WorldWideScience

Sample records for understand global problems

  1. Understanding students visions about environmental global problems. Experience and lessons learned of teaching in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Siarova, Hanna; Misiūnė, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, environment is accepted to be an important element of our welfare. Our activities and societal status are strongly related with the quality of the environment where we live. On the other hand historical and cultural backgrounds shape importantly our views about the environment and how we act towards it in our daily life. In a context of globalization and increase of competition at international level, knowledge appears to be one of the key components for the advance of the word. Most of the knowledge produced comes from high level education institutions and research centres, which have responsibility to create and encourage critical thinking. Individuals aware of the problems can be more active and can push things forward. We think that environmental knowledge and awareness are fundamental for the future of the society. In order to develop better methodologies are developed if we have a better perception of students understanding of environmental problems. The objective of this work is to study the Lithuanian university level student's perception about some environmental challenges of our society. We selected several questions for the students rate according the relevance of the question, as "Air Pollution", "Waste Management", "Resources overexplotation", "Biodiversity reduction", "Human Overpopulation" "Poverty", "Global Warming/Climate change", Natural disasters", "Terrorism", "Economical crisis", "War and armed conflicts" and the "Spread of infectious diseases". We ask to the respondents to rate the importance using a likert scale (1=Not Important, 2= not so important, 3=important, 4=very important, 5=the most important). Among all the questions, the most rated where the Water pollution, the Spread of infectious diseases and Air Pollution and the less important where Biodiversity Reduction, Human overpopulation and climate change. These results helped us to identify where some efforts should be taken to raise student's awareness about global

  2. The global warming problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

  3. Understanding the Globalization of Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "This book provides an introduction to the complexities of contemporary Western Intelligence and its dynamics during an era of globalization. Towards an understanding of the globalization of intelligence process, Svendsen focuses on the secretive phenomenon of international or foreign intelligence...... cooperation ('liaison'), as it occurs in both theory and practice. Reflecting a complex coexistence plurality of several different and overlapping concepts in action, the challenging process of the globalization of intelligence emerges as essential for complex issue management purposes during a globalized era...

  4. Problems of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telebaković Boško

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world has been going through the process of economical, political and cultural integration for a long time. At the end of the 20th century, the integration received a new meaning. In the world’s policy, sovereign countries were in conflict or collaborated earlier. A stricter hierarchy of economical and political power hubs is being established now. In such processes of globalization, differences in development, wealth and power arise, people are less safe, the sovereignity of national states is being violated. The story of equality remains in the sense of disappearance of cultural differences in floods of non-cultural culture. It is difficult to talk about democracy when the world’s power is getting stronger and stronger. Is it possible to have a globalization which would not affect human rights, and which would not prevent people from taking care of truth, freedom and happiness?

  5. Introduction to global energetic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicquel, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book gives a view on global energetic problems and proposes a thorough economic analysis on principle aspects taken into account: energy supply, depending energy sources and available technologic channels, relationships between macro-economy and energy demand, new size of energy problems (environmental effects, overcosts of renewable energy sources, necessity of an high technologic development...). 38 refs

  6. Iron deficiency - a global problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Iron deficiency is an important nutritional global problem. This paper contains summery of information gathered from a dietary survey as iron deficiency anaemia is major public health problem in many developing countries including Pakistan. Comparison of anaemia in different age group and sex versus various regions in the world are given. In Pakistan also anaemia is widespread. According to the report of Micro-Nutrient survey of Pakistan 40% of the population are found to have low level of haemoglobin, more than half of pregnant women suffered from marginal or deficient haemoglobin. (A.B.)

  7. Iron deficiency - a global problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1994-12-31

    Iron deficiency is an important nutritional global problem. This paper contains summery of information gathered from a dietary survey as iron deficiency anaemia is major public health problem in many developing countries including Pakistan. Comparison of anaemia in different age group and sex versus various regions in the world are given. In Pakistan also anaemia is widespread. According to the report of Micro-Nutrient survey of Pakistan 40% of the population are found to have low level of haemoglobin, more than half of pregnant women suffered from marginal or deficient haemoglobin. (A.B.).

  8. Global Collaborations - Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Ian

    2005-04-01

    International collaboration has long been a feature of science. Collaborative investments in joint facilities and projects have grown considerably over the past 20-40 years, and many projects have been multinational from the start. This has been particularly true in Europe, where intergovernmental organizations such as CERN, ESA, and ESO have enabled European countries to carry out forefront science with state-of-art facilites which would have been beyond the capabilities of any one country. A brief survey of these organizations, their structure, and the possible reasons behind their success is given. The transition from regional to global creates new problems. Global scale projects face a range of generic issues which must be addressed and overcome if the project is to be a success. Each project has its own specific boundary conditions and each adopts an approach best fitted to its own objectives and constraints. Experience with billion dollar projects such as the SSC, LHC, and ITER shows the key problem areas and demonstrates the importance of preparatory work in the early stages to settle issues such as schedule, funding, location, legal and managerial structure, and oversight. A range of current and proposed intercontinental or global projects - so- called ``Megascience Projects" - is reviewed. Such projects, originally a feature of space and particle physics, are now becoming more common, and very large projects in astronomy, for example ALMA and 50 - 100m telescopes, and other areas of physics now fall into the `global' category. These projects are on such a large scale, from any scientific, managerial, financial or political perspective, and have such global importance, that they have necessarily been conceived as international from the outset. Increasing financial pressures on governments and funding agencies in the developed countries place additional demands on the project planning. The contrasting approaches, problems faced, and progress made in various

  9. Understanding the Problem of Pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Leigh Ann

    This report was written to clarify the terms often associated with pornography and to help readers understand the issue of pornography more clearly. The first chapter defines pornography, as it was defined by the United States Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, as "that material (which) is predominantly sexually explicit and intended…

  10. Understanding emotional problems: the REBT perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2008-01-01

    Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) is an approach to counselling and psychotherapy rooted in the CBT tradition and one that has a distinctive perspective on emotional problems.\\ud \\ud Understanding Emotional Problems provides an accurate understanding of the REBT perspective on eight major emotional problems for which help is sought: anxiety, depression, shame, guilt, unhealthy anger, hurt, unhealthy jealousy and unhealthy envy.\\ud \\ud Rather than discussing treatment methods, Windy Dr...

  11. Molecular science solving global problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Stults, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    From the late 1940s to the late 1980s, the Department of Energy (DOE) had a critical role in the Cold War. Many sites were built to contribute to the nation's nuclear weapons effort. However, not enough attention was paid to how the waste generated at these facilities should be handled. As a result, a number of sites fouled the soil around them or dumped low-level radioactive waste into nearby rivers. A DOE laboratory is under construction with a charter to help. Called the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), this national user facility will be located at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, WA. This laboratory has been funded by DOE and Congress to play a major role as the nation confronts the enormous challenge of reducing environmental and human risks from hundreds of government and industrial waste sites in an economically viable manner. The original proposal for the EMSL took a number of twists and turns on its way to its present form, but one thing remained constant: the belief that safe, permanent, cost-effective solutions to many of the country's environmental problems could be achieved only by multidisciplinary teams working to understand and control molecular processes. The processes of most concern are those that govern the transport and transformation of contaminants, the treatment and storage of high-level mixed wastes, and the risks those contaminants ultimately pose to workers and the public

  12. Poor understanding? Challenges to Global Development Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Buchanan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As members of a global community, we cohabit a metaphorically shrinking physical environment, and are increasingly connected one to another, and to the world, by ties of culture, economics, politics, communication and the like. Education is an essential component in addressing inequalities and injustices concerning global rights and responsibilities. The increasing multicultural nature of societies locally, enhanced access to distal information, and the work of charitable organisations worldwide are some of the factors that have contributed to the interest in, and need for, understanding global development education. The project on which this paper reports sought answers to the question: to what extent and in what ways can a semester-long subject enhance and extend teacher education students’ understandings of and responses to global inequalities and global development aid? In the course of the project, a continuum model emerged, as follows: Indifference or ignorance ➝ pity and charity ➝ partnership and development among equals. In particular, this paper reports on some of the challenges and obstacles that need to be addressed in order to enhance pre-service teachers’ understandings of global development education. The study, conducted in Australia, has implications for global development education in other developed nations.

  13. Problems with Global Education: Conceptual Contradictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Global education is concerned with social justice and student empowerment. However, an understanding of the word global as merely international and/or intercultural may fail to challenge existing mechanistic and compartmentalized views of knowledge and curriculum. Such a global education limits students' agency and reproduces the very systems it…

  14. Energy supply - a global problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1990-01-01

    The text of a speech celebrating the 10 years operation of the nuclear power plant in Goesgen. The author expresses his opinion on the future of nuclear energy, on the responsibility towards the next generation and on the energy supply for the Third World. He draws attention to the gap between north and south and to the limited amount of resources and mention the CO2-problem and the potential of nuclear energy

  15. Date Sensitive Computing Problems: Understanding the Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-29

    equipment on Earth.3 It can also interfere with electromagnetic signals from such devices as cell phones, radio, televison , and radar. By itself, the ...spacecraft. Debris from impacted satellites will add to the existing orbital debris problem, and could eventually cause damage to other satellites...Date Sensitive Computing Problems Understanding the Threat Aug. 17, 1998 Revised Aug. 29, 1998 Prepared by: The National Crisis Response

  16. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk (Ans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single

  17. Global evolution: New approach to understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, V.

    1993-01-01

    Current threats to the health of the environment - urban air pollution, deforestation, water pollution, etc. are taking on an ever increasing global dimension and it is becoming clear that it will be impossible to develop real solutions to these problems without effectively and contemporaneously resolving the deep social and political problems which are affecting just about every part of the globe. The cause of past failures in environmental protection policy implementation can be ascribed to one of the main defects of our society - that of not having cultivated intuitive knowledge through direct as opposed to intellectual experience; and this defect was probably the result of man having separated biological and cultural aspects from human nature during the course of civilization. To accomplish the formidable task of global environmental restoration, mankind must re-program his ways of living and reasoning which are not in harmony with nature. Conventional rational methods of thinking, which are highly linear, must give way to an intuitive process of comprehension to allow man to successfully deal with the maintenance of the earth's dynamic and non-linear ecosystems and socio-economic frameworks

  18. Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue 23, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.

  19. Towards understanding resprouting at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, Juli G.; Pratt, R. Brandon; Keeley, Jon E.; Jacobsen, Anna L.; Ramirez, Aaron R.; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Paula, Susana; Kanekua-Pia, Iolana N.; Davis, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and predicting plant response to disturbance is of paramount importance in our changing world. Resprouting ability is often considered a simple qualitative trait and used in many ecological studies. Our aim is to show some of the complexities of resprouting while highlighting cautions that need be taken in using resprouting ability to predict vegetation responses across disturbance types and biomes. There are marked differences in resprouting depending on the disturbance type, and fire is often the most severe disturbance because it includes both defoliation and lethal temperatures. In the Mediterranean biome, there are differences in functional strategies to cope with water deficit between resprouters (dehydration avoiders) and nonresprouters (dehydration tolerators); however, there is little research to unambiguously extrapolate these results to other biomes. Furthermore, predictions of vegetation responses to changes in disturbance regimes require consideration not only of resprouting, but also other relevant traits (e.g. seeding, bark thickness) and the different correlations among traits observed in different biomes; models lacking these details would behave poorly at the global scale. Overall, the lessons learned from a given disturbance regime and biome (e.g. crown-fire Mediterranean ecosystems) can guide research in other ecosystems but should not be extrapolated at the global scale.

  20. Further Understanding of the Food Safety Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingxing; MEI; Zhongchao; FENG; Pinghua; HE; Yawen; GAO; Yuqin; DAI

    2015-01-01

    Frequent occurrence of food quality and safety proves that it is not effective to solve the Problem only from mechanism and supervision mechanism. Instead,it may expand solution ideas from external environment inducing changes of social institutions. Edible agricultural products are raw materials of foods,so their quality and safety are decisive for food quality and safety. Combining with concept of quality and safety of edible agricultural products,from social economy,science,technology and culture,environment cognition,this paper made a further understanding of food quality and safety. It found that the quality and safety of domestic edible agricultural products are not completely resulted from human factor,and not completely quality and safety problem in practical sense. Design of problem solutions should consider such external factors as economic level and consumption concept,dual character of science and technology,cultural quality of the masses,and moral trait of the masses,and enhance matching of building of regulation tools with external environment.

  1. Stochastic global optimization as a filtering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    We present a reformulation of stochastic global optimization as a filtering problem. The motivation behind this reformulation comes from the fact that for many optimization problems we cannot evaluate exactly the objective function to be optimized. Similarly, we may not be able to evaluate exactly the functions involved in iterative optimization algorithms. For example, we may only have access to noisy measurements of the functions or statistical estimates provided through Monte Carlo sampling. This makes iterative optimization algorithms behave like stochastic maps. Naive global optimization amounts to evolving a collection of realizations of this stochastic map and picking the realization with the best properties. This motivates the use of filtering techniques to allow focusing on realizations that are more promising than others. In particular, we present a filtering reformulation of global optimization in terms of a special case of sequential importance sampling methods called particle filters. The increasing popularity of particle filters is based on the simplicity of their implementation and their flexibility. We utilize the flexibility of particle filters to construct a stochastic global optimization algorithm which can converge to the optimal solution appreciably faster than naive global optimization. Several examples of parametric exponential density estimation are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the approach.

  2. Problem of ''global color'' in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathy, P.A.; Rawnsley, J.H.; UER de Mathematique, Universite de Provence, Marseille, France)

    1986-01-01

    The problem of ''global color'' (which arose recently in monopole theory) is generalized to arbitrary gauge theories: a subgroup K of the ''unbroken'' gauge group G is implementable iff the gauge bundle reduces to the centralizer of K in G. Equivalent implementations correspond to equivalent reductions. Such an action is an internal symmetry for a given configuration iff the Yang-Mills field reduces also. The case of monopoles is worked out in detail

  3. Advances in Understanding Global Water Cycle with Advent of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Within this decade the internationally organized Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams beginning with very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and then on to blends of the former datastreams with additional lower-caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of the now emerging global water & energy cycle (GWEC) programs of a number of research agencies throughout the world, GPM serves as a centerpiece space mission for improving our understanding of the global water cycle from a global measurement perspective. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in climate, e.g., climate warming. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination. This paper presents an overview of the GPM Mission and how its observations can be used within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine whether a given perturbation in precipitation is indicative of an actual rate change in the global water cycle, consistent with required responses in water storage and/or water flux transport processes, or whether it is the natural variability of a fixed rate cycle.

  4. Understanding "Inclusive Growth": Advancing the global agenda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... Increasingly, the concept of "inclusive growth," where the benefits of economic growth are ... Growth is less likely to be sustainable with high and/or growing inequalities, and ... A global vision for small business in Egypt.

  5. Climate change 101 : understanding and responding to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    To inform the climate change dialogue, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change and the Pew Center on the States have developed a series of brief reports entitled Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Change. These reports...

  6. Understanding the Problems of Learning Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semilla-Dube, Lilia

    1983-01-01

    A model is being developed to categorize problems in teaching and learning mathematics. Categories include problems due to language difficulties, lack of prerequisite knowledge, and those related to the affective domain. This paper calls on individuals to share teaching and learning episodes; those submitted will then be compiled and categorized.…

  7. Forms of Understanding in Mathematical Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    mathematical concepts, but more recent studies (e.g., Gelman & Gallistel , 1978) indicate that significant understanding of those concepts should be...Beranek, & Newman, 1980. Gelman, R., & Gallistel , C. R. The child’s understanding of number. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978. 43 Greeno

  8. Crossing Digital Bridges for Global Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Candy; Bates, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    The international fantasy world that Walt Disney has developed, and others like it, are designed to create a global community experience for amusement park visitors. Disney's portrayal of many nations--their colorful dress, musical traditions, and unique native cuisine--is many students' only "foreign travel" and the experience may leave them with…

  9. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Bill

    1994-01-01

    A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)

  10. Global Environmental Change : Understanding the Human Dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stern, Paul C; Druckman, Daniel; Young, Oran R; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences; Stern, Paul C; Druckman, Daniel

    ... on the Human Dimensions of Global Change Commission on the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files ...

  11. Global environmental change: understanding the human dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stern, Paul C; Young, Oran R; Druckman, Daniel

    ... on the Human Dimensions of Global Change Commission on the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files ...

  12. Understanding the challenges of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of the threat of global warming and the chronology of the last half century of efforts to prevent it from overwhelming humanity is chronicled. It was in the 1970s when it was first realized that the cumulative total of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning had been steadily rising from the pre-industrial 280 ppmv (parts per million by volume) to 325 ppmv, approximately parallel with the rise of industrialization. Nevertheless, the first attempt at a global accord to reduce emissions was not made until 1992, when the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit tried, but miserably failed to reach agreement, having been prevented from achieving anything of substance by a loose-knit group of nations and commercial interests. Binding agreements were finally reached at the next scheduled international meeting in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto Protocols, the measures that Annex One nations such as Canada have to do to achieve the six per cent reductions targets below 1990 levels of emissions by 2010, and estimates of the costs involved. These discussions of proposed actions are balanced by a display of examples of the the growing volume of arguments advanced by opponents who not only disagree about what can be done to reduce emissions, but that there is anything that needs to be done at all. Central to their arguments is the denial that human activities are responsible for global warming, disregarding the overwhelming evidence by 3000+ leading scientists of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that most of the global warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities. The rest of the article details what can and needs to be done to reverse the cumulative impact of greenhouse gas emissions, how we can produce the energy we need at the lowest environmental cost, and the types of energy (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas) that result in the smallest GHG emissions. Familiar arguments are recited to

  13. Asessing for Structural Understanding in Childrens' Combinatorial Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn

    1999-01-01

    Assesses children's structural understanding of combinatorial problems when presented in a variety of task situations. Provides an explanatory model of students' combinatorial understandings that informs teaching and assessment. Addresses several components of children's structural understanding of elementary combinatorial problems. (Contains 50…

  14. Understanding feline emotions: … and their role in problem behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Sarah

    2018-05-01

    Practical relevance: Despite its importance, emotional health is a subject that is sadly neglected in the context of companion animals. Understanding emotions is at the heart of veterinary behavioural medicine and is key to preventing, managing and treating reported behavioural problems in domestic cats. Clinical challenges: On a daily basis, veterinary practices are presented with the physical health impact of emotional health and with emotionally motivated behaviours that are undesirable to owners and/or detrimental to the cat. Emotional health is of equal importance to physical health and lies at the very core of veterinary medicine. Clinically, the emotional motivation for a behaviour must be identified before an assessment is made of whether the motivation is contextually appropriate and whether the cat's response is justified and normal, or abnormal in the circumstances. Evidence base: The majority of referenced evidence for our understanding of emotional motivations in mammals has come from the human field, but recently there has been increasing interest in the emotional health of non-human animals and a resulting growth in research. This review draws on the published literature and the author's personal experience to explore how emotions can influence feline behaviours. Global importance: Understanding the importance of emotional health is a major factor in ensuring positive welfare for cats, wherever they are kept as companion animals. It impacts on their physical health and their quality of life, and also on the relationship between cat and owner.

  15. The global existence problem in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, L

    2000-01-01

    We survey some known facts and open questions concerning the global properties of 3+1 dimensional space--times containing a compact Cauchy surface. We consider space--times with an $\\ell$--dimensional Lie algebra of space--like Killing fields. For each $\\ell \\leq 3$, we give some basic results and conjectures on global existence and cosmic censorship. For the case of the 3+1 dimensional Einstein equations without symmetries, a new small data global existence result is announced.

  16. Posing Problems to Understand Children's Learning of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, ways in which problem posing activities aid our understanding of children's learning of addition of unlike fractions and product of proper fractions was examined. In particular, how a simple problem posing activity helps teachers take a second, deeper look at children's understanding of fraction concepts will be discussed. The…

  17. Global World: A Problem of Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakov, Alexander Nikolayevich

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to include the following items: to show the absolute necessity of managing the international community, to explore the fundamental possibility of managing the global world, to prove or disprove such a possibility, to determine the real background of global governance in modern conditions and to show the…

  18. East Asian perspective on global environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has been conducting active global warming research programs focusing on development of a method to forecast climate change accompanying global warming both globally and in East Asia. A regional climate change forecasting method is being developed and researches are conducted on impacts of climate change on the natural and social environment in East Asia. Researches are also conducted focusing on the relationship between emissions and deposition of acid substances and assessment of the environmental impacts of acid rain in East Asia. 4 figs

  19. Actual global problems of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Personal views on some actual problems in radiation protection are given in this paper. Among these problems are: evolution methodology used in radiation protection regulations; radiation protection, nuclear energy and safety, and new approaches to the process of the hazardous substances management. An interesting fact relating to the X-ray, radiation protection and Nikola Tesla are given also. (author)

  20. Problems in global fire evaluation: Is remote sensing the solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter the author critically examines the prospects for reducing uncertainties over global biomass burning using remote sensing. First he considers the global temporal, spatial, and intensity distributions of fires and the remotely sensible signals they create and discusses the opportunities and problems that exist for matching available sensors to fire signal. Then he considers problems relating to instrumentation and to atmospheric interference

  1. Global optima for the Zhou–Rozvany problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the minimum compliance topology design problem with a volume constraint and discrete design variables. In particular, our interest is to provide global optimal designs to a challenging benchmark example proposed by Zhou and Rozvany. Global optimality is achieved by an implementation o...... algorithms, we find global optimal designs for several values on the available volume. These designs can be used to validate other methods and heuristics for the considered class of problems....

  2. Energy problems in a global view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.-E.

    1976-01-01

    Energy problems in general are examined, considering first the ecosystem of pre-Newtonian societies, then that of industrial societies and their resulting energy consumptions. Primary energy sources are listed and the manner in which they are used is described. New techniques (uranium isotope separation, energy conversion, solar energy, controlled fusion) are discussed as a function of their potential saving in energy expenditure. Solutions are proposed for the future of post-industrial societies [fr

  3. School students' knowledge and understanding of the Global Solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The Global Solar Ultraviolet Index (UVI) is a health communication tool used to inform the public about the health risks of excess solar UV radiation and encourage appropriate sun-protection behaviour. Knowledge and understanding of the UVI has been evaluated among adult populations but not among ...

  4. The global existence problem and cosmic censorship in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncrief, V.; Eardley, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Two global existence conjectures for the Einstein equations are formulated and their relevance to the cosmic censorship conjecture discussed. It is argued that the reformulation of the cosmic censorship conjecture as a global existence problem renders it more amenable to direct analytical attack. To demonstrate the facility of this approach the cosmological version of the global existence conjecture is proved for the Gowdy spacetimes on T 3 X R. (author)

  5. The application of weight windows to 'Global' Monte Carlo problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, T. L.; Larsen, E. W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes two basic types of global deep-penetration (shielding) problems-the global flux problem and the global response problem. For each of these, two methods for generating weight windows are presented. The first approach, developed by the authors of this paper and referred to generally as the Global Weight Window, constructs a weight window that distributes Monte Carlo particles according to a user-specified distribution. The second approach, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and referred to as FW-CADIS, constructs a weight window based on intuitively extending the concept of the source-detector problem to global problems. The numerical results confirm that the theory used to describe the Monte Carlo particle distribution for a given weight window is valid and that the figure of merit is strongly correlated to the Monte Carlo particle distribution. Furthermore, they illustrate that, while both methods are capable of obtaining the correct solution, the Global Weight Window distributes particles much more uniformly than FW-CADIS. As a result, the figure of merit is higher for the Global Weight Window. (authors)

  6. Problem free nuclear power and global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth's atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO 2 emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage

  7. Tectonique globale. Quelques difficultés Global Tectonics. a Few Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitart M. J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On constate que malgré la brillante démonstration apportée par les forages dans le fond des océans, les praticiens de la géologie observent une certaine réserve face aux concepts de la Tectonique globale. C'est que d'une part, certaines hypothèses de base sont difficiles à comprendre et que d'autre part, la théorie aide assez peu à la résolution des problèmes qui se présentent au géologue praticien. Nous prendrons comme exemple - la difficulté de l'interprétation des anomalies magnétiques des océans; - le problème des « structures reliques » en milieu océanique; - le problème du changement de plaque et de l'inversion du mouvement; - les bassins intraplaques transverses aux ouvertures. Despite the brilliant demonstration of drilling into ocean beds, geologists seems ta be maintaining a certain reserve when confronted with concepts of global tectonics. On one hand, some basic assumptions are difficult ta understand, and on the other the theory is of relatively little help in solving the problems faced by practicing geologists. A few examples of such problems are - the difficulty in interpreting magnetic anomalies in oceans; - the problem of « relic structures » in on oceanic environment; - the problem of plate changes and inversion of movements; - intraplate basins bridging openings.

  8. Global Sufficient Optimality Conditions for a Special Cubic Minimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some sufficient global optimality conditions for a special cubic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints by extending the global subdifferential approach proposed by V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006. The present conditions generalize the results developed in the work of V. Jeyakumar et al. where a quadratic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints was considered. In addition, a special diagonal matrix is constructed, which is used to provide a convenient method for justifying the proposed sufficient conditions. Then, the reformulation of the sufficient conditions follows. It is worth noting that this reformulation is also applicable to the quadratic minimization problem with box or binary constraints considered in the works of V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006 and Y. Wang et al. (2010. Finally some examples demonstrate that our optimality conditions can effectively be used for identifying global minimizers of the certain nonconvex cubic minimization problem.

  9. Understanding Global Change: Frameworks and Models for Teaching Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; Mitchell, K.; Zoehfeld, K.; Oshry, A.; Menicucci, A. J.; White, L. D.; Marshall, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific and education communities must impart to teachers, students, and the public an understanding of how the various factors that drive climate and global change operate, and why the rates and magnitudes of these changes related to human perturbation of Earth system processes today are cause for deep concern. Even though effective educational modules explaining components of the Earth and climate system exist, interdisciplinary learning tools are necessary to conceptually link the causes and consequences of global changes. To address this issue, the Understanding Global Change Project at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) at UC Berkeley developed an interdisciplinary framework that organizes global change topics into three categories: (1) causes of climate change, both human and non-human (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, Earth's tilt and orbit), (2) Earth system processes that shape the way the Earth works (e.g., Earth's energy budget, water cycle), and (3) the measurable changes in the Earth system (e.g., temperature, precipitation, ocean acidification). To facilitate student learning about the Earth as a dynamic, interacting system, a website will provide visualizations of Earth system models and written descriptions of how each framework topic is conceptually linked to other components of the framework. These visualizations and textual summarizations of relationships and feedbacks in the Earth system are a unique and crucial contribution to science communication and education, informed by a team of interdisciplinary scientists and educators. The system models are also mechanisms by which scientists can communicate how their own work informs our understanding of the Earth system. Educators can provide context and relevancy for authentic datasets and concurrently can assess student understanding of the interconnectedness of global change phenomena. The UGC resources will be available through a web-based platform and

  10. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Global Fresh Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    priorities for future improvements in global fresh water budget monitoring. The priorities are based on the potential of new approaches to provide improved measurement and modeling systems, and on the need to measure and understand the potential for a speed-up of the global water cycle under the effects of climate change.

  11. Systemic thinking fundamentals for understanding problems and messes

    CERN Document Server

    Hester, Patrick T

    2014-01-01

    Whether you’re an academic or a practitioner, a sociologist, a manager, or an engineer, one can benefit from learning to think systemically.  Problems (and messes) are everywhere and they’re getting more complicated every day.  How we think about these problems determines whether or not we’ll be successful in understanding and addressing them.  This book presents a novel way to think about problems (and messes) necessary to attack these always-present concerns.  The approach draws from disciplines as diverse as mathematics, biology, and psychology to provide a holistic method for dealing with problems that can be applied to any discipline. This book develops the systemic thinking paradigm, and introduces practical guidelines for the deployment of a systemic thinking approach.

  12. Genomic Microbial Epidemiology Is Needed to Comprehend the Global Problem of Antibiotic Resistance and to Improve Pathogen Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, Ethan R.; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Chapman, Toni A.; Charles, Ian G.; Hammond, Jeffrey M.; Djordjevic, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of waste effluent from hospitals and intensive food animal production with antimicrobial residues is an immense global problem. Antimicrobial residues exert selection pressures that influence the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in diverse microbial populations. Despite these concerns there is only a limited understanding of how antimicrobial residues contribute to the global problem of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, rapid detection of emerging...

  13. Global Search Strategies for Solving Multilinear Least-Squares Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Andersson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The multilinear least-squares (MLLS problem is an extension of the linear least-squares problem. The difference is that a multilinear operator is used in place of a matrix-vector product. The MLLS is typically a large-scale problem characterized by a large number of local minimizers. It originates, for instance, from the design of filter networks. We present a global search strategy that allows for moving from one local minimizer to a better one. The efficiency of this strategy is illustrated by the results of numerical experiments performed for some problems related to the design of filter networks.

  14. Global Optimization of Nonlinear Blend-Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Castillo Castillo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The scheduling of gasoline-blending operations is an important problem in the oil refining industry. This problem not only exhibits the combinatorial nature that is intrinsic to scheduling problems, but also non-convex nonlinear behavior, due to the blending of various materials with different quality properties. In this work, a global optimization algorithm is proposed to solve a previously published continuous-time mixed-integer nonlinear scheduling model for gasoline blending. The model includes blend recipe optimization, the distribution problem, and several important operational features and constraints. The algorithm employs piecewise McCormick relaxation (PMCR and normalized multiparametric disaggregation technique (NMDT to compute estimates of the global optimum. These techniques partition the domain of one of the variables in a bilinear term and generate convex relaxations for each partition. By increasing the number of partitions and reducing the domain of the variables, the algorithm is able to refine the estimates of the global solution. The algorithm is compared to two commercial global solvers and two heuristic methods by solving four examples from the literature. Results show that the proposed global optimization algorithm performs on par with commercial solvers but is not as fast as heuristic approaches.

  15. Global EV Outlook: Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The Global EV Outlook represents the collective efforts of two years of primary data gathering and analysis from the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) and IEA. Key takeaways and insights include landscape analysis of electric vehicle (EV) stock/sales and charging station deployment. Existing policy initiatives are delineated and future opportunities highlighted in an ''Opportunity Matrix: Pathways to 2020''. Together EVI countries accounted for more than 90% of world EV stock at the end of 2012. Strong government support in EVI countries on both the supply and demand sides are contributing to rising market penetration. 12 out of 15 EVI countries offer financial support for vehicle purchases, and most employ a mix of financial and non-financial incentives (such as access to restricted highway lanes) to help drive adoption. The Global EV Outlook is a unique and data-rich overview of the state of electric vehicles today, and offers an understanding of the electric vehicle landscape to 2020.

  16. Recent Advancements in the Global Understanding of what Drives Heatwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Kirkpatrick, S.

    2016-12-01

    Heatwaves, defined as prolonged periods of extreme heat, are disastrous events that impact human, natural and industrial systems all over the world. In recent years, the global research effort has greatly increased our understanding on quantifying heatwaves and how they have changed, what drives them, and their future projections. This talk will summarize critical developments made in this field, with particular emphasis on the physical driving mechanisms and the role of internal climate variability. Case studies from various global regions will illustrate both similarities and differences in the physical set-ups of these fascinating events. Future projections of heatwaves and the human contribution behind specific observed heatwave events will be briefly discussed. The talk will conclude by highlighting research priorities such that future investigation is targeted, and closes existing knowledge gaps on what drives heatwaves as effectively as possible. Such developments will ultimately aid in the predictability of heatwaves, thus aiding in reducing their devastating impacts.

  17. The Swedish drug problem: Conceptual understanding and problem handling, 1839–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edman Johan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM - To analyse the Swedish drug question by examining dominant concepts used to portray the problem in the years 1839-2011. Theoretically, we understand these concepts as ideological tools that shape the political initiatives and administrative efforts to deal with the problem. The study is based on two kinds of source material: articles in medical journals from the years 1839-1964 and public reports on vagrancy, the alcohol problem, mental health and the drug problem from the years 1882-2011.

  18. On global error estimation and control for initial value problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lang (Jens); J.G. Verwer (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses global error estimation and control for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations. The focus lies on a comparison between a novel approach based onthe adjoint method combined with a small sample statistical initialization and the classical approach

  19. On global error estimation and control for initial value problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, J.; Verwer, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. This paper addresses global error estimation and control for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations. The focus lies on a comparison between a novel approach based on the adjoint method combined with a small sample statistical initialization and the classical approach

  20. A numerical study for global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); J.G. Verwer (Jan); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1998-01-01

    htmlabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  1. A numerical study for global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); J.G. Verwer (Jan); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  2. The core of the global warming problem: energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, E.

    2005-01-01

    From the thermodynamic point of view, the global warming problem is an 'energy balance' problem. The heat (energy) accumulation in the earth and its atmosphere is the cause of global warming. This accumulation is mainly due to the imbalance of (solar) energy reaching and the energy leaving the earth, caused by 'greenhouse effect' in which the CO 2 and other greenhouse gases play a critical role; so that balance of the energy entering and leaving the earth should be the key to solve the problem. Currently in the battle of tackling the global warming, we mainly focus on the development of CO 2 -related measures, i.e., emission reduction, CO 2 sequestration, and CO 2 recycle technologies. It is right in technical aspect, because they are attempting to thin the CO 2 'blanket' around the earth. However, 'Energy' that is the core of the problem has been overlooked, at least in management/policy aspect. This paper is proposing an 'Energy Credit' i.e., the energy measure concept as an alternative to the 'CO 2 credit' that is currently in place in the proposed emission trading scheme. The proposed energy credit concept has the advantages such as covering broad activities related to the global warming and not just direct emissions. Three examples are given in the paper to demonstrate the concept of the energy measure and its advantages over the CO 2 credit concept. (Author)

  3. Global environmental problems, voluntary action and government intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, A.; van Soest, D.P.; Brousseau, E.; Dedeurwaerdere, T.; Jouvet, P.A.; Willonger, M.

    2012-01-01

    The global community faces several very pressing environmental challenges such as climate change, depletion of the high-sea fisheries, and unprecedented rates of biodiversity loss. Governments are in the process of designing environmental policies to address these problems unilaterally, but also

  4. Solving Unconstrained Global Optimization Problems via Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic global optimization (SGO algorithms such as the particle swarm optimization (PSO approach have become popular for solving unconstrained global optimization (UGO problems. The PSO approach, which belongs to the swarm intelligence domain, does not require gradient information, enabling it to overcome this limitation of traditional nonlinear programming methods. Unfortunately, PSO algorithm implementation and performance depend on several parameters, such as cognitive parameter, social parameter, and constriction coefficient. These parameters are tuned by using trial and error. To reduce the parametrization of a PSO method, this work presents two efficient hybrid SGO approaches, namely, a real-coded genetic algorithm-based PSO (RGA-PSO method and an artificial immune algorithm-based PSO (AIA-PSO method. The specific parameters of the internal PSO algorithm are optimized using the external RGA and AIA approaches, and then the internal PSO algorithm is applied to solve UGO problems. The performances of the proposed RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO algorithms are then evaluated using a set of benchmark UGO problems. Numerical results indicate that, besides their ability to converge to a global minimum for each test UGO problem, the proposed RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO algorithms outperform many hybrid SGO algorithms. Thus, the RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO approaches can be considered alternative SGO approaches for solving standard-dimensional UGO problems.

  5. On global environment problems in electric power business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugi, Masashi

    1992-01-01

    The former environmental problems were atmospheric pollution, water quality contamination, noise and vibration nuisance, waste disposal and so on mainly at interior or district level, but now, the influence that the problems such as the global warming due to carbon dioxide emission, the ozone layer breaking due to freon gas, acid rain going over boundaries and so on exert to environment spreads to wide areas, therefore, various research and investigation have been carried out as the environmental problems on global scale at national and international levels. It has become an important subject to make the preservation of global environment and durable economical development compatible by effectively utilizing limited resources and energy. The electric power companies have advanced positively the prevention of pollution and the preservation of environment, and attained the environment preservation of top level in the world. The consciousness of people on environmental problems has heightened, therefore the construction and operation of power plants harmonized to districts are important. The countermeasures to environmental problems taken by electric power companies are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Global Optimization for Bus Line Timetable Setting Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines bus timetables setting problem during each time period divided in terms of passenger flow intensity; it is supposed that passengers evenly arrive and bus runs are set evenly; the problem is to determine bus runs assignment in each time period to minimize the total waiting time of passengers on platforms if the number of the total runs is known. For such a multistage decision problem, this paper designed a dynamic programming algorithm to solve it. Global optimization procedures using dynamic programming are developed. A numerical example about bus runs assignment optimization of a single line is given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology, showing that optimizing buses’ departure time using dynamic programming can save computational time and find the global optimal solution.

  7. RELEVANT PROBLEMS OF UKRAINE’S INTEGRATION INTO GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevheniia Duliba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the main problems that prevent Ukraine from integrating into the global economy and to determine correct focuses of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine against the background of strengthening of globalization tendencies throughout the world. The bases of this research are bases of business development of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine and improvement of Ukrainian economy against the background of international integration. At the heart of the research methodology is a dialectical method of scientific knowledge and, besides, special methods of research based on modern scientific bases of economic, management and related to them knowledge: economic and statistic method – for the assessment of the modern state of foreign trade and investment activity of Ukraine; method of analysis and synthesis – for the determination of tendencies of development of integration processed in Ukraine; comparative analysis – for comparison of information concerning development of specific indicators of foreign economic activities in Ukraine. Results. As a result of research, the main blocks of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are determined. Besides, interdependence and interdetermination of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are explained. Political and legal, economic, sociocultural, and infrastructural preconditions that are necessary for effective integration of Ukraine into the global economy are highlighted. Practical implications. Analysis of the existing problems related to the actual economy, investments, innovation processes gives the possibility to determine the vector of development of Ukraine’s economy taking to account recommendations concerning its improvement for the purposes of integration into global economy. Value

  8. Understanding the Global Cold War Legacy: Narrating through Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Klein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War brought the shrinking and dismantling of vast nuclear weapons complexes. As a result, some landscape architects will find themselves reclaiming a new, very specific type of Cold War landscape: those degraded by nuclear arms testing, production and waste storage. Nuclear landscapes pose multiple and complex challenges. Before designing nuclear reclamations, one must ask: what are the issues? If designers misunderstand the nuclear landscape 'problem', it will be 'solved' in the wrong way. My position is based on the assumption that society desires these landscapes to be reclaimed safely and in ways that allow them to educate the public. Landscape architects can find ways to reclaim nuclear landscapes safely while leaving narratives for generations to come. Perhaps it is too early to describe how nuclear reclamations will look. It is not too early to discuss what designs for nuclear reclamations should accomplish. This paper raises questions critical to the design of nuclear reclamations, both globally and locally. Near precedents - past reclamations that narrate other types of degraded landscapes - are discussed, and it is noted how we can learn from them when considering nuclear landscape reclamation. This paper does not articulate a specific design theory or solution to Cold War nuclear landscapes, but rather, it seeks to pose critical questions that designers should ask. These questions will be broad because we consider nuclear landscapes globally. The questions will require in-depth investigation of local issues as each unique nuclear landscape is considered.

  9. Developing an understanding between people: the key to global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Alina

    2010-05-01

    Global health and international health are prominent concepts within development issues today. Health is at the heart of many of the Millennium Development Goals, and the idea of a human right to health and health care has taken more hold in the forefronts of our minds. In acknowledgement of the globalised and interdependent society in which we live, this reflective piece uses personal experiences of anthropology and travel throughout the author's medical education to illustrate the pressing need for a better understanding between health workers and local populations. Experiences in Ecuador, Peru, India and Nepal, highlight the plurality of medicine. They show how medical education in the UK forms only one part of medical knowledge, and in particular how clinical practice requires the appreciation of a wider context. Within a multi-cultural society, it is essential that medical students learn new skills for the future. Teaching Anthropology and Sociology within the curriculum in the UK can educate students about how knowledge is created within a culture and to appreciate the diversity between cultures. Consideration of patients' backgrounds and beliefs allows health workers to develop relationships with the local population, which can be of invaluable use in making global health equality a reality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global EV Outlook: Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The Global EV Outlook represents the collective efforts of two years of primary data gathering and analysis from the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) and IEA. Key takeaways and insights include landscape analysis of electric vehicle (EV) stock/sales and charging station deployment. Existing policy initiatives are delineated and future opportunities highlighted in an ''Opportunity Matrix: Pathways to 2020''. Together EVI countries accounted for more than 90% of world EV stock at the end of 2012. Strong government support in EVI countries on both the supply and demand sides are contributing to rising market penetration. 12 out of 15 EVI countries offer financial support for vehicle purchases, and most employ a mix of financial and non-financial incentives (such as access to restricted highway lanes) to help drive adoption. The Global EV Outlook is a unique and data-rich overview of the state of electric vehicles today, and offers an understanding of the electric vehicle landscape to 2020.

  11. International Sport Movement in the Context of the Global Problems of Mankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafeev Dmitriy Valeryevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of globalization process the world becomes more and more integrated, the role of “hard” power becomes lower, while the role of “soft” power, vice versa, increases. Sport as one of the most important spheres of human activities, faces both positive and negative effects of globalization. Sport has an important function in the concept of “soft” security, and this importance is evidenced by serious attention, paid by the United Nations and other international organizations. The UN established the International Day of port, and it organizes regular meetings and conferences devoted to sport. Plenty of the UN Organizations officially use sport to achieve their aims. Sports diplomacy is believed to have reconciling, uniting role; sport must contribute to resolution of the most part of contemporary global problems. Abilities of the Information age allow using positive effect caused by sport events with maximal benefits. There is understanding in the UN, that sport alone cannot solve all global problems, but it can relieve their consequences. Therefore sport is used to struggle over such problems, as poverty; peace and security problems; disarmament necessity; human rights and democracy problems; demography, ecology and energy problems, difficulties with medical care and provision. On the other hand, sport suffers from globalization; it loses its initial function of competition due to politicization and commercialization. Even new issues of confrontation appear because of sports. Only global governance over sport, establishment of general rules and clear goals and their joint accomplishment can allow the international sports movement become a real force in fight against global problems.

  12. A concept for global optimization of topology design problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Achtziger, Wolfgang; Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    We present a concept for solving topology design problems to proven global optimality. We propose that the problems are modeled using the approach of simultaneous analysis and design with discrete design variables and solved with convergent branch and bound type methods. This concept is illustrated...... on two applications. The first application is the design of stiff truss structures where the bar areas are chosen from a finite set of available areas. The second considered application is simultaneous topology and geometry design of planar articulated mechanisms. For each application we outline...

  13. Arsenic in Drinking Water—A Global Environmental Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaofen Wang, Joanna; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-02-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a global environmental problem affecting a large number of populations, especially in developing countries. The "blackfoot disease"that occurred in Taiwan more than half of a century ago was attributed to drinking arsenic-contaminated water from deep wells containing high concentrations of the trivalent arsenite species. Similar arsenic poisoning cases were reported later in Chinese Inner Mongolia, Bangladesh, and India—all related to drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) of arsenic in drinking water has been changed recently by the U.S. EPA from 50 ppb to 10 ppb; the compliance date is January 2006. This article summarizes documented global arsenic contamination problems, the regulatory controversy regarding MCL of arsenic in drinking water, and available technologies for removing arsenic from contaminated waters. Methods for analyzing total arsenic and arsenic species in water are also described.

  14. History of global environmental problems. Chikyu kankyo mondai no rekishi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, S [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-04-15

    This paper takes general view of the history of global environmental problems. A UN human environment conference was held in Stockholm in 1972, at which the human environment declaration and an action plan were adopted. The most important among the results of the Stockholm Conference were the treaty on international transactions of wild animal and plant species feared of extinction in the 1970's, the international treaty on prevention of pollution caused by ocean vessels, and the treaty on prevention of ocean pollution caused by dumping of wastes and other materials. Also adopted in the 1970's include the action plan to prevent desertification, the action plan on the world population, and the world weather plan. The UN Nairobi Conference in 1982 has sounded the alarm on the delay in tackling with the facing problems and the progress of aggravation in the global environment. In 1987, the ozone layer protection protocol was adopted. The earth summit at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 adopted the Agenda 21, with which the participating nations, autonomous bodies, and civil organizations have prepared their own Agenda 21, and are now about to begin challenging the global environmental problems. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Towards an Understanding of Enabling Process Knowing in Global Software Development: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Shared understanding of Software Engineering (SE) processes, that we call process knowing, is required for effective communication and coordination and communication within a team in order to improve team performance. SE Process knowledge can include roles, responsibilities and flow of informatio...... challenges of lack of process knowing and how an organization can enable process knowing for achieving the desired results that also help in increasing social interactions and positive behavioral changes......Shared understanding of Software Engineering (SE) processes, that we call process knowing, is required for effective communication and coordination and communication within a team in order to improve team performance. SE Process knowledge can include roles, responsibilities and flow of information...... over a project lifecycle. Developing and sustaining process knowledge can be more challenging in Global Software Development (GSD). GSD distances can limit the ability of a team to develop a common understanding of processes. Anecdotes of the problems caused by lack of common understanding of processes...

  16. Global optimization of discrete truss topology design problems using a parallel cut-and-branch method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Højlund; Stolpe, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    the physics, and the cuts (Combinatorial Benders’ and projected Chvátal–Gomory) come from an understanding of the particular mathematical structure of the reformulation. The impact of a stronger representation is investigated on several truss topology optimization problems in two and three dimensions.......The subject of this article is solving discrete truss topology optimization problems with local stress and displacement constraints to global optimum. We consider a formulation based on the Simultaneous ANalysis and Design (SAND) approach. This intrinsically non-convex problem is reformulated...

  17. Understanding student use of differentials in physics integration problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehui Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on students’ use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., dr, dq. In this paper we aim to explore students’ reasoning about the differential concept in physics problems. We conducted group teaching or learning interviews with 13 engineering students enrolled in a second-semester calculus-based physics course. We amalgamated two frameworks—the resources framework and the conceptual metaphor framework—to analyze students’ reasoning about differential concept. Categorizing the mathematical resources involved in students’ mathematical thinking in physics provides us deeper insights into how students use mathematics in physics. Identifying the conceptual metaphors in students’ discourse illustrates the role of concrete experiential notions in students’ construction of mathematical reasoning. These two frameworks serve different purposes, and we illustrate how they can be pieced together to provide a better understanding of students’ mathematical thinking in physics.

