This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…
Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.
Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…
Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn
This paper tests the hypotheses that overall wage compression and low female supply relative to demand reduce a country's gender pay gap. Using micro-data for 22 countries over the 1985-94 period, we find that more compressed male wage structures and lower female net supply are both associated with a lower gender pay gap. Since it is likely that labor market institutions are responsible for an important portion of international differences in wage inequality, the inverse relationship between ...
Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.
The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861
Zhang, Xiaofei; Guo, Xitong; Lai, Kee-Hung; Guo, Feng; Li, Chenlei
Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly popular in healthcare, but research on m-health adoption is rare. This study was designed to obtain a better understanding of m-health adoption intention. We conducted an empirical research of a 481-respondent sample consisting of 44.7% women and 55.3% men and developed a modified theory of reasoned action (TRA) model by incorporating the nonlinearities between attitude and subjective norms and the moderating effect of gender. The results indicate that, based on the study population in China: (1) facilitating conditions, attitude, and subjective norms are significant predictors of m-health adoption intention; (2) the model including the nonlinearities enhances its explanatory ability; (3) males enjoy a higher level of m-health adoption intention compared with females; (4) the modified TRA model can predict men's behavior intention better than that of women; and (5) males have an Edgeworth-Pareto substitutability between attitude and subjective norms in predicting m-health adoption intention. Thus, we found gender differences in m-health adoption from the perspective of social psychology.
Bates, Simon; Donnelly, Robyn; MacPhee, Cait; Sands, David; Birch, Marion; Walet, Niels R
We present the results of a combined study from three UK universities where we investigate the existence and persistence of a performance gender gap in conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Using the Force Concept Inventory, we find that students at all three universities exhibit a statistically significant gender gap, with males outperforming females. This gap is narrowed but not eliminated after instruction, using a variety of instructional approaches. Furthermore, we find that before instruction the quartile with the lowest performance on the diagnostic instrument comprises a disproportionately high fraction (∼50%) of the total female cohort. The majority of these students remain in the lowest-performing quartile post-instruction. Analysis of responses to individual items shows that male students outperform female students on practically all items on the instrument. Comparing the performance of the same group of students on end-of-course examinations, we find no statistically significant gender gaps. (paper)
Green, Michelle T.; And Others
Gender differences in referral for child mental health services were explored through a survey of attitudes among 135 elementary teachers. Teachers were less likely to refer students with good academic performance, and tended to expect girls to transcend internalizing problems through maturation. Externalizing problems were thought to merit…
Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha
We discuss the development of a research-based conceptual multiple-choice survey of magnetism. We also discuss the use of the survey to investigate gender differences in students' difficulties with concepts related to magnetism. We find that while there was no gender difference on the pre-test. However, female students performed significantly worse than male students when the survey was given as a post-test in traditionally taught calculus-based introductory physics courses with similar results in both the regular and honors versions of the course. In the algebra-based courses, the performance of female and male students has no statistical difference on the pre-test or the post-test.
O'Brien, Kimberly H McManama; Putney, Jennifer M; Hebert, Nicholas W; Falk, Amy M; Aguinaldo, Laika D
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are disproportionately affected by suicide-related thoughts and behaviors relative to their heterosexual and/or non-transgender peers. Theory and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique factors that contribute to this elevated risk, with distinguishable differences among SGM subgroups. Although SGM youth suicide prevention research is in its nascence, initial findings indicate that interventions which focus on family support and acceptance may be beneficial. It is critical that we develop and test tailored interventions for SGM youth at risk for suicide, with specific attention to subgroup differences and reductions in suicide-related thoughts and behaviors as outcomes.
Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn
We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere, appear to be primarily due to gender-specific factors. However, the relatively large gender pay...
Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario
and causing the most productive female workers to seek better jobs in more female-friendly firms in which they can pursue small career advancements. Nonetheless, gender differences in promotion persist and are found to be similar in all firms when we focus on large career advancements. These results provide......In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica
The United States has made a significant effort and investment in STEM education, yet the size and the composition of the STEM workforce continues to fail to meet demand. It is thus important to understand the barriers and factors that influence individual educational and career choices. In this article, we conduct a literature review of the current knowledge surrounding individual and gender differences in STEM educational and career choices, using expectancy-value theory as a guiding framework. The overarching goal of this paper is to provide both a well-defined theoretical framework and complementary empirical evidence for linking specific sociocultural, contextual, biological, and psychological factors to individual and gender differences in STEM interests and choices. Knowledge gained through this review will eventually guide future research and interventions designed to enhance individual motivation and capacity to pursue STEM careers, particularly for females who are interested in STEM but may be constrained by misinformation or stereotypes.
Pinciotti, Caitlin M; Orcutt, Holly K
Victims of sexual violence are frequently blamed by friends, family, or legal personnel in the aftermath of an attack, with men attributing greater blame on average than women. Victims' experiences of being blamed may generate a vicious cycle in which they are more likely to be blamed in the future. Moreover, just world beliefs (JWB) have been studied extensively as an underlying cognitive mechanism that predicts greater blame. Studies examining the influence of social support on blame have yet to examine the unique role of JWB on these attributions. The current study examined blame attribution of a fictional rape victim who received either positive, negative, or neutral support from friends and family in a sample of 383 undergraduate men and women. Individually, social support and JWB were both significant predictors of blame, and women were more influenced by social support than men; specifically, gender was a more salient predictor of blame toward the positively supported victim, suggesting that positive support received by friends and family may evoke a domino effect of support from other women. Conditional effects revealed that JWB were most influential on blame when responding to the positively supported victim. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina
Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.
Hyde, Janet Shibley
Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.
Fowler, Stephanie L; Rasinski, Heather M; Geers, Andrew L; Helfer, Suzanne G; France, Christopher R
Prior research has found that sex differences in pain are partially due to individual variations in gender roles. In a laboratory study, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of covert gender role cues can also moderate the extent to which women and men experience pain. Specifically, we varied gender role cues by asking male and female participants to write about instances in which they behaved in a stereotypically feminine, masculine, or neutral manner. Pain and cardiovascular reactivity to the cold pressor task were then assessed. Results revealed that, when primed with femininity, men reported less pain and anxiety from the cold pressor task than women. However, no differences existed between the sexes in the masculine or neutral prime conditions. The results indicate that covert gender cues can alter pain reports. Further, at least in some situations, feminine role cues may be more influential on pain reports than masculine role cues.
Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.
Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin
Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males. The results help people understand that when talking about gender differences in interpersonal situations, the gender identity of target persons should be considered. These findings are somewhat in conflict with those of previous studies conducted in Western cultures, and suggest that culture should also be explored in future studies on gender differences in interpersonal relationships. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.
Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Steiner, Jennifer L; Cyders, Melissa A
Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (α=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, pnegative expectancies (F=36.65, p=0.02 sending, F=14.41, pnegative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks.
Misu, L.; Budayasa, I. K.; Lukito, A.
This research is to describe metacognition profile of female and male mathematics’ pre-service teachers in understanding the concept of integral calculus. The subjects of this study are one female and 1 male mathematics’ pre-service teachers who have studied integral calculus. This research type is an explorative study with the qualitative approach. The main data collection of this research was obtained by using Interview technique. In addition, there are supporting data which is the result of the written work of research subjects (SP) in understanding the question of integral calculus. The results of this study are as follows: There is a difference in metacognition profiles between male and female mathematics’ pre-service teachers in the understanding concept of integral calculus in the interpreting category, especially the definite integral concept. While in the category of exemplifying, there is no difference in metacognition profile between male and female mathematics’ pre-service teachers either the definite integral concept and the indefinite integral concept.
Mora-Ripoll, R; Ubal-López, R
Laughter is associated to many physiological and psychological benefits. Although women laugh more than men do, the daily frequency of laughter does not seem to differ. Laughter in all its forms and manifestations is an indicator of family vitality and healthy couples. Laughter is very attractive at the interpersonal level, especially for women. Men use humor much more and laughter when it comes to discussing sensitive health issues. In women, laughter would be more associated with greater social support in relationships and as a tool to cope with stress. Inviting laughter in the doctor's office may be very useful when directing certain messages on therapeutic management. Taking into account possible gender differences in the use of humor and laughter may help to improve the relationship with the patient and optimize the clinical application of laughter in health care and education setting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised ...
Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Wolak, Caitlin; Greener, Judith; Tedaldi, Ellen; Nanavati, Aasit; Ruppert, Katey; Gordon, Thomas F
Minority participation in HIV clinical trials research is critical to understanding the impact of medications or behavioral interventions, but little is known about gender differences in perceptions of participation. We surveyed 50 minority HIV+ patients from an urban clinic to assess perceived risks/benefits of clinical trial research participation and used innovative marketing methods to analyze results. Perceptual mapping and vector message-modeling, a method that creates 3-D models representing how groups conceptualize elements, were used to assess how male and female participants could be motivated to participate. Results showed men farther away from participation and more concerned with HIV disclosure and experimentation than women. Men expressed distrust of the medical system, doubted HIV's origin, and knew less about research implementation. Women were closer to participation in both behavior and medical trials and perceived medication issues as more significant, including fear of losing medication stability, medications not working, being in the placebo group, and experiencing side effects. Vector modeling shows that messages would need to focus on different aspects of clinical research for men and women and that interventions aimed at minority HIV+ patients to encourage clinical trial participation would need to be targeted to their unique perceptions. Understanding gender perceptions of HIV clinical research has significant implications for targeting messages to increase minority participation.
MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen
Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…
Brückner, Sebastian; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Happ, Roland; Walstad, William B.; Yamaoka, Michio; Asano, Tadayoshi
Gender effects in large-scale assessments have become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Yet few studies have linked differences in assessment results of male and female students in higher education to construct-relevant features of the target construct. This paper examines gender effects on students' economic…
Brandt, Mark J; Henry, P J
Authoritarianism may be endorsed in part as a means of managing and buffering psychological threats (e.g., Duckitt & Fisher, 2003; Henry, 2011). Building on this research, the authors postulated that authoritarianism should be especially prevalent among women in societies with high levels of gender inequality because they especially face more psychological threats associated with stigma compared with men. After establishing that authoritarianism is, in part, a response to rejection, a psychological threat associated with stigma (Study 1), the authors used multilevel modeling to analyze data from 54 societies to find that women endorsed authoritarian values more than men, especially in individualistic societies with high levels of gender inequality (Study 2). Results show that the threats of stigma for women are not uniform across different cultures and that the degree of stigma is related to the degree of endorsement of psychologically protective attitudes such as authoritarianism.
Acar, Oguz Ali; van den Ende, Jan
Global prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure, however, is paradoxical in nature: in order for the value of knowledge to be assessed, inventors must disclose their knowledge, but then the person who receives that knowledge does so at no cost and may use it opportunistically. This risk of potential opportunistic behavior in turn makes the inventor fearful of disclosing knowledge, and this is a major psychological barrier to knowledge disclosure. In this project, we investigated this fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests by surveying 630 contest participants in the InnoCentive online platform for science contests. We found that participants in these science contests experience fear of opportunism to varying degrees, and that women and older participants have significantly less fear of disclosing their scientific knowledge. Our findings highlight the importance of taking differences in such fears into account when designing global prize-based contests so that the potential of the contests for reaching solutions to important and challenging problems can be used more effectively.
Oguz Ali Acar
Full Text Available Global prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure, however, is paradoxical in nature: in order for the value of knowledge to be assessed, inventors must disclose their knowledge, but then the person who receives that knowledge does so at no cost and may use it opportunistically. This risk of potential opportunistic behavior in turn makes the inventor fearful of disclosing knowledge, and this is a major psychological barrier to knowledge disclosure. In this project, we investigated this fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests by surveying 630 contest participants in the InnoCentive online platform for science contests. We found that participants in these science contests experience fear of opportunism to varying degrees, and that women and older participants have significantly less fear of disclosing their scientific knowledge. Our findings highlight the importance of taking differences in such fears into account when designing global prize-based contests so that the potential of the contests for reaching solutions to important and challenging problems can be used more effectively.
Frandsen, Tove Faber; Jacobsen, Rasmus Højbjerg; Wallin, Johan A
The aim of this study is to compare PhD students' performance with respect to gender using a number of matching methods. The data consists of fine-grained information about PhD-students at the Institute of Clinical Research at the University of Southern Denmark. Men and women are matched...... of gender differences in productivity and citation impact....
Grunberg, N E; Winders, S E; Wewers, M E
Gender differences in overall tobacco use clearly exist. In general, men are more likely to use tobacco products than are women. However, this simple generalization, ignoring type of tobacco products, time, and culture, masks many more interesting gender differences in tobacco use. There are pronounced gender differences in tobacco use of specific tobacco products within some cultures but not others. Yet these differences have changed across time, including narrowing and widening of this gender gap, depending on culture and tobacco product. This article addresses these issues and presents possible psychosocial, biological, and psychobiological explanations for these phenomena. In addition, the implications of these differences and ways to learn more about these important differences are discussed.
Tüzin Baycan-Levent; Enno Masurel; Peter Nijkamp
Gender-based differences are the most important topic of discussion in female entrepreneurship studies. While the earliest studies focused on psychological and sociological characteristics of female entrepreneurs, assuming there were only a few differences between males and females, more recent studies have focused on gender-based differences in entrepreneurship from a new perspective, referred to as the “integrated perspective”, which is rooted in psychological and sociological theories. Thi...
Haaxma, Charlotte A.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Borm, George F.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Eshuis, Silvia; Booij, Jan; Dluzen, Dean E.; Horstink, Martin W. I. M.
Objective: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists ( disease duration Results: Age at onset
Haaxma, C.A.; Bloem, B.R.; Borm, G.F.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Leenders, K.L.; Eshuis, S.; Booij, J.; Dluzen, D.E.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists (disease duration < or = 10 years). We
Haaxma, Charlotte A.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Borm, George F.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Eshuis, Silvia; Booij, Jan; Dluzen, Dean E.; Horstink, Martin W. I. M.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists (disease duration < or = 10 years). We
Becker, Jill B.; McClellan, Michele L.; Reed, Beth Glover
This review discusses alcohol/other drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain afte...
Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA)
Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation...
Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C.
Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined
Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga
The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil [Child Neuropsychological Assessment] (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, & Ostrosky-Solis, 2007), were analyzed. The sample included 788 monolingual children (350 boys, 438 girls) ages 5 to 16 years from Mexico and Colombia. Gender differences were observed in oral language (language expression and language comprehension), spatial abilities (recognition of pictures seen from different angles), and visual (Object Integration Test) and tactile perceptual tasks, with boys outperforming girls in most cases, except for the tactile tasks. Gender accounted for only a very small percentage of the variance (1%-3%). Gender x Age interactions were observed for the tactile tasks only. It was concluded that gender differences during cognitive development are minimal, appear in only a small number of tests, and account for only a low percentage of the score variance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michele L; Reed, Beth Glover
This review discusses alcohol and other forms of drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural, and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences. In addition, the basic laboratory evidence for sex differences is discussed within the context of four types of sex/gender differences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Richardson, Jen; Holdcroft, Anita
Subtle genetic and psychological variations are increasingly recognized to contribute to pain and analgesic efficacy and safety. The influence of sex on this relationship remains poorly understood, particularly in humans. The issue is complicated by the overlay of gender onto physical sex, and its associated stereotypes and expectations. Women appear to use more pain-relieving medications than men; however, it remains unclear whether these observations represent true differences in analgesic usage patterns, or reporting bias. Differences in analgesic efficacy relating to body composition, metabolism and hormonal profiles have been demonstrated. Psychological and social elements of gender have also been associated with altered pain experiences and analgesic use profiles, albeit with significant individual variations. Intra-group differences may ultimately prove more important than sex differences. Further research may unravel the various threads linking gender and sex effects on analgesia with the aim of individualizing analgesia to optimize pain relief.
Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris
Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…
Baycan, T.; Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.
Gender-based differences are the most important topic of discussion in female entrepreneurship studies. While earlier studies focused on psychological and sociological characteristics of female entrepreneurs, assuming there were only a few differences between males and females, more recent studies
Full Text Available This research analyzes gender differences observed in different aspects of adolescent lifestyles, such as physical activities and sports, involvement in extracurricular activities, use of ICT’s, time spent with friends and time spent studying, substance use, and sleep-related routines. Bearing this in mind, we analyzed differences by year and gender in a sample of 2400 adolescents, 55.5 percent girls and 44.5 percent of boys, aged between 12 and 17 (mean age =14.73 and SD = 1.24 in 20 schools from Andalusia. The results from correlation analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey test confirm significant correlations between most variables making up lifestyle, most of them positive except those related to substance use (most correlations were negative. We also found significant gender differences in lifestyles: 10 out of the 15 variables analyzed have significant gender differences. A significant negative correlation with age was found in a number of variables making up healthy lifestyles, such as the practice of sport and physical activity, participation in extracurricular activities and sleep.
Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); M. Minniti (Maria); C. Schade (Christian)
textabstractUsing data from representative population surveys in 17 countries, we find that the lower rate of female business ownership is primarily due to women's lower propensity to start businesses rather than to differences in survival rates across genders. We show that women are less confident
Koellinger, P.; Minniti, M.; Schade, C.
Using data from representative population surveys in 17 countries, we find that the lower rate of female business ownership is primarily due to women's lower propensity to start businesses rather than to differences in survival rates across genders. We show that women are less confident in their
This study explored differences in disciplinary approaches of male and female teachers toward male and female children, examining the connection between educator's gender and method of disciplining urban, elementary school aged children. Participants were 20 New York State certified and licensed teachers in two elementary schools. Teacher surveys…
Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA
Full Text Available Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation of these issues from the interdisciplinary perspective is the subject of this article. Briefly, the article refers to: importance of communication in transmission of roles of those two sexes, cultural dimensions that reflect role differences invarious cultures, discrimination issues and ethics of sexual difference.
Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla, Paz; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Sáiz, Pilar A; Bobes Bascarán, Teresa; Casares, María José; Fonseca, Eduardo; Al-Halabí, Susana; Bobes, Julio
Gender has been associated with substance use disorders (SUD). However, there are few studies that have evaluated gender differences in a global and a standardized way, and with a large sample of patients with SUD. Our goal is to analyze the role of gender in addiction severity throughout multiple life domains, using the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6). A naturalistic, multicenter and prospective study was conducted. A total of 221 patients with SUD (80.1% men) were interviewed with the ASI-6. Our results indicate that the Recent Summary Scores (RSSs) of men and women are similar, with the exception of Psychiatric and Partner- Problems, where women showed higher severity (p = .017 and p = .013, respectively). Statistically significant gender differences were found in certain aspects of the ASI-6 domains: men have more problems of physical health, legal issues, and alcohol and other substance use; and woman score higher in problems of mental health, social network, subjective evaluations of SUD consequences, and treatment needs. These results should be taken into account to improve the identification, prevention, and treatment of SUD.
Jürgen Ergun, Selim
Full Text Available This paper reviews the experimental economics literature on gender differences concerning four salient subjects: risk aversion, trust, deception and leadership. We review both experiments conducted in a laboratory and field experiments. We summarize very briefly the main characteristics of the experiments we review and point out the main results related to gender differences. The vast majority of the articles we have revised document gender differences in behavior; differences which could be explained by sex-role stereotypes which could be formed even in early stages of life and/or hormonal differences such as the female hormone oxytocin or estrogen.
Este artículo revisa la literatura en el área de economía experimental sobre las diferencias de género en cuatro temas destacados: aversión al riesgo, confianza, engaño y liderazgo. Se revisan tanto experimentos realizados en laboratorios como experimentos de campo. Resumimos brevemente las principales características de los experimentos que consideramos y señalamos los principales resultados relacionados con las diferencias de género. La gran mayoría de los artículos que hemos revisado documentan diferencias de género en el comportamiento. Estas diferencias podrían explicarse por los estereotipos de roles sexuales que podrían formarse incluso en edades tempranas y / o diferencias hormonales como la hormona femenina oxitocina, o el estrógeno.
Full Text Available This paper examines gender differences in different types of social networks. One of the main concepts relevant for studying gender differences is homophily, which refers to the tendency of people to interact more with similar individuals. In this paper homophily is analysed within the structural perspective which explains that the structures of our networks depend primarily on opportunities for social interactions, i.e. the composition and dynamics of the social context in which these interactions are embedded. Homophily is evident among males and females as early as in childhood, only to be even more prominent in school and adult years. Sex segregation is probably the most evident in the organisational context, where it has detrimental effects on women's careers, as women are generally underrepresented in positions of power and authority. Research in the last two decades pointed to the facts: 1 that men and women have very different types of organisational networks, 2 that successful men and women adopt different strategies to reach similar career objectives and acquire similar resources, and 3 that organisations also need to be actively involved in solving these gender-related issues.
Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph
Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition.
Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph
Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition. PMID:27802294
Christine R. Harris
Full Text Available Across many real-world domains, men engage in more risky behaviors than do women. To examine some of the beliefs and preferences that underlie this difference, 657 participants assessed their likelihood of engaging in various risky activities relating to four different domains (gambling, health, recreation, and social, and reported their perceptions of (1 probability of negative outcomes, (2 severity of potential negative outcomes, and (3 enjoyment expected from the risky activities. Women's greater perceived likelihood of negative outcomes and lesser expectation of enjoyment partially mediated their lower propensity toward risky choices in gambling, recreation, and health domains. Perceptions of severity of potential outcomes was a partial mediator in the gambling and health domains. The genders did not differ in their propensity towards taking social risks. A fifth domain of activities associated with high potential payoffs and fixed minor costs was also assessed. In contrast to other domains, women reported being more likely to engage in behaviors in this domain. This gender difference was partially mediated by women's more optimistic judgments of the probability of good outcomes and of
Callanan, Valerie J; Davis, Mark S
Gender differences in suicide completion rates have been attributed to the differences in lethality of suicide methods chosen by men and women, but few empirical studies have investigated factors other than demographic characteristics that might explain this differential. Data from the 621 suicides in Summit County, Ohio during 1997-2006 were disaggregated by gender to compare known correlates of suicide risk on three methods of suicide-firearm, hanging and drug poisoning. Compared to women, men who completed suicide with firearms were more likely to be married and committed the act at home. Unmarried men were likelier to hang themselves than married men, but unmarried women were less likely to hang themselves than married women. Men with a history of depression were more likely to suicide by hanging, but women with depression were half as likely to hang themselves compared to the women without a history of depression. Men with a history of substance abuse were more likely to suicide by poisoning than men without such history, but substance abuse history had no influence on women's use of poisoning to suicide. For both sexes, the odds of suicide by poisoning were significantly higher for those on psychiatric medications.
Davidhizar, R; Cramer, C
The leadership characteristics and behaviors of men and women differ. As increasing numbers of women enter positions of leadership, understanding of these differences can increase the quality and productiveness of relationships in the workplace. This article describes the evolution of women in leadership, gender differences in leadership style, and the way gender may affect behaviors in the workplace.
Campanini, P; Punzi, Silvia; Carissimi, Emanuela; Gilioli, R
Despite the attention that international Agencies give to the gender issue in situations of workplace bullying, few investigations have been performed on this topic. The aim of the study is describe the gender differences in victims of workplace bullying observed in an Italian survey. A total of 243 subjects (124 males and 119 females) were examined at the Centre for Occupational Stress and Harassment of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" (University of Milan and IRCCS Foundation); they were selected among patients who met the criteria for being considered victims of negative actions at work leading to workplace bullying. Data regarding the person, workplace and the workplace bullying situation were collected by means of an ad hoc questionnaire. Analysis of the data, compared with those of IS-TAT 2002, showed a higher prevalence of females subjected to negative actions at work. In women, the risk of being subjected to negative actions leading to workplace bullying was shown to increase in the 34-44 age range and to decrease in higher age ranges; in men the risk remained elevated also after 55 years of age. In general, women were victims of negative actions regarding personal values related to emotional-relational factors, while men were attacked on their work performance. Sexual harassment, may mark the onset of other types of psychological harassment or can be one of its components.
Kouřilová, Sylvie; Hřebíčková, Martina
43 2008, 3-4 (2008), s. 709-709 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /XXIX/. 21.07.2008-25.07.2008, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : gender differences * gender stereotypes * five-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente
This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this
Jamil, Syed Ahsan; Khan, Khaliquzzaman
Humans are believed to be rational decision makers and documentary evidence proves a significant heterogeneity across individuals when it comes to investment decision making and risk bearing. The study is an attempt to explore and understand the heterogeneity of investment decision when it comes to gender behavior with focus on women. The aim of this research is to explore role of gender in investment decision making and to identify the points of difference between the two genders with respec...
Große, Niels Daniel; Riener, Gerhard
Gender-specific patterns of self-selection into competitive and cooperative environments may have multiple reasons. One of the most prominent explanations to this point is, that there are inherent differences between men and women when it comes to preferences regarding competition. We take a different point of view and claim that gender-task stereotypes are able to explain a large part of the under-representation of women in tournament like environments. We conduct an experiment with a quanti...
Smith, Ronda Marie; Sardeshmukh, Shruti R.; Combs, Gwendolyn M.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the complex relationships between gender and entrepreneurial intentions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two study design where the second study is a constructive replication of the first study. The first study uses a cross-sectional design, while the second uses a design where data…
Schmitt, David P; Long, Audrey E; McPhearson, Allante; O'Brien, Kirby; Remmert, Brooke; Shah, Seema H
Men's and women's personalities appear to differ in several respects. Social role theories of development assume gender differences result primarily from perceived gender roles, gender socialization and sociostructural power differentials. As a consequence, social role theorists expect gender differences in personality to be smaller in cultures with more gender egalitarianism. Several large cross-cultural studies have generated sufficient data for evaluating these global personality predictions. Empirically, evidence suggests gender differences in most aspects of personality-Big Five traits, Dark Triad traits, self-esteem, subjective well-being, depression and values-are conspicuously larger in cultures with more egalitarian gender roles, gender socialization and sociopolitical gender equity. Similar patterns are evident when examining objectively measured attributes such as tested cognitive abilities and physical traits such as height and blood pressure. Social role theory appears inadequate for explaining some of the observed cultural variations in men's and women's personalities. Evolutionary theories regarding ecologically-evoked gender differences are described that may prove more useful in explaining global variation in human personality. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Fischer, A.H.; van Ginkel, W.P.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine: gender differences in the choice to perform challenging tasks, gender differences in the actual performance of challenging tasks, and the impact of challenging experiences on supervisors' evaluations of individuals' potential for career advancement.
Csernoch, Mária; Biró, Piroska; Abari, Kálmán; Máth, János
Within the framework of the Testing Algorithmic and Application Skills project we tested first year students of Informatics at the beginning of their tertiary education. We were focusing on the students' level of understanding in different programming environments. In the present paper we provide the results from the University of Debrecen, the…
Mustard, C; Etches, J
Objectives: There is uncertainty about whether position in a socioeconomic hierarchy confers different mortality risks on men and women. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in risk of death.
McHugh, R Kathryn; Votaw, Victoria R; Sugarman, Dawn E; Greenfield, Shelly F
The gender gap in substance use disorders (SUDs), characterized by greater prevalence in men, is narrowing, highlighting the importance of understanding sex and gender differences in SUD etiology and maintenance. In this critical review, we provide an overview of sex/gender differences in the biology, epidemiology and treatment of SUDs. Biological sex differences are evident across an array of systems, including brain structure and function, endocrine function, and metabolic function. Gender (i.e., environmentally and socioculturally defined roles for men and women) also contributes to the initiation and course of substance use and SUDs. Adverse medical, psychiatric, and functional consequences associated with SUDs are often more severe in women. However, men and women do not substantively differ with respect to SUD treatment outcomes. Although several trends are beginning to emerge in the literature, findings on sex and gender differences in SUDs are complicated by the interacting contributions of biological and environmental factors. Future research is needed to further elucidate sex and gender differences, especially focusing on hormonal factors in SUD course and treatment outcomes; research translating findings between animal and human models; and gender differences in understudied populations, such as those with co-occurring psychiatric disorders and gender-specific populations, such as pregnant women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Merrill, Natalie; Gallo, Emily; Fivush, Robyn
Family dinnertime conversations are key settings where children learn behavior regulation, narrative skills, and knowledge about the world. In this context, parents may also model and socialize gender differences in language. The present study quantitatively examines gendered language use across a family dinnertime recorded with 37 broadly…
Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Wonsun
As gender roles in the society are being rapidly redefined, female students today are showing outstanding academic prowess and pursuing higher education. The current study recruited Korean international students (n = 76) enrolled in universities in the US and examined gender differences in academic adjustment. The findings of the current study…
Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea
Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…
Koster, A.; Lajer, M.; Lindhardt, A.
In the description of 1 episode schizophrenia patients, female gender is associated with better social function and a higher degree of compliance, while males exhibit more negative symptoms and a higher degree of abuse. The question is raised whether gender specific differences exist which should...
To summarise the existing knowledge base of gender-related differences in CF and non-CF bronchiectasis. To highlight key areas of importance in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of bronchiectasis that is amenable to clinical and/or pharmacological intervention to narrow the existing “gender gap”.
Dabić, M; Daim, T; Bayraktaroglu, E; Novak, I; Basic, M
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand gender differences in entrepreneurial intentions as measured by perceived feasibility and perceived desirability, and to explore gender differences in perceptions of entrepreneurship education needs - in terms of programmes, activities or projects - to succeed in an entrepreneurial career from the university students’ point of view. Design/Methodology/Approach - Using data gathered from 3420 university students in more than 10 countries, an...
Fischer, Agneta H; Rodriguez Mosquera, Patricia M; van Vianen, Annelies E M; Manstead, Antony S R
In this article, the authors report a secondary analysis on a cross-cultural dataset on gender differences in 6 emotions, collected in 37 countries all over the world. The aim was to test the universality of the gender-specific pattern found in studies with Western respondents, namely that men report more powerful emotions (e.g., anger), whereas women report more powerless emotions (e.g., sadness, fear). The authors expected the strength of these gender differences to depend on women's status and roles in their respective countries, as operationalized by the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM; United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report 2002). Overall, the gender-specific pattern of women reporting to experience and express more powerless emotions and men more powerful emotions was replicated, and only some interactions with the GEM were found.
Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.; Bennett, Kellie S.; McStephen, Michael
Objective: To examine gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ("ADHD") symptom comorbidity with "oppositional defiant disorder", "conduct disorder", "separation anxiety disorder", "generalized anxiety disorder", speech therapy, and remedial reading in children. Method: From…
Zell, Ethan; Krizan, Zlatan; Teeter, Sabrina R
Despite the common lay assumption that males and females are profoundly different, Hyde (2005) used data from 46 meta-analyses to demonstrate that males and females are highly similar. Nonetheless, the gender similarities hypothesis has remained controversial. Since Hyde's provocative report, there has been an explosion of meta-analytic interest in psychological gender differences. We utilized this enormous collection of 106 meta-analyses and 386 individual meta-analytic effects to reevaluate the gender similarities hypothesis. Furthermore, we employed a novel data-analytic approach called metasynthesis (Zell & Krizan, 2014) to estimate the average difference between males and females and to explore moderators of gender differences. The average, absolute difference between males and females across domains was relatively small (d = 0.21, SD = 0.14), with the majority of effects being either small (46%) or very small (39%). Magnitude of differences fluctuated somewhat as a function of the psychological domain (e.g., cognitive variables, social and personality variables, well-being), but remained largely constant across age, culture, and generations. These findings provide compelling support for the gender similarities hypothesis, but also underscore conditions under which gender differences are most pronounced. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Gándara, Fernanda; Silva, Monica
This study seeks to develop a better understanding of the underrepresentation of women in science and engineering by analyzing the gender gaps (a) in the interest in pursuing a science degree and (b) on science achievement. We use national-level college admissions data to examine gender differences and to explore the association between these…
Junhem, Sanna; Adolfsson, Sophie
Background - Celebrity endorsement is not a new phenomenon and it can be seen in advertisements around the world. Since the content of an advertisement easily can be screened out, it is important to target the right consumer. There has to be a fit between the consumer, the endorser and the product. Since gender plays a crucial part when understanding consumer behavior, knowledge about gender differences needs to be taken into account when creating a marketing strategy. Purpose - Consumer...
It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions
Jeyapalan Kasipillai; Hijattulah Abdul Jabbar
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant...
de Goede, M.
Spatial abilities, such as wayfinding and memorizing object locations, seem to be equally important for every individual. Yet both common belief and scientific literature claim that men and women differ in these abilities. Whereas ‘spatial ability’ used to be considered as a unitary capacity, on
Greene, Jessica; El-Banna, Majeda M; Briggs, Linda A; Park, Jeongyoung
While male nurses have been shown to earn considerably more than female nurses, there is less evidence on gender disparities in salary among nurse practitioners (NPs). This study examines whether the gender gap in NP salaries persists after controlling for differences in work setting and demographic factors. We analyzed the relationship between gender and salary (2011 pretax earnings) among 6591 NPs working as NPs at least 35 h per week, using the 2012 National Sample Survey of Nurse Practitioners. We first conducted bivariate regression analyses examining the relationship between gender and earnings, and then developed a multivariate model that controlled for individual differences in demographic and work characteristics. Male NPs earned $12,859 more than female NPs, after adjusting for individual differences in demographics and work characteristics. The gender gap was $7405 for recent NP graduates, and grew over time. Male NPs earned significantly more than female NPs across all clinical specialty areas. The gender disparities in NP salaries documented here regardless of professional seniority or clinical area should spark healthcare organizations to conduct pay equity assessments of their employees' salaries to identify and ameliorate pay inequality. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
"Building on arguments made by Grasmuck and Pessar (1991), Hardy-Fanta (1993), and Hondagneu-Sotelo (1994), among others, this article makes the case for a gendered understanding of immigrant political socialization. Looking at recent Latin American immigrants to New York City, the article argues that immigrant Latino men are more likely to favor continuity in patterns of socialization and organization, and immigrant Latinas are more likely to favor change. This finding helps bridge theoretical and empirical literatures in immigration studies, applying the logic of gender-differentiated decisionmaking to the area of immigrant political socialization and behavior." excerpt
DiDonato, Matthew D; Martin, Carol L; Hessler, Eric E; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Hanish, Laura D; Fabes, Richard A
Controversy surrounds questions regarding the influence of being gender consistent (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that are consistent with one's biological sex) versus being gender flexible (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that vary from masculine to feminine as circumstances arise) on children's adjustment outcomes, such as self-esteem, positive emotion, or behavior problems. Whereas evidence supporting the consistency hypothesis is abundant, little support exists for the flexibility hypothesis. To shed new light on the flexibility hypothesis, we explored children's gendered behavior from a dynamical perspective that highlighted variability and flexibility in addition to employing a conventional approach that emphasized stability and consistency. Conventional mean-level analyses supported the consistency hypothesis by revealing that gender atypical behavior was related to greater maladjustment, and dynamical analyses supported the flexibility hypothesis by showing that flexibility of gendered behavior over time was related to positive adjustment. Integrated analyses showed that gender typical behavior was related to the adjustment of children who were behaviorally inflexible, but not for those who were flexible. These results provided a more comprehensive understanding of the relation between gendered behavior and adjustment in young children and illustrated for the first time the feasibility of applying dynamical analyses to the study of gendered behavior.
Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.
Yury P. Zinchenko
Full Text Available Background. This study addresses a current problem relating to trust and the identification of gender differences in trust/mistrust manifestation. Gender identity is associated with cultural stereotypes and social roles, which facilitate the formation of trust in people. It acts as a significant integral meaning-based component of an individual’s “I”- conception, which contributes to the formation of trust in himself and the world around him. Objective. To study features of trust/mistrust towards others in young people with different gender identities. Design. The cross-gender-typical sample consisted of 179 representatives, 83 males and 96 females, ages 17 to 23 (M = 19.34 and SD = 1.79. The techniques for collecting data included the MMPI, the Sex-Role Inventory by S. Bem, and the Trust/Mistrust towards Others questionnaire by A. Kupreychenko. The results were processed via the Mann-Whitney U Test, the Kruskal-Wallis H criterion, and cluster analysis. Results. Criteria of trust/mistrust among the youth with different gender identities were identified, and basic types of trust — categoric, irrational–emotional, ambivalent– contradictory, and non-differentiated — were singled out. Irrespective of biological sex, bearers of different gender identities do not exhibit the same criteria to determine trust/ mistrust. Conclusion. This study makes it possible to enrich our understanding of the role of social gender in the formation of interpersonal trust and differences in the foundations of trust toward others, in people with different gender identities. The empirical typology of trust in youth with different gender identities allows for using the typology in organizing psychological diagnostics, and for support and improvement of their interpersonal relations.
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to understand whether there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. Many researches that have been made in this area have reached the conclusion that there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress posttraumatic stress disorder. To investigate this issue is to select a sample of 100 respondents, the selection of whom is done at random, with people who we have met in the street the library, the faculties of other public sites. The research was of the type quantitative – where the data are collected through the application of questionnaires. The results from this survey show that there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. So, women survive with the many symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder than men. The results are processed with the Analysis of data ,with the program SPSS.- krostabulim (crosstabulation Gender with questions. The aim of this research is to understand whether there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. Many researches that have been made in this area have reached the conclusion that there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. To investigate this issue is to select a sample of 100 respondents, the selection of whom is done at random, with people who we have met in the street the library, the faculties of other public sites. The research was of the type quantitative – where the data are collected through the application of questionnaires. The results from this survey show that there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. So, women perjetojnë with the many symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder than men. The results are processed with the Analysis of data ,with the program SPSS.- krostabulim (crosstabulation Gender with questions.
Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…
Stonewater, Barbara B.; And Others
Explored differences regarding way in which 27 male and 27 female college faculty members described relationships with "career helpers" by analysis of interview transcripts. Qualitative analysis of interviews indicated gender differences on themes of sense of professional self as related to career helpers and nature of assistance received from…
Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn
The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10-12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant gender differences in terms of…
Luo, Lingling; Zhou, Chunfang; Zhang, Song
in Mainland China and 703 students in Taiwan. Based on data analysis, we find common characteristics, gender differences, and regional differences in the creativity of female postgraduate students. The female students in both regions are less confident in their abilities in scientific research and innovative...
Postigo Zegarra, Silvia; González Barrón, Remedios; Mateu Marqués, Carmen; Ferrero Berlanga, Javier; Martorell Pallás, Carmen
Adolescents take on different social roles mediated by gender, which affect the development of their identity and the expression of school violence. The purpose of this work is to study the behavioral differences in bullying depending on gender. The sample (N=641) is aged between 12 and 16 years old. Personal variables are assessed by self-reports, and relational variables by sociometric measures. Results indicate a large incidence of bullying, peer rejection, and school maladjustment among boys. Girls report more relational aggressions, acceptance and social skills, but also higher personal maladjustment. Female victims are rejected the most. Gender differences seem more relevant in relational variables, suggesting the special importance of the relational context in bullying.
Hamilton, Alison B; Grella, Christine E
This purpose of this study was to explore the following question: Are there gender differences among older individuals with a history of heroin addiction with regard to social and family relationships and health problems? Eight gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 38 (19 women, 19 men) older (50+ years) individuals with long-term histories of heroin dependence. Four groups were conducted in a methadone maintenance (MM) clinic and four groups were derived from the Los Angeles community. Modest gender differences were observed, but mainly in the focus-group dynamics. Women typically described the impact of their addiction on their families, while men typically described their surprise at still being alive. Hepatitis C was the primary health concern in all groups; mental health issues were also discussed. Remarkable gender differences were not apparent in the qualitative experiences of these participants. Instead, we found overriding similarities related to the interactive effects of drug use and aging. Longitudinal studies of this population as they age and interact with the health-care system and other social systems will help to untangle the complicated relationship between aging, drug addiction, gender, and health.
Brady, K T; Randall, C L
Despite the fact that the rate of substance abuse and dependence is higher among men than it is among women, the prevalence rates, especially the more recent ones, indicate that a diagnosis of substance abuse is not gender specific. From the emerging literature on gender differences over the past 25 years, male and female substance abusers are clearly not the same. Women typically begin using substances later than do men, are strongly influenced by spouses or boyfriends to use, report different reasons for maintaining the use of the substances, and enter treatment earlier in the course of their illnesses than do men. Importantly, women also have a significantly higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, than do men, and these disorders typically predate the onset of substance-abuse problems. For women, substances such as alcohol may be used to self-medicate mood disturbances, whereas for men, this may not be true. Although these comorbid disorders might complicate treatment for women, women are, in fact, responsive to treatment and do as well as men in follow-up. Gender differences and similarities have significant treatment implications. This is especially true for the telescoping phenomenon, in which the window for intervention between progressive landmarks is shorter for women than for men. This is also true for the gender differences in physical and sexual abuse, as well as other psychiatric comorbidity that is evident in female substance abusers seeking treatment. The barriers to treatment for women are being addressed in many treatment settings to encourage more women to enter treatment, and family and couples therapy are standard therapeutic interventions. Negative consequences associated with substance abuse are different for men and women, and gender-sensitive rating instruments must be used to measure not only the severity of the problem but also to evaluate treatment efficacy. To determine whether gender
Holmvang, L.; Mickley, H.
PCI is effective for reducing symptoms in patients with stable angina pectoris but does not improve prognosis. In earlier trials PCI has been associated with more procedure related complications in women than men, but this difference between genders has been less pronounced in more recent studies....... In acute coronary syndromes there is no evidence of gender differences regarding the benefit of primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. However, several trials of unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction indicate that women do not have the similar benefit...
Wang, Hsiu-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Shun
With the proliferation of online games, understanding users' intention to play online games has become a new issue for academics and practitioners. Prior studies have investigated the factors affecting behavioural intention to play online games. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the gender differences in the acceptance of…
Solange Muglia Wechsler
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether performance on tests of crystallized intelligence is affected by gender and to ascertain whether differential item parameters could account for the gender disparities. The sample comprised 1.191 individuals (55% women between the ages of 16 and 77 years old (M=22; SD=9.5. The participants were primarily college students (58.3% living in four Brazilian states. Four verbal tests measuring crystallized intelligence (vocabulary, synonyms, antonyms and verbal analogies were constructed and administered in a group setting. An analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in the overall performance between men and women. However, a differential item functioning analysis indicated significant differences on 8.7% of the items, which indicates the existence of gender bias. Because bias can limit women’s access to social opportunities, the results obtained indicate the importance of reducing item bias in cognitive measures to ensure the accuracy of test results
Wang, Mei-Ling; Hsieh, Yi-Hua
Workplace bullying has become an omnipresent problem in most organizations. Gender differences have recently received increasing attention in the workplace bullying domain. Integrating social dominance theory with gender role theory, this study explores whether male minority and supervisor gender are related to the incidence of workplace bullying. Data from 501 public servants employed in the tax administration institute of Taiwan was collected via a questionnaire and analyzed using hierarchical regression. Male minority reported more workplace bullying than did the female majority. Subordinates working with male supervisors had more exposure to bullying than those working with female supervisors. However, male supervisors did not exacerbate the relationship between male minority and workplace bullying, while females exposure to workplace bullying was attenuated when working with male supervisors. These findings confirm the important role of gender differences when predicting bullying at work and support the view that gender is not merely an individual antecedent of bullying, but rather acts as a social factor to influence the incidence of workplace bullying.
Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A
Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities.
Full Text Available We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., P=0.04, P=0.048, and P=0.03. Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men (P=0.0007 but not in women (P=0.84; P for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04. These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management.
Bédard, Alexandra; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Drapeau, Vicky; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Lemieux, Simone
We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday) of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., P = 0.04, P = 0.048, and P = 0.03). Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men (P = 0.0007) but not in women (P = 0.84; P for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04). These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management. PMID:26442158
Research on recovery from mental illness and the influence of compulsory psychiatric institutional care has revealed the complexity of this concept. There is also limited knowledge regarding the impact of gender-role expectations in these contexts, and how such expectations may influence both the care and individuals' recovery processes. To explore women's and men's perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care on recovery from severe mental illness. Grounded theory was used to analyse 30 first-person accounts of recovery from mental illness, elicited via interviews with individuals who had been compulsorily treated in hospital and diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Inpatient care at an early stage was crucial for the informants' recovery. However, there was ambivalence in their perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care. The narratives confirmed gender differences as well as gender stereotypes. The results have implications for recovery research, in that they emphasise the importance of understanding recovery as a gender-influenced process.
Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally
In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…
cost to future development of theory , strategy, and operations? This study analyzed gender differences in leadership as inferred from current research... management is basically a left brained logical approach toward controlling things: leadership is more a right brained, intuitive visionary approach towards...attribute frequently discussed in management and leadership literature. 13 Other research, however, indicates women do score a little higher on other
Thompson, Michael D.
Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…
Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin
The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…
Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils
of questionnaires. The gender-specific distribution of 13 hypothyroidism-associated symptoms and a simple combined score (0-13) was explored in conditional uni- and multivariate models taking into account a broad spectrum of possible confounders. Diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated as measures......OBJECTIVES: We examined the gender-specific symptom prevalences in hypothyroidism and in healthy controls and explored the extent to which symptoms indicative of thyroid status may be different in women and men. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients newly diagnosed with overt autoimmune hypothyroidism (n...
Tamargo, Juan; Rosano, G.; Thomas, W
. A better understanding of these sex-related differences is fundamental to improve the safety and efficacy of cardiovascular drugs and for developing proper individualized cardiovascular therapeutic strategies both in men and women. This review briefly summarize gender differences in the pharmacokinetics......Although sex-specific differences in cardiovascular medicine are well-known, the exact influences of sex on the effect of cardiovascular drugs remain unclear. Women and men differ in body composition and physiology (hormonal influences during the menstrual cycle, menopause and pregnancy...... and pharmacodynamics of cardiovascular drugs and provides recommendations to close the gaps in our understanding of sex-specific differences in drug efficacy and safety....
Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Minami, Manabu; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kono, Tatsuo; Sonobe, Jyunichi; Kujiraoka, Yuka
Tractography of skeletal muscle can clearly reveal the 3-dimensional course of muscle fibers, and the procedure has great potential and could open new fields for diagnostic imaging. Studying this technique for clinical application, we noticed differences in the number of visualized tracts among volunteers and among muscles in the same volunteer. To comprehend why the number of visualized tracts varied so that we could acquire consistently high quality tractography of muscle fiber, we started to examine whether differences in individual parameters affected tractography visualization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender- and age-specific differences that differentiate the muscles by gender and age in MR tractography of skeletal muscle fiber. We divided 33 healthy volunteers by gender and age among 3 groups, A (13 younger men, aged 20 to 36 years), B (11 younger women, 25 to 39 years), and C (9 older men, 50 to 69), and we obtained from each volunteer tractographs of 8 fibers, including the bilateral gastrocnemius medialis (GCM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GCL), soleus (SOL), and anterior tibialis (AT) muscles. We classified the fibers into 5 grades depending on the extent of visualized tracts and used Mann-Whitney U-test to compare scores by gender (Group A versus B) and age (Group A versus C). Muscle tracts were significantly better visualized in women than men (median total visual score, 34 versus 24, P<0.05). In particular, the SOL muscles showed better visualization in the right (4.0 in women, 1.0 in men, P<0.05) and left (3.0 in women, 1.0 in men, P<0.05). Difference by age was not significant. The GCL was the highest scored muscle in all groups. Our results suggest that group differences, especially by gender, affected visualization of tractography of muscle fiber of the calf. (author)
Song, Xin; Tabák, Adam G; Zethelius, Björn; Yudkin, John S; Söderberg, Stefan; Laatikainen, Tiina; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Dankner, Rachel; Jousilahti, Pekka; Onat, Altan; Nilsson, Peter M; Satman, Ilhan; Vaccaro, Olga; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Qiao, Qing
To estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in relation to obesity and gender. Data from 11 prospective cohorts from four European countries including 23 629 men and 21 965 women, aged 24 to 99 years, with a median follow-up of 7.9 years were analyzed. Hazards ratios (HR) for CVD mortality in relation to baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models with age as the timescale. Men had higher CVD mortality than women in all four BMI categories (obesity defined by WC, WHR or WHtR. The gender difference was slightly smaller in obese than in non-obese individuals; but the interaction was statistically significant only between gender and WC (p = 0.02), and WHtR (p = 0.01). None of the interaction terms was significant among non-diabetic individuals. Men had higher CVD mortality than women across categories of anthropometric measures of obesity. The gender difference was attenuated in obese individuals, which warrants further investigation.
McKinnon, Mark Lee
Cognitive research has indicated that the difference between males and females is negligible. Paradoxically, in traditionally-taught college level introductory physics courses, males have outperformed females. UC Davis' Physics 7A (the first class of a three-quarter Introduction to Physics sequence for Life-Science students), however, counters this trend since females perform similarly to males. The gender-based performance difference within the other two quarters (Physics 7B & 7C) of the radically restructured, active-learning physics sequence still echo the traditionally-taught courses. In one experiment, I modified the laboratory activity instructions of the Physics 7C course to encourage further group interaction. These modifications did not affect the gender-based performance difference. In a later experiment, I compared students' performance on different forms of assessment for certain physics concepts during the Physics 7C course. Over 500 students took weekly quizzes at different times. The students were given different quiz questions on the same topics. Several quiz questions seemed to favor males while others were more gender equitable. I highlighted comparisons between a few pairs of questions that assessed students' understanding of the same physical concept. Males tended to perform better in responding to questions that seemed to require spatial visualization. Questions that required greater understanding of the physical concept or scientific model were more gender neutral.
Full Text Available The approach to research on gender differences in an evolutionary context has always been complex. Many factors, from those initially linked to preliminary considerations about the differences between the sexes in different historical and cultural moments have often influenced studies of this type. Gender Medicine, consolidated in the United States as a research field since the 1980s, studies the way in which membership in gender, male or female, affects the development and impact of disease and response to therapy. We can say that this is a new, transverse dimension of Medicine that assesses gender differences in physiology and pathophysiology of many clinical diseases, with the aim of reaching treatment decisions based on evidence in both men and women. In an historical moment focused on the individualization/personalization of care, among the objectives that modern health care has been given, there is this research aimed at identifying as early as possible gender-related diseases with the aim of identifying causes and possible methods of intervention. It leads to defining a kind of Medicine, a recent branch of biomedical science, that focuses on recognizing and analyzing the differences arising from the belonging to a gender, male or female, from several aspects: organic, functional, psychological, pharmacological, social and cultural. A gender approach to Medicine can reduce the level of error in medical practice, promote therapeutic appropriateness, improve and customize therapies and generate savings for healthcare systems. These effects have been demonstrated for adults and need to be confirmed during infancy and childhood. The purpose of this discipline is to innovate and guarantee everyone, man or woman, newborn and children, the best possible treatment based on scientific evidence.
Full Text Available Research has shown that teaching gender theories tends to be an educational challenge and elicits student resistance. However, little is known about students’ learning processes in social science. This study aims to explore these learning processes by drawing on feminist pedagogy and conceptual change theory. The results show that when students are asked to perform analysis from a structural gender perspective, they recurrently introduce other explanatory frameworks based on non-structural understandings. The students’ learning processes involve reformulating questions and making interpretations based on liberal understandings of power, freedom of choice and equality. We argue that this process is due to the hegemonic position of the liberal paradigm as well as to the dominant ideas about science. Clarifying the underlying presumptions of a liberal perspective and a structural perspective may help students to recognise applied premises and enable them to distinguish relevant explanations.
Full Text Available Millennial generation is considered the largest and best educated and therefore presents challenges to marketers. This paper aims to examine the gender differences in consumer behaviour of students - generation y. The study identifies gender differences in purchase behaviour, loyalty, price sensitivity and shopping habits. The empirical analysis is based on data obtained from a student survey (N=118; M=40, 68%, F=59, 32%. The data were analysed using chi-square test. Our findings suggest that women are more sensitive to price than men. They also belong more to the loyalty programs and use more loyalty awards schemes. Although the millennial generation has the reputation for being digital our study shows that they actually like visiting the stores instead of shopping online although the statistically significant difference is not found.
Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M
perfectionism are described: SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) related to high standards and self criticism, SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) related to the need of approval from others and fear of negative evaluation, OOP (Other-Oriented Perfectionism) reflecting a tendency to set high expectations for others and to evaluate them in a demanding way; this component is related, especially for males, to self-esteem, hostility and authoritarianism. Validity and internal consistency have been established too (30, 31, 35). The Frost and al's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Hewitt and Flett's scales are closely associated, except concerning the OOP. Because this component could provide new information, we have chosen the second scale, referring to the French translation and validation of Labrecque (45). EMP is the French name of MPS; it is a self-report questionnaire of 45 questions, in fact three subscales of 15 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. MPS was administered to 617 first year students at the university of Liège (table II). Differences are considered according to gender and experience of failure i.e. the fact of repeating an academic year. We realized a component analysis with promax rotation. Among the different possibilities offered by the scree-test the choice of a 4 factor solution stresses the original structure: SOP (14 items), SPP (12 items), OOP (9 items) and anti OOP (10 items); the last one is additional but allows for respecting semantics and saturation of the items. The first aim of confirming validity and internal consistency is satisfactory. In other respects the multidimensional structure of the concept leads to consideration of a positive, adaptive perfectionism and a more negative perfectionism, facilitating psychopathology (59, 60, 61). So it seems interesting to compare the different components of MPS in order to find an eventual sex-failure effect. The evaluation of perfectionism is obvious, considering it as a personality
Lausen, Adi; Schacht, Annekathrin
The conflicting findings from the few studies conducted with regard to gender differences in the recognition of vocal expressions of emotion have left the exact nature of these differences unclear. Several investigators have argued that a comprehensive understanding of gender differences in vocal emotion recognition can only be achieved by replicating these studies while accounting for influential factors such as stimulus type, gender-balanced samples, number of encoders, decoders, and emotional categories. This study aimed to account for these factors by investigating whether emotion recognition from vocal expressions differs as a function of both listeners' and speakers' gender. A total of N = 290 participants were randomly and equally allocated to two groups. One group listened to words and pseudo-words, while the other group listened to sentences and affect bursts. Participants were asked to categorize the stimuli with respect to the expressed emotions in a fixed-choice response format. Overall, females were more accurate than males when decoding vocal emotions, however, when testing for specific emotions these differences were small in magnitude. Speakers' gender had a significant impact on how listeners' judged emotions from the voice. The group listening to words and pseudo-words had higher identification rates for emotions spoken by male than by female actors, whereas in the group listening to sentences and affect bursts the identification rates were higher when emotions were uttered by female than male actors. The mixed pattern for emotion-specific effects, however, indicates that, in the vocal channel, the reliability of emotion judgments is not systematically influenced by speakers' gender and the related stereotypes of emotional expressivity. Together, these results extend previous findings by showing effects of listeners' and speakers' gender on the recognition of vocal emotions. They stress the importance of distinguishing these factors to explain
Full Text Available The conflicting findings from the few studies conducted with regard to gender differences in the recognition of vocal expressions of emotion have left the exact nature of these differences unclear. Several investigators have argued that a comprehensive understanding of gender differences in vocal emotion recognition can only be achieved by replicating these studies while accounting for influential factors such as stimulus type, gender-balanced samples, number of encoders, decoders, and emotional categories. This study aimed to account for these factors by investigating whether emotion recognition from vocal expressions differs as a function of both listeners' and speakers' gender. A total of N = 290 participants were randomly and equally allocated to two groups. One group listened to words and pseudo-words, while the other group listened to sentences and affect bursts. Participants were asked to categorize the stimuli with respect to the expressed emotions in a fixed-choice response format. Overall, females were more accurate than males when decoding vocal emotions, however, when testing for specific emotions these differences were small in magnitude. Speakers' gender had a significant impact on how listeners' judged emotions from the voice. The group listening to words and pseudo-words had higher identification rates for emotions spoken by male than by female actors, whereas in the group listening to sentences and affect bursts the identification rates were higher when emotions were uttered by female than male actors. The mixed pattern for emotion-specific effects, however, indicates that, in the vocal channel, the reliability of emotion judgments is not systematically influenced by speakers' gender and the related stereotypes of emotional expressivity. Together, these results extend previous findings by showing effects of listeners' and speakers' gender on the recognition of vocal emotions. They stress the importance of distinguishing these
Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.
Examines theories of gender differences. Discusses alpha bias, exaggeration of gender opposition, as characteristic of psychodynamic and sex role theories; and beta bias, denial of gender differences, as evident in systems theories. Calls for new model of gender differences which recognizes asymmetry in women's and men's roles and…
Lim, Jung-won; Paek, Min-so; Shon, En-jung
Individuals with cancer and their partners often experience communication difficulties. However, questions still remain regarding the influence of gender and role in cancer survivor-partner communication within couples. The current study intended to examine the communication patterns in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivor-partner couples during cancer survivorship and whether gender and role differences in couples communication exist. The dominant-less dominant method of sequential mixed design was used. Ten couples who were recruited from the University Hospital registry in Cleveland, Ohio, participated in both mail surveys and individual interviews. Family and cancer-related communication was assessed in the quantitative phase. Both male survivors and partners demonstrated better family communication scores compared with their female counterparts, whereas there were no gender differences in the cancer-related communication scores. In the qualitative phase, 3 major themes were identified: (1) selective sharing of cancer-related issues, (2) initiation of cancer-related communication, and (3) emotional reaction in communication. The patterns associated with these themes differed between the male survivor-female partner and female survivor-male partner couples. This study provides new knowledge about family and cancer-related communication. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding different perspectives in the quality of communication by gender and role. Exploring couples' communication patterns by gender and role stimulates the research and the development of effective consumer-centered communication interventions. The findings provide assessment tools to inform dyadic communication patterns for clinical and scientific purposes.
Bilal, Usama; Beltrán, Paula; Fernández, Esteve; Navas-Acien, Ana; Bolumar, Francisco; Franco, Manuel
The intersection between gender and class can aid in understanding gender differences in smoking. To analyse how changes in gender inequality relate to differences in smoking prevalence by gender, education and birth cohort in Spain over the past five decades (1960-2010). The Gender Inequality Index (GII) was calculated in 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010. GII ranges from 0 to 1 (1=highest inequality) and encompasses three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and labour market. Estimates of female and male smoking prevalence were reconstructed from representative National Health Surveys and stratified by birth cohort and level of education. We calculated female-to-male smoking ratios from 1960 to 2010 stratified by education and birth cohort. Gender inequality in Spain decreased from 0.65 to 0.09 over the past 50 years. This rapid decline was inversely correlated (r=-0.99) to a rising female-to-male smoking ratio. The youngest birth cohort of the study (born 1980-1990) and women with high education levels had similar smoking prevalences compared with men. Women with high levels of education were also the first to show a reduction in smoking prevalence, compared with less educated women. Gender inequality fell significantly in Spain over the past 50 years. This process was accompanied by converging trends in smoking prevalence for men and women. Smoking prevalence patterns varied greatly by birth cohort and education levels. Countries in earlier stages of the tobacco epidemic should consider gender-sensitive tobacco control measures and policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Background. Many neurological diseases show differences between genders. We studied gender differences in childhood Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB in an endemic area of Lyme borreliosis in Norway. Methods. In a population based study, all children (<14 years of age with symptoms suspicious of LNB, including all children with acute facial nerve palsy, were evaluated for LNB by medical history, clinical examination, blood tests, and lumbar puncture. LNB was diagnosed according to international criteria. Results. 142 children were diagnosed with LNB during 2001–2009. Facial nerve palsy was more common in girls (86% than in boys (62% p<0.001, but headache and/or neck stiffness as the only symptom was more common in boys (30% than in girls (10% p=0.003. The girls were younger than boys and had a shorter duration of symptoms, but boys had a higher level of pleocytosis than girls. In a multivariate analysis, both gender and having headache and neck stiffness were associated with a higher level of pleocytosis. Conclusion. Girls and boys have different clinical presentations of LNB, and boys have a higher level of inflammation than girls independent of the clinical presentation.
Petrucci, Alessandra; Salvini, Silvana
Climate and society evolve together in a manner that could place already vulnerable areas and their population at a greater risk to extreme weather events. While efforts have been devoted to better planning preparedness and responses to weather extremes, the interactions among various stakeholders who deal with hazard mitigation and response, and the community members, also related with gender and age differences, are not completely understood. In contrast to physical vulnerability, which arises from the potential for environmental extremes to create adverse physiological changes, social vulnerability arises from the potential for these extreme events to cause changes in people's behavior. People can vary in their potential for injury to themselves and their families. They also vary in the potential for destruction of their homes and workplaces, as well as the destruction of the transportation systems and locations for shopping and recreation they use in their daily activities. It is important to recognize that social vulnerability is not randomly distributed either demographically or geographically. In particular, the social vulnerability arising from a lack of psychological resilience, social network integration, economic assets, and political power vary across demographic groups. Some of these components of social vulnerability can be predicted by demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity. This review explores the gender and social difference dimensions of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in relation to climate change.
Sofiani, D.; Maulida, A. S.; Fadhillah, N.; Sihite, D. Y.
This study investigated the students’ attitude towards science and the effect of gender on students’ attitude. A total of 77 secondary school students participated in this study that were selected randomly in cluster, from various schools of Bandung, Indonesia. The attitude questionnaire consisted of 23 items related to four dimensions: enjoyment, self-confidence, value and motivation. Data collected by questionnaire were converted into interval scale using Method of Successive Interval (MSI) and further analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The use of MSI for analyzing the questionnaire data is still fairly new. Results showed that students’ positive attitude towards science was at medium level and there was no significant difference in attitude towards science between the female and male students. The study is of great significance to science teachers in order not to be gender biased when teaching science learning.
Eyal, Tal; Epley, Nicholas
Stereotypes are often presumed to exaggerate group differences, but empirical evidence is mixed. We suggest exaggeration is moderated by the accessibility of specific stereotype content. In particular, because the most accessible stereotype contents are attributes perceived to differ between groups, those attributes are most likely to exaggerate actual group differences due to regression to the mean. We tested this hypothesis using a highly accessible gender stereotype: that women are more socially sensitive than men. We confirmed that the most accessible stereotype content involves attributes perceived to differ between groups (pretest), and that these stereotypes contain some accuracy but significantly exaggerate actual gender differences (Experiment 1). We observe less exaggeration when judging less accessible stereotype content (Experiment 2), or when judging individual men and women (Experiment 3). Considering the accessibility of specific stereotype content may explain when stereotypes exaggerate actual group differences and when they do not.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant attitude. As for ethnicity, asimilar result was observed. Results of a regression analysis indicate that gender, academic qualification, and the person preparing tax return were statistically significant as determinants of non-compliant attitude. In terms of compliant behavior, a regression analysis revealed that "attitude towards non-compliance" and "receipt of cash income" were two significant explanatory variables of tax non-compliance behavior of understating income knowingly. The findings of this study are useful for policyimplications in identifying groups that require additional attention to increase voluntary tax compliance.
Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua
The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (p Motivators for women included the ability to conceive a child without worrying about contracting HIV (p Motivators for men included feeling safer with sex partners (p motivator for both men and women (p <0.10). Gender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears and misconceptions about adverse effects of HIV vaccination on health and the importance of vaccination as one component of integrated HIV prevention may increase vaccine acceptability. PMID:18484322
Shruti Srivastava*1 & Dr. Shweta S. Kulshrestha2
Gender equality in the workplace has been a major concern for almost all the organizations and countries. Even in most developed countries we cannot find complete gender equality in true sense. This paper aims to discuss whether there is gender biasness in organizations or not? Gender biasness is considered as a major constraint towards the development process in any of the country and thus we have made an attempt to determine the root causes for gender gap that persists in our society. A...
Full Text Available Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.
Landstedt, Evelina; Asplund, Kenneth; Gillander Gådin, Katja
Despite a well-documented gender pattern in adolescent mental health, research investigating possible explanatory factors from a gender-theoretical approach is scarce. This paper reports a grounded theory study based on 29 focus groups. The aim was to explore 16- to 19-year-old students' perceptions of what is significant for mental health, and to apply a gender analysis to the findings in order to advance understanding of the gender pattern in adolescent mental health. Significant factors were identified in three social processes categories, including both positive and negative aspects: (1) social interactions, (2) performance and (3) responsibility. Girls more often experienced negative aspects of these processes, placing them at greater risk for mental health problems. Boys' more positive mental health appeared to be associated with their low degree of responsibility-taking and beneficial positions relative to girls. Negotiating cultural norms of femininity and masculinity seemed to be more strenuous for girls, which could place them at a disadvantage with regard to mental health. Social factors and processes (particularly responsibility), gendered power relations and constructions of masculinities and femininities should be acknowledged as important for adolescent mental health.
Baccetti, Tiziano; Reyes, Brian C; McNamara, James A
This study evaluated gender differences in the cephalometric records of a large-scale cross-sectional sample of Caucasian subjects with Class III malocclusion at different developmental ages. The purpose also was to provide average age-related and sex-related data for craniofacial measures in untreated Class III subjects that are used as reference in the diagnostic appraisal of the patient with Class III disharmony. The sample examined consisted of 1094 pretreatment lateral cephalometric records (557 female subjects and 537 male subjects) of Caucasian Class III individuals. The age range for female subjects was between three years six months and 57 years seven months. The male subject group ranged from three years three months to 48 years five months. Twelve age groups were identified. Skeletal maturity at different age periods also was determined using the stage of cervical vertebral maturation. Gender differences for all cephalometric variables were analyzed using parametric statistics. The findings of the study indicated that Class III malocclusion is associated with a significant degree of sexual dimorphism in craniofacial parameters, especially from the age of 13 onward. Male subjects with Class III malocclusion present with significantly larger linear dimensions of the maxilla, mandible, and anterior facial heights when compared with female subjects during the circumpubertal and postpubertal periods.
Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Markowitsch, Hans J; Shah, N Jon; Fink, Gereon R; Piefke, Martina
Females frequently score higher on standard tests of empathy, social sensitivity, and emotion recognition than do males. It remains to be clarified, however, whether these gender differences are associated with gender specific neural mechanisms of emotional social cognition. We investigated gender differences in an emotion attribution task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either focused on their own emotional response to emotion expressing faces (SELF-task) or evaluated the emotional state expressed by the faces (OTHER-task). Behaviorally, females rated SELF-related emotions significantly stronger than males. Across the sexes, SELF- and OTHER-related processing of facial expressions activated a network of medial and lateral prefrontal, temporal, and parietal brain regions involved in emotional perspective taking. During SELF-related processing, females recruited the right inferior frontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus stronger than males. In contrast, there was increased neural activity in the left temporoparietal junction in males (relative to females). When performing the OTHER-task, females showed increased activation of the right inferior frontal cortex while there were no differential activations in males. The data suggest that females recruit areas containing mirror neurons to a higher degree than males during both SELF- and OTHER-related processing in empathic face-to-face interactions. This may underlie facilitated emotional "contagion" in females. Together with the observation that males differentially rely on the left temporoparietal junction (an area mediating the distinction between the SELF and OTHERS) the data suggest that females and males rely on different strategies when assessing their own emotions in response to other people.
Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Putkonen, Hanna; Lindberg, Nina; Holi, Matti; Rovamo, Tuija; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta
Approximately 10% of the homicides in Finland are committed by females. This study was designed to compare offence circumstances and crime scene behaviour among female and male homicide offenders. The forensic examination reports and crime reports of all female offenders prosecuted for a homicide between 1995 and 2004 were collected and content analysed (n=91). A sample of male offenders was selected for a comparison group. In addition to several bivariate analyses, two multidimensional scaling analyses were conducted to identify the underlying structure of the offence characteristics-related variables in male and female offenders. The results showed that family members were the victims of female offenders more frequently than of male offenders. Child victims were almost always killed by females. No significant difference emerged between the gender groups in the proportion of victims being former intimate partners. The results also showed that different offence characteristics relate to offender gender and type of victim. In male offenders, covering the body relates to moving and hiding an acquaintance victim's body, while in females it relates to emotional detachment and family member victim. For females, post-offence behaviours that relate to seek for help and regret were more frequent than for males. There were only marginal differences in the use of violence between females and males.
Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T
Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults.
Schwery, Denise; Hulac, David; Schweinle, Amy
This literature review provides school psychologists with an understanding of the important issues related to the gender gap in mathematics achievement. The extant literature suggests that girls tend to receive lower scores than boys on standardized math tests, but in general these differences tend to be small. However, girls have better classroom…
F. Nii-Amoo Dodoo
Full Text Available Background: Anthropological literature has long linked bridewealth payments to decision-making about fertility. Recent research underscores the significance of men's preferences regarding women's reproductive behavior, and suggests that bridewealth payments place constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. Yet because survey data on bridewealth are rare, and the collection of new survey data on bridewealth presents serious challenges, this explanation could not be tested. Objective: Our objective in this paper is to highlight the potential utility of lab experiments (in particular, vignette experiments for improving our understanding of gender relations in Africa, using the hypothesized effect of bridewealth on normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy as an illustration. Methods: We discuss our reasons for turning to lab experiments, and to vignette experiments in particular. We also summarize a series of studies (Horne, Dodoo, and Dodoo 2013; Dodoo, Horne, and Biney 2014 which have implemented our experimental approach. Results: Our experimental evidence shows that bridewealth payments are associated with greater normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. We also find that these negative effects of bridewealth are consistent across participant ages, and do not appear to be ameliorated by female schooling. Conclusions: We conclude that lab experiments in general (and vignette experiments in particular are underutilized methodological tools that may be useful for helping us gain a better understanding of the cultural context of gender relations in Africa; and that demographic research more generally may benefit from taking advantage of the strengths of experimental methods.
