and justify the need to do more; (ii) Conducting a review of site investigations as they have been done already, and determine whether they meet performance assessment requirements; (iii) Identifying scenarios and FEPs considered in current treatments; and, (iv) Conducting source-pathway-receptor analysis to demonstrate comprehensiveness of the overall scenario identification process. The objectives of these activities would be to determine the potential to reduce uncertainties and/or conservative assumptions in assessment of radionuclide transfer from the geosphere to biosphere domains, taking account of environmental change; and to develop guidance on site-characterisation needs at different types of site, as regards the near-surface features. (Author) 23 refs.

  10. Establishing a library of resources to help people understand key concepts in assessing treatment claims-The "Critical thinking and Appraisal Resource Library" (CARL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, John C; Chalmers, Iain; Atkinson, Patricia; Badenoch, Douglas; Oxman, Andrew D; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Nordheim, Lena; Krause, L Kendall; Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven; Burls, Amanda; Mosconi, Paola; Hoffmann, Tammy; Cusack, Leila; Albarqouni, Loai; Glasziou, Paul

    2017-01-01

    People are frequently confronted with untrustworthy claims about the effects of treatments. Uncritical acceptance of these claims can lead to poor, and sometimes dangerous, treatment decisions, and wasted time and money. Resources to help people learn to think critically about treatment claims are scarce, and they are widely scattered. Furthermore, very few learning-resources have been assessed to see if they improve knowledge and behavior. Our objectives were to develop the Critical thinking and Appraisal Resource Library (CARL). This library was to be in the form of a database containing learning resources for those who are responsible for encouraging critical thinking about treatment claims, and was to be made available online. We wished to include resources for groups we identified as 'intermediaries' of knowledge, i.e. teachers of schoolchildren, undergraduates and graduates, for example those teaching evidence-based medicine, or those communicating treatment claims to the public. In selecting resources, we wished to draw particular attention to those resources that had been formally evaluated, for example, by the creators of the resource or independent research groups. CARL was populated with learning-resources identified from a variety of sources-two previously developed but unmaintained inventories; systematic reviews of learning-interventions; online and database searches; and recommendations by members of the project group and its advisors. The learning-resources in CARL were organised by 'Key Concepts' needed to judge the trustworthiness of treatment claims, and were made available online by the James Lind Initiative in Testing Treatments interactive (TTi) English (www.testingtreatments.org/category/learning-resources).TTi English also incorporated the database of Key Concepts and the Claim Evaluation Tools developed through the Informed Healthcare Choices (IHC) project (informedhealthchoices.org). We have created a database of resources called CARL

  11. Establishing a library of resources to help people understand key concepts in assessing treatment claims-The "Critical thinking and Appraisal Resource Library" (CARL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Castle

    Full Text Available People are frequently confronted with untrustworthy claims about the effects of treatments. Uncritical acceptance of these claims can lead to poor, and sometimes dangerous, treatment decisions, and wasted time and money. Resources to help people learn to think critically about treatment claims are scarce, and they are widely scattered. Furthermore, very few learning-resources have been assessed to see if they improve knowledge and behavior.Our objectives were to develop the Critical thinking and Appraisal Resource Library (CARL. This library was to be in the form of a database containing learning resources for those who are responsible for encouraging critical thinking about treatment claims, and was to be made available online. We wished to include resources for groups we identified as 'intermediaries' of knowledge, i.e. teachers of schoolchildren, undergraduates and graduates, for example those teaching evidence-based medicine, or those communicating treatment claims to the public. In selecting resources, we wished to draw particular attention to those resources that had been formally evaluated, for example, by the creators of the resource or independent research groups.CARL was populated with learning-resources identified from a variety of sources-two previously developed but unmaintained inventories; systematic reviews of learning-interventions; online and database searches; and recommendations by members of the project group and its advisors. The learning-resources in CARL were organised by 'Key Concepts' needed to judge the trustworthiness of treatment claims, and were made available online by the James Lind Initiative in Testing Treatments interactive (TTi English (www.testingtreatments.org/category/learning-resources.TTi English also incorporated the database of Key Concepts and the Claim Evaluation Tools developed through the Informed Healthcare Choices (IHC project (informedhealthchoices.org.We have created a database of resources

  12. Key data. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Energy actors and economical energy context are changing: the world extension and the opening of markets calls for reliable and convenient indicators to understand the energy choices and stakes of France with respect to European and world data. The examination of this 2001 issue of the key energy data will help the reader in his understanding of the French energy policy which is mainly based on: the imperative security of energy supplies, the limitation of CO 2 emissions and the respect of the environment, the growth of economic competitiveness, the keeping of public utilities, and the employment. The energy data are presented in tables, graphs, curves and charts. The production, consumption, and foreign market data of France and of the rest of the world are presented successively for: the overall energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, coal and electricity. Renewable energy data are presented for Europe and France (consumption, production, wind energy, solar energy, heat distribution networks, bio-fuels, biogas, biomass). A chapter concerns the rational use of energy in the industry, in transports and in the residential and tertiary sectors. The emissions of pollutants (CH 4 , CO, CO 2 , VOCs, N 2 O, NO x , SO 2 ) are given for France and compared to the worldwide CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)

  13. Teachers' understandings and enactments of social and environmental justice issues in the classroom: What's "critical" in the manufacturing of road-smart squirrels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, Alison J.

    How do five new teachers understand and enact counter-hegemonic pedagogies in their own classes? This study developed from this question. The question arose as I taught critical environmental education, a counter-hegemonic pedagogy, to preservice science teachers. I encouraged the exploration of social and environmental injustices and how they function to reproduce dominant economic agendas. To understand how five teachers, in the second year of their practice and my former students, made sense of the critical environmental education I taught them, I used Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology as my research frame. Gadamer argues that meaning develops through dialogue, so data collection occurred mainly through lively research conversations over leisurely dinners. As practicing teachers, the six of us jointly explored taken-for-granted meanings and actions in our everyday pedagogical experiences. In these conversations we made meaning (the hermeneutic aspect) of the lived experiences (phenomenological aspect) of incorporating critical environmental education into our practices. This led me to a deeper understanding and increased awareness of how science education reform agendas have influenced and shaped our individual science pedagogies. The analytic lens of critical education showed that these teachers were strongly influenced by the dominant science reform agenda. Regardless of the science curriculum, or the strong social and environmental beliefs some of these teachers held, they did not perceive the teaching of the social and environmental justice issues to be 'critical' or 'their job.' They demonstrated a belief that it was 'critical' to teach well-defined, "hard science" facts. Student success, hence teacher success, involved playing the academic game well and gaining long-term financial security. Re/viewing the data stories through the additional analytic lens of feminist poststructuralism, I saw how dominant discourse constructs the identity of teachers

  14. Understanding the relationship between vegetation phenology and productivity across key dryland ecosystem types through the integration of PhenoCam, satellite, and eddy covariance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D.; Scott, R. L.; Moore, D. J.; Biederman, J. A.; Smith, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) - defined as remotely sensed seasonal variations in vegetation greenness - is intrinsically linked to seasonal carbon uptake, and is thus commonly used as a proxy for vegetation productivity (gross primary productivity; GPP). Yet, the relationship between LSP and GPP remains uncertain, particularly for understudied dryland ecosystems characterized by relatively large spatial and temporal variability. Here, we explored the relationship between LSP and the phenology of GPP for three dominant dryland ecosystem types, and we evaluated how these relationships change as a function of spatial and temporal scale. We focused on three long-term dryland eddy covariance flux tower sites: Walnut Gulch Lucky Hills Shrubland (WHS), Walnut Gulch Kendall Grassland (WKG), and Santa Rita Mesquite (SRM). We analyzed daily canopy-level, 16-day 30m, and 8-day 500m time series of greenness indices from PhenoCam, Landsat 7 ETM+/Landsat 8 OLI, and MODIS, respectively. We first quantified the impact of spatial scale by temporally resampling canopy-level PhenoCam, 30m Landsat, and 500m MODIS to 16-day intervals and then comparing against flux tower GPP estimates. We next quantified the impact of temporal scale by spatially resampling daily PhenoCam, 16-day Landsat, and 8-day MODIS to 500m time series and then comparing against flux tower GPP estimates. We find evidence of critical periods of decoupling between LSP and the phenology of GPP that vary according to the spatial and temporal scale, and as a function of ecosystem type. Our results provide key insight into dryland LSP and GPP dynamics that can be used in future efforts to improve ecosystem process models and satellite-based vegetation productivity algorithms.