  18. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Gonzalez, Lilliana

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide in all age groups, even in those residing in countries with low latitude, where it was generally assumed that UV radiation was adequate enough to prevent this deficiency, and in industrialized countries, where vitamin D fortification has been implemented now for years. However, most countries are still lacking data, particularly population representative data, with very limited information in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women. Since the number of recent publications is escalating, with a broadening of the geographic diversity, the objective of the present report was to conduct a more recent systematic review of global vitamin D status, with particular emphasis in at risk groups. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed/Medline in April-June 2013 to identify articles on vitamin D status worldwide published in the last 10 years in apparently healthy individuals. Only studies with vitamin D status prevalence were included. If available, the first source selected was population-based or representative samples studies. Clinical trials, case-control studies, case reports or series, reviews, validation studies, letters, editorials, or qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 103 articles were eligible and included in the present report. Maps were created for each age group, providing an updated overview of global vitamin D status. In areas with available data, the prevalence of low vitamin D status is a global problem in all age groups, in particular in girls and women from the Middle East. These maps also evidenced the regions with missing data for each specific population groups. There is striking lack of data in infants, children and adolescents worldwide, and in most countries of South America and Africa. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem in all age groups, particularly in those from the Middle East. This article is part of a Special Issue

  19. Advances In Understanding Global Water Cycle With Advent of GPM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    During the coming decade, the internationally organized Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space based on an international fleet of satellites operated as a constellation. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams beginning with very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and then on to blends of the former datastreams with additional lower-caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of the now emerging global water & energy cycle (GWEC) programs of a number of research agencies throughout the world, GPM serves as a centerpiece space mission for improving our understanding of the Earth's water cycle from a global measurement perspective and on down to regional scales and below. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in climate, e.g., climate warming. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination. This paper first presents an overview of the GPM Mission and how its overriding scientific objectives for climate, weather, and hydrology flow from the anticipated improvements that are being planned for the constellation-based measuring system. Next, the paper shows how the GPM observations can be used within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine whether a given perturbation in precipitation is indicative of an actual rate change in the water cycle, consistent with required responses in water storage and/or water flux transport processes, or whether it is simply part of the natural

  20. Historical approach of contemporary understanding of school in globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlić-Božović Jasna Lj.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural education respects and promotes diversity in all areas of human life. This phenomenon indicates that people naturally and spontaneously develop different lifestyles, different customs and worldviews. These differences need to be considered as a wealth of life. When we talk about education, and school as a narrow concept, in which the differences are usually promoted, we have a vision of a community that provides equal opportunities, opposes injustice and discrimination, and strives for the values which equality is being built on. Especially, this phenomenon is being pointed out in our conditions, when we are still adapting to the reforms of globalization. In the Contemporary World, promoting the democracy becomes a key goal of education, as well as the whole society. Therefore, in the education system it should be taken into account the multicultural character of the society that tends to actively contribute to a peaceful coexistence and positive interaction between different cultural groups. Traditionally, in this sense, there are two approaches in education: multi­cultural education that strives to provide the acceptance and tolerance of other cultures through learning about them. On the other side, we have the intercultural education that aims to overcome the passive coexistence and achieve developed and sustainable way of living together in a multicultural society. This is achieved through the construcive process of understanding, mutual respect and dialogue among groups of different cultures, then, ensuring equal opportunities and combating discrimination.

  1. Insufficiencies in solving global environmental problems by specialized scientific expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, S.G.; Kra, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The most paradoxical and urgent problem faces the world today. We find ourselves between the horns of a dilemma. One horn represents the accelerating demand for energy, and the other, the irreversible degradation of our natural environment. There are two directions that we can take to solve our growing global crisis. The first step is to encourage scientific specialists to think in broader terms. The second necessary approach is to make decision makers aware of the complexity of the situation as well as the dangers of tunnel vision that experts often fall into. Therefore, to find a long-term holistic solution, decision makers, be they government officials or academics, must be, themselves, solution oriented and capable of directing scientists along broadened problem-solving pathways. Up till now, scientists have been required to research environmental problems, discover causal associations and determine effects. Contemporary scientists, in the truest sense of the meaning, are no longer generalists but are specialists in their own fields with great depth and accuracy of knowledge. However, experts of high standing may have difficulty visualizing adjacent sciences, which causes them to lose sight of topics peripheral to their main field of interest. The consequence of this can be that solutions to a problem will be sought only within particular and specialized areas, but it is, unfortunately, a fact of life that environmental problems do not come neatly packaged in scientific disciplines: they happen in their entirety, with all their synergistic implications. 5 refs., 5 figs

  2. Proposal of Evolutionary Simplex Method for Global Optimization Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    To make an agile decision in a rational manner, role of optimization engineering has been notified increasingly under diversified customer demand. With this point of view, in this paper, we have proposed a new evolutionary method serving as an optimization technique in the paradigm of optimization engineering. The developed method has prospects to solve globally various complicated problem appearing in real world applications. It is evolved from the conventional method known as Nelder and Mead’s Simplex method by virtue of idea borrowed from recent meta-heuristic method such as PSO. Mentioning an algorithm to handle linear inequality constraints effectively, we have validated effectiveness of the proposed method through comparison with other methods using several benchmark problems.

  3. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Pyhälä

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental change (GEC is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC - particularly in small-scale societies - and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014 that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i cognition, (ii culture and knowledge, and (iii possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a "meta-language" around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  4. A DE-Based Scatter Search for Global Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid scatter search (SS algorithm for continuous global optimization problems by incorporating the evolution mechanism of differential evolution (DE into the reference set updated procedure of SS to act as the new solution generation method. This hybrid algorithm is called a DE-based SS (SSDE algorithm. Since different kinds of mutation operators of DE have been proposed in the literature and they have shown different search abilities for different kinds of problems, four traditional mutation operators are adopted in the hybrid SSDE algorithm. To adaptively select the mutation operator that is most appropriate to the current problem, an adaptive mechanism for the candidate mutation operators is developed. In addition, to enhance the exploration ability of SSDE, a reinitialization method is adopted to create a new population and subsequently construct a new reference set whenever the search process of SSDE is trapped in local optimum. Computational experiments on benchmark problems show that the proposed SSDE is competitive or superior to some state-of-the-art algorithms in the literature.

  5. Accounting for Government in the Global South: do Global Solutions Match Local Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Lawrence

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of globalised accounting and economic reforms on the public sectors of lessdeveloped countries. Our interest is in the international institutions that have been instrumental inintroducing common, global remedies which appear to be based on theoretical understandings as opposed toexperience of the effects of their interventions. A growing concern is being expressed about suchinterventions, but there is a sparcity of reports from the field. We argue that a re-think is required of type ofthe public sector financial management reforms which the international financial institutions and the nationalaid agencies have been promoting across the Global South for the last decade or so.

  6. Understanding primary school science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge: The case of teaching global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordnork, Boonliang; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This aim of this research was to investigate primary school science teachers understanding and teaching practice as well as the influence on teaching and learning a topic like global warming. The participants were four primary science teachers, who were not graduated in science education. Methodology was the case study method, which was under the qualitative research regarded from interpretive paradigm. Data were collected by openended questionnaire, semi-structure interview, and document colleting. The questionnaire examined teachers' background, teachers' understanding of problems and threats of science teaching, desiring of development their PCK, sharing the teaching approaches, and their ideas of strength and weakness. a semi-structured interview was conducted based on the approach for capturing PCK of Loughran [23] content representation (CoRe). And, the document was collected to clarify what evidence which was invented to effect on students' learning. These document included lesson plan, students' task, and painting about global warming, science projects, the picture of activities of science learning, the exercise and test. Data analysis employed multiple approach of evidence looking an issue from each primary science teachers and used triangulation method to analyze the data with aiming to make meaning of teachers' representation of teaching practice. These included descriptive statistics, CoRe interpretation, and document analysis. The results show that teachers had misunderstanding of science teaching practice and they has articulated the pedagogical content knowledge in terms of assessment, goal of teaching and linking to the context of socio cultural. In contrast, knowledge and belief of curriculum, students' understanding of content global warming, and strategies of teaching were articulated indistinct by non-graduate science teacher. Constructing opportunities for personal development, the curiosity of the student learning center, and linking context

  7. Global regularization method for planar restricted three-body problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, global regularization method for planar restricted three-body problem is purposed by using the transformation z = x+iy = ν cos n(u+iv, where i = √−1, 0 < ν ≤ 1 and n is a positive integer. The method is developed analytically and computationally. For the analytical developments, analytical solutions in power series of the pseudotime τ are obtained for positions and velocities (u, v, u', v' and (x, y, x˙, y˙ in both regularized and physical planes respectively, the physical time t is also obtained as power series in τ. Moreover, relations between the coefficients of the power series are obtained for two consequent values of n. Also, we developed analytical solutions in power series form for the inverse problem of finding τ in terms of t. As typical examples, three symbolic expressions for the coefficients of the power series were developed in terms of initial values. As to the computational developments, the global regularized equations of motion are developed together with their initial values in forms suitable for digital computations using any differential equations solver. On the other hand, for numerical evolutions of power series, an efficient method depending on the continued fraction theory is provided.

  8. Hydroelectric power and global environmental problems: benefits and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, B.

    1992-01-01

    The risk of global warming is one of the most serious global environmental problems. It is due to the increase of greenhouse gases emissions, mainly because of the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector, particularly for electricity generation. At an international level, experts now agree that measures are to be taken to reduce this risk. In the energy sector, an improvement of energy efficiency and an increase of nuclear electricity generation are often presented as the best available solutions. Renewable energy sources are often presented as a solution with a negligible potential impact, and sometimes, hydro power is even forgotten, or its coasts and its potential impacts on local environment are presented as an obstacle to its positive contribution to the reduction of global warming risk. Without denying the positive impacts of other solutions, this paper explains the possibilities and the benefits of an increased use of hydroelectric power, when implemented with a minimum impact on local environment and with a synergistic effect with the rational use of generated energy, in order to have access to a sustainable development. 19 refs., 6 figs

  9. Sixth-Grade Students' Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintainer, Tammie; Linn, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Developing solutions for complex issues such as global climate change requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This study reports on the impact of a technology-enhanced unit designed to improve understanding of global climate change, its mechanisms, and their relationship to everyday energy use. Global Climate Change, implemented in…

  10. Understanding catastrophizing from a misdirected problem-solving perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Ida K; Boersma, Katja; MacDonald, Shane; Linton, Steven J

    2012-05-01

    The aim is to explore pain catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective. The links between catastrophizing, problem framing, and problem-solving behaviour are examined through two possible models of mediation as inferred by two contemporary and complementary theoretical models, the misdirected problem solving model (Eccleston & Crombez, 2007) and the fear-anxiety-avoidance model (Asmundson, Norton, & Vlaeyen, 2004). In this prospective study, a general population sample (n= 173) with perceived problems with spinal pain filled out questionnaires twice; catastrophizing and problem framing were assessed on the first occasion and health care seeking (as a proxy for medically oriented problem solving) was assessed 7 months later. Two different approaches were used to explore whether the data supported any of the proposed models of mediation. First, multiple regressions were used according to traditional recommendations for mediation analyses. Second, a bootstrapping method (n= 1000 bootstrap resamples) was used to explore the significance of the indirect effects in both possible models of mediation. The results verified the concepts included in the misdirected problem solving model. However, the direction of the relations was more in line with the fear-anxiety-avoidance model. More specifically, the mediation analyses provided support for viewing catastrophizing as a mediator of the relation between biomedical problem framing and medically oriented problem-solving behaviour. These findings provide support for viewing catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective and imply a need to examine and address problem framing and catastrophizing in back pain patients. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Understanding digital access and use in the Global South | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... creating an environment that spurs business growth, nurtures science and innovation, and empowers people. ... change through strategic research communications; and build the capacity of Global South research leaders, enabling them to ...

  12. Understanding adults’ strong problem-solving skills based on PIAAC

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Raija; De Wever, Bram; Nissinen, Kari; Cincinnato, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Research has shown that the problem-solving skills of adults with a vocational education and training (VET) background in technology-rich environments (TREs) are often inadequate. However, some adults with a VET background do have sound problem-solving skills. The present study aims to provide insight into the socio-demographic, work-related and everyday life factors that are associated with a strong problem-solving performance. Design/methodology/approach The study builds...

  13. Regional strategies for the accelerating global problem of groundwater depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Gleeson, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater--the world's largest freshwater resource--is critically important for irrigated agriculture and hence for global food security. Yet depletion is widespread in large groundwater systems in both semi-arid and humid regions of the world. Excessive extraction for irrigation where groundwater is slowly renewed is the main cause of the depletion, and climate change has the potential to exacerbate the problem in some regions. Globally aggregated groundwater depletion contributes to sea-level rise, and has accelerated markedly since the mid-twentieth century. But its impacts on water resources are more obvious at the regional scale, for example in agriculturally important parts of India, China and the United States. Food production in such regions can only be made sustainable in the long term if groundwater levels are stabilized. To this end, a transformation is required in how we value, manage and characterize groundwater systems. Technical approaches--such as water diversion, artificial groundwater recharge and efficient irrigation--have failed to balance regional groundwater budgets. They need to be complemented by more comprehensive strategies that are adapted to the specific social, economic, political and environmental settings of each region.

  14. A novel approach for the global localization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe una metodología de planificación, localización y mapeo simultáneos enfocada en el problema de localización global, el robot explora el ambiente eficientemente y también considera los requisitos de un algoritmo de localización y mapeo simultáneos. El método está basado en la generación aleatoria incremental de una estructura de datos llamada árbol aleatorio basado en sensores, la cual representa un mapa de caminos del área explorada con su región segura asociada. Un procedimiento de localización continuo basado encaracterísticas B-splines de la región segura se integró en el esquema.This paper describes a simultaneous planning localization and mapping (SPLAM methodology focussed on the global localization problem, where the robot explores the environment efficiently and also considers the requisites of the simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm. The method is based on the randomized incremental generation of a data structure called Sensor-based Random Tree, which represents a roadmap of the explored area with an associated safe region. A continuous localization procedure based on B-Splines features of the safe region is integrated in the scheme.

  15. Approaches to the Understanding of the Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Кукарцев, Олег Вікторович

    2016-01-01

    A central issue in this paper is the origins and specific character of global governance discourse that formed at the turn of the twenty-first century. The new discourse marked a gradual exclusion of most early discourses – «international relations» and «world government». It is demonstrated that new term «global governance» signalizes about grand reconstruction of previous international relations discourse where international society was considered as the complex of states and their governme...

  16. Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW

  17. Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW

  18. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Expanding Global Health Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amosy E. M'koma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a summary of the global epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. It is now clear that IBD is increasing worldwide and has become a global emergence disease. IBD, which includes Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, has been considered a problem in industrial-urbanized societies and attributed largely to a Westernized lifestyle and other associated environmental factors. Its incidence and prevalence in developing countries is steadily rising and has been attributed to the rapid modernization and Westernization of the population. There is a need to reconcile the most appropriate treatment for these patient populations from the perspectives of both disease presentation and cost. In the West, biological agents are the fastest-growing segment of the prescription drug market. These agents cost thousands of dollars per patient per year. The healthcare systems, and certainly the patients, in developing countries will struggle to afford such expensive treatments. The need for biological therapy will inevitably increase dramatically, and the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare providers, patient advocate groups, governments and non-governmental organizations should come to a consensus on how to handle this problem. The evidence that IBD is now affecting a much younger population presents an additional concern. Meta-analyses conducted in patients acquiring IBD at a young age also reveals a trend for their increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, since the cumulative incidence rates of CRC in IBD-patients diagnosed in childhood are higher than those observed in adults. In addition, IBD-associated CRC has a worse prognosis than sporadic CRC, even when the stage at diagnosis is taken into account. This is consistent with additional evidence that IBD negatively impacts CRC survival. A continuing increase in IBD incidence worldwide associated with childhood-onset of IBD coupled with the diseases’ longevity

  19. Understanding global health governance as a complex adaptive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    The transition from international to global health reflects the rapid growth in the numbers and nature of stakeholders in health, as well as the constant change embodied in the process of globalisation itself. This paper argues that global health governance shares the characteristics of complex adaptive systems, with its multiple and diverse players, and their polyvalent and constantly evolving relationships, and rich and dynamic interactions. The sheer quantum of initiatives, the multiple networks through which stakeholders (re)configure their influence, the range of contexts in which development for health is played out - all compound the complexity of this system. This paper maps out the characteristics of complex adaptive systems as they apply to global health governance, linking them to developments in the past two decades, and the multiple responses to these changes. Examining global health governance through the frame of complexity theory offers insight into the current dynamics of governance, and while providing a framework for making meaning of the whole, opens up ways of accessing this complexity through local points of engagement.

  20. Beyond Dualism: Expanded Understandings of Religion and Global Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    The world’s religions have strong traditions of contributing to theories and practices around justice. Recent debates on global justice within International Relations (IR), however, have largely overlooked possible contributions from religion. This article explores why religion is neglected, despite

  1. Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.

    2011-01-01

    The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global warming. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the environmental education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…

  2. [Jaspers and the problem of understanding: a plea for revision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücher, K

    2012-04-01

    Understanding (Verstehen), as far as it is discussed explicitly in psychiatry, is based on Dilthey's dichotomy "nature we explain, the life of the soul we understand ( , 144). According to this doctrine, understanding is concerned with a person's inner life and consequently, its method consists in putting oneself in the other's position and reliving their experience. Jaspers' concept of understanding - which is regarded as definitive for psychiatry by advocates and opponents alike - is commonly interpreted according to this tradition as well. I shall argue here that this position does not stand up to scrutiny. It is a mistake to simplify Dilthey's concept of understanding to a form of mere psychologism. In fact, Jaspers practically tore this position down. In his own account, by contrast, he utilises Max Weber and Rickert to established a third realm in addition to a person's inner life on the one hand and their bodily nature on the other: the realm of the objective products of the human mind. It is this dimension that is essential for understanding. Such a transition from the dichotomy of explaining and understanding to a three-valued logic requires a radical rethinking of the traditional notion of understanding. Jaspers meets this demand but he does so only implicitly and not always consistently so that it might easily be missed. It is nonetheless crucial to see that Jaspers in fact rejects the hermeneutics of empathy which are commonly attributed to him and for which he is often criticised. In conclusion of this essay, I will suggest some implications of this - often overlooked - distinction for psychiatry and psychology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Ego Function and Dysfunction: A Guide to Understanding Discipline Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Martin

    1987-01-01

    In this discussion of Fritz Redl's model of ego dysfunction in disturbed children, tasks the mature ego must accomplish are described, such as frustration tolerance, temptation resistance, realism about rules and routines, and exposure to competitive challenges. The model's educational applications involve assessment of discipline problems,…

  4. Any Small Change?: Teacher Education, Compassion, Understandings and Perspectives on Global Development Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajan, Meera; Buchanan, John

    2017-01-01

    Increased migration of people(s), goods, ideas and ideologies necessitate global understanding, empathies and responses on the part of teachers and their students. This paper investigates the effects on 100 primary pre-service teachers' understandings of and attitudes toward a semester-long course exploring, inter alia, global development. The…

  5. Understanding Global / Local Cultural Leadership : Issues and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolsteeg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Cultural leaders sail between the Scylla and Charibdis of aggregated trans- and supranational cultural-political discourses and the cultural needs of local communities. How do these dynamics influence the work of cultural leaders? How can we understand the work of cultural leaders to connect

  6. The Iranian Puzzle Piece: Understanding Iran in the Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    15. Barbara opall -rome, “Israeli Defenses to Use artificial Intelligence,” Defense News, 21 January 2008 (http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i...iv Iranian Power Structure ................................................................10 iv v iv v...former requires a deep understanding of Iran’s power structures and the grievances that thwart rapprochement to determine with whom and about what

  7. A phenomenological theory of world population growth and global problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1996-01-01

    Of all global problems world population growth is the most significant one. To describe this process in its past and project it into the future a mathematical model is worked out. It treats the world population as an entity, seen as an open and evolv The approach is phenomenological and growth over very many generations is assumed to be selfsimilar and described by scaling. In terms of kinetics, the growth rate is proportional to the square of the total number of people and the nonlinear hyperbol of all mechanisms that contribute to our development in a collective interactive process. The model gives an estimate of the beginning of human evolution c.a. 4.4 million years ago and of the total number of people who ever lived c.a. 100 billion. In the scope of the model large scale cycles defined by history and anthropology are shown to be uniformly spaced in time on a logarithmic scale, expressing and inherent periodicity. As we approach the present, this progression of cycles is now termo transition. This is a s...

  8. Electrical and electronic waste: a global environmental problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Babu, Balakrishnan; Parande, Anand Kuber; Ahmed Basha, Chiya

    2007-08-01

    The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing global manufacturing activities. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Rapid economic growth, coupled with urbanization and growing demand for consumer goods, has increased both the consumption of EEE and the production of WEEE, which can be a source of hazardous wastes that pose a risk to the environment and to sustainable economic growth. To address potential environmental problems that could stem from improper management of WEEE, many countries and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of material recovery from WEEE to reduce the amount and types of materials disposed in landfills. Recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment is important not only to reduce the amount of waste requiring treatment, but also to promote the recovery of valuable materials. EEE is diverse and complex with respect to the materials and components used and waste streams from the manufacturing processes. Characterization of these wastes is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sound recycling system. This paper offers an overview of electrical and e-waste recycling, including a description of how it is generated and classified, strategies and technologies for recovering materials, and new scientific developments related to these activities. Finally, the e-waste recycling industry in India is also discussed.

  9. New energy technology cope with global environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimoto, Tatsuya

    1991-01-01

    At present, the national and private storage of oil is the quantity for about 140 days in total, and it can cope with the temporary fear of oil supply, but if the Gulf War was prolonged, the large effect should be exerted to the energy supply. The reduction of the degree of oil dependence and the increase of the dependence on nonfossil fuel are taken up as the basic idea of the long term energy demand and supply in Japan. Also in the action plan for preventing global warming, the further promotion of energy conservation and the adoption of clean energy were decided to be carried out for decreasing carbon dioxide. In this report, among clean energies, the technology of electric power generation by sun beam, wind force and geotherm is described. The power generation by sun beam has many features, but the energy density is low, and the area for installation becomes large. The cost of power generation is relatively high. The power generation by wind force is superior in its environmental characteristics, and has been already put in practical use in USA and Europe. The problem is the reliability of the system. The geothermal power generation is available also in Japan, and is important for the energy security. The plants of about 270 MW are installed in Japan. (K.I.)

  10. Professional problems: the burden of producing the "global" Filipino nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiga, Yasmin Y

    2014-08-01

    This paper investigates the challenges faced by nursing schools within migrant-sending nations, where teachers and school administrators face the task of producing nurse labor, not only for domestic health needs but employers beyond national borders. I situate my research in the Philippines, one of the leading sources of migrant nurse labor in the world. Based on 58 interviews with nursing school instructors and administrators, conducted from 2010 to 2013, I argue that Philippine nursing schools are embedded within a global nursing care chain, where nations lower down the chain must supply nurse labor to wealthier countries higher up the chain. This paper shows how this process forces Filipino nurse educators to negotiate an overloaded curriculum, the influx of aspiring migrants into nursing programs, and erratic labor demand cycles overseas. These issues create problems in defining the professional knowledge needed by Filipino nurses; instilling professional values and standards; and maintaining proper job security. As such, these findings demonstrate how countries like the Philippines bear the burden of ensuring nurses' employability, where educational institutions constantly adjust curriculum and instruction for the benefit of employers within wealthier societies. My interviews reveal how such adjustments undermine the professional values and standards that define the nursing profession within the country. Such inequality is an outcome of nurse migration that current research has not fully explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Problem of Understanding of Nature in Exact Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Näpinen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this short inquiry I would like to defend the statement that exact science deals with the explanation of models, but not with the understanding (comprehending of nature. By the word ‘nature’ I mean nature as physis (as a self-moving and self-developing living organism to which humans also belong, not nature as natura naturata (as a nonevolving creature created by someone or something. The Estonian philosopher of science Rein Vihalemm (2008 has shown with his conception of phi-science (φ-science that exact science is itself an idealized model or theoretical object derived from Galilean mathematical physics.

  12. Cosmic gamma-ray background radiation. Current understandings and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The cosmic gamma-ray background radiation is one of the most fundamental observables in the gamma-ray band. Although the origin of the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation has been a mystery for a long time, the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has recently measured it at 0.1-820 GeV and revealed that the cosmic GeV gamma-ray background is composed of blazars, radio galaxies, and star-forming galaxies. However, Fermi still leaves the following questions. Those are dark matter contribution, origins of the cosmic MeV gamma-ray background, and the connection to the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino events. In this proceeding, I will review the current understandings of the cosmic gamma-ray background and discuss future prospects of cosmic gamma-ray background radiation studies. (author)

  13. UNDERSTANDING SOLAR TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS FROM GLOBAL DYNAMO MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, G.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.; Pino, E. M. de Gouveia Dal; Kosovichev, A. G.; Mansour, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of solar “torsional oscillations” (TO) represents migratory zonal flows associated with the solar cycle. These flows are observed on the solar surface and, according to helioseismology, extend through the convection zone. We study the origin of the TO using results from a global MHD simulation of the solar interior that reproduces several of the observed characteristics of the mean-flows and magnetic fields. Our results indicate that the magnetic tension (MT) in the tachocline region is a key factor for the periodic changes in the angular momentum transport that causes the TO. The torque induced by the MT at the base of the convection zone is positive at the poles and negative at the equator. A rising MT torque at higher latitudes causes the poles to speed up, whereas a declining negative MT torque at the lower latitudes causes the equator to slow-down. These changes in the zonal flows propagate through the convection zone up to the surface. Additionally, our results suggest that it is the magnetic field at the tachocline that modulates the amplitude of the surface meridional flow rather than the opposite as assumed by flux-transport dynamo models of the solar cycle.

  14. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  15. A Global Optimization Algorithm for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Yuelin Gao; Siqiao Jin

    2013-01-01

    We equivalently transform the sum of linear ratios programming problem into bilinear programming problem, then by using the linear characteristics of convex envelope and concave envelope of double variables product function, linear relaxation programming of the bilinear programming problem is given, which can determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem. Therefore, a branch and bound algorithm for solving sum of linear ratios programming problem is put forward, and the c...

  16. (Mis)understanding Science: The Problem with Scientific Breakthroughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, James P

    2016-09-01

    On Saturday morning, February 28, 1953, the mystery of heredity appeared secure. Humans hadn't the faintest idea of how genetic information was transmitted-how the uncanny resemblance between mother and daughter, grandfather and grandson was conveyed across generations. Yet, by that Saturday afternoon, two individuals, James Watson and Francis Crick, had glimpsed the solution to these mysteries. The story of Watson and Crick's great triumph has been told and retold and has rightly entered the pantheon of scientific legend. But Watson and Crick's breakthrough was just that: a rupture and dramatic discontinuity in human knowledge that solved a deep mystery, the likes of which occurs, perhaps, a couple of times each century. And that's the problem. The story is just so good and so irresistible that it has misled generations of scientists about what to expect regarding a life in science. And more damaging, the resulting breakthrough mentality misleads the public, the media, and society's decision-makers about how science really works, all to the detriment of scientific progress and our society's well-being. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  17. A predictive framework to understand forest responses to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sean M; Dietze, Michael C; Hersh, Michelle H; Moran, Emily V; Clark, James S

    2009-04-01

    Forests are one of Earth's critical biomes. They have been shown to respond strongly to many of the drivers that are predicted to change natural systems over this century, including climate, introduced species, and other anthropogenic influences. Predicting how different tree species might respond to this complex of forces remains a daunting challenge for forest ecologists. Yet shifts in species composition and abundance can radically influence hydrological and atmospheric systems, plant and animal ranges, and human populations, making this challenge an important one to address. Forest ecologists have gathered a great deal of data over the past decades and are now using novel quantitative and computational tools to translate those data into predictions about the fate of forests. Here, after a brief review of the threats to forests over the next century, one of the more promising approaches to making ecological predictions is described: using hierarchical Bayesian methods to model forest demography and simulating future forests from those models. This approach captures complex processes, such as seed dispersal and mortality, and incorporates uncertainty due to unknown mechanisms, data problems, and parameter uncertainty. After describing the approach, an example by simulating drought for a southeastern forest is offered. Finally, there is a discussion of how this approach and others need to be cast within a framework of prediction that strives to answer the important questions posed to environmental scientists, but does so with a respect for the challenges inherent in predicting the future of a complex biological system.

  18. A local-global problem for linear differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der; Reversat, Marc

    2008-01-01

    An inhomogeneous linear differential equation Ly = f over a global differential field can have a formal solution for each place without having a global solution. The vector space lgl(L) measures this phenomenon. This space is interpreted in terms of cohomology of linear algebraic groups and is

  19. A local-global problem for linear differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der; Reversat, Marc

    An inhomogeneous linear differential equation Ly = f over a global differential field can have a formal solution for each place without having a global solution. The vector space lgl(L) measures this phenomenon. This space is interpreted in terms of cohomology of linear algebraic groups and is

  20. GLOBALIZATION, CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS AND TENDENCIES OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae TAU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization phenomenon have a extremely actuality due to the fact that is a key factor on the increasing interdependence of national states as a result of the expansion and intensification of international relations. The paper aims at presenting and analyzing the main ways of economic development based on the pace of technological progress and expansion of globalization, using different research methods of economic science, especialy comparative analysis and statistical method. As a result, data demonstrate that national economic development depends on the participating of the countries to globalization processes at regional and international levels.

  1. A Global Optimization Algorithm for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelin Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We equivalently transform the sum of linear ratios programming problem into bilinear programming problem, then by using the linear characteristics of convex envelope and concave envelope of double variables product function, linear relaxation programming of the bilinear programming problem is given, which can determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem. Therefore, a branch and bound algorithm for solving sum of linear ratios programming problem is put forward, and the convergence of the algorithm is proved. Numerical experiments are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Forum: Problems and Prospects for a Global LaborMovement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Nash Jr.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What are the roles for local, national, and international labor and worker organizations in struggles against intensified global integration? How do we achieve these possibilities? Inside this issue are five PEWS members' answers.

  3. Using Interactive Technology to Support Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Keisha; Linn, Marcia C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we examine middle school students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming. We designed and refined a technology-enhanced curriculum module called "Global Warming: Virtual Earth". In the module activities, students conduct virtual experiments with a visualization of the greenhouse effect. They analyze data and draw…

  4. Assessing Students' Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Understanding of Global Carbon Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hye Sun; Marshall, Jill A.; Delgado, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Global carbon cycling describes the movement of carbon through atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere; it lies at the heart of climate change and sustainability. To understand the global carbon cycle, students will require "interdisciplinary knowledge." While standards documents in science education have long promoted…

  5. An Investigation of Secondary Teachers’ Understanding and Belief on Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuli Eko Siswono, Tatag; Wachidul Kohar, Ahmad; Kurniasari, Ika; Puji Astuti, Yuliani

    2016-02-01

    Weaknesses on problem solving of Indonesian students as reported by recent international surveys give rise to questions on how Indonesian teachers bring out idea of problem solving in mathematics lesson. An explorative study was undertaken to investigate how secondary teachers who teach mathematics at junior high school level understand and show belief toward mathematical problem solving. Participants were teachers from four cities in East Java province comprising 45 state teachers and 25 private teachers. Data was obtained through questionnaires and written test. The results of this study point out that the teachers understand pedagogical problem solving knowledge well as indicated by high score of observed teachers‘ responses showing understanding on problem solving as instruction as well as implementation of problem solving in teaching practice. However, they less understand on problem solving content knowledge such as problem solving strategies and meaning of problem itself. Regarding teacher's difficulties, teachers admitted to most frequently fail in (1) determining a precise mathematical model or strategies when carrying out problem solving steps which is supported by data of test result that revealed transformation error as the most frequently observed errors in teachers’ work and (2) choosing suitable real situation when designing context-based problem solving task. Meanwhile, analysis of teacher's beliefs on problem solving shows that teachers tend to view both mathematics and how students should learn mathematics as body static perspective, while they tend to believe to apply idea of problem solving as dynamic approach when teaching mathematics.

  6. What's in a name? Commonalities and differences in public understanding of "climate change" and "global warming"

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmarsh, Lorraine E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a survey of public understanding of climate change and global warming amongst residents in the south of England. Whereas much previous research has relied on survey checklists to measure public understanding of climate change, this study employed a more qualitative approach to reveal participants' unprompted conceptions of climate change and global warming. Overall, the findings show a tendency for the public to dissociate themselves from the causes, impact...

  7. Investigation of the relationship between students' problem solving and conceptual understanding of electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobanoglu Aktan, Derya

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between students' qualitative problem solving and conceptual understanding of electricity. For the analysis data were collected from observations of group problem solving, from their homework artifacts, and from semi-structured interviews. The data for six undergraduate students were analyzed by qualitative research methods. The students in the study were found to use tools (such as computer simulations and formulas) differently from one another, and they made different levels of interpretations for the electricity representations. Consequently each student had different problem solving strategies. The students exhibited a wide range of levels of understanding of the electricity concepts. It was found that students' conceptual understandings and their problem solving strategies were closely linked with one another. The students who tended to use multiple tools to make high level interpretations for representations to arrive at a single solution exhibited a higher level of understanding than the students who tended to use tools to make low level interpretations to reach a solution. This study demonstrates a relationship between conceptual understanding and problem solving strategies. Similar to the results of the existing research on students' quantitative problem solving, it was found that students were able to give correct answers to some problems without fully understanding the concepts behind the problem. However, some problems required a conceptual understanding in order for a student to arrive at a correct answer. An implication of this study is that careful selection of qualitative questions is necessary for capturing high levels of conceptual understanding. Additionally, conceptual understanding among some types of problem solvers can be improved by activities or tasks that can help them reflect on their problem solving strategies and the tools they use.

  8. The effect of problem posing and problem solving with realistic mathematics education approach to the conceptual understanding and adaptive reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Rengga; Slamet, Isnandar; Budiyono

    2017-12-01

    One of the difficulties of students in learning mathematics is on the subject of geometry that requires students to understand abstract things. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of learning model Problem Posing and Problem Solving with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach to conceptual understanding and students' adaptive reasoning in learning mathematics. This research uses a kind of quasi experimental research. The population of this research is all seventh grade students of Junior High School 1 Jaten, Indonesia. The sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The test of the research hypothesis was analyzed by using t-test. The results of this study indicate that the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students' conceptual understanding significantly in mathematics learning. In addition tu, the results also showed that the model of Problem Solving learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students' adaptive reasoning significantly in learning mathematics. Therefore, the model of Problem Posing and Problem Solving learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is appropriately applied in mathematics learning especially on the subject of geometry so as to improve conceptual understanding and students' adaptive reasoning. Furthermore, the impact can improve student achievement.

  9. Progress Towards a Global Understanding of Plankton Dynamics: The Global Alliance of CPR Surveys (GACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, S.; Richardson, A.; Melrose, C.; Muxagata, E.; Hosie, G.; Verheye, H.; Hall, J.; Edwards, M.; Koubbi, P.; Abu-Alhaija, R.; Chiba, S.; Wilson, W.; Nagappa, R.; Takahashi, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) was first used in 1931 to routinely sample plankton and its continued deployment now sustains the longest-running, and spatially most extensive marine biological sampling programme in the world. Towed behind, for the most part commercial, ships it collects plankton samples from the surface waters that are subsequently analysed to provide taxonomically-resolved abundance data on a broad range of planktonic organisms from the size of coccolithophores to euphausiids. Plankton appear to integrate changes in the physical environment and by underpinning most marine food-webs, pass on this variability to higher trophic levels which have societal value. CPRs are deployed increasingly around the globe in discrete regional surveys that until recently interacted in an informal way. In 2011 the Global Alliance of CPR Surveys (GACS) was launched to bring these surveys together to collaborate more productively and address issues such as: methodological standardization, data integration, capacity building, and data analysis. Early products include a combined global database and regularly-released global marine ecological status reports. There are, of course, limitations to the exploitation of CPR data as well as the current geographic coverage. A current focus of GACS is integration of the data with models to meaningfully extrapolate across time and space. In this way the output could be used to provide more robust synoptic representations of key plankton variables. Recent years have also seen the CPR used as a platform in itself with the inclusion of additional sensors and water samplers that can sample the microplankton. The archive of samples has already been used for some molecular investigations and curation of samples is maintained for future studies. Thus the CPR is a key element of any regional to global ocean observing system of biodiversity.

  10. Chinese Grade Eight Students' Understanding about the Concept of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing

    2017-01-01

    China is one of the world's biggest greenhouse gas emitters. Chinese students' awareness and understanding about global warming have a significant impact on the future of mankind. This study, as an initial research of this kind in Mainland China, uses clinical interviews to survey 37 grade eight students on their understanding about global…

  11. UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM OF HADITH NARRATION: TOWARDS A COMPREHENSIVE READING OF HADITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizuddin M. Nur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As the source of Islamic teaching, hadith must be apprehended according to the intent of the prophet. If done otherwise, the understanding of prophet’s intention as the explanation of Quranic teaching can be misunderstood. The chance becomes even more likely as hadith has its own problems, especially in the context of its comprehension. These problems will create conclusions which at times influence ones’ understanding. Among the problems are the complete narration of the hadith, riwayat bi al-ma’na, and conciseness of the hadith. Ones’ understanding of a hadith whose information is complete would be different from the one that is not. Thus, the understanding of hadith problems is very crucial to comprehensively understand hadith.

  12. Global gradient estimates for divergence-type elliptic problems involving general nonlinear operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yumi

    2018-05-01

    We study nonlinear elliptic problems with nonstandard growth and ellipticity related to an N-function. We establish global Calderón-Zygmund estimates of the weak solutions in the framework of Orlicz spaces over bounded non-smooth domains. Moreover, we prove a global regularity result for asymptotically regular problems which are getting close to the regular problems considered, when the gradient variable goes to infinity.

  13. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longstreth, J.

    1993-06-01

    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches

  14. Fighting Sweatshops: Problems of Enforcing Global Labor Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Appelbaum, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we address the question of how sweatshop production can be opposed, given the globalization of the apparel industry and the dominance of retailers in its commodity chain. After briefly reviewing conditions in the industry, we discuss the role that consumer pressure might play. We discuss three different, but potentially complementary, approaches: agreements between nations, codes of conduct and monitoring, and worker empowerment. We conclude with an analysis of the Workers’ Ri...

  15. Nursery education: problems and the way forward | Ezugwu | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Global Journal of Educational Research Vol. 3(1&2) 2004: 13-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjedr.v3i1.29403 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  16. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...... of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation....

  17. Sixth-Grade Students' Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintainer, Tammie; Linn, Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Developing solutions for complex issues such as global climate change requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This study reports on the impact of a technology-enhanced unit designed to improve understanding of global climate change, its mechanisms, and their relationship to everyday energy use. Global Climate Change, implemented in the Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE), engages sixth-grade students in conducting virtual investigations using NetLogo models to foster an understanding of core mechanisms including the greenhouse effect. Students then test how the greenhouse effect is enhanced by everyday energy use. This study draws on three data sources: (1) pre- and post-unit interviews, (2) analysis of embedded assessments following virtual investigations, and (3) contrasting cases of two students (normative vs. non-normative understanding of the greenhouse effect). Results show the value of using virtual investigations for teaching the mechanisms associated with global climate change. Interviews document that students hold a wide range of ideas about the mechanisms driving global climate change. Investigations with models help students use evidence-based reasoning to distinguish their ideas. Results show that understanding the greenhouse effect offers a foundation for building connections between everyday energy use and increases in global temperature. An impediment to establishing coherent understanding was the persistence of an alternative conception about ozone as an explanation for climate change. These findings illustrate the need for regular revision of curriculum based on classroom trials. We discuss key design features of models and instructional revisions that can transform the teaching and learning of global climate change.

  18. Junior High School Students’ Understanding and Problem Solving Skills on the Topics of Line and Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsal, I. L.; Jupri, A.; Prabawanto, S.

    2017-09-01

    Line and angles is important topics to learn to develop the geometry skills and also mathematics skills such as understanding and problem solving skills. But, the fact was given by Indonesian researcher show that Indonesian students’ understanding and problem solving skills still low in this topics. This fact be a background to investigate students’ understanding and problem solving skills in line and angles topics. To investigate these skills, this study used descriptive-qualitative approach. Individual written test (essay) and interview was used in this study. 72 students grade 8th from one of Junior High School in Lembang, worked the written test and 18 of them were interviewed. Based on result, almost of student were have a good instrumental understanding in line and angles topic in same area, but almost all student have a low instrumental understanding in line and angles topic in different area. Almost all student have a low relational understanding. Also, almost all student have a low problem solving skills especially in make and use strategy to solve the problem and looking back their answer. Based on result there is need a meaningfulness learning strategy, which can make students build their understanding and develop their problem solving skill independently.

  19. Global Food Security Problems in the Modern World Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkadyrova, Madina A.; Dikinov, Andzor H.; Tajmashanov, Hassan È.; Shidaev, Lomali A.; Shidaeva, Eliza A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Food problem at the present stage of development of mankind is that due to improper and overly intensive use of natural resources, increasing demand for livestock products, increasing per capita food consumption and other factors, there has been a steady rise in food prices, represents a threat to food security in the countries with…

  20. Multiple Problem-Solving Strategies Provide Insight into Students' Understanding of Open-Ended Linear Programming Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, Marla A.

    2016-01-01

    Open-ended questions that can be solved using different strategies help students learn and integrate content, and provide teachers with greater insights into students' unique capabilities and levels of understanding. This article provides a problem that was modified to allow for multiple approaches. Students tended to employ high-powered, complex,…

  1. Effect of problem type toward students’ conceptual understanding level on heat and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasari, D.; Sukarmin; Suparmi, S.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze the level of students’ understanding of heat and temperature concept and effect of problem type toward students’ conceptual understanding of heat and temperature. This research is descriptive research with the subjects of the research are 96 students from high, medium, and low categorized school in Surakarta. Data of level of students’ conceptual understanding is from students’ test result using essay instrument (arranged by researcher and arranged by the teacher) and interview. Before being tested in the samples, essay instrument is validated by the experts. Based on the result and the data analysis, students’ conceptual understanding level of 10th grade students on heat and temperature is as follows: (1) Most students have conceptual understanding level at Partial Understanding with a Specific Misconception (PUSM) with percentage 28,85%; (2) Most students are able to solve mathematic problem from teacher, but don’t understand the underlying concept.

  2. Maternal Attachment Status, Mother-Child Emotion Talk, Emotion Understanding, and Child Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months. The results support a model in which maternal attachment status predicts the level of appropriate/responsive mother-child emotion talk, which predicts child emotion understanding, which in turn negatively predicts child conduct problems. These findings further underline the developmental role of mother-child emotion talk as well as the importance of involving parents in programs designed to increase children’s emotion understanding and/or decrease the incidence of conduct problems.

  3. The role of solar energy in resolving global problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy, and other alternate energy sources, including improved energy efficiency, can play a significant role in the solution of the cluster of ''great problems'' that face the present generation. These problems are related to, first, environmental damage, second, management of critical resources, and lastly, spiraling population growth. Some aspects of these linked difficulties are not yet well comprehended, even within the environmental community, though their neglect could prove to be very serious. It was the principal purpose of the paper to address those hidden risks. Seeking prompt and effective solutions to these problems is now a most urgent matter. On November 18, 1992, the Union of Concerned Scientists released a document called ''World Scientists'' ''Warning to Humanity''. The document outlined the most important challenges and set out the principal elements required to deal with them. It was signed by some 1,600 scientists from around the world, including the leaders of a substantial number of national honorary, scientific societies. In what follows, relevant elements of that statement are reviewed to set the stage for a description of solar energy's role in dealing with the situation that the world faces

  4. Implementation and verification of global optimization benchmark problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posypkin, Mikhail; Usov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    The paper considers the implementation and verification of a test suite containing 150 benchmarks for global deterministic box-constrained optimization. A C++ library for describing standard mathematical expressions was developed for this purpose. The library automate the process of generating the value of a function and its' gradient at a given point and the interval estimates of a function and its' gradient on a given box using a single description. Based on this functionality, we have developed a collection of tests for an automatic verification of the proposed benchmarks. The verification has shown that literary sources contain mistakes in the benchmarks description. The library and the test suite are available for download and can be used freely.

  5. A global health problem caused by arsenic from natural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, J.C.; Wang, J.P.; Shraim, A. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology

    2003-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogen to both humans and animals. Arsenicals have been associated with cancers of the skin, lung, and bladder. Clinical manifestations of chronic arsenic poisoning include non-cancer end point of hyper- and hypo-pigmentation, keratosis, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Epidemiological evidence indicates that arsenic concentration exceeding 50 {mu}g l{sup -1} in the drinking water is not public health protective. The current WHO recommended guideline value for arsenic in drinking water is 10 {mu}g l{sup -1}, whereas many developing countries are still having a value of 50 {mu}g 1{sup -1}. It has been estimated that tens of millions of people are at risk exposing to excessive levels of arsenic from both contaminated water and arsenic-bearing coal from natural sources. The global health implication and possible intervention strategies were also discussed in this review article.

  6. Implementation and verification of global optimization benchmark problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posypkin Mikhail

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the implementation and verification of a test suite containing 150 benchmarks for global deterministic box-constrained optimization. A C++ library for describing standard mathematical expressions was developed for this purpose. The library automate the process of generating the value of a function and its’ gradient at a given point and the interval estimates of a function and its’ gradient on a given box using a single description. Based on this functionality, we have developed a collection of tests for an automatic verification of the proposed benchmarks. The verification has shown that literary sources contain mistakes in the benchmarks description. The library and the test suite are available for download and can be used freely.

  7. Promoting College Students' Problem Understanding Using Schema-Emphasizing Worked Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Lavigne, Nancy C.

    2014-01-01

    Statistics learners often bypass the critical step of understanding a problem before executing solutions. Worked-out examples that identify problem information (e.g., data type, number of groups, purpose of analysis) key to determining a solution (e.g., "t" test, chi-square, correlation) can address this concern. The authors examined the…

  8. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  9. Priorities in the field of international cooperation with the aim of solving global environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrat' ev, K.YA.

    1993-08-01

    Considerations on priorities are presented in connection with the broad development of bilateral and multilateral international cooperation to solve global environmental problems. Emphasis is placed on the problem of global climate change, on optimizing the global climate observation system, and on substantiating the (1) inadequacy of the 'greenhouse' stereotype of global climate warming which has long predominated in Russian cooperation programs, and (2) the need to realize real climatic prorities (the role of biosphere dynamics, the interaction of atmosphere and ocean, cloud cover and radiation, the colloidal nature of the atmosphere, etc.). The thermal balance of the earth and the dynamics of the biosphere are considered as the key problems of global ecodynamics. Particular attention is given to socio-economic aspects of ecology. 62 refs.

  10. Emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance: A global problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Choudhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in clinical health settings. Interestingly the origin of many of antibiotic resistance mechanisms can be traced back to non-pathogenic environmental organisms. Important factors leading to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance include absence of regulation in the use of antibiotics, improper waste disposal and associated transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in the community through commensals. In this review, we discussed the impact of globalisation on the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria through immigration and export/import of foodstuff. The significance of surveillance to define appropriate use of antibiotics in the clinic has been included as an important preventive measure.

  11. Integrated assessment of the global warming problem. A decision-analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Lenthe, J.; Hendrickx, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The project on the title subject aims at developing a policy-oriented methodology for the integrated assessment of the global warming problem. Decision analysis in general and influence diagrams in particular appear to constitute an appropriate integrated assessment methodology. The influence-diagram approach is illustrated at a preliminary integrated modeling of the global warming problem. In next stages of the research, attention will be shifted from the methodology of integrated assessment to the contents of integrated models. 4 figs., 5 refs

  12. The Globalization of Higher Education as a Societal and Cultural Security Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samier, Eugenie A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I propose a theory of the globalization of higher education as societal and cultural security problems for many regions of the world. The first section examines the field of security studies for theoretical frameworks appropriate to critiquing globalized higher education, including critical human, societal and cultural security…

  13. THE INTEGRATION OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE AS A GLOBAL PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy I. Rakitov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: mankind is on the edge of a new techno-technological and socio-economical revolution generated by robotization and automation in all spheres of individual and socio-economical activity. Among numerous conceptions of global development only the conception of the knowledge-based society is the most adequate to contemporary terms. As the higher education and science are the main source of knowledge adequate to contemporary terms then their integration should be investigated. Materials and Methods: the material for this investigation was gathered as from individual experience in science and pedagogical activity of the author which were earlier published in hundreds of articles and fifteen monograph translated in eleven languages, as the materials of Moscow city seminar, the results of which were published in annual “Science of science investigations”. This annual has been editing since 2004 and the author is the editor-in-chief of this edition. Also has been used other sources from different editions. The method of comparative analysis was used. Results: the author put forward the conception of inevitable integration of higher school and research institutions and forming a new structure – science-education consortium. Only such united structure can significantly rise both scientific researchers and higher education. And as a result, it will rise publishing activity and application of scientific researchers in real econ omy, social sphere, technological leadership. Discussion and Conclusions: conception put forward in this article fragmentary has been published by author earlier and initiated discussion in scientific press, which was reflected in home RISC and abroad citation indexes. The author proclaims the inevitability of realization of the suggested by him conception of the utmost integration of science and higher education.

