Bosacki, Sandra Leanne
This study explored gendered relations between children's self-perceptions and emotion understanding. Ninety-one children (52 girls, 39 boys; 5-8 years) completed self-report self-perception measures and participated in individual interviews to assess three dimensions of self-understanding (continuity, agency, distinctiveness) and emotion…
Onat, Altan; Karadeniz, Yusuf; Tusun, Eyyup; Yüksel, Hüsniye; Kaya, Ayşem
Gender differences exist in cardiovascular or metabolic disease risk, beyond the protective effect of estrogens, mostly burdening the postmenopausal female. We aimed to review herein sex differences in pro-inflammatory states, the independence of inflammation from insulin resistance, differences in high-density lipoprotein dysfunction, in gene-environment interactions, and in the influence of current and former smoking on cardiometabolic risk. Sex differences in absorption of long-chain fatty acids are highlighted. Differences exist in the first manifestation of cardiovascular disease, men being more likely to develop coronary heart disease as a first event, compared to women who have cerebrovascular disease or heart failure as a first event. Autoimmune activation resulting from pro-inflammatory states, a fundamental mechanism for numerous chronic diseases in people prone to metabolic syndrome, is much more common in women, and these constitute major determinants. Therapeutic approaches to aspects related to sex difference are briefly reviewed.
Levesque, Maurice J.; Nave, Christopher S.; Lowe, Charles A.
Research has shown that, after brief opposite-gender interactions, men perceive women more sexually than women perceive men (e.g., Abbey, 1982). This study examined interpersonal perceptions following dyadic cross-gender interactions between unacquainted individuals. Of particular concern were perceptions of sexual traits, interaction qualities,…
The main purpose of the study was to characterize gender patterns regarding ways of thinking and learning among 242 fifth- and sixth-grade young gifted students in Israel. A written questionnaire was developed to assess ways of thinking as either connected (empathic) or separate (critical, detached). Findings showed that boys consistently rated…
Fletcher, Kalen; Prigerson, Holly G; Paulk, Elizabeth; Temel, Jennifer; Finlay, Esme; Marr, Lisa; McCorkle, Ruth; Rivera, Lorna; Munoz, Francisco; Maciejewski, Paul K
Patient understanding of advanced metastatic disease is central to decisions about care near death. Prior studies have focused on gender differences in communication style rather than on illness understanding. : To evaluate gender differences in terminal illness acknowledgement (TIA), understanding that the disease is incurable and the advanced stage of the disease. To evaluate gender differences in patients' reports of discussions of life expectancy with oncology providers and its effect on differences in illness understanding. Coping with Cancer 2 patients (N = 68) were interviewed before and after a visit with their oncology providers to discuss scan results. At the prescan interview, there were no statistically significant gender differences in patient measures of illness understanding. At the postscan interview, women were more likely than men to recognize that their illness was incurable (Adjusted Odds Ratio, [AOR] = 5.29; P = .038), know that their cancer was at an advanced stage (AOR = 6.38; P = .013), and report having had discussions of life expectancy with their oncologist (AOR = 4.77; P = .021). Controlling discussions of life expectancy, women were more likely than men to report that their cancer was at an advanced stage (AOR = 9.53; P = .050). Controlling for gender, discussions of life expectancy were associated with higher rates of TIA (AOR = 4.65; P = .036) and higher rates of understanding that the cancer was incurable (AOR = 4.09; P = .085). Due largely to gender differences in communication, women over time have a better understanding of their illness than men. More frequent discussions of life expectancy should enhance illness understanding and reduce gender differences.
Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate
Despite increasing interest in gender and health, 'lay' perceptions of gender differences in mortality have been neglected. Drawing on semi-structured interview data from 45 men and women in two age cohorts (born in the early 1950s and 1970s) in the UK, we investigated lay explanations for women's longer life expectancy. Our data suggest that respondents were aware of women's increased longevity, but found this difficult to explain. While many accounts were multifactorial, socio-cultural explanations were more common, more detailed and less tentative than biological explanations. Different socio-cultural explanations (i.e. gendered social roles, 'macho' constraints on men and gender differences in health-related behaviours) were linked by the perception that life expectancy would converge as men and women's lives became more similar. Health behaviours such as going to the doctor or drinking alcohol were often located within wider structural contexts. Female respondents were more likely to focus on women's reproductive and caring roles, while male respondents were more likely to focus on how men were disadvantaged by their 'provider' role. We locate these narratives within academic debates about conceptualising gender: e.g. 'gender as structure' versus 'gender as performance', 'gender as difference' versus 'gender as diversity'.
Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.
The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861
Lurye, Leah E; Zosuls, Kristina M; Ruble, Diane N
The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment.
Zhang, Xiaofei; Guo, Xitong; Lai, Kee-Hung; Guo, Feng; Li, Chenlei
Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly popular in healthcare, but research on m-health adoption is rare. This study was designed to obtain a better understanding of m-health adoption intention. We conducted an empirical research of a 481-respondent sample consisting of 44.7% women and 55.3% men and developed a modified theory of reasoned action (TRA) model by incorporating the nonlinearities between attitude and subjective norms and the moderating effect of gender. The results indicate that, based on the study population in China: (1) facilitating conditions, attitude, and subjective norms are significant predictors of m-health adoption intention; (2) the model including the nonlinearities enhances its explanatory ability; (3) males enjoy a higher level of m-health adoption intention compared with females; (4) the modified TRA model can predict men's behavior intention better than that of women; and (5) males have an Edgeworth-Pareto substitutability between attitude and subjective norms in predicting m-health adoption intention. Thus, we found gender differences in m-health adoption from the perspective of social psychology.
Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.
The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive,…
Bates, Simon; Donnelly, Robyn; MacPhee, Cait; Sands, David; Birch, Marion; Walet, Niels R
We present the results of a combined study from three UK universities where we investigate the existence and persistence of a performance gender gap in conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Using the Force Concept Inventory, we find that students at all three universities exhibit a statistically significant gender gap, with males outperforming females. This gap is narrowed but not eliminated after instruction, using a variety of instructional approaches. Furthermore, we find that before instruction the quartile with the lowest performance on the diagnostic instrument comprises a disproportionately high fraction (∼50%) of the total female cohort. The majority of these students remain in the lowest-performing quartile post-instruction. Analysis of responses to individual items shows that male students outperform female students on practically all items on the instrument. Comparing the performance of the same group of students on end-of-course examinations, we find no statistically significant gender gaps. (paper)
Marsiglio, William; Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Examined gender differences in adolescents' personal views about pregnancy resolution and family formation. Surveyed adolescents (n=577) using vignette involving unplanned pregnancy. Findings showed similar percentages of males and females preferred abortion and adoption as strategies for handling pregnancy, but females were more likely to select…
O'Brien, Kimberly H McManama; Putney, Jennifer M; Hebert, Nicholas W; Falk, Amy M; Aguinaldo, Laika D
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are disproportionately affected by suicide-related thoughts and behaviors relative to their heterosexual and/or non-transgender peers. Theory and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique factors that contribute to this elevated risk, with distinguishable differences among SGM subgroups. Although SGM youth suicide prevention research is in its nascence, initial findings indicate that interventions which focus on family support and acceptance may be beneficial. It is critical that we develop and test tailored interventions for SGM youth at risk for suicide, with specific attention to subgroup differences and reductions in suicide-related thoughts and behaviors as outcomes.
Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario
In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...... and causing the most productive female workers to seek better jobs in more female-friendly firms in which they can pursue small career advancements. Nonetheless, gender differences in promotion persist and are found to be similar in all firms when we focus on large career advancements. These results provide...... evidence of the sticky floor hypothesis, which, together with the costs associated with changing employer, generates persistent gender gaps....
Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario
and causing the most productive female workers to seek better jobs in more female-friendly firms in which they can pursue small career advancements. Nonetheless, gender differences in promotion persist and are found to be similar in all firms when we focus on large career advancements. These results provide......In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...... evidence of the sticky floor hypothesis, which, together with the costs associated with changing employer, generates persistent gender gaps....
Randolph, Mary E.; Torres, Hector; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Lloyd, Bronwyn; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.
Objectives The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of gender and ethnicity in the relationship between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior. Method Sexually active college students (n = 425) reported on alcohol expectancies, perceived risk of HIV, and drinking and sexual behavior in the context of a larger health behavior survey. Results Approximately one-third of participants reported binge drinking 3 or more times in the past two weeks. African American women reported less drinking and less positive alcohol expectancies than other women. Older men engaged more often than younger men in binge drinking and reported more sexual partners in the past year. Younger age and greater perceived risk for HIV were positively associated with condom use for both women and men. Conclusion Collectively, these findings suggest that alcohol abuse and HIV prevention efforts among young adults need to consider gender, ethnicity, and age. PMID:19253158
Pinciotti, Caitlin M; Orcutt, Holly K
Victims of sexual violence are frequently blamed by friends, family, or legal personnel in the aftermath of an attack, with men attributing greater blame on average than women. Victims' experiences of being blamed may generate a vicious cycle in which they are more likely to be blamed in the future. Moreover, just world beliefs (JWB) have been studied extensively as an underlying cognitive mechanism that predicts greater blame. Studies examining the influence of social support on blame have yet to examine the unique role of JWB on these attributions. The current study examined blame attribution of a fictional rape victim who received either positive, negative, or neutral support from friends and family in a sample of 383 undergraduate men and women. Individually, social support and JWB were both significant predictors of blame, and women were more influenced by social support than men; specifically, gender was a more salient predictor of blame toward the positively supported victim, suggesting that positive support received by friends and family may evoke a domino effect of support from other women. Conditional effects revealed that JWB were most influential on blame when responding to the positively supported victim. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina
Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.
Differences in labor market outcomes for women and men are highly persistent. Apart from discrimination, one frequently mentioned explanation could be differences in the attitude towards competition for both genders. Abundant empirical evidence indicates that multiple influences shape attitudes towards competition during different periods of the life cycle. Gender differences in competitiveness will not only influence outcomes during working age, but also during early childhood education. In ...
Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.
Merlino, L.P.; Parrotta, P.; Pozzoli, D.
In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we find strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder and
Angele, Martin K; Pratschke, Sebastian; Hubbard, William J; Chaudry, Irshad H
During sepsis, a complex network of cytokine, immune, and endothelial cell interactions occur and disturbances in the microcirculation cause organ dysfunction or even failure leading to high mortality in those patients. In this respect, numerous experimental and clinical studies indicate sex-specific differences in infectious diseases and sepsis. Female gender has been demonstrated to be protective under such conditions, whereas male gender may be deleterious due to a diminished cell-mediated...
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha
The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to research on gender differences in science that uses the work on expertise in science as a framework for understanding gender differences. Because gender differences in achievement and participation in the sciences are largest in physics, the focus of this review is on physics. The nature of…
Heyward, Vivian H.; And Others
This investigation examined gender differences of 103 physically active men and women in upper and lower body strength as a function of lean body weight and the distribution of muscle and subcutaneous fat in the upper and lower limbs. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)
Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin
Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males. The results help people understand that when talking about gender differences in interpersonal situations, the gender identity of target persons should be considered. These findings are somewhat in conflict with those of previous studies conducted in Western cultures, and suggest that culture should also be explored in future studies on gender differences in interpersonal relationships. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.
Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Steiner, Jennifer L; Cyders, Melissa A
Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (α=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, psexting behaviors (η(2) from 0.04-0.13). College students reported both positive and negative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks.
Misu, L.; Budayasa, I. K.; Lukito, A.
This research is to describe metacognition profile of female and male mathematics’ pre-service teachers in understanding the concept of integral calculus. The subjects of this study are one female and 1 male mathematics’ pre-service teachers who have studied integral calculus. This research type is an explorative study with the qualitative approach. The main data collection of this research was obtained by using Interview technique. In addition, there are supporting data which is the result of the written work of research subjects (SP) in understanding the question of integral calculus. The results of this study are as follows: There is a difference in metacognition profiles between male and female mathematics’ pre-service teachers in the understanding concept of integral calculus in the interpreting category, especially the definite integral concept. While in the category of exemplifying, there is no difference in metacognition profile between male and female mathematics’ pre-service teachers either the definite integral concept and the indefinite integral concept.
This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised ...
MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen
Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…
Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona
Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…
Brandt, Mark J; Henry, P J
Authoritarianism may be endorsed in part as a means of managing and buffering psychological threats (e.g., Duckitt & Fisher, 2003; Henry, 2011). Building on this research, the authors postulated that authoritarianism should be especially prevalent among women in societies with high levels of gender inequality because they especially face more psychological threats associated with stigma compared with men. After establishing that authoritarianism is, in part, a response to rejection, a psychological threat associated with stigma (Study 1), the authors used multilevel modeling to analyze data from 54 societies to find that women endorsed authoritarian values more than men, especially in individualistic societies with high levels of gender inequality (Study 2). Results show that the threats of stigma for women are not uniform across different cultures and that the degree of stigma is related to the degree of endorsement of psychologically protective attitudes such as authoritarianism.
Brückner, Sebastian; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Happ, Roland; Walstad, William B.; Yamaoka, Michio; Asano, Tadayoshi
Gender effects in large-scale assessments have become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Yet few studies have linked differences in assessment results of male and female students in higher education to construct-relevant features of the target construct. This paper examines gender effects on students' economic…
Oguz Ali Acar
Full Text Available Global prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure, however, is paradoxical in nature: in order for the value of knowledge to be assessed, inventors must disclose their knowledge, but then the person who receives that knowledge does so at no cost and may use it opportunistically. This risk of potential opportunistic behavior in turn makes the inventor fearful of disclosing knowledge, and this is a major psychological barrier to knowledge disclosure. In this project, we investigated this fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests by surveying 630 contest participants in the InnoCentive online platform for science contests. We found that participants in these science contests experience fear of opportunism to varying degrees, and that women and older participants have significantly less fear of disclosing their scientific knowledge. Our findings highlight the importance of taking differences in such fears into account when designing global prize-based contests so that the potential of the contests for reaching solutions to important and challenging problems can be used more effectively.
Tüzin Baycan-Levent; Enno Masurel; Peter Nijkamp
Gender-based differences are the most important topic of discussion in female entrepreneurship studies. While the earliest studies focused on psychological and sociological characteristics of female entrepreneurs, assuming there were only a few differences between males and females, more recent studies have focused on gender-based differences in entrepreneurship from a new perspective, referred to as the “integrated perspective”, which is rooted in psychological and sociological theories. Thi...
Dulmen, A.M. van; Bensing, J.M.
The intimate nature of gynecological health problems requires the physician's specific attention. On the basis of previous findings in primary care, female gynecologists are expected to communicate more affectively than men. This study addressed gender differences in gynecologist communication
Becker, Jill B.; McClellan, Michele L.; Reed, Beth Glover
This review discusses alcohol/other drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain afte...
Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C.
Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined
Finkelstein, Noah; Kost, Lauren; Pollock, Steven
While it has been suggested interactive engagement (IE) techniques can eliminate the gender gap (the difference in performance between men and women on measures of conceptual learning), we find that, at our institution, the gender gap persisted from pre to posttest in IE classes (Pollock, Physical Review: ST PER. 3, 010107, 2007). This talk reports on a three-part follow-up study that investigates what factors contribute to the gender gap. First, we analyze student grades in different components of the course and find that men and women's course grades are not significantly different (p>0.1), but men outscore women on exams and women outscore men on homework and participation. Second, we compare average posttest scores of men and women who score similarly on the pretest and find that there are no significant differences between men and women's average posttest scores. Finally, we analyze other factors in addition to the pretest score that could influence the posttest score and find that gender does not account for a majorportion of the variation in posttest scores when a measure of mathematics performance is included. These findings indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes, but may be due in large part to differences in preparation, background, and math skills as assessed by traditional survey instruments.
Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michele L; Reed, Beth Glover
This review discusses alcohol and other forms of drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural, and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences. In addition, the basic laboratory evidence for sex differences is discussed within the context of four types of sex/gender differences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Baycan, T.; Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.
Gender-based differences are the most important topic of discussion in female entrepreneurship studies. While earlier studies focused on psychological and sociological characteristics of female entrepreneurs, assuming there were only a few differences between males and females, more recent studies
Full Text Available This research analyzes gender differences observed in different aspects of adolescent lifestyles, such as physical activities and sports, involvement in extracurricular activities, use of ICT’s, time spent with friends and time spent studying, substance use, and sleep-related routines. Bearing this in mind, we analyzed differences by year and gender in a sample of 2400 adolescents, 55.5 percent girls and 44.5 percent of boys, aged between 12 and 17 (mean age =14.73 and SD = 1.24 in 20 schools from Andalusia. The results from correlation analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey test confirm significant correlations between most variables making up lifestyle, most of them positive except those related to substance use (most correlations were negative. We also found significant gender differences in lifestyles: 10 out of the 15 variables analyzed have significant gender differences. A significant negative correlation with age was found in a number of variables making up healthy lifestyles, such as the practice of sport and physical activity, participation in extracurricular activities and sleep.