  15. Understanding the Constitutive and Induced Biosynthesis of Mono- and Sesquiterpenes in Grapes (Vitis vinifera): A Key to Unlocking the Biochemical Secrets of Unique Grape Aroma Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wilfried; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-12-16

    The present review integrates current knowledge on mono- and sesquiterpenes in grapes with a special focus on biochemical and physiological aspects. Recent research has impressively shown the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine (Vitis sp). The 69 putatively functional mono- and sesquiterpene synthases that were identified by the analysis of the updated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome deliver the scaffolds for structural diversity and display a surprising expansion of the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family in grapevine when compared to other plants like Arabidopsis thaliana (32 TPS). While monoterpenes occur as highly functionalized compounds and are stored as their corresponding glycoconjugates in berry tissues, sesquiterpenes are mainly present as unsaturated hydrocarbons and accumulate in the epicuticular wax layer of intact berries. Interestingly, both groups of terpenes appear to be involved as volatile organic compounds in plant defense and their biosynthesis is enhanced via the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. These novel aspects will help to understand how environmental cues affect the genes and enzymes of various metabolic pathways of relevant wine aroma compounds with numerous links to enology and wine flavor chemistry.

  16. Understanding the distribution of marine megafauna in the English channel region: identifying key habitats for conservation within the busiest seaway on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Catherine M; Brereton, Tom; Dell'Amico, Florence; Johns, David G; Cucknell, Anna-C; Patrick, Samantha C; Penrose, Rod; Ridoux, Vincent; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Stephan, Eric; Votier, Stephen C; Williams, Ruth; Godley, Brendan J

    2014-01-01

    The temperate waters of the North-Eastern Atlantic have a long history of maritime resource richness and, as a result, the European Union is endeavouring to maintain regional productivity and biodiversity. At the intersection of these aims lies potential conflict, signalling the need for integrated, cross-border management approaches. This paper focuses on the marine megafauna of the region. This guild of consumers was formerly abundant, but is now depleted and protected under various national and international legislative structures. We present a meta-analysis of available megafauna datasets using presence-only distribution models to characterise suitable habitat and identify spatially-important regions within the English Channel and southern bight of the North Sea. The integration of studies from dedicated and opportunistic observer programmes in the United Kingdom and France provide a valuable perspective on the spatial and seasonal distribution of various taxonomic groups, including large pelagic fishes and sharks, marine mammals, seabirds and marine turtles. The Western English Channel emerged as a hotspot of biodiversity for megafauna, while species richness was low in the Eastern English Channel. Spatial conservation planning is complicated by the highly mobile nature of marine megafauna, however they are important components of the marine environment and understanding their distribution is a first crucial step toward their inclusion into marine ecosystem management.

  17. A method to quantify quinone reaction rates with wine relevant nucleophiles: a key to the understanding of oxidative loss of varietal thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolantonaki, Maria; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2012-08-29

    Quinones are key reactive electrophilic oxidation intermediates in wine. To address this question, the model 4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone was prepared to study how it reacts with wine nucleophiles. Those investigated included the varietal volatile thiols 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP), 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH), and 2-furanmethanethiol (2FMT); hydrogen sulfide (H2S); glutathione (GSH); sulfur dioxide; ascorbic acid (AA); and the amino acids methionine (Met) and phenylalanine (Phe) in the first kinetic study of these reactions. Products were observed in fair to quantitative yields, but yields were negligible for the amino acids. The reaction rates of 4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone toward the nucleophiles were quantified by UV-vis spectrometry monitoring the loss of the quinone chromophore. The observed reaction rates spanned three orders of magnitude, from the unreactive amino acids (Met and Phe) (KNu = 0.0002 s(-1)) to the most reactive nucleophile, hydrogen sulfide (KH2S = 0.4188 s(-1)). Analysis of the kinetic data showed three categories. The first group consisted of the amino acids (Met and Phe) having rates of essentially zero. Next, phloroglucinol has a low rate (KPhl = 0.0064 s(-1)). The next group of compounds includes the volatile thiols having increasing reactions rates K as steric inhibition declined (K4MSP = 0.0060 s(-1), K3SH = 0.0578 s(-1), and K2FMT = 0.0837 s(-1)). These volatile thiols (4MSP, 3SH, 2FMT), important for varietal aromas, showed lower K values than those of the third group, the wine antioxidant compounds (SO2, GSH, AA) and H2S (KNu = 0.3343-0.4188 s(-1)). The characterization of the reaction products between the nucleophiles and 4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone was performed by using HPLC with high-resolution MS analysis. This study presents the first evidence that the antioxidant compounds, H2S, and wine flavanols could react preferentially with oxidation-induced quinones under specific conditions, providing insight into a mechanism for

  18. The Long-term deformation of the Longmen Shan (Sichuan, China), a key to understand the present structure of the eastern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaghi, Laura; de Sigoyer, Julia; Guillot, Stéphane; Lanari, Pierre; Warren, Clare J.; Robert, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    The Longmen Shan thrust belt, at the eastern border of Tibetan plateau, is a tectonically active region as demonstrated by the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan (2008) and Mw 6.6 Lushan (2013) earthquakes. The Moho discontinuity deepens across the Longmen Shan (below the along-strike Wenchuan fault) from ˜40 km beneath the Sichuan basin to more than 60 km beneath the Songpan-Ganze block. Such a thickness is not compatible with the only ˜35 km of shortening estimated at the front of the belt during the Cenozoic-Quaternary compressive reactivation. The geological inheritance may thus play a key role in the present structure of the Longmen Shan. However the long-term history of the belt is still poorly documented. The major Wenchuan fault separates medium-grade metamorphic rocks to the West (internal domain of the Longmen Shan) to the greenschist metamorphic rocks to the East (external domain). In the hanging and footwall of the fault the South China basement also crops out. Metamorphic rocks, exhumed from depth, offer the opportunity to investigate the deep processes occurred in the Longmen Shan. We have characterized and dated the metamorphism in the central part of the belt by combining structural and microstructural observations with high-resolution X-ray mapping and chemical analyses of metamorphic minerals related to the different stages of deformation. In situ 40Ar/39Ar dating on mica and in situ U-Pb/Th dating on allanite (REE-rich epidote) allowed the different phases of metamorphism and deformation to be dated. Our results show that the Longmen Shan underwent a complex Mesozoic tectono-metamorphic history, articulated in a succession of pulses of deformation (burial or uplifting) and periods of quiescence. A first phase of rapid thin-skinned deformation occurred about 200 Ma ago. Internal sedimentary units were strongly deformed and buried down to 11±1 kbar, 550±30˚ C. This phase was followed by a period of slow exhumation between 200 and 170 Ma. A second pulse of

  19. Introduction to the special issue on “Understanding and predicting change in the coastal ecosystems of the northern Gulf of Mexico”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John C.; Barras, John A.; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2013-01-01

    The coastal region of the northern Gulf of Mexico owes its current landscape structure to an array of tectonic, erosional and depositional, climatic, geochemical, hydrological, ecological, and human processes that have resulted in some of the world's most complex, dynamic, productive, and threatened ecosystems. Catastrophic hurricane landfalls, ongoing subsidence and erosion exacerbated by sea-level rise, disintegration of barrier island chains, and high rates of wetland loss have called attention to the vulnerability of northern Gulf coast ecosystems, habitats, built infrastructure, and economy to natural and anthropogenic threats. The devastating hurricanes of 2005 (Katrina and Rita) motivated the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program and partnering researchers to pursue studies aimed at understanding and predicting landscape change and the associated storm hazard vulnerability of northern Gulf coast region ecosystems and human communities. Attaining this science goal requires increased knowledge of landscape evolution on geologic, historical, and human time scales, and analysis of the implications of such changes in the natural and built components of the landscape for hurricane impact susceptibility. This Special Issue of the Journal of Coastal Research communicates northern Gulf of Mexico research results that (1) improve knowledge of prior climates and depositional environments, (2) assess broad regional ecosystem structure and change over Holocene to human time scales, (3) undertake process studies and change analyses of dynamic landscape components, and (4) integrate framework, climate, variable time and spatial scale mapping, monitoring, and discipline-specific process investigations within interdisciplinary studies.