  14. Humanity and Justice in Global Health: Problems with Venkatapuram's Justification of the Global Health Duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollar, Eszter; Laukötter, Sebastian; Buyx, Alena

    2016-01-01

    One of the most ambitious and sophisticated recent approaches to provide a theory of global health justice is Sridhar Venkatapuram's recent work. In this commentary, we first outline the core idea of Venkatapuram's approach to global health justice. We then argue that one of the most important elements of the account, Venkatapuram's basis of global health duties, is either too weak or assumed implicitly without a robust justification. The more explicit grounding of the duty to protect and promote health capabilities is based on Martha Nussbaum's version of the capability approach. We argue that this foundation gives rise to humanitarian duties rather than duties of justice proper. Venkatapuram's second argument from the social determinants of health thesis is instead a stronger candidate for grounding duties of justice. However, as a justificatory argument, it is only alluded to and has not yet been spelled out sufficiently. We offer plausible justificatory steps to fill this gap and draw some implications for global health action. We believe this both strengthens Venkatapuram's approach and serves to broaden the basis for future action in the area of global health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Global public goods and the global health agenda: problems, priorities and potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKellar Landis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 'global public good' (GPG concept has gained increasing attention, in health as well as development circles. However, it has suffered in finding currency as a general tool for global resource mobilisation, and is at risk of being attached to almost anything promoting development. This overstretches and devalues the validity and usefulness of the concept. This paper first defines GPGs and describes the policy challenge that they pose. Second, it identifies two key areas, health R&D and communicable disease control, in which the GPG concept is clearly relevant and considers the extent to which it has been applied. We point out that that, while there have been many new initiatives, it is not clear that additional resources from non-traditional sources have been forthcoming. Yet achieving this is, in effect, the entire purpose of applying the GPG concept in global health. Moreover, the proliferation of disease-specific programs associated with GPG reasoning has tended to promote vertical interventions at the expense of more general health sector strengthening. Third, we examine two major global health policy initiatives, the Global Fund against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM and the bundling of long-standing international health goals in the form of Millennium Development Goals (MDG, asking how the GPG perspective has contributed to defining objectives and strategies. We conclude that both initiatives are best interpreted in the context of traditional development assistance and, one-world rhetoric aside, have little to do with the challenge posed by GPGs for health. The paper concludes by considering how the GPG concept can be more effectively used to promote global health.

  16. Turkish Primary Science Teacher Candidates' Understandings of Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Fatma Aggul; Yalcin, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore Turkish primary science teacher candidates' understanding of global warming and ozone layer depletion. In the study, as the research approach the survey method was used. The sample consisted of one hundred eighty nine third grade science teacher candidates. Data was collected using the tool developed by the…

  17. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  18. Students’ Relational Understanding in Quadrilateral Problem Solving Based on Adversity Quotient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, A. N.; Juniati, D.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    The type of research is qualitative approach which aims to describe how students’ relational understanding of solving mathematic problem that was seen from Adversity Quotient aspect. Research subjects were three 7th grade students of Junior High School. They were taken by category of Adversity Quotient (AQ) such quitter, camper, and climber. Data collected based on problem solving and interview. The research result showed that (1) at the stage of understanding the problem, the subjects were able to state and write down what is known and asked, and able to mention the concepts associated with the quadrilateral problem. (2) The three subjects devise a plan by linking concepts relating to quadrilateral problems. (3) The three subjects were able to solve the problem. (4) The three subjects were able to look back the answers. The three subjects were able to understand the problem, devise a plan, carry out the plan and look back. However, the quitter and camper subjects have not been able to give a reason for the steps they have taken.

  19. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems? On rationale, context, actors, impact and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Seitanidi, M.M; Crane, A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous

  20. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  1. Why should I care? Engaging students in conceptual understanding using global context to develop social attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, S. E.; Welstead, C.; Pritchard, M.

    2014-12-01

    A glance through the Harvard Business Review reveals many suggestions and research pieces reviewing sales and marketing techniques. Most educators will be familiar with the notion that making accurate first impressions and being responsive, whilst maintaining pace is critical to engaging an audience. There are lessons to be learnt from industry that can significantly impact upon our teaching. Eisenkraft, in his address to the NSTA, proposed four essential questions. This presentation explores one of those questions: 'Why should I care?', and discusses why this question is crucial for engaging students by giving a clear purpose for developing their scientific understanding. Additionally, this presentation explores how The ISF Academy has adapted the NGSS, using the 14 Grand Engineering Challenges and the IB MYP, to provide current, authentic global contexts, in order to give credibility to the concepts, understandings and skills being learnt. The provision of global contexts across units and within lessons supports a platform for students to have the freedom to explore their own sense of social responsibility. The Science Department believes that planning lessons with tasks that elaborate on the student's new conceptualisations, has helped to transfer the student's new understanding into social behavior beyond the classroom. Furthermore, extension tasks have been used to transfer conceptual understanding between different global contexts.

  2. Globalization of problem-based learning (PBL): cross-cultural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwee, Matthew Choon-Eng

    2008-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is essentially a learning system design that incorporates several educational strategies to optimize student-centered learning outcomes beyond just knowledge acquisition. PBL was implemented almost four decades ago as an innovative and alternative pathway to learning in medical education in McMaster University Medical School. Since then, PBL has spread widely across the world and has now been adopted globally, including in much of Asia. The globalization of PBL has important cross-cultural implications. Delivery of instruction in PBL involves active peer teaching-learning in an open communication style. Consequently, this may pose an apparent serious conflict with the Asian communication style generally dominated by a cultural reticence. However, evidence available, especially from the PBL experience of some senior Korean medical students doing an elective in the University of Toronto Medical School and the cross-cultural PBL experience initiated by Kaohsiung Medical University, strongly suggests creating a conducive and supportive learning environment for students learning in a PBL setting can overcome the perceived cultural barriers; that is, nurture matters more than culture in the learning environment. Karaoke is very much an Asian initiative. The Karaoke culture and philosophy provide a useful lesson on how to create a conducive and supportive environment to encourage, enhance and motivate group activity. Some key attributes associated with Asian culture are in fact consistent with, and aligned to, some of the basic tenets of PBL, including the congruence between the Asian emphasis on group before individual interest, and the collaborative small group learning design used in PBL. Although there are great expectations of the educational outcomes students can acquire from PBL, the available evidence supports the contention the actual educational outcomes acquired from PBL do not really match the expected educational outcomes commonly

  3. Globalization of Problem-based Learning (PBL: Cross-cultural Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Choon-Eng Gwee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL is essentially a learning system design that incorporates several educational strategies to optimize student-centered learning outcomes beyond just knowledge acquisition. PBL was implemented almost four decades ago as an innovative and alternative pathway to learning in medical education in McMaster University Medical School. Since then, PBL has spread widely across the world and has now been adopted globally, including in much of Asia. The globalization of PBL has important cross-cultural implications. Delivery of instruction in PBL involves active peer teaching-learning in an open communication style. Consequently, this may pose an apparent serious conflict with the Asian communication style generally dominated by a cultural reticence. However, evidence available, especially from the PBL experience of some senior Korean medical students doing an elective in the University of Toronto Medical School and the cross-cultural PBL experience initiated by Kaohsiung Medical University, strongly suggests creating a conducive and supportive learning environment for students learning in a PBL setting can overcome the perceived cultural barriers; that is, nurture matters more than culture in the learning environment. Karaoke is very much an Asian initiative. The Karaoke culture and philosophy provide a useful lesson on how to create a conducive and supportive environment to encourage, enhance and motivate group activity. Some key attributes associated with Asian culture are in fact consistent with, and aligned to, some of the basic tenets of PBL, including the congruence between the Asian emphasis on group before individual interest, and the collaborative small group learning design used in PBL. Although there are great expectations of the educational outcomes students can acquire from PBL, the available evidence supports the contention the actual educational outcomes acquired from PBL do not really match the expected

  4. Reflective Learning and Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Mathematical Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junsay, Merle L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental study that explored the effects of reflective learning on prospective teachers' conceptual understanding, critical thinking, problem solving, and mathematical communication skills and the relationship of these variables. It involved 60 prospective teachers from two basic mathematics classes of an institution of higher…

  5. Challenges in Preparing Veterinarians for Global Animal Health: Understanding the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Paul J; Quinn, Kaylee A; Brown, Corrie C

    Understanding of global systems is essential for veterinarians seeking to work in realms outside of their national domain. In the global system, emphasis remains on the public sector, and the current curricular emphasis in developed countries is on private clinical practice for the domestic employment market. There is a resulting lack of competency at graduation for effective engagement internationally. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has created standards for public sector operations in animal health, which must be functional to allow for sustainable development. This public sector, known as the Veterinary Services, or VS, serves to control public good diseases, and once effectively built and fully operational, allows for the evolution of a functional private sector, focused on private good diseases. Until the VS is fully functional, support of private good services is non-sustainable and any efforts delivered are not long lasting. As new graduates opt for careers working in the international development sector, it is essential that they understand the OIE guidelines to help support continuing improvement. Developing global veterinarians by inserting content into the veterinary curriculum on how public systems can operate effectively could markedly increase the potential of our professional contributions globally, and particularly in the areas most in need.

  6. Understanding Global Supply Chains and Seafood Markets for the Rebuilding Prospects of Northern Gulf Cod Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Khan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although fisheries production and seafood trade are global in scope, with billions of dollars in exports, the rebuilding of collapsed fisheries often focus on national fisheries policy and management measures, with little attention to global supply chains and international consumer markets. Even with two moratoria and two decades of policy changes since the Northern Gulf cod fisheries collapsed in eastern Canada, rebuilding has stalled and the fishing industry and coastal communities continue to undergo challenges with economic viability and resource sustainability. This paper examines and analyzes the global supply chain and marketing dimension of Northern Gulf cod fisheries. Drawing upon fisheries bioeconomics and governance theory, a pre- and post-collapse analysis is undertaken to understand key drivers and institutional mechanisms along global fish supply chains for an effective and successful rebuilding. Findings indicate that the collapse of the cod fishery has cascading effects that go beyond ecosystem changes to new harvesting activities, industry restructuring, supply chain reorganization, new global markets and consumer preference for certified seafood. This suggests that a holistic rebuilding approach is necessary, one that integrates institutional and behavioral changes for both producers and consumers at various scales of fisheries production, political economy issues, as well as cross-scale policies on marine conservation and regional economic development.

  7. The impact of problem solving strategy with online feedback on students’ conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, H. Y.; Winarko, W.; Ayu, H. D.

    2018-04-01

    The study aimed to determine the impact of the implementation of problem solving strategy with online feedback towards the students’ concept understanding. This study used quasi experimental design with post-test only control design. The participants were all Physics Education students of Kanjuruhan University year 2015. Then, they were divided into two different groups; 30 students belong to experiment class and the remaining 30 students belong to class of control. The students’ concept understanding was measured by the concept understanding test on multiple integral lesson. The result of the concept understanding test was analyzed by prerequisite test and stated to be normal and homogenic distributed, then the hypothesis was examined by T-test. The result of the study shows that there is difference in the concept understanding between experiment class and control class. Next, the result also shows that the students’ concept understanding which was taught using problem solving strategy with online feedback was higher than those using conventional learning; with average score of 72,10 for experiment class and 52,27 for control class.

  8. Global optimization for overall HVAC systems - Part I problem formulation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Lu; Cai Wenjian; Chai, Y.S.; Xie Lihua

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the global optimization technologies for overall heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The objective function of global optimization and constraints are formulated based on mathematical models of the major components. All these models are associated with power consumption components and heat exchangers for transferring cooling load. The characteristics of all the major components are briefly introduced by models, and the interactions between them are analyzed and discussed to show the complications of the problem. According to the characteristics of the operating components, the complicated original optimization problem for overall HVAC systems is transformed and simplified into a compact form ready for optimization

  9. Global existence and decay of solutions of the Cauchy problem in thermoelasticity with second sound

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2013-06-04

    We consider the one-dimensional Cauchy problem in non-linear thermoelasticity with second sound, where the heat conduction is modelled by Cattaneo\\'s law. After presenting decay estimates for solutions to the linearized problem, including refined estimates for data in weighted Lebesgue-spaces, we prove a global existence theorem for small data together with improved decay estimates, in particular for derivatives of the solutions. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  10. Global existence and decay of solutions of the Cauchy problem in thermoelasticity with second sound

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.; Racke, Reinhard; Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2013-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional Cauchy problem in non-linear thermoelasticity with second sound, where the heat conduction is modelled by Cattaneo's law. After presenting decay estimates for solutions to the linearized problem, including refined estimates for data in weighted Lebesgue-spaces, we prove a global existence theorem for small data together with improved decay estimates, in particular for derivatives of the solutions. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  11. Consumption, Ecological Footprints and Global Inequality: A Lesson in Individual and Structural Components of Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obach, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    As evidence of the growing ecological crisis mounts, it is imperative that sociologists speak to this social problem and incorporate a sociological perspective on environmental issues into the curriculum. Central to understanding how social issues relate to environmental problems is an examination of the ties between consumption and its ecological…

  12. High profile students’ growth of mathematical understanding in solving linier programing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utomo; Kusmayadi, TA; Pramudya, I.

    2018-04-01

    Linear program has an important role in human’s life. This linear program is learned in senior high school and college levels. This material is applied in economy, transportation, military and others. Therefore, mastering linear program is useful for provision of life. This research describes a growth of mathematical understanding in solving linear programming problems based on the growth of understanding by the Piere-Kieren model. Thus, this research used qualitative approach. The subjects were students of grade XI in Salatiga city. The subjects of this study were two students who had high profiles. The researcher generally chose the subjects based on the growth of understanding from a test result in the classroom; the mark from the prerequisite material was ≥ 75. Both of the subjects were interviewed by the researcher to know the students’ growth of mathematical understanding in solving linear programming problems. The finding of this research showed that the subjects often folding back to the primitive knowing level to go forward to the next level. It happened because the subjects’ primitive understanding was not comprehensive.

  13. Integrated assessment of the global warming problem: A decision-analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Lenthe, J.; Hendrickx, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    1994-12-01

    The multi-disciplinary character of the global warming problem asks for an integrated assessment approach for ordering and combining the various physical, ecological, economical, and sociological results. The Netherlands initiated their own National Research Program (NRP) on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP). The first phase (NRP-1) identified the integration theme as one of five central research themes. The second phase (NRP-2) shows a growing concern for integrated assessment issues. The current two-year research project 'Characterizing the risks: a comparative analysis of the risks of global warming and of relevant policy options, which started in September 1993, comes under the integrated assessment part of the Dutch NRP. The first part of the interim report describes the search for an integrated assessment methodology. It starts with emphasizing the need for integrated assessment at a relatively high level of aggregation and from a policy point of view. The conclusion will be that a decision-analytical approach might fit the purpose of a policy-oriented integrated modeling of the global warming problem. The discussion proceeds with an account on decision analysis and its explicit incorporation and analysis of uncertainty. Then influence diagrams, a relatively recent development in decision analysis, are introduced as a useful decision-analytical approach for integrated assessment. Finally, a software environment for creating and analyzing complex influence diagram models is discussed. The second part of the interim report provides a first, provisional integrated modeling of the global warming problem, emphasizing on the illustration of the decision-analytical approach. Major problem elements are identified and an initial problem structure is developed. The problem structure is described in terms of hierarchical influence diagrams. At some places the qualitative structure is filled with quantitative data

  14. Description of Student’s Metacognitive Ability in Understanding and Solving Mathematics Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Herlina; Febryanti, Fatimah; Febryanti, Fatimah; Muthmainnah

    2018-01-01

    This research was conducted qualitative which was aim to describe metacognitive ability to understand and solve the problems of mathematics. The subject of the research was the first year students at computer and networking department of SMK Mega Link Majene. The sample was taken by purposive sampling technique. The data obtained used the research instrument based on the form of students achievements were collected by using test of student’s achievement and interview guidance. The technique of collecting data researcher had observation to ascertain the model that used by teacher was teaching model of developing metacognitive. The technique of data analysis in this research was reduction data, presentation and conclusion. Based on the whole findings in this study it was shown that student’s metacognitive ability generally not develops optimally. It was because of limited scope of the materials, and cognitive teaching strategy handled by verbal presentation and trained continuously in facing cognitive tasks, such as understanding and solving problem.

  15. The problem of “culture” in the process of intercultural understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreana Marchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n1p251 The problem of “culture” in the process of intercultural understanding is one of the most discussed issues among scholars today. Anthropologists, linguists, literary critics, and philosophers, just to name a few, study this issue in a problem-based and research format. Culture and cultural understanding are hereby presented by demonstrating studies and observations of two cultural anthropologists, R. H. Robbins and Clifford Geertz, a literary critic, Lionel Trilling, and C. S. Lewis, a famous writer of both fiction and non-fiction. My intention here is to answer the question: how to describe and analyze a culture that is so different from the perspective of our own? In this sense, language and discourse are also analyzed in this paper as part of culture and can indicate some of our own moral perspectives and judgments on others’ cultures.

  16. Understanding enabling capacities for managing the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2013-10-15

    Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vectorization and parallelization of a numerical scheme for 3D global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Verwer (Jan); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  18. A Collection of Studies Conducted in Education about "Global Warming" Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2011-01-01

    The studies global warming problem conducted in education discipline in the world and in Turkey were analysed for this study. The literature was reviewed extensively especially through the articles in the indexed journals of Ebsco Host, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis and Web of Science databases and this study was conducted according to the…

  19. On Global Solutions for the Cauchy Problem of a Boussinesq-Type Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Taskesen, Hatice; Polat, Necat; Ertaş, Abdulkadir

    2012-01-01

    We will give conditions which will guarantee the existence of global weak solutions of the Boussinesq-type equation with power-type nonlinearity $\\gamma {|u|}^{p}$ and supercritical initial energy. By defining new functionals and using potential well method, we readdressed the initial value problem of the Boussinesq-type equation for the supercritical initial energy case.

  20. Existence of global solutions to free boundary value problems for bipolar Navier-Stokes-Possion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the free boundary value problem for one-dimensional compressible bipolar Navier-Stokes-Possion (BNSP equations with density-dependent viscosities. For general initial data with finite energy and the density connecting with vacuum continuously, we prove the global existence of the weak solution. This extends the previous results for compressible NS [27] to NSP.

  1. Global health in conflict. Understanding opposition to vitamin A supplementation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah K

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts.

  2. Additional Insights Into Problem Definition and Positioning From Social Science Comment on "Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quissell, Kathryn

    2017-09-10

    Commenting on a recent editorial in this journal which presented four challenges global health networks will have to tackle to be effective, this essay discusses why this type of analysis is important for global health scholars and practitioners, and why it is worth understanding and critically engaging with the complexities behind these challenges. Focusing on the topics of problem definition and positioning, I outline additional insights from social science theory to demonstrate how networks and network researchers can evaluate these processes, and how these processes contribute to better organizing, advocacy, and public health outcomes. This essay also raises multiple questions regarding these processes for future research. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  3. The problem of epistemic jurisdiction in global governance: The case of sustainability standards for biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winickoff, David E; Mondou, Matthieu

    2017-02-01

    While there is ample scholarly work on regulatory science within the state, or single-sited global institutions, there is less on its operation within complex modes of global governance that are decentered, overlapping, multi-sectorial and multi-leveled. Using a co-productionist framework, this study identifies 'epistemic jurisdiction' - the power to produce or warrant technical knowledge for a given political community, topical arena or geographical territory - as a central problem for regulatory science in complex governance. We explore these dynamics in the arena of global sustainability standards for biofuels. We select three institutional fora as sites of inquiry: the European Union's Renewable Energy Directive, the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials, and the International Organization for Standardization. These cases allow us to analyze how the co-production of sustainability science responds to problems of epistemic jurisdiction in the global regulatory order. First, different problems of epistemic jurisdiction beset different standard-setting bodies, and these problems shape both the content of regulatory science and the procedures designed to make it authoritative. Second, in order to produce global regulatory science, technical bodies must manage an array of conflicting imperatives - including scientific virtue, due process and the need to recruit adoptees to perpetuate the standard. At different levels of governance, standard drafters struggle to balance loyalties to country, to company or constituency and to the larger project of internationalization. Confronted with these sometimes conflicting pressures, actors across the standards system quite self-consciously maneuver to build or retain authority for their forum through a combination of scientific adjustment and political negotiation. Third, the evidentiary demands of regulatory science in global administrative spaces are deeply affected by 1) a market for standards, in which firms and states can

  4. The Global Optimal Algorithm of Reliable Path Finding Problem Based on Backtracking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in finding a global optimal path in transportation networks particularly when the network suffers from unexpected disturbance. This paper studies the problem of finding a global optimal path to guarantee a given probability of arriving on time in a network with uncertainty, in which the travel time is stochastic instead of deterministic. Traditional path finding methods based on least expected travel time cannot capture the network user’s risk-taking behaviors in path finding. To overcome such limitation, the reliable path finding algorithms have been proposed but the convergence of global optimum is seldom addressed in the literature. This paper integrates the K-shortest path algorithm into Backtracking method to propose a new path finding algorithm under uncertainty. The global optimum of the proposed method can be guaranteed. Numerical examples are conducted to demonstrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  5. On the global "two-sided" characteristic Cauchy problem for linear wave equations on manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Umberto

    2018-04-01

    The global characteristic Cauchy problem for linear wave equations on globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifolds is examined, for a class of smooth initial value hypersurfaces satisfying favourable global properties. First it is shown that, if geometrically well-motivated restrictions are placed on the supports of the (smooth) initial datum and of the (smooth) inhomogeneous term, then there exists a continuous global solution which is smooth "on each side" of the initial value hypersurface. A uniqueness result in Sobolev regularity H^{1/2+ɛ }_{loc} is proved among solutions supported in the union of the causal past and future of the initial value hypersurface, and whose product with the indicator function of the causal future (resp. past) of the hypersurface is past compact (resp. future compact). An explicit representation formula for solutions is obtained, which prominently features an invariantly defined, densitised version of the null expansion of the hypersurface. Finally, applications to quantum field theory on curved spacetimes are briefly discussed.

  6. Understanding Time and Problem Solving Experience: A Case Study of the Invisible Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Khorasani

    Full Text Available In this paper we will explore the relation between the actors’ understanding of time and the problem solving strategies in a complicated situation. Drawing on ethnography and conversation analysis we will focus on the institutional interaction order governing the scenes these movies exhibit. Using phenomenology and Ernest Pople indices, we aim to analyze the understanding made of the time in these conversations. In doing so we will consider the moment in which the violators rationalize the reasons behind their violations. The results show that while the time that law, the police and even the road technologies rely on is homogeneous and linear, the drivers employ the expressions connotating an iterative understanding of time. The paper concludes with showing how the law breaking drivers base their conversations on a nonlinear time to manage the difficult situations they are involved with. This suggests that far from a universal category, time is a category constantly taking different shapes in different everyday encounters.

  7. Climate is the real challenge, not shortage. New problems arising for global energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestel, E.

    1988-11-01

    The author of the article is Professor E. Pestel who, as an executive member of the Club of Rome, belongs to the group of experts who first gave impetus to start thinking about the global problems of mankind. In his publications on the problems linked with CO/sub 2/ emission he explains the unavoidable dilemma created by the growing world population and the growing demand for energy on the one hand, and the resulting hazards to the global climate on the other. His analyses take away the soft cushion of hopeful make-believe still widespread in the Western World, and in his capacity as an expert and realist he decidedly calls for decisions and measures to tackle the problem.

  8. Understanding the virtual team challenge – a discourse perspective on sensemaking in a global organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Braad; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    and projects simultaneously; some virtual, some co-located. This multi-team membership complicates relationship-building within each individual team. To understand how employees make sense of this complex, or equivocal (Weick, 2001) environment, this paper adopts a discourse perspective combining Austin......The literature on virtual teams describes knowledge sharing and trust-building challenges. However, few studies take into account the complexity of the work context in these virtual teams. Key factors affecting complexity include situations in which employees are involved in several teams......’s speech act theory (1975) and Gee’s discourse analysis (2011). This perspective is used to analyze 21 interviews to understand how employees construct meaning in semi-virtual multi-team environments. The analysis shows how a few autonomous employees are able to use their extended networks in a global...

  9. Do Americans Understand That Global Warming Is Harmful to Human Health? Evidence From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Rosenthal, Seth; Feinberg, Geoff; Leiserowitz, Anthony A

    2015-01-01

    Organization, and their local public health department. Most Americans report a general sense that global warming can be harmful to health, but relatively few understand the types of harm it causes or who is most likely to be affected. Perhaps as a result, there is only moderate support for an expanded public health response. Primary care physicians and public health officials appear well positioned to educate the public about the health relevance of climate change. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Memetic Algorithms to Solve a Global Nonlinear Optimization Problem. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Sakharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, evolutionary algorithms have proven themselves as the powerful optimization techniques of search engine. Their popularity is due to the fact that they are easy to implement and can be used in all areas, since they are based on the idea of universal evolution. For example, in the problems of a large number of local optima, the traditional optimization methods, usually, fail in finding the global optimum. To solve such problems using a variety of stochastic methods, in particular, the so-called population-based algorithms, which are a kind of evolutionary methods. The main disadvantage of this class of methods is their slow convergence to the exact solution in the neighborhood of the global optimum, as these methods incapable to use the local information about the landscape of the function. This often limits their use in largescale real-world problems where the computation time is a critical factor.One of the promising directions in the field of modern evolutionary computation are memetic algorithms, which can be regarded as a combination of population search of the global optimum and local procedures for verifying solutions, which gives a synergistic effect. In the context of memetic algorithms, the meme is an implementation of the local optimization method to refine solution in the search.The concept of memetic algorithms provides ample opportunities for the development of various modifications of these algorithms, which can vary the frequency of the local search, the conditions of its end, and so on. The practically significant memetic algorithm modifications involve the simultaneous use of different memes. Such algorithms are called multi-memetic.The paper gives statement of the global problem of nonlinear unconstrained optimization, describes the most promising areas of AI modifications, including hybridization and metaoptimization. The main content of the work is the classification and review of existing varieties of

  11. Globalization in the field of higher education in focus of macro-analysis: trends and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Khomeriki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with globalization of higher education. Higher education is grouped around many of the key issues of globalization: the internationalization strategy; transnational education; providing international quality; entrepreneurial approaches for education; regional and interregional cooperation; information and communication technologies and virtual schools; the emergence of new educational mediators – education providers, the problems of equality and access to education and so on. More of globalization produce new relationships of exchange, the internationalization of trade, restructuring of the international labor market, reduce labor conflicts at the level of capital, international division of labor, the development of new forces of production and technology, capital­intensive production, increasing the number of women employed in industrial and economic processes, increasing the size and value of services. It should be noted that the higher education system is able to influence globalization, forming a line of future policy, and region. It is reported that leaders of the globalization process in general and in particular the integration processes and the processes of formation of the education market internationally are leading countries that embarked on the path of transformation of their education systems and consider an active part in shaping the world educational space as a factor in solving the existing problems national and international levels. These countries are the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia.

  12. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  13. Understanding ill-structured engineering ethics problems through a collaborative learning and argument visualization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Borenstein, Jason

    2014-03-01

    As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE's insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research that supports the value of deliberative learning practices. The second results from a critique of the traditional case-study approach in engineering ethics. A key problem with standard cases is that they are usually described in such a fashion that renders the ethical problem as being too obvious and simplistic. The practitioner, by contrast, may face problems that are ill-structured. In the collaborative learning environment described here, groups of students use interactive and web-based argument visualization software called "AGORA-net: Participate - Deliberate!". The function of the software is to structure communication and problem solving in small groups. Students are confronted with the task of identifying possible stakeholder positions and reconstructing their legitimacy by constructing justifications for these positions in the form of graphically represented argument maps. The argument maps are then presented in class so that these stakeholder positions and their respective justifications become visible and can be brought into a reasoned dialogue. Argument mapping provides an opportunity for students to collaborate in teams and to develop critical thinking and argumentation skills.

  14. Understanding the Changes in Global Crop Yields Through Changes in Climate and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Ehsan; Devineni, Naresh; Khanbilvardi, Reza M.; Kogan, Felix

    2018-03-01

    During the last few decades, the global agricultural production has risen and technology enhancement is still contributing to yield growth. However, population growth, water crisis, deforestation, and climate change threaten the global food security. An understanding of the variables that caused past changes in crop yields can help improve future crop prediction models. In this article, we present a comprehensive global analysis of the changes in the crop yields and how they relate to different large-scale and regional climate variables, climate change variables and technology in a unified framework. A new multilevel model for yield prediction at the country level is developed and demonstrated. The structural relationships between average yield and climate attributes as well as trends are estimated simultaneously. All countries are modeled in a single multilevel model with partial pooling to automatically group and reduce estimation uncertainties. El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO), Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), geopotential height anomalies (GPH), historical carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and country-based time series of GDP per capita as an approximation of technology measurement are used as predictors to estimate annual agricultural crop yields for each country from 1961 to 2013. Results indicate that these variables can explain the variability in historical crop yields for most of the countries and the model performs well under out-of-sample verifications. While some countries were not generally affected by climatic factors, PDSI and GPH acted both positively and negatively in different regions for crop yields in many countries.

  15. Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) is dedicated to understanding the problems of global climate change and their potential solutions. The Institute...

  16. Global change and modern coral reefs: New opportunities to understand shallow-water carbonate depositional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Pamela

    2005-04-01

    Human activities are impacting coral reefs physically, biologically, and chemically. Nutrification, sedimentation, chemical pollution, and overfishing are significant local threats that are occurring worldwide. Ozone depletion and global warming are triggering mass coral-bleaching events; corals under temperature stress lose the ability to synthesize protective sunscreens and become more sensitive to sunlight. Photo-oxidative stress also reduces fitness, rendering reef-building organisms more susceptible to emerging diseases. Increasing concentration of atmospheric CO 2 has already reduced CaCO 3 saturation in surface waters by more than 10%. Doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration over pre-industrial concentration in the 21st century may reduce carbonate production in tropical shallow marine environments by as much as 80%. As shallow-water reefs decline worldwide, opportunities abound for researchers to expand understanding of carbonate depositional systems. Coordinated studies of carbonate geochemistry with photozoan physiology and calcification, particularly in cool subtropical-transition zones between photozoan-reef and heterotrophic carbonate-ramp communities, will contribute to understanding of carbonate sedimentation under environmental change, both in the future and in the geologic record. Cyanobacteria are becoming increasingly prominent on declining reefs, as these microbes can tolerate strong solar radiation, higher temperatures, and abundant nutrients. The responses of reef-dwelling cyanobacteria to environmental parameters associated with global change are prime topics for further research, with both ecological and geological implications.

  17. The Effectiveness of learning materials based on multiple intelligence on the understanding of global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliawati, W.; Purwanto; Zulfikar, A.; Kamal, R. N.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to examine the effectiveness of the use of teaching materials based on multiple intelligences on the understanding of high school students’ material on the theme of global warming. The research method used is static-group pretest-posttest design. Participants of the study were 60 high school students of XI class in one of the high schools in Bandung. Participants were divided into two classes of 30 students each for the experimental class and control class. The experimental class uses compound-based teaching materials while the experimental class does not use a compound intelligence-based teaching material. The instrument used is a test of understanding of the concept of global warming with multiple choices form amounted to 15 questions and 5 essay items. The test is given before and after it is applied to both classes. Data analysis using N-gain and effect size. The results obtained that the N-gain for both classes is in the medium category and the effectiveness of the use of teaching materials based on the results of effect-size test results obtained in the high category.

  18. [Private foundations Global Health Philanthropy: the problem of conflicts of interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Private foundations Global Health Philanthropy: the problem of conflicts of interest. Private foundations are in a position where they are granted several privileges and are very powerful and able to influence global health. A recent article published on Plos Medicine, analyzing five of the largest health foundations highlights the network of interests and conflicts. Many private health foundations have associations with private food and pharmaceutical corporations. In some instances, these corporations directly benefit from foundations grants, and foundations in turn are invested in the corporations to which they award these grants.

  19. Environmental market failures. Are there any local market-based corrective mechanisms for global problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, R.U.

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews various policy tools that have been discussed in the literature, including legal, administrative and fiscal (tax) schemes, as well as tradeable emission permits and concludes that none of them are really suitable for dealing with global problems. An alternative is suggested, namely the use of tradeable individual consumption quotas for traded commodities at the national level, to be extended later to the global level by trading quotas among nations (assuming agreement can be reached on the basis for determining quotas). 28 refs

  20. Cross-Cultural Understanding for Global Sustainability: Messages and Meanings from Asian Cultural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.

    2013-11-01

    Concept of 'multifunctionality' of cultural landscapes is a reflection of imbued meaning and aesthetics inherent there and also human manifestation of this spirit through existence and aliveness by human creation, love and continuance in various cultures and traditions. This sense helps envisioning landscapes that cross urban-rural divides in sustainable and an integrated way - characterised by wholeness and ecospirituality that developed in the cultural history of landscape sustainability. That is how, the idea of 'wholeness' (cosmality) is transformed into 'holiness' (sacrality) ― evolved and represented with sacred ecology and visualised through the cosmic frames of sacredscapes in Asian region that survived there as part of lifeworld. Understanding, feeling, living with, practicing and passing on these inherent meanings and aesthetics provide peace, solace and deeper feelings to human mind which are the ethereal breathe of sustainability. The rethinking should be based on the foundational value ― the reasoning that underlies the ethical sense of deeper understanding of Man-Nature Interrelatedness, the basic philosophy of coexistence ― referred in different cultures in their own ways, like multicultural co-living ('Old-comer') in Korea, harmonious coexistence (tabunka kyosei) in Japan, harmonious society (xiaokang) in China, wahi tapu (sacred places) in Maori's New Zealand, global family (vasudhaiva kutumbakam) in Indian thought, and also African humanism (ubuntu) in South Africa. Think universally, see globally, behave regionally, act locally but insightfully; this is an appeal for shared wisdom for global sustainability in making our cultural landscapes mosaic of happy, peaceful and sustainable places crossing all the borders and transitions, especially interwoven links among Korea, Japan, China, and India.

  1. Students’ understanding and application of the area under the curve concept in physics problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hai Nguyen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving the area under the curve concept. We found that only a few students could recognize that the concept of area under the curve was applicable in physics problems. Even when students could invoke the area under the curve concept, they did not necessarily understand the relationship between the process of accumulation and the area under a curve, so they failed to apply it to novel situations. We also found that when presented with several graphs, students had difficulty in selecting the graph such that the area under the graph corresponded to a given integral, although all of them could state that “the integral equaled the area under the curve.” The findings in this study are consistent with those in previous mathematics education research and research in physics education on students’ use of the area under the curve.

  2. Genomic Microbial Epidemiology Is Needed to Comprehend the Global Problem of Antibiotic Resistance and to Improve Pathogen Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrsch, Ethan R; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Chapman, Toni A; Charles, Ian G; Hammond, Jeffrey M; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of waste effluent from hospitals and intensive food animal production with antimicrobial residues is an immense global problem. Antimicrobial residues exert selection pressures that influence the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in diverse microbial populations. Despite these concerns there is only a limited understanding of how antimicrobial residues contribute to the global problem of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, rapid detection of emerging bacterial pathogens and strains with resistance to more than one antibiotic class remains a challenge. A comprehensive, sequence-based genomic epidemiological surveillance model that captures essential microbial metadata is needed, both to improve surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and to monitor pathogen evolution. Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causing both intestinal [intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC)] and extraintestinal [extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)] disease in humans and food animals. ExPEC are the most frequently isolated Gram negative pathogen affecting human health, linked to food production practices and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. Cattle are a known reservoir of IPEC but they are not recognized as a source of ExPEC that impact human or animal health. In contrast, poultry are a recognized source of multiple antibiotic resistant ExPEC, while swine have received comparatively less attention in this regard. Here, we review what is known about ExPEC in swine and how pig production contributes to the problem of antibiotic resistance.

  3. Use of global assays to understand clinical phenotype in congenital factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, L A; Goldenberg, N A; Simpson, M L; Villalobos-Menuey, E; Bombardier, C; Acharya, S S; Santiago-Borrero, P J; Cambara, A; DiMichele, D M

    2013-09-01

    Congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency is characterized by genotypic variability and phenotypic heterogeneity. Traditional screening and factor assays are unable to reliably predict clinical bleeding phenotype and guide haemorrhage prevention strategy. Global assays of coagulation and fibrinolysis may better characterize overall haemostatic balance and aid in haemorrhagic risk assessment. We evaluated the ability of novel global assays to better understand clinical bleeding severity in congenital FVII deficiency. Subjects underwent central determination of factor VII activity (FVII:C) as well as clot formation and lysis (CloFAL) and simultaneous thrombin and plasmin generation (STP) global assay analysis. A bleeding score was assigned to each subject through medical chart review. Global assay parameters were analysed with respect to bleeding score and FVII:C. Subgroup analyses were performed on paediatric subjects and subjects with FVII ≥ 1 IU dL(-1). CloFAL fibrinolytic index (FI2 ) inversely correlated with FVII:C while CloFAL maximum amplitude (MA) and STP maximum velocity of thrombin generation (VT max) varied directly with FVII:C. CloFAL FI2 directly correlated with bleeding score among subjects in both the total cohort and paediatric subcohort, but not among subjects with FVII ≥ 1 IU dL(-1) . Among subjects with FVII ≥ 1 IU dL(-1), STP time to maximum velocity of thrombin generation and time to maximum velocity of plasmin generation inversely correlated with bleeding score. These preliminary findings suggest a novel potential link between a hyperfibrinolytic state in bleeding severity and congenital FVII deficiency, an observation that should be further explored. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. On the Role of Situational Stressors in the Disruption of Global Neural Network Stability during Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengting; Amey, Rachel C; Forbes, Chad E

    2017-12-01

    When individuals are placed in stressful situations, they are likely to exhibit deficits in cognitive capacity over and above situational demands. Despite this, individuals may still persevere and ultimately succeed in these situations. Little is known, however, about neural network properties that instantiate success or failure in both neutral and stressful situations, particularly with respect to regions integral for problem-solving processes that are necessary for optimal performance on more complex tasks. In this study, we outline how hidden Markov modeling based on multivoxel pattern analysis can be used to quantify unique brain states underlying complex network interactions that yield either successful or unsuccessful problem solving in more neutral or stressful situations. We provide evidence that brain network stability and states underlying synchronous interactions in regions integral for problem-solving processes are key predictors of whether individuals succeed or fail in stressful situations. Findings also suggested that individuals utilize discriminate neural patterns in successfully solving problems in stressful or neutral situations. Findings overall highlight how hidden Markov modeling can provide myriad possibilities for quantifying and better understanding the role of global network interactions in the problem-solving process and how the said interactions predict success or failure in different contexts.

  5. Recent advances in understanding secondary organic aerosol: Implications for global climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Manish; Cappa, Christopher D.; Fan, Jiwen; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kuang, Chongai; Laskin, Alexander; Martin, Scot T.; Ng, Nga Lee; Petaja, Tuukka; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Rasch, Philip J.; Roldin, Pontus; Seinfeld, John H.; Shilling, John; Smith, James N.; Thornton, Joel A.; Volkamer, Rainer; Wang, Jian; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zhang, Qi

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic emissions and land use changes have modified atmospheric aerosol concentrations and size distributions over time. Understanding preindustrial conditions and changes in organic aerosol due to anthropogenic activities is important because these features (1) influence estimates of aerosol radiative forcing and (2) can confound estimates of the historical response of climate to increases in greenhouse gases. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA), formed in the atmosphere by oxidation of organic gases, represents a major fraction of global submicron-sized atmospheric organic aerosol. Over the past decade, significant advances in understanding SOA properties and formation mechanisms have occurred through measurements, yet current climate models typically do not comprehensively include all important processes. This review summarizes some of the important developments during the past decade in understanding SOA formation. We highlight the importance of some processes that influence the growth of SOA particles to sizes relevant for clouds and radiative forcing, including formation of extremely low volatility organics in the gas phase, acid-catalyzed multiphase chemistry of isoprene epoxydiols, particle-phase oligomerization, and physical properties such as volatility and viscosity. Several SOA processes highlighted in this review are complex and interdependent and have nonlinear effects on the properties, formation, and evolution of SOA. Current global models neglect this complexity and nonlinearity and thus are less likely to accurately predict the climate forcing of SOA and project future climate sensitivity to greenhouse gases. Efforts are also needed to rank the most influential processes and nonlinear process-related interactions, so that these processes can be accurately represented in atmospheric chemistry-climate models.

  6. Education of a Future Human is the Key to Solving the Global Problems Facing Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khrystenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research considers two Global problems of the humanity:intercivilizational contradictions and the pandemic of abortion as serious conflicts, the solution of which depends on the relevant public educational policies. The tension in the relationship between the Islamic World and the West, caused by the so-called “caricature scandal”, encourages to understanding the conflict and the ways of its solution. There is also the problem of massive numbers of abortions in the world that requires a scientific analysis and relevant conclusions. The research revealed that both sides of intercivilizational conflicts are responsible for it. The freedom of speech as an ingredient of democracy cannot exist only for itself. It should be based on the human values, including respect for other nations, religions, cultures, as well as the protection of human life. The second part of the research concerns the pandemic of abortion. Based on the achievements of modern embryology, sociology and bioethics, four levels of this conflict were defined. The first level is a conflict concerning the life of the unborn child. The second one is a conflict concerning a mother. The third one is a conflict with the nation. The fourth one is a conflict with God. On these issues, the survey was conducted among the first year medical students at Ternopil State Medical University. It was also concluded that it would have been useful to present the model of state policy aimed to prevent conflictsbetween civilizations, aswellasthepandemicofabortiontothestudents. Thispolicy should include: information policy (promotion of the idea that human life is the highest value, and human relationships should be based on the principles of tolerance; education policy (education in today’s youth of the culture of interpersonal relationships based on honesty, responsibility; social policy (creation of the material conditions for young families, single mothers; policy in the health sector

  7. The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. 261,547 individuals aged ≥ 18 years from 56 countries. N/A. The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40-1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Understanding why veterans are reluctant to access help for alcohol problems: Considerations for nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Matthew D; Moran, Sandra; Hill, Mick

    2016-12-01

    To effectively engage veterans with substance misuse services, nurses need to understand their unique needs and the potential barriers that prevent them from accessing care. Nurses need to have an understanding and awareness of the cultural sensitivities associated with having been a member of the armed forces. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived barriers to care amongst those planning, commissioning and delivering services for veterans with substance misuse problems, and to identify and explore subject areas which nurse educators should consider for inclusion in nursing and health education programmes. The findings reported in this paper come from one phase of a larger three phase research project and used an applied qualitative research approached based on methods developed for applied social policy research. The study was undertaken in the north-east of England. The study consisted of a purposive sample of planners, commissioners of services, and service providers in the North East of England. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview schedule. Framework analysis was used to analyse the data. Complexity of services and care, complexity of need and a lack of understanding of veterans were identified as factors that made accessing substance misuse care difficult. To help nurses better understand the unique needs of veterans three educational topics were identified for consideration in pre-registration nurse education: understanding military and veteran culture and the nature of modern warfare, the military 'veteran as institutionalised' hypothesis and stigma. Health and social services can struggle to truly understand the unique needs and experiences of the veteran community. We have identified three broad subject areas that should be considered as the theoretical basis for a veteran specific education programme within pre and post-registration nurse education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear energy as a contribution to the solution of energetic and environmental global problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttl, A.

    1993-01-01

    The sharp population growth has turned energy and environment problems into global problems. The yearly consumption of primary energy in the world is currently 11 billion TCE (Tons of Coal Equivalent). At the present time 88.1% of energy supply is produced by fossil fuels and nuclear only 5.2%. Fossil fuels are responsible for air pollutants like SO 2 , NO, NO 2 , CO 2 , and VOC. Most of them are responsible of the Greenhouse effect and global warming. Only two solutions may avoid this situation: Renewable energies (sun, water and wind) and Nuclear Energy. At the end of 1990 there were 424 nuclear power plants in the world with 1800 million Tu/year of CO 2 avoided (8% of the total emitted). New future scenarios of CO 2 avoided may only be reached with nuclear power contribution

  10. A Guiding Evolutionary Algorithm with Greedy Strategy for Global Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Guiding Evolutionary Algorithm (GEA with greedy strategy for global optimization problems is proposed. Inspired by Particle Swarm Optimization, the Genetic Algorithm, and the Bat Algorithm, the GEA was designed to retain some advantages of each method while avoiding some disadvantages. In contrast to the usual Genetic Algorithm, each individual in GEA is crossed with the current global best one instead of a randomly selected individual. The current best individual served as a guide to attract offspring to its region of genotype space. Mutation was added to offspring according to a dynamic mutation probability. To increase the capability of exploitation, a local search mechanism was applied to new individuals according to a dynamic probability of local search. Experimental results show that GEA outperformed the other three typical global optimization algorithms with which it was compared.

  11. ThinkHazard!: an open-source, global tool for understanding hazard information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart; Jongman, Brenden; Simpson, Alanna; Nunez, Ariel; Deparday, Vivien; Saito, Keiko; Murnane, Richard; Balog, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Rapid and simple access to added-value natural hazard and disaster risk information is a key issue for various stakeholders of the development and disaster risk management (DRM) domains. Accessing available data often requires specialist knowledge of heterogeneous data, which are often highly technical and can be difficult for non-specialists in DRM to find and exploit. Thus, availability, accessibility and processing of these information sources are crucial issues, and an important reason why many development projects suffer significant impacts from natural hazards. The World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) is currently developing a new open-source tool to address this knowledge gap: ThinkHazard! The main aim of the ThinkHazard! project is to develop an analytical tool dedicated to facilitating improvements in knowledge and understanding of natural hazards among non-specialists in DRM. It also aims at providing users with relevant guidance and information on handling the threats posed by the natural hazards present in a chosen location. Furthermore, all aspects of this tool will be open and transparent, in order to give users enough information to understand its operational principles. In this presentation, we will explain the technical approach behind the tool, which translates state-of-the-art probabilistic natural hazard data into understandable hazard classifications and practical recommendations. We will also demonstrate the functionality of the tool, and discuss limitations from a scientific as well as an operational perspective.

  12. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem for time-dependent Hartree equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadam, J.M.; Glassey, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    The existence of global solutions to the Cauchy problem for time-dependent Hartree equations for N electrons is established. The solution is shown to have a uniformly bounded H 1 (R 3 ) norm and to satisfy an estimate of the form two parallel PSI (t) two parallel/sub H 2 ; less than or equal to c exp(kt). It is shown that ''negative energy'' solutions do not converge uniformly to zero as t → infinity. (U.S.)

  13. Grand challenges in developing a predictive understanding of global fire dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Wiggins, E. B.; Andela, N.; Morton, D. C.; Veraverbeke, S.; van der Werf, G.