This study explored differences in disciplinary approaches of male and female teachers toward male and female children, examining the connection between educator's gender and method of disciplining urban, elementary school aged children. Participants were 20 New York State certified and licensed teachers in two elementary schools. Teacher surveys…
Koellinger, P.; Minniti, M.; Schade, C.
Using data from representative population surveys in 17 countries, we find that the lower rate of female business ownership is primarily due to women's lower propensity to start businesses rather than to differences in survival rates across genders. We show that women are less confident in their
Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); M. Minniti (Maria); C. Schade (Christian)
textabstractUsing data from representative population surveys in 17 countries, we find that the lower rate of female business ownership is primarily due to women's lower propensity to start businesses rather than to differences in survival rates across genders. We show that women are less confident
Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA
Full Text Available Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation of these issues from the interdisciplinary perspective is the subject of this article. Briefly, the article refers to: importance of communication in transmission of roles of those two sexes, cultural dimensions that reflect role differences invarious cultures, discrimination issues and ethics of sexual difference.
Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla, Paz; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Sáiz, Pilar A; Bobes Bascarán, Teresa; Casares, María José; Fonseca, Eduardo; Al-Halabí, Susana; Bobes, Julio
Gender has been associated with substance use disorders (SUD). However, there are few studies that have evaluated gender differences in a global and a standardized way, and with a large sample of patients with SUD. Our goal is to analyze the role of gender in addiction severity throughout multiple life domains, using the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6). A naturalistic, multicenter and prospective study was conducted. A total of 221 patients with SUD (80.1% men) were interviewed with the ASI-6. Our results indicate that the Recent Summary Scores (RSSs) of men and women are similar, with the exception of Psychiatric and Partner- Problems, where women showed higher severity (p = .017 and p = .013, respectively). Statistically significant gender differences were found in certain aspects of the ASI-6 domains: men have more problems of physical health, legal issues, and alcohol and other substance use; and woman score higher in problems of mental health, social network, subjective evaluations of SUD consequences, and treatment needs. These results should be taken into account to improve the identification, prevention, and treatment of SUD.
Lindbeck, L; Kjellberg, K
The importance of different motion patterns in the assessment of work technique is rarely addressed in the literature and even less information can be found regarding gender differences. In this study the possible gender differences in lifting technique from lifting experiments on 12 female and 10 male participants were examined. The participants performed squat and stoop lifts of a box. Movements were measured by means of opto-electronic measurement systems. Kinematic data derived from the measurements revealed some differences between the men and the women, e.g. in trunk motion and knee angle ranges. The hip-knee interjoint coordination was more synchronized for women than for men in terms of the relative phase angle. It is concluded that so far gender differences in motion patterns have not been sufficiently explored and that men and women need to be considered separately in the evaluation of work technique in manual handling tasks. Advantages and disadvantages of different coordination patterns need to be further investigated.
Butts, S J; Mixon, K D; Mulekar, M S; Bringmann, W G
One of the earliest empirical studies of sex differences in eyewitness behavior was that of William Stern (1903-1904). Stern's research furnished evidence in approbation of the long-held opinion that women's eyewitness testimony was less accurate and less resistant to the influence of misleading information than men's; however, Stern's 2 groups were not comparable in age. Other studies by Bringmann and colleagues in 1986 did not replicate Stern's findings using comparable age groups. The present investigation examined eyewitness behavior using two stimulus presentations of dissimilar content and complexity and tests for significance of gender differences. Subjects were 20 male and 20 female college students. No significant gender differences were found between groups on accuracy of recall or resistance to false information on the short-term memory task.
Full Text Available This paper examines gender differences in different types of social networks. One of the main concepts relevant for studying gender differences is homophily, which refers to the tendency of people to interact more with similar individuals. In this paper homophily is analysed within the structural perspective which explains that the structures of our networks depend primarily on opportunities for social interactions, i.e. the composition and dynamics of the social context in which these interactions are embedded. Homophily is evident among males and females as early as in childhood, only to be even more prominent in school and adult years. Sex segregation is probably the most evident in the organisational context, where it has detrimental effects on women's careers, as women are generally underrepresented in positions of power and authority. Research in the last two decades pointed to the facts: 1 that men and women have very different types of organisational networks, 2 that successful men and women adopt different strategies to reach similar career objectives and acquire similar resources, and 3 that organisations also need to be actively involved in solving these gender-related issues.
Jürgen Ergun, Selim
Full Text Available This paper reviews the experimental economics literature on gender differences concerning four salient subjects: risk aversion, trust, deception and leadership. We review both experiments conducted in a laboratory and field experiments. We summarize very briefly the main characteristics of the experiments we review and point out the main results related to gender differences. The vast majority of the articles we have revised document gender differences in behavior; differences which could be explained by sex-role stereotypes which could be formed even in early stages of life and/or hormonal differences such as the female hormone oxytocin or estrogen.
Este artículo revisa la literatura en el área de economía experimental sobre las diferencias de género en cuatro temas destacados: aversión al riesgo, confianza, engaño y liderazgo. Se revisan tanto experimentos realizados en laboratorios como experimentos de campo. Resumimos brevemente las principales características de los experimentos que consideramos y señalamos los principales resultados relacionados con las diferencias de género. La gran mayoría de los artículos que hemos revisado documentan diferencias de género en el comportamiento. Estas diferencias podrían explicarse por los estereotipos de roles sexuales que podrían formarse incluso en edades tempranas y / o diferencias hormonales como la hormona femenina oxitocina, o el estrógeno.
Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph
Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition.
Christine R. Harris
Full Text Available Across many real-world domains, men engage in more risky behaviors than do women. To examine some of the beliefs and preferences that underlie this difference, 657 participants assessed their likelihood of engaging in various risky activities relating to four different domains (gambling, health, recreation, and social, and reported their perceptions of (1 probability of negative outcomes, (2 severity of potential negative outcomes, and (3 enjoyment expected from the risky activities. Women's greater perceived likelihood of negative outcomes and lesser expectation of enjoyment partially mediated their lower propensity toward risky choices in gambling, recreation, and health domains. Perceptions of severity of potential outcomes was a partial mediator in the gambling and health domains. The genders did not differ in their propensity towards taking social risks. A fifth domain of activities associated with high potential payoffs and fixed minor costs was also assessed. In contrast to other domains, women reported being more likely to engage in behaviors in this domain. This gender difference was partially mediated by women's more optimistic judgments of the probability of good outcomes and of
Perception of intentions and dispositions of others through body motion, body language, gestures and actions is of immense importance for a variety of daily-life situations and adaptive social behavior. This ability is of particular value because of the potential discrepancy between verbal and non-verbal communication levels. Recent data shows that some aspects of visual social perception are gender dependent. The present study asks whether and, if so, how the ability for perception and understanding of others' intentions and actions depends on perceivers' gender. With this purpose in mind, a visual event arrangement (EA) task was administered to female and male participants of two groups, adolescents aged 13-16 years and young adults. The main outcome of the study shows no difference in performance on the EA task between female and male participants in both groups. The findings are discussed in terms of gender-related differences in behavioral components and brain mechanisms engaged in visual social perception.
Simons, Lisa K; Leibowitz, Scott F; Hidalgo, Marco A
Gender variance is an umbrella term used to describe gender identity, expression, or behavior that falls outside of culturally defined norms associated with a specific gender. In recent years, growing media coverage has heightened public awareness about gender variance in childhood and adolescence, and an increasing number of referrals to clinics specializing in care for gender-variant youth have been reported in the United States. Gender-variant expression, behavior, and identity may present in childhood and adolescence in a number of ways, and youth with gender variance have unique health needs. For those experiencing gender dysphoria, or distress encountered by the discordance between biological sex and gender identity, puberty is often an exceptionally challenging time. Pediatric primary care providers may be families' first resource for education and support, and they play a critical role in supporting the health of youth with gender variance by screening for psychosocial problems and health risks, referring for gender-specific mental health and medical care, and providing ongoing advocacy and support. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Campanini, P; Punzi, Silvia; Carissimi, Emanuela; Gilioli, R
Despite the attention that international Agencies give to the gender issue in situations of workplace bullying, few investigations have been performed on this topic. The aim of the study is describe the gender differences in victims of workplace bullying observed in an Italian survey. A total of 243 subjects (124 males and 119 females) were examined at the Centre for Occupational Stress and Harassment of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" (University of Milan and IRCCS Foundation); they were selected among patients who met the criteria for being considered victims of negative actions at work leading to workplace bullying. Data regarding the person, workplace and the workplace bullying situation were collected by means of an ad hoc questionnaire. Analysis of the data, compared with those of IS-TAT 2002, showed a higher prevalence of females subjected to negative actions at work. In women, the risk of being subjected to negative actions leading to workplace bullying was shown to increase in the 34-44 age range and to decrease in higher age ranges; in men the risk remained elevated also after 55 years of age. In general, women were victims of negative actions regarding personal values related to emotional-relational factors, while men were attacked on their work performance. Sexual harassment, may mark the onset of other types of psychological harassment or can be one of its components.
Zeng, Xiaohan; Duch, Jordi; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Radicchi, Filippo; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Amaral, Luis A. N.
Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in research productivity and impact. However, it remains unclear whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines differ significantly from each other in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,920 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at selected top U.S. research universities. We find that while female faculty have significantly fewer co-authors over their careers, this can be fully explained by their lower number of publications. Indeed, we also find that females tend to distribute their co-authoring opportunities among their co-authors more evenly than males do. Our results suggest that females have had a greater propensity to collaborate, in order to succeed in a historically men-dominated academic world. Surprisingly, we find evidence that in molecular biology there has been a gender segregation within sub-disciplines. Female faculty in molecular biology departments tend to collaborate with smaller teams and publish in journals and fields where typical team size is smaller. Our results identify gender-specific collaborative behaviors as well as disciplines with distinct patterns. The authors thank the support from the following grants: NSF SBE 0624318, NSF IIS 0830388, and Spanish DGICYT under project FIS2010-18639.
Kouřilová, Sylvie; Hřebíčková, Martina
43 2008, 3-4 (2008), s. 709-709 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /XXIX/. 21.07.2008-25.07.2008, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : gender differences * gender stereotypes * five-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente
This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this
Schredl, Michael; Reinhard, Iris
Many studies have reported gender differences in nightmare frequency. In order to study this difference systematically, data from 111 independent studies have been included in the meta-analysis reported here. Overall, estimated effect sizes regarding the gender difference in nightmare frequency differed significantly from zero in three age groups of healthy persons (adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults), whereas for children and older persons no substantial gender difference in nightmare frequency could be demonstrated. There are several candidate variables like dream recall frequency, depression, childhood trauma, and insomnia which might explain this gender difference because these variables are related to nightmare frequency and show stable gender differences themselves. Systematic research studying the effect of these variables on the gender difference in nightmare frequency, though, is still lacking. In the present study it was found that women tend to report nightmares more often than men but this gender difference was not found in children and older persons. Starting with adolescence, the gender difference narrowed with increasing age. In addition, studies with binary coded items showed a markedly smaller effect size for the gender difference in nightmare frequency compared to the studies using multiple categories in a rating scale. How nightmares were defined did not affect the gender difference. In the analyses of all studies and also in the analysis for the children alone the data source (children vs. parents) turned out to be the most influential variable on the gender difference (reporting, age). Other results are also presented. Investigating factors explaining the gender difference in nightmare frequency might be helpful in deepening the understanding regarding nightmare etiology and possibly gender differences in other mental disorders like depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jamil, Syed Ahsan; Khan, Khaliquzzaman
Humans are believed to be rational decision makers and documentary evidence proves a significant heterogeneity across individuals when it comes to investment decision making and risk bearing. The study is an attempt to explore and understand the heterogeneity of investment decision when it comes to gender behavior with focus on women. The aim of this research is to explore role of gender in investment decision making and to identify the points of difference between the two genders with respec...
A recent meta-analysis showed a robust gender difference in nightmare frequency of medium effect size in adolescents and young adults: Women tend to report nightmares more frequently than men. The present study, carried out in an unselected student sample, indicates that 2 factors mediate the gender difference in nightmare frequency: neuroticism and overall dream recall frequency. The effect of neuroticism on the gender difference and the finding that the gender difference in nightmare frequency emerges at an age of about 10 years suggest that gender-specific socialization processes may play an important role in explaining the gender differences in nightmare frequency in adolescents and young to middle-aged adults. This idea is supported by the previous finding that nightmare frequency is related to sex role orientation. However, longitudinal studies are necessary to validate these hypotheses.
Schmitt, David P; Long, Audrey E; McPhearson, Allante; O'Brien, Kirby; Remmert, Brooke; Shah, Seema H
Men's and women's personalities appear to differ in several respects. Social role theories of development assume gender differences result primarily from perceived gender roles, gender socialization and sociostructural power differentials. As a consequence, social role theorists expect gender differences in personality to be smaller in cultures with more gender egalitarianism. Several large cross-cultural studies have generated sufficient data for evaluating these global personality predictions. Empirically, evidence suggests gender differences in most aspects of personality-Big Five traits, Dark Triad traits, self-esteem, subjective well-being, depression and values-are conspicuously larger in cultures with more egalitarian gender roles, gender socialization and sociopolitical gender equity. Similar patterns are evident when examining objectively measured attributes such as tested cognitive abilities and physical traits such as height and blood pressure. Social role theory appears inadequate for explaining some of the observed cultural variations in men's and women's personalities. Evolutionary theories regarding ecologically-evoked gender differences are described that may prove more useful in explaining global variation in human personality. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Karalis, Dean G; Wild, Robert A; Maki, Kevin C; Gaskins, Ray; Jacobson, Terry A; Sponseller, Craig A; Cohen, Jerome D
Statin therapy has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the benefits of statin therapy are similar for men and women. Recent studies have shown that women are less likely to be treated with statin therapy, to be on higher doses of more potent statins, and to achieve their lipid goals as compared with men. To analyze results from the Understanding Statin Use in America and Gaps in Patient Education (USAGE) survey and to assess whether women differ from men with regard to reported side effects associated with statin use, clinician and patient interactions, as well as general attitudes and preferences regarding statin use. The study population was derived from participants in the USAGE survey, a self-administered, Internet-based questionnaire. More women reported switching or stopping a statin because of side effects compared with men. New or worsening muscle symptoms were reported in 31% of women compared with 26% of men (P statins, but less likely to use alternative low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering drugs. Women were more likely to be dissatisfied with their statin, with how their clinician explained their cholesterol treatment, and less adherent to their statin than men. Women are more likely to stop or switch their statin than men, and the main reason for this was new or worsening muscle symptoms. Improved communication between the clinician and the patient about the benefits and risks of statin therapy will improve adherence, lipid goal attainment, and outcomes in women with or at risk for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Merrill, Natalie; Gallo, Emily; Fivush, Robyn
Family dinnertime conversations are key settings where children learn behavior regulation, narrative skills, and knowledge about the world. In this context, parents may also model and socialize gender differences in language. The present study quantitatively examines gendered language use across a family dinnertime recorded with 37 broadly…
Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Wonsun
As gender roles in the society are being rapidly redefined, female students today are showing outstanding academic prowess and pursuing higher education. The current study recruited Korean international students (n = 76) enrolled in universities in the US and examined gender differences in academic adjustment. The findings of the current study…
Koster, A.; Lajer, M.; Lindhardt, A.
In the description of 1 episode schizophrenia patients, female gender is associated with better social function and a higher degree of compliance, while males exhibit more negative symptoms and a higher degree of abuse. The question is raised whether gender specific differences exist which should...