  20. COMPETITIVENESS - KEY ISSUES OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana, CIOBAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory that competitiveness plays an increasingly powerful role in creating prosperity, wealth, a large number of economists, researchers, scientists, highlight a number of approaches aimed, on the one hand, on the analysis of competitiveness at national or regional level, and on the other hand, on the ability of local firms to achieve competitive products and to commercialize them in the extern markets. In this context we aim to analyze and develop strategies and methods to help identify competitive areas at a national level. This is necessary because in our opinion the competitiveness of a company and / or country is more than wealth itself; it means a systematic process of wealth creation, plus a social system in which most citizens have access to material wealth. We consider in this respect that a country cannot automatically be considered competitive only if it is rich in natural resources. In our view, a competitive country creates wealth through labor, talent and organization and thus it manages to have a productive and creative potential making it independent of material resources.

  1. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental crises and problems throughout the world are widespread and increasing rapidly. In relation to these concerns, the article discusses the following aspects: people and the environment, environmental conflicts, climate change and environmental conflicts, and management implications. The section on people ...

  2. Key issues in european reactor seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicognani, G.; Martelli, A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper focuses on the main problems which have arisen in FBR design in Europe due to seismic conditions. Its first part, derived from the final report of a CEC-Belgonucleaire study contract, clarifies how ''real'' is the seismic problem for each site. Then, the second and main part deals with the studies carried out in the european countries on the relevant subjects, typical of FBRs or related to specific needs of single FBRs: these studies, for which contributions were provided by ENEA, CEA, NNC and INTERATOM, concern mainly the numerical and experimental analysis of the core, the reactor vessel, the shut-down system and the reactor building of FBRs under construction or in advanced design phase. Attention is also paid to the studies started for future purposes, the feed-backs on the design due to seismic conditions, and the instructions for future reactors

  3. Key figures for the environment - Issue 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    Commented graphs and data tables give an overview of several indicators regarding the environment in France in 2014. A first part addresses natural media and biodiversity by commenting several indicators related to climate and greenhouse effect, air pollution and pollutants, water pollution (underground waters, rivers, rivers flowing to the sea, marine environment), soil pollution by organic materials and soil erosion, and biodiversity (birds, protected areas, humid zones). The second part addresses natural resource management and use: space consumption, material consumption, water consumption, energy consumption, consumption of biological resources (forests, fishery resources), and wastes. The third part addresses the economy of the environment and the evolution of behaviours: environmental concerns and expectations of French people, forest fire risks and natural risks, public actions to be performed and environmental concern of the French population, jobs and expenses in the environmental sector, evolution of transport modes, practices in agriculture and in industry. Some brief European comparisons are proposed, as well as a glossary

  4. Key figures on the environment - Issue 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    This publication proposes data, graphs, maps and tables illustrating through various parameters and indicators the status and the evolution of different aspects of the environment. It first addresses natural media and biodiversity: climate, greenhouse effect, air, waters, soils and biodiversity. The second part addresses the management and use of natural resources: space consumption, material consumption, water consumption, energy consumption, biological resource consumption, and wastes. The third part addresses the economy of the environment and the evolution of behaviours: public opinion, risks, economy, transports, and agriculture. It also proposes a comparative view between European countries

  5. Public information. Key issue paper no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyd, D.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power was welcomed from the outset because it promised highly economic and convenient energy, especially electricity. Even today, nuclear projects espoused by developing nations can stimulate enthusiasm and national pride. However, public unease concerning nuclear power safety was magnified by the accidents at Three Mile Island in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986. The perceived problem of transport and long term storage of nuclear waste has added to public concerns, as has the risk of the possible proliferation of nuclear weapons. Public information strategies must recognize and seek to address these fears by pointing to the many cumulative years of trouble-free nuclear operations and by stressing the strict rules and oversight designed to protect workers and the public from accidents and radioactive releases. It is against this background that the following material has been compiled. It comes from a variety of sources and reflects the experience mainly of industrialized countries that have national nuclear programs. It is important to underline that it is descriptive rather than prescriptive in nature for two reasons: first, the IAEA is essentially a forum for pooling collective knowledge in this as in other fields; and secondly, the IAEA would not presume to offer a universal formula, since national circumstances vary according to specific political, demographic, social and other factors. Hence only certain parts of this paper may be of direct relevance to any given national situation. (author)

  6. Key figures for energy - 2014 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This publication presents and discusses data and figures, under the form of graphs and tables, on the place of energy in the French economy, on all energies together (opinion on nuclear energy, average prices, energy bill, distribution of primary energy consumption among the different energy sources, global assessment in terms of sources and production, production and consumption of primary energy, final consumption per sector), on the different energy sources (final consumption per sector, primary production, imports and exports, distribution networks and grids, trade for the different sources: coal, oil, gas, electricity, renewable energies) and on other aspects related to energy: heat networks, rational use of energy, CO 2 emissions, energy price, international situation (production, primary and final energy consumption, indicators of energy intensity). An appendix proposes data of energy assessment for France for 2013

  7. Pakistan: Key Current Issues and Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    coordinate U.S. government efforts with both Pakistan and Afghanistan. Pakistan is among the world’s leading recipients of U.S. aid and will by the...challenges. Along with this treacherous geography, the constantly morphing stew of militant groups in the region cannot be tackled without a large body of...speech.303 U.S. Foreign Assistance and Congressional Action Pakistan is today among the world’s leading recipients of U.S. aid. Since the 2001 renewal

  8. Understanding Technology: Key to Development. | Bvekerwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper observes that technology as a concept is not fully understood in the developing world. More often than not technology and science are taken to mean the same thing. It is argued here that the two terms are not synonymous but are actually two sides of the same coin. It is further illustrated that technology is not ...

  9. Understanding hydrotransport : the key to Syncrude's success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, R.B.; Wright, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Syncrude's use of pipeline slurries to convey oilsand from its Athabasca deposit to the extraction plant marks the beginning of a new era in oilsand processing. With this new conveyance system Syncrude plans to phase out the dragline, bucketwheel reclaimer, and conveyor ore mining and delivery system in favour of shovel, truck, and hydrotransport technology. Shovels will be used to mine the ore in a conventional open pit bench mining scheme. The oilsand will then be loaded onto trucks, hauled to a crusher for sizing and fed into the hydrotransport system where it will be slurried with water and caustic soda and pumped to the extraction plant by pipeline. The advantages of hydrotransport include significant energy savings and considerably less plant infrastructure. A new method to describe the source ore characteristics and plant performance was also developed. The use of this information system within the corporation is described. 7 refs., 3 figs

  10. Radiation: The Key to Understanding the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    human intelligence, ingenuity and spirit that we have been able to unveil the mysteries of the universe to the extent that we have. Imaging, photometry and spectroscopy are the basic tools employed by the astronomers. The radiation that we receive from the heavenly objects comes in all wavelengths and astronomers use ...