    2017-12-01

    High quality satellite observations of burned area and fire thermal anomalies over the past two decades have transformed our understanding of climate, ecosystem, and human controls on the spatial and temporal distribution of landscape fires. The satellite observations provide evidence for a rapid and widespread loss of fire from grassland and savanna ecosystems worldwide. Continued expansion of industrial agriculture suggests that observed declines in global burned area are likely to continue in future decades, with profound consequences for ecosystem function and the habitat of many endangered species. Satellite time series also highlight the importance of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes as drivers of interannual variability. In many regions, lead times between climate indices and fire activity are considerable, enabling the development of early warning prediction systems for fire season severity. With the recent availability of high-resolution observations from Suomi NPP, Landsat 8, and Sentinel 2, the field of global fire ecology is poised to make even more significant breakthroughs over the next decade. With these new observations, it may be possible to reduce uncertainties in the spatial pattern of burned area by several fold. It is difficult to overstate the importance of these new data constraints for improving our understanding of fire impacts on human health and radiative forcing of climate change. A key research challenge in this context is to understand how the loss of global burned area will affect magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink and trends in atmospheric composition. Advances in prognostic fire modeling will require new approaches linking agriculture with landscape fire dynamics. A critical need in this context is the development of predictive models of road networks and other drivers of land fragmentation, and a closer integration of fragmentation information with algorithms predicting fire spread. Concurrently, a better

  14. Conceptual understanding of climate change with a globally resolved energy balance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dommenget, Dietmar [Monash University, School of Mathematical Sciences, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Floeter, Janine [Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Kiel (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The future climate change projections are essentially based on coupled general circulation model (CGCM) simulations, which give a distinct global warming pattern with arctic winter amplification, an equilibrium land-sea warming contrast and an inter-hemispheric warming gradient. While these simulations are the most important tool of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predictions, the conceptual understanding of these predicted structures of climate change and the causes of their uncertainties is very difficult to reach if only based on these highly complex CGCM simulations. In the study presented here we will introduce a very simple, globally resolved energy balance (GREB) model, which is capable of simulating the main characteristics of global warming. The model shall give a bridge between the strongly simplified energy balance models and the fully coupled 4-dimensional complex CGCMs. It provides a fast tool for the conceptual understanding and development of hypotheses for climate change studies, which shall build a basis or starting point for more detailed studies of observations and CGCM simulations. It is based on the surface energy balance by very simple representations of solar and thermal radiation, the atmospheric hydrological cycle, sensible turbulent heat flux, transport by the mean atmospheric circulation and heat exchange with the deeper ocean. Despite some limitations in the representations of the basic processes, the models climate sensitivity and the spatial structure of the warming pattern are within the uncertainties of the IPCC models simulations. It is capable of simulating aspects of the arctic winter amplification, the equilibrium land-sea warming contrast and the inter-hemispheric warming gradient with good agreement to the IPCC models in amplitude and structure. The results give some insight into the understanding of the land-sea contrast and the polar amplification. The GREB model suggests that the regional inhomogeneous

  15. Globalization and sovereignty decline: Regionalization problem in Serbia within the actual geopolitical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar Milan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article author is about to maintain that discussion on regionalization asks for contextualisation within the currents of actual geopolitics, on the one hand, and wider process of globalisation and unification, on the other. In keeping with this, author in the first part deals with globalizing integrative processes with special attention played to the problem of nation-state survival. Point of analysis is given in the ambivalence of sovereignty: the very concept becomes outdated on the local level, but by the same token it is fully affirmed on the global level. On the global level we are encountered with revival of the classical concept of sovereignty. Problem of regionalization, in the second part of the article, is reconsidered as a phenomenon that is taking place between those two currents. Author maintains two related theses. First, designs of the regionalization less dependent of the authority of given state for they fall under the jurisdiction of global superpower and becomes dependant of its geostrategic planes and political demands. Second, that main reasons for Democratic Opposition of Serbia to work in favor of regionalization as a synonym for democracy is in lack of solid democratic reform and need to entrench itself in the precomposed structure of social and economic power. In this context one could forsake that we in Serbia are confronted with bright prospects of democracy at the cost of the 'hollowing out' of the state as main guarantee of it.

  16. Problems of Ensuring Complex Business Security in the Conditions of Modern Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoliy Petrovich Sterkhov

    2015-01-01

    From the viewpoint of ensuring complex business security, the relevance of the present work is associated with the rationale of multilevel hierarchical approach to the classification of security threats in the age of globalization. The specificity of the threats specific to one or another level of the economy, helps to better understand and consequently to build an effective system of ensuring complex business security. For each of the nine hierarchical levels of the economy the author identi...

  17. ASSESSING CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING IN MATHEMATICS: Using Derivative Function to Solve Connected Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin ORHUN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Open and distance education plays an important role in the actualization of cultural goals as well as in societal developments. This is an independent teaching and learning method for mathematics which forms the dynamic of scientific thinking. Distance education is an important alternative to traditional teaching applications. These contributions brought by technology enable students to participate actively in having access to information and questioning it. Such an application increases students’ motivation and teaches how mathematics can be used in daily life. Derivative is a mathematical concept which can be used in many areas of daily life. The aim of this study is to enable the concept of derivatives to be understood well by using the derivative function in the solution of various problems. It also aims at interpreting difficulties theoretically in the solution of problems and determining mistakes in terms of teaching methods. In this study, how various aspects of derivatives are understood is emphasized. These aspects concern the explanation of concepts and process, and also their application to certain concepts in physics. Students’ depth of understanding of derivatives was analyzed based on two aspects of understanding; theoretical analysis and contextual application. Follow-up interviews were conducted with five students. The results show that the students preferred to apply an algebraic symbolic aspect instead of using logical meanings of function and its derivative. In addition, in relation to how the graph of the derivative function affects the aspect of function, it was determined that the students displayed low performance.

  18. A New Understanding of Ankara Music within the Context of Global Cultural Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Can Satır

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to consider a new understanding of the complex and multilayered structure of Ankara music, which is situated between tradition and modernity and has become an important form of popular culture in the region, in the context of local and global relationships.. The theoretical framework of the study is based on Appadurai’s “global cultural flow” model. The ethnoscape, finanscape, mediascape, technoscape and ideoscape of Ankara music is examined in accordance with this approach to reveal the dynamics that make this music different. In the light of these findings, it is concluded that the ethnoscape of Ankara music is based on a broad demographic coalition that has created an independent music industry with a finanscape depending on production, distribution and consumption. While this type of music is represented through a network-based social structure, it gains legitimacy outside its bounds within the media environment. The “Ankara” genre and its quest for authenticity described in this work reveal the ideoscape of the new Ankara music.

  19. Teaching Climate Change Using System Models: An Understanding Global Change Project Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; Stuhlsatz, M.; Bracey, Z. B.; Marshall, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Teaching and learning about historical and anthropogenic climate change in the classroom requires integrating instructional resources that address physical, chemical, and biological processes. The Understanding Global Change (UGC) framework and system models developed at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) provide visualizations of the relationships and feedbacks between Earth system processes, and the consequences of anthropogenic activities on global climate. This schema provides a mechanism for developing pedagogic narratives that are known to support comprehension and retention of information and relationships. We designed a nine-day instructional unit for middle and high school students that includes a sequence of hands-on, inquiry-based, data rich activities combined with conceptual modeling exercises intended to foster students' development of systems thinking and their understanding of human influences on Earth system processes. The pilot unit, Sea Level Rise in the San Francisco Bay Area, addresses the human causes and consequences of sea level rise and related Earth system processes (i.e., the water cycle and greenhouse effect). Most of the content is not Bay Area specific, and could be used to explore sea level rise in any coastal region. Students completed pre and post assessments, which included questions about the connectedness of components of the Earth system and probed their attitudes towards participating in environmental stewardship activities. Students sequentially drew models representing the content explored in the activities and wrote short descriptions of their system diagrams that were collected by teachers for analysis. We also randomly assigned classes to engage in a very short additional intervention that asked students to think about the role that humans play in the Earth system and to draw themselves into the models. The study will determine if these students have higher stewardship scores and more frequently

  20. The future role of nuclear power in addressing global environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, W.

    1995-01-01

    Decision makers have to increasingly balance the costs versus benefits of various energy choices against a background of global environmental deterioration. This is particularly so in the choice of long term electricity production strategies where these have to be balanced against the potential of a very severe disruption of the world's climate due to global warming. In this presentation, the threat of global warming is quantified and scenarios are developed of future predicted energy consumption patterns and their impact on international policies to curb global warming, are analyzed. The conclusion is reached that the threat of global warming is so severe that, on the macro level, an international accepted strategy of utilising a proper balance between all forms of electricity production, is a matter of priority and that all national energy choices should be taken against this framework. Such strategic decisions on the macro level must, however, also translate into the micro level of energy production on topics which include: - more efficient plant utilisation; - more effective risk management; correct choice and application of technology; and - better understanding of issues concerning safety, quality and environmental impact. (author)

  1. Using Interactive Case Studies to Support Students Understandings of Local Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kostova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents designed and refined an interactive-enhanced curriculum module for 9th grade secondary school students in Bulgaria, based on environmental case studies. In the module activities students from two schools studied the local environments, performed observations and experiments, collected and analyzed data, prepared and presented posters and role plays, made connections between scientific processes and socio-scientific issues and drew conclusions about the global effects of locally created environmental problems. The students’ critical observations of the quality of their surroundings helped them to make a list of local environmental problems, to apply interactive strategies in studying them and to propose rational scientifically based solutions. In the study the attention was directed to the advantages and disadvantages of poster presentations and role playing and to the specific learning difficulties that students had to overcome. Students’ achievements from the two experimental schools were assessed independently in order to give us insights into the details of learning using different interactive strategies and into the acquired performance skills, dependant on students’ interests and personal abilities. The three versions of the module (traditional, dominated by teacher presentation; poster preparation and presentation in which students imitate scientific team research; and role playing in which students not only study the local environmental problems but assume social roles to cope with them demonstrate three levels of students learning independence. Specific assessment tests and check lists were developed for analyzing, evaluating and comparing students’ achievements in each version of the module and in each school. Ecological knowledge assessment tests were based on Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Poster and role playing preparations and presentations were assessed by specific criteria, shown in the

  2. "Patients' understanding is the problem": physicians' views of nonadherence among Arabs with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheedi M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Waheedi,1 Fatima B Jeragh-Alhaddad,1 Abdelmoneim Ismail Awad,1 Hannes Enlund2 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University, Kuwait; 2Finnish Medicines Agency, Kuopio, Finland Purpose: Nonadherence to diabetes medication is a significant barrier toward achieving positive treatment outcomes. There is an abundance of research looking at the problem from the patient perspective, but less from the provider perspective. The Middle East region has one of the highest prevalences of type 2 diabetes in the world, with special cultural characteristics, which require research attention. The aim of this study was to explore the views of primary-care physicians on medication nonadherence among type 2 diabetes patients. Materials and methods: A descriptive qualitative study was performed using one-on-one semistructured interviews of 21 primary-care physicians who were selected using stratified and random sampling from polyclinics in the five health districts in Kuwait. The interviews elicited the participants’ views about barriers and facilitators of medication adherence in type 2 diabetes patients. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis with constant comparison was used to generate the codes and themes to arrive at a core category. Results: Patient understanding, including knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, was identified by respondents as the core determinant of medication nonadherence in type 2 diabetes. This was composed of six major themes: four against understanding and two for understanding. The ones against were “Patients do not understand diabetes”, “Patients do not understand the importance of medications”, “What the patient hears from friends is more important than what the doctor says”, “Patients are in denial (or difficult”. Themes for understanding were “I need to educate more” and “Patients must hear it from other sources”. Conclusion: That lack of understanding among

  3. Global measure for energy + environmental problems by thorium molten-salt nuclear energy synergetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.; Lecocq, A.; Mitachi, K.; Kato, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The new global fission industry as a measure for energy and environmental problems of the next century should keep a strong public acceptance, which means to ensure an enough rational safety feature not only in the engineering issue but also in the all issues of integral fuel-cycle system. In these sense, the rational characteristics of the Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System (THORIMS-NES) is widely explained relating with a) resources and environmental problems, b) safety, c) nuclear-proliferation and -terrorism, d) breeding fuel-cycle, chemical processing and radio-wastes, and e) social acceptability and economy, including 'North-South' problems. The basic technology of Molten-Salt Reactor system has been established, and the practical and economical development program of THORIMS-NES is also proposed. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

  4. Towards a Strategic Understanding of Global Teams and Their HR Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Christina Lea; Minbaeva, Dana; Mäkelä, Kristiina

    2018-01-01

    and their constituent members to overcome the new and considerable challenges of global teams. These challenges span levels of analysis, time and space. Next we debate global teams as a strategic response to the dual pressures of global integration and local adaptation. We consider what HRM is needed for global teams...

  5. Statistical surrogate model based sampling criterion for stochastic global optimization of problems with constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Su Gil; Jang, Jun Yong; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Tae Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min Uk [Romax Technology Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Su; Hong, Sup [Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Sequential surrogate model-based global optimization algorithms, such as super-EGO, have been developed to increase the efficiency of commonly used global optimization technique as well as to ensure the accuracy of optimization. However, earlier studies have drawbacks because there are three phases in the optimization loop and empirical parameters. We propose a united sampling criterion to simplify the algorithm and to achieve the global optimum of problems with constraints without any empirical parameters. It is able to select the points located in a feasible region with high model uncertainty as well as the points along the boundary of constraint at the lowest objective value. The mean squared error determines which criterion is more dominant among the infill sampling criterion and boundary sampling criterion. Also, the method guarantees the accuracy of the surrogate model because the sample points are not located within extremely small regions like super-EGO. The performance of the proposed method, such as the solvability of a problem, convergence properties, and efficiency, are validated through nonlinear numerical examples with disconnected feasible regions.

  6. Next-Generation Satellite Precipitation Products for Understanding Global and Regional Water Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding the space-time variability of continental water fluxes is the lack of accurate precipitation estimates over complex terrains. While satellite precipitation observations can be used to complement ground-based data to obtain improved estimates, space-based and ground-based estimates come with their own sets of uncertainties, which must be understood and characterized. Quantitative estimation of uncertainties in these products also provides a necessary foundation for merging satellite and ground-based precipitation measurements within a rigorous statistical framework. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission that will provide next-generation global precipitation data products for research and applications. It consists of a constellation of microwave sensors provided by NASA, JAXA, CNES, ISRO, EUMETSAT, DOD, NOAA, NPP, and JPSS. At the heart of the mission is the GPM Core Observatory provided by NASA and JAXA to be launched in 2013. The GPM Core, which will carry the first space-borne dual-frequency radar and a state-of-the-art multi-frequency radiometer, is designed to set new reference standards for precipitation measurements from space, which can then be used to unify and refine precipitation retrievals from all constellation sensors. The next-generation constellation-based satellite precipitation estimates will be characterized by intercalibrated radiometric measurements and physical-based retrievals using a common observation-derived hydrometeor database. For pre-launch algorithm development and post-launch product evaluation, NASA supports an extensive ground validation (GV) program in cooperation with domestic and international partners to improve (1) physics of remote-sensing algorithms through a series of focused field campaigns, (2) characterization of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based precipitation products over selected GV testbeds, and (3) modeling of atmospheric processes and

  7. Agency problems of global budget system in Taiwan's National Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Hua; Yang, Chen-Wei; Fang, Shih-Chieh

    2014-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the agency problem presented by the global budget system followed by hospitals in Taiwan. In this study, we examine empirically the interaction between the principal: Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI) and agency: medical service providers (hospitals); we also describe actual medical service provider and hospital governance conditions from a agency theory perspective. This study identified a positive correlation between aversion to agency hazard (self-interest behavior, asymmetric information, and risk hedging) and agency problem risks (disregard of medical ethics, pursuit of extra-contract profit, disregard of professionalism, and cost orientation). Agency costs refer to BNHI auditing and monitoring expenditures used to prevent hospitals from deviating from NHI policy goals. This study also found agency costs negatively moderate the relationship between agency hazards and agency problems The main contribution of this study is its use of agency theory to clarify agency problems and several potential factors caused by the NHI system. This study also contributes to the field of health policy study by clarifying the nature and importance of agency problems in the health care sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding and quantifying cognitive complexity level in mathematical problem solving items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAN E. EMBRETSON

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973 has been applied to a wide variety of new tests. When the LLTM application involves item complexity variables that are both theoretically interesting and empirically supported, several advantages can result. These advantages include elaborating construct validity at the item level, defining variables for test design, predicting parameters of new items, item banking by sources of complexity and providing a basis for item design and item generation. However, despite the many advantages of applying LLTM to test items, it has been applied less often to understand the sources of complexity for large-scale operational test items. Instead, previously calibrated item parameters are modeled using regression techniques because raw item response data often cannot be made available. In the current study, both LLTM and regression modeling are applied to mathematical problem solving items from a widely used test. The findings from the two methods are compared and contrasted for their implications for continued development of ability and achievement tests based on mathematical problem solving items.

  9. Can the sociology of social problems help us to understand and manage 'lifestyle drift'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Malbon, Eleanor; Crammond, Brad; Pescud, Melanie; Baker, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Lifestyle drift is increasingly seen as a barrier to broad action on the social determinants of health. The term is currently used in the population health literature to describe how broad policy initiatives for tackling inequalities in health that start off with social determinants (upstream) approach drift downstream to largely individual lifestyle factors, as well as the general trend of investing a the individual level. Lifestyle drift occurs despite the on-going efforts of public health advocates, such as anti-obesity campaigners, to draw attention to the social factors which shape health behavior and outcomes. In this article, we explore whether the sociology of social problems can help understand lifestyle drift in the context of obesity. Specifically, we apply Jamrozik and Nocella's residualist conversion model to the problem of obesity in order to explore whether such an approach can provide greater insight into the processes that underpin lifestyle drift and inform our attempts to mitigate it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The application of nuclear science technology to understanding and solving environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuk, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has for many years been involved in applying nuclear science-based and related technologies to the understanding of environmental processes and to the development and implementation of practical and effective solutions to site specific problems, for a broad spectrum of industry, government regulatory agencies, and other organisations in Australia, Europe, North and South America and South East Asia. ANSTO's environmental science program arose out of the need for research to predict, measure, evaluate and monitor the environmental impacts associated with : uranium mining and processing in Australia; the operation of the research reactor at Lucas Heights; and the safe treatment and disposal of radioactive and conventional wastes associated with these activities. The expertise developed in these activities, has found application to a much broader range of environmental concerns. This paper will present an overview of ANSTO's application of nuclear science-based techniques to, inter alia: coastal and marine studies; minesite rehabilitation; transport and geochemical modelling of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic chemicals in the geosphere; the application of naturally-occurring radionuclides and radioactive tracers to corrosion and sedimentation studies in the coastal environment; dating sediments, fish corals and archaeological samples; the understanding of the kinetics and the physiological responses of aquatic organisms to radionuclides and metals in the environment: and the use of aquatic organism as archival and 'realtime' monitors of pollutants

  11. Understanding the Development and Perception of Global Health for More Effective Student Education

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinguang

    2014-01-01

    The concept of “global health” that led to the establishment of the World Health Organization in the 1940s is still promoting a global health movement 70 years later. Today’s global health acts first as a guiding principle for our effort to improve people’s health across the globe. Furthermore, global health has become a branch of science, “global health science,” supporting institutionalized education. Lastly, as a discipline, global health should focus on medical and health issues that: 1) ...

  12. Global Survey of the Concepts and Understanding of the Interfaces Between Nuclear Safety, Security, and Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacic, Don N.; Stewart, Scott; Erickson, Alexa R.; Ford, Kerrie D.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-15

    There is increasing global discourse on how the elements of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards can be most effectively implemented in nuclear power programs. While each element is separate and unique, they must nevertheless all be addressed in a country’s laws and implemented via regulations and in facility operations. This topic is of particular interest to countries that are currently developing the infrastructure to support nuclear power programs. These countries want to better understand what is required by these elements and how they can manage the interfaces between them and take advantages of any synergies that may exist. They need practical examples and guidance in this area in order to develop better organizational strategies and technical capacities. This could simplify their legal, regulatory, and management structures and avoid inefficient approaches and costly mistakes that may not be apparent to them at this early stage of development. From the perspective of IAEA International Safeguards, supporting Member States in exploring such interfaces and synergies provides a benefit to them because it acknowledges that domestic safeguards in a country do not exist in a vacuum. Instead, it relies on a strong State System of Accounting and Control that is in turn dependent on a capable and independent regulatory body as well as a competent operator and technical staff. These organizations must account for and control nuclear material, communicate effectively, and manage and transmit complete and correct information to the IAEA in a timely manner. This, while in most cases also being responsible for the safety and security of their facilities. Seeking efficiencies in this process benefits international safeguards and nonproliferation. This paper will present the results of a global survey of current and anticipated approaches and practices by countries and organizations with current or future nuclear power programs on how they are implementing, or

  13. Understanding the Roles of Non-State Actors in Global Governance: Evidence from the Global Partnership for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashy, Francine

    2016-01-01

    The study detailed in this paper examines the growing role of non-state actors in the transnational policy-making landscape through a case study of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE)--a partnership of donor and developing country governments, multilateral organizations, civil society, private companies and foundations, dedicated to…

  14. DESIGN – AS A RESPONSE TO THE GLOBAL PROBLEMS OF CONTEMPORARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA ELEONORA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Now when mankind has stepped into the third Millennium, the evolution of design is marked by the most pressing problems of contemporaneity: the danger of an ecological crisis; the psychological impact of the technological civilization on the human individual; the globalization of culture with no trace of colour and ethnic national differentiation. The solution of the created problems is due, in a primordial and decisive mode, to design. Eco-design is oriented towards the protection of the environment. Ethnic design promotes the traditional culture of peoples and ethnic minorities. Psycho-design claims the elaboration of individual unique tailored psychological projects. The mission of design in contemporary civilization is the protection, „humanization” and environment „awareness” of human vitality. Thus, the main characteristic of design is the so-called „technological humanism”.

  15. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

  16. Understanding the Role of the Master Regulator XYR1 in Trichoderma reesei by Global Transcriptional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Castro, Lilian; de Paula, Renato G.; Antoniêto, Amanda C. C.; Persinoti, Gabriela F.; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Roberto N.

    2016-01-01

    We defined the role of the transcriptional factor—XYR1—in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei during cellulosic material degradation. In this regard, we performed a global transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq of the Δxyr1 mutant strain of T. reesei compared with the parental strain QM9414 grown in the presence of cellulose, sophorose, and glucose as sole carbon sources. We found that 5885 genes were expressed differentially under the three tested carbon sources. Of these, 322 genes were upregulated in the presence of cellulose, while 367 and 188 were upregulated in sophorose and glucose, respectively. With respect to genes under the direct regulation of XYR1, 30 and 33 are exclusive to cellulose and sophorose, respectively. The most modulated genes in the Δxyr1 belong to Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), transcription factors, and transporters families. Moreover, we highlight the downregulation of transporters belonging to the MFS and ABC transporter families. Of these, MFS members were mostly downregulated in the presence of cellulose. In sophorose and glucose, the expression of these transporters was mainly upregulated. Our results revealed that MFS and ABC transporters could be new players in cellulose degradation and their role was shown to be carbon source-dependent. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of XYR1 to control cellulase gene expression in T. reesei in the presence of cellulosic material, thereby potentially enhancing its application in several biotechnology fields. PMID:26909077

  17. The Future of Food Demand: Understanding Differences in Global Economic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Nelson, Gerald; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Mason d' Croz, Daniel; Paltsev, S.; Rolinski, Susanne; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans; von Lampe, Martin; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the capacity of agricultural systems to feed the world population under climate change requires a good prospective vision on the future development of food demand. This paper reviews modeling approaches from ten global economic models participating to the AgMIP project, in particular the demand function chosen and the set of parameters used. We compare food demand projections at the horizon 2050 for various regions and agricultural products under harmonized scenarios. Depending on models, we find for a business as usual scenario (SSP2) an increase in food demand of 59-98% by 2050, slightly higher than FAO projection (54%). The prospective for animal calories is particularly uncertain with a range of 61-144%, whereas FAO anticipates an increase by 76%. The projections reveal more sensitive to socio-economic assumptions than to climate change conditions or bioenergy development. When considering a higher population lower economic growth world (SSP3), consumption per capita drops by 9% for crops and 18% for livestock. Various assumptions on climate change in this exercise do not lead to world calorie losses greater than 6%. Divergences across models are however notable, due to differences in demand system, income elasticities specification, and response to price change in the baseline.

  18. Understanding `green chemistry' and `sustainability': an example of problem-based learning (PBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Tuğçe; Akkuzu, Nalan; Alpat, Şenol

    2017-10-01

    Background: This study uses problem-based learning (PBL) to ensure that students comprehend the significance of green chemistry better by experiencing the stages of identifying the problem, developing hypotheses, and providing solutions within the problem-solving process.

  19. Argumentation as a Strategy for Increasing Preservice Teachers’ Understanding of Climate Change, a Key Global Socioscientific Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Findings of this study suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in addressing complex socioscientific issues (i.e. global climate change). This research examined changes in preservice teachers’ knowledge and perceptions about climate change in an innovative undergraduate-level elementary science methods course. The preservice teachers’ understanding of fundamental concepts (e.g., the difference between weather and climate, causes of recent global warming, etc.) increas...

  20. National water resource management as a global problem: The example of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshorbagy, A. A.; Abdelkader, A. A.; Tuninetti, M.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.; Fahmy, H.

    2017-12-01

    The engineering redistribution of water remains limited in its spatial scope, when compared with the socioeconomic redistribution of water in its virtual form. Virtual water (VW) embedded in products has its own human-induced cycle by moving across the globe. There is a significant body of literature on global VW trade networks (VWTN), with most studies focused on the network structure and the variables controlling its behavior. It was shown that the importing nations will play an important role in the evolution of the network dynamics. The increased connectivity of the global network highlights the risk of systemic disruptions and the vulnerability of the global food, especially when exporting countries change to non-exporting ones. The existing models of VWTN characterize the properties of the network, along with its nodes and links. Acknowledging its contribution to understand the global redistribution of virtual water, hardly can this approach attract potential users to adopt it. The VW trade (VWT) modeling needs to be repositioned to allow resource managers and policy makers at various scales to benefit from it and link global VW dynamics to their local decisions. The aim of this research is to introduce a new modeling approach for the VWT where detailed national scale water management is nested within the coarser global VWTN. The case study of Egypt, the world biggest importer of wheat, is considered here because its population growth and limitations of water and arable land position it as a significant node in the global network. A set of potential scenarios of Egypt's future, driven by population growth, development plans, consumption patterns, technology change, and water availability are developed. The annual national food and water balance in every scenario is calculated to estimate the potential for VW export and import of Egypt. The results indicate that Egypt's demand for food might cause unexpectedly higher demands on other countries' water resources

  1. Adjoint-based global variance reduction approach for reactor analysis problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiong; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.

    2011-01-01

    A new variant of a hybrid Monte Carlo-Deterministic approach for simulating particle transport problems is presented and compared to the SCALE FW-CADIS approach. The new approach, denoted by the Subspace approach, optimizes the selection of the weight windows for reactor analysis problems where detailed properties of all fuel assemblies are required everywhere in the reactor core. Like the FW-CADIS approach, the Subspace approach utilizes importance maps obtained from deterministic adjoint models to derive automatic weight-window biasing. In contrast to FW-CADIS, the Subspace approach identifies the correlations between weight window maps to minimize the computational time required for global variance reduction, i.e., when the solution is required everywhere in the phase space. The correlations are employed to reduce the number of maps required to achieve the same level of variance reduction that would be obtained with single-response maps. Numerical experiments, serving as proof of principle, are presented to compare the Subspace and FW-CADIS approaches in terms of the global reduction in standard deviation. (author)

  2. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…

  3. Understanding Problem-Solving Errors by Students with Learning Disabilities in Standards-Based and Traditional Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Bouck, Mary K.; Joshi, Gauri S.; Johnson, Linley

    2016-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities struggle with word problems in mathematics classes. Understanding the type of errors students make when working through such mathematical problems can further describe student performance and highlight student difficulties. Through the use of error codes, researchers analyzed the type of errors made by 14 sixth…

  4. A synoptic summary approach to better understanding groundwater contamination problems and evaluating long-term environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.

    1990-09-01

    A summary approach has been developed within groundwater hydrology to communicate with a broad audience and more completely evaluate the long-term impacts of subsurface contamination problems. This synoptic approach both highlights the dominant features occurring in subsurface contamination problems and emphasizes the information required to determine the long-term environmental impacts. The special merit of a summary approach is in providing a better understanding of subsurface contamination problems to adjoining technical disciplines, public decision makers, and private citizens. 14 refs

  5. Errors and Understanding: The Effects of Error-Management Training on Creative Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Issac C.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Peterson, David R.; Barrett, Jamie D.; Day, Eric A.; Hougen, Dean P.; Mumford, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    People make errors in their creative problem-solving efforts. The intent of this article was to assess whether error-management training would improve performance on creative problem-solving tasks. Undergraduates were asked to solve an educational leadership problem known to call for creative thought where problem solutions were scored for…

  6. Force, Velocity, and Work: The Effects of Different Contexts on Students' Understanding of Vector Concepts Using Isomorphic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test with no…

  7. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadar, Haji [International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafalou, Sara [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  8. Understanding linkages between global climate indices and terrestrial water storage changes over Africa using GRACE products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyah, R O; Forootan, E; Awange, J L; Khaki, M

    2018-09-01

    Africa, a continent endowed with huge water resources that sustain its agricultural activities is increasingly coming under threat from impacts of climate extremes (droughts and floods), which puts the very precious water resource into jeopardy. Understanding the relationship between climate variability and water storage over the continent, therefore, is paramount in order to inform future water management strategies. This study employs Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data and the higher order (fourth order cumulant) statistical independent component analysis (ICA) method to study the relationship between terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes and five global climate-teleconnection indices; El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) over Africa for the period 2003-2014. Pearson correlation analysis is applied to extract the connections between these climate indices (CIs) and TWS, from which some known strong CI-rainfall relationships (e.g., over equatorial eastern Africa) are found. Results indicate unique linear-relationships and regions that exhibit strong linkages between CIs and TWS. Moreover, unique regions having strong CI-TWS connections that are completely different from the typical ENSO-rainfall connections over eastern and southern Africa are also identified. Furthermore, the results indicate that the first dominant independent components (IC) of the CIs are linked to NAO, and are characterized by significant reductions of TWS over southern Africa. The second dominant ICs are associated with IOD and are characterized by significant increases in TWS over equatorial eastern Africa, while the combined ENSO and MJO are apparently linked to the third ICs, which are also associated with significant increase in TWS changes over both southern Africa, as well as equatorial eastern Africa. Copyright © 2018

  9. Global solutions to the electrodynamic two-body problem on a straight line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, G.; Deckert, D.-A.; Dürr, D.; Hinrichs, G.

    2017-06-01

    The classical electrodynamic two-body problem has been a long standing open problem in mathematics. For motion constrained to the straight line, the interaction is similar to that of the two-body problem of classical gravitation. The additional complication is the presence of unbounded state-dependent delays in the Coulomb forces due to the finiteness of the speed of light. This circumstance renders the notion of local solutions meaningless, and therefore, straightforward ODE techniques cannot be applied. Here, we study the time-symmetric case, i.e., the Fokker-Schwarzschild-Tetrode (FST) equations, comprising both advanced and retarded delays. We extend the technique developed in Deckert and Hinrichs (J Differ Equ 260:6900-6929, 2016), where existence of FST solutions was proven on the half line, to ensure global existence—a result that had been obtained by Bauer (Ein Existenzsatz für die Wheeler-Feynman-Elektrodynamik, Herbert Utz Verlag, München, 1997). Due to the novel technique, the presented proof is shorter and more transparent but also relies on the idea to employ asymptotic data to characterize solutions.

  10. Agency problems in hospitals participating in self-management project under global budget system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Hua; Hsu, Shuofen; Yang, Chen-Wei; Fang, Shih-Chieh

    2010-02-01

    The main purposes of this study are to clarify the agency problems in the hospitals participating in self-management project within the context of Global Budgeting Payment System regulated by Taiwan government, and also to provide some suggestions for hospital administrator and health policy maker in reducing the waste of healthcare resources resulting from agency problems. For the purposes above, this study examines the relationships between two agency problems (ex ante moral hazard and ex post moral hazard) aroused among the hospitals and Bureau of National Health Insurance in Taiwan's health care sector. This study empirically tested the theoretical model at organization level. The findings suggest that the hospital's ex ante moral hazards before participating the self-management project do have some influence on its ex post moral hazards after participating the self-management project. This study concludes that the goal conflict between the agents and the principal certainly exist. The principal tries hard to control the expenditure escalation and keep the financial balance, but the agents have to subsist within limited healthcare resources. Therefore, the agency cost would definitely occur due to the conflicts between both parties. According to the results of the research, some suggestions and related management concepts were proposed at the end of the paper.

  11. The spectral problem of global microinstabilities in tokamak-like plasmas using a gyrokinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Fivaz, M.; Appert, K.

    1996-01-01

    Tokamak-like plasmas are modeled by a periodic cylindrical system with magnetic shear and realistic density and temperature profiles. Linear electrostatic microinstabilities in such plasmas are studied by solving the eigenvalue problem starting from gyrokinetic theory. The actual eigenvalue equation is then of integral type. With this approach, finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects to all orders are taken into account. FLR effects provide for the only radial coupling in a cylinder and to lowest order correspond to polarization drift. This effectively one-dimensional problem helped us to gain useful knowledge for solving gyrokinetic equations in a curved system. When searching for the eigenfrequencies of the global modes, two different methods have been tested and compared. Either the true eigenvalue problem is solved by finding the zeros of the characteristic equation, or one considers a system driven by an antenna and looks for resonances in the power response of the plasma. In addition, mode structures were computed as well in direct as in Fourier space. The advantages and disadvantages of these various approaches are discussed. Ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities are studied over a wide range of parameters and for wavelengths perpendicular to the magnetic field down to the scale of ion Larmor radii. Flute instabilities driven by magnetic curvature drifts are also considered. Some of these results are compared with a time evolution PIC code. Such comparisons are valuable as the convergence of PIC results is often questioned. Work considering true toroidal geometry is in progress

  12. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  13. Understanding One Institutions' Process in Preparing Civil Engineering Students to Be Globally Competent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudhis, Vasiliki Goudanas

    2017-01-01

    Civil engineering is an increasingly dynamic and global industry experiencing expansion cross borders, resulting in new required competencies sought out by employers and reflected in updated undergraduate program outcomes. These new competencies include attributes that result in global competence. Institutions of higher learning need to…

  14. Beyond the network effect: towards an alternative understanding of global urban organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, P.; Verrest, H.; Gupta, J.; Pfeffer, K.; Verrest, H.; Ros-Tonen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Global organizations providing network relations for cities are bourgeoning. Organizations such as Metropolis, UN-Habitat, ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability, the Global Compact Cities Programme, and the C40, as well as City-to-City arrangements, have become increasingly important to

  15. Chinese Returnees from Overseas Study: An Understanding of Brain Gain and Brain Circulation in the Age of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuping; Pan, Suyan

    2015-01-01

    Among discussions on international academic mobility, a persistent challenge is to understand whether education abroad can become a source of brain gain, and whether globalization can offer source countries the hope that they might enjoy the benefits of freer crossborder flows in information and personnel. With reference to China, this article…

  16. Understanding "Green Chemistry" and "Sustainability": An Example of Problem-Based Learning (PBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Tugçe; Akkuzu, Nalan; Alpat, Senol

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study uses problem-based learning (PBL) to ensure that students comprehend the significance of green chemistry better by experiencing the stages of identifying the problem, developing hypotheses, and providing solutions within the problem-solving process. Purpose: The aim of this study is to research the effect of PBL implemented…

  17. A problem-oriented approach to understanding adaptation: lessons learnt from Alpine Shire, Victoria Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Carolina

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is gaining attention as a significant strategic issue for localities that rely on their business sectors for economic viability. For businesses in the tourism sector, considerable research effort has sought to characterise the vulnerability to the likely impacts of future climate change through scenarios or ‘end-point' approaches (Kelly & Adger, 2000). Whilst useful, there are few demonstrable case studies that complement such work with a ‘start-point' approach that seeks to explore contextual vulnerability (O'Brien et al., 2007). This broader approach is inclusive of climate change as a process operating within a biophysical system and allows recognition of the complex interactions that occur in the coupled human-environmental system. A problem-oriented and interdisciplinary approach was employed at Alpine Shire, in northeast Victoria Australia, to explore the concept of contextual vulnerability and adaptability to stressors that include, but are not limited to climatic change. Using a policy sciences approach, the objective was to identify factors that influence existing vulnerabilities and that might consequently act as barriers to effective adaptation for the Shire's business community involved in the tourism sector. Analyses of results suggest that many threats, including the effects climate change, compete for the resources, strategy and direction of local tourism management bodies. Further analysis of conditioning factors revealed that many complex and interacting factors define the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the Shire's tourism sector to the challenges of global change, which collectively have more immediate implications for policy and planning than long-term future climate change scenarios. An approximation of the common interest, i.e. enhancing capacity in business acumen amongst tourism operators, would facilitate adaptability and sustainability through the enhancement of social capital in this business community. Kelly, P

  18. Uniqueness of global quasi-classical solutions of the Cauchy problems for first-order nonlinear partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Duc Van

    1994-01-01

    The notion of global quasi-classical solutions of the Cauchy problems for first-order nonlinear partial differential equations is presented, some uniqueness theorems and a stability result are established by the method based on the theory of differential inclusions. In particular, the answer to an open problem of S.N. Kruzhkov is given. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig

  19. Picosecond scale experimental verification of a globally convergent algorithm for a coefficient inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klibanov, Michael V; Pantong, Natee; Fiddy, Michael A; Schenk, John; Beilina, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    A globally convergent algorithm by the first and third authors for a 3D hyperbolic coefficient inverse problem is verified on experimental data measured in the picosecond scale regime. Quantifiable images of dielectric abnormalities are obtained. The total measurement timing of a 100 ps pulse for one detector location was 1.2 ns with 20 ps (=0.02 ns) time step between two consecutive readings. Blind tests have consistently demonstrated an accurate imaging of refractive indexes of dielectric abnormalities. At the same time, it is shown that a modified gradient method is inapplicable to this kind of experimental data. This inverse algorithm is also applicable to other types of imaging modalities, e.g. acoustics. Potential applications are in airport security, imaging of land mines, imaging of defects in non-distractive testing, etc

  20. VACCINATION AGAINST HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION: A SAFE SOLUTION TO THE GLOBAL PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Galitskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases caused by human papilloma virus (HPV, in recent years has become more urgent, not only for physicians, scientists, but also for patients. This is due to the high contagiousness of HPV, its prevalence and, of course, proved oncogenicity. Creation and introduction of preventive vaccines against the most common HPV types played a definite role in the global health, and, of course, raised the attention of doctors and the public to human papillomavirus infection and associated diseases. At the same time propaganda against vaccination blocks the widespread adoption of this disease prevention in our country. In this paper, we introduce the American experience of monitoring vaccination adverse events.Key words: human papillomavirus infection, prevention, vaccination, adverse events, monitoring, children.

  1. Problem of Understanding in the Psychology Science Studies of Ukrainian and Russian Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko Natalia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the phenomenon ‘understanding’ from the position of psychological science. The paper also examines the relationship between the categories of ‘understanding’, ‘knowledge’, ‘perception’, ‘sense’, in particular the relationship (interdependence in dyads ‘understanding–knowledge’, ‘understanding–perception’, ‘understanding–sense’. The article also covers the functions of understanding (cognitive, regulatory, ideological, levels of understanding (depth, clarity and completeness, forms of understanding (understanding–recognition, understanding–hypothesis (prediction, understanding–unification, stages of understanding (pre-understanding, a vague understanding, insufficiently clear understanding, a clear understanding, a complete understanding, types of understanding (natural, cultural, creative. The analysis of scientific literature made it possible to draw conclusions that understanding is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon, which can act as a natural and social, conscious and unconscious, objective and subjective, as the process and as the result. Understanding as a psychological phenomenon covers all mental processes: thinking, memory, representation, creative imagination, emotional and volitional processes, properties and abilities of the individual and pervades and mediates cognitive procedures (observation, description, prediction, explanation, etc.. Understanding is the target process, motivated, active, emotional and volitional, productive and individually personal.

  2. Making Sense of Dynamic Systems: How Our Understanding of Stocks and Flows Depends on a Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Helen; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-03-01

    Stocks and flows (SF) are building blocks of dynamic systems: Stocks change through inflows and outflows, such as our bank balance changing with withdrawals and deposits, or atmospheric CO2 with absorptions and emissions. However, people make systematic errors when trying to infer the behavior of dynamic systems, termed SF failure, whose cognitive explanations are yet unknown. We argue that SF failure appears when people focus on specific system elements (local processing), rather than on the system structure and gestalt (global processing). Using a standard SF task (n = 148), SF failure decreased by (a) a global as opposed to local task format; (b) individual global as opposed to local processing styles; and (c) global as opposed to local perceptual priming. These results converge toward local processing as an explanation for SF failure. We discuss theoretical and practical implications on the connections between the scope of attention and understanding of dynamic systems. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Complementary Constrains on Component based Multiphase Flow Problems, Should It Be Implemented Locally or Globally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, H.; Huang, Y.; Kolditz, O.

    2015-12-01

    Multiphase flow problems are numerically difficult to solve, as it often contains nonlinear Phase transition phenomena A conventional technique is to introduce the complementarity constraints where fluid properties such as liquid saturations are confined within a physically reasonable range. Based on such constraints, the mathematical model can be reformulated into a system of nonlinear partial differential equations coupled with variational inequalities. They can be then numerically handled by optimization algorithms. In this work, two different approaches utilizing the complementarity constraints based on persistent primary variables formulation[4] are implemented and investigated. The first approach proposed by Marchand et.al[1] is using "local complementary constraints", i.e. coupling the constraints with the local constitutive equations. The second approach[2],[3] , namely the "global complementary constrains", applies the constraints globally with the mass conservation equation. We will discuss how these two approaches are applied to solve non-isothermal componential multiphase flow problem with the phase change phenomenon. Several benchmarks will be presented for investigating the overall numerical performance of different approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of different models will also be concluded. References[1] E.Marchand, T.Mueller and P.Knabner. Fully coupled generalized hybrid-mixed finite element approximation of two-phase two-component flow in porous media. Part I: formulation and properties of the mathematical model, Computational Geosciences 17(2): 431-442, (2013). [2] A. Lauser, C. Hager, R. Helmig, B. Wohlmuth. A new approach for phase transitions in miscible multi-phase flow in porous media. Water Resour., 34,(2011), 957-966. [3] J. Jaffré, and A. Sboui. Henry's Law and Gas Phase Disappearance. Transp. Porous Media. 82, (2010), 521-526. [4] A. Bourgeat, M. Jurak and F. Smaï. Two-phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in

  4. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Early adolescence (ages 10–14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents’ personal gender attitudes. Objectives To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. Methods A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984–2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Results Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents’ construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. Conclusions The findings from this

  5. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Early adolescence (ages 10-14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes. To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural

  6. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    Full Text Available Early adolescence (ages 10-14 is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes.To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally.A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes.Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age. Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents.The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different

  7. From Global Sustainability to Inclusive Education: Understanding urban children's ideas about the food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese Barton, Angela; Koch, Pamela D.; Contento, Isobel R.; Hagiwara, Sumi

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report our findings from a qualitative study intended to develop our understandings of: what high-poverty urban children understand and believe about food and food systems; and how such children transform and use that knowledge in their everyday lives (i.e. how do they express their scientific literacies including content understandings, process understandings, habits of mind in these content areas). This qualitative study is part of a larger study focused on understanding and developing science and nutritional literacies among high-poverty urban fourth-grade through sixth-grade students and their teachers and caregivers.

  8. Pathways of understanding: The interactions of humanity and global environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, H.K.; Katzenberger, J.; Lousma, J.; Mooney, H.A.; Moss, R.H.; Kuhn, W.; Luterbacher, U.; Wiegandt, E.

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram

  9. Pathways of Understanding: the Interactions of Humanity and Global Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Harold K.; Katzenberger, John; Lousma, Jack; Mooney, Harold A.; Moss, Richard H.; Kuhn, William; Luterbacher, Urs; Wiegandt, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram.

  10. Learning about “wicked” problems in the Global South. Creating a film-based learning environment with “Visual Problem Appraisal”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Lie, R.

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity of sustainable development in the Global South calls for the design of learning strategies that can deal with this complexity. One such innovative learning strategy, called Visual Problem Appraisal (VPA), is highlighted in this article. The strategy is termed visual as it

  11. Conceptualizing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers' Knowledge Base for Promoting Understanding about the Science of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Devarati

    Efforts to adapt and mitigate the effects of global climate change (GCC) have been ongoing for the past two decades and have become a major global concern. However, research and practice for promoting climate literacy and understanding about GCC have only recently become a national priority. The National Research Council (NRC), has recently emphasized upon the importance of developing learners' capacity of reasoning, their argumentation skills and understanding of GCC (Framework for K-12 Science Education, National Research Council, 2012). This framework focuses on fostering conceptual clarity about GCC to promote innovation, resilience, and readiness in students as a response towards the threat of a changing environment. Previous research about teacher understanding of GCC describes that in spite of the prevalent frameworks like the AAAS Science Literacy Atlas (AAAS, 2007) and the Essential Principles for Climate Literacy (United States Global Climate Research Program, 2009; Bardsley, 2007), most learners are challenged in understanding the science of GCC (Michail et al., 2007) and misinformed perceptions about basic climate science content and the role of human activities in changing climate remain persistent (Reibich and Gautier, 2006). Our teacher participants had a rather simplistic knowledge structure. While aware of climate change, teacher participants lacked in depth understanding of how change in climate can impact various ecosystems on the Earth. Furthermore, they felt overwhelmed with the extensive amount of information needed to comprehend the complexity in GCC. Hence, extensive efforts not only focused on assessing conceptual understanding of GCC but also for teaching complex science topics like GCC are essential. This dissertation explains concept mapping, and the photo elicitation method for assessing teachers' understanding of GCC and the use of metacognitive scaffolding in instruction of GCC for developing competence of learners in this complex

  12. Primary Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Students' Internalising Problems of Mental Health and Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Fiona; Signorini, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    An emerging national agenda for the mental health and wellbeing of young Australians has fostered an expectation that primary teachers can recognise and respond to students with internalising problems. A mixed method survey of fourth-year preservice teachers revealed patchy personal and practicum exposure to internalising problems and scant…

  13. Understanding Adults' Strong Problem-Solving Skills Based on PIAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Raija; De Wever, Bram; Nissinen, Kari; Cincinnato, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Research has shown that the problem-solving skills of adults with a vocational education and training (VET) background in technology-rich environments (TREs) are often inadequate. However, some adults with a VET background do have sound problem-solving skills. The present study aims to provide insight into the socio-demographic,…

  14. Coping with Problems of Understanding in Interorganizational Relationships: Using Formalization as a Means to make Sense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.L. Vlaar (Paul); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractResearch into the management of interorganizational relationships has hitherto primarily focused on problems of coordination, control and to a lesser extent, legitimacy. In this article, we assert that partners cooperating in such relationships are also confronted with ‘problems of

  15. Understanding wicked problems and organized irresponsibility: challenges for governing the sustainable intensification of chicken meat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueren, E.M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Framing sustainable intensification as a wicked problem reveals how inherent trade-offs and resulting uncertainty and ambiguity block integrated problem solving as promoted by sustainable chain management approaches to production and consumption. The fragmented institutional set-up of the chains

  16. Implementation of basic chemistry experiment based on metacognition to increase problem-solving and build concept understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhaida, A.

    2018-04-01

    Implementation of the experiment have the three aspects of the goal: 1) develop basic skills of experimenting; 2) develop problem-solving skills with a scientific approach; 3) improve understanding of the subject matter. On the implementation of the experiment, students have some weaknesses include: observing, identifying problems, managing information, analyzing, and evaluating. This weakness is included in the metacognition indicator.The objective of the research is to implementation of Basic Chemistry Experiment based on metacognition to increase problem-solving skills and build concept understanding for students of Science Education Department. The method of this research is a quasi- experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design. Problem-solving skills are measured through performance assessments using rubrics from problem solving reports, and results presentation. The conceptual mastery is measured through a description test. The result of the research: (1) improve the problem solving skills of the students with very high category; (2) increase the students’ concept understanding better than the conventional experiment with the result of N-gain in medium category, and (3) increase student's response positively for learning implementation. The contribution of this research is to extend the implementation of practical learning for some subjects, and to improve the students' competence in science.