Kwan, Rita O; Cureton, Elizabeth L; Dozier, Kristopher C; Victorino, Gregory P
Gender differences among trauma recidivist patients are not well-understood. We hypothesized that males are more likely to be repeatedly involved in the trauma system and have a shorter time to recurrence between repeat episodes of injury compared with females. A retrospective analysis of trauma patients treated at an urban university-based trauma center was performed. Variables including gender, race, insurance status, age, mechanism of injury, outcomes, and injury secondary to domestic violence were compared. Differences were compared using χ(2) tests and log-rank (Mantel-Cox) Kaplan-Meier cumulative event curves. We identified 689 trauma recidivist patients (4.0% of all trauma visits) over a 10-y period. Compared to single-visit patients, recidivist patients were more likely to be male (87% versus 73%), uninsured (78% versus 66%), and have injuries secondary to assaults (54% versus 37%) (P trauma visit was shorter for females compared with males (23 ± 2.5 versus 30 ± 1.2 mo, P trauma than were male recidivists (69% versus 43%, P trauma patients have a much shorter time to recurrence for a second traumatic injury than do males. Female recidivists have a high likelihood of assault-associated injuries and domestic violence. Trauma centers should screen for domestic violence among trauma patients to aid in preventing further repeat episodes of injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Over the last three decades, topics relating to young peoples leisure time have become increasingly more present in academic literature. Among the numerous studies that delve into this subject, results point towards a relationship between the way teenagers spend their leisure time and their gender. In this study we wanted to answer the question if gender differences were evident in the way secondary school students in Serbia spent their leisure time. This problem was not looked into in more detail among secondary school students in Serbia. We conducted a survey on a sample of 922 secondary school teenagers from the 1st to 4th grade(ages 15–19 from nine Serbian towns. Research in this field commonly uses the rating scale. In this paper we have constructed an instrument that represents a methodological innovation in approaching a particular set of problems. It was a questionnaire. The task was to name all the activities they participated in, and the time frame in which the activities took place, over the course of one weekday and the Saturday of the previous week. The activities which best differentiate these two groups of surveyed teenagers are: sports, studying, computer use, spending time at friends’ homes and grooming. We did not discover differences in participating in creative activities while foreign studies show that such activities are more typical for girls.
Minna Maria Pöysti
Full Text Available The proportion of male caregivers is rapidly increasing. However, there are few large scale studies exploring gender differences in the burden or coping with caregiving. We investigated this among caregivers of patients with dementia. The study cohort consisted of 335 dyads of wife-husband couples from two studies including dementia patients and their spousal caregivers. Baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating scale (CDR, neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI, cornell depression scale and charlson comorbidity index (CCI were used to describe patients with dementia, Zarit burden scale and geriatric depression scale were used to measure experienced burden and depression of caregivers. Mean age of caregivers was 78 years. There were no differences in depression, satisfaction with life, or loneliness according to caregivers' gender. Male caregivers had more comorbidities than females (CCI 1.9 versus 1.1, P<0.001, and the wives of male caregivers had a more severe stage of dementia than husbands of female caregivers (CDR, P=0.048; MMSE14.0 versus 17.7, P<0.001. However, the mean Zarit burden scale was significantly lower among male than female caregivers (31.5 versus 37.5; P<0.001. Lower education of male caregivers tended to be associated with less experienced burden. In conclusion, male caregivers of dementia experienced lower burden than female caregivers despite care recipients' more severe disease.
Full Text Available This paper tests the applicability of the CSI instrument to measuring consumer decision-making styles in the Croatian environment. The analysis assesses the validity and the reliability of CSI scales and examines gender differences in consumer-decision making styles. Research results point to the existence of eight consumer characteristics and thus validate the applicability of CSI instrument in the Croatian environment. Our findings further indicate that there were gender differences on five factors of consumer-decision making styles (perfectionist, novelty-fashion consciousness, recreational-hedonistic consumer, impulsiveness, habitual shopping behavioral. No significant differences in consumer decision styles between men and women were found with regard to three factors (brand consciousness, price consciousness and confused by overabundant choice. The CSI measurement system may help practitioners to gain a better understanding of how to position their products and services more effectively.
Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N
Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. From 2001--2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-defined kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics, including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment, to identify gender-related differences. Men and women showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared with affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% vs 25.9%; P=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 vs 14 years of age; P=.001), steal household items (PKleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations.
Mielke, Michelle M; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Rocca, Walter A
With the aging of the population, the burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is rapidly expanding. More than 5 million people in the US alone are affected with AD and this number is expected to triple by 2050. While men may have a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia, women are disproportionally affected with AD. One explanation is that men may die of competing causes of death earlier in life, so that only the most resilient men may survive to older ages. However, many other factors should also be considered to explain the sex differences. In this review, we discuss the differences observed in men versus women in the incidence and prevalence of MCI and AD, in the structure and function of the brain, and in the sex-specific and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD. In medical research, sex refers to biological differences such as chromosomal differences (eg, XX versus XY chromosomes), gonadal differences, or hormonal differences. In contrast, gender refers to psychosocial and cultural differences between men and women (eg, access to education and occupation). Both factors play an important role in the development and progression of diseases, including AD. Understanding both sex- and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD is critical for developing individualized interventions for the prevention and treatment of AD.
Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.
Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…
Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is an analysis of stereotypical social reactions to women’s alcoholism in the micro and macro social and cultural environment. The social stigma and blame that female alcohol abusers are exposed to have become part of deeply rooted gender-related labels. In a broader social context, they lead to discrimination and social exclusion. In the contemporary society, female alcoholism is turning into a growing social and health problem and because of that it is essential to make the social environment more sensitive to the issue of female alcoholism in order to eliminate the causes of female alcoholism and fully support women’s medical treatment,. It would have a preventive effect in suppressing female alcoholism and it would significantly reduce victimization of women who are, in such circumstances, much more vulnerable and exposed to physical and sexual violence. The aim of this paper is to point out to the basic phenomenological and etiological feature of female alcoholism, prejudices and stereotypical attitudes they are exposed to, social and cultural implications of female alcoholism, which is perceived as a predisposition for women’s victimization and exposure to violence, so as to promote a different social approach to female alcoholism and advocate for instituting social and educational policy based on the concept of gender equality and support of social control measures.
Full Text Available In films, religious characters are often gendered in quite traditional ways, but there are some notable exceptions. This article discusses two Scandinavian films that partly break the mold. The analysis illustrates how in films varied forms of religion are gen¬dered quite differently, and explores the ways in which religious themes can open up for alternative male and female characters. Different ways of understanding the representations are discussed and related to views on the place and role of religion in the contemporary Scandinavian context. The article draws on the mediatization of religion theory as a theoretical framework, but also highlights the challenges that complex images of gender and religion pose to this theory.
Gema Martín Seoane
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the relationship among gender, school grade and peer harassment at Primary School. The participants were 2.050 children aged 8 to 13. The overall sample was designed to represent all students in grades 3th through 6th in both public and private schools. A self-report questionnaire on peer harassment situations was administered to the participants. Factor analysis revealed two different dimensions: ‘physical violence and property attacks’ and ‘verbal violence and social exclusion’. Boys reported higher levels of peer harassment among classmates than girls. No effect of the school grade on the gender differences CONTEXTOS EDUCATIVOS, 13 (2010, 11-26 11 Contextos Educ., 13 (2010, 11-26 was found. This paper provides a better understanding of peer harassment as well as some prevention indications.
Schofield, T; Connell, R W; Walker, L; Wood, J F; Butland, D L
Men's health has emerged as an important public concern that may require new kinds of healthcare interventions and increased resources. Considerable uncertainty and confusion surround prevailing understandings of men's health, particularly those generated by media debate and public policy, and health research has often operated on oversimplified assumptions about men and masculinity. A more useful way of understanding men's health is to adopt a gender-relations approach. This means examining health concerns in the context of men's and women's interactions with each other, and their positions in the larger, multidimensional structure of gender relations. Such an approach raises the issue of differences among men, which is a key issue in recent research on masculinity and an important health issue. The gender-relations approach offers new ways of addressing practical issues of healthcare for men in college environments.
The present study focused on gender differences in emotion identification from auditory and visual stimuli produced by two male and two female actors. Differences in emotion identification from nonsense samples, language samples and prolonged vowels were investigated. It was also studied whether auditory stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without visual stimuli, and whether visual stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without auditory stimuli. The aim was to get a better knowledge of vocal attributes and a more holistic understanding of the nonverbal communication of emotion. Females tended to be more accurate in emotion identification than males. Voice quality parameters played a role in emotion identification in both genders. The emotional content of the samples was best conveyed by nonsense sentences, better than by prolonged vowels or shared native language of the speakers and participants. Thus, vocal non-verbal communication tends to affect the interpretation of emotion even in the absence of language. The emotional stimuli were better recognized from visual stimuli than auditory stimuli by both genders. Visual information about speech may not be connected to the language; instead, it may be based on the human ability to understand the kinetic movements in speech production more readily than the characteristics of the acoustic cues.
Williamson, David; Johnston, Charlotte
Certain characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children have long been known to differ by gender. What has not been as widely studied is whether gender is similarly associated with ADHD differences in adults. In this review, the relation between gender and adult ADHD prevalence, persistence, impairment, comorbidity, cognitive functioning, and treatment response was examined across 73 studies. Although gender was related to several characteristics and correlates of adult ADHD, it appeared that many of these gender differences may be at least be partially attributed to methodological artifacts or social and cultural influences, rather than fundamental differences in the expression of ADHD in men and women. We highlight how understanding the nature of the relation between gender and ADHD across the lifespan is complicated by a number of methodological difficulties, and offer recommendations for how emerging research and clinical practice can better incorporate gender into the conceptualization of ADHD in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xuan; Sun, Min; Li, Jia
With the growing concern about health issues and the emergence of online communities based on user-generated content (UGC), more and more people are participating in online health communities (OHCs) to exchange opinions and health information. This paper aims to examine whether and how male and female users behave differently in OHCs. Using data from a leading diabetes community in China (Tianmijiayuan), we incorporate three different techniques: topic modeling analysis, sentiment analysis and friendship network analysis to investigate gender differences in chronic online health communities. The results indicated that (1) Male users' posting content was usually more professional and included more medical terms. Comparatively speaking, female users were more inclined to seek emotional support in the health communities. (2) Female users expressed more negative emotions than male users did, especially anxiety and sadness. (3) In addition, male users were more centered and influential in the friendship network than were women. Through these analyses, our research revealed the behavioral characteristics and needs for different gender users in online health communities. Gaining a deeper understanding of gender differences in OHCs can serve as guidance to better meet the information needs, emotional needs and relationship needs of male and female patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maria Grazia Modena
Full Text Available Acute stress can trigger cardiovascular events and disease. The earthquake is an “ideal” natural experiment for acute and chronic stress, with impact mainly on the cardiovascular system. On May 20th and 29th, 2012, two earthquakes of magnitude 5.9° to 6.4° on the Richter scale, hit the province of Modena and Reggio Emilia, an area of the north-center of Italy never considered at seismic risk. The purpose of our study was to assess whether there were gender-specific differences in stress-induced incidence of cardiovascular events and age of patients who arrived at the Emergency Departments (ED of the three main teaching hospitals of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Global access of patients, divided in relation to age, gender, and diagnosis was compared with that one detected in the same departments and in the same interval of time in 2010. The data collected were relative to consecutive cases derived by retrospective chart and acute cardiovascular events were classified according to ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision. A total of 1,401 accesses were recorded in the year of earthquake versus 530 in 2010 (p ≤ 0.05, with no statistically significant differences in number of cases and mean age in relation to gender, despite the number of women exceeded that of men in 2012 (730 vs. 671; the opposite occurred, in 2010 (328 vs. 202. The gender analysis of 2012 showed a prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs 177 vs. 73, p ≤ 0.03 in men, whereas women presented more strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs (90 vs. 94, p ≤ 0.05, atrial fibrillation (120 vs. 49, p ≤ 0.05, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE; 64 vs. 9, p ≤ 0.05, panic attacks (124 vs. 26, p ≤ 0.03, aspecific chest pain (122 vs. 18, p ≤ 0.05, TakoTsubo cardiomyopathy (10 vs. 0, p ≤ 0.05, and DVT/PE (61 vs. 3, p ≤ 0.03. The gender analysis of 2010 showed no difference
Modena, Maria Grazia; Pettorelli, Daniele; Lauria, Giulia; Giubertoni, Elisa; Mauro, Erminio; Martinotti, Valentina
Acute stress can trigger cardiovascular events and disease. The earthquake is an "ideal" natural experiment for acute and chronic stress, with impact mainly on the cardiovascular system. On May 20th and 29th, 2012, two earthquakes of magnitude 5.9° to 6.4° on the Richter scale, hit the province of Modena and Reggio Emilia, an area of the north-center of Italy never considered at seismic risk. The purpose of our study was to assess whether there were gender-specific differences in stress-induced incidence of cardiovascular events and age of patients who arrived at the Emergency Departments (ED) of the three main teaching hospitals of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Global access of patients, divided in relation to age, gender, and diagnosis was compared with that one detected in the same departments and in the same interval of time in 2010. The data collected were relative to consecutive cases derived by retrospective chart and acute cardiovascular events were classified according to ICD-9 ( International Classification of Diseases , ninth revision). A total of 1,401 accesses were recorded in the year of earthquake versus 530 in 2010 ( p ≤ 0.05), with no statistically significant differences in number of cases and mean age in relation to gender, despite the number of women exceeded that of men in 2012 (730 vs. 671); the opposite occurred, in 2010 (328 vs. 202). The gender analysis of 2012 showed a prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs 177 vs. 73, p ≤ 0.03) in men, whereas women presented more strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) (90 vs. 94, p ≤ 0.05), atrial fibrillation (120 vs. 49, p ≤ 0.05), deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE; 64 vs. 9, p ≤ 0.05), panic attacks (124 vs. 26, p ≤ 0.03), aspecific chest pain (122 vs. 18, p ≤ 0.05), TakoTsubo cardiomyopathy (10 vs. 0, p ≤ 0.05), and DVT/PE (61 vs. 3, p ≤ 0.03). The gender analysis of 2010 showed no
Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan
We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…
Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.
In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…
Elba Mauleón; Cinzia Daraio; Maria Bordons
The under-representation of women in science and technology is a matter of current great concern. Obtaining patent-based indicators by gender is crucial to analyse the situation of women in innovation, identify potential cases of gender inequalities, and support policy measures to promote gender balance. In this article we analyse men and women involvement in Spanish patents applied to the European Patent Office during 1990--2004. At least one female inventor is present in 18% of the patents;...
Hald, Gert Martin
and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total...... variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key......The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using...
Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni
review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural settings commonly endorse norms that perpetuate gender inequalities, and that parents and peers are especially central in shaping such attitudes. Programs to promote equitable gender attitudes thus need to move beyond a focus on individuals to target their interpersonal relationships and wider social environments. Such programs need to start early and be tailored to the unique needs of sub-populations of boys and girls. Longitudinal studies, particularly from low-and middle-income countries, are needed to better understand how gender attitudes unfold in adolescence and to identify the key points for intervention. PMID:27341206
Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni
Early adolescence (ages 10-14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes. To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural
Full Text Available Early adolescence (ages 10-14 is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes.To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally.A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes.Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age. Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents.The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different
Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van der Pol, Lotte D; van Berkel, Sheila R; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi
This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role attitudes and mothers were observed to use more physical control strategies with boys than with girls, whereas fathers with strong counterstereotypical attitudes toward gender roles used more physical control with girls than with boys. Moreover, when fathers had strong attitudes toward gender roles (stereotypical or counterstereotypical), their differential treatment of boys and girls completely accounted for the gender differences in children's aggressive behavior a year later. Mothers' gender-differentiated parenting practices were unrelated to gender differences in child aggression. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Faro, Mònica; Sàez-Francás, Naia; Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Aliste, Luisa; Fernández de Sevilla, Tomás; Alegre, José
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic condition that predominantly affects women. To date, there are few epidemiologic studies on CFS in men. The objective of the study was to assess whether there are gender-related differences in CFS, and to define a clinical phenotype in men. A prospective, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted including CFS patients at the time of diagnosis. Sociodemographic data, clinical variables, comorbid phenomena, fatigue, pain, anxiety/depression, and health quality of life, were assessed in the CFS population. A comparative study was also conducted between genders. The study included 1309 CFS patients, of which 119 (9.1%) were men. The mean age and symptoms onset were lower in men than women. The subjects included 30% single men vs. 15% single women, and 32% of men had specialist work vs. 20% of women. The most common triggering factor was an infection. Widespread pain, muscle spasms, dizziness, sexual dysfunction, Raynaud's phenomenon, morning stiffness, migratory arthralgias, drug and metals allergy, and facial oedema were less frequent in men. Fibromyalgia was present in 29% of men vs. 58% in women. The scores on physical function, physical role, and overall physical health of the SF-36 were higher in men. The sensory and affective dimensions of pain were lower in men. The clinical phenotype of the men with CFS was young, single, skilled worker, and infection as the main triggering agent. Men had less pain and less muscle and immune symptoms, fewer comorbid phenomena, and a better quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
Elgin, J; Pritchard, M
The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions.
Meyer, Elizabeth J.
This article provides an analysis of teachers' perceptions of and responses to gendered harassment in Canadian secondary schools based on in-depth interviews with six teachers in one urban school district. Gendered harassment includes any behaviour that polices and reinforces traditional heterosexual gender norms such as (hetero)sexual harassment,…
Full Text Available Theory of Mind (ToM--the ability to understand other's thoughts, intentions, and emotions--is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one's ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males' motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females' motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure.
Full Text Available Consumer attitude surveys classified as leading economic indicators aim at extracting information from respondents regarding their perceptions of economic outlook. A typical consumer confidence index includes questions designed to measure the changes in the past-current and current-future pairs of economic outlook perceptions of the participants as well as a question that examines the consumer’s view on the current stage of economic activity. These surveys use equal amount of male and female participants. This paper checks the existence of perceptional difference of genders using CNBC-e consumer confidence index for Turkey. First, we calculate monthly consumer confidence indices for men and women for January 2003 – March 2011. Then, employing this data set, we use the recently developed frequency domain analysis of Breitung and Candelon (2006 and wavelet comovement analysis of Rua (2010 to assess whether these indices follow similar patterns before and after the recent global crisis in time and frequency domain. Our results show that women consistently diverge from men and seem to be on the pessimistic side-due probably to lower levels of wealth in terms of expectation formation. Moreover, this difference is increasing when purchasing durable goods is considered.
Washburn-Ormachea, Jill M.; Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.
Gender and gender-role orientation differences were explored on adolescents' coping with peer stressors. Eighth-grade and ninth-grade public junior high school students (N = 285) completed the COPE, reporting the strategies they recently used to deal with a stressful peer-related situation. Measures of gender-role orientation (Bem Sex-Role…
Lokshin, Michael; Mroz, Thomas A.
The authors study complex interactions between gender and poverty in postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina. The goal of their analysis is to uncover how a spectrum of gender differentials at different parts of the life cycle varies across income groups. Using the data from the 2001 Bosnia and Herzegovina Living Standards Measurement Study, the authors find strong gender-poverty interaction in the...
Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.
These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…
Hogervorst, E.; Rahardjo, T.B.; Brayne, C.; Henderson, W.; Jolles, J.
Gender differences in cognitive function may diminish with age. We investigated gender and gender-by-age interactions in relation to verbal learning. Cross-sectional data were available from seven cohorts. Meta-analyses indicated that overall verbal learning favored women. Performance declined with
Coffé, Hilde; Bolzendahl, Catherine
We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in 'private' activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics.
Climenhage, L. James
Many stereotypes about persons with red hair are both gender-specific and derogatory. These stereotypes often stand in stark contrast to gender-role stereotypes for men and for women. In three studies, the current research considered if prejudice directed at redheads is, in part, a result of bias against gender-atypical people. In Study 1, participants read about a bullying incident in which the victim was a boy or girl with red hair or another hair colour. Redheads, in general, were seen as ...
E. K. Skiba
The article analyzes the different theoretical approaches to clarifying the causes of inequality of gender identities. The opinion of scientists, following the theory of sex roles who think that gendered people acquire their gender identity from their birth and go with it to the outside world, in order to fill in a gender-neutral social institutions is considered. The article highlights the main tenets of the theory differentiating socialization that explain male dominance as a result of gend...
Full Text Available Stress response is associated with manifestations of various psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders. Hence, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms that influence this association. Moreover, men and women tend to react differently with stress-both psychologically and biologically. These differences also need to be studied in order to have a better understanding in the gender difference observed for many disorders, which are likely to be contributed by the gender difference in stress reactivity and responses. Such an understanding would have a significant impact on our understanding about how adult health is set during early life and how adult disease could be prevented in men and women.
Hassan, Z.U.; Naseer, R.
The fluoroquinolones are currently enjoying extensive worldwide clinical applications because of their good bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile. Investigation into several aspects of the pharmacokinetic of all clinically relevant fluoroquinolones, have been carried out notably in Europe, USA and Japan. In view of the geonetical (geographical influences on genetics-pharmacogenetics) differences, it is important that for the optimal therapeutic outcome, biodisposition studies on drugs are better conducted in the population and environments where wide and extensive use of the drug is anticipated. The Objectives of study were to see the pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy young male and female volunteers. This comparative study was conducted King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan, from July 2005 to December 2005. In Pakistan where the use of antibiotics is more frequent by the general practitioners it is important to elucidate certain dose parameters it is also noticed that side effects are more in females than males so present study is conducted to calculate any differences in bioavailability on the basis of sex. The pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin were determined in each of the clinically health eight young girls and boys (mean age 23.9 and 25.1 years, respectively) following a single oral dose of 400 mg tablet. The method adopted was microbiological assay. The blood samples collected at predetermined time intervals after drug administration revealed almost twice as high concentration of the drug in plasma of the girls than that in the boys. The pharmacokinetic parameters revealed significantly (p<0.01) higher values for area under curve (AUC) and Cmax, and lower total body clearance (TBC) and volume of distribution in the girls than in the boys. The gender differences in pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that the dose adjustment should be considered in male and female. (author)
Mathur, P.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Romeo, F.; Mehta, J. L.
Roč. 29, č. 4 (2015), s. 319-327 ISSN 0920-3206 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : atherosclerosis * gender Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.189, year: 2015
This thesis locates itself in wider developments in gender theory and examinations of the state’s production of gender inequality. It responds to two research problems in existing literature. Firstly, scholars have developed increasingly complex theorisations of the social construction of gender and the state’s role in it. This body of research has shown how gender blindness and gender bias in state policies produce inequality and how gender structures priorities, hierarchies and roles wit...
Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G; DeVito, Elise E; Kober, Hedy
Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss.
Dahlin, Johanna; Härkönen, Juho
Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phillips, Nicole A; Tannan, Shruti C; Kalliainen, Loree K
Although explicit sex-based discrimination has largely been deemed unacceptable in professional settings, implicit gender bias persists and results in a significant lack of parity in plastic surgery and beyond. Implicit gender bias is the result of a complex interplay of cultural and societal expectations, learned behaviors, and standardized associations. As such, both male and female surgeons are subject to its influence. A review of the literature was conducted, examining theories of gender bias, current manifestations of gender bias in plastic surgery and other fields, and interventions designed to address gender bias. Multiple studies demonstrate persistent gender bias that impacts female physicians at all levels of training. Several institutions have enacted successful interventions to identify and address gender bias. Explicit gender bias has largely disappeared, yet unconscious or implicit gender bias persists. A wide-scale commitment to addressing implicit gender bias in plastic surgery is necessary and overdue. Recommendations include immediate actions that can be undertaken on an individual basis, and changes that should be implemented at a national and international level by leaders in the field.
Bessem, Bram; de Bruijn, Matthijs C.; Nieuwland, Wybe
Objectives: Gender-related differences are frequently used in medicine. Electrocardiograms are also subject to such differences. This study evaluated gender differences in ECG parameters of young athletes, discussing the possible implications of these differences for ECG criteria used in the
Bukh, Jens D; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj
BACKGROUND: Studies on gender differences in depression have usually included a mixture of patients with first-episode, chronic and recurrent depression. Consequently, the results might be confounded by the history of depression among participants. The present study evaluated gender differences......, personality traits and disorders, stressful life events, family history, and treatment response. RESULTS: Female patients showed a higher level of neuroticism and more residual anxiety symptoms after treatment of the depression. There were no gender differences in severity of depression, psychiatric co...
Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G.; DeVito, Elise E.; Kober, Hedy
Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender...
Female workers are traditionally viewed as more likely to quit, to be absent and to take more days of absence than male workers, and this gender difference is widely used as an important explanation for the gender wage gap and other labour market differences between men and women. This study documents the gender differences in quits and absenteeism in Canada and attempts to assess whether the traditional view is still valid today. The study found that Canadian women's quitting behaviour chang...
Endendijk, J. J.; Groeneveld, M.G.; Van der Pol, L.D.; van Berkel, S. R.; Hallers-Haalboom, E.T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; Mesman, J.
This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents’ physical control, moderated by parents’ gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role
Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian
This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.
Understanding cohort differences in appraisals of reconstruction priorities of mental health systems in postconflict Liberia. ... Conclusion: This study provides additional support for the premise that the utilization of ... of Liberians and that there are differences in preferences across groups. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
E. K. Skiba
Full Text Available The article analyzes the different theoretical approaches to clarifying the causes of inequality of gender identities. The opinion of scientists, following the theory of sex roles who think that gendered people acquire their gender identity from their birth and go with it to the outside world, in order to fill in a gender-neutral social institutions is considered. The article highlights the main tenets of the theory differentiating socialization that explain male dominance as a result of gender differences. We also investigate the vision of this problem by the representatives of the social construction theory, according to which gender is constructed at the same time both by a means of socialization of the entire system and the system of social roles of gender that circulate through all institutions of society and by the individual. As a result of analysis the article shows that the theory of gender roles, as well as differentiating socialization theory believe that a man and a woman are completely different beings, thus establishing and legitimizing dichotomy and hierarchy, while the social-constructionist approach argues that differences within a group of men, as well as within the group of women are greater and stronger than between men and women as a groups. The analysis defines that if the theory of sex roles and socialization theory differentiating believe that gender inequality is an inevitable consequence of gender difference and the difference is the cause of inequality, the social constructionist approach argues that gender inequality is not a natural state, and that the gender difference is the cornerstone which is the basis of justification and legitimization of gender inequalities in social institutions.
Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina; Hansen, Kasper Møller
Is there a relationship between party leader gender and voters' assessments? Yes, according to theses on gender identity and stereotyping. A voter survey during the 2011 Danish general election allows for a comprehensive analysis of a less likely case with four male and four female party leaders...... of gender does not increase with age, actually, the opposite is the case among men since younger male voters have smaller sympathy for female party leaders. Furthermore, there is no support for the expectation that voters with more education or with higher levels of political interest and knowledge are more....... Female party leaders are assessed more positively by female voters than male voters both in regard to general party leader sympathy and assessment of specific characteristics, whereas it is not the case that male party leaders are assessed more positively by male voters than female voters. The impact...
Meana, Marta; Nunnink, Sarah E
This study compared 220 college men and 237 college women on two types of self-reported cognitive distraction during sex, performance- and appearance-based. Affect, psychological distress, sexual knowledge, attitudes, fantasies, experiences, body image, satisfaction, and sexual function were assessed with the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory and the Sexual History Form to determine associations with distraction. Between-gender analyses revealed that women reported higher levels of overall and appearance-based distraction than did men, but similar levels of performance-based distraction. Within-gender analyses revealed that women reported as much of one type of distraction as the other, while men reported more performance- than appearance-based distraction. In women, appearance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image, psychological distress, and not being in a relationship, while performance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image, psychological distress, and sexual dissatisfaction. In men, appearance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image, sexual dissatisfaction and not being in a relationship, while performance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image and sexual dissatisfaction. Investigating the content of cognitive distraction may be useful in understanding gender differences in sexual experience and in refining cognitive components of sex therapy.
Jun 6, 2016 ... Download the Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership brief (PDF, 726 KB, available in English only). This document summarizes findings presented in the book “Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the Gender Gap in Eastern and Southern Africa” produced by the International Livestock ...
Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee
Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…
Zuo, Xiayun; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Niu, Hongfeng; Zabin, Laurie S
Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this article investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents' premarital sexual permissiveness (PSP). In a collaborative survey conducted in 2006-2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei, 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15-24 years were recruited in the three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, with 6,204, 6,023, and 4,327 respondents from each city, respectively. All the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with computer-assisted self-interview for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on PSP for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multilinear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes toward premarital sex than did females, with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents' gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and PSP was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai, female respondents who held more traditional gender-role attitudes were
Xiayun, Zuo; Chaohua, Lou; Ersheng, Gao; Yan, Cheng; Hongfeng, Niu; Zabin, Laurie S.
Purpose Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this paper investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents’ premarital sexual permissiveness. Methods 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15–24 were recruited in the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, a collaborative survey conducted in 2006–2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, with 6204, 6023 and 4327 from each city respectively. All of the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI) for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on premarital sexual permissiveness for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multi-linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Results Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes towards premarital sex than did females with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents’ gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and premarital sexual permissiveness was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai
Manning, Lydia K
The purpose of this study is to use a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States to investigate the effect gender and religiosity has on volunteer behavior in later life. This study looks specifically at the gender and religious differences associated with volunteering in later life. Accounting for gender and religious differences, more specifically, this study examines the assumption that older women are more likely to volunteer in later life as opposed to men, and that gender is a better predictor than being religious for the likelihood of occupying a volunteer role in later life. This study poses questions about the differences in gender and religiosity associated with volunteering in later life; the results indicate there is more work to be done as we conduct research that is clearer about how volunteerism and religiosity are measured in relation to gender, and the overall impact these differences have for older women and their respective communities.
Armour, Robert; And Others
The overall study examined job satisfaction among tenured college faculty. This paper compares responses from minority (about 6%) and female (about 18%) faculty with the overall responses (N=1135). Overall, 91% reported being satisfied with their careers with 82% saying they would choose the career again. Race and gender were not related…
Carrier, Sarah J.
This study examined the role of gender in the areas of environmental education that included environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels in the outdoors. The current study was part of a larger study designed to explore the effects of a treatment that consisted of 14 weeks of outdoor lessons conducted in the schoolyard as…
Mazurek, Michał; Huisman, Menno V; Rothman, Kenneth J
was -0.5% (95% CI, -1.8%, 0.8%). VKAs were prescribed to 32.8% and 31.9% (NOACs 46.8% and 48.3%) of women and men, respectively. No confounder for the association between gender and anticoagulant prescription was identified. Between-gender differences in anticoagulant use (lower use in women compared......AIMS: Data on gender differences in oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation are conflicting, largely limited to regional reports and Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) use. We aimed to analyze gender-specific anticoagulant prescription patterns early following...... atrial fibrillation (difference in prevalence of anticoagulant use...
Mackay, Martha H; Ratner, Pamela A; Johnson, Joy L; Humphries, Karin H; Buller, Christopher E
Better understanding of symptoms of myocardial ischaemia is needed to improve timeliness of treatment for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Although researchers have suggested sex differences exist in ischaemic symptoms, methodological issues prevent conclusions. Using percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) balloon inflation as a model of myocardial ischaemia, we explored sex differences in reported symptoms of ischaemia. Patients having non-emergent PCI, but not haemodynamic instability or left bundle branch block or non-acute coronary occlusion, were prospectively recruited. Pre-procedure, descriptions of pre-existing symptoms were obtained using open-ended questioning. Inflation was maintained for 2 min or until moderate discomfort or clinical instability occurred. During inflation, subjects were exhaustively questioned about their symptoms. Concurrent ECG data were collected. The final sample was 305 [39.7% women; mean age 63.9 (± 10.6)]. No sex differences were found in rates of chest or typical ischaemic discomfort, regardless of ischaemic status. Women were significantly more likely to report throat/jaw discomfort [odds ratio: 2.91; 95% confidence interval: 1.58-5.37] even after statistical adjustment for clinical and demographic variables. This prospective study with ECG-affirmed ischaemia found no statistically significant differences in women's and men's rates of chest and other typical symptoms during ischaemia, although women were more likely to experience throat and jaw discomfort. Currently both popular press and some patient education materials suggest women experience myocardial ischaemia differently from men. Steps to ensure women and health professionals are alert for the classic symptoms of myocardial ischaemia in women, as well as men, may be warranted.
Full Text Available This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable or increased; these trends often resulted from the differential impact on male and female mortality of general societal trends such as increased illicit drug use or improved health care. Similarly, trends in gender differences in accident-related behavior have shown substantial variation and appear to have been influenced by multiple factors, including gender differences in rates of adoption of different types of innovations.
Vantieghem, Wendelien; Van Houtte, Mieke
Despite boys' educational underachievement, gender differences in study motivation have received little research attention. Guided by self-determination theory and the identity-based motivation model, this study investigates differences in study motivation between boys and girls, as well as within each gender. To adequately consider these…
Villumsen, Morten; Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Marie Birk
The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure.......The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure....
Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; de Koning, Björn B.; de Vries, Meinou H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; van der Schoot, Menno
Text comprehension requires readers to mentally simulate the described situation by reactivating previously acquired sensory and motor information from (episodic) memory. Drawing upon research demonstrating gender differences, favouring girls, in tasks involving episodic memory retrieval, the present study explores whether gender differences exist…
Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.
Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…
Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen
The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…
Khare, Shruti; Lila, Anurag R; Patt, Hiren; Yerawar, Chaitanya; Goroshi, Manjunath; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S
Macroprolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary tumours. Hypotheses proposed to explain predominance of large tumours in males are: i) diagnostic delay, as hyperprolactinaemia remains under recognised in males and ii) gender-specific difference in tumour proliferation indices. Our study objectives are to compare gender differences in clinical, biochemical, radiological features, management outcomes and cabergoline responsiveness in macroprolactinomas. Drug resistance was defined a...
Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Steyerberg, Ewout Willem; Stage, Kurt Bjerregaard
OBJECTIVE: Gender differences in antidepressant treatment response, side effects, dropout rates, and plasma concentrations were examined in patients with major and predominantly melancholic depression. METHOD: The study included a subgroup of 292 inpatients (96 men, 196 women) from three Danish...... and multiple linear and logistic regression models were used for statistical evaluations. RESULTS: Both genders had similar remission rates (Hamilton depression scale score .... The plasma concentrations of clomipramine were significantly higher for female than for male patients. No gender differences were found in posttreatment Hamilton depression scale scores, nor did the therapeutic effects of treatment depend on gender. Rates of dropout and side effects were similar for men...
LILIANA NICOLETA SIMIONESCU
Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR refers to company's activities through which they need to contribute to the society well-being. Companies which are socially responsible operate their business in such way stakeholders requirements are a meet as well as ethical, legal, economical and philanthropic expectations toward the society where companies operates. Moreover, businesses decisions and strategies should take into consideration and should act with more responsibility to shareholders, customers, employees, and suppliers. Company's responsibility is more than just legal and economic responsibility. Companies including CSR into their business strategies increase their competitiveness alongside other benefits. Regardless of the heated debates which have been taking place between academics, researchers, scholars, and corporate executives, CSR concept remains open to a range of definitions As well as understanding. This paper aim is to theoretically investigate how differences in gender effect on corporate social responsibility activities with impact on companies’ performance in developing countries. In order to achieve the paper aim, following the literature on CSR and research background, comprehensive research framework was developed. Despite the fact that CSR have been debated on many topics, the gender differences effects on CSR in developing countries is scarce. To fill in this gap, this paper developed a conceptual research framework that enhance the literature on CSR as regard the differences linking male and female’s orientation toward CSR activities.
Norma Constanza Durán
This article aims to describe a case study which explores teacher and students' conceptions about gender in an EFL setting and the way they are manifested in their discourse patterns. This exploratory case study was carried out with a group of eleventh grade students and an English teacher at Liceo de la Universidad Católica high school in Bogotá Colombia. The data collected included direct observation of classroom interaction, audio and video recording of the teacher and students' interactio...
Carrasco , Amélia; Francoeur , Claude; Réal , Isabelle; Laffarga , Joaquina; Ruiz-Barbadillo , Emiliano
International audience; As evidence of the continuing interest raised by "board gender diversity", major studies (Catalyst, 2008; World Economic Forum, 2010; European Board Diversity Analysis, 2010) were recently carried out and have all led to reports confirming the imbalance of women on boards and the need to address this issue. Moreover, our analysis of these reports indicates that the low proportion of women observed on corporate boards varies across countries, which raises the question a...
and research strategies – for example following specific negotiations to a conclusion - provide insight into the production of gender in discourse and practice at the work place level. Thus, the article argues that reflexivity and methodological plurality are important when studying gender in work...... and parental leave in the work place, the article explores some of the challenges and complexities involved when researching gender as a social category of difference, which produces inequalities in organizations. Furthermore, the article demonstrates and discusses how applying and combining different methods......This article focuses on methodological challenges and strategies with regard to studying gender in organizations. Work organizations are often thought, theorized and talked about as gender-neutral arenas and, therefore, gender is often seen as irrelevant and of no importance in modern work...
Newhoff, Morgan; Treiman, David M; Smith, Kris A; Steinmetz, Peter N
Well-documented differences in the psychology and behavior of men and women have spurred extensive exploration of gender's role within the brain, particularly regarding emotional processing. While neuroanatomical studies clearly show differences between the sexes, the functional effects of these differences are less understood. Neuroimaging studies have shown inconsistent locations and magnitudes of gender differences in brain hemodynamic responses to emotion. To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions. This study included recordings of single-neuron activity of 14 (6 male) epileptic patients in four brain areas: amygdala (236 neurons), hippocampus (n = 270), anterior cingulate cortex (n = 256), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n = 174). Neural activity was recorded while participants viewed a series of avatar male faces portraying positive, negative or neutral expressions. Significant gender differences were found in the left amygdala, where 23% (n = 15∕66) of neurons in men were significantly affected by facial emotion, vs. 8% (n = 6∕76) of neurons in women. A Fisher's exact test comparing the two ratios found a highly significant difference between the two (p differences between genders at the single-neuron level in the human amygdala. These differences may reflect gender-based distinctions in evolved capacities for emotional processing and also demonstrate the importance of including subject gender as an independent factor in future studies of emotional processing by single neurons in the human amygdala.
Nowadays, the word sex and its related terms (sexual differences, sexual roles and stereotypes), so common not long ago, seems to have been replaced by gender and its related terms (gender differences, gender roles and stereotypes). We can sometimes find both sex and gender sharing the same space in scientific articles, although referring to different domains. In this paper, I try to explain the need for a model that can integrate both of these complex domains of sex and gender, leading to two independent, although complementary, disciplines: Sexology and Genderology. In both cases, I start from a functional standpoint, which will give meaning to both disciplines' specificities, as it is meant to link contributions from different fields of knowledge. This approach can have consequences for research, education, the experience of women, men, and ambiguous individuals, and therapy.
Full Text Available Suicide attempt denotes activities directed towards one's own death which do not end in death. The ratio between attempted and realized suicides is expressed by the index called hazard ratio. Risk factors which contribute to suicidal behavior are: various emotional conditions, personality traits, stressful life events, substance misuse etc. The purpose of the study was to explore the frequencies and epidemiological and demographic characteristics of suicide attempts separately in men and women. The study sample involved 56 patients with the diagnosis suicide attempt (Tentamen suicidii treated on the Psychiatric department of the Clinical Center Priština, Gračanica. The data have been analyzed in respect to gender, age, profession/employment, mental disorder diagnosis, motivation (reason and the way of performing a suicide attempt. Results: suicide has been attempted by 42 women (75% and 14 men (25% of the sample. The prevalent age group of our sample (26.8% represents the patients below 20. The most prevalent are also unemployed patients, 33.3% of women and 50% of men. The most prevalent diagnosis is anxiety disorder (61.9% of women and 57.1% of men. The prevailing reason for attempting suicide in women was couple conflict (54.8% and existential problems in men (50%. Fifty one patients of the sample (91.1% have attempted suicide by intoxication with sedative drugs (anxiolytics. The majority of suicide attempts happened during afternoon and evening hours, i.e. in the period 12-24h. Conclusion: women have attempted suicide more frequently than men (ratio 3:1. Unemployment has been the prevailing professional characteristic in both genders. The most prevailing diagnosis is anxiety disorder. The chief motive in women is couple conflict and in men existential difficulties. In both genders the most frequent way of attempting suicide is poisoning, mostly in the period 12-24h.
Studied three different criteria of within-sex, gender-related individual differences taken from three studies. Data showed that items displaying large sex differences tended also to correlate most strongly with independent gender-related criteria within the sexes. Discusses assessment implications for gender-related and other group-related…
Norma Constanza Durán
Full Text Available This article aims to describe a case study which explores teacher and students` conceptions about gender in an EFL setting and the way they are manifested in their discourse patterns. This exploratory case study was carried out with a group of eleventh grade students and an English teacher at Liceo de la Universidad Católica high school in Bogotá Colombia. The data collected included direct observation of classroom interaction, audio and video recording of the teacher and students` interactions and interviews on the teacher’s and students` discourse. The analysis of the data revealed that in fact there are imbalances in relation to boys` and girls` participation during interaction, made manifest by verbal and nonverbal attitudes. There is also sound evidence of girls’ low self esteem in response to the lack of value and respect granted to their opinions by their male peers. Stereotypes are part of teachers’ and students’ conceptions regarding gender and thus they are maintained to a great extent. The teacher’s attitude in the classroom with respect to boys and girls also appeared to show inequality that favoured boys. The girls showed evidence of awareness of the teacher’s conscious or unconscious indifference towards them, which seemed to affect their autonomy and confidence as English language learners.
Elvira NICA; Gheorghe H. POPESCU
The purpose of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of the long-run impact of globalization on gender equality, the women’s opportunity to engage in social participation, the influence of globalization on the formal and informal norms of behavior which shape gender roles and women’s opportunities in social life, and the globalization-induced changes in the socio-economic status of women. This research makes conceptual and methodological contributions to China’s gender and law initia...
Warner, David F; Brown, Tyson H
A number of studies have demonstrated wide disparities in health among racial/ethnic groups and by gender, yet few have examined how race/ethnicity and gender intersect or combine to affect the health of older adults. The tendency of prior research to treat race/ethnicity and gender separately has potentially obscured important differences in how health is produced and maintained, undermining efforts to eliminate health disparities. The current study extends previous research by taking an intersectionality approach (Mullings & Schulz, 2006), grounded in life course theory, conceptualizing and modeling trajectories of functional limitations as dynamic life course processes that are jointly and simultaneously defined by race/ethnicity and gender. Data from the nationally representative 1994-2006 US Health and Retirement Study and growth curve models are utilized to examine racial/ethnic/gender differences in intra-individual change in functional limitations among White, Black and Mexican American Men and Women, and the extent to which differences in life course capital account for group disparities in initial health status and rates of change with age. Results support an intersectionality approach, with all demographic groups exhibiting worse functional limitation trajectories than White Men. Whereas White Men had the lowest disability levels at baseline, White Women and racial/ethnic minority Men had intermediate disability levels and Black and Hispanic Women had the highest disability levels. These health disparities remained stable with age-except among Black Women who experience a trajectory of accelerated disablement. Dissimilar early life social origins, adult socioeconomic status, marital status, and health behaviors explain the racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among Men but only partially explain the disparities among Women. Net of controls for life course capital, Women of all racial/ethnic groups have higher levels of functional
Di Giosia, Paolo; Giorgini, Paolo; Stamerra, Cosimo Andrea; Petrarca, Marco; Ferri, Claudio; Sahebkar, Amirhossein
This review aims to examine gender differences in both the epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypertension and to explore gender peculiarities on the effects of antihypertensive agents in decreasing BP and CV events. Men and women differ in prevalence, awareness, and control rate of hypertension in an age-dependent manner. Studies suggest that sex hormones changes play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of hypertension in postmenopausal women. Estrogens influence the vascular system inducing vasodilatation, inhibiting vascular remodeling processes, and modulating the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system and the sympathetic system. This leads to a protective effect on arterial stiffness during reproductive age that is dramatically reversed after menopause. Data on the efficacy of antihypertensive therapy between genders are conflicting, and the underrepresentation of aged women in large clinical trials could influence the results. Therefore, further clinical research is needed to uncover potential gender differences in hypertension to promote the development of a gender-oriented approach to antihypertensive treatment.
Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.
Prior research has shown, at our institution: 1) males outperform females on conceptual assessments (a gender gap), 2) the gender gap persists despite the use of research-based reforms, and 3) the gender gap is correlated with students' physics and mathematics background and prior attitudes and beliefs [Kost, et al. PRST-PER, 5, 010101]. Our follow-up work begins to explore how males and females experience the introductory course differently and how these differences relate to the gender gap. We gave a survey to students in the introductory course in which we investigated students' physics identity and self-efficacy. We find there are significant gender differences in each of these three areas, and further find that these measures are weakly correlated with student conceptual performance, and moderately correlated with course grade.
Wesson, Linda Hampton; Holman, David
Replicating research completed in 1986, a study determined the relationship among cognitive laterality, gender, and reading comprehension for African-American students, as well as gender differences in cognitive laterality and in reading comprehension. Subjects, 40 African-American males, 41 African-American females, 12 White males, and 17 White…
Boyatzis, Chris J.; Eades, Julie
Examined sex differences in preschoolers' and kindergartners' art generation and preference. First, researchers assessed gender stereotypicality in their drawings and preferences for pictures. Both sexes drew somewhat gender stereotypical pictures. Next, when choosing coloring book pictures to color, boys chose masculine and girls chose feminine…
Sydell, Eric J.; Nelson, Eileen S.
Examines influence of gender and race on perception of sexual harassment and on recommended punitive measures by college judicial boards for potential harasser. Significant gender-based differences were found in perception of an ambiguous sexual-harassment situation, with men tending to attribute greater responsibility to victim than did women.…
Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Morrison, Elizabeth M.; Liau, Albert K.; Gibbs, John C.
Examined whether gender discrepancy in late adolescents' antisocial behavior may be attributed to gender differences in other moral cognitive variables. Found that mature moral judgment and higher moral self-relevance were associated with lower self-serving cognitive distortion, partially mediating the relationship between those variables and…
Rienzi, Beth M.; And Others
To investigate gender differences in acceptance of substance abuse behavior among adolescents, 968 students were administered a questionnaire to assess their perceptions. Results show that both genders felt that boys would be more approving of teenage substance abuse. Most students were disapproving of a teenager driving after drinking. Other…
Rahman, Omar; And Others
Used data from United States, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Bangladesh to explore gender differences in adult health. Found that women fared worse than men across variety of self-reported health measures in all four countries. Data from Jamaica indicated that gender disparities in adult health arose early and persisted throughout the life cycle, with…
Addresses the role of comparison processes in the persistence of the gender wage gap, its toleration by those disadvantaged by it, and resistance to comparable worth as a corrective strategy. Argues that gender segregation and undercompensation for women's jobs leads women to use different comparison standards when evaluating what they deserve.…
Holmberg, K; Hellsten, I.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a study about gender differences in the climate change communication on Twitter and in the use of affordances on Twitter. Design/methodology/approach – The data set consists of about 250,000 tweets and retweets for which the authors’ gender was
Schoonheim, M.M.; Hulst, H.E.; Landi, D.; Ciccarelli, O.; Roosendaal, S.D.; Sanz-Arigita, E.J.; Vrenken, H.; Polman, C.H.; Stam, C.J.; Barkhof, F.; Geurts, J.J.G.
Background: Gender effects are strong in multiple sclerosis (MS), with male patients showing a worse clinical outcome than female patients. Functional reorganization of neural activity may contribute to limit disability, and possible gender differences in this process may have important clinical
Prawat, Richard S.; Jarvis, Robert
Teacher perceptions of students as influenced by differences in student gender are examined. Elementary school teachers' perceptions of students were assessed by their rating children in their classes on various dimensions. Results showed student ability/achievement are more potent in teacher perceptions than gender. (Author/GK)
Hardy, Jay H., III; Gibson, Carter
Despite significant scholarly attention, the literature on the existence and direction of gender differences in creativity has produced inconsistent findings. In the present paper, we argue that this lack of consensus may be attributable, at least in part, to gender-specific inconsistencies in the measurement of creative problem-solving. To…
Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Gwang Ha
It is important to understand sex and gender-related differences in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) because gender-related biologic factors might lead to better prevention and therapy. Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) affects more women than men. GERD symptoms are more frequent in patients with NERD than in those with reflux esophagitis. However, men suffer pathologic diseases such as reflux esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) more frequently than women. The prevalence of reflux esophagitis is significantly increased with age in women, especially after their 50s. The mean age of EAC incidence in women is higher than in men, suggesting a role of estrogen in delaying the onset of BE and EAC. In a chronic rat reflux esophagitis model, nitric oxide was found to be an aggravating factor of esophageal injury in a male-predominant way. In addition, the expression of esophageal occludin, a tight junction protein that plays an important role in the esophageal defense mechanism, was up-regulated in women. This explains the male predominance of reflux esophagitis and delayed incidence of BE or EAC in women. Moreover, the symptoms such as heartburn, regurgitation, and extra-esophageal symptoms have been more frequently reported by women than by men, suggesting that sex and gender play a role in symptom perception. Differential sensitivity with augmented symptoms in women might have diagnostic and therapeutic influence. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that hormone replacement therapy has a protective effect against esophageal cancer. However, an anti-inflammatory role of estrogen remains compelling, which means further study is necessary in this area. PMID:27703114
Background Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. Objective To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Methods Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres. Results The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. Conclusion The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures. PMID:24341391
The thesis examines attitudes towards outdoor advertising, with strong emphasis on gender-based differences. The research intends to reveal the most influencing factors, including gender, format, different images and recall. Earlier researchers have argued that females are inclined to rate advertisements more positively than men. Five different, but interconnected studies, one content analysis and four surveys, were implicated in order to measure the responses to advertising. It is further su...
are being used to study race and gender differences in testing as well as differences in wages . 17 III. LITERATURE REVIEW A. INTRODUCTION In...Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1979 cohort, as well as ASVAB and AFQT data, to 21 examine the racial and gender differences in average wages by looking... wage gap , but including individual ASVAB subtests has a substantial impact on explaining that wage gap . One problem with this study is that the use of
Walitzer, Kimberly S; Dearing, Ronda L
This review explores gender differences in relapse and characteristics of relapse events in alcohol and substance use. For alcohol, relapse rates were similar across gender. Although negative mood, childhood sexual abuse, alcohol-related self-efficacy, and poorer coping strategies predicted alcohol relapse, gender did not moderate these effects. Gender did moderate the association between marriage and alcohol relapse. For women, marriage and marital stress were risk factors for alcohol relapse; among men, marriage lowered relapse risk. This gender difference in the role of marriage in relapse may be a result of partner differences in problem drinking. Alcoholic women are more likely to be married to heavy drinking partners than are alcoholic men; thus, alcoholic women may be put at risk of relapse by marriage and alcoholic men may be protected by marriage. There are fewer studies documenting gender differences in substance abuse relapse so conclusions are limited and tentative. In contrast to the lack of gender differences in alcohol relapse rates, women appear less likely to experience relapse to substance use, relative to men. Women relapsing to substance use appear to be more sensitive to negative affect and interpersonal problems. Men, in contrast, may be more likely to have positive experiences prior to relapse.
Gomez, Patrick; von Gunten, Armin; Danuser, Brigitta
The investigation of gender differences in emotion has attracted much attention given the potential ramifications on our understanding of sexual differences in disorders involving emotion dysregulation. Yet, research on content-specific gender differences across adulthood in emotional responding is lacking. The aims of the present study were twofold. First, we sought to investigate to what extent gender differences in the self-reported emotional experience are content specific. Second, we sought to determine whether gender differences are stable across the adult lifespan. We assessed valence and arousal ratings of 14 picture series, each of a different content, in 94 men and 118 women aged 20 to 81. Compared to women, men reacted more positively to erotic images, whereas women rated low-arousing pleasant family scenes and landscapes as particularly positive. Women displayed a disposition to respond with greater defensive activation (i.e., more negative valence and higher arousal), in particular to the most arousing unpleasant contents. Importantly, significant interactions between gender and age were not found for any single content. This study makes a novel contribution by showing that gender differences in the affective experiences in response to different contents persist across the adult lifespan. These findings support the "stability hypothesis" of gender differences across age. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Beam, Christopher R; Marcus, Katherine; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E
Marriages consist of shared experiences and interactions between husbands and wives that may lead to different impressions of the quality of the relationship. Few studies, unfortunately, have tested gender differences in the structure of marital quality, and even fewer studies have evaluated whether genetic and environmental influences on marital quality differ across gender. In this study, we evaluated gender differences in the structure of marital quality using independent samples of married male (n = 2406) and married female (n = 2215) participants from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States who provided ratings on twenty-eight marital quality items encompassing six marital quality constructs. We further explored gender differences in genetic and environmental influences on marital quality constructs in a subsample of 491 pairs of twins. Results suggest partial metric invariance across gender but structural variability in marital quality constructs. Notably, correlations between constructs were stronger in women than men. Results also support gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on different aspects of marital quality. We discuss that men and women may approach and react to marriage differently as the primary reason why we observed differences in the structure of marital quality.
Weber, Daniela; Skirbekk, Vegard; Freund, Inga; Herlitz, Agneta
Cognitive gender differences and the reasons for their origins have fascinated researchers for decades. Using nationally representative data to investigate gender differences in cognitive performance in middle-aged and older populations across Europe, we show that the magnitude of these differences varies systematically across cognitive tasks, birth cohorts, and regions, but also that the living conditions and educational opportunities individuals are exposed to during their formative years are related to their later cognitive performance. Specifically, we demonstrate that improved living conditions and less gender-restricted educational opportunities are associated with increased gender differences favoring women in some cognitive functions (i.e., episodic memory) and decreases (i.e., numeracy) or elimination of differences in other cognitive abilities (i.e., category fluency). Our results suggest that these changes take place due to a general increase in women's cognitive performance over time, associated with societal improvements in living conditions and educational opportunities.
Coffé, H.R.; Bolzendahl, C.
We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and
Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran
Gender-related differences in susceptibility to chemical exposure to neurotoxicants have not received sufficient attention. Although a significant number of epidemiological studies on the neurodevelopmental effects of metal exposure has been published in the last twenty years, not many of them have considered the possible gender-specific effects of such exposure. This review is focused on studies where the gender differences in pre- and/or postnatal exposure/s to five metals (mercury, lead, manganese, cadmium, and arsenic) and neurodevelopment were evaluated. We conducted a PubMed search in December 2012 and retrieved 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria. A large body of literature on potential neurodevelopment effects in children due to mercury exposure is available, but, a clear pattern regarding gender differences in neurotoxicity is not elucidated. There is also abundant available information on the gender-specific health effects of lead, and exposure to this metal seems to affect boys more than girls. Information regarding gender differences in susceptibility of manganese, cadmium, and arsenic is still too scarce to draw any definite conclusion. More research is highly warranted about this matter. Environmental epidemiological studies should be designed to quantify differential gender-based exposures and outcomes, and this may provide new insights into prevention strategies
McRae, Kateri; Ochsner, Kevin N; Mauss, Iris B; Gabrieli, John J D; Gross, James J
Despite strong popular conceptions of gender differences in emotionality and striking gender differences in the prevalence of disorders thought to involve emotion dysregulation, the literature on the neural bases of emotion regulation is nearly silent regarding gender differences (Gross, 2007; Ochsner & Gross, in press). The purpose of the present study was to address this gap in the literature. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we asked male and female participants to use a cognitive emotion regulation strategy (reappraisal) to down-regulate their emotional responses to negatively valenced pictures. Behaviorally, men and women evidenced comparable decreases in negative emotion experience. Neurally, however, gender differences emerged. Compared with women, men showed (a) lesser increases in prefrontal regions that are associated with reappraisal, (b) greater decreases in the amygdala, which is associated with emotional responding, and (c) lesser engagement of ventral striatal regions, which are associated with reward processing. We consider two non-competing explanations for these differences. First, men may expend less effort when using cognitive regulation, perhaps due to greater use of automatic emotion regulation. Second, women may use positive emotions in the service of reappraising negative emotions to a greater degree. We then consider the implications of gender differences in emotion regulation for understanding gender differences in emotional processing in general, and gender differences in affective disorders.
Gender differences in adoption of recommended improved cassava production ... (39%) are involved in full time farm employment and the incidence of single parenthood ... The females on the other hand recorded higher adoption rates of the ...
ART and ascertaining the reasons underlying any difference could inform ..... of cigarette smoking and alcohol and other determinants in relation to gender should ... Calmy A, Pinoges L, Szumilin E, Zachariah R, Ford N,. Ferradini L. Generic ...
Johnson, R W; Sambamoorthi, U; Crystal, S
Information from pension providers was examined to investigate gender differences in pension wealth at midlife. For full-time wage and salary workers approaching retirement age who had pension coverage, median pension wealth on the current job was 76% greater for men than women. Differences in wages, years of job tenure, and industry between men and women accounted for most of the gender gap in pension wealth on the current job. Less than one third of the wealth difference could not be explained by gender differences in education, demographics, or job characteristics. The less-advantaged employment situation of working women currently in midlife carries over into worse retirement income prospects. However, the gender gap in pensions is likely to narrow in the future as married women's employment experiences increasingly resemble those of men.
Gender differences in waist circumference in Nigerian children. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... anthropometric tape according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry ...
Kessing, Lars Vedel
OBJECTIVES: To investigate gender differences in the phenomenology of episodes in bipolar disorder as according to ICD-10. METHODS: All patients who got a diagnosis of a manic episode/bipolar disorder in a period from 1994 to 2002 at the first outpatient treatment ever or at the first discharge...... episodes (mild/moderate/severe without psychosis/severe with psychosis) did not differ between genders. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms at first contact was the same for both genders. Among patients treated in outpatient settings more men than women presented with comorbid substance abuse and among...... patients treated during hospitalization more women than men presented with mixed episodes. CONCLUSIONS: Besides differences in the prevalence of mixed episodes and comorbid substance abuse few gender differences are found among patients presenting with a manic episode/bipolar disorder at first contact...
Schmidt, Ida Maria; Chellakooty, Marla; Haavisto, Anne-Maarit
as the dependent variable and weight for gestational age, subscapular skinfold, weight at 3 mo of age and serum estradiol as independent variables, a gender difference was shown. In girls, the estradiol level was positively (p
Zmyj, Norbert; Bischof-Köhler, Doris
What is the developmental course of children's gender constancy? Do other cognitive abilities such as time comprehension and false-belief understanding foster gender constancy and the subcomponents gender stability and gender consistency? We examined the development of gender constancy and its relation to time comprehension and false-belief…
Leiter, Valerie; Rieker, Patricia P
The gendered nature of special health care needs in childhood is an important yet understudied area. Although gendered differences in the prevalence of special health care needs have been documented, there is less knowledge about the factors which contribute to those differences. Two research questions guide this inquiry. First, is the gender gap consistent across child special health care need indicators? Second, to what extent is the gender gap in special health care needs driven by behavioral conditions? We use multiple indicators from the U.S. National Survey of Children's Health to expand our understanding about the dynamic relationship between gender and childhood health. There are clear gender differences in the prevalence of special health care needs. Boys are more likely than girls to have special health care needs overall and on the five separate components examined (medication, more care than typical, limitations, special therapies, and educational or behavioral problem). This gender gap is dynamic and varies by indicator; while behavioral conditions play a role, it remains even after controlling for behavioral conditions. The reasons for the gender differences appear to be both biological and social but much remains unknown about this pattern.
Kangasniemi, Mari; Kauhanen, Antti
We study the impact of performance-related pay (PRP) on gender wage differences using Finnish linked employer-employee panel data. Controlling for unobserved person and firm effects, we find that bonuses increase women's earnings slightly less than men's, but the economic significance of the difference is negligible. Piece rates and reward rates, however, tend to increase gender wage differentials. Thus, the nature of a performance related pay plan is important for gauging the impact of PRP o...
Spindler, Helle; Johansen, Jens B; Andersen, Kirsten Krogh
Little is known about gender differences in the response to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy. We compared female and male ICD patients on anxiety, depression, health-related quality of life (HRQL), ICD concerns, and ICD acceptance.......Little is known about gender differences in the response to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy. We compared female and male ICD patients on anxiety, depression, health-related quality of life (HRQL), ICD concerns, and ICD acceptance....
I analyze the job separation process to learn about gender differences in job separation rates and employment stability. An essential finding is that employer-employee data are required to identify gender differences in job separation probabilities because of labor market segregation. Failure...... workplaces. Finally, women's employment stability is relatively low because they are more likely to move from a job and into unemployment or out of the labor force, and less likely to make job-to-job transitions....
Ali, Amir; Subhi, Yousif; Ringsted, Charlotte
BACKGROUND: Females are less attracted than males to surgical specialties, which may be due to differences in the acquisition of skills. The aim of this study was to systematically review studies that investigate gender differences in the acquisition of surgical skills. METHODS: We performed...... a comprehensive database search using relevant search phrases and MeSH terms. We included studies that investigated the role of gender in the acquisition of surgical skills. RESULTS: Our search yielded 247 studies, 18 of which were found to be eligible and were therefore included. These studies included a total...... of 2,106 study participants. The studies were qualitatively synthesized in five categories (studies on medical students, studies on both medical students and residents, studies on residents, studies on gender differences in needed physical strength, and studies on other gender-related training...
Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta
Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.
Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii
Assisting transgender individuals is a concern for career development practitioners because there is a lack of knowledge on this topic. The complexity of gender reassignment surgery brings challenges and unique needs to this population, throughout gender transition, and requires career development practitioners to understand these challenges and…
Passalacqua, Sue; Cervantes, Joseph M.
This article examines roles that gender, culture, and spirituality play in elements of therapeutic process. It presents an initial literature review of gender, culture, and spirituality as these factors relate to shaping identities and defining one's behavior. Discussions on how these 3 dimensions influence the level of understanding and effective…
Stromquist, Nelly P.
Under the research radar, and yet highly influential in transformation of practices concerning the social understanding and enactment of gender, are women-led non-governmental organizations (WNGOs). Their continued efforts to reconfigure gender identities and their impact on public policy formation have expanded notions of citizenship and…
Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa
The focus of this paper is on the assessment and understanding of the gender equity in education in Jammu and Kashmir. Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures should be available to compensate for women's historical and social disadvantaged. The central government, state government,…
Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi
Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender
Dimich-Ward, Helen; Camp, Patricia G; Kennedy, Susan M
Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by chi(2) analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.
Dimich-Ward, Helen; Camp, Patricia G.; Kennedy, Susan M.
Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by χ 2 analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes
Hemert, D.A. van; Vijver, F.J.R. van de; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.
Results of a cross-cultural study of adult crying across 37 countries are presented. Analyses focused on country differences in recency of last crying episode and crying proneness and relationships with country characteristics. Three hypotheses on the nature of country differences in crying were
Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Brygger, Mary Pat
Examined difference between male and female reports of violence and threats directed by the man toward the woman. In many categories, significantly more women were found at intake to report more threats and violence than their male partners. After extensive intervention these differences were not found in the more severe categories of violence.…
Ignacio Zarragoitía Alonso
Full Text Available The article presents and analyzes the major factors involved in depression, taking into account those related to biological, psychological and social issues linked to sex and gender. Ultimately, these sex and gender-associated factors determine that the condition is present more often in women than in men, nearly doubling the cases. In addition, the article describes the singularities of depressive disorders in different reproductive periods when the disease acquires clinical specificity in accordance with sexual and hormonal functions. Finally, the way in which gender roles can intervene in how depression is approached in women vis-à-vis men is covered.
Veronika Hedija; Petr Musil
The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the p...
Capraro, Valerio; Sippel, Jonathan
Whether, and if so, how exactly gender differences are manifested in moral judgment has recently been at the center of much research on moral decision making. Previous research suggests that women are more deontological than men in personal, but not impersonal, moral dilemmas. However, typical personal and impersonal moral dilemmas differ along two dimensions: Personal dilemmas are more emotionally salient than impersonal ones and involve a violation of Kant's practical imperative that humans must never be used as a mere means, but only as ends. Thus, it remains unclear whether the reported gender difference is due to emotional salience or to the violation of the practical imperative. To answer this question, we explore gender differences in three moral dilemmas: a typical personal dilemma, a typical impersonal dilemma, and an intermediate dilemma, which is not as emotionally salient as typical personal moral dilemmas, but contains an equally strong violation of Kant's practical imperative. While we replicate the result that women tend to embrace deontological ethics more than men in personal, but not impersonal, dilemmas, we find no gender differences in the intermediate situation. This suggests that gender differences in these type of dilemmas are driven by emotional salience, and not by the violation of the practical imperative. Additionally, we also explore whether people think that women should behave differently than men in these dilemmas. Across all three dilemmas, we find no statistically significant differences about how people think men and women should behave.
Jan 29, 2018 ... Unless these questions are addressed early on, people's experiences with ... Understanding how a person's gender, age, and class can influence ... It also promoted greater equity among workers in primary health centres ...
Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria
Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a “male” disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher: Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as traditional and psychosocial risk factors. Compared with men, CVD risk in women is increased to a greater extent by some traditional factors (eg, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity,) and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors also seem to have a higher impact on CVD in women. With respect la differences in CVD management, a gender bias in favor of men has to be taken into account, in spite of greater age and higher comorbidity in women, possibly contributing to a poorer outcome. Depression has been shown to be an independent risk factor and consequence of CVD; however, concerning gender differences, The results have been inconsistent. Current evidence suggests that depression causes a greater increase in CVD incidence in women, and that female CVD patients experience higher levels of depression than men. Gensier aspects should be more intensively considered, both in further research on gender differences in comorbid depresion, and in cardiac treatment and rehabilitation, with the goal of making secondary prevention more effective. PMID:17506227
Kusumaningsih, W.; Darhim; Herman, T.; Turmudi
This study aimed to conduct a gender study on students' algebraic thinking ability in solving a mathematics problem, polyhedron concept, for grade VIII. This research used a qualitative method. The data was collected using: test and interview methods. The subjects in this study were eight male and female students with different level of abilities. It was found that the algebraic thinking skills of male students reached high group of five categories. They were superior in terms of reasoning and quick understanding in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability of high-achieving group of female students also met five categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were more diligent, tenacious and thorough in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability of male students in medium category only satisfied three categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were sufficient in terms of reasoning and understanding in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability group of female students in medium group also satisfied three categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were fairly diligent, tenacious and meticulous on working on the problems.
Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Schreiber, Liana R N
Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for selecting appropriate prevention and treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and cogn...... and cognitive differences in treatment-seeking people with pathological gambling as a function of gender....
Kate Wilson; David Low; Matthew Verdon; Alix Verdon
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally ...
Nordman, Christophe; Wolff, F.C.
Using matched employer-employee data collected in seven African countries, we present comparative evidence on the magnitude of the gender wage gap in African manufacturing sectors. Using OLS regressions, differences in male and female earnings are found both in Mauritius and Morocco, while the gender wage gap turns out to be insignificant in Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal and Uganda. Results from quantile regressions indicate that the wage gap remains not constant across the wage distribut...
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani
Background Despite the existing knowledge on the association between discrimination and poor mental health, very few studies have explored gender differences in this association in Arab Americans. Objective The current study aimed to investigate whether gender moderates the association between the experience of discrimination and psychological distress in a representative sample of Arab Americans in Michigan. Methods Using data from the Detroit Arab American Study (DAAS), 2...
Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen
Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…
Worldwide, many research has been performed to investigate differences between men and women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (the most common type of diabetes). These studies showed that the negative impact of T2D on health is higher among women compared to men. However, whether this phenomenon holds
Buser, T.; Peter, N.