  11. Radiation: The Key to Understanding the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Radiation, stars, big bang theory, dark matter, magnetic fields, cosmic microwave background temperature, chemical abun- dances, fine structure constant. Pushpa Khare obtained her PhD from TIFR. After retiring as a professor from Utkal University, she is at present CSIR. Emeritus Scientist at the. Inter-University Centre for.

  12. Exploring elementary students’ understanding of energy and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin BOYLAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curriculaneed to develop students’ understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change.For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what theirstudents’ prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A survey was developed toexplore what elementary students know and understand about renewable and non-renewablesources of energy and their relationship to climate change issues. The findings from thissurvey are reported in this paper.

  13. SPECIFIC ISSUES OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION IN POWER SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    BUNDA S.

    2016-01-01

    Distributed Generation Systems (DGS) gets lately more and more importance in the context of concepts re-thinking within the electricity distribution networks. Understanding the key issues of DGS such as definition, technology and integration is important for the researchers and for the workers in the field as well. This paper aims to synthesize the DGS specific issues and finally conclusions are presented.

  14. Understanding MARC: Another Look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Chang

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available 無MARC format has been widely used and discussed in our profession. However, there appear to have a wide spread misunderstanding of its real structure and attributes. This article discuss the needs for us to understand it a little more. Also, it presents the general misconceptions about MARC, the compatibility of MARC, the structure of MARC, standardization and - data communication, and some major issues related to MARC format. In this library automation age, MARC is a key element in library services, and it deserves us to take another look.

  15. Understanding Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Prenatal Tests Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... be done before pregnancy or at the first prenatal visit. If there is Rh incompatibility, treatments can ...

  16. Public/private key certification authority and key distribution. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.P.; Christensen, M.J.; Sturtevant, A.P.; Johnston, W.E.

    1995-09-25

    Traditional encryption, which protects messages from prying eyes, has been used for many decades. The present concepts of encryption are built from that heritage. Utilization of modern software-based encryption techniques implies much more than simply converting files to an unreadable form. Ubiquitous use of computers and advances in encryption technology coupled with the use of wide-area networking completely changed the reasons for utilizing encryption technology. The technology demands a new and extensive infrastructure to support these functions. Full understanding of these functions, their utility and value, and the need for an infrastructure, takes extensive exposure to the new paradigm. This paper addresses issues surrounding the establishment and operation of a key management system (i.e., certification authority) that is essential to the successful implementation and wide-spread use of encryption.

  17. Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo iStock Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new ...

  18. A reassessment of the potential for an alpha-mode containment failure and a review of the current understanding of broader fuel-coolant interaction issues. Second steam explosion review group workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Ginsberg, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This report summarizes the review and evaluation by experts of the current understanding of the molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) issues covering the complete spectrum of interactions, i.e., from mild quenching to very energetic interactions including those that could lead to the alpha-mode containment failure. Of the eleven experts polled, all but two concluded that the alpha-mode failure issue was resolved from a risk perspective, meaning that this mode of failure is of very low probability, that it is of little or no significance to the overall risk from a nuclear power plant, and that any further reduction in residual uncertainties is not likely to change the probability in an appreciable manner. To a lesser degree, discussions also took place on the broader FCI issues such as mild quenching of core melt during non-explosive FCI, and shock loading of lower head and ex-vessel support structures arising from explosive localized FCIs. These latter issues are relevant with regard to determining the efficacy of certain accident management strategies for operating reactors as well as for advanced light water reactors. The experts reviewed the status of understanding of the FCI phenomena in the context of these broader issues, identified residual uncertainties in the understanding, and recommended future research (both experimental and analytical) to reduce the uncertainties.

  19. A reassessment of the potential for an alpha-mode containment failure and a review of the current understanding of broader fuel-coolant interaction issues. Second steam explosion review group workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.; Ginsberg, T.

    1996-08-01

    This report summarizes the review and evaluation by experts of the current understanding of the molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) issues covering the complete spectrum of interactions, i.e., from mild quenching to very energetic interactions including those that could lead to the alpha-mode containment failure. Of the eleven experts polled, all but two concluded that the alpha-mode failure issue was resolved from a risk perspective, meaning that this mode of failure is of very low probability, that it is of little or no significance to the overall risk from a nuclear power plant, and that any further reduction in residual uncertainties is not likely to change the probability in an appreciable manner. To a lesser degree, discussions also took place on the broader FCI issues such as mild quenching of core melt during non-explosive FCI, and shock loading of lower head and ex-vessel support structures arising from explosive localized FCIs. These latter issues are relevant with regard to determining the efficacy of certain accident management strategies for operating reactors as well as for advanced light water reactors. The experts reviewed the status of understanding of the FCI phenomena in the context of these broader issues, identified residual uncertainties in the understanding, and recommended future research (both experimental and analytical) to reduce the uncertainties

  20. Teachers' Understandings of Curriculum Adaptations for Learners with Learning Difficulties in Primary Schools in Botswana: Issues and Challenges of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otukile-Mongwaketse, Mpho; Mangope, Boitumelo; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2016-01-01

    This paper derives from research carried out in a number of Botswana primary schools on teachers' understanding of curriculum adaptations for learners who experience learning difficulties (LD) as part of implementing inclusive education. Teachers' understanding play a crucial role in how they make curriculum accessible for learners with LD during…

  1. What's in a Model? Issues in the Use of Simulation Models to Analyze Student Understanding: A Reaction to Ohlsson, Ernst, and Rees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    1992-01-01

    Reacts to Ohlsson, Ernst, and Rees' paper by initially discussing the costs of methodology that utilizes artificial intelligence (AI) to model cognitive processes. Raises three concerns with the paper: insufficient clarification of the meaning of conceptual versus procedural understanding of base-10 subtraction; realism of the learning model; and…

  2. Toward an Understanding of the Mental Health and Substance Abuse Issues of Rural and Migrant Ethnic Minorities: A Search for Common Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert A.; Trimble, Joseph E.

    The current reversal of the rural to urban migration trend among Blacks, American Indians, and Hispanics will create a myriad of coping and adaptation problems for the urban to rural migrant and the rural nonmigrant as well. It is possible to gain a partial understanding of the likely problems by reviewing studies of the ethnic minorities' rural…

  3. Exploring Elementary Students' Understanding of Energy and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Colin

    2008-01-01

    As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curricula need to develop students' understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change. For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what their students' prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A survey…

  4. Understanding the Setting of a MOOC: A Journey into Coursera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatdoost, Robab; Sim, Alex Tze Hiang; Jafarkarimi, Hosein; Hee, Jee Mei

    2016-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) are becoming increasingly difficult to ignore in online education. Recent developments in MOOC have heightened the need for understanding the MOOC. The issue of an in-depth understanding of the MOOC setting has been a key subject within the field of qualitative research. However, far too little attention has been…

  5. Measuring Student Teachers' Understandings and Self-Awareness of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Understanding sustainability is important, as people need to cope with issues associated with over-population and over-consumption. Education is seen as a key strategy to assist with the development of people's understandings of this complex concept, which could then lead to them being able to make more sustainable lifestyle decisions. In order to…

  6. Creating creationists: The influence of 'issues framing' on our understanding of public perceptions of clash narratives between evolutionary science and belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsdon-Baker, Fern

    2015-05-01

    Clash narratives relating to evolutionary science and personal belief are a recurrent theme in media or public space discourse. However, a 2009 British Council poll undertaken in 10 countries worldwide shows that the perception of a necessary clash between evolutionary worldviews and belief in a God is a minority viewpoint. How then does the popular conception that there is an ongoing conflict between evolution and belief in God arise? One contributing factor is the framing and categorization of creationism and evolutionism within large-scale surveys for use within media campaigns. This article examines the issue framing within four polls conducted in the United Kingdom and internationally between 2008 and 2013. It argues that by ignoring the complexity and range of perspectives individuals hold, or by framing evolutionary science as atheistic, we are potentially creating 'creationists' - including 'Islamic creationists' - both figuratively and literally. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. A brief review of revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yang Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of ID-based cryptography has received much attention from researchers. However, how to revoke the misbehaviour/compromised user in ID-based public key cryptosystem becomes an important research issue. Recently, Tseng and Tsai proposed a novel public key cryptosystem called revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem (RIBE to solve the revocation problem. Later on, numerous research papers based on the Tseng-Tsai key RIBE were proposed. In this paper, we brief review Tseng and Tsai's RIBE. We hope this review can help the readers to understand the Tseng and Tsai's revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem.