  17. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan F; Bisht, Ramila; Baru, Rama; Pitchforth, Emma

    2012-08-31

    The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal 'Globalization and Health' over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on 'Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives' is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health.

  18. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Susan F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal ‘Globalization and Health’ over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on ‘Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives’ is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health.

  19. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The global dimension of water governance: Nine reasons for global arrangements in order to cope with local water problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2006-01-01

    Where water problems extend beyond the borders of local communities, the catchment area or river basin is generally seen as the most appropriate unit for analysis, planning and institutional arrangements. In this paper it is argued that addressing water problems at the river basin level is not

  1. Geo-Sandbox: An Interactive Geoscience Training Tool with Analytics to Better Understand Student Problem Solving Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, N.; Pidlisecky, A.; Ganshorn, H.; Cockett, R.

    2015-12-01

    The software company 3 Point Science has developed three interactive learning programs designed to teach, test and practice visualization skills and geoscience concepts. A study was conducted with 21 geoscience students at the University of Calgary who participated in 2 hour sessions of software interaction and written pre and post-tests. Computer and SMART touch table interfaces were used to analyze user interaction, problem solving methods and visualization skills. By understanding and pinpointing user problem solving methods it is possible to reconstruct viewpoints and thought processes. This could allow us to give personalized feedback in real time, informing the user of problem solving tips and possible misconceptions.

  2. Rethinking pedagogy for second-order differential equations: a simplified approach to understanding well-posed problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Christopher C.

    2017-07-01

    Knowing an equation has a unique solution is important from both a modelling and theoretical point of view. For over 70 years, the approach to learning and teaching 'well posedness' of initial value problems (IVPs) for second- and higher-order ordinary differential equations has involved transforming the problem and its analysis to a first-order system of equations. We show that this excursion is unnecessary and present a direct approach regarding second- and higher-order problems that does not require an understanding of systems.

  3. A Study on Efficiency Improvement of the Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Method for Global Transport Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Woo, Myeong Hyeon; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2017-01-01

    In this study hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic method is explained for radiation transport analysis in global system. FW-CADIS methodology construct the weight window parameter and it useful at most global MC calculation. However, Due to the assumption that a particle is scored at a tally, less particles are transported to the periphery of mesh tallies. For compensation this space-dependency, we modified the module in the ADVANTG code to add the proposed method. We solved the simple test problem for comparing with result from FW-CADIS methodology, it was confirmed that a uniform statistical error was secured as intended. In the future, it will be added more practical problems. It might be useful to perform radiation transport analysis using the Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic method in global transport problems.

  4. The politics and anti-politics of the global fund experiment: understanding partnership and bureaucratic expansion in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E Michelle; Harper, Ian

    2014-01-01

    After a decade of operations, the Global Fund is an institutional form in flux. Forced to cancel its eleventh round of funding due to a shortfall in donor pledges, the Fund is currently in firefighting mode, overhauling its leadership, governance structures, and operations. Drawing on a case study of Uganda, we look at how the original Global Fund vision to be a simple financial instrument has played out at the country level. Even prior to the cancellation of round 11, the proliferation of partners required to sustain the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria experiment led to increasing bureaucratization and an undermining of the Fund's own intentions to award life-saving grants according to need. Understanding these effects through the ethnographic material presented here may be one way of reflecting on the Fund's structure and practices as it struggles to reinvent itself in the face of criticism that it has impeded resource distribution.

  5. Global case studies of soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS: Definitions, classifications, advances, origins, and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam

    2017-10-01

    Problems that hinder our understanding of SSDS still remain. They are: (1 vague definitions of the phrase “soft-sediment deformation”; (2 complex factors that govern the origin of SSDS; (3 omission of vital empirical data in documenting vertical changes in facies using measured sedimentological logs; (4 difficulties in distinguishing depositional processes from tectonic events; (5 a model-driven interpretation of SSDS (i.e., earthquake being the singular cause; (6 routine application of the genetic term “seismites” to the “SSDS”, thus undermining the basic tenet of process sedimentology (i.e., separation of interpretation from observation; (7 the absence of objective criteria to differentiate 21 triggering mechanisms of liquefaction and related SSDS; (8 application of the process concept “high-density turbidity currents”, a process that has never been documented in modern oceans; (9 application of the process concept “sediment creep” with a velocity connotation that cannot be inferred from the ancient record; (10 classification of pockmarks, which are hollow spaces (i.e., without sediments as SSDS, with their problematic origins by fluid expulsion, sediment degassing, fish activity, etc.; (11 application of the Earth's climate-change model; and most importantly, (12 an arbitrary distinction between depositional process and sediment deformation. Despite a profusion of literature on SSDS, our understanding of their origin remains muddled. A solution to the chronic SSDS problem is to utilize the robust core dataset from scientific drilling at sea (DSDP/ODP/IODP with a constrained definition of SSDS.

  6. Holistic Mathematics Instruction: Interactive Problem Solving and Real Life Situations Help Learners Understand Math Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambeault, Betty

    1993-01-01

    Holistic math focuses on problem solving with numbers and concepts. Whole math activities for adults include shopping for groceries, eating in restaurants, buying gas, taking medicine, measuring a room, estimating servings, and compiling a family cookbook. (SK)

  7. Cosmopolitan Literacies, Social Networks, and "Proper Distance": Striving to Understand in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Glynda A.; Stornaiuolo, Amy

    2014-01-01

    How are identities as cosmopolitan citizens realized in practice, and how can dialogue be fostered across differences in culture, language, ideology, and geography? More particularly, how might young people be positioned to develop effective and ethical responses, in our digital age, to local and global concerns? Such are the questions we…

  8. Understanding Learning in World Society: Qualitative Reconstructive Research in Global Learning and Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheunpflug, Annette; Krogull, Susanne; Franz, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Global learning aims to change behaviour and attitudes. Changes in these areas are not easy to assess. This article discusses the documentary method, which belongs to the group of qualitative reconstructive research methods. The authors argue that this method allows reflection on collective orientations and tacit knowledge. The different steps of…

  9. Effects of Intervention to Improve At-Risk Fourth Graders' Understanding, Calculations, and Word Problems with Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Long, Jessica; Namkung, Jessica; Malone, Amelia S.; Wang, Amber; Hamlett, Carol L.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Siegler, Robert S.; Changas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the efficacy of a core fraction intervention program on understanding and calculation skill and (b) isolate the effects of different forms of fraction word-problem (WP) intervention. At-risk fourth graders (n = 213) were randomly assigned to the school's business-as-usual program, or one of two…

  10. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Engineering Students' Beliefs about Physics and Conceptual Understanding of Energy and Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on freshmen engineering students' beliefs about physics and physics learning (referred to as epistemological beliefs) and conceptual understanding of physics. The multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts and the Colorado learning attitudes about…

  11. Exploring Effects of High School Students' Mathematical Processing Skills and Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Concepts on Algorithmic Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Nejla; Yalcin Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of students' conceptual understanding of chemical concepts and mathematical processing skills on algorithmic problem-solving skills. The sample (N = 554) included grades 9, 10, and 11 students in Turkey. Data were collected using the instrument "MPC Test" and with interviews. The MPC…

  12. Effects of Intervention to Improve At-Risk Fourth Graders' Understanding, Calculations, and Word Problems with Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Long, Jessica; Namkung, Jessica; Malone, Amelia S.; Wang, Amber; Hamlett, Carol L.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Siegler, Robert S.; Changas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the efficacy of a core fraction intervention program on understanding and calculation skill and (b) isolate the effects of different forms of fraction word-problem (WP) intervention delivered as part of the larger program. At-risk 4th graders (n = 213) were randomly assigned at the individual…

  13. Understanding Global Systems Today—A Calibration of the World3-03 Model between 1995 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pasqualino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1972 the Limits to Growth report was published. It used the World3 model to better understand the dynamics of global systems and their relationship to finite resource availability, land use, and persistent pollution accumulation. The trends of resource depletion and degradation of physical systems which were identified by Limits to Growth have continued. Although World3 forecast scenarios are based on key measures and assumptions that cannot be easily assessed using available data (i.e., non-renewable resources, persistent pollution, the dynamics of growth components of the model can be compared with publicly available global data trends. Based on Scenario 2 of the Limits to Growth study, we present a calibration of the updated World3-03 model using historical data from 1995 to 2012 to better understand the dynamics of today’s economic and resource system. Given that accurate data on physical limits does not currently exist, the dynamics of overshoot to global limits are not assessed. In this paper we offer a new interpretation of the parametrisation of World3-03 using these data to explore how its assumptions on global dynamics, environmental footprints and responses have changed over the past 40 years. The results show that human society has invested more to abate persistent pollution, to increase food productivity and have a more productive service sector.

  14. Understanding Information Technology Investment Decision-Making in the Context of Hotel Global Distribution Systems: a Multiple-Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    UNDERSTANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT DECISION-MAKING IN THE CONTEXT OF HOTEL GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A MULTIPLE-CASE STUDY by Daniel J. Connolly Dr. Michael D. Olsen, Chair Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management ABSTRACT This study investigates what three large, multinational hospitality companies do in practice when evaluating and making IT investment decisions. This study was launched in an attempt to 1) learn more about ...

  15. Problem of Understanding in the Psychology Science Studies of Ukrainian and Russian Researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Kharchenko Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the phenomenon ‘understanding’ from the position of psychological science. The paper also examines the relationship between the categories of ‘understanding’, ‘knowledge’, ‘perception’, ‘sense’, in particular the relationship (interdependence) in dyads ‘understanding–knowledge’, ‘understanding–perception’, ‘understanding–sense’. The article also covers the functions of understanding (cognitive, regulatory, ideological), levels of understanding (depth, clarity and complet...

  16. A non-linear branch and cut method for solving discrete minimum compliance problems to global optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper present some initial results pertaining to a search for globally optimal solutions to a challenging benchmark example proposed by Zhou and Rozvany. This means that we are dealing with global optimization of the classical single load minimum compliance topology design problem with a fixed...... finite element discretization and with discrete design variables. Global optimality is achieved by the implementation of some specially constructed convergent nonlinear branch and cut methods, based on the use of natural relaxations and by applying strengthening constraints (linear valid inequalities...

  17. A non-linear branch and cut method for solving discrete minimum compliance problems to global optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper present some initial results pertaining to a search for globally optimal solutions to a challenging benchmark example proposed by Zhou and Rozvany. This means that we are dealing with global optimization of the classical single load minimum compliance topology design problem with a fixed...... finite element discretization and with discrete design variables. Global optimality is achieved by the implementation of some specially constructed convergent nonlinear branch and cut methods, based on the use of natural relaxations and by applying strengthening constraints (linear valid inequalities......) and cuts....

  18. THE PHYSICAL LABORATORY ACTIVITIES WITH PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH TO INCREASE CRITICAL THINKING SKILL AND UNDERSTANDING STUDENT CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Trisnowati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the description of the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills and the concept understanding by implementing the problem-solving approach. This study was in laboratory activities. This study was done in four times meeting. The try out subjects was 31 students of grades X of MAN Yogyakarta III. This research is using the quasi experimental method with the pretest-posttest design. The data were collected by using multiple choices tests with assessment rubric and observation sheets. The data are analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Based on the result, the gain standard value of students’ conceptual understanding and students’ critical thinking skills for grade X who learned through student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called treatment class, are higher than students who learned without student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called control class.

  19. Modeling Multioperator Multi-UAV Operator Attention Allocation Problem Based on Maximizing the Global Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the attention allocation problem (AAP in modeling multioperator multi-UAV (MOMU, with the operator model and task properties taken into consideration. The model of MOMU operator AAP based on maximizing the global reward is established and used to allocate tasks to all operators as well as set work time and rest time to each task simultaneously for operators. The proposed model is validated in Matlab simulation environment, using the immune algorithm and dynamic programming algorithm to evaluate the performance of the model in terms of the reward value with regard to the work time, rest time, and task allocation. The result shows that the total reward of the proposed model is larger than the one obtained from previously published methods using local maximization and the total reward of our method has an exponent-like relation with the task arrival rate. The proposed model can improve the operators’ task processing efficiency in the MOMU command and control scenarios.

  20. Leptin, An Adipokine With Central Importance in the Global Obesity Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Zhao, Shan; Garvey, W Timothy

    2017-12-13

    Leptin has central importance in the global obesity and cardiovascular disease problem. Leptin is principally secreted by adipocytes and acts in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and food intake, increase energy expenditure, and regulate body weight. Based on clinical translation of specific and networked actions, leptin affects the cardiovascular system and may be a marker and driver of cardiometabolic risk factors with interventions that are actionable by cardiologists. Leptin subnetwork analysis demonstrates a statistically significant role for ethnoculturally and socioeconomically appropriate lifestyle intervention in cardiovascular disease. Emergent mechanistic components and potential diagnostic or therapeutic targets include hexokinase 3, urocortins, clusterin, sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 6, C-reactive protein, platelet glycoprotein VI, albumin, pentraxin 3, ghrelin, obestatin prepropeptide, leptin receptor, neuropeptide Y, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1. Emergent associated symptoms include weight change, eating disorders, vascular necrosis, chronic fatigue, and chest pain. Leptin-targeted therapies are reported for lipodystrophy and leptin deficiency, but they are investigational for leptin resistance, obesity, and other chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictability problems of global change as seen through natural systems complexity description. 2. Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kozoderov

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing the general statements of the proposed global change theory, outlined in Part 1 of the publication, Kolmogorov's probability space is used to study properties of information measures (unconditional, joint and conditional entropies, information divergence, mutual information, etc.. Sets of elementary events, the specified algebra of their sub-sets and probability measures for the algebra are composite parts of the space. The information measures are analyzed using the mathematical expectance operator and the adequacy between an additive function of sets and their equivalents in the form of the measures. As a result, explanations are given to multispectral satellite imagery visualization procedures using Markov's chains of random variables represented by pixels of the imagery. The proposed formalism of the information measures application enables to describe the natural targets complexity by syntactically governing probabilities. Asserted as that of signal/noise ratios finding for anomalies of natural processes, the predictability problem is solved by analyses of temporal data sets of related measurements for key regions and their background within contextually coherent structures of natural targets and between particular boundaries of the structures.

  2. On global solutions of the random Hamilton-Jacobi equations and the KPZ problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtin, Yuri; Khanin, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss possible qualitative approaches to the problem of KPZ universality. Throughout the paper, our point of view is based on the geometrical and dynamical properties of minimisers and shocks forming interlacing tree-like structures. We believe that the KPZ universality can be explained in terms of statistics of these structures evolving in time. The paper is focussed on the setting of the random Hamilton-Jacobi equations. We formulate several conjectures concerning global solutions and discuss how their properties are connected to the KPZ scalings in dimension 1  +  1. In the case of general viscous Hamilton-Jacobi equations with non-quadratic Hamiltonians, we define generalised directed polymers. We expect that their behaviour is similar to the behaviour of classical directed polymers, and present arguments in favour of this conjecture. We also define a new renormalisation transformation defined in purely geometrical terms and discuss conjectural properties of the corresponding fixed points. Most of our conjectures are widely open, and supported by only partial rigorous results for particular models.

  3. THE GLOBAL GOVERNANCE PROBLEM AND THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorova E. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, globalization begins to permeate more and more areas of human activity, therefore it is important question of the complex mechanisms and principles of global governance formation.The article analyzes the essence, subjects and mechanisms for the implementation of the global economic governance. Moreover, it investigates the role and current state of the International Monetary Fund (IMF in the global economy. In conclusion, it clarifies the relationship of the IMF and processes of global governance. Research has shown that it is necessary to create within the IMF more representative, economically and politically balanced system of global governance of the world monetary and financial relations as part of the emerging mechanisms of global economic governance. This article extends the knowledge about the features of the IMF in the forming global governance.

  4. Understanding the determinants of problem-solving behavior in a complex environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    It is often argued that problem-solving behavior in a complex environment is determined as much by the features of the environment as by the goals of the problem solver. This article explores a technique to determine the extent to which measured features of a complex environment influence problem-solving behavior observed within that environment. In this study, the technique is used to determine how complex flight deck and air traffic control environment influences the strategies used by airline pilots when controlling the flight path of a modern jetliner. Data collected aboard 16 commercial flights are used to measure selected features of the task environment. A record of the pilots' problem-solving behavior is analyzed to determine to what extent behavior is adapted to the environmental features that were measured. The results suggest that the measured features of the environment account for as much as half of the variability in the pilots' problem-solving behavior and provide estimates on the probable effects of each environmental feature.

  5. Understanding How the "Open" of Open Source Software (OSS) Will Improve Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Erin; Blazes, David; Lewis, Sheri

    2016-01-01

    Improving global health security will require bold action in all corners of the world, particularly in developing settings, where poverty often contributes to an increase in emerging infectious diseases. In order to mitigate the impact of emerging pandemic threats, enhanced disease surveillance is needed to improve early detection and rapid response to outbreaks. However, the technology to facilitate this surveillance is often unattainable because of high costs, software and hardware maintenance needs, limited technical competence among public health officials, and internet connectivity challenges experienced in the field. One potential solution is to leverage open source software, a concept that is unfortunately often misunderstood. This article describes the principles and characteristics of open source software and how it may be applied to solve global health security challenges.

  6. Mining EEG with SVM for Understanding Cognitive Underpinnings of Math Problem Solving Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Paul; Herrera, Mauricio; López, Julio; Maldonado, Sebastián

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a new methodology for examining and extracting patterns from brain electric activity by using data mining and machine learning techniques. Data was collected from experiments focused on the study of cognitive processes that might evoke different specific strategies in the resolution of math problems. A binary classification problem was constructed using correlations and phase synchronization between different electroencephalographic channels as characteristics and, as labels or classes, the math performances of individuals participating in specially designed experiments. The proposed methodology is based on using well-established procedures of feature selection, which were used to determine a suitable brain functional network size related to math problem solving strategies and also to discover the most relevant links in this network without including noisy connections or excluding significant connections.

  7. Mining EEG with SVM for Understanding Cognitive Underpinnings of Math Problem Solving Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bosch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new methodology for examining and extracting patterns from brain electric activity by using data mining and machine learning techniques. Data was collected from experiments focused on the study of cognitive processes that might evoke different specific strategies in the resolution of math problems. A binary classification problem was constructed using correlations and phase synchronization between different electroencephalographic channels as characteristics and, as labels or classes, the math performances of individuals participating in specially designed experiments. The proposed methodology is based on using well-established procedures of feature selection, which were used to determine a suitable brain functional network size related to math problem solving strategies and also to discover the most relevant links in this network without including noisy connections or excluding significant connections.

  8. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  9. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  10. Understandings of how Professional Practice and Problem Definitions Influence the Possibilities of Children's Conduct of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn Larsen, Maja

    are being covered up by the unifying administrative processes, it seems to undermine an understanding of the way these conflicts are of importance to the child’s concrete conditions of life. So saying, a more precise comprehension of children’s actual difficulties involves the analysis of, how the process...... practices (School, institutions family etc.). However the administrative bureaucracy’s call for unambiguous determination of “special needs” undermines the comprehension of plurality of professional perspectives. In this way a gap occurs between a multifaceted understanding of the child’s conduct of life...... and the production of the “child as a case”. I intend to explore the connections between bureaucratic, interdisciplinary and professional practices that are organised to support children, including the bureaucratic process of defining children’s “special needs”. In the process different professionals understand...

  11. Understanding the Role of Linguistic Processes in the Solution of Arithmetic Word Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Mark D.

    Ongoing work toward developing a learning environment that will perform real-time diagnoses of students' difficulties in solving mathematical word problems is described. The learning environment designed consists of a microworld and expert modules. The microworld (or toolbox) is a collection of mouse-driven interfaces that facilitate a transition…

  12. A Cross-Curricular, Problem-Based Project to Promote Understanding of Poverty in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Daniel S.; Tuchman, Ellen; Hawkins, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach students about the scope and consequences of urban poverty through an innovative cross-curricular project. We illustrate the process, goals, and tasks of the Community Assessment Project, which incorporates community-level assessment, collection and analysis of public data, and…

  13. A Socio Behavioural Perspective for Understanding and Managing Behaviour Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Cull

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, reasons for the occurrence of interictal behaviour disturbance in children with epilepsy, and the management of such problems, are considered. The search for a direct relationship between epilepsy related variables and behaviour disorders is far from conclusive. While such a relationship may exist with respect to ictal behaviour problems, this line of investigation is of limited value in respect of its implications for the management of interictal problems. In the latter case it is proposed that organic factors may be considered to be a risk factor. In addition, the negative psychosocial sequelae of a diagnosis of epilepsy can result in conditions which are likely to foster the development of inappropriate behaviours. Learning theory would further suggest that environmental contingencies have a role to play in the shaping and maintenance of such behaviours. This broader framework for conceptualising the development and maintenance of interictal behaviour disorders has clear management implications. Clinical examples of the successful application of this approach to the management of persistent behavioural problems in two young people with epilepsy are presented.

  14. Understanding Head Start Children's Problem Behaviors in the Context of Arrest or Incarceration of Household Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Alva, Soumya; Zill, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), the relationships between living in a household where a household member had been arrested or incarcerated and conduct problems of preschool children enrolled in Head Start were examined. Children who lived in such households showed more…

  15. The Role of Multiple Representations in the Understanding of Ideal Gas Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sean P.; Jones, Loretta L.; Rahm, Jrene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the representational competence of students as they solved problems dealing with the temperature-pressure relationship for ideal gases. Seven students enrolled in a first-semester general chemistry course and two advanced undergraduate science majors participated in the study. The written work and transcripts from videotaped…

  16. Advancing the "Colorado Graduates" Agenda: Understanding the Dropout Problem and Mobilizing to Meet the Graduation Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan

    2009-01-01

    The ambitious goal set by Colorado's governor to address the state's dropout problem is a model for the nation. Helping thousands of young people to receive their high school diplomas instead of leaving school without them is a crucial step in improving the quality of life for all Colorado residents. Accomplishing this goal will require focused…

  17. Stress and coping mediate relationships between contingent and global self-esteem and alcohol-related problems among college drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaka, Joe; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the hypotheses that contingent self-esteem would be positively associated with alcohol-related problems and that global self-esteem would be negatively associated with such problems. It also examined the hypothesis that high stress and maladaptive coping would mediate these relationships. A sample of college students (n = 399) who were predominantly Hispanic (89%) completed measures of global and contingent self-esteem; stress and coping; and alcohol-related problems. Correlational and latent variable analyses indicated that contingent self-esteem positively related to alcohol-related problems, with maladaptive coping mediating this relationship. In contrast, global self-esteem negatively related to such problems, a relationship that was also mediated by maladaptive coping and stress. Overall, the results highlight the potentially harmful consequences of contingent self-worth and the adaptive nature of non-contingent self-esteem. They also demonstrate the important role that coping plays in mediating self-esteem's associations with alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Learning about “wicked” problems in the Global South. Creating a film-based learning environment with “Visual Problem Appraisal”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes Witteveen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The current complexity of sustainable development in the Global South calls for the design of learning strategies that can deal with this complexity. One such innovative learning strategy, called Visual Problem Appraisal (VPA, is highlighted in this article. The strategy is termed visual as it creates a learning environment that is film-based. VPA enhances the analysis of complex issues, and facilitates stakeholder dialogue and action planning. The strategy is used in workshops dealing with problem analysis and policy design, and involves the participants “meeting” stakeholders through filmed narratives. The article demonstrates the value of using film in multi stakeholder learning environments addressing issues concerning sustainable development.

  19. Husserl’s phenomenology in front of the problem of the understanding of the true man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mestre Sidoncha, Urbano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking from the very beginning the question “what is men?” as theoretical basis, our major concern in the present work was to demonstrate that the epistemic gap, which is traditionally opposed to naturalistic models of mind, is not yet everything there is to know when it comes to explain the reasons for our disagreement regarding such models. If we are right, the key criterion that will show how much reductive materialism is unsustainable as a solution for the mind/body problem, is not a dispute in the epistemic domain, but, rather, a criterion that we could entitle as “the comprehension of human”, that is, the particular way we feel as a human. In fact, one must ask if the conception we make of ourselves as such human beings (or as a true men, to evoke the most famous expression of Descartes can be included in the straightforward presentation of a vast assembly of organs. Furthermore, from an understanding of men as such an organic and material thing (a “pack of neurons”, as Francis Crick suggested, one can establish the idea of a Corporeal I (a Körper, according to the terminology of Husserl’s Ideen II, but that’s precisely the one which rules out the possibility on some kind of inner experience, that is, of an “auto-perception” or “inner-perception”: it will be, at the end, a body, but not consciousness of having such body, given that to consider this very last possibility of inner-perception requires the reintroduction of the difference – and therefore, of the relation – between minds and bodies, quite that particular distinction that was neglected by the reductive materialism as the only approach capable of circumvent the dualistic thesis for the mind-body relation.Tomando, desde el principio, la pregunta “¿qué es el hombre?” como indispensable base teorética, nuestra intención en este trabajo ha sido esencialmente demostrar que el hiato de carácter explicativo que tradicionalmente se le achaca a los

  20. Global meta-analysis of leaf area index in wetlands indicates uncertainties in understanding of their ecosystem function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Taddeo, S.; Foster, K.

    2017-12-01

    Projecting ecosystem responses to global change relies on the accurate understanding of properties governing their functions in different environments. An important variable in models of ecosystem function is canopy leaf area index (LAI; leaf area per unit ground area) declared as one of the Essential Climate Variables in the Global Climate Observing System and extensively measured in terrestrial landscapes. However, wetlands have been largely under-represented in these efforts, which globally limits understanding of their contribution to carbon sequestration, climate regulation and resilience to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. This study provides a global synthesis of >350 wetland-specific LAI observations from 182 studies and compares LAI among wetland ecosystem and vegetation types, biomes and measurement approaches. Results indicate that most wetland types and even individual locations show a substantial local dispersion of LAI values (average coefficient of variation 65%) due to heterogeneity of environmental properties and vegetation composition. Such variation indicates that mean LAI values may not sufficiently represent complex wetland environments, and the use of this index in ecosystem function models needs to incorporate within-site variation in canopy properties. Mean LAI did not significantly differ between direct and indirect measurement methods on a pooled global sample; however, within some of the specific biomes and wetland types significant contrasts between these approaches were detected. These contrasts highlight unique aspects of wetland vegetation physiology and canopy structure affecting measurement principles that need to be considered in generalizing canopy properties in ecosystem models. Finally, efforts to assess wetland LAI using remote sensing strongly indicate the promise of this technology for cost-effective regional-scale modeling of canopy properties similar to terrestrial systems. However, such efforts urgently require more

  1. How Trauma and Attachment Can Impact Neurodevelopment: Informing Our Understanding and Treatment of Sexual Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeden, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years there has been a notable increase in neurological and neurodevelopmental research, with a keen interest in applying this research to our understanding of everyday human learning and behaviour. One aspect of this research has examined how the experience of trauma in childhood can affect neurodevelopment with implications…

  2. Using Science to Promote Preservice Teacher Understanding of Problem Solving in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Ortiz, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Preservice elementary teachers need to be given the experiences of integrating mathematics with other subjects. They need to go into the classroom with the understanding that mathematics is not an isolated topic. This article describes a paper airplane activity that was presented in a class of preservice elementary education teachers to show how…

  3. Effect of a Problem Based Simulation on the Conceptual Understanding of Undergraduate Science Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj; Sherwood, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the effect of science teaching with a multimedia simulation on water quality, the "River of Life," on the science conceptual understanding of students (N = 83) in an undergraduate science education (K-9) course is reported. Teaching reality-based meaningful science is strongly recommended by the National Science Education Standards…

  4. Learning about “wicked” problems in the Global South. Creating a film-based learning environment with “Visual Problem Appraisal”

    OpenAIRE

    Loes Witteveen; Rico Lie

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity of sustainable development in the Global South calls for the design of learning strategies that can deal with this complexity. One such innovative learning strategy, called Visual Problem Appraisal (VPA), is highlighted in this article. The strategy is termed visual as it creates a learning environment that is film-based. VPA enhances the analysis of complex issues, and facilitates stakeholder dialogue and action planning. The strategy is used in workshops dealing with ...

  5. Associations of economic and gender inequality with global obesity prevalence: understanding the female excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K; Marphatia, Akanksha A; Cole, Tim J; McCoy, David

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is widely assumed to be associated with economic affluence; it has therefore been assumed to become more common with economic development. However, obesity has also been associated with poverty. These contrary findings highlight the need for an examination of the contribution of social and economic factors to the global distribution of obesity. Males and females may be differently exposed to social and economic inequality, however few studies have considered possible gender differences in the association between socio-economic indices and obesity prevalence. We analysed between-country associations between obesity prevalence and three social or economic indices: per capita gross domestic product (GDP), the Gini index of national wealth inequality, and the gender inequality index (GII). We considered the genders separately, the gender average, and also the gender difference (female excess) in obesity prevalence. Across 68 countries listing sample size, there were 3 obese women for every 2 obese men. Within populations, obesity prevalence in males and females was strongly correlated (r = 0.74), however, only 17% of the female excess prevalence was accounted for by the gender-average prevalence. In both genders, there was a positive association between obesity prevalence and GDP that attenuated at higher GDP levels, with this association weaker in females than males. Adjusting for GDP, both the Gini index and GII were associated with excess female obesity. These analyses highlight significant gender differences in the global distribution of obesity, and a gender difference in the association of obesity prevalence with socio-economic factors. The magnitude of female excess obesity is not constant across populations, and is greater in countries characterised by gender inequality and lower GDP. These findings indicate that improving women's status may be a key area for addressing the global obesity epidemic over the long term, with potential benefits for the

  6. Mildew-omics: How global analyses aid the understanding of life and evolution of powdery mildews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Veronique Bindschedler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The common powdery mildew plant diseases are caused by ascomycete fungi of the order Erysiphales. Their characteristic life style as obligate biotrophs renders functional analyses in these species challenging, mainly because of experimental constraints to genetic manipulation. Global large-scale (-omics approaches are thus particularly valuable and insightful for the characterisation of the life and evolution of powdery mildews. Here we review the knowledge obtained so far from genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies in these fungi. We consider current limitations and challenges regarding these surveys and provide an outlook on desired future investigations on the basis of the various –omics technologies.

  7. Understanding Structures and Affordances of Extended Teams in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali Babar, Muhammad; Zahedi, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Growing popularity of Global Software Development (GSD) has resulted in an increasing number of cross-organizational teams that are formed according to Extended Team Model (ETM). There is little known about the structures (work, social, and communication) that may exist in ETM and what affordances...... in the studied team help deal with different GSD challenges, these structures appear to have certain challenges inherent in them and the affordances they provide. We make a few recommendations for improving the current structures to deal with the observed challenges. Our findings are expected to provide insights...

  8. Global sensitivity analysis of computer-aided molecular design problem for the development of novel working fluids for power cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    This study compares two methods for global sensitivity analysis as a new approach for the identification and ranking of target properties in molecular design problems: A modified Morris Screening technique and Monte Carlo based standard regression. The two methodologies are highlighted in a case ...

  9. Lagged life cycle structures for food products: Their role in global marketing, their determinants and some problems in their estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Allan; Gede, Mads Peter; Grunert, Klaus G.

    cycles for different product categories may be lagged (type II lag) because changes in economic and other factors will result in demands for different products. Identifying lagged life cycle structures major importance in global marketing of food products. The problems in arriving at such estimates...

  10. Global solutions to the initial-boundary value problem for the quasilinear viscoelastic equation with a derivative nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence and uniqueness of a global decaying solution to the initial boundary value problem for the quasilinear wave equation with Kelvin-Voigt dissipation and a derivative nonlinearity. To derive the required estimates of the solutions we employ a 'loan' method and use a difference inequality on the energy.

  11. The social conditions of instrumental action: Problems in the sociological understanding of rational choice theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sciberras de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically analyzes new sociological approaches to the rational choice theory which - beyond examining political or economic practices - link the notion of instrumental rationality to social issues and themes. The article begins by highlighting the issue of trust, indicating the functionality of certain social arrangements in collective problem-solving. The paper goes on to demonstrate that problems emerge with the theory when it attempts to explain the feasibility of social norms in impersonal, comprehensive contexts. Thus, the fundamental point that appears to be missing from rational choice theory is the perception that individual decisions and instrumental conduct itself incorporate dispositions that in a sense are beyond the actors' control.

  12. How Caregivers Make Meaning of Child Mental Health Problems: Toward Understanding Caregiver Strain and Help Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Lindsay S; Heflinger, Craig Anne

    Family caregivers' conceptualizations of their child's emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) influence help-seeking for the child and caregiver strain. We analyzed 21 interviews with caregivers to explore their conceptualizations about the cause of their child's EBP, their experiences of strain, and their reported help-seeking behaviors. Caregivers had divergent conceptualizations of their child's EBP: 12 caregivers viewed the EBP as caused by a disorder and described the onset of symptoms as the central stressful event, whereas 9 caregivers described their child's problems as a response to an earlier stressor (e.g. trauma, abuse, divorce). Different patterns of caregiver strain and help-seeking were associated with caregiver conceptualization. All caregivers voiced a need for peer-to-peer support for caregivers and youth with EBP.

  13. Breadth and depth involvement: Understanding Internet gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Gray, Heather M

    2014-06-01

    The "involvement effect" refers to the finding that controlling for gambling involvement often reduces or eliminates frequently observed game-specific associations with problem gambling. In other words, broader patterns of gambling behavior, particularly the number of types of games played over a defined period, contribute more to problem gambling than playing specific games (e.g., lottery, casino, Internet gambling). This study extends this burgeoning area of inquiry in three primary ways. First, it tests independently and simultaneously the predictive power of two gambling patterns: breadth involvement (i.e., the number of games an individual plays) and depth involvement (i.e., the number of days an individual plays). Second, it includes the first involvement analyses of actual betting activity records that are associated with clinical screening information. Third, it evaluates and compares the linearity of breadth and depth effects. We conducted analyses of the actual gambling activity of 1,440 subscribers to the bwin.party gambling service who completed an online gambling disorder screen. In all, 11 of the 16 games we examined had a significant univariate association with a positive screen for gambling disorder. However, after controlling for breadth involvement, only Live Action Internet sports betting retained a significant relationship with potential gambling-related problems. Depth involvement, though significantly related to potential problems, did not impact game-based gambling disorder associations as much as breadth involvement. Finally, breadth effects appeared steeply linear, with a slight quadratic component manifesting beyond four games played, but depth effects appeared to have a strong linear component and a slight cubic component.

  14. Global-in-time smoothness of solutions to the vacuum free boundary problem for compressible isentropic Navier–Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we establish the global existence of smooth solutions to vacuum free boundary problems of the one-dimensional compressible isentropic Navier–Stokes equations for which the smoothness extends all the way to the boundaries. The results obtained in this work include the physical vacuum for which the sound speed is C 1/2 -Hölder continuous near the vacuum boundaries when 1 < γ < 3. The novelty of this result is its global-in-time regularity which is in contrast to the previous main results of global weak solutions in the literature. Moreover, in previous studies of the one-dimensional free boundary problems of compressible Navier–Stokes equations, the Lagrangian mass coordinates method has often been used, but in the present work the particle path (flow trajectory) method is adopted, which has the advantage that the particle paths and, in particular, the free boundaries can be traced. (paper)

  15. Towards a Global Understanding and Standardisation of Education and Training in Microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Chi Ming Leung

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing emphasis on microsurgery skill acquisition through simulated training, the need has been identified for standardised training programmes in microsurgery. We have reviewed microsurgery training courses available across the six continents of the World. Data was collected of relevant published output from PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid, and EMBASE (Ovid searches, and from information available on the Internet of up to six established microsurgery course from each of the six continents of the World. Fellowships and courses that concentrate on flap harvesting rather than microsurgical techniques were excluded. We identified 27 centres offering 39 courses. Total course length ranged from 20 hours to 1,950 hours. Student-to-teacher ratios ranged from 2:1 to 8:1. Only two-thirds of courses offered in-vivo animal models. Instructions in microvascular end-to-end and end-to-side anastomoses were common, but peripheral nerve repair or free groin flap transfer were not consistently offered. Methods of assessment ranged from no formal assessment, where an instructor monitored and gave instant feedback, through immediate assessment of patency and critique on quality of repair, to delayed re-assessment of patency after a 12 to 24 hours period. Globally, training in microsurgery is heterogeneous, with variations primarily due to resource and regulation of animal experimentation. Despite some merit to diversity in curricula, there should be a global minimum standard for microsurgery training.

  16. Understanding Fear of Opportunism in Global Prize-Based Science Contests: Evidence for Gender and Age Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Oguz Ali; van den Ende, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Global prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure, however, is paradoxical in nature: in order for the value of knowledge to be assessed, inventors must disclose their knowledge, but then the person who receives that knowledge does so at no cost and may use it opportunistically. This risk of potential opportunistic behavior in turn makes the inventor fearful of disclosing knowledge, and this is a major psychological barrier to knowledge disclosure. In this project, we investigated this fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests by surveying 630 contest participants in the InnoCentive online platform for science contests. We found that participants in these science contests experience fear of opportunism to varying degrees, and that women and older participants have significantly less fear of disclosing their scientific knowledge. Our findings highlight the importance of taking differences in such fears into account when designing global prize-based contests so that the potential of the contests for reaching solutions to important and challenging problems can be used more effectively.

  17. Understanding Fear of Opportunism in Global Prize-Based Science Contests: Evidence for Gender and Age Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Ali Acar

    Full Text Available Global prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure, however, is paradoxical in nature: in order for the value of knowledge to be assessed, inventors must disclose their knowledge, but then the person who receives that knowledge does so at no cost and may use it opportunistically. This risk of potential opportunistic behavior in turn makes the inventor fearful of disclosing knowledge, and this is a major psychological barrier to knowledge disclosure. In this project, we investigated this fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests by surveying 630 contest participants in the InnoCentive online platform for science contests. We found that participants in these science contests experience fear of opportunism to varying degrees, and that women and older participants have significantly less fear of disclosing their scientific knowledge. Our findings highlight the importance of taking differences in such fears into account when designing global prize-based contests so that the potential of the contests for reaching solutions to important and challenging problems can be used more effectively.

  18. [Notes for understanding the problem of "public" health in the health sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Cristian Fabiano; da Silva, Rosane Azevedo Neves

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a theoretical review of how the public health concept has been perceived in health practices, based on the problematic field introduced in Italian and Brazilian health reforms, in order to understand the construction of public health and the meanings that this term acquires in the health arena. The main goal is to understand how public health appears in the context of health movements in Italy and Brazil, as well as its movement of variation. In this sense, an attempt is made to identify elements that contribute to the composition of a genealogy of public health. From the investigation of public health practices, the tensions produced by this concept are analyzed, giving visibility to those practices that demonstrate the public health experience as a force in the world of health.

  19. Problems of Ensuring Complex Business Security in the Conditions of Modern Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Petrovich Sterkhov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of ensuring complex business security, the relevance of the present work is associated with the rationale of multilevel hierarchical approach to the classification of security threats in the age of globalization. The specificity of the threats specific to one or another level of the economy, helps to better understand and consequently to build an effective system of ensuring complex business security. For each of the nine hierarchical levels of the economy the author identifies the main threats to the business, as well as the objects and subjects of this study. It is noted that the performance of the business in the form of a complex hierarchical system depends on the principle of specification. The author gives examples of the use of the basic principles of specification. It is noted that the decomposition of the economic system from the viewpoint of its hierarchical nature is of great importance not only to the distribution of the goals and objectives of security of business levels of the system, but their subordination corresponding to each level. The result is the development of specific recommendations and elaboration of the main directions to ensure complex business security for mega-, macro-, micro-, mini-, nano - and mesoeconomic levels. Although the priority of action in multi-level hierarchical system is directed from the upper to the lower levels, the success of the system as a whole depends on the behavior of all system components. It is stated that the interaction with the environment in business occurs mainly in the lower levels of the hierarchy. The quality system of ensuring complex business security which deals with hierarchical positions, will depend not so much on top-level elements, but on response to intervention on the part of lower level, more precisely from their total effect. In other words, the quality of the system of integrated safety management business provides organized feedbacks in the system.

  20. Understanding the Role and Impact of Effective Country and Community Leadership in Progress Toward the Global Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Charles; Pillay, Yogan

    2017-05-01

    Individual leadership and leaders have played pivotal roles in the history of efforts to end the AIDS epidemic. The goal of this article is to reflect on and understand how leadership and leaders have impacted and enabled the success of the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive (Global Plan). To accomplish this goal, multiple interviews were conducted with individuals in positions of leadership who had been identified as people whose actions drove progress. Interviewees were selected from all levels of traditional hierarchies and sectors to provide a more complete account and representation of leadership, with a particular emphasis on the community, district, and country levels. The leaders interviewed provide insight into their work, motivations, and approaches to effective leadership. Through their experiences, they shed light on the strategies they used to drive changes in policy, programs, practice, and communities that allowed for progress toward the goals of the Global Plan. Leaders also identify future challenges and areas of improvement in the effort to end the AIDS epidemic that they feel require leadership and urgent action. In conclusion, this article identifies common characteristics of effective leadership and reflects on the experiences of individuals who are leaders in the effort to end the AIDS epidemic, and how their lessons learned can be applied to help realize future global public health goals.

  1. Under-Nutrition in Older People: A Serious and Growing Global Problem!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visvanathan R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyone agrees that adequate nutrient intake is important to all living things. Without food or water, life on earth would cease to exist. In the field of medical health, some gains have been made in meeting maternal and child nutritional needs. There is great community awareness regarding the importance of meeting the nutritional needs of the developing foetus and child. Malnutrition secondary to decreased intake in older people and weight loss is also a serious problem with unfortunately, very little notice from the community at large. As one ages, several physiological processes may contribute towards the development of protein energy malnutrition. Under-nutrition in older people is sadly far too common, even in developed countries. It is very likely that the same concerted effort used to address child malnutrition is required to combat under-nutrition in our elders. Protein energy malnutrition in older people comes at a significant cost to the individual, families, communities and the healthcare system. Failure to address this syndrome is not only unethical and unhealthy, but also costly. Vigilance and community awareness is important in ensuring that this important syndrome is detected and managed appropriately. This review mainly attempts to describe the pathophysiology, prevalence and consequences of under-nutrition and aims to highlight the importance of this clinical syndrome and the recent growth in our understanding of the processes behind its development. Some management strategies are also briefly described.

  2. Understanding the role of social media in online health: A global perspective on online social support

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Roderick Lamar; Kvasny, Lynette M.

    2013-01-01

    Around the globe, people are increasingly using social media for the provision of online social support. Online social support may be especially relevant for parents who have children that are afflicted with rare chronic diseases such as MECP2 Duplication Syndrome. Despite increasing evidence that online social support enhances a person’s psychological well-being, there is little research that seeks to understand how and why various forms of social media facilitate social support. This study ...

  3. Towards a Global Understanding and Standardisation of Education and Training in Microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Chi Ming Leung

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing emphasis on microsurgery skill acquisition through simulated training, the need has been identified for standardised training programmes in microsurgery. We have reviewed microsurgery training courses available across the six continents of the World. Data was collected of relevant published output from PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid, and EMBASE (Ovid searches, and from information available on the Internet of up to six established microsurgery course from each of the six continents of the World. Fellowships and courses that concentrate on flap harvesting rather than microsurgical techniques were excluded. We identified 27 cen­tres offering 39 courses. Total course length ranged from 20 hours to 1,950 hours. Student­to­teacher ratios ranged from 2:1 to 8:1. Only two­thirds of courses offered in-vivo animal models. Instructions in microvascular end­to­end and end­to­side anastomoses were common, but peripheral nerve repair or free groin flap transfer were not consistently offered. Methods of assessment ranged from no formal assessment, where an instructor monitored and gave instant feedback, through immediate assessment of patency and critique on quality of repair, to delayed re­assessment of patency after a 12 to 24 hours period. Globally, training in micro­surgery is heterogeneous, with variations primarily due to resource and regulation of animal experimentation. Despite some merit to diversity in curricula, there should be a global min­imum standard for microsurgery training.

  4. Applying an ESSENCE Framework to Understanding Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD: Retrospective Parent Reports of Childhood Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are increasingly being made in adulthood. However, assessments can fail to address the diverse range of problems that patients have experienced. The current study applied an early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examinations (ESSENCE framework to explore retrospectively reported childhood developmental and behavioral problems. It examined if adult ASD and ADHD patients would show problems outside those reflected in the respective diagnostic criteria, and also if these patient groups would show more extensive childhood problems than other psychiatric patients. Parents of adults with ADHD (n = 130, ASD (n = 57, coexisting ADHD and ASD (n = 38, and other psychiatric disorders (n = 56 reported on a range of childhood problems. Descriptions of the ADHD, ASD, and ADHD+ASD groups reflected greater impairment than descriptions for patients with other psychiatric disorders in most problem areas. Although differences were observed between ADHD and ASD patients in the core diagnostic areas, these syndromes also shared a number of childhood difficulties. The ESSENCE approach can assist in understanding the symptom history of adult ADHD and ASD patients and can be helpful to distinguish their childhood experiences from other psychiatric patients' experiences.