We examine how multitasking affects performance and check whether women are indeed better at multitasking. Subjects in our experiment perform two different tasks according to three treatments: one where they perform the tasks sequentially, one where they are forced to multitask, and one where they
Barron, John M.; And Others
Employment survey data show that, although training intensity in the first three months of employment is similar for men and women, women are employed in positions with shorter training and less capital. These differences and lower market valuation for women's work experience account for much of the wage gap. (SK)
This paper reconsiders the relationships between feminist perspectives and the figurational/process-sociological perspective of Norbert Elias for understanding gender, sport and sport-related activities. The main aim of the article is to respond to Colwell's claim that there are differences between feminist and figurational approaches to…
Lorson, Kevin M; Stodden, David F; Langendorfer, Stephen J; Goodway, Jacqueline D
The purposes of this study were to examine age and gender differences in throwing performance across an underexplored portion of the lifespan: middle adolescents (14-17 years old), young adults (18-25 years old), and adults (35-55 years old). Throwing performance was assessed using the body component levels from Roberton's developmental sequences for force and ball velocity that were recorded by a radar gun. Participants in each age group performed between 5 to 10 forceful overhand throws toward a target approximately 15m to 20m from the thrower. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test was used to determine gender differences and a Wilcoxon-Signed Ranks Test was used to determine age-group differences for each component. Gender and age-group differences in ball speed were determined by a 3 (age group) x 2 (gender) factorial analysis of variance with follow-up post-hoc tests. Young-adult men had higher body component levels and ball speed compared with the adolescent boys and adult men. Female age-group differences existed only for humerus action between young-adult and adult groups and for ball speed between young-adult and adolescent groups. Gender differences (p < .01) existed in component levels for the adolescent and young-adult groups, but not the adult groups. Gender differences in ball speed (p < .001) existed within each age group. Although these data were cross-sectional, the regressive developmental changes observed and the narrowing gender gap may eventually provide insight related to the relationships among motor skill competence, physical fitness, and physical activity across the lifespan.
Full Text Available It is argued that according teachers’ perceptions, boys and girls actively use the material on sexuality education (SE, as well as the aspects of school life, as symbolic resources to construct their gender identity and their power relationships. In this sense, an investigation where a semi-structured interview was applied to a purposeful sample of teachers who were teaching between the 7th and 12th years, and who had already developed projects or activities of SE (N=87 will be presented, to focus on, among other aspects, their perceptions regarding issues related to gender that affect the responses of students in sexuality education, aiming at understanding their perceptions on: i gender differences in students’ reactions to themes/problems of SE; and ii the nature of the gender interactions during SE. According to the discourse of most teachers, during SE, boys tried to demonstrate their masculinity by presenting themselves differently to girls and distancing themselves from all matters related to women's sexuality, devaluating and distancing themselves from all that is feminine which sometimes involved belittling and insulting the girls. However, the girls reacted positively because SE maintains and supports their sense of gender identity and gender codes that are prescribed for them by society. Therefore, these results show that it is essential to work in teacher training on the relationship between gender, sexuality and power in order to empower teachers to reflect critically on students' reactions to promote gender equity.
Thomas Buser; Noemi Peter
We examine how multitasking affects performance and check whether women are indeed better at multitasking. Subjects in our experiment perform two different tasks according to three treatments: one where they perform the tasks sequentially, one where they are forced to multitask, and one where they can freely organize their work. Subjects who are forced to multitask perform significantly worse than those forced to work sequentially. Surprisingly, subjects who can freely organize their own sche...
de Sousa, José; Hollard, Guillaume
Women are under-represented in top positions, such as in business or in politics. Traditional explanations, like differences in productivity and discrimination, are now complemented by psychological explanations based on lab experiments. We provide the first attempt to assess the comparative importance of psychological and traditional explanations in a natural field experiment, namely chess competitions. Controlling for discrimination and productivity, we find that women are suffering a syste...
Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo
This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…
Helmes, E; Bush, J D; Pike, D L; Drake, D G
Script analysis as a test of executive functions is presumed sensitive to cognitive changes seen with increasing age. Two studies evaluated if gender differences exist in performance on scripts for familiar and unfamiliar tasks in groups of cognitively intact older adults. In Study 1, 26 older adults completed male and female stereotypical scripts. Results were not significant but a tendency was present, with genders making fewer impossible errors on the gender-typical script. Such an interaction was also noted in Study 2, which contrasted 50 older with 50 younger adults on three scripts, including a script with neutral familiarity. The pattern of significant interactions for errors suggested the need to use scripts that are based upon tasks that are equally familiar to both genders.
Stephane M. Shepherd
Full Text Available The study examined gender differences in risk factors for violence in a sample of 213 male and female youths held in Youth Justice Centres in Victoria, Australia. Although violence risk factors are considered to be commensurate across gender, a growing body of international literature is categorizing gender-specific criminal trajectories. The study aimed to investigate this concept in an Australian juvenile context. Through the use of a widely validated youth violence risk assessment inventory, the prevalence of salient risk items was compared across gender. Young female offenders were found to present with higher levels of family dysfunction, peer rejection and self-injurious behavior reflecting international female offending pathways literature.
Goldman, Amy D.; Penner, Andrew M.
This study provides an international perspective on mathematics by examnnng mathematics self-concept, achievement, and the desire to enter a career involving mathematics among eighth graders in 49 countries. Using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, this study shows that self-concept in mathematics is more closely related to the desire to enter a career using mathematics than achievement is. Further, while gender differences in mathematics self-concept are smaller in more egalitarian countries, both girls and boys have lower mathematics self-concepts and less interest in mathematics careers in these countries. These findings reveal a policy paradox: policies aimed at training the next generation of STEM professionals often highlight the need to close the gender gap, but countries with smaller gender gaps have fewer boys and girls interested in mathematics-intensive careers. We conclude by highlighting the importance of disentangling instrumental and expressive aspects of gender inequality in STEM fields. PMID:27840545
Harris, Frank, III; Harper, Shaun R.
Social scientists, educational researchers, postsecondary educators (including student affairs professionals), and others have attempted to understand problematic behavioral trends and developmental outcomes among undergraduate men. Little attention has been devoted to examining the masculine identities and ideals about manhood that these students…
The study aimed to establish females and males primary teachers' understanding of classroom discipline, the strategies that they apply in dealing with misbehaviour and their knowledge and awareness of discipline models. The study applied a mixed method approach, the dominant less dominant format. Both females and ...
Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng
The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception—women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence. PMID:27362361
Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng; Zhou, Renlai
The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception-women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence.
Full Text Available The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure. We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception-women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence.
LIU Gang; HU Pan-pan; FAN Jin; WANG Kai
Background Selective attention is considered one of the main components of cognitive functioning.A number of studies have demonstrated gender differences in cognition.This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in selective attention in healthy subjects.Methods The present experiment examined the gender differences associated with the efficiency of three attentional networks:alerting,orienting,and executive control attention in 73 healthy subjects (38 males).All participants performed a modified version of the Attention Network Test (ANT).Results Females had higher orienting scores than males (t=2.172,P ＜0.05).Specifically,females were faster at covert orienting of attention to a spatially cued location.There were no gender differences between males and females in alerting (t=0.813,P ＞0.05) and executive control (t=0.945,P ＞0.05) attention networks.Conclusions There was a significant gender difference between males and females associated with the orienting network.Enhanced orienting attention in females may function to motivate females to direct their attention to a spatially cued location.
Torres, A; Gómez-Gil, E; Vidal, A; Puig, O; Boget, T; Salamero, M
To review scientific evidence on gender differences in cognitive functions and influence of sex hormones on cognitive performance. Systematical search of related studies identified in Medline. Women outperform men on verbal fluency, perceptual speed tasks, fine motor skills, verbal memory and verbal learning. Men outperform women on visuospatial ability, mathematical problem solving and visual memory. No gender differences on attention and working memory are found. Researchers distinguish four methods to investigate hormonal influence on cognitive performance: a) patient with hormonal disorders; b) neuroimaging in individuals during hormone administration; c) in women during different phases of menstrual cycle, and d) in patients receiving hormonal treatment (idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, postmenopausal women and transsexuals). The findings mostly suggest an influence of sex hormones on some cognitive functions, but they are not conclusive because of limitations and scarcity of the studies. There are gender differences on cognitive functions. Sex hormones seem to influence cognitive performance.
Full Text Available Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological responses to trauma, differences in appraisal, interpretation or experience of threat, coping style or social support. In this context, the use of an animal model for PTSD to analyze some of these gender-related differences may be of particular utility. Animal models of PTSD offer the opportunity to distinguish between biological and socio-cultural factors, which so often enter the discussion about gender differences in PTSD prevalence.
Matias García Terán; Gabriela A Cabanillas; Valeria E Morán; Fabián O Olaz
Different authors claim that the differences found in the social skills repertoire of men and women could be explained by gender orientation. The purpose of this study is to determine if there are gender differences in social skills in university students from Córdoba (Argentina). The Social Skills Questionnaire for College Students (SSQ-C) (Morán, Olaz & Del Prette, in preparation) was applied to a sample of 1076 university students of both sexes, aged between 18 and 25 years old, from 56 u...
Schuch, Jerome J. J.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Jonge, Peter
Background: Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology,
Mullinax, Margo; Higgins, Jenny; Wagman, Jennifer; Nakyanjo, Neema; Kigozi, Godfrey; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria; Gray, Ronald; Nalugoda, Fred
Women's rights and gender empowerment programmes are now part of the international agenda for improving global public health, the benefits of which are well documented. However, the public health community has, yet, to address how people define and understand gender equality and how they enact the process of empowerment in their lives. This study uses safe homes and respect for everyone (SHARE), an anti-violence intervention in rural Rakai, Uganda, as a case study to investigate perceptions of gender equality. Investigators analysed 12 focus groups of adult women and men to explore how macro-level concepts of gender equality are being processed on an interpersonal level and the effects on health outcomes. Respondents generally agreed that women lack basic rights. However, they also expressed widespread disagreement about the meanings of gender equality, and reported difficulties integrating the concepts of gender equality into their interpersonal relationships. Community members reported that equality, with the resulting shift in gender norms, could expose women to adverse consequences such as violence, infidelity and abandonment with increased sexual health risks, and potential adverse effects on education. Efforts to increase women's rights must occur in conjunction with community-based work on understandings of gender equality.
Full Text Available Well-documented differences in the psychology and behavior of men and women have spurred extensive exploration of gender's role within the brain, particularly regarding emotional processing. While neuroanatomical studies clearly show differences between the sexes, the functional effects of these differences are less understood. Neuroimaging studies have shown inconsistent locations and magnitudes of gender differences in brain hemodynamic responses to emotion. To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions.This study included recordings of single-neuron activity of 14 (6 male epileptic patients in four brain areas: amygdala (236 neurons, hippocampus (n=270, anterior cingulate cortex (n=256, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n=174. Neural activity was recorded while participants viewed a series of avatar male faces portraying positive, negative or neutral expressions.Significant gender differences were found in the left amygdala, where 23% (n=15/66 of neurons in men were significantly affected by facial emotion, versus 8% (n=6/76 of neurons in women. A Fisher's exact test comparing the two ratios found a highly significant difference between the two (p<0.01. These results show specific differences between genders at the single-neuron level in the human amygdala. These differences may reflect gender-based distinctions in evolved capacities for emotional processing and also demonstrate the importance of including subject gender as an independent factor in future studies of emotional processing by single neurons in the human amygdala.
Tummala, Sudhakar; Schiphof, Dieuwke; Byrjalsen, Inger
was located and quantified using Euclidean distance transform. Furthermore, the CI was quantified over the contact area by assessing agreement of the first- and second-order general surface features. Then, the gender differences between CA and CI values were evaluated at different stages of radiographic OA...
Verheul, I.; Risseeuw, P.A.; Bartelse, G.
The present study aims at investigating the existence of gender differences in entrepreneurship. The focus is on differences in strategy and human resource management (HRM) between male and female entrepreneurs in Dutch real estate brokerage. Several propositions are explored using data from
Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…
Purvanova, Radostina K.; Muros, John P.
The literature on male-female differences in burnout has produced inconsistent results regarding the strength and direction of this relationship. Lack of clarity on gender differences in organizationally relevant phenomena, such as work burnout, frequently generates ungrounded speculations that may (mis)inform organizational decisions. To address…
Burke, Penny Jane
This article explores work published in "Teaching in Higher Education" that critically engages complex questions of difference and emotion in higher education pedagogies. It considers the ways that difference is connected to gender and misrecognition, and is experienced at the level of emotion, often through symbolic forms of violence…
Langen, A.M.L. van; Bosker, R.J.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.
Although the participation rates of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (or STEM) education is poor in most Western countries, considerable differences across countries exist as well. This may be due to differences in the so-called gender achievement gaps, that is, delays of
De Wit, Arjen; Bekkers, René
Women’s philanthropy has drawn much attention during recent years, mostly in studies from the United States or the United Kingdom. Relevant issues are to what extent gender differences in charitable giving exist in another national context and how these differences can be explained. In this study,
Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.
Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…
This exploratory study investigated gender differences in Internet identification and Internet anxiety. A sample of 231 students (138 females and 93 males) from four different schools participated in the study. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Factor analysis was carried out to test for construct validity.
This paper analyzes gender differences in jobs while in school using school-class-based samples, a setting in which education differences, “glass ceilings”, and career interruptions due to parenthood are irrelevant. I find that in this early stage of life boys already earn substantially more than
Seng, Alice Seok Hoon; Tan, Lee Choo
This study reports on cultural and gender differences in the spatial abilities of children based on the Water Level Task. The Piagetian theory of age-related developmental differences in performance on the Water Level Task was explored with Chinese and Malay children living in Singapore. Results indicate that children in this study did not perform…
Burke, Penny Jane
This paper draws attention to gendered inequalities in relation to pedagogic participation, the politics of difference and the concept of "shame." I use the term "pedagogic participation" to illuminate the relationship between formations of difference, policy concerns to improve "equity" and higher education…
Full Text Available In view of the fact that learner-centered instruction is the standpoint in education in new trends, teachers must be aware of students’ characteristics in order to tailor their teaching to needs of learners. One of the areas which is closely related to characteristics and performance of language learners is the role of gender on language learning in general and writing performance in particular. Although various studies have been conducted to examine gender difference regarding different aspects of language learning, the results reveal inconsistencies. This paper attempts to consider the gender differences in writing performance and has some implications for policy makers who are to develop a curriculum compatible with the needs of language learners.
Full Text Available Recently, the diffusion of the Internet as a retail and distribution channel has undergone a great growth. This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of gender differences on online buying. The study explored gender differences among 13 factors concerning the internet buyer. With regard to factors and consistent with Hypothesis and sub hypothesis, differences were detected across genders using t-student tests and the findings were in alignment with the ANOVA test. For data collection and final testing of the E-SAT model a questionnaire was designed and distributed among 100 randomly people who resided in Iran. The analysis show that merchandising, security and company items gained more scores for men than women in online shopping.
Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J
In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
J Alberto Molina
Full Text Available The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences.
Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin
The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.
Full Text Available The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the public sector. It is exactly this issue, which is discussed in this article, its aim being to identify the extent of the gender pay gap in the selected Czech public sector company. The article concentrates on finding the main causes for the existence of wage differences between men and women and determining whether the company inclines to wage discrimination against women. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is used to define, which part of the gender pay gap can be attributed to the different characteristics of men and women and which part stays unexplained. It is this unexplained part that can be the result of wage discrimination against women.
Thorup, A; Albert, Nancy; Bertelsen, M
, level of functioning and symptom patterns. We aimed to investigate how gender differences at onset of psychosis develop during the first 5years of treatment. METHOD: A total of 578 patients with a first-episode psychosis in the schizophrenia spectrum were included in the Danish OPUS trial - a randomized......OBJECTIVE: Gender differences in psychosis have been investigated, and the results have contributed to a better understanding of the disease, but many questions are unanswered. In clinical terms, women and men with psychosis differ in terms of access to social support, tendency of substance abuse...... clinical trial comparing 2years of intensive early-intervention programme with standard treatment. All patients were assessed with validated instruments at inclusion, and after 2 and 5years. Data were analysed for significant gender differences. RESULTS: Males have significantly higher levels of negative...
Era Wati, Susi Endang; Suparno, Suparno; Yunita, Rosana Dewi
The aim of this research is to know the difference of work satisfaction based on gender leadership. The participants of this research is 48 teachers from SMP Negeri 2 Kartasura and SMP Negeri 3 Kartasura. The result of this research shows t-test about 3,348 (p < 0.01). It tells us about the difference of work satisfaction based on gender leadership which is the empiric mean for male leadership around 143,652 and for female leadership around 128,990. This result shows that teacher work satisfa...
Clemens, Benjamin; Junger, Jessica; Pauly, Katharina; Neulen, Josef; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane; Frölich, Dirk; Mingoia, Gianluca; Derntl, Birgit; Habel, Ute
Recent research found gender-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies examining the differences in rs-FC between men, women, and individuals who report a discrepancy between their anatomical sex and their gender identity, i.e. gender dysphoria (GD). To address this important issue, we present the first fMRI study systematically investigating the differences in typical resting-state networks (RSNs) and hormonal treatment effects in 26 male-to-female GD individuals (MtFs) compared with 19 men and 20 women. Differences between male and female control groups were found only in the auditory RSN, whereas differences between both control groups and MtFs were found in the auditory and fronto-parietal RSNs, including both primary sensory areas (e.g. calcarine gyrus) and higher order cognitive areas such as the middle and posterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Overall, differences in MtFs compared with men and women were more pronounced before cross-sex hormonal treatment. Interestingly, rs-FC between MtFs and women did not differ significantly after treatment. When comparing hormonally untreated and treated MtFs, we found differences in connectivity of the calcarine gyrus and thalamus in the context of the auditory network, as well as the inferior frontal gyrus in context of the fronto-parietal network. Our results provide first evidence that MtFs exhibit patterns of rs-FC which are different from both their assigned and their aspired gender, indicating an intermediate position between the two sexes. We suggest that the present study constitutes a starting point for future research designed to clarify whether the brains of individuals with GD are more similar to their assigned or their aspired gender.
Fidalgo, Angel M; Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Aznar, Ana
This article examines whether there are gender differences in understanding the emotions evaluated by the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). The TEC provides a global index of emotion comprehension in children 3-11 years of age, which is the sum of the nine components that constitute emotion comprehension: (1) recognition of facial expressions, (2) understanding of external causes of emotions, (3) understanding of desire-based emotions, (4) understanding of belief-based emotions, (5) understanding of the influence of a reminder on present emotional states, (6) understanding of the possibility to regulate emotional states, (7) understanding of the possibility of hiding emotional states, (8) understanding of mixed emotions, and (9) understanding of moral emotions. We used the answers to the TEC given by 172 English girls and 181 boys from 3 to 8 years of age. First, the nine components into which the TEC is subdivided were analysed for differential item functioning (DIF), taking gender as the grouping variable. To evaluate DIF, the Mantel-Haenszel method and logistic regression analysis were used applying the Educational Testing Service DIF classification criteria. The results show that the TEC did not display gender DIF. Second, when absence of DIF had been corroborated, it was analysed for differences between boys and girls in the total TEC score and its components controlling for age. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis of independence between gender and level of comprehension in 8 of the 9 components of the TEC. Several hypotheses are discussed that could explain the differences found between boys and girls in the belief component. Given that the Belief component is basically a false belief task, the differences found seem to support findings in the literature indicating that girls perform better on this task.
Drawing on a four-year research project on Canadian primary caregiving fathers, as well two recent projects on the first year of parenting, this article highlights several theoretical and substantive issues in the study of gender equality and gender differences in parenting. First, I call for shifts from a focus on domestic tasks toward domestic and community-based responsibilities. Second, I argue that the political terrain underpinning the study of mothering and fathering calls for clarity on how researchers interpret the constant interplay between equality and differences. Third, while there has been some change over time, parental responsibilities remain gendered because they are deeply rooted in habitus and embodiment across specific spatial and temporal contexts.
With every Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders that has been published, there has been controversy within controversy; however, what appears to be lacking is the importance of truly understanding what, why, and how the changes impact the community at large. Issues such as homosexuality, the five axial diagnostic system, and transitioning from a medical model to a biopsychosocial model have been hot topics that have led clinicians to challenge the reliability and validity of the manual throughout history. As clinicians and medical professionals, it is important to objectively look at the manual and become educated on how and why these changes exist. With that being said, this commentary aims to challenge the article " Problems with the Sexual Disorders Sections of DSM-5" by Colin A. Ross (2015). The structure of this commentary purposefully mirrors the structure of the commentary that it is challenging.
Understanding the potential differences in metabolic capacity and kinetics between various common laboratory species as well as between genders is an important facet of chemical risk assessment that is often overlooked, particularly for chemicals which undergo non-cytochrome P450...
E.J.F. Canton (Erik); I. Verheul (Ingrid)
textabstractThis paper explores the role of social interactions at the work floor for understanding gender pay differences in the EU. Using data from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey, we find that sex similarity of subordinate and supervisor decreases the pay disadvantage for women in
Cazzato, Valentina; Basso, Demis; Cutini, Simone; Bisiacchi, Patrizia
Gender studies report a male advantage in several visuospatial abilities. Only few studies however, have evaluated differences in visuospatial planning behaviour with regard to gender. This study was aimed at exploring whether gender may affect the choice of cognitive strategies in a visuospatial planning task and, if oculomotor measures could assist in disentangling the cognitive processes involved. A computerised task based on the travelling salesperson problem paradigm, the Maps test, was used to investigate these issues. Participants were required to optimise time and space of a path travelling among a set of sub-goals in a spatially constrained environment. Behavioural results suggest that there are no gender differences in the initial visual processing of the stimuli, but rather during the execution of the plan, with males showing a shorter execution time and a higher path length optimisation than females. Males often showed changes of heuristics during the execution while females seemed to prefer a constant strategy. Moreover, a better performance in behavioural and oculomotor measures seemed to suggest that males are more able than females in either the optimisation of spatial features or the realisation of the planned scheme. Despite inconclusive findings, the results support previous research and provide insight into the level of cognitive processing involved in navigation and planning tasks, with regard to the influence of gender.
Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter
Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727
Seamans, Marissa J; Robinson, Whitney R; Thorpe, Roland J; Cole, Stephen R; LaVeist, Thomas A
To investigate whether the gender gap in obesity prevalence is greater among U.S. blacks than whites in a study designed to account for racial differences in socioeconomic and environmental conditions. We estimated age-adjusted, race-stratified gender gaps in obesity (% female obese - % male obese, defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) in the National Health Interview Survey 2003 and the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore 2003 study (EHDIC-SWB). EHDIC-SWB is a population-based survey of 1381 adults living in two urban, low-income, racially integrated census tracts with no race difference in income. In the National Health Interview Survey, the obesity gender gap was larger in blacks than whites as follows: 7.7 percentage points (ppts; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4-11.9) in blacks versus -1.5 ppts (95% CI: -2.8 to -0.2) in whites. In EHDIC-SWB, the gender gap was similarly large for blacks and whites as follows: 15.3 ppts (95% CI: 8.6-22.0) in blacks versus 14.0 ppts (95% CI: 7.1-20.9) in whites. In a racially integrated, low-income urban community, gender gaps in obesity prevalence were similar for blacks and whites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moreno-Campoy, E E; Mérida-De la Torre, F J; Martos-Crespo, F; Plebani, M
Gender is one of the factors that can influence the use of health resources. The use of tumour markers is widespread, due to the importance of these in monitoring cancer development. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of gender on the use of tumour markers, and to investigate whether there are differences in their use. A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study, with a 2-year follow-up, was conducted in the catchment area of the University Hospital of Padua. An analysis was performed on 23,059 analytical requests for tumour markers. A descriptive and frequency analysis was performed on all variables. The statistical analysis was performed using Chi squared, Student t and Mann-Whitney U to test for significance. The number of requests for women (1.5) was lower than men (1.6). In patients with tumour pathology, the number of requests was higher than in patients without tumour disease. In the analysis by disease and gender, the difference remained significant. As regards the number of tumour markers per request, the difference between genders was also significant: 2.13 in males versus 2.85 in women. Similar results were obtained when requests for tumour markers linked to gender-related diseases were eliminated. There are differences in the use of tumour markers by gender with the number of requests for male patients being higher than for females. However, the number of tumour markers per request is greater in women than in men. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Vahter, Marie; Akesson, Agneta; Liden, Carola; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Berglund, Marika
There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating gender differences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Gender differences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain gender differences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major gender differences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future
Black, Alice A. (Jill)
Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34
This paper focuses on cross-national differences in patterns of gender economic inequality, revealing their affinity to both welfare state policies and prevailing conceptions of gender equality. By mapping multiple aspects of inequality and assembling them into distinctive profiles, the paper shows that each pattern of state intervention is accompanied by an uneven record of achievements and failures in promoting gender equality. These tradeoffs can best be understood by placing them in the i...
Madhavan, Sangeetha; Myroniuk, Tyler W; Kuhn, Randall; Collinson, Mark A
Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most extant research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. First, we offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household; and second, we demonstrate the value of this approach through an analysis of educational progress for boys and girls in rural South Africa. We use data from the 2002 round of the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Our analytical sample includes 22,997 children aged 6-18 who were neither parents themselves nor lived with a partner or partner's family. We employ ordinary least squares regression models to examine the effects of structure and composition on educational progress of girls and boys. The results suggest that non-nuclear structures are associated with similar negative effects for both boys and girls compared to children growing up in nuclear households. However, the presence of other kin in the absence of one or both parents results in gendered effects favouring boys. The absence of any gendered effects when using a household structure typology suggests that secular changes to attitudes about gender equity trump any specific gendered processes stemming from particular configurations. On the other hand, gendered effects that appear when one or both parents are absent show that traditional gender norms and/or resource constraints continue to favour boys. Despite the wealth of literature on household structure and children's educational outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, the conceptual basis of these effects has not been well articulated. We have shown the value of unpacking household structure to better understand how gender norms and gendered resource allocations impact education.
Full Text Available Background: Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. Objective: We offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household in rural South Africa. Methods: We use data from the 2002 round of the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System. Our analytical sample includes 22,997 children aged 6‒18 who were neither parents themselves nor lived with a partner or partner's family. We employ ordinary least squares regression models to examine the effects of structure and composition on educational progress of girls and boys. Results: Non-nuclear structures are associated with similar negative effects for both boys and girls compared to children growing up in nuclear households. However, the presence of other kin in the absence of one or both parents results in gendered effects favouring boys. Conclusions: The absence of any gendered effects when using a household structure typology suggests that secular changes to attitudes about gender equity trump any specific gendered processes stemming from particular configurations. On the other hand, gendered effects that appear when one or both parents are absent show that traditional gender norms and/or resource constraints continue to favour boys. Contribution: We have shown the value of unpacking household structure to better understand how gender norms and gendered resource allocations are linked to an important outcome for children in sub-Saharan Africa.
Kreutzer, Kimberley; Boudreaux, Andrew
The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been widely used to asses student understanding of Newtonian principles. Studies have shown a marked difference in the performance of men and women on both pre- and post-tests [1,2] and also indicate that experiential based instruction may lead to a reduction in this gender gap [1,3]. This poster presents FCI data collected at Western Washington University. Initial analysis of gender differences are consistent with those reported nationally. We also discuss factors that may contribute to the differences in performance and propose instructional strategies that are designed to address the gender gap. [4pt]  M. Lorenzo, et. al., ``Reducing the gender gap in the physics classroom,'' AJP 74(2), 118-122 (2006) [0pt]  J. Docktor and K. Heller, ``Gender Differences in Both Force Concept Inventory and Introductory Physics Performance,'' Proceedings at the 2008 PERC [0pt]  S. Pollack, et. al., ``Reducing the gender gap in the physics classroom: How sufficient is interactive engagement?'' PRST-PER 3 (2007)
Although many view computers purely as technological tools to be utilized in the classroom and workplace, attention has been drawn to the social differences computers perpetuate, including those of race, class, and gender. This paper focuses on gender and computing by examining recent analyses in regards to content, form, and usage concerns. The…
Eddleston, Kimberly A; Veiga, John F; Powell, Gary N
Using survey data from 400 managers, the authors examined whether gender self-schema would explain sex differences in preferences for status-based and socioemotional career satisfiers. Female gender self-schema, represented by femininity and family role salience, completely mediated the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for socioemotional career satisfiers. However, male gender self-schema, represented by masculinity and career role salience, did not mediate the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for status-based career satisfiers. As expected, male managers regarded status-based career satisfiers as more important and socioemotional career satisfiers as less important than female managers did. The proposed conceptualization of male and female gender self-schemas, which was supported by the data, enhances understanding of adult self-schema and work-related attitudes and behavior.
Mathias, Krista; Hirdes, John P
Gender can have separate and interacting effects on mental health. Gender-based analysis provides insight into these effects on mental health, and it can provide evidence to inform policy and practice to meet these gender-specific needs among persons in forensic mental health settings. Both individual and facility-level characteristics play a role in restriction to room as a form of control intervention in forensic mental health. Understanding the gender differences associated with the factors that increase a person's risk of restriction to room can allow for more targeted interventions and provide insight into policies that will help reduce these types of control interventions. © 2015 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.
Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin
The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…
Lusher, Lester; Yasenov, Vasil
Sleep studies suggest that girls go to sleep earlier, are more active in the morning, and cope with sleep deprivation better than boys. We provide the first causal evidence on how gender differences in sleep cycles can help explain the gender performance gap. We exploit over 240,000 assignment-level grades from a quasi-experiment with a community of middle and high schools where students' schedules alternated between morning and afternoon start times each month. Relative to girls, we find tha...
Riese, Marilyn L.
To investigate differences in mothers' interaction patterns with their neonate twins based on birth order, relative size at birth, or gender, 37 neonate twins and their mothers were observed during the first 10 minutes of a feeding in a hospital nursery. Time-sampling recordings were made of maternal behaviors related to proximal stimulation,…
Chen, Zhuoqiong; Ong, David; Sheremeta, Roman
We design an all-pay auction experiment in which we reveal the gender of the opponent. Using this design, we find that women bid higher than men, but only when bidding against other women. These findings, interpreted through a theoretical model incorporating differences in risk attitude and the value of winning, suggest that women have a higher value of winning than men.
This paper investigates gender differences in spatial mobility with respect to participation in off-farm employment in rural Tanzania. The mobility issue arises because the recent increase in women participation in off-farm employment is likely to saturate the local labor market/off-farm opportunities and dampen the rural ...
Hubbard, William H. J.
A growing literature seeks to explain why so many more women than men now attend college. A commonly cited stylized fact is that the college wage premium is, and has been, higher for women than for men. After identifying and correcting a bias in estimates of college wage premiums, I find that there has been essentially no gender difference in the…
Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix
We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics,which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the…
The study determined gender differences among students in the utilization of electronic information resources in Ramat Library, University of Maiduguri. One objective,with corresponding hypotheses guided the study. The survey research method was used. The population for the study comprised 13,995 (thirteen thousand, ...
Yeo, S.; Rosen, B.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Lim, S.
Objective: To examine gender differences and similarities in the psychophysical and brain responses to acupuncture at GB34, a point that is frequently used to treat motor function issues in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Methods: Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation in response
Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…
Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Obel, Carsten; Smith, Nina
This study analyzes gender differences in behavioral problems and school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for approximately 6000 Danish children 10–12 years of age who were born in 1990–1992. The sample has been merged...
The results show some similarities and differences between female and mate smokers. In the light of this, it seems appropriate to suggest that more gender sensitive approaches to dealing with smoking problems might achieve better outcomes. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol.9(2) 2001:65-77 ...
Rogers, Lynne; Hallam, Susan
This study explored gender differences in perceptions of studying for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). The sample comprised 644 pupils drawn from eight schools in Outer London, UK. The schools encompassed pupils who could be regarded as high, middle and low achievers drawn from co-educational and single-sex schools. Pupils…
Gender-related differences in attitudinal disposition of university workers to resolving conflict through mediation. ... df =253, P>0.05). It is therefore recommended that university workers should be adequately trained in the procedures of using mediation so as to build their capacity in resolving conflict at home and workplace.
Helmes, E.; Bush, J. D.; Pike, D. L.; Drake, D. G.
Script analysis as a test of executive functions is presumed sensitive to cognitive changes seen with increasing age. Two studies evaluated if gender differences exist in performance on scripts for familiar and unfamiliar tasks in groups of cognitively intact older adults. In Study 1, 26 older adults completed male and female stereotypical…
van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Wierslnca-Post, J. Esther C.
Purpose: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in
van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Wiersinga-Post, J Esther C
PURPOSE: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in
Background: Recognizing patient satisfaction and expectation is considered as important components of assessing quality of care. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the gender difference on the patient satisfaction with psychiatrists and explore their expectation from physicians to mental health care needs. Design: ...
The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…
Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui
In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces--Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the…
Background: Despite the global growing concern about adolescent cigarette smoking, there has been no attention paid to the attractiveness and trendiness of smoking among this vulnerable group in Nigeria. Objectives: This study determined gender differences in subjective attractiveness (SA) (the individual's personal ...
Tepper, Clary A.; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright
Examined gender differences in emotional language in children's picture books, using 178 books read to or by preschool children. Males had higher representations on titles, pictures, and central roles, but males and females were associated with equal amounts of emotional language and similar types of emotional words. (SLD)
Wiepking, Pamala; Maas, Ineke
In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all
Wiepking, P.; Maas, W.A.F.
In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all
Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S. H.; Reppold, C.; Kuschick, M.; Krum, F.; Bandeira, D.; Simoes, C.
The goal of this analysis was to examine gender differences in the experiences of children and adolescents found on city streets. It has been proposed that girls who leave home to seek their survival on city streets are from more disturbed families than boys, reflecting cultural factors that result in differential norms for male and female…
Oliver, Mary Beth; Green, Stephen
Examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from action adventure and sad films and to animated previews of a prototypical male versus female movie. Girls were more likely than boys to report and express sadness regarding sad segments. Intensities of sadness increased with age. Emotional responses to action adventure…
This study investigated gender differences in Egyptian adolescents' perception of parental involvement practices when controlling for the effect of adolescents' prior academic achievement and level of educational aspiration. Subjects of this study included 187 first-year students enrolled in four high schools in El-Minia city in ...
Arens, A. Katrin; Watermann, Rainer
The present study focuses on political efficacy in terms of students' competence self-perceptions related to the domain of politics. The investigation addresses the mean level development and longitudinal relations to outcome variables including gender differences. Drawing on a sample of N = 2,504 German students, political efficacy, along with…
Bonanno, Philip; Kommers, Petrus A.M.