  8. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  9. A Push on Job Anxiety for Employees on Managing Recent Difficult to Understand Computing Equipment in the Modern Issues in Indian Banking Quarter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragunathan Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress management can be defined as intervention planned to decrease the force of stressors in the administrative center. These can have a human being focus, aimed at raising an individual’s ability to cope with stressors and the implementation of the CRM is essential to establish a better performance of the banking sector. Since managing stress and customer relationship management are becoming crucial in the field of management the work has forecasted them in a wide range of dimensions. This paper organizes few preliminary concepts of stress and critically analyzes the CRM strategy implemented by banking sector. Hence the employees of the Banking Industry have been asked to give their opinion about the CRM strategy adopted by banks. In order to provide the background of the employees, the profile of the employees has been discussed initially. The profile of the employees along with their opinion on the CRM practices adopted at Banking Industries has been discussed. In our work progresses we have been taken of two main parameters for consideration and it detriment in which area stress are mainly responds, and also the paper envelopes certain valuable stress management tactics and techniques that are particularly compassionate for people who have been working in the banking sector. Also an attempt to diagnose the impact of underside stress of day to day life in mounting a bigger level stress upon the employees has been made. Further development has been made with a detailed parametric analysis of employee stress conducted with the wide range of key parameters and several rounds of experiments have been conducted with techniques as Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Garrett ranking, and ANOVA; the work ensures to pave way for an accurate measure in customer handling. The questionnaire is planned to be distributed to 175 employees in the Madurai district banks.

  10. A Push on Job Anxiety for Employees on Managing Recent Difficult to Understand Computing Equipment in the Modern Issues in Indian Banking Quarter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ragunathan; Swarnalatha, Chellapa

    2015-01-01

    Stress management can be defined as intervention planned to decrease the force of stressors in the administrative center. These can have a human being focus, aimed at raising an individual's ability to cope with stressors and the implementation of the CRM is essential to establish a better performance of the banking sector. Since managing stress and customer relationship management are becoming crucial in the field of management the work has forecasted them in a wide range of dimensions. This paper organizes few preliminary concepts of stress and critically analyzes the CRM strategy implemented by banking sector. Hence the employees of the Banking Industry have been asked to give their opinion about the CRM strategy adopted by banks. In order to provide the background of the employees, the profile of the employees has been discussed initially. The profile of the employees along with their opinion on the CRM practices adopted at Banking Industries has been discussed. In our work progresses we have been taken of two main parameters for consideration and it detriment in which area stress are mainly responds, and also the paper envelopes certain valuable stress management tactics and techniques that are particularly compassionate for people who have been working in the banking sector. Also an attempt to diagnose the impact of underside stress of day to day life in mounting a bigger level stress upon the employees has been made. Further development has been made with a detailed parametric analysis of employee stress conducted with the wide range of key parameters and several rounds of experiments have been conducted with techniques as Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Garrett ranking, and ANOVA; the work ensures to pave way for an accurate measure in customer handling. The questionnaire is planned to be distributed to 175 employees in the Madurai district banks. PMID:26558290

  11. A Push on Job Anxiety for Employees on Managing Recent Difficult to Understand Computing Equipment in the Modern Issues in Indian Banking Quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ragunathan; Swarnalatha, Chellapa

    2015-01-01

    Stress management can be defined as intervention planned to decrease the force of stressors in the administrative center. These can have a human being focus, aimed at raising an individual's ability to cope with stressors and the implementation of the CRM is essential to establish a better performance of the banking sector. Since managing stress and customer relationship management are becoming crucial in the field of management the work has forecasted them in a wide range of dimensions. This paper organizes few preliminary concepts of stress and critically analyzes the CRM strategy implemented by banking sector. Hence the employees of the Banking Industry have been asked to give their opinion about the CRM strategy adopted by banks. In order to provide the background of the employees, the profile of the employees has been discussed initially. The profile of the employees along with their opinion on the CRM practices adopted at Banking Industries has been discussed. In our work progresses we have been taken of two main parameters for consideration and it detriment in which area stress are mainly responds, and also the paper envelopes certain valuable stress management tactics and techniques that are particularly compassionate for people who have been working in the banking sector. Also an attempt to diagnose the impact of underside stress of day to day life in mounting a bigger level stress upon the employees has been made. Further development has been made with a detailed parametric analysis of employee stress conducted with the wide range of key parameters and several rounds of experiments have been conducted with techniques as Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Garrett ranking, and ANOVA; the work ensures to pave way for an accurate measure in customer handling. The questionnaire is planned to be distributed to 175 employees in the Madurai district banks.

  12. Understanding why an active video game intervention did not improve motor skill and physical activity in children with developmental coordination disorder: A quantity or quality issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Erin K; Campbell, Amity C; Abbott, Rebecca A; Straker, Leon M

    2017-01-01

    Active video games (AVGs) have been identified as a novel strategy to improve motor skill and physical activity in clinical populations. A recent cross-over randomized trial found AVGs to be ineffective at improving motor skill and physical activity in the home-environment for children with or at-risk for developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The study purpose was to better understand why the intervention had been ineffective by examining the quantity and quality of AVG play during an AVG intervention for children with or at-risk for DCD. Participants (n=21, ages 9-12) completed the 16 week AVG intervention. Detailed quantitative and qualitative data were systematically triangulated to obtain the quantity of exposure (AVG exposure over time, patterns of exposure) and quality of use (game selection, facilitators and barriers to play). The median AVG dose (range 30-35min/day) remained relatively stable across the intervention and met the prescribed dose. Play quality was impacted by game selection, difficulty playing games, lack of time, illness, technical difficulties and boredom. The ineffectiveness of a home-based AVG intervention may be due to quality of play. Strategies to improve the quality of game play may help realize the potential benefits of AVGs as a clinical tool for children with DCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Phillipa J

    2007-09-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) and related eating disorders such as binge eating disorder are common. General practitioners can play a key role in the identification and management of BN and related eating disorders. This article describes the presenting and associated features of BN and overviews evidence based treatment approaches. Key features are recurrent episodes of binge eating, extreme weight control behaviours and over concern about weight and shape issues. By definition people are not underweight. Risk factors include being from a western culture, obesity, exposure to a restrictive dieting environment and low self esteem. People are more likely to present asking for help in weight control or a physical problem secondary to the eating disorder. Evidenced based therapies with good outcomes in current use are cognitive behaviour therapy (in full or guided self help forms), high dose fluoxetine, and interpersonal psychotherapy. It is important to convey optimism about treatment efficacy and outcomes.