  5. Understanding common risk analysis problems leads to better E and P decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Many petroleum geologists, engineers and managers who have been introduced to petroleum risk analysis doubt that probability theory actually works in practice. Discovery probability estimates for exploration prospects always seem to be more optimistic than after-the-fact results. In general, probability estimates seem to be plucked from the air without any objective basis. Because of subtleties in probability theories, errors may result in applying risk analysis to real problems. Four examples have been selected to illustrate how misunderstanding in applying risk analysis may lead to incorrect decisions. Examples 1 and 2 show how falsely assuming statistical independence distorts probability calculations. Example 1 and 2 show how falsely assuming statistical independence distorts probability calculations. Example 3 discusses problems with related variable using the Monte Carlo method. Example 4 shows how subsurface data yields a probability value that is superior to a simple statistical estimate. The potential mistakes in the following examples would go unnoticed in analyses in most companies. Lack of objectivity and flawed theory would be blamed when fault actually would lies with incorrect application of basic probability principles

  6. Radioisotope tracer approach for understanding the impacts of global change-induced pedoturbation on soil C dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Sturchio, N. C.; Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Blanc-Betes, E.; Taneva, L.; Poghosyan, A.; Norby, R. J.; Filley, T. R.; Guilderson, T. P.; Welker, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Biogeochemical carbon-cycle feedbacks to climate are apparent but uncertain, primarily because of gaps in mechanistic understanding on the ecosystem processes that drive carbon cycling and storage in terrestrial ecosystems, particularly in soils. Recent findings are increasingly recognizing the interaction between soil biota and the soil physical environment. Soil carbon turnover is partly determined by burial of organic matter and its physical and chemical protection. These factors are potentially affected by changes in climate (freezing-thawing or wet-drying cycles) or ecosystem structure including biological invasions. A major impediment to understanding dynamics of soil C in terrestrial systems is our inability to measure soil physical processes such as soil mixing rates or turnover of soil structures, including aggregates. Here we present a multiple radioisotope tracer approach (naturally occurring and man-made) to measure soil mixing rates in response to global change. We will present evidence of soil mixing rate changes in a temperate forest exposed to increased levels of atmospheric CO2 and in a tundra ecosystem exposed to increased thermal insulation. In both cases, radioisotope tracers proved to be an effective way to measure effects of global change on pedoturbation. Results also provided insights into the specific mechanisms involved in the responses. Elevated CO2 resulted in deeper soil mixing cells (increased by about 5cm on average) when compared to control soils as a consequence of changes in biota (increased root growth, higher earthworm density). In the tundra, soil warming induced higher rates of cryoturbation, resulting in what appears to be a net uplift of organic matter to the surface thereby exposing deeper C to decomposers. In both cases, global change factors affected the vertical distribution of C and changed the amount of bulk soil actively involved in soil processes. As a consequence, comparisons of C budgets to a given soil depth in

  7. USGS global change science strategy: A framework for understanding and responding to climate and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Kirtland, David A.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; O'Malley, Robin; Thompson, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Change Science Strategy expands on the Climate Variability and Change science component of the USGS 2007 Science Strategy, “Facing Tomorrow’s Challenges: USGS Science in the Coming Decade” (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). Here we embrace the broad definition of global change provided in the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–606,104 Stat. 3096–3104)—“Changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life”—with a focus on climate and land-use change.There are three major characteristics of this science strategy. First, it addresses the science required to broadly inform global change policy, while emphasizing the needs of natural-resource managers and reflecting the role of the USGS as the science provider for the Department of the Interior and other resource-management agencies. Second, the strategy identifies core competencies, noting 10 critical capabilities and strengths the USGS uses to overcome key problem areas. We highlight those areas in which the USGS is a science leader, recognizing the strong partnerships and effective collaboration that are essential to address complex global environmental challenges. Third, it uses a query-based approach listing key research questions that need to be addressed to create an agenda for hypothesis-driven global change science organized under six strategic goals. Overall, the strategy starts from where we are, provides a vision for where we want to go, and then describes high-priority strategic actions, including outcomes, products, and partnerships that can get us there. Global change science is a well-defined research field with strong linkages to the ecosystems, water, energy and minerals, natural hazards, and environmental health components of the USGS Science Strategy

  8. An Analysis of Global Problems Issues in Sixth and Seventh Grade Science Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis

    The study examines the extent to which the global issues of population growth, world hunger, air quality and atmosphere, and water resources were treated in sixth and seventh grade science textbooks. Ten textbooks were examined by five raters to determine the amount of content presented by different textbooks on global issues, the number of pages…

  9. Social stigma in diabetes : a framework to understand a growing problem for an increasing epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabert, Jasmin; Browne, Jessica L; Mosely, Kylie; Speight, Jane

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the social and psychological impact of diabetes mellitus is important for informing policy and practice. One potentially significant, yet under-researched, issue is the social stigma surrounding diabetes. This narrative review draws on literature about health-related stigma in diabetes and other chronic conditions in order to develop a framework for understanding diabetes-related stigma. Our review of the literature found that people who do not have diabetes assume that diabetes is not a stigmatized condition. In contrast, people with diabetes report that stigma is a significant concern to them, experienced across many life domains, e.g., in the workplace, in relationships. The experience of diabetes-related stigma has a significant negative impact on many aspects of psychological well-being and may also result in sub-optimal clinical outcomes for people with diabetes. We propose a framework that highlights the causes (attitudes of blame, feelings of fear and disgust, and the felt need to enforce social norms and avoid disease), experiences (being judged, rejected, and discriminated against), and consequences (e.g., distress, poorer psychological well-being, and sub-optimal self-care) of diabetes-related stigma and also identifies potential mitigating strategies to reduce diabetes-related stigma and/or enhance coping and resilience amongst people with diabetes. The systematic investigation of the experiences, causes, and consequences of diabetes-related stigma is an urgent research priority.

  10. Using Freire's Participatory Educational Method to Understand the Experience of Living With Chronic Illness in the Current Age of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Plazas, Maria del Pilar; Cameron, Brenda L

    2015-06-01

    Many approaches and efforts have been used to better understand chronic diseases worldwide. Yet, little is known about the meaning of living with chronic illness under the pressures of globalization and neoliberal ideologies. Through Freire's participatory educational method, this article presents an innovative approach to understanding the multiple dimensions of living with chronic illness. In this way, we hope to use an innovative approach to address the impact of globalization on the daily life of chronically ill people and thus expand to the body of knowledge on nursing. This article uses Freire's participatory educational method to understand the multiple dimensions of living with chronic illness. This qualitative study follows an interpretive inquiry approach and uses a critical hermeneutic phenomenological method and critical research methodologies. Five participants were recruited for this participatory educational activity. Data collection methods included digitally recorded semistructured individual interviews and a Freire's participatory educational method session. Data analysis included a thematic analysis. Participants reported lacking adequate access to healthcare services because of insurance policies; a general perception that they were an unwanted burden on the healthcare system; and a general lack of government support, advocacy, and political interest. This research activity assisted participants to gain a new critical perspective about the condition of others with chronic diseases and thus provided an enlightening opportunity to learn about the illnesses and experiences of others and to realize that others experienced the same oppression from the healthcare system. Participants became agents of change within their own families and communities. Chronic diseases cause many economic and social consequences in their victims. These findings urge us to move from merely acknowledging the difficulties of people who live with chronic illness in an age of

  11. Millennial medical anthropology: from there to here and beyond, or the problem of global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Atwood D

    2011-03-01

    While much of Medical Anthropology was and is what we can call "Normal" (following Kuhn) Medical Anthropology, I coined the term Millennial Medical Anthropology for that branch of the discipline that, in the 1990s, was departing from the Normal research paradigms and was deserving of a distinct sobriquet. This paper considers the Strong Program in Medical Anthropology's Millennial Medical Anthropology and its key subdivisions, the Cultural Studies of Science and Cultural Bioethics. Specifically it considers Medical Anthropology's movement from the past into an ethical future wherein Normal Biomedicine, Bioethics and Global Health are problematized. This provides the basis for the construction of a truly anthropological global health (i.e., Global, Global Health or Global Health 2.0).

  12. Towards 'reflexive epidemiology': Conflation of cisgender male and transgender women sex workers and implications for global understandings of HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Reisner, Sari L; Clark, Jesse L; Parker, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has had a widespread impact on global scientific and cultural discourses related to gender, sexuality, and identity. 'Male sex workers' have been identified as a 'key population' in the global HIV epidemic; however, there are methodological and conceptual challenges for defining inclusion and exclusion of transgender women within this group. To assess these potential implications, this study employs self-critique and reflection to grapple with the empiric and conceptual implications of shifting understandings of sexuality and gender within the externally re-created etic category of 'MSM' and 'transgender women' in epidemiologic HIV research. We conducted a sensitivity analysis of our previously published meta-analysis which aimed to identify the scope of peer-reviewed articles assessing HIV prevalence among male sex workers globally between 2004 and 2013. The inclusion of four studies previously excluded due to non-differentiation of cisgender male from transgender women participants (studies from Spain, Thailand, India, and Brazil: 421 total participants) increased the overall estimate of global HIV prevalence among 'men' who engage in sex work from 10.5% (95% CI 9.4-11.5%) to 10.8% (95% CI 9.8-11.8%). The combination of social science critique with empiric epidemiologic analysis represents a first step in defining and operationalising 'reflexive epidemiology'. Grounded in the context of sex work and HIV prevention, this paper highlights the multiplicity of genders and sexualities across a range of social and cultural settings, limitations of existing categories (i.e. 'MSM', 'transgender'), and their global implications for epidemiologic estimates of HIV prevalence.

  13. The use of ‘macro’ legal analysis in the understanding and development of global environmental governance

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the manner in which ‘macro’ legal analysis can potentially assist in overcoming some of the issues that are faced in the understanding and development of global environmental governance (GEG). It argues that the analysis of law through separate and distinct disciplines such as environmental law, trade law, corporate law, and human rights law, results in what this article refers to as ‘micro’ legal analysis. As such, it contends that this can have the effect of creating o...

  14. Schizophrenia, Narrative, and Neurocognition: The Utility of Life-Stories in Understanding Social Problem-Solving Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Aubrey M; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Bourassa, Kyle J; Gallagher, Colin J; Shakeel, Mohammed K; Docherty, Nancy M

    2018-01-22

    Schizophrenia researchers have focused on phenomenological aspects of the disorder to better understand its underlying nature. In particular, development of personal narratives-that is, the complexity with which people form, organize, and articulate their "life stories"-has recently been investigated in individuals with schizophrenia. However, less is known about how aspects of narrative relate to indicators of neurocognitive and social functioning. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of linguistic complexity of life-story narratives to measures of cognitive and social problem-solving abilities among people with schizophrenia. Thirty-two individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia completed a research battery consisting of clinical interviews, a life-story narrative, neurocognitive testing, and a measure assessing multiple aspects of social problem solving. Narrative interviews were assessed for linguistic complexity using computerized technology. The results indicate differential relationships of linguistic complexity and neurocognition to domains of social problem-solving skills. More specifically, although neurocognition predicted how well one could both describe and enact a solution to a social problem, linguistic complexity alone was associated with accurately recognizing that a social problem had occurred. In addition, linguistic complexity appears to be a cognitive factor that is discernible from other broader measures of neurocognition. Linguistic complexity may be more relevant in understanding earlier steps of the social problem-solving process than more traditional, broad measures of cognition, and thus is relevant in conceptualizing treatment targets. These findings also support the relevance of developing narrative-focused psychotherapies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Understanding Agency Problems in Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostova, Tatiana; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Hoenen, Anne Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an agency model for headquarters-subsidiary relationships in multinational organizations with headquarters as the principal and the subsidiary as the agent. As a departure from classical agency theory, our model is developed for the unit level of analysis and considers two root...... causes of the agency problem—self-interest and bounded rationality. We argue that in the organizational setting, one cannot assume absolute self-interest and perfect rationality of agents (subsidiaries) but should allow them to vary. We explain subsidiary-level variation through a set of internal...... organizational and external social conditions in which the headquarters-subsidiary agency dyad is embedded. We then discuss several agency scenarios reflecting various levels of self-interest and rationality that lead to different manifestations of the agency problem. The proposed framework can inform more...

  16. Understanding dissolved organic matter reactivity in a global context: tribute to Dr. George Aiken's many contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Diane

    2017-04-01

    As Dr. George Aiken emphasized throughout his distinguished research career, the diversity of sources of dissolved organic material (DOM) is associated with a diversity of dissolved organic compounds with a range of chemistries and reactivities that are present in the natural environment. From a limnological perspective, dissolved organic matter (DOM) can originate from allochthonous sources on the landscape which drains into a lake, river, wetland, coastal region, or other aquatic ecosystem, or from autochthonous sources within the given aquatic ecosystem. In many landscapes, the precursor organic materials that contribute to the DOM of the associated aquatic ecosystem can be derived from diverse sources, e.g. terrestrial plants, plant litter, organic material in different soil horizons, and the products of microbial growth and decay. Yet, through his focus on the underlying chemical processes a clear, chemically robust foundation for understanding DOM reactivity has emerged from Aiken's research. These processes include the enhancement in solubility due to ionized carboxylic acid functional groups and the reactions of organic sulfur groups with mercury. This approach has advanced understand of carbon cycling in the lakes of the Mars-like barren landscapes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica and the rivers draining the warming tundra of the Arctic.

  17. Understanding attrition from international Internet health interventions: a step towards global eHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Adam W A; Torres, Leandro D; Leykin, Yan; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide automated Internet health interventions have the potential to greatly reduce health disparities. High attrition from automated Internet interventions is ubiquitous, and presents a challenge in the evaluation of their effectiveness. Our objective was to evaluate variables hypothesized to be related to attrition, by modeling predictors of attrition in a secondary data analysis of two cohorts of an international, dual language (English and Spanish) Internet smoking cessation intervention. The two cohorts were identical except for the approach to follow-up (FU): one cohort employed only fully automated FU (n = 16 430), while the other cohort also used 'live' contact conditional upon initial non-response (n = 1000). Attrition rates were 48.1 and 10.8% for the automated FU and live FU cohorts, respectively. Significant attrition predictors in the automated FU cohort included higher levels of nicotine dependency, lower education, lower quitting confidence and receiving more contact emails. Participants' younger age was the sole predictor of attrition in the live FU cohort. While research on large-scale deployment of Internet interventions is at an early stage, this study demonstrates that differences in attrition from trials on this scale are (i) systematic and predictable and (ii) can largely be eliminated by live FU efforts. In fully automated trials, targeting the predictors we identify may reduce attrition, a necessary precursor to effective behavioral Internet interventions that can be accessed globally.

  18. Understanding system dynamics of an adaptive enzyme network from globally profiled kinetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Austin W T; Liu, Wei-Chung; Charusanti, Pep; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2014-01-15

    A major challenge in mathematical modeling of biological systems is to determine how model parameters contribute to systems dynamics. As biological processes are often complex in nature, it is desirable to address this issue using a systematic approach. Here, we propose a simple methodology that first performs an enrichment test to find patterns in the values of globally profiled kinetic parameters with which a model can produce the required system dynamics; this is then followed by a statistical test to elucidate the association between individual parameters and different parts of the system's dynamics. We demonstrate our methodology on a prototype biological system of perfect adaptation dynamics, namely the chemotaxis model for Escherichia coli. Our results agreed well with those derived from experimental data and theoretical studies in the literature. Using this model system, we showed that there are motifs in kinetic parameters and that these motifs are governed by constraints of the specified system dynamics. A systematic approach based on enrichment statistical tests has been developed to elucidate the relationships between model parameters and the roles they play in affecting system dynamics of a prototype biological network. The proposed approach is generally applicable and therefore can find wide use in systems biology modeling research.

  19. NASA Contributions to Improve Understanding of Extreme Events in the Global Energy and Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, William M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) has established the water cycle goals of the Nation's climate change program. Accomplishing these goals will require, in part, an accurate accounting of the key reservoirs and fluxes associated with the global water and energy cycle, including their spatial and temporal variability. through integration of all necessary observations and research tools, To this end, in conjunction with NASA's Earth science research strategy, the overarching long-term NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) grand challenge can he summarized as documenting and enabling improved, observationally based, predictions of water and energy cycle consequences of Earth system variability and change. This challenge requires documenting and predicting trends in the rate of the Earth's water and energy cycling that corresponds to climate change and changes in the frequency and intensity of naturally occurring related meteorological and hydrologic events, which may vary as climate may vary in the future. The cycling of water and energy has obvious and significant implications for the health and prosperity of our society. The importance of documenting and predicting water and energy cycle variations and extremes is necessary to accomplish this benefit to society.

  20. Mercury emissions and coal-fired power plants: Understanding the problems and identifying solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Electric utility emissions contribute to an array of air quality concerns, most notably ground-level ozone, acid deposition, global warming, and fine particulate pollution. More recently, electric utility emissions of air toxics such as mercury have been linked to serious ecological health effects, especially in fish-eating birds. Another issue that is gaining attention is that of eutrophication in marine waters from nitrogen oxide emissions. Coal-fired power plants warrant special consideration, particularly in regards to mercury. Coal-fired power plants currently represent over 30% of controllable anthropogenic emissions in the US and are expected to emit nearly half of all anthropogenic emissions in the US by 2010. However, because the human health threshold for mercury is not known with certainty and mercury control technologies such as activated carbon injection are extremely expensive, mercury emissions from electric utilities have not been addressed in the US through either regulation or voluntary initiatives. The Center is beginning to evaluate the viability of no- or low-regrets measures that may be more consistent with the current state of the science on human and ecological health effects. The Center is also looking at options to reduce eutophication. Specifically, the Center has: hosted a workshop to assess the viability of low-cost mercury control options for electric utilities, developed a proposal to undertake a mercury banking initiative, worked to reduce compliance costs associated with multiple and conflicting regulations, and investigated the potential benefits and workability of NOx trading between air and water sources These activities are described in greater detail in the Center's paper

  1. Innovative Use of the Law to Address Complex Global Health Problems Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings toGlobal Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen L; Ooms, Gorik

    2017-05-20

    Addressing the increasingly globalised determinants of many important problems affecting human health is a complex task requiring collective action. We suggest that part of the solution to addressing intractable global health issues indeed lies with the role of new legal instruments in the form of globally binding treaties, as described in the recent article of Nikogosian and Kickbusch. However, in addition to the use of international law to develop new treaties, another part of the solution may lie in innovative use of existing legal instruments. A 2015 court ruling in The Hague, which ordered the Dutch government to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 25% within five years, complements this perspective, suggesting a way forward for addressing global health problems that critically involves civil society and innovative use of existing domestic legal instruments. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  2. Use of satellite ocean color observations to refine understanding of global geochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. J.; Dieterle, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    In October 1978, the first satellite-borne color sensor, the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), was launched aboard Nimbus-7 with four visible and two infrared bands, permitting a sensitivity about 60 times that of the Landsat-1 multispectral scanner. The CZCS radiance data can be utilized to estimate ocean chlorophyll concentrations by detecting shifts in sea color, particularly in oceanic waters. The obtained data can be used in studies regarding problems of overfishing, and, in addition, in investigations concerning the consequences of man's accelerated extraction of nitrogen from the atmosphere and addition of carbon to the atmosphere. The satellite data base is considered along with a simulation analysis, and ships providing ground-truth chlorophyll measurements in the ocean.

  3. The present global financial and economic crisis poses an additional risk factor for mental health problems on the employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avčin, Bojana Avguštin; Kučina, Andrea Užmah; Sarotar, Brigita Novak; Radovanović, Mirjana; Plesničar, Blanka Kores

    2011-09-01

    The global financial and economic crisis starting in 2007 led to a deterioration of several socio-economic determinants of mental health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the impact of the present economic crisis on the depression and anxiety levels of the employed in the private and public sector in Slovenia. Altogether 1592 employees completed an internet based self-reported questionnaire. Data about perceived impact of the economic crisis, several socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and health parameters were collected. Depression symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and anxiety symptoms by the Spielberger State-Inventory. Regression models were used 1) to explore the associations of the economic crisis with the level of depression and anxiety symptoms while controlling for some sociodemographic and work characteristic variables, and 2) to understand the relationship between some potentially important socioeconomic variables and the perception of the economic crisis. Depressive and anxiety scores were significantly increased among 590 (46.6%) employees being affected by the economic crisis. The level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with perceived impact by the crisis, recent sick leave, reported injuries sustained at work, benzodiazepine and analgesic use, the lack of emotional support, and trust in crisis telephone lines. The level of anxiety symptoms yielded the robust association with the level of depression symptoms, reported injuries sustained on the way to work and education. The economic crisis poses an additional risk factor for mental health problems which clinicians should internalize and become more aware of them. Symptoms of depression and anxiety can be masked in high-utilizers of medical care with physical complaints or psychoactive drug use.

  4. Publication Ethics and the Emerging Scientific Workforce: Understanding ‘Plagiarism’ in a Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific publication has long been dominated by the English language and is rapidly moving towards near complete hegemony of English, while the majority of the world’s publishing scientists are not native English speakers. This imbalance has important implications for training in and enforcement of publication ethics, particularly with respect to plagiarism. A lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as patchwriting can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by non-native speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. A rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among both native English speaking and non-native English speaking writers, editors, educators, and administrators. Recommendations for educating and training are provided. PMID:22104051

  5. Perspective: publication ethics and the emerging scientific workforce: understanding "plagiarism" in a global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K

    2012-01-01

    English has long been the dominant language of scientific publication, and it is rapidly approaching near-complete hegemony. The majority of the scientists publishing in English-language journals are not native English speakers, however. This imbalance has important implications for training concerning ethics and enforcement of publication standards, particularly with respect to plagiarism. The authors suggest that lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as "patchwriting" can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by nonnative speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. They propose that a rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among editors, educators, administrators, and both native-English-speaking and nonnative-English-speaking writers. They offer recommendations for creating environments in which such dialogue and training can occur.

  6. Global Energy Scenarios to 2040. Understanding our energy future - 2016 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The energy world is in rapid evolution, driven in particular by policy developments (like the INDCs agreed at COP-21) but also economic, geopolitical, technological as well as social considerations. Enerdata regularly produces scenario based energy outlooks to analyze and forecast the supply and demand of energy commodities, energy prices, as well as the impact of climate change and energy policies on energy markets and their consequences for the energy industry. After the COP-21 in Paris, Enerdata has again done such an exercise. The Ener-Blue scenario provides an outlook of energy systems up to 2040 based on the achievement of the 2030 targets defined in the INDCs as announced at the COP-21. Ener-Green explores the implications of more stringent energy and climate policies to limit the global temperature increase at around 1.5-2 deg. C by the end of the century. Finally, Ener-Brown describes a world with abundant fossil fuel resource and durably low energy prices, affecting the entire energy system over a long period. These different scenarios explore the consequences on energy supply and demand, energy mix, energy prices by fuel and region, as well as the implications on climate issues. In the Ener-Blue scenario, the future energy mix remains dominated by fossil fuels, but INDCs planned policies regarding climate mitigation, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources lead to a diversification towards other sources of energy. Among others, the EU successfully achieves its triple objective of its climate and energy package, while China and India expand their renewable capacities to achieve their renewable targets. Within this international context of climate coordinated policies, CO_2 emission growth slows down. However, the efforts defined in INDCs are not ambitious enough to limit the increase of the average global temperature to 2 deg. C in 2050, but these efforts are compatible with 3-4 deg. C objective. In the Ener-Green scenario, there is a clear

  7. Understanding the barriers to physician error reporting and disclosure: a systemic approach to a systemic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Bianca; Knych, Stephen A; Weaver, Sallie J; Liberman, Aaron; Abel, Eileen M; Oetjen, Dawn; Wan, Thomas T H

    2014-03-01

    The issues of medical errors and medical malpractice have stimulated significant interest in establishing transparency in health care, in other words, ensuring that medical professionals formally report medical errors and disclose related outcomes to patients and families. However, research has amply shown that transparency is not a universal practice among physicians. A review of the literature was carried out using the search terms "transparency," "patient safety," "disclosure," "medical error," "error reporting," "medical malpractice," "doctor-patient relationship," and "physician" to find articles describing physician barriers to transparency. The current literature underscores that a complex Web of factors influence physician reluctance to engage in transparency. Specifically, 4 domains of barriers emerged from this analysis: intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, and societal. Transparency initiatives will require vigorous, interdisciplinary efforts to address the systemic and pervasive nature of the problem. Several ethical and social-psychological barriers suggest that medical schools and hospitals should collaborate to establish continuity in education and ensure that knowledge acquired in early education is transferred into long-term learning. At the institutional level, practical and cultural barriers suggest the creation of supportive learning environments and private discussion forums where physicians can seek moral support in the aftermath of an error. To overcome resistance to culture transformation, incremental change should be considered, for example, replacing arcane transparency policies and complex reporting mechanisms with clear, user-friendly guidelines.

  8. Understanding the Odour Spaces: A Step towards Solving Olfactory Stimulus-Percept Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.

    2015-01-01

    Odours are highly complex, relying on hundreds of receptors, and people are known to disagree in their linguistic descriptions of smells. It is partly due to these facts that, it is very hard to map the domain of odour molecules or their structure to that of perceptual representations, a problem that has been referred to as the Structure-Odour-Relationship. We collected a number of diverse open domain databases of odour molecules having unorganised perceptual descriptors, and developed a graphical method to find the similarity between perceptual descriptors; which is intuitive and can be used to identify perceptual classes. We then separately projected the physico-chemical and perceptual features of these molecules in a non-linear dimension and clustered the similar molecules. We found a significant overlap between the spatial positioning of the clustered molecules in the physico-chemical and perceptual spaces. We also developed a statistical method of predicting the perceptual qualities of a novel molecule using its physico-chemical properties with high receiver operating characteristics(ROC). PMID:26484763

  9. Understanding Lolium rigidum Seeds: The Key to Managing a Problem Weed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Steadman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 40 million hectare southern Australian winter cropping region suffers from widespread infestation by Lolium rigidum (commonly known as annual or rigid ryegrass, a Mediterranean species initially introduced as a pasture plant. Along with its high competitiveness within crops, rapid adaptability and widespread resistance to herbicides, the dormancy of its seeds means that L. rigidum is the primary weed in southern Australian agriculture. With the individuals within a L. rigidum population exhibiting varying levels of seed dormancy, germination can be staggered across the crop-growing season, making complete weed removal virtually impossible, and ensuring that the weed seed bank is constantly replenished. By understanding the processes involved in induction and release of dormancy in L. rigidum seeds, it may be possible to develop strategies to more effectively manage this pest without further stretching herbicide resources. This review examines L. rigidum seed dormancy and germination from a weed-management perspective and explains how the seed bank can be depleted by control strategies encompassing all stages in the lifecycle of a seed, from development to germination.

  10. Understanding comorbidity among internalizing problems: Integrating latent structural models of psychopathology and risk mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Snyder, Hannah R.; Gulley, Lauren D.; Schweizer, Tina H.; Bijttebier, Patricia; Nelis, Sabine; Toh, Gim; Vasey, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that comorbidity is the rule, not the exception, for categorically defined psychiatric disorders, and this is also the case for internalizing disorders of depression and anxiety. This theoretical review paper addresses the ubiquity of comorbidity among internalizing disorders. Our central thesis is that progress in understanding this co-occurrence can be made by employing latent dimensional structural models that organize both psychopathology as well as vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms and by connecting the multiple levels of risk and psychopathology outcomes together. Different vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms are hypothesized to predict different levels of the structural model of psychopathology. We review the present state of knowledge based on concurrent and developmental sequential comorbidity patterns among common discrete psychiatric disorders in youth, and then we advocate for the use of more recent bifactor dimensional models of psychopathology (e.g., p factor, Caspi et al., 2014) that can help to explain the co-occurrence among internalizing symptoms. In support of this relatively novel conceptual perspective, we review six exemplar vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms, including executive function, information processing biases, cognitive vulnerabilities, positive and negative affectivity aspects of temperament, and autonomic dysregulation, along with the developmental occurrence of stressors in different domains, to show how these vulnerabilities can predict the general latent psychopathology factor, a unique latent internalizing dimension, as well as specific symptom syndrome manifestations. PMID:27739389

  11. Communicating global cardiovascular risk: are icon arrays better than numerical estimates in improving understanding, recall and perception of risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Andrade, Allen D; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Anam, Ramanakumar; Rodriguez, Remberto; Sharit, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Experts recommend that adults have their global cardiovascular risk assessed. We investigated whether icon arrays increase understanding, recall, perception of CVR, and behavioral intent as compared with numerical information. Male outpatient veterans, at an intermediate to high cardiovascular risk participated in a randomized controlled trial of a computer tutorial presenting individualized risk. Message format was presented in 3 formats: percentages, frequencies, and frequencies with icon arrays. We assessed understanding immediately (T1) and recall at 20 min (T2) and 2 weeks (T3) after the intervention. We assessed perceptions of importance/seriousness, intent to adhere, and self-efficacy at T1. Self-reported adherence was assessed at T3. One-hundred and twenty male veterans participated. Age, education, race, health literacy and numeracy were comparable at baseline. There were no differences in understanding at T1 [p = .31] and recall at T3 [p = .10]. Accuracy was inferior with frequencies with icon arrays than percentages or frequencies at T2 [p ≤ .001]. There were no differences in perception of seriousness and importance for heart disease, behavioral intent, self-efficacy, actual adherence and satisfaction. Icon arrays may impair short-term recall of CVR. Icon arrays will not necessarily result in better understanding and recall of medical risk in all patients. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. A method to harness global crowd-sourced data to understand travel behavior in avalanche terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, J.; Johnson, J.

    2015-12-01

    To date, most studies of the human dimensions of decision making in avalanche terrain has focused on two areas - post-accident analysis using accident reports/interviews and, the development of tools as decision forcing aids. We present an alternate method using crowd-sourced citizen science, for understanding decision-making in avalanche terrain. Our project combines real-time GPS tracking via a smartphone application, with internet based surveys of winter backcountry users as a method to describe and quantify travel practices in concert with group decision-making dynamics, and demographic data of participants during excursions. Effectively, we use the recorded GPS track taken within the landscape as an expression of the decision making processes and terrain usage by the group. Preliminary data analysis shows that individual experience levels, gender, avalanche hazard, and group composition all influence the ways in which people travel in avalanche terrain. Our results provide the first analysis of coupled real-time GPS tracking of the crowd while moving in avalanche terrain combined with psychographic and demographic correlates. This research will lead to an improved understanding of real-time decision making in avalanche terrain. In this paper we will specifically focus on the presentation of the methods used to solicit, and then harness the crowd to obtain data in a unique and innovative application of citizen science where the movements within the terrain are the desired output data (Figure 1). Figure 1: Example GPS tracks sourced from backcountry winter users in the Teton Pass area (Wyoming), from the 2014-15 winter season, where tracks in red represent those recorded as self-assessed experts (as per our survey), and where tracks in blue represent those recorded as self-assessed intermediates. All tracks shown were obtained under similar avalanche conditions. Statistical analysis of terrain metrics showed that the experts used steeper terrain than the

  13. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Alex

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co

  14. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co-producing' each other in a multi

  15. Coal and Oil: The Dark Monarchs of Global Energy: Understanding Supply and Extraction Patterns and their Importance for Future Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeoek, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The formation of modern society has been dominated by coal and oil, and together these two fossil fuels account for nearly two thirds of all primary energy used by mankind. This makes future production a key question for future social development and this thesis attempts to answer whether it is possible to rely on an assumption of ever increasing production of coal and oil. Both coal and oil are finite resources, created over long time scales by geological processes. It is thus impossible to extract more fossil fuels than geologically available. In other words, there are limits to growth imposed by nature. The concept of depletion and exhaustion of recoverable resources is a fundamental question for the future extraction of coal and oil. Historical experience shows that peaking is a well established phenomenon in production of various natural resources. Coal and oil are no exceptions, and historical data shows that easily exploitable resources are exhausted while more challenging deposits are left for the future. For oil, depletion can also be tied directly to the physical laws governing fluid flows in reservoirs. Understanding and predicting behaviour of individual fields, in particularly giant fields, are essential for understanding future production. Based on comprehensive databases with reserve and production data for hundreds of oilfields, typical patterns were found. Alternatively, depletion can manifest itself indirectly through various mechanisms. This has been studied for coal. Over 60% of the global crude oil production is derived from only around 330 giant oilfields, where many of them are becoming increasingly mature. The annual decline in existing oil production has been determined to be around 6% and it is unrealistic that this will be offset by new field developments, additional discoveries or unconventional oil. This implies that the peak of the oil age is here. For coal a similar picture emerges, where 90% of the global coal production originates

  16. Using Scaling to Understand, Model and Predict Global Scale Anthropogenic and Natural Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, S.; del Rio Amador, L.

    2014-12-01

    The atmosphere is variable over twenty orders of magnitude in time (≈10-3 to 1017 s) and almost all of the variance is in the spectral "background" which we show can be divided into five scaling regimes: weather, macroweather, climate, macroclimate and megaclimate. We illustrate this with instrumental and paleo data. Based the signs of the fluctuation exponent H, we argue that while the weather is "what you get" (H>0: fluctuations increasing with scale), that it is macroweather (Hdecreasing with scale) - not climate - "that you expect". The conventional framework that treats the background as close to white noise and focuses on quasi-periodic variability assumes a spectrum that is in error by a factor of a quadrillion (≈ 1015). Using this scaling framework, we can quantify the natural variability, distinguish it from anthropogenic variability, test various statistical hypotheses and make stochastic climate forecasts. For example, we estimate the probability that the warming is simply a giant century long natural fluctuation is less than 1%, most likely less than 0.1% and estimate return periods for natural warming events of different strengths and durations, including the slow down ("pause") in the warming since 1998. The return period for the pause was found to be 20-50 years i.e. not very unusual; however it immediately follows a 6 year "pre-pause" warming event of almost the same magnitude with a similar return period (30 - 40 years). To improve on these unconditional estimates, we can use scaling models to exploit the long range memory of the climate process to make accurate stochastic forecasts of the climate including the pause. We illustrate stochastic forecasts on monthly and annual scale series of global and northern hemisphere surface temperatures. We obtain forecast skill nearly as high as the theoretical (scaling) predictability limits allow: for example, using hindcasts we find that at 10 year forecast horizons we can still explain ≈ 15% of the

  17. Violence a global public health problem Violência como um problema global de saúde pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Dahlberg

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a version of the Introduction to the World Report on Violence and Health, published by the World Health Organization (WHO. It presents a general description about this phenomenon and points some basic questions: concepts and definitions about the theme; the state of knowledge about it; nature and typology on violence; proposal of a quantitative and qualitative approach of an ecological model; responsibilities and functions of the public health sector and its potentiality to prevent and reduce violence in the world; the responsibilities of the nations and the policy makers in a intersetorial point of view; difficulties and obstacles for actuation and challenges for the health sector.Este artigo é uma versão do que foi publicado no Informe Mundial sobre Violência e Saúde da Organização Mundial de Saúde, como introdução ao tema. Apresenta uma descrição geral da problemática e a posição da OMS. Nele os autores se dedicam a responder algumas questões básicas: o estado do conhecimento sobre o assunto; os conceitos e definições com os quais a OMS trabalha; a natureza e a tipologia sobre violência; as formas de abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa em um modelo ecológico; o lugar e o papel da saúde pública e sua potencialidade com vistas a contribuir para prevenir e diminuir a violência no mundo; as responsabilidades das nações e dos gestores em todos os níveis; os obstáculos para atuação e os desafios para o setor.

  18. The Implementation of Problem-Based Learning to Increase Students’ Conceptual Understanding According to a Christian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans David Lasut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the world of education, it is important that the teacher considers knowledge that students gain in school that can be applied in various situations in a student’s life either during the course of their formal education or when facing real-life problems. The inability to apply knowledge is termed as a lack of conceptual understanding. The researcher hypothesized that Problem Based Learning (PBL will overcome this problem. The aim of this research is to determine whether the implementation of PBL can increase student’s conceptual understanding and to discover effective ways to implement PBL in order to increase the student’s conceptual understanding. This research is Classroom Action Research and is two-cycle research where the researcher used  written tests, questionnaires,  interviews of teachers and students, teacher’s observation forms, and journal reflections as instruments to measure the student’s conceptual understanding and the implementation of PBL based on a Christian perspective. Based on the analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that the implementation of problem-based learning can increase the student’s conceptual understanding according to a Christian perspective. BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Dalam dunia pendidikan, sangatlah penting bagi seorang guru untuk memperhatikan bahwa pengetahuan yang sudah siswa pelajari di sekolah dapat diaplikasikan dalam berbagai situasi baik saat siswa di sekolah maupun ketika mereka diperhadapkan dengan masalah dalam kehidupan. Ketidakmampuan siswa untuk mengaplikasikan pengetahuan yang sudah didapatkan dapat disebut sebagai kurangnya penguasaan konsep. Peneliti memutuskan untuk menggunakan Metoda Pembelajaran Berbasis Masalah (MPBM untuk mengatasi masalah ini. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menemukan apakah penerapan MPBM dapat meningkatkan penguasaan konsep siswa dan langkah-langkah efektif untuk menerapkan MPBM dengan maksud untuk meningkatkan penguasaan konsep siswa

  19. The effects of students' reasoning abilities on conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, S; Cataloglu, E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are relationships among freshmen/first year students' reasoning abilities, conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics. The sample consisted of 165 freshmen science education prospective teachers (female = 86, male = 79; age range 17-21) who were enrolled in an introductory physics course. Data collection was done during the fall semesters in two successive years. At the beginning of each semester, the force concept inventory (FCI) and the classroom test of scientific reasoning (CTSR) were administered to assess students' initial understanding of basic concepts in mechanics and reasoning levels. After completing the course, the FCI and the mechanics baseline test (MBT) were administered. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in problem-solving skill test mean scores, as measured by the MBT, among concrete, formal and postformal reasoners. There were no significant differences in conceptual understanding levels of pre- and post-test mean scores, as measured by FCI, among the groups. The Benferroni post hoc comparison test revealed which set of reasoning levels showed significant difference for the MBT scores. No statistical difference between formal and postformal reasoners' mean scores was observed, while the mean scores between concrete and formal reasoners and concrete and postformal reasoners were statistically significantly different

  20. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas—Part I: Theory of relaxed problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    the case of discrete areas. This problem is of major practical relevance if the truss must be built from pre-produced bars with given areas. As a special case, we consider the design problem for a single bar area, i.e., a 0/1-problem. In contrast to heuristic methods considered in other approaches, Part I....... The main issue of the paper and of the approach lies in the fact that the relaxed nonlinear optimization problem can be formulated as a quadratic program (QP). Here the paper generalizes and extends the available theory from the literature. Although the Hessian of this QP is indefinite, it is possible...

  1. Global approach to the n-dimensional traveling salesman problem: Application to the optimization of crystallographic data collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinrach, J.B.; Bennett, D.W.

    1987-12-01

    An algorithm for the optimization of data collection time has been written and a subsequent computer program tested for diffractometer systems. The program, which utilizes a global statistical approach to the traveling salesman problem, yields reasonable solutions in a relatively short time. The algorithm has been successful in treating very large data sets (up to 4000 points) in three dimensions with subsequent time savings of ca 30%.

  2. Think globally, act locally: understanding sexual harassment from a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Hatice; Swigart, Valerie; Erdemir, Firdevs

    2011-06-01

    Sexual harassment in medical education has been studied in the Americas, Europe and Asia; however, little is known about sexual harassment in Middle Eastern cultures. Our initial aim was to describe the sexual harassment of female doctors-in-training by male patients and their relatives in Turkey. During our analysis of data, we expanded our objectives to include the formulation of a framework that can provide a theoretical background to enhance medical educators' understanding of sexual harassment across cultures. Questionnaires were provided to female resident doctors. Respondents were asked about their experiences of sexual harassment, about their reactions and about any precautionary measures they had used. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS software. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Forty-nine (51.0%) of 96 distributed questionnaires were completed. Thirty-three (67.3%) participants stated that they had been sexually harassed by a patient or patient's relative at some point in their career. 'Gazing at the doctor in a lewd manner', selected by 25 (51.0%) participants, was the most common form of harassment. The methods of coping selected by the highest numbers of respondents involved seeking the discharge of the patient (24.2%), avoiding contact with the patient or relatives (24.2%) and showing rejection (21.2%). Participants' comments about the prevention of sexual harassment revealed a deep sense of need for protection. The interface between quantitative and qualitative findings and a review of the literature supported the development of a value-based, cross-cultural conceptual framework linking the valuing of hierarchy and conservatism with the occurrence of sexual harassment. We relate our findings to issues of patriarchy, power and socio-cultural influences that impact both the perpetrator and the target of sexual harassment. Medical educators are responsible for the control and prevention of sexual harassment of

  3. A new prospect on global environmental problems in the case of climate change: the impacts of strategic complementarity between countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heugues, M.

    2009-06-01

    Among global environmental problems, climate change is one of the most serious. According to nearly all scientists, the roots of the problem is related to the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere and linked with human activities. The global character of this problem turns it into a big challenge. Within a framework of international trade liberalization, the analysis emphasizes the consequences of the inter-dependencies between economic agents, i.e. States, and of their strategic behaviours - when implementing national environmental policy - on natural environment. Starting with a deliberately conventional model and considering that countries' strategy can be complementary when emitting GHG, we bring new results in many respects and with regard to the existing ones. The thesis includes four chapters. The study highlights the impacts of the nature of the inter-dependencies between countries i) on the existence and the properties of equilibrium solutions - first, when no country cooperates and then from a globally optimal point of view -, ii) on the sequence of decisions, i.e. the circumstances under which a leader endogenously emerges when initiating its national environmental policy, iii) on profitability and stability of an international environmental agreement (IEA), iv) on the level of participation to an IEA and on the environmental impact of such a cooperation. A distinct feature of this research is to rely on the theorems of super-modular game theory. (author)

  4. A Novel Discrete Global-Best Harmony Search Algorithm for Solving 0-1 Knapsack Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-li Xiang

    2014-01-01

    is applied to decide whether or not a new randomly generated harmony is included into the HM. The proposed DGHS is evaluated on twenty knapsack problems with different scales and compared with other three metaheuristics from the literature. The experimental results indicate that DGHS is efficient, effective, and robust for solving difficult 0-1 knapsack problems.

  5. The effect of directive tutor guidance on students' conceptual understanding of statistics in problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budé, Luc; van de Wiel, Margaretha W J; Imbos, Tjaart; Berger, Martijn P F

    2011-06-01

    Education is aimed at students reaching conceptual understanding of the subject matter, because this leads to better performance and application of knowledge. Conceptual understanding depends on coherent and error-free knowledge structures. The construction of such knowledge structures can only be accomplished through active learning and when new knowledge can be integrated into prior knowledge. The intervention in this study was directed at both the activation of students as well as the integration of knowledge. Undergraduate university students from an introductory statistics course, in an authentic problem-based learning (PBL) environment, were randomly assigned to conditions and measurement time points. In the PBL tutorial meetings, half of the tutors guided the discussions of the students in a traditional way. The other half guided the discussions more actively by asking directive and activating questions. To gauge conceptual understanding, the students answered open-ended questions asking them to explain and relate important statistical concepts. Results of the quantitative analysis show that providing directive tutor guidance improved understanding. Qualitative data of students' misconceptions seem to support this finding. Long-term retention of the subject matter seemed to be inadequate. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  6. On globally static and stationary cosmologies with or without a cosmological constant and the dark energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchert, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of spatially averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies in classical general relativity, effective Einstein equations govern the regional and the global dynamics of averaged scalar variables of cosmological models. A particular solution may be characterized by a cosmic equation of state. In this paper, it is pointed out that a globally static averaged dust model is conceivable without employing a compensating cosmological constant. Much in the spirit of Einstein's original model we discuss consequences for the global, but also for the regional properties of this cosmology. We then consider the wider class of globally stationary cosmologies that are conceivable in the presented framework. All these models are based on exact solutions of the averaged Einstein equations and provide examples of cosmologies in an out-of-equilibrium state, which we characterize by an information-theoretical measure. It is shown that such cosmologies preserve high-magnitude kinematical fluctuations and so tend to maintain their global properties. The same is true for a Λ-driven cosmos in such a state despite exponential expansion. We outline relations to inflationary scenarios and put the dark energy problem into perspective. Here, it is argued, on the grounds of the discussed cosmologies, that a classical explanation of dark energy through backreaction effects is theoretically conceivable, if the matter-dominated universe emerged from a non-perturbative state in the vicinity of the stationary solution. We also discuss a number of caveats that furnish strong counter arguments in the framework of structure formation in a perturbed Friedmannian model

  7. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  8. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  9. Enhancing atmospheric mercury research in China to improve the current understanding of the global mercury cycle: the need for urgent and closely coordinated efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei

    2012-06-05

    The current understanding of the global mercury (Hg) cycle remains uncertain because Hg behavior in the environment is very complicated. The special property of Hg causes the atmosphere to be the most important medium for worldwide dispersion and transformation. The source and fate of atmospheric Hg and its interaction with the surface environment are the essential topics in the global Hg cycle. Recent declining measurement trends of Hg in the atmosphere are in apparent conflict with the increasing trends in global anthropogenic Hg emissions. As the single largest country contributor of anthropogenic Hg emission, China's role in the global Hg cycle will become more and more important in the context of the decreasing man-made Hg emission from developed regions. However, much less Hg information in China is available. As a global pollutant which undergoes long-range transport and is persistence in the environment, increasing Hg knowledge in China could not only promote the Hg regulation in this country but also improve the understanding of the fundamental of the global Hg cycle and further push the abatement of this toxin on a global scale. Then the atmospheric Hg research in China may be a breakthrough for improving the current understanding of the global Hg cycle. However, due to the complex behavior of Hg in the atmosphere, a deeper understanding of the atmospheric Hg cycle in China needs greater cooperation across fields.

  10. E-Waste and Harm to Vulnerable Populations : A Growing Global Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heacock, Michelle; Kelly, Carol B; Asante, Kwadwo A; Birnbaum, Linda S; Bergman, Ake L; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Carpenter, David O; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia; Kamel, Mostafa; Landrigan, Philip J; Magalini, Federico; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Neira, Maria; Omar, Magdy; Pascale, Antonio; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D; Van den Berg, Martin; Suk, William A

    BACKGROUND: Electronic waste (e-waste) is produced in staggering quantities, estimated globally to be 41.8 million tonnes in 2014. Informal e-waste recycling is a source of much-needed income in many low- to middle-income countries. However, its handling and disposal in underdeveloped countries is

  11. Present status of seawater desalination and problems of nuclear utilization. Aiming at coping with global shortage of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    With recent global population increase and economic and life level improvement, water demand increases tremendously and in 2025 water scarcity will occur in almost the half of countries and regions in the world. Nuclear desalination is highly expected to cope with this issue. The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) established special committee on seawater desalination problems to discuss possibilities of nuclear desalination introduction. Present status of seawater desalination and problems of nuclear utilization were reviewed and the committee recommended the necessity of establishing medium and long-term plan on international business development of nuclear desalination and also the start of basic research on problems of nuclear utilization such as technical and institutional limits and efficient applicability of nuclear energy. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Effect of problem based approach on medical students’ learning satisfaction and understanding in the histology course topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Rezaie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Problem-based learning (PBL is a term used within education for a range of teaching approaches that encourage students to learn through the structured exploration of a problem. Histology comes early in the curriculum and the medical students seem unable to see the value of the content, they don't appear to be motivated to learn the content. This project used PBL to help the students make the connection between the content and clinical aspects.Methods: Thirty six undergraduate medical students, 22 female and 14 male, enrolled in the histology course during the spring semester of 2008. A survey which collected information relative to gender, course load, and workload and study time was used. The subjects were accessory glands of digestive system histology. The course is designed into four units: tree units of salivary glands, pancreas and gall bladder histology, were presented in a traditional lecture format; the fourth unit, liver was presented in a problem-based format that used clinical practice. Assessment focused on three issues of a. student engagement, b. lesson assessment in terms of clarity, interest and usefulness and c. student understanding.Results: Student comments collected during PBL class periods indicate engagement in the topic. In PBL method of teaching most of responses were consistent with the aim of teaching but in traditional classes few responses relate to the objectives at hand. Students had more active partnership in PBL class. Students found PBL class more useful, interesting and clear in terms of subject material than traditional method.Conclusions: In this project student comments collected during PBL class periods indicated more engagement in the topic. Students’ understanding of material were significantly higher and students’ partnership in PBL class was more than traditional classes.Keywords: PBL,HISTOLOGY, STUDENT PARTICIPATION

  13. Problems in the Relationship between CO2 Emissions and Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kovács

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of environmental conditions and impacts, the viewpoint that greenhouse gases, primarily anthropogenic (industrial, human carbon dioxide, play a determining role in the change of global temperatures, ( the increase experienced in the last one and a half decade, has been given widespread publicity recently. Coal-fired power plants are the first to blame for the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the last two centuries. The study indicates possibilities to increase the efficiency of coal-fired power plants, which would involve a considerable reduction in CO2 emissions with an identical production volume of electrical energy. On the basis of the analysis of the amount of fossil fuels used, the amount of CO2 emissions and changes in the concentrations of atmospheric CO2, it is shown that no correlation can be proved between the factors investigated and changes in global temperatures.

  14. Global approach to the spectral problem of microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas using a gyrokinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, S.