This paper reports work in progress investigating gender difFerences and styles in the use of digital games amongst advanced level biology students. It is an elaboration on previous work exploring the relationship between cognitive style and academic performance in Maltese students taking biology ai
Jellesma, Francine C; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M
The aims of this study were (1) to confirm gender differences in crying in middle childhood and (2) to identify factors that may explain why girls cry more than boys in a Dutch sample (North Holland and Utrecht). We examined 186 children's (age: 9-13 years) self-reports on crying, catharsis, seeking support for feelings, and internalizing feelings. Girls reported a greater crying frequency and crying proneness, and more emotional and physical catharsis after crying. In addition, they more frequently sought support for feelings and more often experienced sadness and somatic complaints than boys. Seeking help for negative feelings and the experience of sadness and somatic complaints were positively associated with crying frequency and crying proneness. Emotional catharsis was positively linked to crying proneness. Support was found for the potential mediating role of sadness and somatic complaints with respect to the gender difference in crying frequency and for the potential mediating role of emotional catharsis and somatic complaints for crying proneness. This study demonstrates that gender differences in crying frequency already exist in middle childhood and the findings suggest a linkage between these gender differences in crying and psychosocial factors.
This paper examined the gender differences in attitude towards mathematics in Nigerian secondary schools. A descriptive survey method was adopted for the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select twenty secondary schools in Makurdi Metropolis of Benue State. Three hundred and seventy-five ...
Overall, the reasons for visiting the library were mainly to read their notes (121), do assignment (149), and borrow books (111) and prepare for exams during examinations (137).Conclusively, the findings of this study has shown that gender differences exist in library utilization among medical students of CoM, AAU, Ekpoma, ...
Jones, Russell W.
This document consists of the report of a study undertaken to establish the existence of any gender specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. The definition of stress as a negative emotion strongly associated with doubt about coping is suggested to be particularly relevant to the academic arena where students…
The study examined gender differences in self esteem and perceived social support of street children in Ibadan, Nigeria. A survey research design was employed where the participants were purposively sampled in the study. One hundred and forty eight (N=148) children of the street comprising of 129 males and 19 females ...
The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in relation to students' perceptions of school guidance and counselling (G&C) services in Mberengwa district, Zimbabwe. The convergent parallel design was used in the study. A total of 114 students (68 males and 76 females) randomly selected students ...
In the present study gender differences in psychological adjustment of Spinal Cord Injured (SCI) patients was studied. The sample of 70 SCI patients (35 male and 35 female) was selected from the National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) Islamabad, Bagh and Muzafrabad, (Azad & Jammu Kashmir AJK).
Aziz, Fakhra; Kalsoom, Qudsia; Quraishi, Uzma; Hasan, Sibte
This descriptive, qualitative study aimed at identifying disparities in perceptions of males and females regarding gender-based differences in educational leadership. Data were gathered purposively from 20 renowned male and female educationists having a long experience of leadership in various institutes of Pakistan. An open-ended questionnaire…
The study examined age and gender differences in the premarital sexual attitudes exhibited by adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional design was employed. A total of 1044 participants in four age categories were drawn from 4 secondary schools and 4 universities all located within three states of South-West ...
The study investigated gender differences in decisions on student disciplinary behaviours by selected Kenyan secondary school disciplinary panels which may be due to composition of disciplinary panels, perceptions of students presenting with disciplinary behaviours and behaviour expectations of students on the basis of ...
Kerr, Stacey L.; Schmeichel, Mardi J.
Gender differences in participation were examined across four Twitter chats for social studies teachers. Analyses drawing on mixed methods revealed that while there was parity across most kinds of tweets, participants identified as men were more likely to use the examined Twitter chats to share resources, give advice, boast, promote their own…
Hansen, Claus D.
Media stories in Denmark are regularly reporting that young women are moving away from rural areas of Denmark in order to obtain education while young men are more often staying behind. These gender differences are often portrayed as being the result of the young men having more traditional values...
The need to identify critical factors necessary to improve the mandate attainment of the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) Scheme informed this study on gender, location and rural-urban differences in the goal attainment of NYSC in South West Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling procedure, 120 outgoing youth corps ...
This study was undertaken in order to determine gender differences in anaerobic power of undergraduate physical education students. An attempt was also made to assess the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and indices of anaerobic power: peak power (PP), Mean power (MP), and fatigue index (FI) ...
Maume, David J.
In egalitarian families, we might expect that men and women similarly prioritize work and family obligations. Yet, prior research examining gender differences in work-family priorities often use measures that imperfectly reflect those priorities. Drawing two samples of full-time married workers from the 1992 National Study of the Changing…
This study examined middle-age gender differences in career challenges and emotional intelligence and its counselling implications. The study aimed at sensitizing the development of adult counselling programme for the middle-age persons. Survey design was adopted to obtain samples (800) from a large population of ...
Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan
Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…
Romer, Natalie; Ravitch, N. Kathryn; Tom, Karalyn; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Wesley, Katherine L.
We investigated gender differences of children and adolescents on positive social and emotional competencies using a new strength-based measure of positive social-emotional attributes and resilience--the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS) cross-informant system. Caregivers, teachers, and students in grades kindergarten through…
The conclusion of the study was that there were differences with respect to age, gender, course of study and school type in students' aspirations for entrepreneurial careers, while there was none regarding form/class level. Among the counselling implications are that counsellors must take into consideration personal and ...
This paper examines the relationship between entrepreneurial activities and gender differences in West Africa, using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) panel estimation across countries. Taking a cue from the Liberal feminist theory, this paper supports that the entrepreneurial disposal of women influences their ...
Redžić Saduša F.
Full Text Available Examples of anti-feminine and pro-feminine reasoning with Otto Weininger, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Sigmund Freud, Arthur Schopenhauer, Aristotle, Simone de Beauvoir, Pierre Bourdieu, Harriet Taylor Mill and John Stuart Mill. Review of these theories points to the need to respect distinction (physical characteristics of sex and (culture defined characteristic of the gender when analyzing differences and similarities between the sexes, as well as the need for insight into the mechanism (or mechanismsof connection between the nature of social perception and gender stereotypes, whose existence is an indicator, and one of the causes of hatred towards women.
Barragán-Martínez, Carolina; Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Pineda-Tamayo, Ricardo; Mantilla, Rubén D; Castellanos-de la Hoz, Juan; Bernal-Macías, Santiago; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel
Data on the effect of gender in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in non-Caucasian populations is scarce. Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is a large population with unique characteristics, including high admixture. Our aim was to examine the effect of gender in patients with RA in LAC. This was a 2-phase study. First we conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in which 1128 consecutive Colombian patients with RA were assessed. Second, a systematic review of the literature was done to evaluate the effect of gender in LAC patients with RA. Our results show a high prevalence of RA in LAC women with a ratio of 5.2 women per man. Colombian women with RA are more at risk of having an early age at onset and developing polyautoimmunity and abdominal obesity, and they perform more household duties than their male counterparts. However, male gender was associated with the presence of extra-articular manifestations. Of a total of 641 potentially relevant articles, 38 were considered for final analysis, in which several factors and outcomes related to gender were identified. RA in LAC women is not only more common but presents with some clinical characteristics that differ from RA presentation in men. Some of those characteristics could explain the high rates of disability and worse prognosis observed in women with RA in LAC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
María Emma Reyes
Full Text Available This study explored the emotion regulation processes and gender differences between girls and boys of preschooler’s age from Bogotá. 48 children between 54 and 60 months old participated in this study, which generated self regulation and social regulation responses associated to the increase of anger of a character. The multivariate analysis showed four types of regulatory behavior that allows a description of regulatory characteristics in preschooler age. There was not find evidence of correlation with gender, gender didn’t establish a behavior’s type. The results are discuss and contrast with the surveys of Koop (1989, Eisenberg, Fabes, Bernzweig, Karbon, Poulin, and Hanish (1993, Brody and Hall (1993 and McCoy and Masters (1985.
Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G
This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism, and right-wing authoritarianism. Gender differences in homophobia were additionally conditioned by participants' adult attachment styles: Men with dismissing styles evidenced the highest levels of homophobia, whereas women with dismissing styles demonstrated the lowest levels; that is, a fear of intimacy seemed to contribute to homophobic attitudes found among heterosexual men. This was the first U.S. study of the relationship between adult attachment styles and right-wing authoritarianism, and further investigation is warranted.
Buzzetti, Elena; Parikh, Pathik M; Gerussi, Alessio; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel
Although gender-based medicine is a relatively recent concept, it is now emerging as an important field of research, supported by the finding that many diseases manifest differently in men and women and therefore, might require a different treatment. Sex-related differences regarding the epidemiology, progression and treatment strategies of certain liver diseases have long been known, but most of the epidemiological and clinical trials still report results only about one sex, with consequent different rate of response and adverse reactions to treatment between men and women in clinical practice. This review reports the data found in the literature concerning the gender-related differences for the most representative hepatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Catherine E. Harnois
Full Text Available Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seems an especially important even in the development of gender-conscious identities.
Wells, Jonathan C K; Marphatia, Akanksha A; Cole, Tim J; McCoy, David
Obesity is widely assumed to be associated with economic affluence; it has therefore been assumed to become more common with economic development. However, obesity has also been associated with poverty. These contrary findings highlight the need for an examination of the contribution of social and economic factors to the global distribution of obesity. Males and females may be differently exposed to social and economic inequality, however few studies have considered possible gender differences in the association between socio-economic indices and obesity prevalence. We analysed between-country associations between obesity prevalence and three social or economic indices: per capita gross domestic product (GDP), the Gini index of national wealth inequality, and the gender inequality index (GII). We considered the genders separately, the gender average, and also the gender difference (female excess) in obesity prevalence. Across 68 countries listing sample size, there were 3 obese women for every 2 obese men. Within populations, obesity prevalence in males and females was strongly correlated (r = 0.74), however, only 17% of the female excess prevalence was accounted for by the gender-average prevalence. In both genders, there was a positive association between obesity prevalence and GDP that attenuated at higher GDP levels, with this association weaker in females than males. Adjusting for GDP, both the Gini index and GII were associated with excess female obesity. These analyses highlight significant gender differences in the global distribution of obesity, and a gender difference in the association of obesity prevalence with socio-economic factors. The magnitude of female excess obesity is not constant across populations, and is greater in countries characterised by gender inequality and lower GDP. These findings indicate that improving women's status may be a key area for addressing the global obesity epidemic over the long term, with potential benefits for the
Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally in their penultimate year of school and selected by teachers as being high performing in physics. Together with the overall differences in facility, we have investigated how the content and presentation of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) affects the particular answers selected by male and female students. Differences in the patterns of responses by male and female students indicate that males and females might be modeling situations in different ways. Some strong patterns were found in the gender gaps when the questions were categorized in five broad dimensions: content, process required, difficulty, presentation, and context. Almost all questions saw male students performing better, although gender differences were relatively small for questions with a more abstract context. Male students performed significantly better on most questions with a concrete context, although notable exceptions were found, including two such questions where female students performed better. Other categories that showed consistently large gaps favoring male students include questions with projectile motion and other two-dimensional motion or forces content, and processes involving interpreting diagrams. Our results have important implications, suggesting that we should be able to reduce the gender gaps in performance on MCQ tests by changing the way information is presented and setting questions in contexts that are less likely to favor males over females. This is important as MCQ tests are
Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI, is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally in their penultimate year of school and selected by teachers as being high performing in physics. Together with the overall differences in facility, we have investigated how the content and presentation of multiple-choice questions (MCQs affects the particular answers selected by male and female students. Differences in the patterns of responses by male and female students indicate that males and females might be modeling situations in different ways. Some strong patterns were found in the gender gaps when the questions were categorized in five broad dimensions: content, process required, difficulty, presentation, and context. Almost all questions saw male students performing better, although gender differences were relatively small for questions with a more abstract context. Male students performed significantly better on most questions with a concrete context, although notable exceptions were found, including two such questions where female students performed better. Other categories that showed consistently large gaps favoring male students include questions with projectile motion and other two-dimensional motion or forces content, and processes involving interpreting diagrams. Our results have important implications, suggesting that we should be able to reduce the gender gaps in performance on MCQ tests by changing the way information is presented and setting questions in contexts that are less likely to favor males over females. This is important as MCQ
Verde, Paola; Piccardi, Laura; Bianchini, Filippo; Guariglia, Cecilia; Carrozzo, Paolo; Morgagni, Fabio; Boccia, Maddalena; Di Fiore, Giacomo; Tomao, Enrico
The coding of space as near and far is not only determined by arm-reaching distance, but is also dependent on how the brain represents the extension of the body space. Recent reports suggest that the dissociation between reaching and navigational space is not limited to perception and action but also involves memory systems. It has been reported that gender differences emerged only in adverse learning conditions that required strong spatial ability. In this study we investigated navigational versus reaching memory in air force pilots and a control group without flight experience. We took into account temporal duration (working memory and long-term memory) and focused on working memory, which is considered critical in the gender differences literature. We found no gender effects or flight hour effects in pilots but observed gender effects in working memory (but not in learning and delayed recall) in the nonpilot population (Women's mean = 5.33; SD= 0.90; Men's mean = 5.54; SD= 0.90). We also observed a difference between pilots and nonpilots in the maintenance of on-line reaching information: pilots (mean = 5.85; SD=0.76) were more efficient than nonpilots (mean = 5.21; SD=0.83) and managed this type of information similarly to that concerning navigational space. In the navigational learning phase they also showed better navigational memory (mean = 137.83; SD=5.81) than nonpilots (mean = 126.96; SD=15.81) and were significantly more proficient than the latter group. There is no gender difference in a population of pilots in terms of navigational abilities, while it emerges in a control group without flight experience. We found also that pilots performed better than nonpilots. This study suggests that once selected, male and female pilots do not differ from each other in visuo-spatial abilities and spatial navigation.
Oliveira, Telma Sobral; Valente, Ana Tentúgal; Caetano, Cristina Guerreiro; Garagarza, Cristina Antunes
Malnutrition is common in patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD). Several studies have described different nutritional parameters as mortality predictors but few have studied whether there are differences between genders. This study aimed to evaluate which nutrition parameters may be associated with mortality in patients undergoing long-term HD depending on their gender. Longitudinal prospective multicentre study with 12 months of follow-up. Anthropometric and laboratory measures were obtained from 697 patients. Men who died were older, had lower dry weight, body mass index, potassium, phosphorus and albumin, compared with male patients who survived. Female patients who died had lower albumin and nPCR compared with survivors. Kaplan-Meier analysis displayed a significantly worse survival in patients with albumin mortality was related to body mass index mortality risk continued to be significant after adjustments for age, length of time on dialysis and diabetes for males. However, in women, only albumin persisted as an independent predictor of death. Depending on the gender, different parameters such as protein intake, potassium, phosphorus, body mass index and albumin are associated with mortality in patients undergoing HD. Albumin mortality predictor in both genders, whereas a body mass index <23 kg/m 2 is an independent predictor of death, but only in men. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
The informal networks in organizations have been under increasing scrutiny in the past years, and several aspects of those informal structures have been studied, among those the gender differences. In order to go beyond the intuitive and prejudicial characterization, several researchers have...... performed empirical analyses using networks theory. This has resulted in a number of well-founded propositions about how male and female managers develop and use different informal networks. One key finding, among others, is the proposition that female managers seem to develop dual networks (one with other...... important competencies stated by male and female managers in Danish companies. While the results seem to indicate that there are fewer differences between the genders than might be expected, using a factor analysis indicates that there are some structural differences suggesting that the proposition about...
Moema de Rezende Vergara
Full Text Available In the recent works about Brazilian public understanding of science, gender has been poorly used as an analytical category. This paper has as its main goal to bridge this gap by analyzing a section called ‘Letters for a Lady‘, in the journal O Vulgarizador that sought to teach all about Darwinism to women in the Brazil of the 19th century. So the notion of gender will help us understand the tension between masculinity and femininity in the text written by the literary critic Rangel S. Paio.
Marcus Dittrich; Bianka Mey
Using unique data from a large-scale online survey conducted in Germany, we examine gender differences in volunteering for charitable organisations. Our findings suggest that men are more likely than women to engage in regular volunteer activities. Additionally, we find that men devote more time to charitable causes than women. However, disaggregating the volunteer labour supply by different organisations reveals that women spend more time performing volunteer work for organisations that help...
Iimura, Shuhei; Taku, Kanako
Prior work has indicated that female adolescents mature more quickly than males with regard to the various personality dimensions. From the developmental perspectives, this study aimed to explore gender differences in the relationships between resilience and the Big Five personality traits in Japanese adolescents. Middle school students ( N = 310, 155 females, age range = 14-15 years) participated in an online survey. The results demonstrated that females had higher Conscientiousness than males. Stepwise regression analyses indicated that Neuroticism was the most influential predictor of resilience in females, whereas Extraversion was the most important predictor in males. Multigroup path analysis demonstrated that the effect of Neuroticism on resilience was greater for females; however, the effects of all other variables did not differ across genders. Considering gender differences is important to understand the relationship between resilience and the Big Five dimensions among adolescents.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the construction of self-presentations in online dating profiles. 200 personal ads and 1006 photographs of men and women profiles were collected in Portugal from the dating site Meetic.pt. The data was analyzed following a methodology strategy based on content analysis and grounded theory. The findings revealed that, by means of a selective self-presentation, online daters try to please and attract potential partners. Men stress their rational and practical attributes and their cultural, professional, and economic status, whereas women value their emotional, and affective facets, and their inclination to dream. Women also emphasize their physical attributes more than men. Although it is possible to detect certain clues pointing toward modern gender roles, gender stereotypes persist. The results of the study corroborate and extend previous findings, providing compelling evidence for gender differences in online dating self-presentations. Furthermore, the research led to an unexpected result: besides the attributes deemed most valuable, online daters also reveal individual characteristics that are not so positive or are even negative. The study offers empirical knowledge and fills a gap in the existing literature about the online dating situation in Portugal. It concludes by presenting some limitations and considerations for future research.
Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Mayordomo, Teresa; Sancho, Patricia; Tomás, José Manuel
Development during life-span implies to cope with stressful events, and this coping may be done with several strategies. It could be useful to know if these coping strategies differ as a consequence of personal characteristics. This work uses the Coping with Stress Questionnaire with this aim using a sample of 400 participants. Specifically, the effects of gender and age group (young people, middle age and elderly), as well as its interaction on coping strategies is studied. With regard to age, on one hand, it is hypothesised a decrement in the use of coping strategies centred in problem solving and social support seeking as age increases. On the other hand, the use of emotional coping is hypothesised to increase with age. With respect to gender, it is hypothesised a larger use of emotional coping and social support seeking within women, and a larger use of problem solving within men. A MANOVA found significant effects for the two main effects (gender and age) as well as several interactions. Separate ANOVAs allowed us to test for potential differences in each of the coping strategies measured in the CAE. These results partially supported the hypotheses. Results are discussed in relation to scientific literature on coping, age and gender.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. To examine gender differences in the major psychopathologic features in agoraphobia with panic disorder. Method. The study was conducted as a clinical study. The sample consisted of 119 patients, 32 men (26.9% and 87 women (73.1% with the basic diagnosis of agoraphobia with panic disorder. All the patients were evaluated with the clinical instruments suitable for the assessment of various clinical features associated with agoraphobia with panic disorder - questionnaires (the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 90, the Panic Appraisal Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory, and the clinical rating scale (the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. After the data collection, the sample was divided into two groups by the gender. Then the groups were compared. Results. There were no differences between the genders in the global psychopathologic features (the age at the onset of a disorder, duration of a disorder, severity and frequency of panic attacks, intensity of general psychiatric symptoms, intensity of general anxiety and depression. The women, however, reported a subjective perception of a more severe agoraphobic avoidance and males were significantly more likely than the females to anticipate the serious somatic consequences of panic attacks and worry about somatic health. Conclusion. There were a few gender specific psychopathologic features in patients with agoraphobia with panic disorder, so further studies would be necessary to come to a more precise conclusion.
Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Löfmark, Rurik; Carlsson, Marianne
The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about gender differences in perceptions of coping and social support among patients who have experienced myocardial infarction. Women with coronary heart disease have physical, social and medical disadvantages compared with their male counterparts, which can influence their perception of recovery after cardiac events. No review has been found which focuses on gender differences in coping and social support in myocardial infarction patients. A computerized search was conducted using the keywords 'myocardial infarction', 'coping', 'gender differences' and 'social support'. Forty-one articles, published between 1990 and October 2002, were scrutinized. Two studies report that women used more coping strategies than men. Several qualitative studies found that women used a variety of coping strategies. Women minimized the impact of the disease, tended to delay in seeking treatment and did not want to bother others with their health problems. Household activities were important to them and aided their recovery. Men were more likely to involve their spouses in their recovery, and resuming work and keeping physically fit were important to them. Women tended to report that they had less social support up to 1 year after a myocardial infarction compared with men. They received less information about the disease and rehabilitation and experienced lack of belief in their heart problems from caregivers. Further, they received less assistance with household duties from informal caregivers. Men tended to report more support from their spouses than did women. Traditional gender-role patterns may influence the recovery of patients who have experienced myocardial infarction. Caregivers may need to be more sensitive to gender-specific needs with regard to risk profiles, social roles, and the patient's own role identity. For many women, especially older ones, household duties and family responsibilities may be an opportunity and a
Full Text Available While the gender disparity in health and mortality in various stages of life in India is well documented, there is limited evidence on female disadvantage in health-care expenditure (HCE.Examine the gender difference in HCE in short-term and major morbidity in India, and understand the role of factors underlying the difference.Using two rounds of nationally representative panel data-the India Human Development Survey (IHDS 2004-2005 and 2011-2012 (IHDS I & II-we calculate morbidity prevalence rate and mean HCE by gender, and examine the adjusted effect of gender on major morbidity-related HCE by using a two-part regression model. Further, we performed Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of the gender gap in HCE in major morbidity to understand the contribution of demographic and socio-economic factors.Health-care expenditure on females was systematically lower than on males across all demographic and socio-economic groups. Multivariate analysis confirms that female HCE is significantly lower than male HCE even after controlling demographic and socio-economic factors (β = -0.148, p = 0.000, CI:-0.206-0.091. For both short-term and major morbidity, a female disadvantage on HCE increased from IHDS I to IHDS II. For instance, the male-female gap in major morbidity related expenditure increased from INR 1298 to INR 4172. A decomposition analysis of gender gap in HCE demonstrates that about 48% of the gap is attributable to differences in demographic and socio-economic factors (endowment effect, whereas 50% of the gap is due to the differential effect of the determinants (coefficient effect.Indians spend less on female health care than on male health care. Most of the gender gap in HCE is not due to differential distribution of factors affecting HCE.
Kim, YoungHo; Park, InKyoung; Kang, SooJin
The current study investigated how adolescents perceive their own health risks and compare their own likelihood of health risks with that of others of the same age. Moreover, the study identified the differences in health risk perceptions between males and females. A total of 625 adolescents (314 males and 311 females) from the Nowon district, geographically located in northern Seoul, voluntarily participated. In order to measure health risk perceptions a Korean version of self-other risk judgments profile was used. The findings indicated that study participants, regardless of gender and age, tend to underestimate their vulnerability to majority of health risk events. Furthermore, there were significant gender and age differences in health risk perception and perception bias in all health risk domains. The present study suggests that further research is needed to identify realistic and unrealistic perception mechanism for a large number of people from different demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2018.
The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found gender differences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight gender differences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression in measuring, explaining and evaluating (i gender differences in expressing migration aspirations, and (ii a gender effect on migration motivation of university students in Croatia. The results supported the thesis that migration is a complex gendering process that assumes subjective assessment of the whole set of interrelated motives. According to logistic regression, gender is a significant predictor of migration aspirations among the selected demographic and socio-economic variables. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that gender and migration aspirations in interaction matter when it comes to migration motives, particularly related to the perceived importance of social networks. Females, and especially those who aspire to migrate, assessed these motives as more important than males.
Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won
Gender differences in pathological gambling disorder (PGD) have received little investigation. This study was constructed to detail the demographic and phenomenological differences in men and women with PGD. We assessed gender differences in 131 subjects with PGD who were evaluated in terms of demographic characteristics, clinical features of PGD, and treatment history. Seventy-eight (60%) subjects were women, and 53 (40%) were men. Men had an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, while women progressed to pathological gambling sooner after beginning to gamble. In terms of gambling behavior, men were more likely to engage in blackjack, cards, sporting events, and the track, whereas women played slot machines and bingo. Women reported that loneliness was the major trigger to gambling, while men were more likely to gamble secondary to sensory stimuli. Although men were as likely as women to have filed bankruptcy because of gambling, women were more likely to have written bad checks and men were more likely to have lost significant savings. Both groups were equally likely to seek treatment, but Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and outpatient therapy were reported equally ineffective in reducing gambling symptoms. There appear to be some gender differences in the clinical features of PGD, and these differences may have treatment implications. Copyright 2002 by W.B. Saunders Company
Rucklidge, Julia J
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is recognized to exist in males and females although the literature supports a higher prevalence in males. However, when girls are diagnosed with ADHD, they are more often diagnosed as predominantly inattentive than boys with ADHD. This article provides a review of gender differences noted across the lifespan. Males and females with ADHD are more similar than different, and generally ADHD profiles are not sex specific. Small gender differences have been found: adolescent girls with ADHD have lower self-efficacy and poorer coping strategies than adolescent boys with ADHD; rates of depression and anxiety may be higher, and physical aggression and other externalizing behaviors lower in girls and women with ADHD. Men with ADHD seem to be incarcerated more often than women with ADHD. However, many studies suffer from small sample sizes, referral biases, differences in diagnostic procedures, and possible rater influences. Treatments are reviewed and discussed with reference to the reported gender differences in functioning and the global deficits noted in all samples. The data available so far suggest that treatments are likely to be equally effective in males and females. However, referral bias is a problem, in that females with ADHD are less likely to be referred for treatment than males with ADHD. Future research should include equal representation of both sexes in samples such that sex by treatment analyses can be routinely conducted. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pekić Jasmina M.
Full Text Available The article focuses on the phenomenon of school indiscipline which proved to be an important factor of disruption in the teaching process. The aims of our research were to determine whether there were gender and age differences in expressing indiscipline during a class, as well as to examine the latent space of the School Indiscipline Scale. The sample included 897 students (42.1% boys and 57.9% girls who attend elementary (46.6% or secondary (53.4% school, aged 12 - 19. The instrument used was the Scale of School Indiscipline. The results of the component analysis indicated four components: nonparticipation, aggression, defiance to authority and cheating. By applying the MANOVA test we detected gender differences in all four subscales: that girls tend to cheat or not participate in the teaching process, while boys are more inclined to aggression and authority defiance. Regarding age differences it was noted that elementary school students are more inclined to behave aggressively while secondary school students tend not to participate and cheat. Bearing in mind that knowing gender and age differences of expressing unwanted behavior in school is very important it seems that the success of any prevention programs depend, to a large extent, upon their congruence with the students with different characteristics.
Oltra-Noguera, Davinia; Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Colon-Useche, Sarin; González-Álvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival
Predictive animal models of intestinal drug absorption are essential tools in drug development to identify compounds with promising biopharmaceutical properties. In situ perfusion absorption studies are routinely used in the preclinical setting to screen drug candidates. The objective of this work is to explore the differences in magnitude and variability on intestinal absorption associated with rat strain and gender. Metoprolol and Verapamil absorption rate coefficients were determined using the in situ closed loop perfusion model in four strains of rats and in both genders. Strains used were Sprague-Dawley, Wistar-Han, Wistar-Unilever, Long-Evans and CD∗IGS. In the case of Metoprolol only CD∗IGS and Wistar Unilever showed differences between males and females. For Verapamil, Wistar Han and Sprague-Dawley strains do not show differences between male and female rats. That means that in these strains permeability data from male and female could be combined. In male rats, which are commonly used for permeability estimation, there were differences for Metoprolol permeability between Sprague-Dawley (with lower permeability values) and the other strains, while for Verapamil Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Han showed the lower permeability values. In conclusion, the selection of rat's strain and gender for intestinal absorption experiments is a relevant element during study design and data from different strains may not be always comparable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McPherson, Andrew; Martin, Colin R
To investigate gender differences in locus of control in an alcohol-dependent population. Locus of control helps to explain behaviour in terms of internal (the individual is responsible) or external (outside forces, such as significant other people or chance, are responsible) elements. Past research on gender differences in locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence has shown mixed results. There is a need then to examine gender and locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence to ascertain the veracity of any locus of control differences as a function of gender. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control form-C was administered to clients from alcohol dependence treatment centres in the West of Scotland. Independent t-tests were carried out to assess gender differences in alcohol dependence severity and internal/external aspects of locus of control. One hundred and eighty-eight (53% females) participants were recruited from a variety of alcohol dependence treatment centres. The majority of participants (72%) came from Alcoholics Anonymous groups. Women revealed a greater internal locus of control compared with men. Women also had a greater 'significant others' locus of control score than men. Men were more reliant on 'chance' and 'doctors' than women. All these trends were not, however, statistically significant. Gender differences in relation to locus of control and alcohol dependence from past studies are ambiguous. This study also found no clear statistically significant differences in locus of control orientation as a function of gender. This article helps nurses to contextualise health behaviours as a result of internal or external forces. It also helps nursing staff to better understand alcohol dependence treatment in relation to self-efficacy and control. Moreover, it highlights an important concept in health education theory. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sterling, Robert C; Dean, Jessica; Weinstein, Stephen P; Murphy, Jennifer; Gottheil, Edward
Gender differences have been shown to be related to the course of cocaine dependence and treatment. While previous research has shown cue exposure procedures to be somewhat effective at reducing reactivity of substance dependent individuals to drug related stimuli, the few studies that have examined gender differences in craving and cue-reactivity have yielded equivocal results. We have recently demonstrated that an active cue-exposure procedure that featured cocaine-dependent individuals receiving immediate feedback about their level of physiological arousal following videotaped exposure to cocaine-related stimuli was capable of positively influencing in-treatment (helplessness, abstinence efficacy) as well as 9-month followup outcome (i.e., urinalysis) indices (Sterling, R., Gottheil, E., Murphy, J., & Weinstein, S. (2001). Cue exposure and abstinence efficacy. College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Phoenix, AZ, June 17, 2001). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether differential in-treatment or 9-month followup outcomes were obtained for male and female study participants. Subjects in this study were 81 individuals (47 male/34 female) who met DSM-IV criteria for cocaine dependence and who had consented to be randomly assigned to either the active cue-exposure or control conditions. Participants were compared along a myriad of pre-treatment, in-treatment, and 9-month followup measures. Other than males reporting more recent employment, there was no obvious systematic pattern of differences on pre-treatment indices. No gender differences in treatment retention were observed. With respect to 9-month followup, no gender differences on measures of addiction severity, psychological functioning, or urinalyses were noted. However males were more "cue-reactive" and more successful at establishing control over their reactivity to the cocaine stimuli. Additional research is needed to determine whether these differences in reactivity can be more clearly
Bessem, Bram B; de Bruijn, Matthijs M C; Nieuwland, Wybe W
Gender-related differences are frequently used in medicine. Electrocardiograms are also subject to such differences. This study evaluated gender differences in ECG parameters of young athletes, discussing the possible implications of these differences for ECG criteria used in the cardiovascular screening of young athletes. Observational cross-sectional study. In 2013 and 2014 all the ECGs from the cardiovascular screenings performed at University Sports Medical Centre in Groningen of the student athletes who wanted to participate in a college sports program were collected. The ECG characteristics were scored using computer-based measurements and the Seattle ECG criteria. The study population included 1436 athletes, of which 72% were male. Male athletes were older (19.3 years vs. 18.6 years), participated in sports more frequently (4.0/week vs. 3.8/week) and spent more hours per week practising sports (6.4h/week vs. 5.8h/week) than female athletes. Male athletes had significantly higher PR intervals (149ms vs. 141ms), lead voltages and QRS duration (98ms vs. 88ms). Female athletes had significantly higher resting heart rates (69/min vs. 64/min) and QTc intervals (407ms vs. 400ms). Male athletes also had significantly higher amounts of sinus bradycardia (38.3% vs. 23.0%), incomplete RBBB (15.0% vs. 3.7%), early repolarisation (4.5% vs. 1.0%) and isolated QRS voltage criteria for LVH (26.3% vs. 4.6%). All P-values were ≤0.001. ECGs of young athletes demonstrate gender-related differences. These differences could be considered in their cardiovascular screening. For the Seattle ECG criteria we advise additional research into the clinical implications of using gender-based cut-off values for the QRS duration in the intraventricular conduction delay criterion. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose . Gender identity manifestations in schoolchildren were investigated. Material . The study involved schoolchildren of 3 -11th forms of the secondary schools (206 – boys, 213 - girls. For the research of age peculiarities in psychological gender, a questioner worked out by Sundry Bam which consists of 60 statements was used. Results . A number of aspects of self description which have different psychological characteristics in boys and girls were analysed. A peculiarity of gender identity in schoolchildren, which was identified by the overall number of respondents in whom the androgens personality type was identified, was singled out. Out of 206 boys – 90% have an androgens index, as for the girls – 69.5% refer to androgens personality type. The presence of feminine character qualities in boys and masculine – in girls was found out, which proves maximal development of feminine and masculine in one person. This will help social adaptation of schoolchildren. Conclusions . Physical education has enormous potential emotional and physical impact on the formation of gender identity of students and their notions of femininity and masculinity. This can directly affect the formation of life value orientations students in general, including the formation of values in the sphere of physical culture.
Cheng, Grand H L; Chan, Darius K S; Tong, Po Yee
This study was designed to examine the qualities of online friendships with different gender compositions that had been maintained for varying periods of time. A total of 167 Hong Kong Internet-users rated the qualities of their same-sex and cross-sex online friendships on measures such as intimacy, trust, self-disclosure, and relational satisfaction. A 2 (gender of respondents: male vs. female) x 2 (gender of online friends: same-sex vs. opposite-sex) x 3 (duration of friendships: less than 1 year vs. 1-2 years vs. more than 2 years) factorial design was adopted. MANOVA results reveal the three-way interaction effect on intimacy, trust, and relational satisfaction. Specifically, the qualities of male-female, female-male, and female-female online friendships were generally higher for those with a longer duration than those at the early stage of friendship development. However, the qualities of male-male friendships that had been maintained for more than 2 years were lower than those maintained for 2 years or less. These findings suggest that qualities of online friendships are subject to effects of gender composition and duration. The conceptual implications of these results are discussed.