  14. Challenges and issues with streptozotocin-induced diabetes - A clinically relevant animal model to understand the diabetes pathogenesis and evaluate therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sameer N; Reddy, Navya M; Patil, Kalpesh R; Nakhate, Kartik T; Ojha, Shreesh; Patil, Chandragouda R; Agrawal, Yogeeta O

    2016-01-25

    Streptozotocin (STZ) has been extensively used over the last three decades to induce diabetes in various animal species and to help screen for hypoglycemic drugs. STZ induces clinical features in animals that resemble those associated with diabetes in humans. For this reason STZ treated animals have been used to study diabetogenic mechanisms and for preclinical evaluation of novel antidiabetic therapies. However, the physiochemical characteristics and associated toxicities of STZ are still major obstacles for researchers using STZ treated animals to investigate diabetes. Another major challenges in STZ-induced diabetes are sustaining uniformity, suitability, reproducibility and induction of diabetes with minimal animal lethality. Lack of appropriate use of STZ was found to be associated with increased mortality and animal suffering. During STZ use in animals, attention should be paid to several factors such as method of preparation of STZ, stability, suitable dose, route of administration, diet regimen, animal species with respect to age, body weight, gender and the target blood glucose level used to represent hyperglycemia. Therefore, protocol for STZ-induced diabetes in experimental animals must be meticulously planned. This review highlights specific skills and strategies involved in the execution of STZ-induced diabetes model. The present review aims to provide insight into diabetogenic mechanisms of STZ, specific toxicity of STZ with its significance and factors responsible for variations in diabetogenic effects of STZ. Further this review also addresses ways to minimize STZ-induced mortality, suggests methods to improve STZ-based experimental models and best utilize them for experimental studies purported to understand diabetes pathogenesis and preclinical evaluation of drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Special issue on asteroids - Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, Bojan; Hsieh, Henry H.; Gronchi, Giovanni F.

    2018-04-01

    The articles in this special issue are devoted to asteroids, small solar system bodies that primarily populate a region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, known as the asteroid belt, but can also be found throughout the Solar System. Asteroids are considered to be a key to understanding the formation and evolution of our planetary system. Their properties allow us to test current theoretical models and develop new theoretical concepts pertaining to evolutionary processes in the Solar System. There have been major advances in asteroid science in the last decade, and that trend continues. Eighteen papers accepted for this special issue cover a wide range of asteroid-related subjects, pushing the boundaries of our understanding of these intriguing objects even further. Here we provide the reader with a brief overview of these thrilling papers, with an invitation for interested scientists to read each work in detail for a better understanding of these recent cutting edge results. As many topics in asteroid science remain open challenges, we hope that this special issue will be an important reference point for future research on this compelling topic.

  16. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  17. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...

  18. Key Technologies of Phone Storage Forensics Based on ARM Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianghan; Che, Shengbing

    2018-03-01

    Smart phones are mainly running Android, IOS and Windows Phone three mobile platform operating systems. The android smart phone has the best market shares and its processor chips are almost ARM software architecture. The chips memory address mapping mechanism of ARM software architecture is different with x86 software architecture. To forensics to android mart phone, we need to understand three key technologies: memory data acquisition, the conversion mechanism from virtual address to the physical address, and find the system’s key data. This article presents a viable solution which does not rely on the operating system API for a complete solution to these three issues.

  19. The international scale of the groundwater issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael; Arshad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Throughout history, and throughout the world, groundwater has been a major source of water for sustaining human life. Use of this resource has increased dramatically over the last century. In many areas of the world, the balance between human and ecosystem needs is difficult to maintain. Understanding the international scale of the groundwater issue requires metrics and analysis at a commensurate scale. Advances in remote sensing supplement older traditional direct measurement methods for understanding the magnitude of depletion, and all measurements motivate the need for common data standards to collect and share information. In addition to metrics of groundwater availability, four key international groundwater issues are depletion of water, degradation of water quality, the water-energy nexus, and transboundary water conflicts. This chapter is devoted to introducing these issues, which are also discussed in more detail in later chapters.

  20. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper

  1. Key issues affecting quality of life and patient-reported outcomes in prostate cancer: an analysis conducted in 2128 patients with initial psychometric assessment of the prostate cancer symptom scale (PCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msaouel, Pavlos; Gralla, Richard J; Jones, Randy A; Hollen, Patricia J

    2017-09-01

    Evidence-based quality of life (QL) questionnaires require the identification of issues of importance to patients. The primary aim of this study was to inform providers on patient-expressed issues while enhancing the content validity of instruments assessing QL and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in prostate cancer. The study provided additional psychometric properties for the new PRO and QL instrument, the Prostate Cancer Symptom Scale (PCSS). An anonymous web-based survey of 2128 patients with prostate cancer was conducted with patients rating 18 QL items on a five-point scale. Most respondents (74%) were aged 55-74 years, had early stage disease at diagnosis (81%) and were diagnosed within 2 years of the survey (81%). The top five-rated issues were: overall QL, ability to perform normal activities, maintaining independence, ability to sleep and not being a burden. These items were ranked as either 'very important' or 'important' by at least 88% of patients. None of the most highly ranked issues were symptoms. Instead, the highest ranked items were global issues reflecting the impact of symptoms on patients. In addition to the enhanced content validity findings, good reliability results and initial support for construct validity are reported for the PCSS. This is the largest survey providing patient-expressed background for content validity for QL and PRO measures. The findings of this study should aid development of newer practical questionnaires, such as the PCSS, which can be adapted to electronic platforms enhancing rapid and accurate PRO and QL evaluation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Understanding Information Culture: Conceptual and Implementation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver, Gillian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information culture is a concept with multiple and sometimes conflicting definitions. Nevertheless at a time when social and cognitive aspects of information and communication systems are recognized as being of similar significance as the technological functionality, the concept of information culture is demonstrating considerable value. This paper explains the concept of information culture and considers its value from two main perspectives: firstly as providing an analytical tool, and secondly as a means of providing practitioners with insight and sensitivity to the organisational contexts of their workplaces.

  3. Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

  4. Understanding librarians communication is the issue

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at professionals and trainee professionals within the library and information service (LIS) fields, this book reminds the reader of the frequently ignored communication-gulf between the professional and the layman, and in particular the lack of true communication between LIS professionals and the user. It focuses especially on 'non-standard' users, such as non-native speakers or those with some disability. The author provides accessible examples of good practice, assesses their degree of success and suggests further ways to improve performance in information provision.written by a "poach

  5. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  6. The Key to School Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotle, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In addition to legislative accessibility requirements, other security issues facing school administrators who select a security system include the following: access control; user friendliness; durability or serviceability; life safety precautions; possibility of vandalism, theft, and tampering; and key control. Offers steps to take in considering…

  7. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  8. Model plant key measurement points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The key measurement points for the model low enriched fuel fabrication plant are described as well as the measurement methods. These are the measurement points and methods that are used to complete the plant's formal material balance. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the basis for each key measurement; and (2) understand the importance of each measurement to the overall plant material balance. The feed to the model low enriched uranium fuel fabrication plant is UF 6 and the product is finished light water reactor fuel assemblies. The waste discards are solid and liquid wastes. The plant inventory consists of unopened UF 6 cylinders, UF 6 heels, fuel assemblies, fuel rods, fuel pellets, UO 2 powder, U 3 O 8 powder, and various scrap materials. At the key measurement points the total plant material balance (flow and inventory) is measured. The two types of key measurement points-flow and inventory are described

  9. Adaptation to climate change. Key terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levina, E.; Tirpak, D.

    2006-05-01

    Adaptation has become an important issue in international and domestic discussions on climate change. Numerous terms and concepts have come into common usage as a result of IPCC reports, discussions in the context of the UNFCCC and dialogs by the climate community at large. This paper examines the key adaptation terms and concepts used by the climate change community and other institutions. Conflicts and contradictions are noted with the aim of sensitizing different bodies to the differences, but particularly the Parties to the Convention and experts participating in the IPCC. Given the need to promote a common understanding among various stakeholders and the potential financial implications of various definitions, it appears important for the IPCC and the UNFCCC to work toward common definitions, at least for a core set of terms and concepts

  10. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues ...