    1997-08-01

    Ion temperature gradient (ITG)-related instabilities are studied in tokamak-like plasmas with the help of a new global eigenvalue code. Ions are modelled in the frame of gyrokinetic theory so that finite Larmor radius effects of these particles are retained to all orders. Non-adiabatic trapped electron dynamics is taken into account through the bounce-averaged drift kinetic equation. Assuming electrostatic perturbations, the system is closed with the quasineutrality relation. Practical methods are presented which make this global approach feasible. These include a non-standard wave decomposition compatible with the curved geometry as well as adapting an efficient root finding algorithm for computing the unstable spectrum. These techniques are applied to a low pressure configuration given by a large aspect ratio torus with circular, concentric magnetic surfaces. Simulations from a linear, time evolution, particle in cell code provide a useful benchmark. Comparisons with local ballooning calculations for different parameter scans enable further validation while illustrating the limits of that representation at low toroidal wave numbers or for non-interchange-like instabilities. The stabilizing effect of negative magnetic shear is also considered, in which case the global results show not only an attenuation of the growth rate but also a reduction of the radial extent induced by a transition from the toroidal- to the slab-ITG mode. Contributions of trapped electrons to the ITG instability as well as the possible coupling to the trapped electron mode are clearly brought to the fore. (author) figs., tabs., 69 refs

  15. Educating for Responsible Global Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christine

    1987-01-01

    Discusses geographical illiteracy in the United States and the problems of inadequate international awareness and poor understanding of major global issues. Examines what citizens should know, why they should care, and what people should do about the lack of global knowledge. Presents a list of 57 references dealing with global issues. (GEA)

  16. The communication of the risk of coastal erosion in Portugal: a global problem, a local trouble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo BASTO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades a set of instruments has been devised by the Portuguese authorities to handle the issue of coastal erosion. We argue that this legal apparatus not only lacks the internal integration necessary for its effectiveness, but it also fails to recognise the ways in which the problem materialises in the everyday life of coastal areas. Through a case study in the village of Furadouro in Western Portugal, we demonstrate how this top-down implementation of policies does not promote a true communication of risks, in the sense that the problem of coastal erosion is not “put in common” across levels of governance.

  17. Problems posed by the development of the Oklo phenomenon: tentative global interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, R.

    This paper discusses the basic problems posed by the development of the Oklo phenomenon: the conditions in which the reactions are triggered and propagated and how they have been controlled. The reactions were maintained by the destruction of neutron poisons in the ore and were controlled by temperature. Oklo is made up of a large number of contiguous reactors. Geological problems of the origin of the clays, desilification, and uranium concentration are discussed. Oklo is shown to be a very complex phenomenon which developed in space and time. Besides the thermal, neutron, and geochemical coupling, there is also a tectonic coupling

  18. Voicing as an Essential Problem of Communication: Language and Education of Chinese Immigrant Children in Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Dong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article explores voicing processes of identity construction among labor immigrants both inside China and in the Dutch Chinese Diaspora. We provide ethnographically grounded data oriented toward a theoretical point: voicing is an essential problem in communication. Whether one is able to achieve his voice--an outcome of a communicative…

  19. Recent advances in understanding secondary organic aerosol: Implications for global climate forcing: Advances in Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, Manish [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Cappa, Christopher D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis California USA; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Goldstein, Allen H. [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley California USA; Guenther, Alex B. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Jimenez, Jose L. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Kuang, Chongai [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA; Laskin, Alexander [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Martin, Scot T. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge Massachusetts USA; Ng, Nga Lee [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Georgia USA; Petaja, Tuukka [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki Finland; Pierce, Jeffrey R. [Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Colorado USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Roldin, Pontus [Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund Sweden; Seinfeld, John H. [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Shilling, John [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Smith, James N. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Thornton, Joel A. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle Washington USA; Volkamer, Rainer [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Wang, Jian [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA; Worsnop, Douglas R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica Massachusetts USA; Zaveri, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zelenyuk, Alla [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zhang, Qi [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis California USA

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic emissions and land-use changes have modified atmospheric aerosol concentrations and size distributions over time. Understanding pre-industrial conditions and changes in organic aerosol due to anthropogenic activities is important because these features 1) influence estimates of aerosol radiative forcing and 2) can confound estimates of the historical response of climate to increases in greenhouse gases (e.g. the ‘climate sensitivity’). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA), formed in the atmosphere by oxidation of organic gases, represents a major fraction of global submicron-sized atmospheric organic aerosol. Over the past decade, significant advances in understanding SOA properties and formation mechanisms have occurred through a combination of laboratory and field measurements, yet current climate models typically do not comprehensively include all important SOA-relevant processes. Therefore, major gaps exist at present between current measurement-based knowledge on the one hand and model implementation of organic aerosols on the other. The critical review herein summarizes some of the important developments in understanding SOA formation that could potentially have large impacts on our understanding of aerosol radiative forcing and climate. We highlight the importance of some recently discovered processes and properties that influence the growth of SOA particles to sizes relevant for clouds and radiative forcing, including: formation of extremely low-volatility organics in the gas-phase; isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) multi-phase chemistry; particle-phase oligomerization; and physical properties such as viscosity. In addition, this review also highlights some of the important processes that involve interactions between natural biogenic emissions and anthropogenic emissions, such as the role of sulfate and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) on SOA formation from biogenic volatile organic compounds. Studies that relate the observed evolution of organic aerosol

  20. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  1. Some global problems in gauge theories (Variations on a theme of Aharonov and Bohm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1989-12-01

    Several situations are discussed, in which the sort of global considerations made famous by Aharonov and Bohm in their discussion of the interaction of charged particles with magnetic flux tubes have important physical implications. It is argued that discrete gauge symmetries in the continuum make sense, and manifest themselves most clearly in Aharonov-Bohm type scattering of charged particles off string singularities. The existence of such discrete symmetries has important implications for the quantum mechanics of topologically non-trivial space-times in general and black holes in particular. It is argued that in the non-abelian case essentially new features arise, most notably that the symmetry group of the homogeneous ground state generally ceases to be globally defined in the presence of a string. When continuous rather than discrete symmetries are involved, a variety of fascinating and as yet poorly understood dynamical effects occur. Perhaps the most striking is a new form of string superconductivity, that exists for purely topological reasons, and is not well modeled by regarding the string as a superconducting wire. 8 refs., 2 figs

  2. A fresh look at understanding the extent and scope of radiation and contamination problems in various nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.D. [UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarises the findings of a small multi-disciplinary team of plant operators and engineering craftsmen - within Plant Operation Group (POG) at Dounreay - who took a fresh look at understanding the basic causes of radiation and contamination problems within 3 nuclear fuel cycle plants. Plants selected for this study were: D1203 Billet Production and Uranium Recovery Plant. D1204 Material Test Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant. D1206/34 Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant. With the knowledge thus gained, a package of cost effective measures aimed at reducing and controlling dose uptake and contamination spread within the plants was implemented. Additionally, it was anticipated a reduction in the numbers and severity of radiological Unusual Occurrences (UNORs) would be observed from such measures. (author).

  3. Existence and Global Asymptotic Behavior of Positive Solutions for Nonlinear Fractional Dirichlet Problems on the Half-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Bachar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are interested in the following fractional boundary value problem: Dαu(t+atuσ=0, t∈(0,∞, limt→0⁡t2-αu(t=0, limt→∞⁡t1-αu(t=0, where 1<α<2, σ∈(-1,1, Dα is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, and a is a nonnegative continuous function on (0,∞ satisfying some appropriate assumptions related to Karamata regular variation theory. Using the Schauder fixed point theorem, we prove the existence and the uniqueness of a positive solution. We also give a global behavior of such solution.

  4. An investigation into electromagnetic force models: differences in global and local effects demonstrated by selected problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Felix A.; Rickert, Wilhelm; Müller, Wolfgang H.

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the implications of various electromagnetic force models in macroscopic situations. There is an ongoing academic discussion which model is "correct," i.e., generally applicable. Often, gedankenexperiments with light waves or photons are used in order to motivate certain models. In this work, three problems with bodies at the macroscopic scale are used for computing theoretical model-dependent predictions. Two aspects are considered, total forces between bodies and local deformations. By comparing with experimental data, insight is gained regarding the applicability of the models. First, the total force between two cylindrical magnets is computed. Then a spherical magnetostriction problem is considered to show different deformation predictions. As a third example focusing on local deformations, a droplet of silicone oil in castor oil is considered, placed in a homogeneous electric field. By using experimental data, some conclusions are drawn and further work is motivated.

  5. Solving non-standard packing problems by global optimization and heuristics

    CERN Document Server

    Fasano, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    This book results from a long-term research effort aimed at tackling complex non-standard packing issues which arise in space engineering. The main research objective is to optimize cargo loading and arrangement, in compliance with a set of stringent rules. Complicated geometrical aspects are also taken into account, in addition to balancing conditions based on attitude control specifications. Chapter 1 introduces the class of non-standard packing problems studied. Chapter 2 gives a detailed explanation of a general model for the orthogonal packing of tetris-like items in a convex domain. A number of additional conditions are looked at in depth, including the prefixed orientation of subsets of items, the presence of unusable holes, separation planes and structural elements, relative distance bounds as well as static and dynamic balancing requirements. The relative feasibility sub-problem which is a special case that does not have an optimization criterion is discussed in Chapter 3. This setting can be exploit...

  6. Legislative provisions related to marriage and divorce of persons with mental health problems: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhugra, Dinesh; Pathare, Soumitra; Nardodkar, Renuka; Gosavi, Chetna; Ng, Roger; Torales, Julio; Ventriglio, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Realization of right to marry by a person is an exercise of personal liberty, even if concepts of marriage and expectations from such commitment vary across cultures and societies. Once married, if an individual develops mental illness the legal system often starts to discriminate against the individual. There is no doubt that every individual's right to marry or remain married is regulated by their country's family codes, civil codes, marriage laws, or divorce laws. Historically mental health condition of a spouse or intending spouse has been of interest to lawmakers in a number of ways from facilitating divorce to helping the individual with mental illness. There is no doubt that there are deeply ingrained stereotypes that persons with mental health problems lack capacity to consent and, therefore, cannot enter into a marital contract of their own free will. These assumptions lead to discrimination both in practice and in law. Furthermore, the probability of mental illness being genetically transmitted and passed on to offspring adds yet another dimension of discrimination. Thus, the system may also raise questions about the ability of persons with mental health problems to care, nurture, and support a family and children. Internationally, rights to marry, the right to remain married, and dissolution of marriage have been enshrined in several human rights instruments. Domestic laws were studied in 193 countries to explore whether laws affected the rights of people with mental illness with respect to marriage; it was found that 37% of countries explicitly prohibit marriage by persons with mental health problems. In 11% (21 countries) the presence of mental health problems can render a marriage void or can be considered grounds for nullity of marriage. Thus, in many countries basic human rights related to marriage are being flouted.

  7. Global environmental problems in the electric industry. Denki jigyo ni okeru chikyu kankyo mondai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugi, T [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1992-09-30

    Since the electric industry has grappled with a prevention of the environmental pollution such as the air pollution and water contamination as a forerunner in case of construction and operation of the power facilities, and at the same time has conducted actively the environmental conservation countermeasures, it has consequently achieved the environmental conservation level as a top level in the world. On the other hand, as for the emission quantity of CO2 relating to the earth warming, the power field occupies about one fourth of total Japan. Therefore the electric industry should aim at the electric energy supply considering the influence on the environment, such as the power supply structure to restrain CO2 emission as less as possible, higher efficiency of equipments, higher efficiency of energy utilization by using the unused energy and so forth. In addition to it, the consumer side should aim at the social structure with a recycle type such as saving resources and saving energy, and aim at changeover of life style. It is hoped to conduct the overall measure including the items mentioned above. In this report, the recent trend of earth enviromental problems, grappling with the environmental problems as a forerunner such as the prevention measure of air pollution in the thermal power plant, etc., and the correspondence to the earth warming problems are outlined. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Understanding the Relationship Between Sports-Relevant Gambling and Being At-Risk for a Gambling Problem Among American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchica, Loredana; Zhao, Yaxi; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Ivoska, William

    2017-06-01

    Fantasy sports is a growing industry with a reported 56.8 million individuals participating in the United States and Canada alone in 2015. Whereas this activity has attracted considerable public attention, little research has examined its impact on adolescents in spite of their high rates of gambling. The current study examined the relationship between regular participation (more than once a month) in sport-relevant gambling activities among adolescents and those identified as being at-risk for a gambling problem. Questionnaire responses were collected from high school students (N = 6818; 49 % male) in Wood County, Ohio, United States. Statistical analyses revealed that regular involvement in sports betting, fantasy sports betting, and daily fantasy sports betting among adolescents was associated with a higher risk of gambling problems. Further, although males participate more frequently in these activities, females who participate have a stronger likelihood of being at-risk. Students aged 16-19 years old are at a higher risk for developing a gambling problem compared to younger adolescents when regularly engaging in sports-related gambling. Moreover, regularly participating in daily fantasy sports is the strongest predictor of at-risk gambling behavior in 13-15 year old students. A hierarchical logistic regression supports that controlling for gender and age, all forms of sport-relevant gambling activities are significant predictors of at-risk gambling. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of sports betting and fantasy sports on adolescents and establishes an initial step for future studies to further investigate these relationships.

  9. Aging and individual differences in binding during sentence understanding: evidence from temporary and global syntactic attachment ambiguities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brennan R; Grison, Sarah; Gao, Xuefei; Christianson, Kiel; Morrow, Daniel G; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2014-02-01

    We report an investigation of aging and individual differences in binding information during sentence understanding. An age-continuous sample of adults (N=91), ranging from 18 to 81 years of age, read sentences in which a relative clause could be attached high to a head noun NP1, attached low to its modifying prepositional phrase NP2 (e.g., The son of the princess who scratched himself/herself in public was humiliated), or in which the attachment site of the relative clause was ultimately indeterminate (e.g., The maid of the princess who scratched herself in public was humiliated). Word-by-word reading times and comprehension (e.g., who scratched?) were measured. A series of mixed-effects models were fit to the data, revealing: (1) that, on average, NP1-attached sentences were harder to process and comprehend than NP2-attached sentences; (2) that these average effects were independently moderated by verbal working memory capacity and reading experience, with effects that were most pronounced in the oldest participants and; (3) that readers on average did not allocate extra time to resolve global ambiguities, though older adults with higher working memory span did. Findings are discussed in relation to current models of lifespan cognitive development, working memory, language experience, and the role of prosodic segmentation strategies in reading. Collectively, these data suggest that aging brings differences in sentence understanding, and these differences may depend on independent influences of verbal working memory capacity and reading experience. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Are therapeutic vaccines an answer to the global problem of drug and alcohol abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Dick B S; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer.

  11. A case-based, problem-based learning approach to prepare master of public health candidates for the complexities of global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Juan S; Winskell, Kate; McFarland, Deborah A; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Global health is a dynamic, emerging, and interdisciplinary field. To address current and emerging global health challenges, we need a public health workforce with adaptable and collaborative problem-solving skills. In the 2013-2014 academic year, the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health-Emory University launched an innovative required core course for its first-year Master of Public Health students in the global health track. The course uses a case-based, problem-based learning approach to develop global health competencies. Small teams of students propose solutions to these problems by identifying learning issues and critically analyzing and synthesizing new information. We describe the course structure and logistics used to apply this approach in the context of a large class and share lessons learned.

  12. A Mixed Integer Efficient Global Optimization Framework: Applied to the Simultaneous Aircraft Design, Airline Allocation and Revenue Management Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Satadru

    Traditional approaches to design and optimize a new system, often, use a system-centric objective and do not take into consideration how the operator will use this new system alongside of other existing systems. This "hand-off" between the design of the new system and how the new system operates alongside other systems might lead to a sub-optimal performance with respect to the operator-level objective. In other words, the system that is optimal for its system-level objective might not be best for the system-of-systems level objective of the operator. Among the few available references that describe attempts to address this hand-off, most follow an MDO-motivated subspace decomposition approach of first designing a very good system and then provide this system to the operator who decides the best way to use this new system along with the existing systems. The motivating example in this dissertation presents one such similar problem that includes aircraft design, airline operations and revenue management "subspaces". The research here develops an approach that could simultaneously solve these subspaces posed as a monolithic optimization problem. The monolithic approach makes the problem a Mixed Integer/Discrete Non-Linear Programming (MINLP/MDNLP) problem, which are extremely difficult to solve. The presence of expensive, sophisticated engineering analyses further aggravate the problem. To tackle this challenge problem, the work here presents a new optimization framework that simultaneously solves the subspaces to capture the "synergism" in the problem that the previous decomposition approaches may not have exploited, addresses mixed-integer/discrete type design variables in an efficient manner, and accounts for computationally expensive analysis tools. The framework combines concepts from efficient global optimization, Kriging partial least squares, and gradient-based optimization. This approach then demonstrates its ability to solve an 11 route airline network

  13. Awareness, understanding, and help seeking for behaviour problems by parents of primary school age children in Central Jakarta: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjhin Wiguna

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion This study emphasizes the need to increase parents’ awareness and understanding and helping agencies so they can recognize the problems accurately and overcome the barriers appropriately. [Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:18-25].

  14. Water pollution in low and middle resources countries: a global health public problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Gómez-Duarte

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El agua es un elemento esencial para la vida de todos los seres vivientes del planeta, además es un derecho humano fundamental (1. El 97.2% del agua en el planeta Tierra es salina y solo el 2.5% corresponde a agua fresca; de ese 2.5%, 30% es subterránea, 68% está en los glaciares y otras capas de nieve y solo el 1.2% es superficial y se encuentra en ríos, lagos y otras formas de agua de superficie (2. El agua potable está amenazada por la continua contaminación que genera la actividad humana y por la disminución de los recursos hídricos como consecuencia del calentamiento global (3. Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, desde el año 2015 solo el 89% de la población mundial tiene acceso a agua apta para consumo y se anticipa que este porcentaje continuará disminuyendo (4, aunque se estima que la situación ya es crítica para 260 millones de personas que carecen de agua apta para el consumo (5.

  15. The deficit of decent work as a global problem of social and labor segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Kolot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The overview of the current trends in social and labor segment globally and in the Ukrainian economy is provided. The crises in functioning of the social and labor segment as the forms of expression of the deficit of decent work were isolated. The reasons destabilizing the social and labor segment and limiting the development of the decent work institute are presented. The findings on the situation of self-employment and vulnerable employment worldwide are given. The modern transformations in employment through the lens of decent work are disclosed, with a focus on vulnerable employment. A correlation between inequality in income and a deficit of decent work is shown. The relationship and interaction between decent work and human values in terms of the new economy and postindustrial society development as a philosophical platform of the modern concept of decent work is proven. The aggravation of the crisis of values of the labor g life in the light of deficit of the decent work is explained. The conceptual foundations of the decent work are revealed. The author's vision of the decent work institute as an integrated political, economic, and social platform of sustainable development is reasoned. The criteria and components of the decent work are presented. The importance of inclusive labor markets to expand the scale of decent work is disclosed. The strategic landmarks of overcoming the deficit of decent work are delineated.

  16. Comments on the comparison of global methods for linear two-point boundary value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Boor, C.; Swartz, B.

    1977-01-01

    A more careful count of the operations involved in solving the linear system associated with collocation of a two-point boundary value problem using a rough splines reverses results recently reported by others in this journal. In addition, it is observed that the use of the technique of ''condensation of parameters'' can decrease the computer storage required. Furthermore, the use of a particular highly localized basis can also reduce the setup time when the mesh is irregular. Finally, operation counts are roughly estimated for the solution of certain linear system associated with two competing collocation methods; namely, collocation with smooth splines and collocation of the equivalent first order system with continuous piecewise polynomials

  17. Radiation accidents with global consequences for the population. Problems of risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.; Doncheva, B.; Stoilova, S.; Miloslavov, V.; Tsenova, T.; Novkirishki, V.

    1987-01-01

    The theoretical problems concerning the delayed impacts as a result of considerable radiation accidents are discussed. The attention is paid to the maximum individual doses which are relatively low but many people are affected. In these cases, the risk evaluation is based on the cancerogenesis, genetic and teratogenetic consequences among the concerned population. The main equation of the linear threshold-free model 'dose effect' is subjected to analysis. Considering the real prognostic importance of this equation the following recommendations are made: further observation on epidemic diseases; investigation of teratogenetic consequences in connection with the radiation doses obtained during the antenatal development; radiation-hygienic standardization of the oral absorbtion of radionuclides for short and long periods of time; effective equivalent dose determination according to the irradiated organ or tissue (mammary glands, lungs, red marrow, gonads, skin); necessity of national system for in time announcement of radiation accidents, as well as suitable control of the internal and the external irradiation

  18. Sanitation for all: the global opportunity to increase transgenerational health gains and better understand the link between NCDs and NTDs, a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Dhimal, Meghnath; Bhandari, Parash Mani; Adhikari, Bipin

    2017-01-01

    The global sanitation divide is narrowing. However, in many countries in Asia and Africa, the gap between rural and urban sanitation coverage is rather widening. Moreover, there is an increase in the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), notwithstanding to the already high burden of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). A scientific query is building on how the global ?sanitation for all? goal will address the dual burden of NTDs and NCDs, and help further understand the link between the ...

  19. Multiple Approaches for Testing Novel Coatings in the Laboratory and in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii with Emphasis on the Global, Problem-Fouling Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-25

    Multiple Approaches for Testing Novel Coatings in the Laboratory and in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii with Emphasis on the Global, Problem-Fouling Invertebrates 5a...on the Global, Problem-Fouling Invertebrates ONR AWARD NUMBER: N00014-11-1-0167 PRINCIPLE INVESTIGATOR: Michael G. Hadfield, Ph.D...luteoviolacea a phage tail-like component that is capable of inducing the metamorphosis of a marine invertebrate . However, our continued studies in the

  20. Adaptive Management of the Global Climate Problem. Bridging the Gap Between Climate Research and Climate Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvai, J. [Environmental Science and Policy Program, and Dept. of CARRS, Michigan State University, 305 Natural Resources Building, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Bridge, G. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma (United States); Dolsak, N. [University of Washington, Bothell (United States); Franzese, R. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Koontz, T.; Luginbuhl, A.; Sohngen, B.; Thompson, A. [Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Robbins, P. [University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (United States); Richards, K. [Indiana University, Terre Haute, Indiana (United States); Smith Korfmacher, K. [University of Rochester, Rochester (United States); Tansey, J. [Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    To date the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has concerned itself with gathering a state of the art review of the science of climate change. While significant progress has been made in enhancing our integrated understanding of the climate system and the dynamics of the social systems that produce an array of potential greenhouse gases, it is also clear from the panel's reports how far the science community is from being able to present a dynamic and synoptic view of the climate system as a whole. Clear evidence of these complexities and uncertainties inherent in the climate system is evident in efforts aimed at designing robust policy interventions. In this paper, we argue that the adaptive management framework in ecosystem management may be a useful model for guiding how the IPCC can continue to be relevant both as a scientific establishment and as a policy-relevant scientific endeavor.

  1. Adaptive Management of the Global Climate Problem. Bridging the Gap Between Climate Research and Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvai, J.; Bridge, G.; Dolsak, N.; Franzese, R.; Koontz, T.; Luginbuhl, A.; Sohngen, B.; Thompson, A.; Robbins, P.; Richards, K.; Smith Korfmacher, K.; Tansey, J.

    2006-01-01

    To date the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has concerned itself with gathering a state of the art review of the science of climate change. While significant progress has been made in enhancing our integrated understanding of the climate system and the dynamics of the social systems that produce an array of potential greenhouse gases, it is also clear from the panel's reports how far the science community is from being able to present a dynamic and synoptic view of the climate system as a whole. Clear evidence of these complexities and uncertainties inherent in the climate system is evident in efforts aimed at designing robust policy interventions. In this paper, we argue that the adaptive management framework in ecosystem management may be a useful model for guiding how the IPCC can continue to be relevant both as a scientific establishment and as a policy-relevant scientific endeavor

  2. Local plant responses to global problems: Dactylis glomerata responses to different traffic pollutants on roadsides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M D; de Torre, R; Mola, I; Casado, M A; Balaguer, L

    2018-04-15

    The growing number of road vehicles is a major source of regional and global atmospheric pollution increasing concentrations of CO 2 in the air, and levels of metals in air and soil. Nevertheless, the effects of these pollutants on plants growing at roadsides are poorly documented. We carried out an observational study of unmanipulated plants growing by the road, to identify the morpho-physiological responses in a perennial grass Dactylis glomerata. Firstly, we wanted to know the general effect of traffic intensity and ambient CO 2 and its interactions on different plant traits. Accordingly, we analyzed the photosynthetic response by field A/Ci Response Curves, SLA, pigment pools, foliar nitrogen, carbohydrates and morphological traits in plants at three distances to the road. Secondly, we wanted to know if Dactylis glomerata plants can accumulate metals present on the roadside (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Sr) in their tissues and rhizosphere, and the effect of these metals on morphological traits. The MANCOVA whole model results shown: 1) a significant effect of road ambient CO 2 concentration on morphological traits (not affected by traffic intensity, P interaction CO2 x traffic intensity >0.05), that was mainly driven by a significant negative relationship between the inflorescence number and ambient CO 2 ; 2) a positive and significant relationship between ambient CO 2 and the starch content in leaves (unaffected by traffic intensity); 3) a reduction in J max (electron transport rate) at high traffic intensity. These lines of evidences suggest a decreased photosynthetic capacity due to high traffic intensity and high levels of ambient CO 2 . In addition, Pb, Cu, Zn and Sr were detected in Dactylis glomerata tissues, and Cu accumulated in roots. Finally, we observed that Dactylis glomerata individuals growing at the roadside under high levels of CO 2 and in the presence of metal pollutants, reduced their production of inflorescences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. U.S. Geological Survey climate and land use change science strategy: a framework for understanding and responding to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Kirtland, David A.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; ,; ,; ,; Robert, S.; Maule, Alec G.; McMahon, Gerard; Striegl, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a nonregulatory Federal science agency with national scope and responsibilities, is uniquely positioned to serve the Nation’s needs in understanding and responding to global change, including changes in climate, water availability, sea level, land use and land cover, ecosystems, and global biogeochemical cycles. Global change is among the most challenging and formidable issues confronting our Nation and society. Scientists agree that global environmental changes during this century will have far-reaching societal implications (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007; U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009). In the face of these challenges, the Nation can benefit greatly by using natural science information in decisionmaking.

  4. Alcohol Marketing, Drunkenness, and Problem Drinking among Zambian Youth: Findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS conducted in Zambia (2004 of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (=2257. Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09–2.02 and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06–1.87 among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  5. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  6. Technology in the curriculum: A vehicle for the development of children's understanding of science concepts through problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, Beverley; Smith, Leanne

    1992-12-01

    This research was carried out over a period of ten months with children in Grades 2 and 3 (aged 7 and 8) who were participating in a sequence of technology activities. Since the introduction into Victorian primary schools of The Technology Studies Framework P-10 (Crawford, 1988), more teachers are including technology studies in their classrooms and by so doing may assist children's understanding of science concepts. Children are being exposed to science phenomena related to the technology activities and Technology Studies may be a way of providing children with science experiences. ‘Technology Studies’ in this context refers to children carrying out practical problem solving tasks which can be completed without any particular scientific knowledge. Participation in the technology activities may encourage children to become actively involved, thereby facilitating an exploration of the related science concepts. The project identified the importance of challenge in relation to the children's involvement in the technology activities and the conference paper (available from the first author) discusses particular topics in terms of the balance between cognitive/metacognitive and affective influences (Baird et al., 1990)

  7. Using modeling to understand how athletes in different disciplines solve the same problem: swimming versus running versus speed skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Jos J; Foster, Carl; Lucia, Alejandro; Bobbert, Maarten F; Hettinga, Florentina J; Porcari, John P

    2011-06-01

    Every new competitive season offers excellent examples of human locomotor abilities, regardless of the sport. As a natural consequence of competitions, world records are broken every now and then. World record races not only offer spectators the pleasure of watching very talented and highly trained athletes performing muscular tasks with remarkable skill, but also represent natural models of the ultimate expression of human integrated muscle biology, through strength, speed, or endurance performances. Given that humans may be approaching our species limit for muscular power output, interest in how athletes improve on world records has led to interest in the strategy of how limited energetic resources are best expended over a race. World record performances may also shed light on how athletes in different events solve exactly the same problem-minimizing the time required to reach the finish line. We have previously applied mathematical modeling to the understanding of world record performances in terms of improvements in facilities/equipment and improvements in the athletes' physical capacities. In this commentary, we attempt to demonstrate that differences in world record performances in various sports can be explained using a very simple modeling process.

  8. Towards a global understanding of vertical soil carbon dynamics: meta-analysis of soil 14C data

    Science.gov (United States)

    hatte, C.; Balesdent, J.; Guiot, J.

    2012-12-01

    Soil represents the largest terrestrial storage mechanism for atmospheric carbon from photosynthesis, with estimates ranging from 1600 Pg C within the top 1 meter to 2350 Pg C for the top 3 meters. These values are at least 2.5 times greater than atmospheric C pools. Small changes in soil organic carbon storage could result in feedback to atmospheric CO2 and the sensitivity of soil organic matter to changes in temperature, and precipitation remains a critical area of research with respect to the global carbon cycle. As an intermediate storage mechanism for organic material through time, the vertical profile of carbon generally shows an age continuum with depth. Radiocarbon provides critical information for understanding carbon exchanges between soils and atmosphere, and within soil layers. Natural and "bomb" radiocarbon has been used to demonstrate the importance and nature of the soil carbon response to climatic and human impacts on decadal to millennial timescales. Radiocarbon signatures of bulk, or chemically or physically fractionated soil, or even of specific organic compounds, offer one of the only ways to infer terrestrial carbon turnover times or test ecosystem carbon models. We compiled data from the literature on radiocarbon distribution on soil profiles and characterized each study according to the following categories: soil type, analyzed organic fraction, location (latitude, longitude, elevation), climate (temperature, precipitation), land use and sampling year. Based on the compiled data, soil carbon 14C profiles were reconstructed for each of the 226 sites. We report here partial results obtained by statistical analyses of portion of this database, i.e. bulk and bulk-like organic matter and sampling year posterior to 1980. We highlight here 14C vertical pattern in relationship with external parameters (climate, location and land use).

  9. Drowning - a scientometric analysis and data acquisition of a constant global problem employing density equalizing mapping and scientometric benchmarking procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groneberg David A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drowning is a constant global problem which claims approximately half a million victims worldwide each year, whereas the number of near-drowning victims is considerably higher. Public health strategies to reduce the burden of death are still limited. While research activities in the subject drowning grow constantly, yet there is no scientometric evaluation of the existing literature at the present time. Methods The current study uses classical bibliometric tools and visualizing techniques such as density equalizing mapping to analyse and evaluate the scientific research in the field of drowning. The interpretation of the achieved results is also implemented in the context of the data collection of the WHO. Results All studies related to drowning and listed in the ISI-Web of Science database since 1900 were identified using the search term "drowning". Implementing bibliometric methods, a constant increase in quantitative markers such as number of publications per state, publication language or collaborations as well as qualitative markers such as citations were observed for research in the field of drowning. The combination with density equalizing mapping exposed different global patterns for research productivity and the total number of drowning deaths and drowning rates respectively. Chart techniques were used to illustrate bi- and multilateral research cooperation. Conclusions The present study provides the first scientometric approach that visualizes research activity on the subject of drowning. It can be assumed that the scientific approach to this topic will achieve even greater dimensions because of its continuing actuality.

  10. Drowning - a scientometric analysis and data acquisition of a constant global problem employing density equalizing mapping and scientometric benchmarking procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Drowning is a constant global problem which claims approximately half a million victims worldwide each year, whereas the number of near-drowning victims is considerably higher. Public health strategies to reduce the burden of death are still limited. While research activities in the subject drowning grow constantly, yet there is no scientometric evaluation of the existing literature at the present time. Methods The current study uses classical bibliometric tools and visualizing techniques such as density equalizing mapping to analyse and evaluate the scientific research in the field of drowning. The interpretation of the achieved results is also implemented in the context of the data collection of the WHO. Results All studies related to drowning and listed in the ISI-Web of Science database since 1900 were identified using the search term "drowning". Implementing bibliometric methods, a constant increase in quantitative markers such as number of publications per state, publication language or collaborations as well as qualitative markers such as citations were observed for research in the field of drowning. The combination with density equalizing mapping exposed different global patterns for research productivity and the total number of drowning deaths and drowning rates respectively. Chart techniques were used to illustrate bi- and multilateral research cooperation. Conclusions The present study provides the first scientometric approach that visualizes research activity on the subject of drowning. It can be assumed that the scientific approach to this topic will achieve even greater dimensions because of its continuing actuality. PMID:21999813

  11. Liver diseases: A major, neglected global public health problem requiring urgent actions and large-scale screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellin, Patrick; Kutala, Blaise K

    2018-02-01

    CLDs represent an important, and certainly underestimated, global public health problem. CLDs are highly prevalent and silent, related to different, sometimes associated causes. The distribution of the causes of these diseases is slowly changing, and within the next decade, the proportion of virus-induced CLDs will certainly decrease significantly while the proportion of NASH will increase. There is an urgent need for effective global actions including education, prevention and early diagnosis to manage and treat CLDs, thus preventing cirrhosis-related morbidity and mortality. Our role is to increase the awareness of the public, healthcare professionals and public health authorities to encourage active policies for early management that will decrease the short- and long-term public health burden of these diseases. Because necroinflammation is the key mechanism in the progression of CLDs, it should be detected early. Thus, large-scale screening for CLDs is needed. ALT levels are an easy and inexpensive marker of liver necroinflammation and could be the first-line tool in this process. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  13. Understanding fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests : Evidence for gender and age differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.A. Acar (Oguz); J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGlobal prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure,

  14. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  15. Understanding childhood (problem) behaviors from a cultural perspective: comparison of problem behaviors and competencies in Turkish immigrant, Turkish and Dutch children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengi-Arslan, L; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Erol, N

    1997-11-01

    Parents' reports of problem behaviors in 2,081 Dutch children, 3,127 Turkish children in Ankara and 833 Turkish immigrant children living in The Netherlands, aged 4-18 years, were compared. Dutch and Turkish versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were used. Immigrant children were scored higher than Dutch children on 6 of the 11 CBCL scales, most markedly on the Anxious/Depressed scale. Immigrant children were scored higher than Ankara children on five CBCL scales. However, these differences were much smaller than those found between immigrant and Dutch children. Furthermore, immigrant children's Total Problem scores did not differ from those for Ankara children. Turkish immigrant children have very similar patterns of parent-reported problem behaviors to children living in Turkey, although both groups of Turkish children showed higher levels of parent-reported problem behaviors than Dutch children. The higher scores for Turkish children on the Anxious/Depressed scale compared with their Dutch peers may be explained by cultural differences in parental perception of children's problem behaviors, as well as the threshold for reporting them, or by cultural differences in the prevalence of problems, for instance as the result of cross-cultural differences in child-rearing practice. More research is needed to test the degree to which Turkish immigrant parents tend to preserve their cultural characteristics and child-rearing practices in Dutch society.

  16. Numerical solution of a coefficient inverse problem with multi-frequency experimental raw data by a globally convergent algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh-Liem; Klibanov, Michael V.; Nguyen, Loc H.; Kolesov, Aleksandr E.; Fiddy, Michael A.; Liu, Hui

    2017-09-01

    We analyze in this paper the performance of a newly developed globally convergent numerical method for a coefficient inverse problem for the case of multi-frequency experimental backscatter data associated to a single incident wave. These data were collected using a microwave scattering facility at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. The challenges for the inverse problem under the consideration are not only from its high nonlinearity and severe ill-posedness but also from the facts that the amount of the measured data is minimal and that these raw data are contaminated by a significant amount of noise, due to a non-ideal experimental setup. This setup is motivated by our target application in detecting and identifying explosives. We show in this paper how the raw data can be preprocessed and successfully inverted using our inversion method. More precisely, we are able to reconstruct the dielectric constants and the locations of the scattering objects with a good accuracy, without using any advanced a priori knowledge of their physical and geometrical properties.

  17. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  18. Preparing to Understand Feminism in the Twenty-First Century: Global Social Change, Women's Work, and Women's Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torry Dickinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of women's non-wage work, women's wage labor, and contemporary women's movements can be understood with greater clarity if studies of "globalization", feminism, and the capitalist world-economy are examined in relationship to each other. Today many women's movements clearly reflect, respond to, and attempt to shape changes in wage (employer-organized and non-wage (labor-organized work relations. This paper is a conceptual, theoretical and historical exploration of how scholars, who study inter-related global areas, can prepare to do research on women's work and women's movements that will contribute to the development of "globalization", feminist, and world-economy scholarship.

  19. Understanding how and why health is integrated into foreign policy - a case study of health is global, a UK Government Strategy 2008–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, global health issues have become more prominent in foreign policies at the national level. The process to develop state level global health strategies is arguably a form of global health diplomacy (GHD). Despite an increase in the volume of secondary research and analysis in this area, little primary research, particularly that which draws directly on the perspectives of those involved in these processes, has been conducted. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap through an empirical case study of Health is Global: A UK Government Strategy 2008–2013. It aims to build understanding about how and why health is integrated into foreign policy and derive lessons of potential relevance to other nations interested in developing whole-of-government global health strategies. Methods The major element of the study consisted of an in-depth investigation and analysis of the UK global health strategy. Document analysis and twenty interviews were conducted. Data was organized and described using an adapted version of Walt and Gilson’s policy analysis triangle. A general inductive approach was used to identify themes in the data, which were then analysed and interpreted using Fidler’s health and foreign policy conceptualizations and Kingdon’s multiples streams model of the policymaking process. Results The primary reason that the UK decided to focus more on global health is self-interest - to protect national and international security and economic interests. Investing in global health was also seen as a way to enhance the UK’s international reputation. A focus on global health to primarily benefit other nations and improve global health per se was a prevalent through weaker theme. A well organized, credible policy community played a critical role in the process and a policy entrepreneur with expertise in both international relations and health helped catalyze attention and action on global health when the time was right. Support

  20. Innovative ICT solution to steer rural communities to global understanding: a case study from Durban, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greyling, E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available of these communities to become part of the global information society. It outlines the proactive and outreaching role of public libraries in collaborative initiatives wit other local institutions in developing digital competencies and providing online information...

  1. No nation is home alone: understanding the international dimension of homeland security through global transportation security programs

    OpenAIRE

    Tarpey, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Terrorist actors focus on the global transportation system to introduce threats and target attacks. As the lead department for securing the transportation system into the United States, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) works both domestically and internationally to implement programs and foreign assistance activities to secure the global transportation network. This thesis examines DHS’ international role by analyzing programs...

  2. Assessing the contribution of beach-cast seagrass wrack to global GHGs emissions: experimental models, problems and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misson, Gloria; Incerti, Guido; Alberti, Giorgio; Delle Vedove, Gemini; Pirelli, Tiziana; Peressotti, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    -East Italy, with focus on CO2 and CH4 emissions, as a function of temperature, salinity, water supply and physical properties of the wrack piles. After presenting preliminary results, we highlight problems and perspectives concerning the assessment of beach-cast wrack contribution to the global GHGs emissions.

  3. Rethinking Pedagogy for Second-Order Differential Equations: A Simplified Approach to Understanding Well-Posed Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Christopher C.

    2017-01-01

    Knowing an equation has a unique solution is important from both a modelling and theoretical point of view. For over 70 years, the approach to learning and teaching "well posedness" of initial value problems (IVPs) for second- and higher-order ordinary differential equations has involved transforming the problem and its analysis to a…

  4. The Effects of Representation Format in Problem Representation on Qualitative Understanding and Quantitative Proficiency in a Learning Game Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwoong

    2016-01-01

    Reports and surveys by the U.S. government and international organizations have repeatedly acknowledged the achievement problem in math in K-12 regardless of various efforts (e.g., by the U.S. Department of Education) to diminish it. To address the problem in math achievement in K-12, teachers, scholars, and the U.S. government have developed…

  5. Validity and reliability problems with patient global as a component of the ACR/EULAR remission criteria as used in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Karim R; Shaver, Timothy S; Shahouri, Shadi H; Wang, Shirley; Anderson, James D; Busch, Ruth E; Michaud, Kaleb; Mikuls, Ted R; Caplan, Liron; Wolfe, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    To investigate what factors influence patient global health assessment (PtGlobal), and how those factors and the reliability of PtGlobal affect the rate, reliability, and validity of recently published American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remission criteria when used in clinical practice. We examined consecutive patients with RA in clinical practice and identified 77 who met ACR/EULAR joint criteria for remission (≤ 1 swollen joint and ≤ 1 tender joint). We evaluated factors associated with a PtGlobal > 1, because a PtGlobal ≤ 1 defined ACR/EULAR remission in this group of patients who had already met ACR/EULAR joint criteria. Of the 77 patients examined, only 17 (22.1%) had PtGlobal ≤ 1 and thus fully satisfied ACR/EULAR criteria. A large proportion of patients not in remission by ACR/EULAR criteria had high PtGlobal related to noninflammatory issues, including low back pain, fatigue, and functional limitations, and a number of patients clustered in the range of PtGlobal > 1 and ≤ 2. However, the minimal detectable difference for PtGlobal was 2.3. In addition, compared with a PtGlobal severity score, a PtGlobal activity score was 3.3% less likely to be abnormal (> 1). Noninflammatory factors contribute to the level of PtGlobal and result in the exclusion of many patients who would otherwise be in "true" remission according to the ACR/EULAR definition. Reliability problems associated with PtGlobal can also result in misclassification, and may explain the observation of low longterm remission rates in RA. As currently constituted, the use of the ACR/EULAR remission criteria in clinical practice appears to be problematic.

  6. Why did adolescents have sleep problems after earthquakes? Understanding the role of traumatic exposure, fear, and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Chen, Qiuyan; Zhen, Rui

    2017-06-01

    To examine the relationships between trauma exposure, fear, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sleep problems in adolescents, 746 adolescent survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China were assessed at 1 year (T1) and 1.5 years (T2) after the earthquake using a trauma exposure questionnaire, a fear questionnaire, a child posttraumatic stress disorder symptom scale, and a subscale on child sleep problems. The results showed that T1 trauma exposure were not directly associated with sleep problems at T1 and T2, but played a positive role in sleep problems at both T1 and T2 indirectly through T1 posttraumatic stress disorder and T1 fear. T1 trauma exposure was also positively and indirectly associated with T2 sleep problems through T1 posttraumatic stress disorder via T1 sleep problems, or through T1 fear via the path from T1 posttraumatic stress disorder to T1 sleep problems. These findings indicated that fear and posttraumatic stress disorder 1 year after the earthquake played a mediating role in the relationship between trauma exposure at 1 year after the earthquake, and sleep problems at both 1 year and 1.5 years after the earthquake, respectively. In particular, posttraumatic stress disorder also had a multiple mediating effect in the path from trauma exposure to sleep problems via fear. Furthermore, the findings indicated that sleep problems were relatively stable between 1 and 1.5 years after an earthquake. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. How to address a global problem with Earth Observations? Developing best practices to monitor forests around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Cordova, A. I.; Cherrington, E. A.; Vadrevu, K.; Thapa, R. B.; Oduor, P.; Mehmood, H.; Quyen, N. H.; Saah, D. S.; Yero, K.; Mamane, B.; Bartel, P.; Limaye, A. S.; French, R.; Irwin, D.; Wilson, S.; Gottielb, S.; Notman, E.

    2017-12-01

    Forests represent a key natural resource, for which degradation or disturbance is directly associated to economic implications, particularly in the context of the United Nations program REDD+ in supporting national policies to fight illegal deforestation. SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations (EO) for improved environmental decision making in developing countries, works with established institutions, called SERVIR hubs, in four regions around the world. SERVIR is partnering with global programs with great experience in providing best practices in forest monitoring systems, such as SilvaCarbon and the Global Forest Observation Initiative (GFOI), to develop a capacity building plan that prioritizes user needs. Representatives from the SERVIR global network met in February 2017 with experts in the field of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for forest applications to envisage this capacity building plan that aims to leverage the state-of-the-art knowledge on remote sensing to enhance forest monitoring for user agencies in SERVIR regions. SERVIR Hubs in West Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa, Hindu Kush-Himalaya and Lower Mekong, have long-lasting relations with local, national and regional initiatives, and there is a strong understanding of needs, concerns and best practices when addressing forest monitoring and capacity building. SERVIR Hubs also have a wealth of experience in building capacity on the use of EO to monitor forests, mostly using optical imagery. Most of the forest cover maps generated with SERVIR support have been used as the official national forest cover dataset for international reporting commitments. However, as new EO datasets become available, and in view of the inherent limitations of optical imagery, there is a strong need to use all freely available EO datasets, including SAR, to improve Monitoring & Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) systems and provide more frequent and accurate information. SERVIR

  8. Philosophical Aspects of Global Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutinaa, Tatyana V.; Baksheev, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this paper is determined by understanding of global environmental problems in the context of social ecology. The purpose of this paper is the analysis of main modern environmental global problems created by the equipment representing a public and social basis for the practical transformation of public relations and also the…

  9. The contradictory impact of globalization and migration on gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Globalization and migration have increased diversities and inequalities within and between nation-states and have created new problems regarding public policies intented to regulate political and socio-economic problems on national and global levels. Globalization and increased migration thus rep...... represent a thoeretical, normative and political challenge to understanding how gender and diversity at the national level are linked to processes of globalization. This article identifies some of the many issues involved in the Asia-Nordic 'local-global dialectic'....

  10. Hip-Hop Is My Passport! Using Hip-Hop and Digital Literacies to Understand Global Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Akesha Monique

    2013-01-01

    Hip-hop has exploded around the world among youth. It is not simply an American source of entertainment; it is a global cultural movement that provides a voice for youth worldwide who have not been able to express their "cultural world" through mainstream media. The emerging field of critical hip-hop pedagogy has produced little…

  11. Argumentation as a Strategy for Increasing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change, a Key Global Socioscientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Findings of this study suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in addressing complex socioscientific issues (i.e. global climate change). This research examined changes in preservice teachers' knowledge and perceptions about climate change in an innovative undergraduate-level elementary science methods course. The…

  12. The Effect of Montessori Method Supported by Social Skills Training Program on Turkish Kindergarten Children's Skills of Understanding Feelings and Social Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayili, Gökhan; Ari, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    The current research was conducted with the purpose of analyzing the effect of Montessori method supported by Social Skills Training Program on kindergarten children's skills of understanding feelings and social problem solving. 53 children attending Ihsan Dogramaci Applied Nursery School affiliated to Selcuk University, Faculty of Health Sciences…

  13. Problems of Understanding English Ironic Expressions by M.A. Students of Applied Linguistics at Mu'tah University in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khawaldeh, Suhaib

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the problems of understanding English ironic expressions M.A. of Applied Linguistics students at Mu'tah University in Jordan. This quantitative and qualitative study includes 15 of M.A. students of Applied Linguistics at Mu'tah University. The participants were selected randomly. Two research instruments…

  14. Understanding Global Change: A New Conceptual Framework To Guide Teaching About Planetary Systems And Both The Causes And Effects Of Changes In Those Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J.; Bean, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Goals of the Next Generation Science Standards include understanding climate change and learning about ways to moderate the causes and mitigate the consequences of planetary-scale anthropogenic activities that interact synergistically to affect ecosystems and societies. The sheer number and scale of both causes and effects of global change can be daunting for teachers, and the lack of a clear conceptual framework for presenting this material usually leads educators (and textbooks) to present these phenomenon as a disjointed "laundry list." But an alternative approach is in the works. The Understanding Global Change web resource, currently under development at the UC Berkeley Museum of Paleontology, will provide educators with a conceptual framework, graphic models, lessons, and assessment templates for teaching NGSS-aligned, interdisciplinary, global change curricula. The core of this resource is an original informational graphic that presents and relates Earth's global systems, human and non-human factors that produce changes in those systems, and the effects of those changes that scientists can measure.

  15. Understanding the Global Water and Energy Cycle Through Assimilation of Precipitation-Related Observations: Lessons from TRMM and Prospects for GPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Arthur; Zhang, Sara; daSilva, Arlindo; Li, Frank; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the Earth's climate and how it responds to climate perturbations relies on what we know about how atmospheric moisture, clouds, latent heating, and the large-scale circulation vary with changing climatic conditions. The physical process that links these key climate elements is precipitation. Improving the fidelity of precipitation-related fields in global analyses is essential for gaining a better understanding of the global water and energy cycle. In recent years, research and operational use of precipitation observations derived from microwave sensors such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) have shown the tremendous potential of using these data to improve global modeling, data assimilation, and numerical weather prediction. We will give an overview of the benefits of assimilating TRMM and SSM/I rain rates and discuss developmental strategies for using space-based rainfall and rainfall-related observations to improve forecast models and climate datasets in preparation for the proposed multi-national Global Precipitation Mission (GPM).