Spence John C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research has been conducted on gender differences in perceived environmental correlates of physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of gender in the link between perceived environment and PA. Methods Using a telephone-administered survey, data was collected on leisure time physical activity (LTPA, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, and self-efficacy in a representative sample of 1209 adults from the province of Alberta, Canada. LTPA was regressed on ten measures of perceived neighbourhood environment and self-efficacy in a series of logistic regressions. Results Women were more likely than men to perceive their neighbourhood as unsafe to go for walks at night (χ2 = 67.46, p 2 = 6.73, p 2 = 11.50, p 2 = 4.30, p Conclusion The results provide additional support for the use of models in which gender is treated as a potential moderator of the link between the perceived environment and PA. Further, the results suggest the possibility of differential interventions to increase PA based on factors associated with gender.
Full Text Available Lifestyle intervention programs are effective in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in high risk populations. However, most studies only give limited information about the influence of sex and/or gender effectiveness of these interventions. So far, similar outcome was reported for diabetes progression and weight loss. Nevertheless, long-term data on cardiovascular outcome are sparse but favoring women regarding all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. In both men and women, sex hormone imbalances and reproductive disorders are associated with a higher risk of T2DM development. Diabetes prevention approaches are reported for polycystic ovary syndrome, gestational diabetes mellitus, and erectile dysfunction and are presented in this review. In the surgical treatment options for morbid obese patients, sex and gender differences are present. Choices and preferences of adherence to lifestyle and pharmacological interventions, expectations, treatment effects, and complications are influenced by sex or gender. In general, bariatric surgery is performed more often in women seeking medical/surgical help to lose weight. Men are older and have higher comorbidities and mortality rates and worse follow-up outcome after bariatric surgery. A more gender-sensitive clinical approach, as well as consideration of ethnicity may improve quality of life and increase health and life expectancy in men and women with a high risk for subsequent progression to T2DM.
Clougherty, Jane E; Eisen, Ellen A; Slade, Martin D; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cullen, Mark R
Studies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish gendered job status (affected by family composition and other personal characteristics) from sex-linked biological differences influencing physiological response to workplace physical hazards. We examined the effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims data for 14, 618 white- and blue-collar aluminium manufacturing employees in eight US states. To explore gender differences in job status, we developed sex-stratified propensity score models identifying key socioeconomic predictors of hourly status for men and women. To examine the effects of hourly employment on hypertension risk, after adjusting for gender differences in job status, we applied time-weighted logistic regression models, stratified by propensity score, with additional adjustment for socioeconomic confounders. Family structure (partnership, parity) influenced job status for both sexes; single mothers were more likely to hold hourly jobs (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.97) and partnered men with children less likely (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.83). Education, age at hire and race influenced job status for both sexes. The effect of hourly status on hypertension was significant only among women predicted to be hourly (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.35). Our results indicate significant risks of hypertension associated with hourly status for women, possibly exacerbated by sociodemographic factors predicting hourly status (eg, single parenthood, low education). Greater attention to gender differences in job status, and finer exploration of sex-linked biological differences influencing responsivity to workplace exposures, is warranted.
Catherine E. Harnois
Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seem...
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; May, Alexis; Kraemer, Helena C.
Objective This study examined gender differences in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms including body image concerns (body checking or avoidance), binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Method A random sample of members (ages 18 to 35) of a health maintenance organization was recruited to complete a survey by mail or on-line. Items were drawn from the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results Among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observe, with women significantly more likely than men to report body checking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes (“Number Needed to Treat”) were small to moderate. Conclusions Few studies of eating disorders include men, yet our findings suggest that a substantial minority of men also report eating disorder symptoms. PMID:19107833
Sinclair, J; Bottoms, L
Clinical analyses have shown that injuries and pain linked specifically to fencing training/competition were prevalent in 92.8% of fencers. Patellofemoral pain is the most common chronic injury in athletic populations and females are considered to be more susceptible to this pathology. This study aimed to examine gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces during the fencing lunge. Patellofemoral contact forces were obtained from eight male and eight female club level epee fencers using an eight-camera 3D motion capture system and force platform data as they completed simulated lunges. Independent t-tests were performed on the data to determine whether gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces were present. The results show that females were associated with significantly greater patellofemoral contact force parameters in comparison with males. This suggests that female fencers may be at greater risk from patellofemoral pathology as a function of fencing training/competition.
Borja, Sharon; Nurius, Paula; Eddy, J Mark
More than half of the 1.6 million adults in U.S. prions are parents. Despite growing knowledge regarding the life course adversities of corrections-involved populations, less is known regarding incarcerated parents per se and the implications of cumulative adversities both on their needs and those of their children. Using a gender-balanced (41% minority) sample of incarcerated parents ( N =357) from a randomized controlled trial of an in-prison parent training program, this study examines differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers in their exposures to adversities across the life course. Mothers and fathers shared similar patterns of adversity exposure in their families of origin, but differed in their experiences of juvenile justice and child welfare systems involvement, as well as in their adult experiences of victimization and related adult social and mental health outcomes. Implications for gender-responsive parent support and prevention programs for their children of incarcerated mothers and fathers are discussed.
Kornadt, Anna E; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus
Whereas it is often stated that aging might have more negative consequences for the evaluation of women compared to men, evidence for this assumption is mixed. We took a differentiated look at age stereotypes of men and women, assuming that the life domain in which older persons are rated moderates gender differences in age stereotypes. A sample of 298 participants aged 20-92 rated 65 - year-old men and women on evaluative statements in eight different life domains. Furthermore, perceptions of gender- and domain-specific age-related changes were assessed by comparing the older targets to 45 - year-old men and women, respectively. The results speak in favor of the domain specificity of evaluative asymmetries in age stereotypes for men and women, and imply that an understanding of gendered perceptions of aging requires taking into account the complexities of domain-specific views on aging.
Pitel, Lukas y; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
BACKGROUND: Many studies of adolescent health-related behaviors have assessed the effects of gender and parental socioeconomic position (SEP) but not their mutual modification. We investigated socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviors among Slovak adolescents and the potential
Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Vennix, J.A.M.; Jacobs, H.A.G.M.; Engen, M.L. van; Engen, M. van
This paper contributes to the understanding of dynamic decision making. Using the faculty gender balancing task, we experimentally test the extent to which participants correctly estimate the inflow needed to balance two unbalanced stocks and how they substantiate their decision. The results show
Kakuru, D.M.; Burg, van der Margreet
Gender inequalities have persisted in Uganda¿s primary education regardless of specific interventions put in place to eliminate them. These include the implementation of Universal Primary Education in 1997. Research was carried out to understand the reasons for the persistence of these inequalities.
Booth, Alison L.; Nolen, Patrick J.
Women and men may differ in their propensity to choose a risky outcome because of innate preferences or because pressure to conform to gender-stereotypes encourages girls and boys to modify their innate preferences. Single-sex environments are likely to modify students' risk-taking preferences in economically important ways. To test this, we designed a controlled experiment in which subjects were given an opportunity to choose a risky outcome - a real-stakes gamble with a higher expected mone...
Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu
This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, f...
Gloria Moss; Rod W Gunn
This study examines the implications of a gendered website production and preference aesthetic for the teaching of computer studies. Where the website production aesthetic is concerned, it finds evidence of statistically significant differences on 13 of the 23 factors against which sixty student websites were rated. These results were suggestive of a website aesthetic continuum with male and female production aesthetic tendencies at either end. The preference tests, conducted with 67 subjects...
Mallampalli, Monica P; Carter, Christine L
Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions.
Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Zhu, David C
Few neuroimaging studies have explored gender differences on mental rotation tasks. Most studies have utilized samples with both genders, samples mainly consisting of men, or samples with six or fewer females. Graduate students in science fields or liberal arts programs (20 males, 20 females) completed a mental rotation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). When a pair of cube figures was shown, the participant made a keypad response based on whether the pair is the same/similar or different. Regardless of gender, the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the left precuneus were activated when a subject tried to solve the mental rotation task. Increased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus/middle frontal gyrus, the left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus region, and the left middle occipital gyrus was found for men as compared to women. Better accuracy and shorter response times were correlated with an increased activation in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus. No significant brain activity differences related to mental rotation were found between academic majors. These findings suggest that networks involved in visual attention appear to be more strongly activated in the mental rotation tasks in men as compared to women. It also suggests that men use a more automatic process when analyzing complex visual reasoning tasks while women use a more top-down process.
Research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has focused primarily on Vietnam War veterans. A handful of recent studies have been conducted on samples of the general population. We sought to examine gender differences in exposure to traumatic events and in the emergence of PTSD following exposure in the general population. A representative sample of 2181 persons in the Detroit metropolitan area, ages 18-45 years. Subjects were interviewed to assess history of traumatic events and PTSD using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria. The risk of PTSD was assessed in relation to a representative sample of traumas experienced in the population. Lifetime prevalence of traumatic events was slightly higher in men than in women. The risk for PTSD following traumatic experiences was twofold higher in women than in men. This gender difference was primarily due to women's greater risk of PTSD following events that involved assaultive violence. The probability of PTSD in women versus men exposed to assaultive violence was 36% versus 6%. Prior exposure to assaultive violence was associated with an increased risk of PTSD from a subsequent trauma; the gender difference in the vulnerability for PTSD is not explained by prior exposure. Duration of PTSD was longer in women than in men. The burden of PTSD in U.S. communities is greater in women than in men, chiefly due to the greater effect of assaultive violence on women.
González-Ortega, I; Echeburúa, E; Corral, P; Polo-López, R; Alberich, S
The current study aims to identify predictors of pathological gambling (PG) severity, taking gender differences into account, in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. The sample for this study consisted of 103 subjects (51 women and 52 men) meeting current DSM-IV-TR criteria for PG. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine different risk factors (gender, age, impulsivity, sensation seeking, self-esteem) and risk markers (depression, anxiety, gambling-related thoughts, substance abuse) as predictors of PG severity. Impulsivity, maladjustment in everyday life and age at gambling onset were the best predictors in the overall sample. When gender differences were taken into account, duration of gambling disorder in women and depression and impulsivity in men predicted PG severity. In turn, a high degree of severity in the South Oaks Gambling Screen score was related to older age and more familiy support in women and to low self-esteem and alcohol abuse in men. Female gamblers were older than male gamblers and started gambling later in life, but became dependent on gambling more quickly than men. Further research should examine these data to tailor treatment to specific patients' needs according to sex and individual characteristics. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Khare, Shruti; Lila, Anurag R; Patt, Hiren; Yerawar, Chaitanya; Goroshi, Manjunath; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S
Macroprolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary tumours. Hypotheses proposed to explain predominance of large tumours in males are: i) diagnostic delay, as hyperprolactinaemia remains under recognised in males and ii) gender-specific difference in tumour proliferation indices. Our study objectives are to compare gender differences in clinical, biochemical, radiological features, management outcomes and cabergoline responsiveness in macroprolactinomas. Drug resistance was defined as failure to achieve prolactin normalisation and >50% reduction in tumour volume with cabergoline (3.5 mg/week dose for minimum 6 months duration). The baseline characteristics of 100 patients (56 females and 44 males) with macroprolactinoma were analysed. Drug responsiveness was analysed in 88 treatment naive patients, excluding 12 post-primary trans-sphenoidal surgery cases. We found that females (30.29±10.39 years) presented at younger mean age than males (35.23±9.91 years) (P4 cm), gender difference in response rate was insignificant. In conclusion, macroprolactinomas are equally prevalent in both sexes. Macroprolactinomas in males predominantly present with symptoms of mass effects, as against females who present with symptoms of hypogonadism. Males harbor larger tumours but are equally cabergoline responsive as those in females. PMID:26682970
Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A; Stewart, Abigail; Sambuco, Dana; DeCastro, Rochelle; Ubel, Peter A
It is unclear whether male and female physician researchers who perform similar work are currently paid equally. To determine whether salaries differ by gender in a relatively homogeneous cohort of physician researchers and, if so, to determine if these differences are explained by differences in specialization, productivity, or other factors. A US nationwide postal survey was sent in 2009-2010 to assess the salary and other characteristics of a relatively homogeneous population of physicians. From all 1853 recipients of National Institutes of Health (NIH) K08 and K23 awards in 2000-2003, we contacted the 1729 who were alive and for whom we could identify a mailing address. The survey achieved a 71% response rate. Eligibility for the present analysis was limited to the 800 physicians who continued to practice at US academic institutions and reported their current annual salary. A linear regression model of self-reported current annual salary was constructed considering the following characteristics: gender, age, race, marital status, parental status, additional graduate degree, academic rank, leadership position, specialty, institution type, region, institution NIH funding rank, change of institution since K award, K award type, K award funding institute, years since K award, grant funding, publications, work hours, and time spent in research. The mean salary within our cohort was $167,669 (95% CI, $158,417-$176,922) for women and $200,433 (95% CI, $194,249-$206,617) for men. Male gender was associated with higher salary (+$13,399; P = .001) even after adjustment in the final model for specialty, academic rank, leadership positions, publications, and research time. Peters-Belson analysis (use of coefficients derived from regression model for men applied to women) indicated that the expected mean salary for women, if they retained their other measured characteristics but their gender was male, would be $12,194 higher than observed. Gender differences in salary exist
Zhuang, Ziqing; Landsittel, Douglas; Benson, Stacey; Roberge, Raymond; Shaffer, Ronald
The impact of race/ethnicity upon facial anthropometric data in the US workforce, on the development of personal protective equipment, has not been investigated to any significant degree. The proliferation of minority populations in the US workforce has increased the need to investigate differences in facial dimensions among these workers. The objective of this study was to determine the face shape and size differences among race and age groups from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health survey of 3997 US civilian workers. Survey participants were divided into two gender groups, four racial/ethnic groups, and three age groups. Measurements of height, weight, neck circumference, and 18 facial dimensions were collected using traditional anthropometric techniques. A multivariate analysis of the data was performed using Principal Component Analysis. An exploratory analysis to determine the effect of different demographic factors had on anthropometric features was assessed via a linear model. The 21 anthropometric measurements, body mass index, and the first and second principal component scores were dependent variables, while gender, ethnicity, age, occupation, weight, and height served as independent variables. Gender significantly contributes to size for 19 of 24 dependent variables. African-Americans have statistically shorter, wider, and shallower noses than Caucasians. Hispanic workers have 14 facial features that are significantly larger than Caucasians, while their nose protrusion, height, and head length are significantly shorter. The other ethnic group was composed primarily of Asian subjects and has statistically different dimensions from Caucasians for 16 anthropometric values. Nineteen anthropometric values for subjects at least 45 years of age are statistically different from those measured for subjects between 18 and 29 years of age. Workers employed in manufacturing, fire fighting, healthcare, law enforcement, and other occupational
Full Text Available Low current transcranial electrical stimulation is an effective but somewhat inconsistent tool for augmenting neuromodulation. In this study, we used 3D MRI guided electrical transcranial stimulation (GETS modeling to estimate the range of current intensities received at cortical brain tissues. Combined T1, T2, Proton Density MRIs from 24 adult subjects (12 male and 12 female were modeled with virtual electrodes placed at F3, F4, C3 and C4. Two sizes of electrodes 20 mm round and 50 x 45 mm square were examined at 0.5, 1 and 2 mA input currents. The intensity of current received was sampled in a one centimeter sphere placed at the cortex directly under each scalp electrode. There was a tenfold range in the current received by individuals. A large gender difference was observed with female subjects receiving significantly less current at targeted parietal cortex than male subjects when stimulated at identical current levels (P <0.05. Larger electrodes delivered somewhat larger amounts of current then the smaller ones (P <0.01. Electrodes in the frontal regions delivered less current than those in the parietal region (P<0.05. There were large individual differences in current levels the subjects received. Analysis of the cranial bone showed that the gender difference and the frontal parietal differences are due to differences in cranial bone. Males have more cancellous parietal bone and females more dense parietal bone (p<0.01. These differences should be considered when planning transcranial electrical stimulation studies and call into question earlier reports of gender differences due to hormonal influences.
Elliman, N A; Green, M W; Wan, W K
Males are increasingly subjected to pressures to conform to aesthetic body stereotypes. There is, however, comparatively little published research on the aetiology of male body shape concerns. Two experiments are presented, which investigate the relationship between gender specific body shape concerns and colour-naming performance. Each study comprised a between subject design, in which each subject was tested on a single occasion. A pictorial version of a modified Stroop task was used in both studies. Subjects colour-named gender specific obese and thin body shape images and semantically homogeneous neutral images (birds) presented in a blocked format. The first experiment investigated female subjects (N = 68) and the second investigated males (N = 56). Subjects also completed a self-report measure of eating behaviour. Currently dieting female subjects exhibited significant colour-naming differences between obese and neutral images. A similar pattern of colour-naming performance was found to be related to external eating in the male subjects.
Pollard, Tessa M; Wagnild, Janelle M
The aim of this systematic review was to examine gender differences in walking for leisure, transport and in total in adults living in high-income countries, and to assess whether gender differences in walking practices change across the life-course. A systematic literature search was conducted of publications dated 1995 to 2015. Papers providing quantitative data on participation in walking of both men and women aged at least 18 years in a high-income country were screened for the quality of the data on gender differences in walking. Data were extracted and results were synthesised using forest plots and narrative summary. Thirty-six studies were included in the review: 18 reported on walking for leisure, 16 on walking for transport (in total, or for particular purposes), and 14 on total walking. Most (33) studies provided data comparing the proportion of men and women who walked (at all or for a minimum duration) over a defined period, usually one week. There was consistent evidence that more women than men walk for leisure, although effect sizes were small. However, this effect varies by age: more younger women than younger men walk for leisure, but the gender difference diminishes with age and appears to reverse in the oldest age groups. Taking all ages together, there was no consistent gender difference in walking for transport or in total walking, although the small number of studies reporting on walking to undertake errands suggested that more women than men walk for this purpose. While there is little evidence that levels of total walking consistently vary by gender, our findings suggest that there are consistent gender differences in participation in walking for some purposes, including for leisure, and that there are gender differences in the impact of age on walking. We conclude that more research is needed to improve our understanding of how walking fits into the lives of women and men across the life-course, especially in relation to gender
Struik, Laura L; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Bottorff, Joan L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L
It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires in 2010-2011 from 113 female and 83 male smokers aged 14-19 years participating in AdoQuest, a longitudinal cohort study of the natural course of the co-occurrence of health-compromising behaviors in children. Overall, the findings indicate that reasons to quit in boys and girls appear to be generally similar, although this finding may relate to a lack of gender-oriented items in the ARFQ scale. There is a need for continued research to develop and test reasons to quit scales for adolescents that include gender-oriented items. © The Author(s) 2013.
Alkhadrawi, Amamah A.
The purpose of this dissertation is to discover how the myth of gender differences in STEM inform the lived experiences of male and female 12th graders in one high school in Northwest Ohio. Over the years, the observed gender gap favoring males over females in STEM ability has closed, and female students have even surpassed males in some measures. The fact that girls have met and exceeded boys in many measures of STEM ability over time suggests that the historical disparity was the result of social or psychological, and not biological, differences. Even though schools have changed throughout the years to accommodate and encourage female students in STEM, there is still a persistent disparity in participation at the highest levels of STEM in education and in careers. Males still outnumber females in the more mathematical and technical sciences, such as computer science and engineering. This study applied feminist socialization theory and phenomenology as its theoretical framework. The biggest themes that informed student"s choices and preferences were as follows: intended choices follow family influence, myth persists in subtle ways, teenagers have a limited future view, and the chicken and the egg issues of personal interests versus social influence. There are clearly more factors that contribute to this gender socialization, which may be a combination of socioeconomic status and the influence of family.
Chittleborough, Catherine R; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Gill, Tiffany K; Grant, Janet F; Adams, Robert J; Wilson, David H; Ruffin, Richard E
Socioeconomic inequalities in health have been shown to vary for different diseases and by gender. This study aimed to examine gender differences in associations between asthma and socioeconomic disadvantage. Socioeconomic variables were assessed among men and women in the North West Adelaide Health Study, a representative population cohort (n = 4060) aged 18 years and over in metropolitan South Australia. Asthma was determined from spirometry and self-reported doctor diagnosis. The prevalence of asthma was 12.0% (95% CI: 11.1-13.1), and was significantly higher among women (13.5%) than men (10.5%). For participants aged 18-64 years a higher prevalence of asthma was associated with an education level of secondary school or lower, or not being in the paid labour force among men, and with a gross annual household income of $20,000 or less among women. Among socioeconomically advantaged groups, the prevalence of asthma was significantly higher among women than men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with higher asthma prevalence, although this varied by gender depending on the indicator of socioeconomic position used. Men with low education or those not employed in the paid labour force had higher asthma prevalence than more socioeconomically advantaged men. Women with low income had higher asthma prevalence than those with higher income. Among all socioeconomically advantaged groups, and also the low-income group, women experienced a higher prevalence of asthma than men.
Puskar, Kathryn R; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Ren, Dianxu; Haley, Tammy M; Tark, Kirsti Hetager; Switala, Joann; Siemon, Linda
To identify and describe gender-related differences in the self-esteem and optimism levels of rural adolescents. Self-esteem and optimism have been broadly examined and are associated with health-practices, social interaction, attachment, resiliency, and personal identity. Information describing the relationship of self-esteem and optimism as it relates to gender is limited. Using a cross-sectional survey design, students (N = 193) from three high-schools in rural Pennsylvania, USA completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Optimism Scale-Life Orientation Test-Revised as part of a National Institute of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research funded study. Both instruments' mean scores were in the range of average for this population, with females scoring lower than males in both self-esteem (p self-esteem and optimism. Attention to self-esteem and optimism in female youth is recommended.
Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard
provides an overview of research on sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders ranging from the well-established female preponderance in prevalence and severity to possible sex differences in the risk and protective factors associated with anxiety, sex differences in the clinical presentation......Several studies have examined sex differences in different anxiety disorders. Females are repeatedly found to be more likely than males to suffer from anxiety in general and to be diagnosed with most anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia (AG), panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety (SA...... of anxiety disorders, and potential sex differences in the effectiveness of different treatments. The chapter contains suggestions for future research, including important questions that remain to be answered....
Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is serious concern in the workplace with respect to errors, accidents, absenteeism, reduced productivity and impaired personal or professional life. Previous community studies found a female preponderance of EDS, however, there is little research on EDS and gender in occupational settings. We examined the gender differences in prevalence and risk factors of EDS among employees working at a telecommunications company in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Our outcome measure of EDS was the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A self-administered questionnaire on health and sleep including ESS was distributed to 5,571 workers between December 1999 and January 2000, and 5,072 responses were returned (91.0%). A total of 4,722 full-time, non-manual and non-shift employees aged 20-59 were used for analysis (3,909 men and 813 women). Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied for examining the gender differences in the prevalence and risk factors of EDS. The prevalence rates of EDS were 13.3% for women and 7.2% for men (Pgenders, and being married worked as a protective factor against EDS for men alone. It is obvious that a ban on overtime work and a provision of mental health hygiene are the general strategies for reducing EDS at worksites. In the case of women, we suggest the formation of effective strategies for improving women's status at home and in the workplace must also be a solution for the prevention of EDS (e.g. promoting gender equality in the division of labor at home and strengthening family care policies for working women).
Govindan, Morgen; Gurm, Roopa; Mohan, Sathish; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Corriveau, Nicole; Goldberg, Caren; Durussel-Weston, Jean; Eagle, Kim A; Jackson, Elizabeth A
Previous studies have demonstrated gender-related differences in body composition, physical activity, and diet. This observational study assesses gender variance in independent predictors for obesity to determine targeted areas for intervention. Data from 1714 sixth-grade students enrolled in Project Healthy Schools were compared by using health behaviors and physiologic markers (lipids, random glucose, blood pressure, and resting and recovery heart rates). Students were stratified by gender and obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile by age and gender). Physiologic markers and behaviors were compared by using χ(2) analysis. Univariate associations with P gender. Nonobese students (both boys and girls) showed significantly healthier physiologic parameters compared with their obese counterparts. Two behaviors independently correlated with obesity in both boys and girls: regularly eating school lunches (odds ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.64; OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.00-1.62, respectively) and watching ≥2 hours of television per day (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.32; OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.34, respectively). Vigorous physical activity and involvement in school sports teams appeared to be protective against obesity in boys (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.98; OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.64-0.94, respectively), whereas milk consumption appeared protective in girls (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.98). Among middle-school children, we observed gender-related differences in factors associated with obesity. Additional research is warranted to determine the beneficial impact of improving school lunches and decreasing screen time, while improving our understanding of gender-related differences in milk consumption and physical activities in relation to BMI.
Rusman, T; van Vollenhoven, R F; van der Horst-Bruinsma, I E
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was historically seen as a predominantly male disease. However, more recent data showed a more homogenous sex prevalence. Unfortunately, in many studies in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), the number of women included is low and the analyses are often not stratified for gender distribution. The purpose of this review is to aggregate the existing data on gender differences in axSpA in order to increase the awareness that female axSpA patients are still under-recognized. Several studies considering gender differences revealed that female axSpA patients had different disease manifestations due to different immunological, hormonal, and genetic responses. For instance, allelic frequencies of the AHNK-gene and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) haplotypes differed between men and women with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In addition, different levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukins IL-6, IL-17, and IL-18, were found between the two sexes. Furthermore, female patients show a higher diagnostic delay compared to males. Several studies indicate a higher frequency of extra-articular manifestations (EAM) in female axSpA patients, such as enthesitis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), whereas acute anterior uveitis is more prevalent in male patients. Male AS patients more frequently show a higher Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index (BASRI) scores and modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Scores (mSASSS) than females, which indicates that males have higher radiological damage and radiographic progression. However, disease activity (BASDAI) and quality of life (AsQol) scores are significantly higher in women, and more importantly, they have significantly lower response rates to treatment with TNF inhibitors (TNFi) and a significantly lower drug adherence. Despite the fact that men with axial SpA have a worse radiologic prognosis, women have a high disease burden, in part because they have a longer
Wallen, Aaron S; Morris, Michael W; Devine, Beth A; Lu, Jackson G
Women's underperformance in MBA programs has been the subject of recent debate and policy interventions, despite a lack of rigorous evidence documenting when and why it occurs. The current studies document a performance gap, specifying its contours and contributing factors. Two behaviors by female students that may factor into the gap are public conformity and private internalization. We predicted that women conform to the norm associating maleness with technical prowess by minimizing their public assertiveness in class discussions and meetings, but that they do not internalize the norm by reducing private effort. Data from multiple cohorts of a top-ranked MBA program reveal female underperformance occurred in technical subjects (e.g., accounting), but not social subjects (e.g., marketing). As predicted, the gender effect ran not through private effort but through public assertiveness, even controlling for gender differences in interests and aptitudes. These findings support some current policy interventions while casting doubt on others.
Title: English: Gender Differences in the Approach to caterring Basic School Pupils Author: Věra Brabcová Department: Pedagogy Supervisor: PaedDr. Eva Marádová, CSc. ANNOTATION: The objective of the Bachelor Thesis, divided into two parts, is to find out whether there are any differences in the approach to catering; the discussed group of diners are basic school pupils of the second stage (Czech education system). The work compares the attitude of boys and girls at the age of 11 - 16. The the...
CARLOS FELIPE PARDO-VÉLEZ
Full Text Available Gender differences in the recognition of facial expressions of anger, happiness and sadness wereresearched in students 18-25 years of age. A reaction time procedure was used, and the percentage ofcorrect answers when recognizing was also measured. Though the work hypothesis expected genderdifferences in facial expression recognition, results suggest that these differences are not significant at alevel of 0.05%. Statistical analysis shows a greater easiness (at a non-significant level for women torecognize happiness expressions, and for men to recognize anger expressions. The implications ofthese data are discussed, and possible extensions of this investigation in terms of sample size andcollege major of the participants.
María Araceli Álvarez Gasca
Full Text Available The relationship between lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in college students as well as differences between men and women are analyzed. 970 students (67.4% women, 32.6% men were randomly selected and assessed on lifestyle (EV, central obesity, and metabolic syndrome(SM. Results showed 4.63% with SM and 36.65% with obesity, women predominated. Predominant EV was good and better in men than women, highest frequency of SM was in bad EV. Relationship between gender, obesity, and SM was significant for the studied population. Differences were found between men and women.
Baird, Matthew; Daugherty, Lindsay; Kumar, Krishna B; Arifkhanova, Aziza
Concerns have long existed about potential shortages in the anesthesiologist workforce. In addition, many changes have occurred in the economy, demographics, and the healthcare sector in the last few years, which may impact the workforce. The authors documented workforce trends by region of the United States and gender, trends that may have implications for the supply and demand of anesthesiologists. The authors conducted a national survey of American Society of Anesthesiologists members (accounting for >80% of all practicing anesthesiologists in the United States) in 2007 and repeated it in 2013. The authors used logistic regression analysis and Seemingly Unrelated Regression to test across several indicators under an overarching hypothesis. Anesthesiologists in Western states had markedly different patterns of practice relative to anesthesiologists in other regions in 2007 and 2013, including differences in employer type, the composition of anesthesia teams, and the time spent on monitored anesthesia care. The number and proportion of female anesthesiologists in the workforce increased between 2007 and 2013, and females differed from males in employment arrangements, compensation, and work hours. Regional differences remained stable during this time period although the reasons for these differences are speculative. Similarly, how and whether the gender difference in work hours and shift to younger anesthesiologists during this period will impact workforce needs is uncertain.
Matias García Terán
Full Text Available Different authors claim that the differences found in the social skills repertoire of men and women could be explained by gender orientation. The purpose of this study is to determine if there are gender differences in social skills in university students from Córdoba (Argentina. The Social Skills Questionnaire for College Students (SSQ-C (Morán, Olaz & Del Prette, in preparation was applied to a sample of 1076 university students of both sexes, aged between 18 and 25 years old, from 56 undergraduate programs distributed on five public and private universities of the city of Córdoba, Argentina. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was conducted to analyze the existence of differences between men and women. We found differences in favour of men in social skills for affective and sexual approach, and in favour of women in conversational skills, refusal assertiveness and empathic skills and expression of positive feelings; there were no differences in social skills for academic and workplace settings. The results and their possible practical implications are discussed.
Markovits, Henry; Trémolière, Bastien; Blanchette, Isabelle
The dual strategy model of reasoning has proposed that people's reasoning can be understood asa combination of two different ways of processing information related to problem premises: a counterexample strategy that examines information for explicit potential counterexamples and a statistical strategy that uses associative access to generate a likelihood estimate of putative conclusions. Previous studies have examined this model in the context of basic conditional reasoning tasks. However, the information processing distinction that underlies the dual strategy model can be seen asa basic description of differences in reasoning (similar to that described by many general dual process models of reasoning). In two studies, we examine how these differences in reasoning strategy may relate to processing very different information, specifically we focus on previously observed gender differences in processing negative emotions. Study 1 examined the intensity of emotional reactions to a film clip inducing primarily negative emotions. Study 2 examined the speed at which participants determine the emotional valence of sequences of negative images. In both studies, no gender differences were observed among participants using a counterexample strategy. Among participants using a statistical strategy, females produce significantly stronger emotional reactions than males (in Study 1) and were faster to recognize the valence of negative images than were males (in Study 2). Results show that the processing distinction underlying the dual strategy model of reasoning generalizes to the processing of emotions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yuh-Min; Li, Yueh-Ping; Yen, Min-Ling
To explore gender differences in the predictors of physical activity (PA) among assisted living residents. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A convenience sample of 304 older adults was recruited from four assisted living facilities in Taiwan. Two separate simultaneous multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify the predictors of PA for older men and women. Independent variables entered into the regression models were age, marital status, educational level, past regular exercise participation, number of chronic diseases, functional status, self-rated health, depression, and self-efficacy expectations. In older men, a junior high school or higher educational level, past regular exercise participation, better functional status, better self-rated health, and higher self-efficacy expectations predicted more PA, accounting for 61.3% of the total variance in PA. In older women, better self-rated health, lower depression, and higher self-efficacy expectations predicted more PA, accounting for 50% of the total variance in PA. Predictors of PA differed between the two genders. The results have crucial implications for developing gender-specific PA interventions. Through a clearer understanding of gender-specific predictors, healthcare providers can implement gender-sensitive PA-enhancing interventions to assist older residents in performing sufficient PA. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Cooper, Kate; Smith, Laura G E; Russell, Ailsa J
High rates of gender variance have been reported in autistic people, with higher variance in autistic females than males. The social component of gender identity may be affected, with autistic females experiencing lower identification with and feeling less positively about their gender groups than controls. We measured gender identification, gender self-esteem, and aspects of gender expression (masculinity and femininity) in autistic natal males and females, and controls (N = 486). We found that autistic people had lower gender identification and gender self-esteem than controls, and autistic natal females had lower gender identification than autistic natal males and natal female controls. In conclusion, autistic people, particularly natal females, had lower social identification with and more negative feelings about a gender group.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current cognitive neuroscience models predict a right-hemispheric dominance for face processing in humans. However, neuroimaging and electromagnetic data in the literature provide conflicting evidence of a right-sided brain asymmetry for decoding the structural properties of faces. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this inconsistency might be due to gender differences in hemispheric asymmetry. Results In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs were recorded in 40 healthy, strictly right-handed individuals (20 women and 20 men while they observed infants' faces expressing a variety of emotions. Early face-sensitive P1 and N1 responses to neutral vs. affective expressions were measured over the occipital/temporal cortices, and the responses were analyzed according to viewer gender. Along with a strong right hemispheric dominance for men, the results showed a lack of asymmetry for face processing in the amplitude of the occipito-temporal N1 response in women to both neutral and affective faces. Conclusion Men showed an asymmetric functioning of visual cortex while decoding faces and expressions, whereas women showed a more bilateral functioning. These results indicate the importance of gender effects in the lateralization of the occipito-temporal response during the processing of face identity, structure, familiarity, or affective content.
Otto Ka-Wing Cheung
Full Text Available Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management.
Xie, Zhixin; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben
There is a significant gender imbalance on financial trading floors. This motivated us to investigate gender differences in financial risk taking under pressure. We used a well-established approach from behavior economics to analyze a series of risky monetary choices by male and female participants with and without time pressure. We also used second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and face width-to-height ratio (fWHR) as correlates of pre-natal exposure to testosterone. We constructed a structural model and estimated the participants' risk attitudes and probability perceptions via maximum likelihood estimation under both expected utility (EU) and rank-dependent utility (RDU) models. In line with existing research, we found that male participants are less risk averse and that the gender gap in risk attitudes increases under moderate time pressure. We found that female participants with lower 2D:4D ratios and higher fWHR are less risk averse in RDU estimates. Males with lower 2D:4D ratios were less risk averse in EU estimations, but more risk averse using RDU estimates. We also observe that men whose ratios indicate a greater prenatal exposure to testosterone exhibit a greater optimism and overestimation of small probabilities of success.