  11. Emotional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Care for Duchenne / Emotional Issues Print Email Emotional Issues Duchenne’s emotional toll on a child can manifest in a ... important things you can provide to ensure the emotional health of your child. Parents of a child ...

  12. Life expectancy, adapted technology and cold climate conditions : key issues for wind turbines in Canada; Duree de vie, adaptation technologique et conditions froides : un enjeu majeur pour les eoliennes au Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaumel, J.L.; Nanta, R. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada); Golbeck, P. [Peter Golbeck Consultant, Rimouski, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation discussed the service life of wind turbines, particularly those operating in cold climates. A map of Quebec was included to indicate the potential sites for an additional 450 MW of wind energy capacity for northern Quebec, near James Bay. Different types of wind turbines were described in terms of their size and power, including those without transformers. It was noted that a 30 per cent growth in the wind power industry is anticipated annually. However, there is currently a lack of wind turbines. A 2 MW wind turbine costs $3 million and major reinvestment is needed after 10 years of service life due to component wear. It was noted that a gear box lasts less than 15 years and other generator components also require maintenance. The primary reasons for increased risk and cost include equipment failures due to component fatigue, cold weather operation, lack of maintenance and bad design for winter conditions. The components affected by failures include gearboxes, generators, pitch controls, and hydraulics. Since the industry is relatively new, there are no replacement parts available for these components and cranage costs are high. In addition, since Canada's entry into the wind industry is also relatively new, there is a lack of machine testing in Canada as well as a lack of understanding of energy capacity and the effects of cold weather. Overproduction also occurs frequently. tabs., figs.

  13. Key concepts in glioblastoma therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Ng, Kimberly; Bartek, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    regimen, the median survival remains approximately 14 months. Meaningful strategies for therapeutic intervention are desperately needed. Development of such strategies will require an understanding of the therapeutic concepts that have evolved over the past three decades. This article reviews the key...

  14. Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

  15. Key Players and Key Groups in Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Sarangi; Emre Unlu

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on centrality measures in economics by defining a team game and identifying the key players in the game. As an illustration of the theory we create a unique data set from the UEFA Euro 2008 tournament. To capture the interaction between players we create the passing network of each team. This all allows us to identify the key player and key groups of players for both teams in each game. We then use our measure to explain player ratings by experts and t...

  16. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  17. Walking along the Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 Route: A Key Pathway to Understand the Control and Regulation of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cell-Lineage Formation during Lung Development and Repair after Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie El Agha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic research on embryonic lung development offers unique opportunities to make important discoveries that will impact human health. Developmental biologists interested in the molecular control of branching morphogenesis have intensively studied the developing lung, with its complex and seemingly stereotyped ramified structure. However, it is also an organ that is linked to a vast array of clinical problems in humans such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies and emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, fibrosis, and cancer in adults. Epithelial stem/progenitor cells reside in niches where they interact with specific extracellular matrices as well as with mesenchymal cells; the latter are still poorly characterized. Interactions of epithelial stem/progenitor cells with their microenvironments are usually instructive, controlling quiescence versus activation, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. During the past 18 years, Fgf10 has emerged not only as a marker for the distal lung mesenchyme during early lung development, but also as a key player in branching morphogenesis and a critical component of the niche for epithelial stem cells. In this paper, we will present the current knowledge regarding the lineage tree in the lung, with special emphasis on cell-lineage decisions in the lung mesenchyme and the role of Fgf10 in this context.

  18. EU Transport GHG. Routes to 2050 II. Developing a better understanding of the secondary impacts and key sensitivities for the decarbonisation of the EU's transport sector by 2050. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, N.; Brannigan, C. [AEA, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Smokers, R. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Schroten, A.; Van Essen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Skinner, I. [Transport and Environmental Policy Research TEPR, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The purpose of this work was to: (1) Develop an enhanced understanding of the wider potential impacts of transport GHG reduction policies, as well as their possible significance in a critical path to GHG reductions to 2050; (2) Further develop the SULTAN (SUstainabLe TrANsport) illustrative scenarios tool to enhance its usefulness as a policy scoping tool and carry out further scenario analysis in support of the new project; (3) Use the new information in the evaluation of the sensitivities for transport GHG reduction to 2050, in the context of transport's 54-67% reduction target from the European Commission's Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050.

  19. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  20. III. Cellular ultrastructures in situ as key to understanding tumor energy metabolism: biological significance of the Warburg effect [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/a0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Witkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the universality of metabolic pathways, malignant cells were found to have their metabolism reprogrammed to generate energy by glycolysis even under normal oxygen concentrations (the Warburg effect. Therefore, the pathway energetically 18 times less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation was implicated to match increased energy requirements of growing tumors. The paradox was explained by an abnormally high rate of glucose uptake, assuming unlimited availability of substrates for tumor growth in vivo. However, ultrastructural analysis of tumor vasculature morphogenesis showed that the growing tissue regions did not have continuous blood supply and intermittently depended on autophagy for survival. Erythrogenic autophagy, and resulting ATP generation by glycolysis, appeared critical to initiating vasculature formation where it was missing. This study focused on ultrastructural features that reflected metabolic switch from aerobic to anaerobic. Morphological differences between and within different types of cells were evident in tissue sections. In cells undergoing nucleo-cytoplasmic conversion into erythrosomes (erythrogenesis, gradual changes led to replacing mitochondria with peroxisomes, through an intermediate form connected to endoplasmic reticulum. Those findings related to the issue of peroxisome biogenesis and to the phenomenon of hemogenic endothelium. Mitochondria were compacted also during mitosis. In vivo, cells that lost and others that retained capability to use oxygen coexisted side-by-side; both types were important for vasculature morphogenesis and tissue growth. Once passable, the new vasculature segment could deliver external oxygen and nutrients. Nutritional and redox status of microenvironment had similar effect on metabolism of malignant and non-malignant cells demonstrating the necessity to maintain structure-energy equivalence in all living cells. The role of glycolysis in initiating vasculature formation, and in

  1. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  2. A high-fidelity model for coupling flow and mechanical deformation of the porous paper web - a key to improved understanding of dewatering and rewet at the press section in paper making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trebotich, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Xu, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Turpin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-05

    The U.S. pulp and paper industry is the third-largest manufacturing user of energy, with an energy demand of 2,540 trillion Btu in 2010. Within the papermaking process, drying consumes over 400 trillion Btu annually which makes it one of the largest energy saving opportunities. In the 2014 Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap, it is concluded that increasing the paper web solid content entering the dryer section from the current 45- 55 percent to approaching 65 percent, which would save 1.0 MMBtu per ton or 20 percent of the energy used in drying, is one of the most needed technology breakthroughs to achieve a more sustainable approach for manufacturing pulp and paper products. Achieving such significant energy savings highly depends on understanding the fundamental dynamics of the wet press process and then developing optimized solutions for design of more energy-efficient press processes and equipment. The objective of this project is to develop reliable computational capabilities to accurately simulate the flow of water from/to the porous pulp medium (dewatering/rewetting) during the pressing process in paper making.

  3. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  4. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  5. A Recommended Set of Key Arctic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is an interconnected and environmentally sensitive system of ice, ocean, land, atmosphere, ecosystems, and people. From local to pan-Arctic scales, the area has already undergone major changes in physical and societal systems and will continue at a pace that is greater than twice the global average. Key Arctic indicators can quantify these changes. Indicators serve as the bridge between complex information and policy makers, stakeholders, and the general public, revealing trends and information people need to make important socioeconomic decisions. This presentation evaluates and compiles more than 70 physical, biological, societal and economic indicators into an approachable summary that defines the changing Arctic. We divided indicators into "existing," "in development," "possible," and "aspirational". In preparing a paper on Arctic Indicators for a special issue of the journal Climatic Change, our group established a set of selection criteria to identify indicators to specifically guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change. A goal of the analysis is to select a manageable composite list of recommended indicators based on sustained, reliable data sources with known user communities. The selected list is also based on the development of a conceptual model that identifies components and processes critical to our understanding of the Arctic region. This list of key indicators is designed to inform the plans and priorities of multiple groups such as the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), and the Arctic Council.