McHugh, R Kathryn; Votaw, Victoria R; Sugarman, Dawn E; Greenfield, Shelly F
The gender gap in substance use disorders (SUDs), characterized by greater prevalence in men, is narrowing, highlighting the importance of understanding sex and gender differences in SUD etiology and maintenance. In this critical review, we provide an overview of sex/gender differences in the biology, epidemiology and treatment of SUDs. Biological sex differences are evident across an array of systems, including brain structure and function, endocrine function, and metabolic function. Gender (i.e., environmentally and socioculturally defined roles for men and women) also contributes to the initiation and course of substance use and SUDs. Adverse medical, psychiatric, and functional consequences associated with SUDs are often more severe in women. However, men and women do not substantively differ with respect to SUD treatment outcomes. Although several trends are beginning to emerge in the literature, findings on sex and gender differences in SUDs are complicated by the interacting contributions of biological and environmental factors. Future research is needed to further elucidate sex and gender differences, especially focusing on hormonal factors in SUD course and treatment outcomes; research translating findings between animal and human models; and gender differences in understudied populations, such as those with co-occurring psychiatric disorders and gender-specific populations, such as pregnant women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Csernoch, Mária; Biró, Piroska; Abari, Kálmán; Máth, János
Within the framework of the Testing Algorithmic and Application Skills project we tested first year students of Informatics at the beginning of their tertiary education. We were focusing on the students' level of understanding in different programming environments. In the present paper we provide the results from the University of Debrecen, the…
Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.; Bennett, Kellie S.; McStephen, Michael
Objective: To examine gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ("ADHD") symptom comorbidity with "oppositional defiant disorder", "conduct disorder", "separation anxiety disorder", "generalized anxiety disorder", speech therapy, and remedial reading in children. Method: From…
Radojka, Kraljević; Filipović, Zrinka
Millennial generation is considered the largest and best educated and therefore presents challenges to marketers. This paper aims to examine the gender differences in consumer behaviour of students - generation y. The study identifies gender differences in purchase behaviour, loyalty, price sensitivity and shopping habits. The empirical analysis is based on data obtained from a student survey (N=118; M= 40, 68 %, F= 59, 32 %). The data were analysed using chi-square test. Our findings suggest...
A. Aizpurua; W. Koutstaal
In this study, we examined gender differences in: (1) a flexible remembering task, that asked for episodic memory decisions at an item-specific versus category-based level, and (2) the retrieval specificity of autobiographical memory during free recall. Differences favouring women were found on both measures. Furthermore, a significant association was observed, across gender groups, between level of specificity in the autobiographical memory interview and sensitivity to g...
Nieken, Petra; Dato, Simon
We compare gender differences in lying under two incentive schemes that are widely used in companies: individual performance-pay and tournament incentives. While we do not observe significantly different behavior of males and females given individual performance-pay, females lie significantly less than males if the compensation scheme is switched to tournament incentives. This result is mainly driven by a decrease in the propensity to lie of females in a competitive environment. The gender ga...
Gándara, Fernanda; Silva, Monica
This study seeks to develop a better understanding of the underrepresentation of women in science and engineering by analyzing the gender gaps (a) in the interest in pursuing a science degree and (b) on science achievement. We use national-level college admissions data to examine gender differences and to explore the association between these…
Granberg, Donald; Granberg, Beth Wellman
Analyzed data from 12 surveys done between 1965 and 1984 to test the hypothesis that men and women have different attitudinal orientations toward fertility. The hypothesis that men would be more oriented toward quantity of offspring than women was not supported. (Author/ABB)
It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions
This paper applies social interactionism to gender identity issues as addressed in the art therapy literature and within interview data collected from art therapists working in the field. The findings revealed that perceptions from practicing art therapists differed from ideas put forth in the art therapy literature about gender traits that…
Tamargo, Juan; Rosano, G.; Thomas, W
. A better understanding of these sex-related differences is fundamental to improve the safety and efficacy of cardiovascular drugs and for developing proper individualized cardiovascular therapeutic strategies both in men and women. This review briefly summarize gender differences in the pharmacokinetics...... and pharmacodynamics of cardiovascular drugs and provides recommendations to close the gaps in our understanding of sex-specific differences in drug efficacy and safety....
de Goede, M.
Spatial abilities, such as wayfinding and memorizing object locations, seem to be equally important for every individual. Yet both common belief and scientific literature claim that men and women differ in these abilities. Whereas ‘spatial ability’ used to be considered as a unitary capacity, on
Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.
The neural bases of gender differences in emotional, cognitive, and socials behaviors are largely unknown. Here, magnetic resonance imaging data from 336 women and 225 men revealed a gender dimorphism in the functional organization of the brain. Consistently across five research sites, women had 14% higher local functional connectivity density (lFCD) and up to 5% higher gray matter density than men in cortical and subcortical regions. The negative power scaling of the lFCD was steeper for men...
Jeyapalan Kasipillai; Hijattulah Abdul Jabbar
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant...
DiDonato, Matthew D; Martin, Carol L; Hessler, Eric E; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Hanish, Laura D; Fabes, Richard A
Controversy surrounds questions regarding the influence of being gender consistent (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that are consistent with one's biological sex) versus being gender flexible (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that vary from masculine to feminine as circumstances arise) on children's adjustment outcomes, such as self-esteem, positive emotion, or behavior problems. Whereas evidence supporting the consistency hypothesis is abundant, little support exists for the flexibility hypothesis. To shed new light on the flexibility hypothesis, we explored children's gendered behavior from a dynamical perspective that highlighted variability and flexibility in addition to employing a conventional approach that emphasized stability and consistency. Conventional mean-level analyses supported the consistency hypothesis by revealing that gender atypical behavior was related to greater maladjustment, and dynamical analyses supported the flexibility hypothesis by showing that flexibility of gendered behavior over time was related to positive adjustment. Integrated analyses showed that gender typical behavior was related to the adjustment of children who were behaviorally inflexible, but not for those who were flexible. These results provided a more comprehensive understanding of the relation between gendered behavior and adjustment in young children and illustrated for the first time the feasibility of applying dynamical analyses to the study of gendered behavior.
Bai, Yang; Leib, Allison Y.; Puri, Amrita M.; Whitney, David; Peng, Kaiping
In this study, we investigated whether the first impression of a crowd of faces—crowd perception—is influenced by social background and cognitive processing. Specifically, we explored whether males and females, two groups that are distinct biologically and socially, differ in their ability to extract ensemble characteristics from crowds of faces that were comprised of different identities. Participants were presented with crowds of similar faces and were instructed to scroll through a morphed continuum of faces until they found a face that was representative of the average identity of each crowd. Consistent with previous research, females were more precise in single face perception. Furthermore, the results showed that females were generally more accurate in estimating the average identity of a crowd. However, the correlation between single face discrimination and crowd averaging differed between males and females. Specifically, male subjects' ensemble integration slightly compensated for their poor single face perception; their performance on the crowd perception task was not as poor as would be expected from their single face discrimination ability. Overall, the results suggest that group perception is not an isolated or uniform cognitive mechanism, but rather one that interacts with biological and social processes. PMID:26388805
Greene, Jessica; El-Banna, Majeda M; Briggs, Linda A; Park, Jeongyoung
While male nurses have been shown to earn considerably more than female nurses, there is less evidence on gender disparities in salary among nurse practitioners (NPs). This study examines whether the gender gap in NP salaries persists after controlling for differences in work setting and demographic factors. We analyzed the relationship between gender and salary (2011 pretax earnings) among 6591 NPs working as NPs at least 35 h per week, using the 2012 National Sample Survey of Nurse Practitioners. We first conducted bivariate regression analyses examining the relationship between gender and earnings, and then developed a multivariate model that controlled for individual differences in demographic and work characteristics. Male NPs earned $12,859 more than female NPs, after adjusting for individual differences in demographics and work characteristics. The gender gap was $7405 for recent NP graduates, and grew over time. Male NPs earned significantly more than female NPs across all clinical specialty areas. The gender disparities in NP salaries documented here regardless of professional seniority or clinical area should spark healthcare organizations to conduct pay equity assessments of their employees' salaries to identify and ameliorate pay inequality. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.
Yury P. Zinchenko
Full Text Available Background. This study addresses a current problem relating to trust and the identification of gender differences in trust/mistrust manifestation. Gender identity is associated with cultural stereotypes and social roles, which facilitate the formation of trust in people. It acts as a significant integral meaning-based component of an individual’s “I”- conception, which contributes to the formation of trust in himself and the world around him. Objective. To study features of trust/mistrust towards others in young people with different gender identities. Design. The cross-gender-typical sample consisted of 179 representatives, 83 males and 96 females, ages 17 to 23 (M = 19.34 and SD = 1.79. The techniques for collecting data included the MMPI, the Sex-Role Inventory by S. Bem, and the Trust/Mistrust towards Others questionnaire by A. Kupreychenko. The results were processed via the Mann-Whitney U Test, the Kruskal-Wallis H criterion, and cluster analysis. Results. Criteria of trust/mistrust among the youth with different gender identities were identified, and basic types of trust — categoric, irrational–emotional, ambivalent– contradictory, and non-differentiated — were singled out. Irrespective of biological sex, bearers of different gender identities do not exhibit the same criteria to determine trust/ mistrust. Conclusion. This study makes it possible to enrich our understanding of the role of social gender in the formation of interpersonal trust and differences in the foundations of trust toward others, in people with different gender identities. The empirical typology of trust in youth with different gender identities allows for using the typology in organizing psychological diagnostics, and for support and improvement of their interpersonal relations.
Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to understand whether there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. Many researches that have been made in this area have reached the conclusion that there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress posttraumatic stress disorder. To investigate this issue is to select a sample of 100 respondents, the selection of whom is done at random, with people who we have met in the street the library, the faculties of other public sites. The research was of the type quantitative – where the data are collected through the application of questionnaires. The results from this survey show that there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. So, women survive with the many symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder than men. The results are processed with the Analysis of data ,with the program SPSS.- krostabulim (crosstabulation Gender with questions. The aim of this research is to understand whether there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. Many researches that have been made in this area have reached the conclusion that there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. To investigate this issue is to select a sample of 100 respondents, the selection of whom is done at random, with people who we have met in the street the library, the faculties of other public sites. The research was of the type quantitative – where the data are collected through the application of questionnaires. The results from this survey show that there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. So, women perjetojnë with the many symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder than men. The results are processed with the Analysis of data ,with the program SPSS.- krostabulim (crosstabulation Gender with questions.
Stonewater, Barbara B.; And Others
Explored differences regarding way in which 27 male and 27 female college faculty members described relationships with "career helpers" by analysis of interview transcripts. Qualitative analysis of interviews indicated gender differences on themes of sense of professional self as related to career helpers and nature of assistance received from…
Lowes, Susan; Lin, Peiyi; Kinghorn, Brian R. C.
Prior research has suggested that there may be differences in the ways that male and female students approach their online courses. Using data for 802 high school students enrolled in 14 online courses, this study explored gender differences in the interrelationships among online behaviors and course performance. The findings show that females…
Postigo Zegarra, Silvia; González Barrón, Remedios; Mateu Marqués, Carmen; Ferrero Berlanga, Javier; Martorell Pallás, Carmen
Adolescents take on different social roles mediated by gender, which affect the development of their identity and the expression of school violence. The purpose of this work is to study the behavioral differences in bullying depending on gender. The sample (N=641) is aged between 12 and 16 years old. Personal variables are assessed by self-reports, and relational variables by sociometric measures. Results indicate a large incidence of bullying, peer rejection, and school maladjustment among boys. Girls report more relational aggressions, acceptance and social skills, but also higher personal maladjustment. Female victims are rejected the most. Gender differences seem more relevant in relational variables, suggesting the special importance of the relational context in bullying.
In developing countries, construction provides much work opportunities for some poorest and most marginalised sections of society. Women account for almost half of the total construction labour force yet they perform only menial job at sites. This article gave an understanding into gender roles at sites. Anchored on the ...
Holmvang, L.; Mickley, H.
PCI is effective for reducing symptoms in patients with stable angina pectoris but does not improve prognosis. In earlier trials PCI has been associated with more procedure related complications in women than men, but this difference between genders has been less pronounced in more recent studies....... In acute coronary syndromes there is no evidence of gender differences regarding the benefit of primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. However, several trials of unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction indicate that women do not have the similar benefit...
Holmvang, L.; Mickley, H.
. In acute coronary syndromes there is no evidence of gender differences regarding the benefit of primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. However, several trials of unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction indicate that women do not have the similar benefit......PCI is effective for reducing symptoms in patients with stable angina pectoris but does not improve prognosis. In earlier trials PCI has been associated with more procedure related complications in women than men, but this difference between genders has been less pronounced in more recent studies...
Iyoho, Anthony E; Ng, Laurel J; MacFadden, Lisa
In January 2013, the Department of Defense lifted a ban that had prevented women from holding combat positions in the military. However, innate differences in physical traits and physiology between men and women likely will result in differences in physical performance. Sex differences in thermoregulation is a key area that needs to be examined due to the potential impact on physical performance. Therefore, we expanded our previously developed thermoregulation model (TRM) to include the effects of gender. Women have been found to have a lower sweat output in heat stress and lesser shivering in cold stress than men; therefore, the equations for sweat mass loss rate and shivering heat generation were modified for women accordingly. The updated TRM showed good agreement with female data collected from exercise in cool to hot conditions, cold air exposure, and cold water immersion. Gender differences in sweat evaporation appear minimal except for sufficiently high exercise-heat combinations. Gender differences in core temperature and heat generation during cold stress are significant. The expanded TRM can be used to assess gender-specific thermal response with future application to predicting performance differences and optimizing warfighter effectiveness for a wide range of military relevant tasks. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Morita, Ai; Ishigaki, Yasushi
Gender-difference is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of glucose metabolism. Imbalances in sex hormones, such as increasing levels of progesterone or testosterone, are associated with systemic insulin resistance. After menopause, women are at an increased risk to develop visceral obesity due to the loss of endogenous ovarian hormone production. On the other hand, insulin resistance caused excess secretion of androgen, leading to menstrual disorder in obese young female. For the better management of glucose intolerance in pregnancy, the diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes was revised in Japan. Although glucose intolerance in pregnancy is usually recovered after delivery, the subjects who diagnosed gestational diabetes need to be followed for an early detection of type 2 diabetes development. In addition, gender-differences in living practice and attitude are related to their lifestyle, including diet and exercise, therefore, gender-specific medicine increasingly plays key roles in the treatment of diabetes.
Solange Muglia Wechsler
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether performance on tests of crystallized intelligence is affected by gender and to ascertain whether differential item parameters could account for the gender disparities. The sample comprised 1.191 individuals (55% women between the ages of 16 and 77 years old (M=22; SD=9.5. The participants were primarily college students (58.3% living in four Brazilian states. Four verbal tests measuring crystallized intelligence (vocabulary, synonyms, antonyms and verbal analogies were constructed and administered in a group setting. An analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in the overall performance between men and women. However, a differential item functioning analysis indicated significant differences on 8.7% of the items, which indicates the existence of gender bias. Because bias can limit women’s access to social opportunities, the results obtained indicate the importance of reducing item bias in cognitive measures to ensure the accuracy of test results
Wang, Mei-Ling; Hsieh, Yi-Hua
Workplace bullying has become an omnipresent problem in most organizations. Gender differences have recently received increasing attention in the workplace bullying domain. Integrating social dominance theory with gender role theory, this study explores whether male minority and supervisor gender are related to the incidence of workplace bullying. Data from 501 public servants employed in the tax administration institute of Taiwan was collected via a questionnaire and analyzed using hierarchical regression. Male minority reported more workplace bullying than did the female majority. Subordinates working with male supervisors had more exposure to bullying than those working with female supervisors. However, male supervisors did not exacerbate the relationship between male minority and workplace bullying, while females exposure to workplace bullying was attenuated when working with male supervisors. These findings confirm the important role of gender differences when predicting bullying at work and support the view that gender is not merely an individual antecedent of bullying, but rather acts as a social factor to influence the incidence of workplace bullying.
Morgan, Carolyn Stout; Carney, Myrna L.
To understand gender differences in career expectations, a survey of 232 recent college graduates' attitudes toward job factors (such as promotion and salary) was conducted. Findings suggest that women's career aspirations are quite similar to men's, especially for women who majored in traditionally "male" subjects. (KH)
Wang, Hsiu-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Shun
With the proliferation of online games, understanding users' intention to play online games has become a new issue for academics and practitioners. Prior studies have investigated the factors affecting behavioural intention to play online games. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the gender differences in the acceptance of…
Full Text Available We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., P=0.04, P=0.048, and P=0.03. Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men (P=0.0007 but not in women (P=0.84; P for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04. These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management.