Traberg, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian
The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investi......The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work...... is to investigate the blood flow pat- terns within a group of healthy volunteers (4 females, 7 males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry...... to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender is observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development....
Hong, Eunyoung; Kang, Youngmi
The purposes of this study were to identify whether there are gender differences in sexual behaviors among Korean adolescents and to explore the factors that influence safe sex practices across both sexes. A secondary analysis was conducted using nationally representative data obtained from the 2014 Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Sample consisted of 3,210 adolescents who had experience of sexual intercourse. The dependent variable in this study was practicing safe sex. The independent variables included a range of individual, family, and school factors. Female adolescents were less likely to practice safe sex (i.e., always using a condom). Individual (smoking, no drinking before sexual intercourse), family (living with parents, higher allowance per week) and school factors (non-coeducational school students, had received school-based sex education) were significant predictors of practicing safe sex in males. In contrast, family (lower economic status) and school factors (middle school students) predicted practicing safe sex among female adolescents. We demonstrated that gender plays an important role in the sexual behavior of adolescents. The findings of this study indicate a need to design and implement gender-specific interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eloy, Jean Anderson; Mady, Leila J; Svider, Peter F; Mauro, Kevin M; Kalyoussef, Evelyne; Setzen, Michael; Baredes, Soly; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S
To identify whether regional differences exist in gender disparities in scholarly productivity and faculty rank among academic otolaryngologists. Academic otolaryngologists' bibliometric data analyses. Online faculty listings from 98 otolaryngology departments were organized by gender, academic rank, fellowship training status, and institutional location. The Scopus database was used to assess bibliometrics of these otolaryngologists, including the h-index, number of publications, and publication experience. Analysis included 1127 otolaryngologists, 916 men (81.3%) and 211 women (18.7%). Female faculty comprised 15.4% in the Midwest, 18.8% in the Northeast, 21.3% in the South, and 19.0% in the West (P = .44). Overall, men obtained significantly higher senior academic ranks (associate professor or professor) compared to women (59.8% vs. 40.2%, P .05). Gender disparities in academic rank and scholarly productivity exist most notably in the Northeast, where women in otolaryngology are most underrepresented relative to men at senior academic ranks and in scholarly productivity.
Raparelli, Valeria; Pannitteri, Gaetano; Todisco, Tommaso; Toriello, Filippo; Napoleone, Laura; Manfredini, Roberto; Basili, Stefania
Response to drug administration is a primary determinant for treatment success. Sex and gender disparities play a role in determining the efficacy and safety of the most commonly used medications suggesting the need for a sex-tailored approach in prescription. Statins are a cost-effective strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While statins are similarly effective in secondary CVD prevention, some concerns raised by conflicting data reported in primary CVD prevention clinical trials. The small representation of women in clinical trials and the fewer rates of events due to the lower female baseline CVD risk may have conditioned contradictory meta-analysis findings. Specifically, benefits outweigh disadvantages of statin therapy in women with a high CVD risk, while several doubts exist for the primary prevention of women at low-intermediate CVD risk. Furthermore, disparities between women and men in medication adherence may influence statin efficacy in CVD prevention. The sex-dependent impact of adverse side effects is one of the reasons advocated for explaining the gender gap, but it is not evidence-proved. The present review summarizes the sex and gender differences in the use of statins, pointing out new perspectives and opening issues in sex-tailored CVD prevention strategy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Liu, Y; Zhang, Y; Cho, Y T; Obayashi, Y; Arai, A; Tamashiro, H
The effects of socio-economic factors on suicide were gender-dependent. Japanese suicide mortality gender ratio (male: female) had gradually increased during the twentieth century. With the data covering 1947-2010 collected from Japanese official websites, we conducted non-parametric rank test, curve estimations, spearman ranking correlation and quantile regression in succession with Stata version 12.0. The suicide mortality rate in male with a "U" shape had been always higher than that in female with a "J" shape. The male suicide mortality peaked around in 1955 (38.5 per 100,000 populations), dropped quickly afterwards until the 1970s; it increased in the 1980s with another peak in 2003 (33.2 per 100,000 populations). For female, an overall decreasing trend was seen with a peak during the 1950s (23.5 per 100,000 populations in 1958). It dropped gradually afterwards with small variations in 1970s and 80s, and was stabilized after 1995 (9.3 per 100,000 populations). The unemployment rate could be used as a single positive predictor of suicide mortality for men (pdivorce rate (ppositively and negatively with women's suicide, respectively. The impact of mental disorders was not analyzed and age-specific analysis was not conducted. The findings of these gender differences in, and the associated factors with, suicide in Japan, warranted further studies including delineation of the implications of differential economic pressure between genders, as well as child-rearing pressure and marriage satisfaction. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in the brain maturation during childhood and adolescence has been repeatedly documented, which may underlie the differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, our understanding of how gender modulates the development of structural connectome in healthy adults is still not entirely clear. Here we utilized graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data over a five-year period to investigate the progressive gender differences of brain network topology. The brain networks of both genders showed prominent economical "small-world" architecture (high local clustering and short paths between nodes. Additional analysis revealed a more economical "small-world" architecture in females as well as a greater global efficiency in males regardless of scan time point. At the regional level, both increased and decreased efficiency were found across the cerebral cortex for both males and females, indicating a compensation mechanism of cortical network reorganization over time. Furthermore, we found that weighted clustering coefficient exhibited significant gender-time interactions, implying different development trends between males and females. Moreover, several specific brain regions (e.g., insula, superior temporal gyrus, cuneus, putamen, and parahippocampal gyrus exhibited different development trajectories between males and females. Our findings further prove the presence of sexual dimorphism in brain structures that may underlie gender differences in behavioral and cognitive functioning. The sex-specific progress trajectories in brain connectome revealed in this work provide an important foundation to delineate the gender related pathophysiological mechanisms in various neuropsychiatric disorders, which may potentially guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders.
Sun, Yu; Lee, Renick; Chen, Yu; Collinson, Simon; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Sim, Kang
Sexual dimorphism in the brain maturation during childhood and adolescence has been repeatedly documented, which may underlie the differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, our understanding of how gender modulates the development of structural connectome in healthy adults is still not entirely clear. Here we utilized graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data over a five-year period to investigate the progressive gender differences of brain network topology. The brain networks of both genders showed prominent economical "small-world" architecture (high local clustering and short paths between nodes). Additional analysis revealed a more economical "small-world" architecture in females as well as a greater global efficiency in males regardless of scan time point. At the regional level, both increased and decreased efficiency were found across the cerebral cortex for both males and females, indicating a compensation mechanism of cortical network reorganization over time. Furthermore, we found that weighted clustering coefficient exhibited significant gender-time interactions, implying different development trends between males and females. Moreover, several specific brain regions (e.g., insula, superior temporal gyrus, cuneus, putamen, and parahippocampal gyrus) exhibited different development trajectories between males and females. Our findings further prove the presence of sexual dimorphism in brain structures that may underlie gender differences in behavioral and cognitive functioning. The sex-specific progress trajectories in brain connectome revealed in this work provide an important foundation to delineate the gender related pathophysiological mechanisms in various neuropsychiatric disorders, which may potentially guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders.
Rhudy, Jamie L; Williams, Amy E
Research suggests that the influence of gender on the processing and experience of pain is a result of several mechanisms. One mediating variable is emotion, which may modulate pain through an interaction of valence (pleasant-unpleasant) and arousal (calm-excited). This review examines whether gender differences in the experience and processing of emotion contribute to differences in the modulation and perception of pain. An English-language search of MEDLINE and PsycINFO was conducted from 1887 to May 2005. Additional literature was obtained from reference lists of articles retained in the initial search. Emotion appears to influence pain through a valence-by-arousal interaction. Specifically, negatively valenced emotions with low to moderate arousal (eg, anxiety) enhance pain, whereas negatively valenced emotions with high arousal (eg, fear) reduce pain. In contrast, positively valenced emotions always reduce pain, as long as minimal arousal is achieved. Some evidence suggests that women are more sensitive than men to threat-related stimuli and thus experience more negative affect than men. This would generally lead to enhanced pain perception in women. It is also possible that women are more likely than men to experience negative affect with high arousal (intense fear) and thus pain inhibition. However, the relatively lower base rate of intense negative emotions is not likely to contribute much to gender differences in pain. Evidence also suggests that men may be more sensitive to positive events, particularly sexual/erotic stimuli, which may lead to more positive emotion-induced pain reduction in men, relative to women. This review suggests that gender differences in the experience of pain may arise from differences in the experience and processing of emotion that, in turn, differentially alter pain processing. Specifically, the system associated with negative affect may be more attuned to threatening stimuli in women, and the system associated with positive
T.E. Mofokeng; A.L. Bevan-Dye
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender differences concerning Premier Soccer League (PSL) spectator motives amongst black Generation Y students in South Africa. In South Africa, the black Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) represents an important but under-researched market segment in that, in 2013, they made up 32 percent of the country's population. From a PSL marketing perspective, understanding the motives that drive game spectatorshi...
Huang, Yu-Chi; Hung, Chi-Fa; Lin, Pao-Yen; Lee, Yu; Wu, Chih-Ching; Hsu, Su-Ting; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Lin, Chieh-Hsin; Wang, Liang-Jen
Past research has indicated gender differences in the clinical characteristics and course of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether gender differences in the manifestation of schizophrenia are correlated with neurosteroids, including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and pregnenolone. We further explored the potential relationship between the aforementioned neurosteroids and psychopathology. We recruited 65 schizophrenic patients (36 males and 29 females) and 103 healthy control subjects (47 males and 56 females) and obtained blood samples from the subjects in the morning while in a fasting state to determine the serum levels of DHEA, DHEA-S, and pregnenolone. The psychopathology and mood symptoms of patients with schizophrenia were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, respectively. Compared to the male control subjects, male patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower serum levels of DHEA and pregnenolone. In males with schizophrenia, the serum levels of DHEA and DHEA-S were associated with the age of onset and the duration of illness, while pregnenolone levels were associated with general symptoms of the PANSS. However, none of the neurosteroid levels were different between the female patients with schizophrenia and the female controls, and no significant correlation between neurosteroid levels and psychopathology evaluations was found among the schizophrenic females. Neurosteroids, including DHEA, DHEA-S, and pregnenolone, are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia in male patients, but not in female ones. Therefore, our findings suggest that neurosteroids may be associated with gender differences in susceptibility to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huy Van Nguyen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, as doctor of medicine is socially considered a special career, both men and women who are enrolled in medical universities often study topics of medicine seriously. However, as culturally expected, women often perform better than men. Because of this, teaching leadership and management skill (LMS to develop academic planning activity (APA for female medical students would also be expected to be more effective than male counterparts. This research aimed to compare by gender the effect of teaching LMS on increasing APA, using propensity score matching (PSM. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey utilizing a self-reported structured questionnaire on a systematic random sample of 421 male and female medical students in Hanoi Medical University, this study adopted first regression techniques to construct a fit model, then PSM to create a matched control group in order to allow for evaluating the effect of LMS education. RESULTS: There were several interesting gender differences. First, while for females LMS education had both direct and indirect effects on APA, it had only direct effect on males' APA. Second, after PSM to adjust for the possible confounders to balance statistically two groups - with and without LMS education, there is statistically a significant difference in APA between male and female students, making a net difference of 11% (p<.01, equivalent to 173 students. The difference in APA between exposed and matched control group in males and females was 9% and 20%, respectively. These estimates of 9.0 and 20.0 percentage point increase can be translated into the practice of APA by 142 males and 315 females, respectively, in the population. These numbers of APA among male and female students can be explained by LMS education. CONCLUSIONS: Gender appears to be a factor explaining in part academic planning activity.
Santos, Mariana G R; Paes, Angela T; Sanudo, Adriana; Andreoni, Solange; Sanchez, Zila M
Drinking before entering nightclubs (predrinking) seems to be associated with an increase in alcohol-related harm. This study aims to investigate gender differences in predrinking behavior and to evaluate its association with risk behaviors practiced inside nightclubs. Individual-level data were collected by a portal survey of 2,422 patrons at the entrance and 1,833 patrons at the exit of 31 nightclubs located at São Paulo, Brazil. The nightclubs were selected by 2-stage sampling with probability proportional to the establishments' capacity in the first stage and a systematic sample of patrons in the entrance line in the second stage. Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured at the entrance and exit. Face-to-face interviews identified predrinking characteristics and risk behaviors. Weighted analyses were stratified by gender. Predrinking was practiced by 49.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 42.7 to 55.8) of the male patrons and 29.0% (95% CI = 20.6 to 38.9) of the female patrons (p men and women showed similar BrAC at entrance and exit and similar proportion of alcoholic intoxication (BrAC ≥ 0.38 mg/l). In both genders, people who practiced predrinking on the day of the interview were more likely to drink inside the nightclub, compared to those who did not practice predrinking (p men, the practice of predrinking increased the chance of "drinking and driving" after leaving the nightclub (odds ratio [OR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 4.1-11.5, p sexual harassment in the nightclub (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.3 to 6.6, p = 0.010). Predrinking is more prevalent among men; however, men and women who engaged in predrinking have a similar pattern of alcohol consumption and exit BrAC. The fact that risk behaviors and illicit drug use were associated with predrinking but differ between genders suggests that a gender-specific approach should be used in tailored interventions to prevent alcohol-related harm in nightclubs. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society
Heiligers Phil JM
Full Text Available Abstract Background The main subject is the influence of gender and the stage of life on the choice of specialty in medical education. In particular we looked at the influence of intrinsic and external motives on this relationship. The choice of specialty was divided into two moments: the choice between medical specialties and general practice; and the preference within medical specialties. In earlier studies the topic of motivation was explored, mostly related to gender. In this study stage of life in terms of living with a partner -or not- and stage of education was added. Methods A questionnaire concerning career preferences was used. The online questionnaire was sent to all student members of the KNMG (Royal Dutch Medical Association. 58% of these students responded (N = 2397. Only 1478 responses could be used for analyses (36%. For stipulating the motives that played a role, principal components factor analysis has been carried out. For testing the mediation effect a set of regression analyses was performed: logistic regressions and multiple regressions. Results Although basic findings about gender differences in motivations for preferred careers are consistent with earlier research, we found that whether or not living with a partner is determinant for differences in profession-related motives and external motives (lifestyle and social situation. Furthermore living with a partner is not a specific female argument anymore, since no interactions are found between gender and living with a partner. Another issue is that motives are mediating the relationship between, living with a partner, and the choice of GP or medical specialty. For more clarity in the mediating effect of motives a longitudinal study is needed to find out about motives and changing circumstances. Conclusions The present study provides a contribution to the knowledge of career aspirations of medical students, especially the impact of motivation. Gender and living with a
Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B
The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our
Full Text Available “Hooking-up” – engaging in no-strings-attached sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners - has become a norm on college campuses, and raises the potential for disease, unintended pregnancy, and physical and psychological trauma. The primacy of sex in the evolutionary process suggests that predictions derived from evolutionary theory may be a useful first step toward understanding these contemporary behaviors. This study assessed the hook-up behaviors and attitudes of 507 college students. As predicted by behavioral-evolutionary theory: men were more comfortable than women with all types of sexual behaviors; women correctly attributed higher comfort levels to men, but overestimated men's actual comfort levels; and men correctly attributed lower comfort levels to women, but still overestimated women's actual comfort levels. Both genders attributed higher comfort levels to same-gendered others, reinforcing a pluralistic ignorance effect that might contribute to the high frequency of hook-up behaviors in spite of the low comfort levels reported and suggesting that hooking up may be a modern form of intrasexual competition between females for potential mates.
Alarcón, Gabriela; Forbes, Erika E
Prosocial behavior and depression are related constructs that both increase during adolescence and display gender-specific effects. The current review surveys literature examining the association between depressive symptoms and prosociality, measured with behavioral economic paradigms, across development and proposes a theoretical model explaining a mechanism through which adolescent girls have higher risk for depression than boys. Relative to healthy controls, prosocial behavior is reduced in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) but may be increased in adolescents with MDD. The relationship between non-clinical levels of depressive symptoms and prosocial behavior remains to be studied experimentally; however, self-reported prosocial behavior is negatively associated with depressive symptoms in non-clinical adolescents, which may suggest a shift in the relation of prosocial behavior and depressive symptoms across the non-clinical (i.e., negative) to clinical range (i.e., positive). The effect of gender on these developmental and clinical status shifts has not been studied but could have important implications for understanding the emergence of higher rates of depression in girls than boys during adolescence. We propose that girls are at heightened risk for depression due to higher social-evaluative concern and other-oriented prosocial motivation that emphasize the needs of others over the self, leading to more altruistic prosocial behavior (despite personal cost) and a higher burden that enables depressive symptoms.
Visalli, Thomas; Turkall, Rita; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed S
Hepatocellular damage is thought to occur as a result of cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation of cocaine to norcocaine (NC), a precursor of the hepatotoxic nitrosonium ion. However, this damage occurs only in male mice, with females exhibiting minimal biochemical and histological signs of hepatocellular stress. The objective of this study was to determine the plasma time course and tissue disposition of cocaine and its metabolites to further investigate the role that metabolism may play in the gender difference observed. Male and female CF-1 mice were orally administered 20mg/kg cocaine hydrochloride once daily for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn at various time points post-injection and analyzed for cocaine and its metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE), norcocaine, ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and ecgonine (E). In addition, tissue concentrations of cocaine and its metabolites were determined in liver, heart, brain, and kidney tissue. The results demonstrated that the plasma elimination half-life of cocaine is nearly three times longer in males versus females. Non-hepatotoxic hydrolysis metabolites BE, EME, and E were higher in female tissues while norcocaine was detected in tissues of male animals only. This study revealed that differences in cocaine pharmacokinetics and the resultant differences in the biodisposition of cocaine and its metabolites in tissues contribute to the mechanism of gender difference seen in cocaine hepatotoxicity.
N. Nazlı Ozdemir
Full Text Available In this study, an investigation was carried out to explore if there were any gender differences in scientific creativity and its components. Par-ticipants included 704 sixth grade students who applied to the Education Programs for Talented Students (EPTS at Anadolu University in the City of Eskişehir in Turkey. Of the total sam-ple, 345 were female and 359 were male. Stu-dents’ scientific creativity was measured using the Creative Scientific Ability Test (C-SAT. It measures fluency, flexibility and creativity and hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing and evidence evaluation. The analysis showed that male students scored significantly higher on fluency and creativity and hypothesis genera-tion components of scientific creativity. Alt-hough male students had higher scores on flex-ibility, hypothesis testing and evidence evalua-tion components too, the differences between the groups were not significant. The findings shows that gender differences in scientific crea-tivity in childhood and adolescence might re-sult from differences in some particular pro-cesses.
Mumtaz, Zubia; Salway, Sarah
Recent research and policy discourse commonly view the limited autonomy of women in developing countries as a key barrier to improvements in their reproductive health. Rarely, however, is the notion of women's autonomy interrogated for its conceptual adequacy or usefulness for understanding the determinants of women's reproductive health, effective policy formulation or program design. Using ethnographic data from 2001, including social mapping exercises, observation of daily life, interviews, case studies and focus group discussions, this paper draws attention to the incongruities between the concept of women's autonomy and the gendered social, cultural, economic and political realities of women's lives in rural Punjab, Pakistan. These inadequacies include: the concept's undue emphasis on women's independent, autonomous action; a lack of attention to men and masculinities; a disregard for the multi-sited constitution of gender relations and gender inequality; an erroneous assumption that uptake of reproductive health services is an indicator of autonomy; and a failure to explore the interplay of other axes of disadvantage such as caste, class or socio-economic position. This paper calls for alternative, more nuanced, theoretical approaches for conceptualizing gender inequalities in order to enhance our understanding of women's reproductive wellbeing in Pakistan. The extent to which our arguments may be relevant to the wider South Asian context, and women's lives in other parts of the world, is also discussed.
Tsai, Yi-Wen; Tsai, Tzu-I; Yang, Chung-Lin; Kuo, Ken N
Gender-sensitive tobacco control policies are being challenged, and new directions are being sought because public health efforts have reduced cigarette consumption more substantially among men than among women. To better target women, it would help to identify the protective cultural factors that promote resiliency in women and discourage them from smoking. Whereas western cultures have generated a great deal of gender-specific research and programs on the prevention of smoking in women, Asian cultures have not. Taking a personal and sociocultural perspective, this study examines the effect of gender on smoking behaviors in Taiwan. In a 2004 cross-sectional random-sampled interview survey, 827 adult men and 90 adult women smokers in Taiwan were queried about the time they began smoking, maintenance of their habits, and their readiness to change. The male/female smoking rate ratio was 9.5 (45.7% vs. 4.8%). Men smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than women (18 vs. 11). We found Taiwanese women started smoking around 20 years old, much later than their western counterparts. We also found that whereas the smoking behavior of the men was very sensitive to social environment and structural factors, that of women revolved around their desire to control their weight and handle their emotions. Differences in the smoking behavior of men and women are a result of a different sociocultural environment and the life trajectories and social circumstances embedded within it. Comprehensive tobacco control policies need to be tailored to not just smoking behavior alone or one population alone but to the determinants of smoking behavior in specific groups, for example, women. Even when targeting women, some effort may be needed on targeting women of different ethnicities, for instance, Asian women in whom the prevalence is increasing at alarming rates.
Shi, Na; Cheung, Christy M. K.; Lee, Matthew K. O.; Chen, Huaping
Social network sites (SNS) have become increasingly popular in the past few years benefiting from the rapid growth of Web 2.0 applications. However, research on the adoption and usage of SNS is limited. In this study, we attempt to understand users' continuance intention to use SNS and investigate the role of gender. A research model was developed and tested with 213 respondents from an online survey. The results confirm that users' continuance intention to use SNS is strongly determined by satisfaction. The effect of disconfirmation of maintaining offline contacts on satisfaction is more important for women, while the effect of disconfirmation of entertainment is more salient for men. Implications of this study for both researchers and practitioners are discussed.
Nelson Oly Ndubisi
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate whether male and female Malaysian consumers differ in their dissatisfaction complaint behavior and its aftermath. The study examines the moderation effect of gender in the relationship between public complaint behavior, private complaint behavior and customer defection. Data for the study was collected from 218 randomly selected customers of retail banks in Malaysia. The results show that public and private complaints are significantly associated with defection. These findings are generic across sex-type. Theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.
Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui
In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces—Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the East Coast, and Gansu, a largely agricultural and poor province in the West—in a sense new and old China. Our cognition measures proxy for two differen...
Xiaoyan Lei; Yuqing Hu; James P. Smith; Yahao Zhao
In this paper, the authors model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provincesâ€”Zhejiang a high growth industrialized province on the East Coast, and Gansu, a largely agricultural and poor Province in the West. Their measures of cognition in CHARLS relies on two measures th...
Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else; Diderichsen, Finn
Background Gender differences in the prevalence of major depression are found in many studies in the western world with a much higher prevalence for women compared to men. A Danish survey from 2004 found no significant difference for major depression in the Danish population. The nature...... of this difference is unclear. It further needs to be elucidated, if this is an artefact, a question of measurement or a real difference. Methods We use a population-based survey, representative for the Danish population (at age 40 and 50) from the year 2000, which is linked to the nation-wide ‘Danish Psychiatric...... Central Research Register’ and the ‘Register of Medicinal Product Statistics’. We get information on self-rated major depression (Major Depression Inventory), in- and out-patient contact with diagnosis depression (ICD-10) and anti-depressive medication for the whole sample (N=7138). We calculate estimates...
Endendijk, Joyce J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; van der Pol, Lotte D.; van Berkel, Sheila R.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mesman, Judi
This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role
Diekman, Amanda B; Steinberg, Mia; Brown, Elizabeth R; Belanger, Aimee L; Clark, Emily K
The goal congruity perspective provides a theoretical framework to understand how motivational processes influence and are influenced by social roles. In particular, we invoke this framework to understand communal goal processes as proximal motivators of decisions to engage in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). STEM fields are not perceived as affording communal opportunities to work with or help others, and understanding these perceived goal affordances can inform knowledge about differences between (a) STEM and other career pathways and (b) women's and men's choices. We review the patterning of gender disparities in STEM that leads to a focus on communal goal congruity (Part I), provide evidence for the foundational logic of the perspective (Part II), and explore the implications for research and policy (Part III). Understanding and transmitting the opportunities for communal goal pursuit within STEM can reap widespread benefits for broadening and deepening participation.
Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit
Cyberbullying refers to a negative activity aimed at deliberate and repeated harm through the use of a variety of electronic media. This study examined the Internet behavior patterns and gender differences among students with learning disabilities who attended general education and special education classes, their involvement in cyberbullying, and the relationships among being cyberbullied, their responses, and their coping strategies. The sample consisted of 149 students with learning disabilities (LD) attending general education classes, 116 students with comorbid LD attending special education classes, and 242 typically achieving students. All the students, studying in middle and high schools, completed a self-report cyberbullying questionnaire. Findings indicate that although no significant differences emerged in the amount of surfing hours and students' expertise in the use of the Internet, students attending special education classes are more likely to be cybervictims and cyberperpetrators; girls are more likely to be cybervictims, whereas boys are more likely to be cyberperpetrators. These results contribute to our understanding of students' involvement in cyberbullying and can serve as a basis for developing preventive programs as well as intervention programs for students and for educational school teams. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
Ryan, Jeanne P; Atkinson, Thomas M; Dunham, Katherine T
To determine similarities and differences in the performance of female and male athletes on neuropsychological measures of frontal lobe functioning. A cross-sectional study of male and female college-aged athletes involved in one of the following sports: hockey, basketball, softball, lacrosse, soccer, swimming, and track. Division III college. A total of 262 athletes (male, n=157; female, n=105) participated in the study. Controlled Oral Word Association (letters F, A, S), Cognitive Assessment System (Planned Codes, Planned Connections, Number Detection), and WAIS-R-NI Vocabulary were administered to all athletes. MANCOVA was performed with gender and sport as fixed factors. Female athletes displayed faster and more accurate performance on perceptual-motor tasks (Pgender and sport. Gender- and sport-specific performances on perceptual-motor and verbal fluency tasks were found. Adding cognitive components to base functions eliminates gender- and sports-related distinctions, suggesting that existing differences are related to basic, fundamental skills, which are inherent and practiced within the respective sport. Understanding the differences and similarities across sports and gender on various neurocognitive measures is relevant for determining group differences in studies examining the consequences of mild traumatic brain injury among athletes.
Marta Angélica Iossi Silva
Full Text Available This exploratory and cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence of bullying in a group of students and analyze the data regarding the gender of those involved in the violence. A questionnaire adapted from Olweus was applied in seven elementary education schools in Portugal. The sample consisted of 387 students between 7 and 14 years old. Data are presented in terms of descriptive statistics and differences between proportions were analyzed using chi-square tests. The gender analysis of victimization and aggression shows that boys and girls are both victims and aggressors, and there are significant differences in involvement in bullying between genders and the roles played. Boys are victims more often when considering different types of bullying, although significant differences were only found for physical aggression. Strategies that include gender roles are a priority for prevention and careful attention to this phenomenon in the school context. The questions addressed contribute to a broader understanding of the phenomenon, emphasizing the differential participation of boys and girls in bullying.
Hofer, Alex; Siedentopf, Christian M; Ischebeck, Anja; Rettenbacher, Maria A; Verius, Michael; Felber, Stephan; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang
Whether men activate different brain regions during various emotions compared to women or whether gender differences exist in transient emotional states has been the subject of only few studies. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate gender differences during the perception of positive or negative emotions. The experiment comprised two emotional conditions (pleasant/unpleasant visual stimuli) during which fMRI data were acquired. Altogether, 38 healthy volunteers (19 males, 19 females) were investigated. When subtracting the activation values of men from those of women, suprathreshold positive signal changes were detected in the right posterior cingulate, the left putamen and the left cerebellum during positive mood induction, and in bilateral superior temporal gyri and cerebellar vermis during negative mood induction. The subtraction of activation values of women from those of men yielded no significant differences. Our findings suggest gender-related neural responses to emotional stimuli and could contribute to the understanding of mechanisms underlying gender-related vulnerability of the prevalence and severity of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Kwon, Hoin; Yoon, K Lira; Joormann, Jutta; Kwon, Jung-Hye
In the last decade, studies have shown that the use of specific emotion regulation strategies contributes to an increased risk for depression. Past research, however, has overlooked potential cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation. The present study examined the relation between the use of emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms among college students in two different cultures (n=380 in Seoul, Korea; n=384 in Miami, USA). Koreans, compared with American students, reported more frequent use of brooding, whereas Americans reported more anger suppression than Koreans. Women were more likely than men to use both types of rumination (i.e., reflective pondering and brooding) and anger suppression in both countries, but these gender differences disappeared once levels of depressive symptoms were controlled for. In addition, the association between the use of reappraisal and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the Korean compared to the US sample. In contrast, the association between anger suppression and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the American compared to the Korean sample. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role of culture in emotion regulation.
Bianchin, Marta; Angrilli, Alessandro
Gender differences in emotional responses have been investigated in two groups of students, 22 males and 21 females. Participants watched a set of sixty emotional standardized slides divided into pleasant, neutral and unpleasant, while Startle reflex, Evoked Potentials, Heart Rate, facial EMG and Skin Conductance were recorded. Startle reflex amplitude, an index modulated by amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex and sensitive to aversive emotional stimuli, was overall larger in women. In addition, startle emotion modulation was greater in women with respect to men. Slow Evoked Potentials (400-800 ms), a measure representing the cognitive component of the emotional response, revealed gender differences in the left prefrontal site, with women showing greater positivity to unpleasant compared with pleasant slides while men had greater positivity to pleasant vs. neutral slides. Women, compared with men, perceived all slides as less pleasant and reported greater arousal to unpleasant condition. Results are in line with known functional brain differences, at level of limbic and paralimbic structures, between men and women, and point to biologically grounded greater sensitivity and vulnerability of women to adverse/stressful events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gordon P. D. Ingram
In focusing on gender differences in anger expression, Trnka (2013) provides a useful complement to the article by Ingram et al., (2012) analyzing gender differences in children's narratives about peer conflict. I agree that gender differences in anger are more likely to be the result of differential socialization processes regarding the expression of anger than by innate differences in the experience of anger. Gender differences in intersexual anger and aggression are likely to be affected b...
Rubin, Kenneth H; Barstead, Matthew G
In a manuscript entitled, "Bashful boys and coy girls: A review of gender differences in childhood shyness" Doey et al. (2013) suggest that shyness and its related constructs pose a greater developmental risk for boys compared to girls. They support this claim by citing empirical evidence suggesting that shy and anxiously withdrawn boys are responded to more negatively by important others (i.e., parents, peers, and teachers) and that the relationship between internalizing problems and anxious withdrawal is stronger for boys compared to girls. The principal aim of our commentary is to provide a critical examination of Doey et al.'s conclusions vis-à-vis gender differences in child and adolescent shyness. In this response, we begin by providing important theoretical background regarding shyness and its related constructs. Next, we critically examine the two main arguments the authors use in support of their conclusion through a review of existing empirical and theoretical work as well as the presentation of data from The Friendship Project . These data were analyzed with the specific purpose of providing an empirical test of the hypotheses implicit in Doey et al.'s primary arguments: 1) shy and anxiously withdrawn boys are responded to more negatively than girls and 2) the association between anxious withdrawal and internalizing problems is stronger for boys compared to girls. Our results indicate mixed support for these two claims. Finally, we conclude by suggesting new directions for future researchers interested in clarifying the relationship between gender and both the correlates and outcomes of childhood shyness.
BaHammam, Ahmed S; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Piper, Amanda; Bahammam, Salman A; Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Olaish, Awad H; Javaheri, Shahrokh
The role of gender and menopause in obstructive sleep apnoea is well known; however, no study has reported the impact of gender on the clinical presentation and the nocturnal respiratory events in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Therefore, this study prospectively evaluated differences in the clinical characteristics of women and men with obesity hypoventilation syndrome in a large cohort of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. During the study period, a total of 1973 patients were referred to the sleep clinic with clinical suspicion of obstructive sleep apnoea. All patients underwent overnight polysomnography, during which time spirometry, arterial blood samples and thyroid tests were routinely obtained. Among 1973 consecutive patients, 1693 (617 women) were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea, among whom 144 suffered from obesity hypoventilation syndrome (96 women). The prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome among women and men was 15.6% and 4.5%, respectively (P obesity hypoventilation syndrome were significantly older than men with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (61.5 ± 11.9 years versus 49.1 ± 12.5 years, P differences between genders regarding symptoms, body mass index, spirometric data or daytime PaCO2 , women with obesity hypoventilation syndrome suffered significantly more from hypertension, diabetes and hypothyroidism. The prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome was higher in post-menopausal (21%) compared with pre-menopausal (5.3%) women (P obesity hypoventilation syndrome. In conclusion, this study reported that among subjects referred to the sleep disorders clinic for evaluation of obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome is more prevalent in women than men, and that women with obesity hypoventilation syndrome suffer from significantly more co-morbidities. Post-menopausal women with obstructive sleep apnoea have the highest prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome. © 2016
Despite increasing rates of university attendance among women, a significant gender gap remains in socialisation and educational processes in Japan. To understand why and how gender-distinctive socialisation processes persist, this study aimed to examine both middle-class and working-class mothers' beliefs about gender, education, and children's…
Orupabo, Julia; Kitterød, Ragni Hege
This report presents results from six interviews with people that are responsible for/or negotiate in collective bargaining, and/or participate in the managing of human resources in their company. The questions applied to the interviewees’ own workplace as well as to the Norwegian labour market more generally and captured the interviewees’ viewpoints about women and men’s situation on the labour market, possible gender differences in employees’ competence, productivity, career ambitions and w...
The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power and to discover what factors account for these differences. The marginality explanation for these differences suggest that women have less-favorable attitudes toward nuclear power because they are less concerned about energy supplies and economic growth and are less convinced of the benefits of nuclear power for society than are men. The irrationality explanation holds that women are less favorable toward nuclear power because they are less knowledgeable about this technology than are men. The lay-rationality explanation argues that people form attitudes toward nuclear power which are consistent with their relevant beliefs, attitudes and values; thus, this explanation suggests that women's unfavorable attitudes toward nuclear power stem from greater concern about environmental protection, exposing society to risk, and lower faith in science and technology. Data for this study were collected via a mail questionnaire administered to a state wide sample of Washington residents (n= 696)