  6. Experimental electron density studies as key for understanding the chemical and physical properties in selected model systems; Experimentelle Elektronendichtestudien als Schluessel zum Verstaendnis chemischer und physikalischer Eigenschaften in ausgewaehlten Modellsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauf, Christoph

    2014-12-17

    The topological analysis of experimentally determined electron density distributions, employing the quantum theory of atoms in molecules developed by Richard FW Bader, was used in this thesis to study chemically or physically motivated questions in appropriate model systems. First, transition metal complexes with activated C-H bonds or Si-H bonds were examined which led to a better understanding of agostic interactions. An important tool during these investigations is the so called atomic graph, which describes the characteristic spatial arrangement of the critical points of the Laplacefield of the electron density distribution in the valence shell of the relevant atoms. It reveals zones with a locally concentrated or depleted electron density distribution. This leads to the empirical rule, that a strong activation of C-H bonds or Si-H bonds is only observed when the hydrogen atom faces a pronounced charge depletion zone at the transition metal atom. In addition, the quasi one-dimensional rare-earth transition metal carbides Sc{sub 3}FeC{sub 4}, Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4} and Sc{sub 3}NiC{sub 4} were examined. Although all three compounds are isotypic at room temperature, it was revealed during this thesis, that only Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4} undergoes a structural phase transition at a temperature of ∝ 70 K and becomes superconducting below a critical temperature of 4.5 K. The main reason for this behaviour is the variation of the valence electrons through the exchange of Fe by Co or Ni. This results in the occupation of progressively higher energy electronic states and a raising of the Fermi level. The change in the nature of the electronic states at the Fermi level is in turn reflected by the different atomic graphs of the transition metal atoms and the distinct physical properties of these three compounds.

  7. Hunger and Development [Issue Packet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A variety of informational materials is compiled in this issue packet concentrating on hunger and development. They have been assembled to understand the issues associated with the facts of world hunger and to try to invent new forms of action and thought necessary to find the possibilities hidden in the hunger issue. Items include: (1) a fact and…

  8. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  9. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  10. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  11. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  12. On The Conceptual Understanding Of `Work Done' For Secondary One Students In Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirah, S. K.; Foong, S. K.; Lee, P.

    2010-07-01

    We report the preliminary findings on students' conceptual understanding of `Work Done' within the Secondary One science syllabus in Singapore. We group our findings into two main categories, `Students' Preconceptions' and `Students' Understanding of Concepts'. This research surfaces key issues in the young students' learning journeys in science. Knowing these students' preconceptions and conceptual understanding of science concepts after instruction should assist science educators in developing pedagogical approaches and the preparation of lesson packages that will help students overcome their learning difficulties.

  13. Key issues review: numerical studies of turbulence in stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, W. David; Meakin, Casey

    2016-10-01

    Three major problems of single-star astrophysics are convection, magnetic fields and rotation. Numerical simulations of convection in stars now have sufficient resolution to be truly turbulent, with effective Reynolds numbers of \\text{Re}>{{10}4} , and some turbulent boundary layers have been resolved. Implications of these developments are discussed for stellar structure, evolution and explosion as supernovae. Methods for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of stars are compared and discussed for 3D atmospheres, solar rotation, core-collapse and stellar boundary layers. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis of the numerical simulations has been shown to provide a novel and quantitative estimate of resolution errors. Present treatments of stellar boundaries require revision, even for early burning stages (e.g. for mixing regions during He-burning). As stellar core-collapse is approached, asymmetry and fluctuations grow, rendering spherically symmetric models of progenitors more unrealistic. Numerical resolution of several different types of three-dimensional (3D) stellar simulations are compared; it is suggested that core-collapse simulations may be under-resolved. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in explosions has a deep connection to convection, for which the abundance structure in supernova remnants may provide evidence.

  14. Spina bifida and dental care: key clinical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anuradha; Revankar, Ameet V

    2012-11-01

    Spina bifida is a birth defect affecting the spinal column, resulting from failure of neural tube closure during the first month in utero. It is associated with varying degrees of neurologic and orthopedic impairment. This article presents an overview of spina bifida discussing its correlation with dental caries, latex allergy, pulmonary function, craniosynostosis, and morphology of sella turcica, and explains the role of the dentist in countering these problems.

  15. Village Health Volunteers: Key Issues Facing Agencies in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOs) and the Min- istry of Health (MoH) in Malawi. The use of volunteers is not new; publications on teaching community health volunteers are available from the. MoH I.2. It is unfortunate that there is a paucity of information in the existing ...

  16. Client Centeredness and Health Reform: Key Issues for Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitonyak, Jennifer S.; Fogelberg, Donald; Leland, Natalie E.

    2015-01-01

    Health reform promotes the delivery of patient-centered care. Occupational therapy’s rich history of client-centered theory and practice provides an opportunity for the profession to participate in the evolving discussion about how best to provide care that is truly patient centered. However, the growing emphasis on patient-centered care also poses challenges to occupational therapy’s perspectives on client-centered care. We compare the conceptualizations of client-centered and patient-centered care and describe the current state of measurement of client-centered and patient-centered care. We then discuss implications for occupational therapy’s research agenda, practice, and education within the context of patient-centered care, and propose next steps for the profession. PMID:26356651

  17. Key issues in successfull tranformations of industral heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, A; van der Voordt, Theo; Koppels, P.W.; van Dobbelsteen, aajf

    2009-01-01

    Much of our industrial heritage lost its function in the transition from an industrial to a more service-based economy. Meantime, changing consumer preferences have shortened the functional and economic life cycle of buildings to such an extent that many have become vacant and obsolete. Developers

  18. International Food Assistance: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    USAID used the feedback loop to facilitate the U.S. response to two recent food quali complaints of corn- soya blend delivered to Haiti and Guatemala... soya blend to improve the standards and testing of domestically procured products. Based on information provided by USAID and USDA, and our own

  19. U.S. Army War College Key Strategic Issues List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    the area 8. Venezuela as an exporter of political instability 9. Narco-funded terrorism networks 10. Instability and disenfranchised...CAFTA) and Southern Common Market ( MERCOSUR ) 15. Impact of the American Serviceman’s Protection Act of 2000 (ASPA) on hemispheric security...impact on the regional, political and economic stability. 6. A study of the strategic culture in Venezuela : What historical, cultural, and

  20. Ethical key issues and fundamental rights in paediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, Annagrazia

    2011-05-01

    This article is aimed at describing the methodology of "ethical reasoning" that finally led TEDDYNoE (Task-force in Europe for Drug Development for the Young) to propose the integration of international human rights law to develop coherent and exhaustive ethical recommendations on paediatric research at a European level. A large number of ethical guidelines and texts of varying legal force existing in the field of clinical research and in particular related to paediatrics are analysed. Differences and non-coordinated implementation are pointed out. Differences, tensions or outright contradictions among the provisions of these texts can generate confusion leading to the adoption of different ethical standards across Europe. In this context, the real challenge is to ensure that each child involved in a clinical trial in the EU territory may rely directly on the same principles and rights. Taking international human rights law as the main starting point to develop a coherent framework for paediatric research that incorporates all the relevant ethical considerations and existing guidelines is a way of achieving this objective. The implementation, at national and local level, of the "European Ethical Recommendations" (Eudralex 2008 vol. 10), based on international human rights law, seems to be the next step in facilitating a coordinated approach to the application of the Directive 2001/20/EC, as well as developing quality and ethically sound paediatric research.