Virgili, Annarosa; Borghi, Alessandro; Cazzaniga, Simone; DI Landro, Anna; Naldi, Luigi; Minghetti, Sara; Fierro, Maria T; Verrone, Anna; Caproni, Marzia; Micali, Giuseppe; Gaspari, Valeria; Papini, Manuela; DI Lernia, Vito; Germi, Lerica; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Belloni Fortina, Anna; Cannavò, Serafinella P; Bilenchi, Roberta; Corazza, Monica
Studies specifically conducted to assess gender differences in genital lichen sclerosus (GLS) are not available. This multicenter study aimed to identify possible gender-related differences on GLS clinical features, history and course, through collecting data from a large mixed-sex sample of patients. This was a cross-sectional study on 729 subjects (53.8% females, 46.2% males) affected with GLS, consecutively observed within a network of 15 Italian dermatology units. The following information was specifically collected: clinical features and severity of symptoms related to GLS, extragenital involvement, previous therapies, diagnostic suspicion at referral, type of referring physicians, development of genital squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC). Females complained of symptoms more frequent and severe than men; pallor and scarring-sclerosis-atrophy were the most frequent features without gender differences; itching- related signs were more frequent in females than in males as well as extragenital involvement; prior to receiving a definitive diagnosis, females received treatment more frequently than males; 40% of patients were referred with a misdiagnosis; the highest rate of correct suspected diagnosis at referral came from dermatologists than from other physicians; duration of the disease was found to predispose to SCC development. Our findings highlighted several gender differences on clinical presentation and symptom profile of GLS. In spite of some characteristic features, misdiagnosis at referrals was frequent.
cost to future development of theory , strategy, and operations? This study analyzed gender differences in leadership as inferred from current research... management is basically a left brained logical approach toward controlling things: leadership is more a right brained, intuitive visionary approach towards...attribute frequently discussed in management and leadership literature. 13 Other research, however, indicates women do score a little higher on other
Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally
In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…
The purpose of this study therefore is to explore gender differences in adolescents' career aspirations and career development barriers among secondary school students in Kisumu municipality, Kenya. The study was conducted on 348 form four secondary school students. The major findings of this study show that there ...
Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...
Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin
The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…
Thompson, Michael D.
Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…
Holmvang, L.; Mickley, H.
. In acute coronary syndromes there is no evidence of gender differences regarding the benefit of primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. However, several trials of unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction indicate that women do not have the similar benefit...... of a routine, early, invasive treatment strategy compared with men Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...
Álvarez-García, David; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Núñez, José-Carlos
The objective of the present work is to analyse the prevalence of cyber-aggression and cyber-victimization among adolescents in Asturias (Spain) and to identify possible gender differences. To this end, 3,175 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years were randomly selected from the student population attending compulsory secondary education in Asturias and…
Research on recovery from mental illness and the influence of compulsory psychiatric institutional care has revealed the complexity of this concept. There is also limited knowledge regarding the impact of gender-role expectations in these contexts, and how such expectations may influence both the care and individuals' recovery processes. To explore women's and men's perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care on recovery from severe mental illness. Grounded theory was used to analyse 30 first-person accounts of recovery from mental illness, elicited via interviews with individuals who had been compulsorily treated in hospital and diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Inpatient care at an early stage was crucial for the informants' recovery. However, there was ambivalence in their perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care. The narratives confirmed gender differences as well as gender stereotypes. The results have implications for recovery research, in that they emphasise the importance of understanding recovery as a gender-influenced process.
Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Minami, Manabu; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kono, Tatsuo; Sonobe, Jyunichi; Kujiraoka, Yuka
Tractography of skeletal muscle can clearly reveal the 3-dimensional course of muscle fibers, and the procedure has great potential and could open new fields for diagnostic imaging. Studying this technique for clinical application, we noticed differences in the number of visualized tracts among volunteers and among muscles in the same volunteer. To comprehend why the number of visualized tracts varied so that we could acquire consistently high quality tractography of muscle fiber, we started to examine whether differences in individual parameters affected tractography visualization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender- and age-specific differences that differentiate the muscles by gender and age in MR tractography of skeletal muscle fiber. We divided 33 healthy volunteers by gender and age among 3 groups, A (13 younger men, aged 20 to 36 years), B (11 younger women, 25 to 39 years), and C (9 older men, 50 to 69), and we obtained from each volunteer tractographs of 8 fibers, including the bilateral gastrocnemius medialis (GCM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GCL), soleus (SOL), and anterior tibialis (AT) muscles. We classified the fibers into 5 grades depending on the extent of visualized tracts and used Mann-Whitney U-test to compare scores by gender (Group A versus B) and age (Group A versus C). Muscle tracts were significantly better visualized in women than men (median total visual score, 34 versus 24, P<0.05). In particular, the SOL muscles showed better visualization in the right (4.0 in women, 1.0 in men, P<0.05) and left (3.0 in women, 1.0 in men, P<0.05). Difference by age was not significant. The GCL was the highest scored muscle in all groups. Our results suggest that group differences, especially by gender, affected visualization of tractography of muscle fiber of the calf. (author)
Song, Xin; Tabák, Adam G; Zethelius, Björn; Yudkin, John S; Söderberg, Stefan; Laatikainen, Tiina; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Dankner, Rachel; Jousilahti, Pekka; Onat, Altan; Nilsson, Peter M; Satman, Ilhan; Vaccaro, Olga; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Qiao, Qing
To estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in relation to obesity and gender. Data from 11 prospective cohorts from four European countries including 23 629 men and 21 965 women, aged 24 to 99 years, with a median follow-up of 7.9 years were analyzed. Hazards ratios (HR) for CVD mortality in relation to baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models with age as the timescale. Men had higher CVD mortality than women in all four BMI categories (obesity defined by WC, WHR or WHtR. The gender difference was slightly smaller in obese than in non-obese individuals; but the interaction was statistically significant only between gender and WC (p = 0.02), and WHtR (p = 0.01). None of the interaction terms was significant among non-diabetic individuals. Men had higher CVD mortality than women across categories of anthropometric measures of obesity. The gender difference was attenuated in obese individuals, which warrants further investigation.
Full Text Available Research has shown that teaching gender theories tends to be an educational challenge and elicits student resistance. However, little is known about students’ learning processes in social science. This study aims to explore these learning processes by drawing on feminist pedagogy and conceptual change theory. The results show that when students are asked to perform analysis from a structural gender perspective, they recurrently introduce other explanatory frameworks based on non-structural understandings. The students’ learning processes involve reformulating questions and making interpretations based on liberal understandings of power, freedom of choice and equality. We argue that this process is due to the hegemonic position of the liberal paradigm as well as to the dominant ideas about science. Clarifying the underlying presumptions of a liberal perspective and a structural perspective may help students to recognise applied premises and enable them to distinguish relevant explanations.
Full Text Available Millennial generation is considered the largest and best educated and therefore presents challenges to marketers. This paper aims to examine the gender differences in consumer behaviour of students - generation y. The study identifies gender differences in purchase behaviour, loyalty, price sensitivity and shopping habits. The empirical analysis is based on data obtained from a student survey (N=118; M=40, 68%, F=59, 32%. The data were analysed using chi-square test. Our findings suggest that women are more sensitive to price than men. They also belong more to the loyalty programs and use more loyalty awards schemes. Although the millennial generation has the reputation for being digital our study shows that they actually like visiting the stores instead of shopping online although the statistically significant difference is not found.
Full Text Available The approach to research on gender differences in an evolutionary context has always been complex. Many factors, from those initially linked to preliminary considerations about the differences between the sexes in different historical and cultural moments have often influenced studies of this type. Gender Medicine, consolidated in the United States as a research field since the 1980s, studies the way in which membership in gender, male or female, affects the development and impact of disease and response to therapy. We can say that this is a new, transverse dimension of Medicine that assesses gender differences in physiology and pathophysiology of many clinical diseases, with the aim of reaching treatment decisions based on evidence in both men and women. In an historical moment focused on the individualization/personalization of care, among the objectives that modern health care has been given, there is this research aimed at identifying as early as possible gender-related diseases with the aim of identifying causes and possible methods of intervention. It leads to defining a kind of Medicine, a recent branch of biomedical science, that focuses on recognizing and analyzing the differences arising from the belonging to a gender, male or female, from several aspects: organic, functional, psychological, pharmacological, social and cultural. A gender approach to Medicine can reduce the level of error in medical practice, promote therapeutic appropriateness, improve and customize therapies and generate savings for healthcare systems. These effects have been demonstrated for adults and need to be confirmed during infancy and childhood. The purpose of this discipline is to innovate and guarantee everyone, man or woman, newborn and children, the best possible treatment based on scientific evidence.
Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M
perfectionism are described: SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) related to high standards and self criticism, SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) related to the need of approval from others and fear of negative evaluation, OOP (Other-Oriented Perfectionism) reflecting a tendency to set high expectations for others and to evaluate them in a demanding way; this component is related, especially for males, to self-esteem, hostility and authoritarianism. Validity and internal consistency have been established too (30, 31, 35). The Frost and al's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Hewitt and Flett's scales are closely associated, except concerning the OOP. Because this component could provide new information, we have chosen the second scale, referring to the French translation and validation of Labrecque (45). EMP is the French name of MPS; it is a self-report questionnaire of 45 questions, in fact three subscales of 15 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. MPS was administered to 617 first year students at the university of Liège (table II). Differences are considered according to gender and experience of failure i.e. the fact of repeating an academic year. We realized a component analysis with promax rotation. Among the different possibilities offered by the scree-test the choice of a 4 factor solution stresses the original structure: SOP (14 items), SPP (12 items), OOP (9 items) and anti OOP (10 items); the last one is additional but allows for respecting semantics and saturation of the items. The first aim of confirming validity and internal consistency is satisfactory. In other respects the multidimensional structure of the concept leads to consideration of a positive, adaptive perfectionism and a more negative perfectionism, facilitating psychopathology (59, 60, 61). So it seems interesting to compare the different components of MPS in order to find an eventual sex-failure effect. The evaluation of perfectionism is obvious, considering it as a personality
Bilal, Usama; Beltrán, Paula; Fernández, Esteve; Navas-Acien, Ana; Bolumar, Francisco; Franco, Manuel
The intersection between gender and class can aid in understanding gender differences in smoking. To analyse how changes in gender inequality relate to differences in smoking prevalence by gender, education and birth cohort in Spain over the past five decades (1960-2010). The Gender Inequality Index (GII) was calculated in 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010. GII ranges from 0 to 1 (1=highest inequality) and encompasses three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and labour market. Estimates of female and male smoking prevalence were reconstructed from representative National Health Surveys and stratified by birth cohort and level of education. We calculated female-to-male smoking ratios from 1960 to 2010 stratified by education and birth cohort. Gender inequality in Spain decreased from 0.65 to 0.09 over the past 50 years. This rapid decline was inversely correlated (r=-0.99) to a rising female-to-male smoking ratio. The youngest birth cohort of the study (born 1980-1990) and women with high education levels had similar smoking prevalences compared with men. Women with high levels of education were also the first to show a reduction in smoking prevalence, compared with less educated women. Gender inequality fell significantly in Spain over the past 50 years. This process was accompanied by converging trends in smoking prevalence for men and women. Smoking prevalence patterns varied greatly by birth cohort and education levels. Countries in earlier stages of the tobacco epidemic should consider gender-sensitive tobacco control measures and policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Bellinger, Veronica Genee
In recent years corporate organizations have implemented casual wear as an alternative to traditional dress codes to encourage comfort, relaxation,productivity, and manager/employee interactions. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences related to attitudes towards casual work attire and productivity, to examine perceptions of the effects of casual attire on the office atmosphere, and to determine what constitutes appropriate casual dress in corporate offices. The study ...
Lim, Jung-won; Paek, Min-so; Shon, En-jung
Individuals with cancer and their partners often experience communication difficulties. However, questions still remain regarding the influence of gender and role in cancer survivor-partner communication within couples. The current study intended to examine the communication patterns in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivor-partner couples during cancer survivorship and whether gender and role differences in couples communication exist. The dominant-less dominant method of sequential mixed design was used. Ten couples who were recruited from the University Hospital registry in Cleveland, Ohio, participated in both mail surveys and individual interviews. Family and cancer-related communication was assessed in the quantitative phase. Both male survivors and partners demonstrated better family communication scores compared with their female counterparts, whereas there were no gender differences in the cancer-related communication scores. In the qualitative phase, 3 major themes were identified: (1) selective sharing of cancer-related issues, (2) initiation of cancer-related communication, and (3) emotional reaction in communication. The patterns associated with these themes differed between the male survivor-female partner and female survivor-male partner couples. This study provides new knowledge about family and cancer-related communication. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding different perspectives in the quality of communication by gender and role. Exploring couples' communication patterns by gender and role stimulates the research and the development of effective consumer-centered communication interventions. The findings provide assessment tools to inform dyadic communication patterns for clinical and scientific purposes.
Full Text Available Background. Many neurological diseases show differences between genders. We studied gender differences in childhood Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB in an endemic area of Lyme borreliosis in Norway. Methods. In a population based study, all children (<14 years of age with symptoms suspicious of LNB, including all children with acute facial nerve palsy, were evaluated for LNB by medical history, clinical examination, blood tests, and lumbar puncture. LNB was diagnosed according to international criteria. Results. 142 children were diagnosed with LNB during 2001–2009. Facial nerve palsy was more common in girls (86% than in boys (62% p<0.001, but headache and/or neck stiffness as the only symptom was more common in boys (30% than in girls (10% p=0.003. The girls were younger than boys and had a shorter duration of symptoms, but boys had a higher level of pleocytosis than girls. In a multivariate analysis, both gender and having headache and neck stiffness were associated with a higher level of pleocytosis. Conclusion. Girls and boys have different clinical presentations of LNB, and boys have a higher level of inflammation than girls independent of the clinical presentation.
Luo, Lingling; Zhou, Chunfang; Zhang, Song
in Mainland China and 703 students in Taiwan. Based on data analysis, we find common characteristics, gender differences, and regional differences in the creativity of female postgraduate students. The female students in both regions are less confident in their abilities in scientific research and innovative......This article aims to study both similarities and differences in female students’ creativity between Mainland China and Taiwan. As two main aspects influencing creativity, playfulness and humor are especially focused on in this comparative study. Empirical data were collected from 831 students...
Petrucci, Alessandra; Salvini, Silvana
Climate and society evolve together in a manner that could place already vulnerable areas and their population at a greater risk to extreme weather events. While efforts have been devoted to better planning preparedness and responses to weather extremes, the interactions among various stakeholders who deal with hazard mitigation and response, and the community members, also related with gender and age differences, are not completely understood. In contrast to physical vulnerability, which arises from the potential for environmental extremes to create adverse physiological changes, social vulnerability arises from the potential for these extreme events to cause changes in people's behavior. People can vary in their potential for injury to themselves and their families. They also vary in the potential for destruction of their homes and workplaces, as well as the destruction of the transportation systems and locations for shopping and recreation they use in their daily activities. It is important to recognize that social vulnerability is not randomly distributed either demographically or geographically. In particular, the social vulnerability arising from a lack of psychological resilience, social network integration, economic assets, and political power vary across demographic groups. Some of these components of social vulnerability can be predicted by demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity. This review explores the gender and social difference dimensions of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in relation to climate change.
Sofiani, D.; Maulida, A. S.; Fadhillah, N.; Sihite, D. Y.
This study investigated the students’ attitude towards science and the effect of gender on students’ attitude. A total of 77 secondary school students participated in this study that were selected randomly in cluster, from various schools of Bandung, Indonesia. The attitude questionnaire consisted of 23 items related to four dimensions: enjoyment, self-confidence, value and motivation. Data collected by questionnaire were converted into interval scale using Method of Successive Interval (MSI) and further analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The use of MSI for analyzing the questionnaire data is still fairly new. Results showed that students’ positive attitude towards science was at medium level and there was no significant difference in attitude towards science between the female and male students. The study is of great significance to science teachers in order not to be gender biased when teaching science learning.
Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils
OBJECTIVES: We examined the gender-specific symptom prevalences in hypothyroidism and in healthy controls and explored the extent to which symptoms indicative of thyroid status may be different in women and men. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients newly diagnosed with overt autoimmune hypothyroidism (n...... of questionnaires. The gender-specific distribution of 13 hypothyroidism-associated symptoms and a simple combined score (0-13) was explored in conditional uni- and multivariate models taking into account a broad spectrum of possible confounders. Diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated as measures...... for the association between participant status (case vs control) and presence of symptoms (yes vs no). RESULTS: In overt autoimmune hypothyroidism, 94·9% of women and 91·3% of men (P = 0·62) reported at least one of the hypothyroidism-associated symptoms, with tiredness as the most common symptom followed by dry skin...