  16. Forest policy and the global portrayal of forest-dwellers: Understanding the role of environmentalist discourses in Brazil and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bending, Tim; Rosendo, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    Critical development theory has understood development and global environ-mental management practice to be the expression of euro-centric discourse that constructs objects such as development and sustainability. Such discourse is presented as a Western or Northern creation and as something imposed on the South. In keeping with the imagery of North/South, centre/margins, top-down/ bottom-up, post-development work has seen marginalised people in the South as passive objects of this process but ...

  17. Global trophic ecology of yellowfin, bigeye, and albacore tunas: Understanding predation on micronekton communities at ocean-basin scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Leanne M.; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Young, Jock W.; Olson, Robert J.; Logan, John M.; Goñi, Nicolas; Romanov, Evgeny; Allain, Valerie; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Abecassis, Melanie; Choy, C. Anela; Hobday, Alistair J.; Simier, Monique; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Potier, Michel; Ménard, Frederic

    2017-06-01

    Predator-prey interactions for three commercially valuable tuna species: yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), bigeye (T. obesus), and albacore (T. alalunga), collected over a 40-year period from the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, were used to quantitatively assess broad, macro-scale trophic patterns in pelagic ecosystems. Analysis of over 14,000 tuna stomachs, using a modified classification tree approach, revealed for the first time the global expanse of pelagic predatory fish diet and global patterns of micronekton diversity. Ommastrephid squids were consistently one of the top prey groups by weight across all tuna species and in most ocean bodies. Interspecific differences in prey were apparent, with epipelagic scombrid and mesopelagic paralepidid fishes globally important for yellowfin and bigeye tunas, respectively, while vertically-migrating euphausiid crustaceans were important for albacore tuna in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Diet diversity showed global and regional patterns among tuna species. In the central and western Pacific Ocean, characterized by low productivity, a high diversity of micronekton prey was detected while low prey diversity was evident in highly productive coastal waters where upwelling occurs. Spatial patterns of diet diversity were most variable in yellowfin and bigeye tunas while a latitudinal diversity gradient was observed with lower diversity in temperate regions for albacore tuna. Sea-surface temperature was a reasonable predictor of the diets of yellowfin and bigeye tunas, whereas chlorophyll-a was the best environmental predictor of albacore diet. These results suggest that the ongoing expansion of warmer, less productive waters in the world's oceans may alter foraging opportunities for tunas due to regional changes in prey abundances and compositions.

  18. No Nation Is Home Alone: Understanding The International Dimension Of Homeland Security Through Global Transportation Security Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    global economy have produced security gaps susceptible to exploitation. Transportation infrastructure , such as air and seaports, can be the target...15 Karen DeYoung, “New Issue of Jihadist Magazine Produced by Al-Qaeda in Yemen Suggests Attacks on U.S.,” Washington Post, December 24, 2014. http...is a complex system of people, things, and infrastructure that cross national boundaries; security policies must continue to be implemented to

  19. Quantitative and qualitative approaches in educational research — problems and examples of controlled understanding through interpretive methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Karl

    1987-06-01

    In the methodological discussion of recent years it has become apparent that many research problems, including problems relating to the theory of educational science, cannot be solved by using quantitative methods. The multifaceted aspects of human behaviour and all its environment-bound subtle nuances, especially the process of education or the development of identity, cannot fully be taken into account within a rigid neopositivist approach. In employing the paradigm of symbolic interactionism as a suitable model for the analysis of processes of education and formation, the research has generally to start out from complex reciprocal social interactions instead of unambigious connections of causes. In analysing several particular methodological problems, the article demonstrates some weaknesses of quantitative approaches and then shows the advantages in and the necessity for using qualitative research tools.

  20. Understanding why the volume of suboxic waters does not increase over centuries of global warming in an Earth System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gnanadesikan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is expected to reduce oxygen solubility and vertical exchange in the ocean, changes which would be expected to result in an increase in the volume of hypoxic waters. A simulation made with a full Earth System model with dynamical atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and biogeochemical cycling (the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's Earth System Model 2.1 shows that this holds true if the condition for hypoxia is set relatively high. However, the volume of the most hypoxic (i.e., suboxic waters does not increase under global warming, as these waters actually become more oxygenated. We show that the rise in dissolved oxygen in the tropical Pacific is associated with a drop in ventilation time. A term-by-term analysis within the least oxygenated waters shows an increased supply of dissolved oxygen due to lateral diffusion compensating an increase in remineralization within these highly hypoxic waters. This lateral diffusive flux is the result of an increase of ventilation along the Chilean coast, as a drying of the region under global warming opens up a region of wintertime convection in our model. The results highlight the potential sensitivity of suboxic waters to changes in subtropical ventilation as well as the importance of constraining lateral eddy transport of dissolved oxygen in such waters.

  1. Understanding why the volume of suboxic waters does not increase over centuries of global warming in an Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Dunne, J. P.; John, J.

    2012-03-01

    Global warming is expected to reduce oxygen solubility and vertical exchange in the ocean, changes which would be expected to result in an increase in the volume of hypoxic waters. A simulation made with a full Earth System model with dynamical atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and biogeochemical cycling (the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's Earth System Model 2.1) shows that this holds true if the condition for hypoxia is set relatively high. However, the volume of the most hypoxic (i.e., suboxic) waters does not increase under global warming, as these waters actually become more oxygenated. We show that the rise in dissolved oxygen in the tropical Pacific is associated with a drop in ventilation time. A term-by-term analysis within the least oxygenated waters shows an increased supply of dissolved oxygen due to lateral diffusion compensating an increase in remineralization within these highly hypoxic waters. This lateral diffusive flux is the result of an increase of ventilation along the Chilean coast, as a drying of the region under global warming opens up a region of wintertime convection in our model. The results highlight the potential sensitivity of suboxic waters to changes in subtropical ventilation as well as the importance of constraining lateral eddy transport of dissolved oxygen in such waters.

  2. From the Field to the Classroom: Developing Scientifically Literate Citizens Using the Understanding Global Change Framework in Education and Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupin, C.; Bean, J. R.; Gavenus, K.; Johnson, H.; Toupin, S.

    2017-12-01

    With the copious amount of science and pseudoscience reported on by non-experts in the media, it is critical for educators to help students develop into scientifically literate citizens. One of the most direct ways to help students develop deep scientific understanding and the skills to critically question the information they encounter is to bring science into their daily experiences and to contextualize scientific inquiry within the classroom. Our work aims to use a systems-based models approach to engage students in science, in both formal and informal contexts. Using the Understanding Global Change (UGC) and the Understanding Science models developed at the Museum of Paleontology at UC Berkeley, high school students from Arizona were tasked with developing a viable citizen science program for use at the Center for Alaskan Coastal Studies in Homer, Alaska. Experts used the UGC model to help students define why they were doing the work, and give context to the importance of citizen science. Empowered with an understanding of the scientific process, excited by the purpose of their work and how it could contribute to the scientific community, students whole-heartedly worked together to develop intertidal monitoring protocols for two locations while staying at Peterson Bay Field Station, Homer. Students, instructors, and scientists used system models to communicate and discuss their understanding of the biological, physical, and chemical processes in Kachemak Bay. This systems-based models approach is also being used in an integrative high school physics, chemistry, and biology curriculum in a truly unprecedented manner. Using the Understanding Global Change framework to organize curriculum scope and sequence, the course addresses how the earth systems work, how interdisciplinary science knowledge is necessary to understand those systems, and how scientists and students can measure changes within those systems.

  3. Problems of Technical Standards Teaching in the Context of the Globalization and Euro-Integration in Higher Education System of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornuta, Olena; Pryhorovska, Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and Ukraine association with EU imply including Ukrainian universities into the world scientific space. The aim of this article is to analyze the problem of drawing standards teaching, based on the experience of Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas (Ukraine) and to summarize the experience of post Soviet…

  4. Problem solving for breast health care delivery in low and middle resource countries (LMCs): consensus statement from the Breast Health Global Initiative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harford, J.B.; Otero, I.V.; Anderson, B.O.; Cazap, E.; Gradishar, W.J.; Gralow, J.R.; Kane, G.M.; Niens, L.M.; Porter, P.L.; Reeler, A.V.; Rieger, P.T.; Shockney, L.D.; Shulman, L.N.; Soldak, T.; Thomas, D.B.; Thompson, B.; Winchester, D.P.; Zelle, S.G.; Badwe, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    International collaborations like the Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) can help low and middle income countries (LMCs) to establish or improve breast cancer control programs by providing evidence-based, resource-stratified guidelines for the management and control of breast cancer. The Problem

  5. Understanding Managerial Problem-Solving, Knowledge Use and Information Processing: Investigating Stages from School to the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Jos A. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2006-01-01

    The present study explores stages in managerial problem-solving skills of participants beginning with formal education, and continuing through the professional workplace setting. We studied nine different levels of expertise: from novice student groups, to graduates and expert groups. Participants were asked to diagnose and solve business cases.…

  6. Learning and Cognition: The Interplay between The Subject and The Group Understanding The Processes of Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Kim Malmbak Meltofte; Fast, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the relationship between learning, epistemology, and intersubjectivity in the context of problem-based learning and project-oriented work at a university level. It aims to show how the collaboration of students in a group over a long period of time can put emphasis on the knowledge-practice discussion, and…

  7. Advancing the "Colorado Graduates" Agenda: Understanding the Dropout Problem and Mobilizing to Meet the Graduation Challenge. [Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan

    2009-01-01

    The ambitious goal set by Colorado's governor to address the state's dropout problem is a model for the nation. Helping thousands of young people to receive their high school diplomas instead of leaving school without them is a crucial step in improving the quality of life for all Colorado residents. Accomplishing this goal will require focused…

  8. Progressive Transitions from Algorithmic to Conceptual Understanding in Student Ability To Solve Chemistry Problems: A Lakatosian Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    The main objective of this study is to construct models based on strategies students use to solve chemistry problems and to show that these models form sequences of progressive transitions similar to what Lakatos (1970) in the history of science refers to as progressive 'problemshifts' that increase the explanatory' heuristic power of the models.…

  9. Micronutrient research in India - the identification and understanding of the problem with particular reference to zinc deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motsara, M.R.

    1975-01-01

    Studies are in progress using isotopes of zinc and other nutrient elements to investigate such problems as the retention and movement of zinc in soils, zinc uptake, its distribution and metabolism in plants, zinc-organic matter, zinc-lime and zinc-phosphorus interaction in soils and plants

  10. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies. A Group Study of Four Topics in the Field of Extension Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farm Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    The publication contains thirteen reports from the Twentieth National Agricultural Policy Conference held September 22-25, 1970, at Pokagon State Park, Angola, Indiana. The conference was designed to assist extension workers by broadening their perspective, understanding, and handling of the methodology of public affairs education. Four topics in…

  11. Satisfaction with the decision to participate in cancer clinical trials is high, but understanding is a problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefford, M; Mileshkin, L; Matthews, J; Raunow, H; O'Kane, C; Cavicchiolo, T; Brasier, H; Anderson, M; Reynolds, J

    2011-03-01

    Partially presented in poster format at the 40th and 41st Annual Meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, held in 2004 in New Orleans, Louisiana and in 2005 in Orlando, Florida. We aimed to: (a) assess patient knowledge about cancer clinical trials (CCT) and satisfaction with their decision to participate, (b) determine whether satisfaction correlates with objective understanding, or other factors, and (c) identify correlates of increased understanding. A convenience sample of 100 patients were recruited. Instruments assessed quality of informed consent (QuIC), quality of life (EORTC QLQ C-30), anxiety and depression (HADS), and preferences for information and involvement in decision making. Measures were completed within 2 weeks of clinical trial enrollment. One hundred two patients (68 male) with a median age of 58.4 years (29-85) were registered in 27 of the 33 therapeutic cancer clinical trials approved for the Consent Study. Mean QuIC objective knowledge (QuIC-A) was 77.6 (/100) (95% CI, 75.7-79.4) and perceived (subjective) understanding (QuIC-B) 91.5 (95% CI, 89.6-93.3). There was low but significant correlation between QuIC-A and B (R = 0.26, p = 0.008). Satisfaction was very high. Correlation between QuIC-B and satisfaction was moderate (0.430, p < 0.001). QuIC-B, but not QuIC-A was associated with QOL scores. Preferences regarding participation in decision making and whether these preferences were achieved did not impact upon knowledge, understanding or satisfaction. Patient knowledge regarding CCT is similar to published US data, and satisfaction is high. Satisfaction correlates with perceived but not objective understanding of CCT. Strategies to further improve the consent process need to be developed.

  12. Understanding Global Change (UGC) as a Unifying Conceptual Framework for Teaching Ecology: Using UGC in a High School Biology Program to Integrate Earth Science and Biology, and to Demonstrate the Value of Modeling Global Systems in Promoting Conceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J.; Bean, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Global change science is ideal for NGSS-informed teaching, but presents a serious challenge to K-12 educators because it is complex and interdisciplinary- combining earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Global systems are themselves complex. Adding anthropogenic influences on those systems creates a formidable list of topics - greenhouse effect, climate change, nitrogen enrichment, introduced species, land-use change among them - which are often presented as a disconnected "laundry list" of "facts." This complexity, combined with public and mass-media scientific illiteracy, leaves global change science vulnerable to misrepresentation and politicization, creating additional challenges to teachers in public schools. Ample stand-alone, one-off, online resources, many of them excellent, are (to date) underutilized by teachers in the high school science course taken by most students: biology. The Understanding Global Change project (UGC) from the UC Berkeley Museum of Paleontology has created a conceptual framework that organizes, connects, and explains global systems, human and non-human drivers of change in those systems, and measurable changes in those systems. This organization and framework employ core ideas, crosscutting concepts, structure/function relationships, and system models in a unique format that facilitates authentic understanding, rather than memorization. This system serves as an organizing framework for the entire ecology unit of a forthcoming mainstream high school biology program. The UGC system model is introduced up front with its core informational graphic. The model is elaborated, step by step, by adding concepts and processes as they are introduced and explained in each chapter. The informational graphic is thus used in several ways: to organize material as it is presented, to summarize topics in each chapter and put them in perspective, and for review and critical thinking exercises that supplement the usual end-of-chapter lists of

  13. Understanding why the volume of suboxic waters does not increase over centuries of global warming in an Earth System Model

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gnanadesikan; J. P. Dunne; J. John

    2012-01-01

    Global warming is expected to reduce oxygen solubility and vertical exchange in the ocean, changes which would be expected to result in an increase in the volume of hypoxic waters. A simulation made with a full Earth System model with dynamical atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and biogeochemical cycling (the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's Earth System Model 2.1) shows that this holds true if the condition for hypoxia is set relatively high. However, the volume of the most hypoxic (i.e., su...

  14. Developing Seventh Grade Students' Understanding of Complex Environmental Problems with Systems Tools and Representations: a Quasi-experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganca Kucuk, Zerrin; Saysel, Ali Kerem

    2017-03-01

    A systems-based classroom intervention on environmental education was designed for seventh grade students; the results were evaluated to see its impact on the development of systems thinking skills and standard science achievement and whether the systems approach is a more effective way to teach environmental issues that are dynamic and complex. A quasi-experimental methodology was used to compare performances of the participants in various dimensions, including systems thinking skills, competence in dynamic environmental problem solving and success in science achievement tests. The same pre-, post- and delayed tests were used with both the comparison and experimental groups in the same public middle school in Istanbul. Classroom activities designed for the comparison group (N = 20) followed the directives of the Science and Technology Curriculum, while the experimental group (N = 22) covered the same subject matter through activities benefiting from systems tools and representations such as behaviour over time graphs, causal loop diagrams, stock-flow structures and hands-on dynamic modelling. After a one-month systems-based instruction, the experimental group demonstrated significantly better systems thinking and dynamic environmental problem solving skills. Achievement in dynamic problem solving was found to be relatively stable over time. However, standard science achievement did not improve at all. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of the results, the weaknesses of the curriculum and educational implications.

  15. Understanding the drivers of marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties with global observations using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Andersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of aerosols, clouds and their interactions with radiation remain among the largest unknowns in the climate system. Even though the processes involved are complex, aerosol–cloud interactions are often analyzed by means of bivariate relationships. In this study, 15 years (2001–2015 of monthly satellite-retrieved near-global aerosol products are combined with reanalysis data of various meteorological parameters to predict satellite-derived marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties by means of region-specific artificial neural networks. The statistical models used are shown to be capable of predicting clouds, especially in regions of high cloud variability. On this monthly scale, lower-tropospheric stability is shown to be the main determinant of cloud fraction and droplet size, especially in stratocumulus regions, while boundary layer height controls the liquid-water amount and thus the optical thickness of clouds. While aerosols show the expected impact on clouds, at this scale they are less relevant than some meteorological factors. Global patterns of the derived sensitivities point to regional characteristics of aerosol and cloud processes.

  16. Why Popper can't resolve the debate over global warming: Problems with the uses of philosophy of science in the media and public framing of the science of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, David

    2018-02-01

    A notable feature in the public framing of debates involving the science of Anthropogenic Global Warming are appeals to uncritical 'positivist' images of the ideal scientific method. Versions of Sir Karl Popper's philosophy of falsification appear most frequently, featuring in many Web sites and broader media. This use of pop philosophy of science forms part of strategies used by critics, mainly from conservative political backgrounds, to manufacture doubt, by setting unrealistic standards for sound science, in the veracity of science of Anthropogenic Global Warming. It will be shown, nevertheless, that prominent supporters of Anthropogenic Global Warming science also often use similar references to Popper to support their claims. It will also be suggested that this pattern reflects longer traditions of the use of Popperian philosophy of science in controversial settings, particularly in the United States, where appeals to the authority of science to legitimize policy have been most common. It will be concluded that studies of the science of Anthropogenic Global Warming debate would benefit from taking greater interest in questions raised by un-reflexive and politically expedient public understanding(s) of the philosophy of science of both critics and supporters of the science of Anthropogenic Global Warming.

  17. Understanding the Concept of Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration in Support of the Post 2015 Global Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2015-01-01

    on top-end technical solutions and high accuracy surveys. Of course, such flexibility allows for land administration systems to be incrementally improved over time. This paper unfolds the Fit-For-Purpose concept by analysing the three core components: • The spatial framework (large scale land parcel......This paper argues that the fit-for-purpose approach to building land administration systems in less developed countries will enable provision of the basic administrative frameworks for managing the people to land relationship that is fundamental for meeting the upcoming post 2015 global agenda....... The term “Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration” indicates that the approach used for building land administration systems in less developed countries should be flexible and focused on serving the purpose of the systems (such as providing security of tenure and control of land use) rather than focusing...

  18. Solving the Global Climate Monitoring Problem in the Atmosphere: Towards SI-tied Climate Records with Integrated Uncertainty Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, G.; Schwaerz, M.; Fritzer, J.; Schwarz, J.; Scherllin-Pirscher, B.; Steiner, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring the atmosphere to gain accurate and long-term stable records of essential climate variables (ECVs) such as temperature and greenhouse gases is the backbone of contemporary atmospheric and climate science. Earth observation from space is the key to obtain such data globally in the atmosphere. Currently, however, not any existing satellite-based atmospheric ECV record can serve as authoritative benchmark over months to decades so that climate variability and change in the atmosphere are not yet reliably monitored. Radio occultation (RO) using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals provides a unique opportunity to solve this problem in the free atmosphere (from ~1-2 km altitude upwards) for core ECVs: the thermodynamic variables temperature and pressure, and to some degree water vapor, which are key parameters for tracking climate change. On top of RO we have recently conceived next-generation methods, microwave and infrared-laser occultation and nadir-looking infrared-laser reflectometry. These can monitor a full set of thermo-dynamic ECVs (incl. wind) as well as the greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane as main drivers of climate change; for the latter we also target the boundary layer for tracking carbon sources and sinks. We briefly introduce to why the atmospheric climate monitoring challenge is unsolved so far and why just the above methods have the capabilities to break through. We then focus on RO, which already provided more than a decade of observations. RO accurately measures time delays from refraction of GNSS signals during atmospheric occultation events. This enables to tie RO-derived ECVs and their uncertainty to fundamental time standards, effectively the SI second, and to their unique long-term stability and narrow uncertainty. However, despite impressive advances since the pioneering RO mission GPS/Met in the mid-1990ties no rigorous trace from fundamental time to the ECVs (duly accounting also for relevant side

  19. A Global-Scale Estimate of Ecosystem Services from Urban Agriculture: Understanding Incentives for Natural Capital in Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, N.; Stuhlmacher, M.; Miles, A.; Uludere, N.; Wagner, M.; Georgescu, M.; Herwig, C.; Gong, P.

    2017-12-01

    Despite substantial interest in urban agriculture, little is known about the aggregate benefits conferred by natural capital for growing food in cities. Here we perform a scenario-based analysis to quantify ecosystem services from adoption of urban agriculture at varying intensity. To drive the scenarios, we created global-scale estimates of vacant land, rooftop and building surface area, at one kilometer resolution, from remotely sensed and modeled geospatial data. We used national scale agricultural reports, climate and other geospatial data at global scale to estimate agricultural production and economic returns, storm-water avoidance, energy savings from avoided heating and cooling costs, and ecosystem services provided by nitrogen sequestration, pollination and biocontrol of pests. The results indicate that vacant lands, followed by rooftops, represent the largest opportunities for natural capital put to agricultural use in urban areas. Ecosystem services from putting such spaces to productive use are dominated by agricultural returns, but energy savings conferred by insulative characteristics of growth substrate also provide economic incentives. Storm water avoidance was estimated to be substantial, but no economic value was estimated. Relatively low economic returns were estimated from the other ecosystem services examined. In aggregate, approximately $10-100 billion in economic incentives, before costs, were estimated. The results showed that relatively developed, high-income countries stand the most to gain from urban agricultural adoption due to the unique combination of climate, crop mixture and crop prices. While the results indicate that urban agriculture is not a panacea for urban food security issues, there is potential to simultaneously ameliorate multiple issues around food, energy and water in urbanized areas.

  20. The importance of socio-ecological system dynamics in understanding adaptation to global change in the forestry sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Victor; Brown, Calum; Holzhauer, Sascha; Vulturius, Gregor; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-07-01

    Adaptation is necessary to cope with or take advantage of the effects of climate change on socio-ecological systems. This is especially important in the forestry sector, which is sensitive to the ecological and economic impacts of climate change, and where the adaptive decisions of owners play out over long periods of time. Relatively little is known about how successful these decisions are likely to be in meeting demands for ecosystem services in an uncertain future. We explore adaptation to global change in the forestry sector using CRAFTY-Sweden; an agent-based model that represents large-scale land-use dynamics, based on the demand and supply of ecosystem services. Future impacts and adaptation within the Swedish forestry sector were simulated for scenarios of socio-economic change (Shared Socio-economic Pathways) and climatic change (Representative Concentration Pathways, for three climate models), between 2010 and 2100. Substantial differences were found in the competitiveness and coping ability of land owners implementing different management strategies through time. Generally, multi-objective management was found to provide the best basis for adaptation. Across large regions, however, a combination of management strategies was better at meeting ecosystem service demands. Results also show that adaptive capacity evolves through time in response to external (global) drivers and interactions between individual actors. This suggests that process-based models are more appropriate for the study of autonomous adaptation and future adaptive and coping capacities than models based on indicators, discrete time snapshots or exogenous proxies. Nevertheless, a combination of planned and autonomous adaptation by institutions and forest owners is likely to be more successful than either group acting alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding the El Niño-like Oceanic Response in the Tropical Pacific to Global Warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-10

    The enhanced central and eastern Pacific SST warming and the associated ocean processes under global warming are investigated using the ocean component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2). The tropical SST warming pattern in the coupled CESM can be faithfully reproduced by the POP2 forced with surface fluxes computed using the aerodynamic bulk formula. By prescribing the wind stress and/or wind speed through the bulk formula, the effects of wind stress change and/or the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback are isolated and their linearity is evaluated in this ocean-alone setting. Result shows that, although the weakening of the equatorial easterlies contributes positively to the El Niño-like SST warming, 80% of which can be simulated by the POP2 without considering the effects of wind change in both mechanical and thermodynamic fluxes. This result points to the importance of the air-sea thermal interaction and the relative feebleness of the ocean dynamical process in the El Niño-like equatorial Pacific SST response to global warming. On the other hand, the wind stress change is found to play a dominant role in the oceanic response in the tropical Pacific, accounting for most of the changes in the equatorial ocean current system and thermal structures, including the weakening of the surface westward currents, the enhancement of the near-surface stratification and the shoaling of the equatorial thermocline. Interestingly, greenhouse gas warming in the absence of wind stress change and WES feedback also contributes substantially to the changes at the subsurface equatorial Pacific. Further, this warming impact can be largely replicated by an idealized ocean experiment forced by a uniform surface heat flux, whereby, arguably, a purest form of oceanic dynamical thermostat is revealed.

  2. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  3. Site selection in global clinical trials in patients hospitalized for heart failure: perceived problems and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Greene, Stephen J; Mentz, Robert J; Adams, Kirkwood F; Anker, Stefan D; Arnold, Malcolm; Baschiera, Fabio; Cleland, John G F; Cotter, Gadi; Fonarow, Gregg C; Giordano, Christopher; Metra, Marco; Misselwitz, Frank; Mühlhofer, Eva; Nodari, Savina; Frank Peacock, W; Pieske, Burkert M; Sabbah, Hani N; Sato, Naoki; Shah, Monica R; Stockbridge, Norman L; Teerlink, John R; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Zalewski, Andrew; Zannad, Faiez; Butler, Javed

    2014-03-01

    There are over 1 million hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) annually in the United States alone, and a similar number has been reported in Europe. Recent clinical trials investigating novel therapies in patients with hospitalized HF (HHF) have been negative, and the post-discharge event rate remains unacceptably high. The lack of success with HHF trials stem from problems with understanding the study drug, matching the drug to the appropriate HF subgroup, and study execution. Related to the concept of study execution is the importance of including appropriate study sites in HHF trials. Often overlooked issues include consideration of the geographic region and the number of patients enrolled at each study center. Marked differences in baseline patient co-morbidities, serum biomarkers, treatment utilization and outcomes have been demonstrated across geographic regions. Furthermore, patients from sites with low recruitment may have worse outcomes compared to sites with higher enrollment patterns. Consequently, sites with poor trial enrollment may influence key patient end points and likely do not justify the costs of site training and maintenance. Accordingly, there is an unmet need to develop strategies to identify the right study sites that have acceptable patient quantity and quality. Potential approaches include, but are not limited to, establishing a pre-trial registry, developing site performance metrics, identifying a local regionally involved leader and bolstering recruitment incentives. This manuscript summarizes the roundtable discussion hosted by the Food and Drug Administration between members of academia, the National Institutes of Health, industry partners, contract research organizations and academic research organizations on the importance of selecting optimal sites for successful trials in HHF.

  4. Few-Group Transport Analysis of the Core-Reflector Problem in Fast Reactor Cores via Equivalent Group Condensation and Local/Global Iteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong Hyuck; Cho, Nam Zin

    2011-01-01

    In deterministic neutron transport methods, a process called fine-group to few-group condensation is used to reduce the computational burden. However, recent results on the core-reflector problem in fast reactor cores show that use of a small number of energy groups has limitation to describe neutron flux around core reflector interface. Therefore, researches are still ongoing to overcome this limitation. Recently, the authors proposed I) direct application of equivalently condensed angle-dependent total cross section to discrete ordinates method to overcome the limitation of conventional multi-group approximations, and II) local/global iteration framework in which fine-group discrete ordinates calculation is used in local problems while few-group transport calculation is used in the global problem iteratively. In this paper, an analysis of the core-reflector problem is performed in few-group structure using equivalent angle-dependent total cross section with local/global iteration. Numerical results are obtained under S 12 discrete ordinates-like transport method with scattering cross section up to P1 Legendre expansion

  5. Chronic arsenic exposure and its adverse health effects in Taiwan: A paradigm for management of a global environmental problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Che Lan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It was estimated that, nearly 100 million people are at risk for drinking arsenic (As-contaminated drinking water. Although the WHO guideline recommends that levels of As in drinking water should not exceed 10 μm/L, it was estimated that more than 30 million people drink As-containing water at levels more than 50 μm/L in Bangladesh and India alone. Therefore, the adverse health effects resulting from chronic As exposure pose a global threat. In Taiwan, studies focusing on the health effects resulting from chronic As exposure through contaminated drinking water have been ongoing for more than 50 years. During the past half century, it was recognized that the impact of high As exposure on human health is much more complicated than originally anticipated. Chronic As exposure resulted in infamous blackfoot disease, which is unique to As endemic areas in Taiwan, and various diseases including cancers and non-cancers. Although the potential-biological outcomes have been well-documented, the pathomechanisms leading from As exposure to occurrence and development of the diseases remain largely unclear. One of the major obstacles that hindered further understanding regarding the adverse health effect resulting from chronic As exposure is documentation of cumulative As exposure from the distant past, which remains difficult as the present technologies mostly document relatively recent As exposure. Furthermore, the susceptibility to As exposure appears to differ between different ethnic groups and individuals and is modified by lifestyle factors including smoking habits and nutrition status. No consensus data has yet been reached even after comparing the study results obtained from different parts of the world focusing on associations between human As toxicity and genetic polymorphisms in terms of cellular detoxification enzymes, tumor suppressor proteins, and DNA repair pathway. With the availability of the new powerful “OMIC” technologies, it may

  6. Understanding Figure of Sunan Kudus as the Internalization of Gusjigang to Develop Entrepreneurship in the Global Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabith Jihan Amaruli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Gusjigang, cultural values owned among Kudus people through the understanding figure of Sunan Kudus, the founder of the city. The acronym of Gusjigang is derived from Javanese language, Gus-Ji-Gang, means Bagus (good, capable, or something related to goodness, Ngaji (learning the Qur’an or learn about anything in life, and Dagang (commerce, trade, or everything related to the spirit of business and entrepreneurship. Based on the oral tradition of Kudus people, “already” believed that Gusjigang could not be separated from the figure of Sunan Kudus and the history of the city.

  7. A transdisciplinary approach to understanding the causes of wicked problems such as the violent conflict in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Velthuizen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is presented against a background of many wicked problems that confront us in the world today such as violent crime, conflict that emanates from political power seeking, contests for scarce resources, the increasing reaction all over the world to the deterioration of socio-economic conditions and the devastation caused by natural disasters. This article will argue that the challenge of violent conflict requires an innovative approach to research and problem solving and proposes a research methodology that follows a transdisciplinary approach. The argument is informed by field research during 2006 on the management of knowledge in the Great Lakes region of Africa, including research on how knowledge on the 1994 genocide in Rwanda is managed. The paper will make recommendations on how transdisciplinary research is required to determine the causes of violent conflict in an African context and how practitioners and academics should engage in transdisciplinarity. It was found that trans- disciplinary research is required to gain better insight into the causes of violent conflict in an African context. It requires from the researcher to recognise the many levels of reality that has to be integrated towards a synthesis to reveal new insights into the causes of violent conflict, including recognising the existence of a normative-spiritual realm that informs the epistemology of Africa. It furthermore requires a methodology that allows us to break out of the stifling constraints of systems thinking and linear processes into the inner space at the juncture where disciplines meet (the diversity of African communities. Keywords: Africa, conflict, Rwanda, crime, genocide, violence, transdisciplinary Disciplines: politics, education, law, epistemology, sociology, theology, management science

  8. Energy Choices. Global Energy Trends and Problems to Supply the Energy Demand; Vaegval Energi. Globala energitrender och problem att tillgodose energibehoven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radetzki, Marian (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Although the use of renewable fuels is increasing, oil and other fossil fuels still dominate the global energy supply the next decades, as shown by a review of energy sector development from 1990 to today and projections up to 2030. Nothing indicates that the supplies of oil or any other fossil fuel will be depleted during the coming decades. Resource Nationalism has long characterized the oil market. OPEC has since 1970 successfully controlled the supply and price of oil for its producing member countries. The cartel's grip on the oil market has been strengthened in the 2000s commodity boom, not least as a result of improved production discipline among member countries. At the same time, the long-term trend in the world's great centers of consumption is towards a lower degree of self-sufficiency in energy. The EU dependence on import of oil is expected to rise to over ninety per cent by year 2030. In order to secure a stable energy supply, clear strategies in the oil-importing countries are needed. Tools include diversified import, storage and securing supplies through futures trading on commodity exchanges. Energy policy has long been focused on supply. But the environmental aspects of energy production and use has grown in importance and now the climate issue dominates the energy policy. So far, however, the policy measures to curb the effects of climate change has been both limited and cost-ineffective. The cost to seriously limit emissions of greenhouse gases will be high. To carry out serious climate measures will annually take at least one percent of global GDP, according to an estimate by the British economist Nicholas Stern. This can be compared to the additional cost of approximately five percent of global GDP as energy consumers had to absorb between 2005 and 2008 because of rising prices for fossil fuels

  9. Understanding space weather to shield society: A global road map for 2015-2025 commissioned by COSPAR and ILWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Kauristie, Kirsti; Aylward, Alan D.; Denardini, Clezio M.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Glover, Alexi; Gopalswamy, Nat; Grande, Manuel; Hapgood, Mike; Heynderickx, Daniel; Jakowski, Norbert; Kalegaev, Vladimir V.; Lapenta, Giovanni; Linker, Jon A.; Liu, Siqing; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Mann, Ian R.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Nandy, Dibyendu; Obara, Takahiro; Paul O'Brien, T.; Onsager, Terrance; Opgenoorth, Hermann J.; Terkildsen, Michael; Valladares, Cesar E.; Vilmer, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing appreciation that the environmental conditions that we call space weather impact the technological infrastructure that powers the coupled economies around the world. With that comes the need to better shield society against space weather by improving forecasts, environmental specifications, and infrastructure design. We recognize that much progress has been made and continues to be made with a powerful suite of research observatories on the ground and in space, forming the basis of a Sun-Earth system observatory. But the domain of space weather is vast - extending from deep within the Sun to far outside the planetary orbits - and the physics complex - including couplings between various types of physical processes that link scales and domains from the microscopic to large parts of the solar system. Consequently, advanced understanding of space weather requires a coordinated international approach to effectively provide awareness of the processes within the Sun-Earth system through observation-driven models. This roadmap prioritizes the scientific focus areas and research infrastructure that are needed to significantly advance our understanding of space weather of all intensities and of its implications for society. Advancement of the existing system observatory through the addition of small to moderate state-of-the-art capabilities designed to fill observational gaps will enable significant advances. Such a strategy requires urgent action: key instrumentation needs to be sustained, and action needs to be taken before core capabilities are lost in the aging ensemble. We recommend advances through priority focus (1) on observation-based modeling throughout the Sun-Earth system, (2) on forecasts more than 12 h ahead of the magnetic structure of incoming coronal mass ejections, (3) on understanding the geospace response to variable solar-wind stresses that lead to intense geomagnetically-induced currents and ionospheric and radiation storms, and (4

  10. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Constant-time solution to the global optimization problem using Brüschweiler's ensemble search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopescu, V.; D'Helon, C.; Barhen, J.

    2003-06-01

    A constant-time solution of the continuous global optimization problem (GOP) is obtained by using an ensemble algorithm. We show that under certain assumptions, the solution can be guaranteed by mapping the GOP onto a discrete unsorted search problem, whereupon Brüschweiler's ensemble search algorithm is applied. For adequate sensitivities of the measurement technique, the query complexity of the ensemble search algorithm depends linearly on the size of the function's domain. Advantages and limitations of an eventual NMR implementation are discussed.

  11. [Empowerment in prevention and health promotion--a critical conceptual evaluation of basic understanding, dimensions and assessment problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliche, T; Kröger, G

    2008-12-01

    Empowerment is an important concept in health care, but despite its prevalence it seems to be more of a buzz word. Thus, a conceptual review on empowerment in prevention and health promotion was carried out. 62 German and international theoretical contributions, reviews and studies were incorporated, covering the fields of prevention, care and therapy, rehabilitation, health-care research, nursing and work-related stress. The analysis revealed eight main dimensions of empowerment: (1) shared decision-making, (2) self-efficacy, (3) social support and social capital, (4) skills and competences, (5) health care utilisation, (6) goal setting and attainment, (7) reflexive thought and (8) innovation. Their empirical assessment can be carried out on a micro-, meso-, or macro-level. Three distinct basic conceptual notions emerged from the analysis, each applying its own specific research questions and measurement instruments: clinical, organizational-professional and political understanding of "empowerment". Therefore, these three specific conceptual notions should each be developed and tested separately, in particular in reviews, and empirical studies should embrace all eight subdimensions.

  12. Refinery plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude : understanding and preventing the problem through new oil gellant chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Cheng, A.; Tamayo, C.; Funkhouser, G.P. [Halliburton, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemieux, A. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Phosphate ester oil gellants are the most prevalent oil gellant technology in use by service companies. However, in 1995, they were found to be responsible for plugging distillation trays at 3 refineries across Canada including Imperial Oil's Strathcona refinery in Edmonton, Petro-Canada's refinery in Oakville, Ontario and Chevron's refinery in Burnaby, British Columbia. Since 1998, additional fouling has occurred in Canada, and in 2002, fouling was detected at a refinery in Pennsylvania while processing Canadian sweet, light crude. Since refiners pay a high cost for unscheduled refinery shutdowns, much effort has gone into solving this problem and to maintain the value of Canadian sweet, light crude. Studies by the Canadian Crude Quality Technical Association (CCQTA) have shown that phosphate esters begin to decompose through hydrolysis of the ester linkage at approximately 240 degrees. Gases cool as they move up the tower through distillation trays. Trays in the temperature range of 230 to 290 degrees C produce most of the volatile phosphorous compounds that condense out of the gas phase and cause plugging, thereby reducing the efficiency of distillation. Phosphate esters are often used with a metal crosslinker such as ferric iron or aluminium to gel hydrocarbons for use as a fracturing fluid. This paper described the advantages of existing ferric iron-crosslinked phosphate ester oil gels over the older, alternative oil gellant chemistries. Carbon dioxide-miscible, gelled hydrocarbon fracturing fluids provide better well stimulation by avoiding capillary pressure effects associated with water-based fluids. The fluid properties of the new phosphonate ester system were compared to those of a conventional phosphate ester system. Field tests from two fracturing treatments were also presented. Plugging did not occur with the new phosphonate ester treatment. 6 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  13. Filling Knowledge Gaps in Biological Networks: integrating global approaches to understand H2 metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posewitz, Matthew C

    2011-06-30

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) has numerous genes encoding enzymes that function in fermentative pathways. Among these genes, are the [FeFe]-hydrogenases, pyruvate formate lyase, pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, acetate kinase, and phosphotransacetylase. We have systematically undertaken a series of targeted mutagenesis approaches to disrupt each of these key genes and omics techniques to characterize alterations in metabolic flux. Funds from DE-FG02-07ER64423 were specifically leveraged to generate mutants with disruptions in the genes encoding the [FeFe]-hydrogenases HYDA1 and HYDA2, pyruvate formate lyase (PFL1), and in bifunctional alcohol/aldehyde alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1). Additionally funds were used to conduct global transcript profiling experiments of wildtype Chlamydomonas cells, as well as of the hydEF-1 mutant, which is unable to make H2 due to a lesion in the [FeFe]-hydrogenase biosynthetic pathway. In the wildtype cells, formate, acetate and ethanol are the dominant fermentation products with traces of CO2 and H2 also being produced. In the hydEF-1 mutant, succinate production is increased to offset the loss of protons as a terminal electron acceptor. In the pfl-1 mutant, lactate offsets the loss of formate production, and in the adh1-1 mutant glycerol is made instead of ethanol. To further probe the system, we generated a double mutant (pfl1-1 adh1) that is unable to synthesize both formate and ethanol. This strain, like the pfl1 mutants, secreted lactate, but also exhibited a significant increase in the levels of extracellular glycerol, acetate, and intracellular reduced sugars, and a decline in dark, fermentative H2 production. Whereas wild-type Chlamydomonas fermentation primarily produces formate and ethanol, the double mutant performs a complete rerouting of the glycolytic carbon to lactate and glycerol. Lastly, transcriptome data have been analysed for both the wildtype and hydEF-1, that correlate with our

  14. The Wood-Growth-and-Burial Process (WGBP) Permanent Wood Sequestration to Solve the Global Carbon Dioxide Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, F.; Hasse, U.

    2008-12-01

    Among all global environmental problems there is one which dominates over all others: this is the excessive release of carbon dioxide due to burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas. The only way to achieve a permanent removal of anthropogenic CO2 must make use of photosynthesis since, so-far, no other technology is able to bind the necessary huge amounts of carbon. Therefore, we propose to grow wood on any available areas, and to bury the wood under anaerobic conditions, e.g., in emptied open pits of coal mining, any other available pits, and possibly also in emptied underground mines. At these places the wood will keep for practically unlimited times, undergoing only very slow carbonization reactions. Simple calculations allow concluding that humans could already now scavenge even all the released CO2, but a more realistic goal may be to bind 20, 30, or 60 percent. This is more a political question than a scientific one. General features of the WGBP are: The growth of woods will transform deforested areas and fallow land to some kind of natural vegetation with the accompanying positive side effects of restoring biotopes, improving the water balance and thus also improving the climate. The growth of woods will produce enormous amounts of oxygen and thus it will add to a sound oxygen balance. It will improve the air quality because of the filtering effect of woods. The growth of woods will improve the soil quality because leaves and roots will stay on and in the ground when the wood is harvested. The WGBP will create jobs in areas where there is an urgent demand for these. The WGBP will offer the opportunity to re-cultivate open pit mining areas. The WGBP will offer the possibility to fill underground mines in a way to prevent earth quakes caused by collapsing mine shafts. The WGBP will enable mankind to survive the time span ahead of us in which mankind will still use fossil fuels. The WGBP can be easily financed by societies via very small additional taxes

  15. Political anticipation: observing and understanding global socio-economic trends with a view to guide the decision-making processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillol, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Political anticipation (PA), as practiced by Laboratoire Européen d'Anticipation Politique, is a method for improving the capacity to understand trends and forecast events with the aim of influencing events on a large or small scale. Our operational definition of anticipation is 'To foresee in order to act.' Intended to be efficient and of immediate use, PA is conceived as a decision-making tool for all types of decision-makers: politicians, economists, administrators, business leaders, private investors, educators, as well as heads of households. Everyone, in a professional or private role, makes important decisions (for employees, for business operations and commerce, for family, for investments, for jurisdictions, and for the country and economic zone, among other areas in which the polis is involved). Given the dynamics of reality in our times, every decision appears as a wager on the future. It is also related to the wish or desire to obtain the best outcome for risk assumed (which a wager entails) and the effort expended.

  16. The Problem and Goals Are Global, the Solutions Are Local: Revisiting Quality Measurements and the Role of the Private Sector in Global Health Professions Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Hossam

    2017-08-01

    The shortage of a competent health workforce is a global challenge. However, its manifestations and proposed solutions are very much context related (i.e., local). In addition to the shortage of health professionals, the quality of health professions education programs, institutions, and graduates, and how to measure quality, are also problematic. Commonly used metrics like the Credit Hours System and the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System have limitations (e.g., being more focused on quantity than quality).In this Invited Commentary, the author discusses the need to revisit quality measurements in health professions education and the issue of whether the private sector has a role to play in narrowing the ever-increasing gap between the demand for health care professionals and the health care workforce shortage.

  17. How to Address a Global Problem with Earth Observations? Developing Best Practices to Monitor Forests Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Cordova, Africa I.; Cherrington, Emil A.; Vadrevu, Krishna; Thapa, Rajesh Bahadur; Odour, Phoebe; Mehmood, Hamid; Quyen, Nguyen Hanh; Saah, David; Yero, Kadidia; Mamane, Bako; hide

    2017-01-01

    Forests represent a key natural resource, for which degradation or disturbance is directly associated to economic implications, particularly in the context of the United Nations program REDD+ in supporting national policies to fight illegal deforestation. SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations (EO) for improved environmental decision making in developing countries, works with established institutions, called SERVIR hubs, in four regions around the world. SERVIR is partnering with global programs with great experience in providing best practices in forest monitoring systems, such as SilvaCarbon and the Global Forest Observation Initiative (GFOI), to develop a capacity building plan that prioritizes user needs. Representatives from the SERVIR global network met in February 2017 with experts in the field of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for forest applications to envisage this capacity building plan that aims to leverage the state-of-the-art knowledge on remote sensing to enhance forest monitoring for user agencies in SERVIR regions.

  18. New era of satellite chlorophyll fluorescence and soil moisture observations leads to advances in the predictive understanding of global terrestrial coupled carbon-water cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, B.; Xue, Y.; Fisher, J.; Guo, W.

    2017-12-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle and water cycle are coupled through a multitude of connected processes among soil, roots, leaves, and the atmosphere. The strength and sensitivity of these couplings are not yet well known at the global scale, which contributes to uncertainty in predicting the terrestrial water and carbon budgets. For the first time, we now have synchronous, high fidelity, global-scale satellite observations of critical terrestrial carbon and water cycle components: sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) and soil moisture. We used these observations within the framework of a well-established global terrestrial biosphere model (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 2.0, SSiB2) to investigate carbon-water coupling processes. We updated SSiB2 to include a mechanistic representation of SIF and tested the sensitivity of model parameters to improve the simulation of both SIF and soil moisture with the ultimate objective of improving the first-order terrestrial carbon component, gross primary production (GPP). Although several vegetation parameters, such as leaf area index (LAI) and green leaf fraction, improved the simulated SIF, and several soil parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity, improved simulated soil moisture, their effects were mainly limited to their respective cycles. One parameter emerged as the key coupler between the carbon and water cycles: the wilting point. Updates to the wilting point significantly improved the simulations for both soil moisture and SIF, as well as GPP. This study demonstrates the value of synchronous global measurements of the terrestrial carbon and water cycles in improving the understanding of coupled carbon-water cycles.

  19. Interactions between global processes and local health problems. A human ecology approach to health among indigenous groups in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Lis Follér

    Full Text Available This article deals with methodological issues and how to link global processes - social and ecological - with environmental changes and human health in local communities. The discussion concerns how interdisciplinary approaches can help us find tools to develop new knowledge. Scientific knowledge and local knowledge are not seen as opposite epistemological forms, but as socially and culturally constructed. Power and social legitimacy have to be included when analyzing how to deal with the interaction between global processes and local environmental change and the health/disease interface.

  20. Solving global problem by considering multitude of local problems: Application to fluid flow in anisotropic porous media using the multipoint flux approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2014-09-01

    In this work we apply the experimenting pressure field approach to the numerical solution of the single phase flow problem in anisotropic porous media using the multipoint flux approximation. We apply this method to the problem of flow in saturated anisotropic porous media. In anisotropic media the component flux representation requires, generally multiple pressure values in neighboring cells (e.g., six pressure values of the neighboring cells is required in two-dimensional rectangular meshes). This apparently results in the need for a nine points stencil for the discretized pressure equation (27 points stencil in three-dimensional rectangular mesh). The coefficients associated with the discretized pressure equation are complex and require longer expressions which make their implementation prone to errors. In the experimenting pressure field technique, the matrix of coefficients is generated automatically within the solver. A set of predefined pressure fields is operated on the domain through which the velocity field is obtained. Apparently such velocity fields do not satisfy the mass conservation equations entailed by the source/sink term and boundary conditions from which the residual is calculated. In this method the experimenting pressure fields are designed such that the residual reduces to the coefficients of the pressure equation matrix. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.