It is widely agreed empowering women to take control of their lives and sexual health is a key strategy for tackling gender inequalities and HIV/AIDS, but to date this has been exceedingly difficult to achieve. This paper explores how a sample of South African media represent the relationship between gender and HIV/AIDS in the interests of understanding the symbolic context in which HIV/AIDS programmers conduct their work. The starting assumption is that representations of gender and HIV in the symbolic sphere provide the context within which people charged with designing and implementing women's empowerment interventions--government officials and NGO programme managers--construct understandings of this relationship and how best to tackle it. Content analysis was conducted on four South African newspapers between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2008. Newspapers selected are widely read by "opinion leaders"; government officials and NGO programme managers. It is accepted that women's empowerment needs to involve top-down and bottom-up approaches. Dominant media representations portray women's empowerment as almost entirely a top-down process in which powerful actors are responsible for identifying and implementing women-focused interventions. Newspapers pay little attention to the need for the mobilisation of women via bottom-up programmes. Furthermore, while the media focuses on structural- and individual-level interventions, there is limited discussion of the importance of community-development interventions. Community-development interventions emphasise the need to build and support community-led responses to HIV. For women's empowerment to be successful interventions need to be at all levels. Currently, much emphasis is placed on the need for "socially responsible" media reporting in South Africa that supports positive social development and social justice. Against this background, we conclude media representations of appropriate ways to tackle gender and HIV
Abramo, Joseph Michael
In this case study, the author investigated how students' gender affected their participation in a secondary popular music class in which participants wrote and performed original music. Three same-gendered rock groups and two mixed-gendered rock groups were observed. Would students of different genders rehearse and compose differently? How would…
Failla, Kim Reina; Connelly, Cynthia D
Contributors to disparities in sepsis management have been attributed to genetic susceptibility, differences in clinical presentation, and healthcare delivery. The influence of gender on survival or mortality of patients with sepsis-related diagnoses is unclear. The purpose of the current study was to systematically review published research to identify factors and outcomes associated with sepsis management and outcomes based on gender differences. Covering a period from 2006 to 2016, a literature search was conducted on four electronic data bases including the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EBSCO, MedlinePlus, and PubMed. Content analysis of each article was performed independently by two authors. The guidelines outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement was the method used to assess the quality of evidence of the articles in this review. A full review was completed on a total of 452 identified potentially relevant publications, and 7 publications met inclusion criteria. The methodological approaches included prospective and retrospective observational studies, and prospective and historical cohort studies. The aim of these studies was to identify if gender differences exist related to sepsis-related mortality, completion of Surviving Sepsis Campaign resuscitation bundle elements, sepsis-related care processes, and sepsis-related incidence and source. Clinical sepsis studies evaluating gender and sepsis-related management and mortality are inconclusive and complex. Three different outcomes exist: no difference, higher risk in females, or higher risk in males. Further studies are needed to support the presence of gender disparities on sepsis-related healthcare outcomes. Providers should understand the importance of adhering to sepsis protocols and minimizing treatment disparities including gender differences. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Nawka, Alexander; Kalisova, Lucie; Raboch, Jiri; Giacco, Domenico; Cihal, Libor; Onchev, Georgi; Karastergiou, Anastasia; Solomon, Zahava; Fiorillo, Andrea; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Dembinskas, Algirdas; Kiejna, Andrzej; Nawka, Petr; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Priebe, Stefan; Kjellin, Lars; Kallert, Thomas W
Despite the recent increase of research interest in involuntary treatment and the use of coercive measures, gender differences among coerced schizophrenia patients still remain understudied. It is well recognized that there are gender differences both in biological correlates and clinical presentations in schizophrenia, which is one of the most common diagnoses among patients who are treated against their will. The extent to which these differences may result in a difference in the use of coercive measures for men and women during the acute phase of the disease has not been studied. 291 male and 231 female coerced patients with schizophrenia were included in this study, which utilized data gathered by the EUNOMIA project (European Evaluation of Coercion in Psychiatry and Harmonization of Best Clinical Practice) and was carried out as a multi-centre prospective cohort study at 13 centers in 12 European countries. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, social functioning and aggressive behavior in patients who received any form of coercive measure (seclusion and/or forced medication and/or physical restraint) during their hospital stay were assessed. When compared to the non-coerced inpatient population, there was no difference in sociodemographic or clinical characteristics across either gender. However coerced female patients did show a worse social functioning than their coerced male counterparts, a finding which contrasts with the non-coerced inpatient population. Moreover, patterns of aggressive behavior were different between men and women, such that women exhibited aggressive behavior more frequently, but men committed severe aggressive acts more frequently. Staff used forced medication in women more frequently and physical restraint and seclusion more frequently with men. Results of this study point towards a higher threshold of aggressive behavior the treatment of women with coercive measures. This may be because less serious aggressive actions
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant attitude. As for ethnicity, asimilar result was observed. Results of a regression analysis indicate that gender, academic qualification, and the person preparing tax return were statistically significant as determinants of non-compliant attitude. In terms of compliant behavior, a regression analysis revealed that "attitude towards non-compliance" and "receipt of cash income" were two significant explanatory variables of tax non-compliance behavior of understating income knowingly. The findings of this study are useful for policyimplications in identifying groups that require additional attention to increase voluntary tax compliance.
Shruti Srivastava*1 & Dr. Shweta S. Kulshrestha2
Gender equality in the workplace has been a major concern for almost all the organizations and countries. Even in most developed countries we cannot find complete gender equality in true sense. This paper aims to discuss whether there is gender biasness in organizations or not? Gender biasness is considered as a major constraint towards the development process in any of the country and thus we have made an attempt to determine the root causes for gender gap that persists in our society. A...
Full Text Available Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.
Baccetti, Tiziano; Reyes, Brian C; McNamara, James A
This study evaluated gender differences in the cephalometric records of a large-scale cross-sectional sample of Caucasian subjects with Class III malocclusion at different developmental ages. The purpose also was to provide average age-related and sex-related data for craniofacial measures in untreated Class III subjects that are used as reference in the diagnostic appraisal of the patient with Class III disharmony. The sample examined consisted of 1094 pretreatment lateral cephalometric records (557 female subjects and 537 male subjects) of Caucasian Class III individuals. The age range for female subjects was between three years six months and 57 years seven months. The male subject group ranged from three years three months to 48 years five months. Twelve age groups were identified. Skeletal maturity at different age periods also was determined using the stage of cervical vertebral maturation. Gender differences for all cephalometric variables were analyzed using parametric statistics. The findings of the study indicated that Class III malocclusion is associated with a significant degree of sexual dimorphism in craniofacial parameters, especially from the age of 13 onward. Male subjects with Class III malocclusion present with significantly larger linear dimensions of the maxilla, mandible, and anterior facial heights when compared with female subjects during the circumpubertal and postpubertal periods.
Gallagher, A M; De Lisi, R; Holst, P C; McGillicuddy-De Lisi, A V; Morely, M; Cahalan, C
Strategy flexibility in mathematical problem solving was investigated. In Studies 1 and 2, high school juniors and seniors solved Scholastic Assessment Test-Mathematics (SAT-M) problems classified as conventional or unconventional. Algorithmic solution strategies were students' default choice for both types of problems across conditions that manipulated item format and solution time. Use of intuitive strategies on unconventional problems was evident only for high-ability students. Male students were more likely than female students to successfully match strategies to problem characteristics. In Study 3, a revised taxonomy of problems based on cognitive solution demands was predictive of gender differences on Graduate Record Examination-Quantitative (GRE-Q) items. Men outperformed women overall, but the difference was greater on items requiring spatial skills, shortcuts, or multiple solution paths than on problems requiring verbal skills or mastery of classroom-based content. Results suggest that strategy flexibility is a source of gender differences in mathematical ability assessed by SAT-M and GRE-Q problem solving. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T
Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults.
Miller, Grant D; Kemmelmeier, Markus; Dupey, Peggy
This research examined worry in medical students at various stages of training with reference to worries related to academic and clinical training, finances and relationships with peers. The study focused on gender differences in worries, testing the notion that being married or being in a long-term or cohabitating relationship with a partner would be linked to increased worry among women, but decreased worry among men. Additional goals included examining the relationship between worry and the seeking of counselling, and investigating the disadvantage for medical students associated with living with parents. Data collected serially on class cohorts at one western US medical school yielded 868 responses from medical students, which were analysed using general linear models, generalised linear models and generalised estimation equations. Among four types of worry, academic and financial worries were similarly dominant (p Gender differences were qualified by marital status (p = 0.007). Being married was linked to higher levels of academic and financial worry among women, whereas for men marriage was linked to lower academic, but higher financial worry (p academic and financial stress represent the greatest sources of worry in medical students. It also represents the first research to demonstrate higher levels of worry in male than female medical students, which may be evidence of women's increased representation in the medical school population. These data also support the persistence of traditional gender roles in the marriages of medical students; marriage is related to an increased psychological burden in women in comparison with men. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Persson, Jonas; Herlitz, Agneta; Engman, Jonas; Morell, Arvid; Sjölie, Daniel; Wikström, Johan; Söderlund, Hedvig
Gender differences in spatial memory favoring men are frequently reported, and the involvement of the hippocampus in these functions is well-established. However, little is known of whether this behavioral gender difference is mirrored in a gender difference in hippocampal function. Here we assessed hippocampal activity, using functional MRI, while 24 men and women moved through three-dimensional virtual mazes (navigation phase) of varying length, and at the end-point estimated the direction of the starting-point (pointing phase). Men were indeed more accurate than women at estimating direction, and this was especially true in longer mazes. Both genders activated the posterior hippocampus throughout the whole task. During the navigation phase, men showed a larger activation in the right hippocampus than women, while in the pointing phase, women showed a larger activation in the left hippocampus than men. Right-lateralized activation during the navigation phase was associated with greater task performance, and may reflect a spatial strategy that is beneficial in this task. Left-sided activation during the pointing phase might reflect a less efficient post hoc verbal recapitulation of the route. This study is the first to identify neural correlates of the commonly observed male advantage in recalling one's original position, and points to hippocampal lateralization as a possible explanation for this behavioral gender difference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schwery, Denise; Hulac, David; Schweinle, Amy
This literature review provides school psychologists with an understanding of the important issues related to the gender gap in mathematics achievement. The extant literature suggests that girls tend to receive lower scores than boys on standardized math tests, but in general these differences tend to be small. However, girls have better classroom…
Minna Maria Pöysti
Full Text Available The proportion of male caregivers is rapidly increasing. However, there are few large scale studies exploring gender differences in the burden or coping with caregiving. We investigated this among caregivers of patients with dementia. The study cohort consisted of 335 dyads of wife-husband couples from two studies including dementia patients and their spousal caregivers. Baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating scale (CDR, neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI, cornell depression scale and charlson comorbidity index (CCI were used to describe patients with dementia, Zarit burden scale and geriatric depression scale were used to measure experienced burden and depression of caregivers. Mean age of caregivers was 78 years. There were no differences in depression, satisfaction with life, or loneliness according to caregivers' gender. Male caregivers had more comorbidities than females (CCI 1.9 versus 1.1, P<0.001, and the wives of male caregivers had a more severe stage of dementia than husbands of female caregivers (CDR, P=0.048; MMSE14.0 versus 17.7, P<0.001. However, the mean Zarit burden scale was significantly lower among male than female caregivers (31.5 versus 37.5; P<0.001. Lower education of male caregivers tended to be associated with less experienced burden. In conclusion, male caregivers of dementia experienced lower burden than female caregivers despite care recipients' more severe disease.
Full Text Available Over the last three decades, topics relating to young peoples leisure time have become increasingly more present in academic literature. Among the numerous studies that delve into this subject, results point towards a relationship between the way teenagers spend their leisure time and their gender. In this study we wanted to answer the question if gender differences were evident in the way secondary school students in Serbia spent their leisure time. This problem was not looked into in more detail among secondary school students in Serbia. We conducted a survey on a sample of 922 secondary school teenagers from the 1st to 4th grade(ages 15–19 from nine Serbian towns. Research in this field commonly uses the rating scale. In this paper we have constructed an instrument that represents a methodological innovation in approaching a particular set of problems. It was a questionnaire. The task was to name all the activities they participated in, and the time frame in which the activities took place, over the course of one weekday and the Saturday of the previous week. The activities which best differentiate these two groups of surveyed teenagers are: sports, studying, computer use, spending time at friends’ homes and grooming. We did not discover differences in participating in creative activities while foreign studies show that such activities are more typical for girls.
Full Text Available This paper tests the applicability of the CSI instrument to measuring consumer decision-making styles in the Croatian environment. The analysis assesses the validity and the reliability of CSI scales and examines gender differences in consumer-decision making styles. Research results point to the existence of eight consumer characteristics and thus validate the applicability of CSI instrument in the Croatian environment. Our findings further indicate that there were gender differences on five factors of consumer-decision making styles (perfectionist, novelty-fashion consciousness, recreational-hedonistic consumer, impulsiveness, habitual shopping behavioral. No significant differences in consumer decision styles between men and women were found with regard to three factors (brand consciousness, price consciousness and confused by overabundant choice. The CSI measurement system may help practitioners to gain a better understanding of how to position their products and services more effectively.
Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.
Objective Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. Method From 2001 to 2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment to identify gender-related differences. Results Men and women both showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared to affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% compared to 25.9%; p=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 compared to 14 years; p=.001), steal household items (pdisorder (p=.017) and less likely to steal electronic goods (pdisorder (p=.018). Conclusions Kleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations. PMID:18323758
Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N
Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. From 2001--2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-defined kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics, including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment, to identify gender-related differences. Men and women showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared with affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% vs 25.9%; P=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 vs 14 years of age; P=.001), steal household items (PKleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations.
Weinberger, Andrea H; McKee, Sherry A
Smoking is significantly associated with negative affect, which may play an especially important role in the smoking behavior of women. The purpose of this laboratory study was to examine the role of gender in the relationship of negative mood and smoking maintenance for male and female smokers following an implicit mood induction using music. Ninety adult smokers (50% female) completed a laboratory session during which they were randomly assigned to a negative mood induction, a positive mood induction, or a neutral mood condition. Latency to smoke and number of cigarettes smoked were assessed during an ad libitumsmoking period following the mood induction. Female smokers began smoking more quickly following the negative mood induction when compared with males. There were no gender differences in the number of cigarettes smoked or for cravings to smoke by mood condition. This study demonstrated gender differences in the relationship between negative affect and smoking behavior following an implicit and subtle mood manipulation. A better understanding of gender differences in smoking behavior can provide valuable information about mechanisms that maintain smoking behavior and guide treatment development to help adults quit smoking.
Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.
Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…
Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is an analysis of stereotypical social reactions to women’s alcoholism in the micro and macro social and cultural environment. The social stigma and blame that female alcohol abusers are exposed to have become part of deeply rooted gender-related labels. In a broader social context, they lead to discrimination and social exclusion. In the contemporary society, female alcoholism is turning into a growing social and health problem and because of that it is essential to make the social environment more sensitive to the issue of female alcoholism in order to eliminate the causes of female alcoholism and fully support women’s medical treatment,. It would have a preventive effect in suppressing female alcoholism and it would significantly reduce victimization of women who are, in such circumstances, much more vulnerable and exposed to physical and sexual violence. The aim of this paper is to point out to the basic phenomenological and etiological feature of female alcoholism, prejudices and stereotypical attitudes they are exposed to, social and cultural implications of female alcoholism, which is perceived as a predisposition for women’s victimization and exposure to violence, so as to promote a different social approach to female alcoholism and advocate for instituting social and educational policy based on the concept of gender equality and support of social control measures.
Full Text Available In films, religious characters are often gendered in quite traditional ways, but there are some notable exceptions. This article discusses two Scandinavian films that partly break the mold. The analysis illustrates how in films varied forms of religion are gen¬dered quite differently, and explores the ways in which religious themes can open up for alternative male and female characters. Different ways of understanding the representations are discussed and related to views on the place and role of religion in the contemporary Scandinavian context. The article draws on the mediatization of religion theory as a theoretical framework, but also highlights the challenges that complex images of gender and religion pose to this theory.
Gema Martín Seoane
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the relationship among gender, school grade and peer harassment at Primary School. The participants were 2.050 children aged 8 to 13. The overall sample was designed to represent all students in grades 3th through 6th in both public and private schools. A self-report questionnaire on peer harassment situations was administered to the participants. Factor analysis revealed two different dimensions: ‘physical violence and property attacks’ and ‘verbal violence and social exclusion’. Boys reported higher levels of peer harassment among classmates than girls. No effect of the school grade on the gender differences CONTEXTOS EDUCATIVOS, 13 (2010, 11-26 11 Contextos Educ., 13 (2010, 11-26 was found. This paper provides a better understanding of peer harassment as well as some prevention indications.
Ilayperuma, Isurani; Nanayakkara, B G; Hasan, R; Uluwitiya, S M; Palahepitiya, K N
Coracobrachialis (CBM) is a complex muscle with a wide range of variations in its morphology and innervation. The goal of this study was to elucidate the morphology, morphometry, gender differences of CBM and precise anatomical position of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in an adult Sri Lankan population. Cadaveric upper limbs (n = 312) were examined for the proximal and distal attachments, length, width, thickness of CBM and its relationship with the MCN. The CBM originated from the tip of the coracoid process of the scapula and lateral, posterior and medial aspects of the tendon of short head of biceps brachii. Gender differences were observed in all morphometrical parameters of CBM. In 83.33 %, MCN perforated the CBM. In 50 % the MCN pierced the middle one-third of CBM while none pierced the lower one-third. The distance from the coracoid process to the point of entry of MCN into CBM (distance P) was 50.62 mm. A positive correlation was observed between the arm length and distance P indicating that arm length provides an accurate and reliable means of gauging the distance P of an individual. The present study provides new evidence pertaining to the origin of CBM. Further, it was revealed that the predicted distance P of any upper extremity can be calculated by dividing the arm length by 5. Precise anatomical location of MCN in relation to CBM using unequivocal and well-defined anatomical landmarks will be imperative in modern surgical procedures.
Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina; Hansen, Kasper Møller
Is there a relationship between party leader gender and voters' assessments? Yes, according to theses on gender identity and stereotyping. A voter survey during the 2011 Danish general election allows for a comprehensive analysis of a less likely case with four male and four female party leaders...... of gender does not increase with age, actually, the opposite is the case among men since younger male voters have smaller sympathy for female party leaders. Furthermore, there is no support for the expectation that voters with more education or with higher levels of political interest and knowledge are more...... positive towards party leaders of their own gender than voters with less education. Also, the relationship between gender and voters’ assessments is not stronger prior to the election campaign than immediately after the election. Hence, in sum, gender identity does not seem to require a higher level...
Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan
We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…
Modena, Maria Grazia; Pettorelli, Daniele; Lauria, Giulia; Giubertoni, Elisa; Mauro, Erminio; Martinotti, Valentina
Acute stress can trigger cardiovascular events and disease. The earthquake is an "ideal" natural experiment for acute and chronic stress, with impact mainly on the cardiovascular system. On May 20th and 29th, 2012, two earthquakes of magnitude 5.9° to 6.4° on the Richter scale, hit the province of Modena and Reggio Emilia, an area of the north-center of Italy never considered at seismic risk. The purpose of our study was to assess whether there were gender-specific differences in stress-induced incidence of cardiovascular events and age of patients who arrived at the Emergency Departments (ED) of the three main teaching hospitals of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Global access of patients, divided in relation to age, gender, and diagnosis was compared with that one detected in the same departments and in the same interval of time in 2010. The data collected were relative to consecutive cases derived by retrospective chart and acute cardiovascular events were classified according to ICD-9 ( International Classification of Diseases , ninth revision). A total of 1,401 accesses were recorded in the year of earthquake versus 530 in 2010 ( p ≤ 0.05), with no statistically significant differences in number of cases and mean age in relation to gender, despite the number of women exceeded that of men in 2012 (730 vs. 671); the opposite occurred, in 2010 (328 vs. 202). The gender analysis of 2012 showed a prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs 177 vs. 73, p ≤ 0.03) in men, whereas women presented more strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) (90 vs. 94, p ≤ 0.05), atrial fibrillation (120 vs. 49, p ≤ 0.05), deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE; 64 vs. 9, p ≤ 0.05), panic attacks (124 vs. 26, p ≤ 0.03), aspecific chest pain (122 vs. 18, p ≤ 0.05), TakoTsubo cardiomyopathy (10 vs. 0, p ≤ 0.05), and DVT/PE (61 vs. 3, p ≤ 0.03). The gender analysis of 2010 showed no
The present study focused on gender differences in emotion identification from auditory and visual stimuli produced by two male and two female actors. Differences in emotion identification from nonsense samples, language samples and prolonged vowels were investigated. It was also studied whether auditory stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without visual stimuli, and whether visual stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without auditory stimuli. The aim was to get a better knowledge of vocal attributes and a more holistic understanding of the nonverbal communication of emotion. Females tended to be more accurate in emotion identification than males. Voice quality parameters played a role in emotion identification in both genders. The emotional content of the samples was best conveyed by nonsense sentences, better than by prolonged vowels or shared native language of the speakers and participants. Thus, vocal non-verbal communication tends to affect the interpretation of emotion even in the absence of language. The emotional stimuli were better recognized from visual stimuli than auditory stimuli by both genders. Visual information about speech may not be connected to the language; instead, it may be based on the human ability to understand the kinetic movements in speech production more readily than the characteristics of the acoustic cues.
Liu, Xuan; Sun, Min; Li, Jia
With the growing concern about health issues and the emergence of online communities based on user-generated content (UGC), more and more people are participating in online health communities (OHCs) to exchange opinions and health information. This paper aims to examine whether and how male and female users behave differently in OHCs. Using data from a leading diabetes community in China (Tianmijiayuan), we incorporate three different techniques: topic modeling analysis, sentiment analysis and friendship network analysis to investigate gender differences in chronic online health communities. The results indicated that (1) Male users' posting content was usually more professional and included more medical terms. Comparatively speaking, female users were more inclined to seek emotional support in the health communities. (2) Female users expressed more negative emotions than male users did, especially anxiety and sadness. (3) In addition, male users were more centered and influential in the friendship network than were women. Through these analyses, our research revealed the behavioral characteristics and needs for different gender users in online health communities. Gaining a deeper understanding of gender differences in OHCs can serve as guidance to better meet the information needs, emotional needs and relationship needs of male and female patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Elba Mauleón; Cinzia Daraio; Maria Bordons
The under-representation of women in science and technology is a matter of current great concern. Obtaining patent-based indicators by gender is crucial to analyse the situation of women in innovation, identify potential cases of gender inequalities, and support policy measures to promote gender balance. In this article we analyse men and women involvement in Spanish patents applied to the European Patent Office during 1990--2004. At least one female inventor is present in 18% of the patents;...
Williamson, David; Johnston, Charlotte
Certain characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children have long been known to differ by gender. What has not been as widely studied is whether gender is similarly associated with ADHD differences in adults. In this review, the relation between gender and adult ADHD prevalence, persistence, impairment, comorbidity, cognitive functioning, and treatment response was examined across 73 studies. Although gender was related to several characteristics and correlates of adult ADHD, it appeared that many of these gender differences may be at least be partially attributed to methodological artifacts or social and cultural influences, rather than fundamental differences in the expression of ADHD in men and women. We highlight how understanding the nature of the relation between gender and ADHD across the lifespan is complicated by a number of methodological difficulties, and offer recommendations for how emerging research and clinical practice can better incorporate gender into the conceptualization of ADHD in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van der Pol, Lotte D; van Berkel, Sheila R; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi
This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role attitudes and mothers were observed to use more physical control strategies with boys than with girls, whereas fathers with strong counterstereotypical attitudes toward gender roles used more physical control with girls than with boys. Moreover, when fathers had strong attitudes toward gender roles (stereotypical or counterstereotypical), their differential treatment of boys and girls completely accounted for the gender differences in children's aggressive behavior a year later. Mothers' gender-differentiated parenting practices were unrelated to gender differences in child aggression. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni
Early adolescence (ages 10-14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes. To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural
Full Text Available Early adolescence (ages 10-14 is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes.To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally.A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes.Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age. Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents.The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different
Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni
review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural settings commonly endorse norms that perpetuate gender inequalities, and that parents and peers are especially central in shaping such attitudes. Programs to promote equitable gender attitudes thus need to move beyond a focus on individuals to target their interpersonal relationships and wider social environments. Such programs need to start early and be tailored to the unique needs of sub-populations of boys and girls. Longitudinal studies, particularly from low-and middle-income countries, are needed to better understand how gender attitudes unfold in adolescence and to identify the key points for intervention. PMID:27341206
Faro, Mònica; Sàez-Francás, Naia; Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Aliste, Luisa; Fernández de Sevilla, Tomás; Alegre, José
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic condition that predominantly affects women. To date, there are few epidemiologic studies on CFS in men. The objective of the study was to assess whether there are gender-related differences in CFS, and to define a clinical phenotype in men. A prospective, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted including CFS patients at the time of diagnosis. Sociodemographic data, clinical variables, comorbid phenomena, fatigue, pain, anxiety/depression, and health quality of life, were assessed in the CFS population. A comparative study was also conducted between genders. The study included 1309 CFS patients, of which 119 (9.1%) were men. The mean age and symptoms onset were lower in men than women. The subjects included 30% single men vs. 15% single women, and 32% of men had specialist work vs. 20% of women. The most common triggering factor was an infection. Widespread pain, muscle spasms, dizziness, sexual dysfunction, Raynaud's phenomenon, morning stiffness, migratory arthralgias, drug and metals allergy, and facial oedema were less frequent in men. Fibromyalgia was present in 29% of men vs. 58% in women. The scores on physical function, physical role, and overall physical health of the SF-36 were higher in men. The sensory and affective dimensions of pain were lower in men. The clinical phenotype of the men with CFS was young, single, skilled worker, and infection as the main triggering agent. Men had less pain and less muscle and immune symptoms, fewer comorbid phenomena, and a better quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
Jacobs, Jeremy M; Cohen, Aaron; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Stessman, Jochanan
Although increased survival among females is observed throughout much of adult life, supporting evidence among the oldest old is lacking. We examined the hypothesis that gender differences in survival diminish with advancing age. The Jerusalem Longitudinal Study follows a representative cohort born 1920-1921, comprehensively assessed at ages 70, 78, 85, and 90 (n=463, 927, 1224, and 673, respectively). Mortality data were collected during 1990-2013. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and mortality hazards ratios (HRs) were determined, adjusting for gender, marital status, education, loneliness, self-rated health, physical activity, functional status, neoplasm, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease. Survival between ages 70-78 was 77.3% (n=358/463), 78-85 was 68.9% (n=635/927), 85-90 years was 71.1% (n=870/1224), and 90-93 years was 80.5% (n=542/673). With advancing age, the survival advantage among females versus men declined-at ages 70-78 (85.6% vs. 71%, p<0.0001), 78-85 (74% vs. 63%, p=0.001), 85-90 (74% vs. 67.5%, p=0.06), and 90-93 (80% vs. 81%, p=0.92). Compared to females (HR=1.0), the adjusted HR for male mortality at ages 70-78 was 2.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-4.91), ages 78-85 was 2.1 (95% CI 1.5-2.92), ages 85-90 was 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.2), and ages 90-93 was 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.8). Our findings confirm the hypothesis that the increased longevity observed among females at age 70 gradually diminishes with advancing age, and disappears beyond age 90.
Elgin, J; Pritchard, M
The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions.
The study examined whether there was a significant gender gap in mathematics achievement, and the nature of the gender gap. It also investigated factors associated with the differential performance of girls and boys in the mathematics class. The site for this study was a rural primary school in KwaZulu-Natal. Quantitative ...
Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael
Theory of Mind (ToM)--the ability to understand other's thoughts, intentions, and emotions--is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one's ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males' motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females' motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure.
Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.
These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…
Individual differences in gender role perceptions have been described copiously in the psychological literature. The effects of education and gender have been established cross-culturally. The joint effects of education and gender have not however been discussed adequately, especially among African populations where ...
Aamod Dhoj Shrestha
Conclusions: The result of this study provided evidence that there are gender differences in reporting of symptoms, mode of diagnosis and certain self-management behaviors. Therefore there is a need to design gender specific behavior change communication strategies for better management of type 2 diabetes. Keywords: diabetes care; gender; self-efficacy; self-management.
Hassan, Z.U.; Naseer, R.
The fluoroquinolones are currently enjoying extensive worldwide clinical applications because of their good bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile. Investigation into several aspects of the pharmacokinetic of all clinically relevant fluoroquinolones, have been carried out notably in Europe, USA and Japan. In view of the geonetical (geographical influences on genetics-pharmacogenetics) differences, it is important that for the optimal therapeutic outcome, biodisposition studies on drugs are better conducted in the population and environments where wide and extensive use of the drug is anticipated. The Objectives of study were to see the pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy young male and female volunteers. This comparative study was conducted King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan, from July 2005 to December 2005. In Pakistan where the use of antibiotics is more frequent by the general practitioners it is important to elucidate certain dose parameters it is also noticed that side effects are more in females than males so present study is conducted to calculate any differences in bioavailability on the basis of sex. The pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin were determined in each of the clinically health eight young girls and boys (mean age 23.9 and 25.1 years, respectively) following a single oral dose of 400 mg tablet. The method adopted was microbiological assay. The blood samples collected at predetermined time intervals after drug administration revealed almost twice as high concentration of the drug in plasma of the girls than that in the boys. The pharmacokinetic parameters revealed significantly (p<0.01) higher values for area under curve (AUC) and Cmax, and lower total body clearance (TBC) and volume of distribution in the girls than in the boys. The gender differences in pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that the dose adjustment should be considered in male and female. (author)
Mathur, P.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Romeo, F.; Mehta, J. L.
Roč. 29, č. 4 (2015), s. 319-327 ISSN 0920-3206 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : atherosclerosis * gender Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.189, year: 2015
Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G; DeVito, Elise E; Kober, Hedy
Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss.
Dahlin, Johanna; Härkönen, Juho
Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Endendijk, J. J.; Groeneveld, M.G.; Van der Pol, L.D.; van Berkel, S. R.; Hallers-Haalboom, E.T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; Mesman, J.
This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents’ physical control, moderated by parents’ gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role
Bessem, Bram; de Bruijn, Matthijs C.; Nieuwland, Wybe
Objectives: Gender-related differences are frequently used in medicine. Electrocardiograms are also subject to such differences. This study evaluated gender differences in ECG parameters of young athletes, discussing the possible implications of these differences for ECG criteria used in the
FOR GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SERVICES by John C. Gaster III March 2016 Thesis Advisor: Latika Chaudhary Co-Advisor: Marigee Bacolod THIS...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE USING AFQT TO TEST FOR GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SERVICES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) John C. Gaster III 7...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) This study looks at gender differences in loss and promotion across services and over time using
Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G.; DeVito, Elise E.; Kober, Hedy
Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender...
This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others’ multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in “personal” ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons’ intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones. PMID:23951949
Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian
This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.
Corporate globalization is advancing marginalization of African societies in the economic global sphere, a process which transcends gender but that has gender implications. This paper shows that globalization has a compounded effect on women due to certain structural disadvantages in the global and national division of ...
Hansen, Claus D.
and being more attached to the places they were brought up in rural areas. In addition, differences attitudes towards educational aspirations are prominent in the media discourses explaining these gender differences. In this presentation, we investigate gender differences in place attachment, intentions...
This study presents a gender analysis of labour market participation across different sectors of employment in Kenya using survey data. It tests the hypothesis that gender differences in labour market participation are influenced by differences in education attainment and assets among other individual characteristics. We use ...
103. Gender Differences in Communication Patterns of. Females in Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Schools in Nnewi. Education Zone. Nwosu, Eucharia Nchedo & Joachim C. Omeje ... and to assess how it differs from the same sex communication; and to ... Gender differences in communication are often the source of much.
Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee
Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…
Armour, Robert; And Others
The overall study examined job satisfaction among tenured college faculty. This paper compares responses from minority (about 6%) and female (about 18%) faculty with the overall responses (N=1135). Overall, 91% reported being satisfied with their careers with 82% saying they would choose the career again. Race and gender were not related…
Peterle , Emmanuel; Rau , Holger ,
This paper analyzes gender differences in access to competitive positions. We implement an experiment where workers can apply for a job promotion by sending a signal to their employer. We control for gender differences in anticipation of discrimination in a treatment where a computer randomly recruits. Discriminatory behavior by the employer is isolated in a treatment where workers cannot send signals. We find that gender disparity among promoted workers is highest when workers can apply for ...
Full Text Available This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable or increased; these trends often resulted from the differential impact on male and female mortality of general societal trends such as increased illicit drug use or improved health care. Similarly, trends in gender differences in accident-related behavior have shown substantial variation and appear to have been influenced by multiple factors, including gender differences in rates of adoption of different types of innovations.
Nasrudin, Ajeng Ratih; Setiawan, Wawan; Sanjaya, Yayan
This study is titled the impact of audio narrated animation on students' understanding in learning humanrespiratory system based on gender. This study was conducted in eight grade of junior high school. This study aims to investigate the difference of students' understanding and learning environment at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratory system using audio narrated animation. Research method that is used is quasy experiment with matching pre-test post-test comparison group design. The procedures of study are: (1) preliminary study and learning habituation using audio narrated animation; (2) implementation of learning using audio narrated animation and taking data; (3) analysis and discussion. The result of analysis shows that there is significant difference on students' understanding and learning environment at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratory system using audio narrated animation, both in general and specifically in achieving learning indicators. The discussion related to the impact of audio narrated animation, gender characteristics, and constructivist learning environment. It can be concluded that there is significant difference of students' understanding at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratory system using audio narrated animation. Additionally, based on interpretation of students' respond, there is the difference increment of agreement level in learning environment.
Vantieghem, Wendelien; Van Houtte, Mieke
Despite boys' educational underachievement, gender differences in study motivation have received little research attention. Guided by self-determination theory and the identity-based motivation model, this study investigates differences in study motivation between boys and girls, as well as within each gender. To adequately consider these…
Norma Constanza Durán
This article aims to describe a case study which explores teacher and students` conceptions about gender in an EFL setting and the way they are manifested in their discourse patterns. This exploratory case study was carried out with a group of eleventh grade students and an English teacher at Liceo de la Universidad Católica high school in Bogotá Colombia. The data collected included direct observation of classroom interaction, audio and video recording of the teacher and students` interactio...
Villumsen, Morten; Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Marie Birk
The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure.......The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure....
The study examined gender differences on the perceived effectiveness of physical punishment among selected secondary school students in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with the view of investigating and evaluating gender differences on the effects of physical punishment in encouraging or discouraging effective and ...
Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.
Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…
Berninger, Virginia W.; Nielsen, Kathleen H.; Abbott, Robert D.; Wijsman, Ellen; Raskind, Wendy
Gender differences in mean level of reading and writing skills were examined in 122 children (80 boys and 42 girls) and 200 adults (115 fathers and 85 mothers) who showed behavioral markers of dyslexia in a family genetics study. Gender differences were found in writing and replicated prior results for typically developing children: Boys and men…
Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen
The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…
Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; de Koning, Björn B.; de Vries, Meinou H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; van der Schoot, Menno
Text comprehension requires readers to mentally simulate the described situation by reactivating previously acquired sensory and motor information from (episodic) memory. Drawing upon research demonstrating gender differences, favouring girls, in tasks involving episodic memory retrieval, the present study explores whether gender differences exist…
Are there gender differences in subjective attractiveness and perceived trendiness of smoking among a group of adolescents? ... Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ... Conclusion: This study found gender differences in trendiness but not attractiveness of smoking which was influenced by smoking status.
Stokes, Joseph; Levin, Ira
Recent research suggesting a link between loneliness and social networks and a difference between males and females in both the quantity and quality of relationships support the view that loneliness can be predicted by gender from social network variables. In one study, two samples were used to explore gender differences. Sample 1, 97 males and 82…
Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn
Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…
Kang, Seokmin; Hallman, Gregory L.; Son, Lisa K.; Black, John B.
Explanations are typically accompanied by hand gestures. While research has shown that gestures can help learners understand a particular concept, different learning effects in different types of gesture have been less understood. To address the issues above, the current study focused on whether different types of gestures lead to different levels…
Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Steyerberg, Ewout Willem; Stage, Kurt Bjerregaard
and multiple linear and logistic regression models were used for statistical evaluations. RESULTS: Both genders had similar remission rates (Hamilton depression scale score ...OBJECTIVE: Gender differences in antidepressant treatment response, side effects, dropout rates, and plasma concentrations were examined in patients with major and predominantly melancholic depression. METHOD: The study included a subgroup of 292 inpatients (96 men, 196 women) from three Danish....... The plasma concentrations of clomipramine were significantly higher for female than for male patients. No gender differences were found in posttreatment Hamilton depression scale scores, nor did the therapeutic effects of treatment depend on gender. Rates of dropout and side effects were similar for men...
LILIANA NICOLETA SIMIONESCU
Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR refers to company's activities through which they need to contribute to the society well-being. Companies which are socially responsible operate their business in such way stakeholders requirements are a meet as well as ethical, legal, economical and philanthropic expectations toward the society where companies operates. Moreover, businesses decisions and strategies should take into consideration and should act with more responsibility to shareholders, customers, employees, and suppliers. Company's responsibility is more than just legal and economic responsibility. Companies including CSR into their business strategies increase their competitiveness alongside other benefits. Regardless of the heated debates which have been taking place between academics, researchers, scholars, and corporate executives, CSR concept remains open to a range of definitions As well as understanding. This paper aim is to theoretically investigate how differences in gender effect on corporate social responsibility activities with impact on companies’ performance in developing countries. In order to achieve the paper aim, following the literature on CSR and research background, comprehensive research framework was developed. Despite the fact that CSR have been debated on many topics, the gender differences effects on CSR in developing countries is scarce. To fill in this gap, this paper developed a conceptual research framework that enhance the literature on CSR as regard the differences linking male and female’s orientation toward CSR activities.
Full Text Available Suicide attempt denotes activities directed towards one's own death which do not end in death. The ratio between attempted and realized suicides is expressed by the index called hazard ratio. Risk factors which contribute to suicidal behavior are: various emotional conditions, personality traits, stressful life events, substance misuse etc. The purpose of the study was to explore the frequencies and epidemiological and demographic characteristics of suicide attempts separately in men and women. The study sample involved 56 patients with the diagnosis suicide attempt (Tentamen suicidii treated on the Psychiatric department of the Clinical Center Priština, Gračanica. The data have been analyzed in respect to gender, age, profession/employment, mental disorder diagnosis, motivation (reason and the way of performing a suicide attempt. Results: suicide has been attempted by 42 women (75% and 14 men (25% of the sample. The prevalent age group of our sample (26.8% represents the patients below 20. The most prevalent are also unemployed patients, 33.3% of women and 50% of men. The most prevalent diagnosis is anxiety disorder (61.9% of women and 57.1% of men. The prevailing reason for attempting suicide in women was couple conflict (54.8% and existential problems in men (50%. Fifty one patients of the sample (91.1% have attempted suicide by intoxication with sedative drugs (anxiolytics. The majority of suicide attempts happened during afternoon and evening hours, i.e. in the period 12-24h. Conclusion: women have attempted suicide more frequently than men (ratio 3:1. Unemployment has been the prevailing professional characteristic in both genders. The most prevailing diagnosis is anxiety disorder. The chief motive in women is couple conflict and in men existential difficulties. In both genders the most frequent way of attempting suicide is poisoning, mostly in the period 12-24h.
Nowadays, the word sex and its related terms (sexual differences, sexual roles and stereotypes), so common not long ago, seems to have been replaced by gender and its related terms (gender differences, gender roles and stereotypes). We can sometimes find both sex and gender sharing the same space in scientific articles, although referring to different domains. In this paper, I try to explain the need for a model that can integrate both of these complex domains of sex and gender, leading to two independent, although complementary, disciplines: Sexology and Genderology. In both cases, I start from a functional standpoint, which will give meaning to both disciplines' specificities, as it is meant to link contributions from different fields of knowledge. This approach can have consequences for research, education, the experience of women, men, and ambiguous individuals, and therapy.
Forbes-Lorman, Robin M; Harris, Michelle A; Chang, Wesley S; Dent, Erik W; Nordheim, Erik V; Franzen, Margaret A
Understanding how basic structural units influence function is identified as a foundational/core concept for undergraduate biological and biochemical literacy. It is essential for students to understand this concept at all size scales, but it is often more difficult for students to understand structure-function relationships at the molecular level, which they cannot as effectively visualize. Students need to develop accurate, 3-dimensional mental models of biomolecules to understand how biomolecular structure affects cellular functions at the molecular level, yet most traditional curricular tools such as textbooks include only 2-dimensional representations. We used a controlled, backward design approach to investigate how hand-held physical molecular model use affected students' ability to logically predict structure-function relationships. Brief (one class period) physical model use increased quiz score for females, whereas there was no significant increase in score for males using physical models. Females also self-reported higher learning gains in their understanding of context-specific protein function. Gender differences in spatial visualization may explain the gender-specific benefits of physical model use observed. © 2016 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):326-335, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Birkeland, Marianne S; Blix, Ines; Solberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond
Background: Posttraumatic stress symptoms are more prevalent in women than in men. To improve our understanding of gender differences in PTSD, detailed knowledge about the underlying symptom networks and gender specific symptom profiles is needed. Objective: We aimed to describe the gender differences in levels of individual posttraumatic stress symptoms after a terrorist attack, as well as identify possible gender differences in associations between posttraumatic stress symptoms. Method: This study used survey data from ministerial employees directly ( n = 190) and indirectly ( n = 1,615) exposed to the 2011 Oslo bombing. Data was collected approximately 10 months after the event. In order to investigate gender differences in levels of symptoms, we used bootstrapped means and standard deviations. Network analyses were conducted to identify gender differences in the associations between posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results: Women reported higher levels of all symptoms, and the strongest effect sizes were found for symptoms of re-experiencing, and anxious and dysphoric arousal. Among individuals with considerable levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms, women reported higher levels of physiological cue activity and exaggerated startle response. No significant gender differences in the networks of posttraumatic stress were found. Conclusions: The present results find no indication that the gender difference in prevalence of PTSD can be explained by differences in associations between symptoms. In order to determine if this finding can be applied to other participants and circumstances, future studies should seek to replicate this study in both community and clinical samples.
Norma Constanza Durán
Full Text Available This article aims to describe a case study which explores teacher and students` conceptions about gender in an EFL setting and the way they are manifested in their discourse patterns. This exploratory case study was carried out with a group of eleventh grade students and an English teacher at Liceo de la Universidad Católica high school in Bogotá Colombia. The data collected included direct observation of classroom interaction, audio and video recording of the teacher and students` interactions and interviews on the teacher’s and students` discourse. The analysis of the data revealed that in fact there are imbalances in relation to boys` and girls` participation during interaction, made manifest by verbal and nonverbal attitudes. There is also sound evidence of girls’ low self esteem in response to the lack of value and respect granted to their opinions by their male peers. Stereotypes are part of teachers’ and students’ conceptions regarding gender and thus they are maintained to a great extent. The teacher’s attitude in the classroom with respect to boys and girls also appeared to show inequality that favoured boys. The girls showed evidence of awareness of the teacher’s conscious or unconscious indifference towards them, which seemed to affect their autonomy and confidence as English language learners.
Studied three different criteria of within-sex, gender-related individual differences taken from three studies. Data showed that items displaying large sex differences tended also to correlate most strongly with independent gender-related criteria within the sexes. Discusses assessment implications for gender-related and other group-related…
This paper presents findings from an empirical study on the prevalence and beliefs surrounding gender-based violence (GBV) in the Kilimanjaro region. The analysis and ensuing discussion is the result of a representative sample of adults (n=384) surveyed in two districts, Rombo and Moshi Rural, in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.
Nov 17, 2016 ... This report by the Institute for Business Administration Karachi is the culmination of three years of research on gender roles and how they contribute to violence in 12 working class neighborhoods in two of Pakistan's largest cities: Karachi and Rawalpindi-Islamabad. It highlights the role of frustrated ...
17 nov. 2016 ... This report by the Institute for Business Administration Karachi is the culmination of three years of research on gender roles and how they contribute to violence in 12 working class neighborhoods in two of Pakistan's largest cities: Karachi and Rawalpindi-Islamabad. It highlights the role of frustrated ...
This paper interrogates the corresponding increase of Nigerian women in corrupt practices within the spell of their marginal appropriation into political and bureaucratic life. It argues that corruption or lack of it does not inhere in gender as a biological trait; rather, it is inherent in the institutional mechanisms that shapes and ...
Di Giosia, Paolo; Giorgini, Paolo; Stamerra, Cosimo Andrea; Petrarca, Marco; Ferri, Claudio; Sahebkar, Amirhossein
This review aims to examine gender differences in both the epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypertension and to explore gender peculiarities on the effects of antihypertensive agents in decreasing BP and CV events. Men and women differ in prevalence, awareness, and control rate of hypertension in an age-dependent manner. Studies suggest that sex hormones changes play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of hypertension in postmenopausal women. Estrogens influence the vascular system inducing vasodilatation, inhibiting vascular remodeling processes, and modulating the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system and the sympathetic system. This leads to a protective effect on arterial stiffness during reproductive age that is dramatically reversed after menopause. Data on the efficacy of antihypertensive therapy between genders are conflicting, and the underrepresentation of aged women in large clinical trials could influence the results. Therefore, further clinical research is needed to uncover potential gender differences in hypertension to promote the development of a gender-oriented approach to antihypertensive treatment.
Gender Differences in Health Risk Behaviour among University Students: An International Study. ... female students, while physical inactivity was more frequent in female than male students. In terms of nutrition and sexual risk behaviour, the responses were mixed between the genders. Linear regression analysis found that ...
Prins, M. [= Maria; Robertson, J. R.; Brettle, R. P.; Aguado, I. H.; Broers, B.; Boufassa, F.; Goldberg, D. J.; Zangerle, R.; Coutinho, R. A.; van den Hoek, A.
To examine the effect of gender on disease progression and whether gender differences in CD4 lymphocyte counts persisted for the entire course from HIV seroconversion until (death from) AIDS. CD4 lymphocyte counts were modelled in 221 female and 443 male seroconverters following seroconversion,
Addresses the role of comparison processes in the persistence of the gender wage gap, its toleration by those disadvantaged by it, and resistance to comparable worth as a corrective strategy. Argues that gender segregation and undercompensation for women's jobs leads women to use different comparison standards when evaluating what they deserve.…
Ali, Amir; Subhi, Yousif; Ringsted, Charlotte
conditions). Male medical students tended to outperform females, while no gender differences were found among residents. Gaming experience and interest in surgery correlated with better acquisition of surgical skills, regardless of gender. Although initial levels of surgical abilities seemed lower among...
Holmberg, K; Hellsten, I.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a study about gender differences in the climate change communication on Twitter and in the use of affordances on Twitter. Design/methodology/approach – The data set consists of about 250,000 tweets and retweets for which the authors’ gender was
Wesson, Linda Hampton; Holman, David
Replicating research completed in 1986, a study determined the relationship among cognitive laterality, gender, and reading comprehension for African-American students, as well as gender differences in cognitive laterality and in reading comprehension. Subjects, 40 African-American males, 41 African-American females, 12 White males, and 17 White…
exercise, and the similarities of the subjects. It was concluded that there are no significant gender and postural differences in cardiovascular response to hand grip testing exercise among elderly normotensives. It was thus recommended that irrespective of gender, the sitting or lying position can be used for hand grip.
Schoonheim, M.M.; Hulst, H.E.; Landi, D.; Ciccarelli, O.; Roosendaal, S.D.; Sanz-Arigita, E.J.; Vrenken, H.; Polman, C.H.; Stam, C.J.; Barkhof, F.; Geurts, J.J.G.
Background: Gender effects are strong in multiple sclerosis (MS), with male patients showing a worse clinical outcome than female patients. Functional reorganization of neural activity may contribute to limit disability, and possible gender differences in this process may have important clinical
Saadoon F. Alazmy
Sep 7, 2011 ... Knowledge;. Attitude gender difference. Abstract Background: Cultural and traditional norms in the community can have an impact on gender equity. This can be ... manipulative behavior, and physical and sexual assault, to rape and even ..... Malaysia: a survey on the primary health care providers. Asia.
Hardy, Jay H., III; Gibson, Carter
Despite significant scholarly attention, the literature on the existence and direction of gender differences in creativity has produced inconsistent findings. In the present paper, we argue that this lack of consensus may be attributable, at least in part, to gender-specific inconsistencies in the measurement of creative problem-solving. To…
The study determined gender differences among students in the utilization of electronic information ... resources, the relationship between gender ..... Library Book to Enhance Academic. Excellence in. Nigeria. Tertiary. Institution; A case study of Hezekiah. Oluwasanni Library Journal of social sciences 10,(2),119-122.
Adams, Eve M.; Betz, Nancy E.
Examined extent to which offender's, victim's, and counselor's gender were related to 111 counselors' attributions about and attitudes toward cases of incest. Found no significant differences as function of either victim or offender gender. Female counselors had broader definitions of incest than did male counselors and were less likely to view…
Rahman, Omar; And Others
Used data from United States, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Bangladesh to explore gender differences in adult health. Found that women fared worse than men across variety of self-reported health measures in all four countries. Data from Jamaica indicated that gender disparities in adult health arose early and persisted throughout the life cycle, with…
the world of work were possibly internalized through socialization as sex role stereotypes. (Betz, 2005). A lot of Psychological theories including Gender Schema .... resource managers, nurses), financial/business occupations (like bankers, accountants,. Ucheagwu, et al: Gender and Career Choice Differences on BVII: ...
Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Morrison, Elizabeth M.; Liau, Albert K.; Gibbs, John C.
Examined whether gender discrepancy in late adolescents' antisocial behavior may be attributed to gender differences in other moral cognitive variables. Found that mature moral judgment and higher moral self-relevance were associated with lower self-serving cognitive distortion, partially mediating the relationship between those variables and…
Boyatzis, Chris J.; Eades, Julie
Examined sex differences in preschoolers' and kindergartners' art generation and preference. First, researchers assessed gender stereotypicality in their drawings and preferences for pictures. Both sexes drew somewhat gender stereotypical pictures. Next, when choosing coloring book pictures to color, boys chose masculine and girls chose feminine…
Grittner, Ulrike; Mäkelä, Pia; Gmel, Gerhard
Aims: To compare drinking habits and to examine differences between drinking cultures in different regions and countries in Europe; to examine gender differences in drinking habits and to compare them over countries. Methods: Data consisted of independently conducted, centrally analysed surveys...... in the general population aged 20-64 years in 14 European countries. Central measures were abstention, frequency and volume of drinking overall and by beverage type, amounts drunk per drinking day, and heavy episodic drinking. Results: There were clear gender differences in all drinking measures, except for wine...... drinking. Differences between genders were often smaller than average in northern Europe. Gender ratios did not show systematic changes by age, with the exception that young men and women differed less than older men and women in the frequency of heavy episodic drinking. The results on beverage preferences...
Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Gwang Ha
It is important to understand sex and gender-related differences in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) because gender-related biologic factors might lead to better prevention and therapy. Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) affects more women than men. GERD symptoms are more frequent in patients with NERD than in those with reflux esophagitis. However, men suffer pathologic diseases such as reflux esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) more frequently than women. The prevalence of reflux esophagitis is significantly increased with age in women, especially after their 50s. The mean age of EAC incidence in women is higher than in men, suggesting a role of estrogen in delaying the onset of BE and EAC. In a chronic rat reflux esophagitis model, nitric oxide was found to be an aggravating factor of esophageal injury in a male-predominant way. In addition, the expression of esophageal occludin, a tight junction protein that plays an important role in the esophageal defense mechanism, was up-regulated in women. This explains the male predominance of reflux esophagitis and delayed incidence of BE or EAC in women. Moreover, the symptoms such as heartburn, regurgitation, and extra-esophageal symptoms have been more frequently reported by women than by men, suggesting that sex and gender play a role in symptom perception. Differential sensitivity with augmented symptoms in women might have diagnostic and therapeutic influence. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that hormone replacement therapy has a protective effect against esophageal cancer. However, an anti-inflammatory role of estrogen remains compelling, which means further study is necessary in this area. PMID:27703114
Background Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. Objective To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Methods Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres. Results The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. Conclusion The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures. PMID:24341391
Full Text Available This paper argues that, in order to understand the language use of Basque immigrants to southern California, it is essential to consider how language ideologies intersect with gender. First, although traditional Basque culture privileges men, the culture has changed in the American context in ways that may make it more welcoming to women. Second, speaking Basque has different social meanings for men and women when it comes to “performing” gender identities. For men, speaking Basque is appropriate for presenting oneself as a man and as a Basque. For women, speaking Basque is often incompatible with presenting oneself as a fashionable woman. Third, men are more likely to speak Basque in the public domain even in America, because of their greater access to employment and social networks composed of Basque speakers. At the same time, some women have increased their use of Basque after emigration, in part because the American context provides a less negative semantic space when it comes to women speaking Basque. The implications of these findings for Fishman’s theory on Reversing Language Shift are discussed.
Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Obel, Carsten; Smith, Nina
This study analyzes gender differences in behavioral problems and school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for approximately 6000 Danish children 10–12 years of age who were born in 1990–1992. The sample has been merged...... with extensive register data on parental background and student outcomes. Our findings show a large negative association between indicators of externalizing behavioral and school outcomes. Only a minor percentage of the gender difference in average reading and math test scores, however, can be attributed...... to gender differences in the prevalence of low-scoring individuals with behavioral problems....
Gabriele Ana Paula Danielli Schmitz
Full Text Available The research has the problem consider whether to grant the same rights to men and women is sufficient for the realization of the right to equality. The objectives are: a to place the right to difference; b to analyze gender discrimination; c to verify the influence of the right to difference in gender discrimination. The argument was organized into three chapters to analyze: the right to difference; gender discrimination; to grant the same rights to men and women is sufficient for the realization of the right to equality. The study was based on logical method of inductive approach and literature.
I analyze the job separation process to learn about gender differences in job separation rates and employment stability. An essential finding is that employer-employee data are required to identify gender differences in job separation probabilities because of labor market segregation. Failure...... to recognize this may potentially lead to statistical discrimination. Three important empirical results are obtained from the analysis. First, women have higher unconditional job separation probabilities. Second, there are no gender differences in job separation probabilities for employees working in similar...
This literature review looks at different studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) and the findings on gender differences. Many studies have analyzed male and femaleADHD behaviors, cognitive functioning, IQ, task performance, and parent/teacher and selfreportedratings. Most studies have found that the results for gender differences vary due to thevarying sample selection methods that they use, which include clinical and community samples,sample size, culture, and age. Results...
The thesis examines attitudes towards outdoor advertising, with strong emphasis on gender-based differences. The research intends to reveal the most influencing factors, including gender, format, different images and recall. Earlier researchers have argued that females are inclined to rate advertisements more positively than men. Five different, but interconnected studies, one content analysis and four surveys, were implicated in order to measure the responses to advertising. It is further su...
Grosch, Kerstin; Rau, Holger
This paper experimentally analyzes the determinants of the honesty norm in a lying game. The findings confirm common gender differences, i.e., men cheat significantly more than women. We detect a novel correlation between subjects' magnitude of concern they have for others (social value orientation) and their moral valuation of the norm honesty. The data suggest that individualistic subjects are less honest than prosocial ones. Interestingly, this difference can explain the gender differences...
Beam, Christopher R; Marcus, Katherine; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E
Marriages consist of shared experiences and interactions between husbands and wives that may lead to different impressions of the quality of the relationship. Few studies, unfortunately, have tested gender differences in the structure of marital quality, and even fewer studies have evaluated whether genetic and environmental influences on marital quality differ across gender. In this study, we evaluated gender differences in the structure of marital quality using independent samples of married male (n = 2406) and married female (n = 2215) participants from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States who provided ratings on twenty-eight marital quality items encompassing six marital quality constructs. We further explored gender differences in genetic and environmental influences on marital quality constructs in a subsample of 491 pairs of twins. Results suggest partial metric invariance across gender but structural variability in marital quality constructs. Notably, correlations between constructs were stronger in women than men. Results also support gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on different aspects of marital quality. We discuss that men and women may approach and react to marriage differently as the primary reason why we observed differences in the structure of marital quality.
Tummala, Sudhakar; Schiphof, Dieuwke; Byrjalsen, Inger
was located and quantified using Euclidean distance transform. Furthermore, the CI was quantified over the contact area by assessing agreement of the first- and second-order general surface features. Then, the gender differences between CA and CI values were evaluated at different stages of radiographic OA......Objective Gender is a risk factor in the onset of osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of the study was to investigate gender differences in contact area (CA) and congruity index (CI) in the medial tibiofemoral (MTF) joint in 2 different cohorts, quantified automatically from magnetic resonance imaging....... Results Female CAs were significantly higher than male CAs after normalization, male CIs were significantly higher than female CIs after correcting with age and body mass index ( P gender differences were present at all stages...
Coffé, H.R.; Bolzendahl, C.
We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and
Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran
Gender-related differences in susceptibility to chemical exposure to neurotoxicants have not received sufficient attention. Although a significant number of epidemiological studies on the neurodevelopmental effects of metal exposure has been published in the last twenty years, not many of them have considered the possible gender-specific effects of such exposure. This review is focused on studies where the gender differences in pre- and/or postnatal exposure/s to five metals (mercury, lead, manganese, cadmium, and arsenic) and neurodevelopment were evaluated. We conducted a PubMed search in December 2012 and retrieved 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria. A large body of literature on potential neurodevelopment effects in children due to mercury exposure is available, but, a clear pattern regarding gender differences in neurotoxicity is not elucidated. There is also abundant available information on the gender-specific health effects of lead, and exposure to this metal seems to affect boys more than girls. Information regarding gender differences in susceptibility of manganese, cadmium, and arsenic is still too scarce to draw any definite conclusion. More research is highly warranted about this matter. Environmental epidemiological studies should be designed to quantify differential gender-based exposures and outcomes, and this may provide new insights into prevention strategies
Georgiev, D; Hamberg, K; Hariz, M; Forsgren, L; Hariz, G-M
Available data indicate that there are gender differences in many features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Precise identification of the gender differences is important to tailor treatment, predict outcomes, and meet other individual and social needs in women and men with PD. The aim of this study was to review the available clinical data on gender differences in PD. Original articles and meta-analyses published between 1990 and 2016 systematically exploring gender differences in PD were reviewed. There is slight male preponderance in incidence and prevalence of PD. PD starts earlier in men. Women tend to be more prone to develop tremor-dominant PD but are less rigid than men. Motor improvement after deep brain stimulation is equal in both sexes, but women tend to show better improvement in activities of daily living. Furthermore, women with PD show better results on tests for general cognitive abilities, outperform men in verbal cognitive tasks, show more pain symptoms, and score higher on depression scales. It seems, however, that the differences in cognition, mood, and pain perception are not disease specific as similar gender differences can be found in healthy subjects and in other neurological conditions. Despite PD being the most frequently studied movement disorder, studies investigating gender differences in PD are still scarce with most of the studies being cross-sectional. Good-quality, prospective, longitudinal studies analyzing gender differences in PD and comparing them to matched healthy controls are needed in order to properly address the issues of gender differences in PD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Johnson, R W; Sambamoorthi, U; Crystal, S
Information from pension providers was examined to investigate gender differences in pension wealth at midlife. For full-time wage and salary workers approaching retirement age who had pension coverage, median pension wealth on the current job was 76% greater for men than women. Differences in wages, years of job tenure, and industry between men and women accounted for most of the gender gap in pension wealth on the current job. Less than one third of the wealth difference could not be explained by gender differences in education, demographics, or job characteristics. The less-advantaged employment situation of working women currently in midlife carries over into worse retirement income prospects. However, the gender gap in pensions is likely to narrow in the future as married women's employment experiences increasingly resemble those of men.
hand preference and 14 left-hand preference, participated in a quasi-experiment, which investigated gender differences and hand preferences in spatial ability among senior secondary school students in Nigeria. Two (2) hypotheses are tested ...
S.I. Wassenburg (Stephanie); B.B. de Koning (Björn); M.H. de Vries (Meinou); A.M. Boonstra (Marije); M. van der Schoot (Menno)
textabstractText comprehension requires readers to mentally simulate the described situation by reactivating previously acquired sensory and motor information from (episodic) memory. Drawing upon research demonstrating gender differences, favouring girls, in tasks involving episodic memory
Hald, Gert Martin
The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using...... a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time...... and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own...
Shields, Stephanie A.; Dicicco, Elaine C.
The social psychology of gender has grown to become a thriving, scientifically sound research theme that encompasses a wide variety of topics and questions. The story of how this came to be has been told from a number of perspectives (e.g., Crawford & Marecek, 1989; Deaux, 1999; Rutherford, Vaughn-Blount, & Ball, 2010; Unger, 1998). In this…
Spindler, Helle; Johansen, Jens B; Andersen, Kirsten Krogh
Little is known about gender differences in the response to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy. We compared female and male ICD patients on anxiety, depression, health-related quality of life (HRQL), ICD concerns, and ICD acceptance.......Little is known about gender differences in the response to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy. We compared female and male ICD patients on anxiety, depression, health-related quality of life (HRQL), ICD concerns, and ICD acceptance....
Griesbeck, Morgane; Scully, Eileen; Altfeld, Marcus
The major burden of the human immunodeficiency (HIV) type 1 pandemic is nowadays carried by women from sub-Saharan Africa. Differences in the manifestations of HIV-1 infection between women and men have been long reported, and might be due to both socio-economic (gender) and biological (sex) factors. Several studies have shown that women are more susceptible to HIV-1 acquisition than men. Following HIV-1 infection, women have lower viral loads during acute infection and exhibit stronger antiviral responses than men, which may contribute to differences in the size of viral reservoirs. Oestrogen receptor signalling could represent an important mediator of sex differences in HIV-1 reservoir size and may represent a potential therapeutic target. Furthermore, immune activation, a hallmark of HIV-1 infection, is generally higher in women than in men and could be a central mechanism in the sex difference observed in the speed of HIV-1 disease progression. Here, we review the literature regarding sex-based differences in HIV-1 infection and discuss how a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms could improve preventive and therapeutic strategies. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
Leiter, Valerie; Rieker, Patricia P
The gendered nature of special health care needs in childhood is an important yet understudied area. Although gendered differences in the prevalence of special health care needs have been documented, there is less knowledge about the factors which contribute to those differences. Two research questions guide this inquiry. First, is the gender gap consistent across child special health care need indicators? Second, to what extent is the gender gap in special health care needs driven by behavioral conditions? We use multiple indicators from the U.S. National Survey of Children's Health to expand our understanding about the dynamic relationship between gender and childhood health. There are clear gender differences in the prevalence of special health care needs. Boys are more likely than girls to have special health care needs overall and on the five separate components examined (medication, more care than typical, limitations, special therapies, and educational or behavioral problem). This gender gap is dynamic and varies by indicator; while behavioral conditions play a role, it remains even after controlling for behavioral conditions. The reasons for the gender differences appear to be both biological and social but much remains unknown about this pattern.
Somaye Hamdi asl
Full Text Available Studies regarding gender differences in EFL context have been done for many years. However, it seems that writing, which is a vital skill in academic issues, has gained much less attention in this area. In addition, not having enough knowledge of gender differences for teachers is one of the main barriers of language learning. The current study examines gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing in terms of 13 linguistic features mentioned in Mulac, Bradac, & Gibbons (2001. The results of this study showed significant differences toward the use of some linguistic features. Female participants tended to use more “I” references, references to quantity, references to emotions, uncertainty verbs, sentence initial adverbials and judgmental adjectives. In addition, the results showed than women tended to be wordier than men in terms of total number of words. Men, on the other hand, exceeded women on a number of linguistic dimensions including locatives, mean length sentence and dependent clauses. Moreover, elliptical sentences were not used by female participants at all and few male participants used them in their letters. Therefore, this study demonstrated gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing. These dissimilarities between genders in EFL can be contributed to many aspects such as educational instructions, teachers, and cultural differences. It also illustrated teachers’ perspectives of gender regarding students’ writing.
Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta
Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.
Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii
Assisting transgender individuals is a concern for career development practitioners because there is a lack of knowledge on this topic. The complexity of gender reassignment surgery brings challenges and unique needs to this population, throughout gender transition, and requires career development practitioners to understand these challenges and…
In this article, I consider ways in which the concept of "proximity" can be put to work to understand how gendering occurs in the conduct of gender research--the theme of this special issue. If we accept that researchers are always already inside and implicated in the issues into which they inquire, and that they simultaneously establish…
Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Brygger, Mary Pat
Examined difference between male and female reports of violence and threats directed by the man toward the woman. In many categories, significantly more women were found at intake to report more threats and violence than their male partners. After extensive intervention these differences were not found in the more severe categories of violence.…
Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi
Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender
Clement C. Azodo and Barnabas Unamatokpa
Background: Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Aim: To assess the gender difference in the oral health perception and practices among medical house officers in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted among doctors undergoing 12-months mandatory housemanship in tertiary and secondary hospitals...
Azodo, Clement; Unamatokpa, Barnabas
Background: Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modifiction approach towards sustainable oral health. Aim: To assess the gender difference in the oral health perception and practices among medical house officers in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire‐based cross‐sectional study was conducted among doctors undergoing 12‐months mandatory housemanship in tertiary and secondary hospitals ...
Dimich-Ward, Helen; Camp, Patricia G.; Kennedy, Susan M.
Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by χ 2 analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes
Domestic abuse is a kind of violence common in South Africa which for most part focuses on women. Children and adolescents who witness these abuses are hardly the focus of domestic abuse research. Hence the need to understand the relationship between gender, exposure to domestic violence and identity ...
Curcio, Angela L.; Mak, Anita S.
A thorough understanding of adolescent drinking and delinquent behaviour is required in order to implement early prevention and intervention programs in schools. Broadly based on the common cause model of adolescent deviance, this study investigated and compared, across genders, the prevalence and inter-relationships of various indicators of…
Villamor, G.B.; Noordwijk, van M.; Djanibekov, U.; Chiong-Javier, E.; Catacutan, D.
While decision-making processes of land managers drive land-use change and affect the provision of ecosystems services, there is no concrete understanding of whether gender specificity in decision-making influences the multifunctionality of landscapes. We distinguish eleven elements in a typical
Capraro, Valerio; Sippel, Jonathan
Whether, and if so, how exactly gender differences are manifested in moral judgment has recently been at the center of much research on moral decision making. Previous research suggests that women are more deontological than men in personal, but not impersonal, moral dilemmas. However, typical personal and impersonal moral dilemmas differ along two dimensions: Personal dilemmas are more emotionally salient than impersonal ones and involve a violation of Kant's practical imperative that humans must never be used as a mere means, but only as ends. Thus, it remains unclear whether the reported gender difference is due to emotional salience or to the violation of the practical imperative. To answer this question, we explore gender differences in three moral dilemmas: a typical personal dilemma, a typical impersonal dilemma, and an intermediate dilemma, which is not as emotionally salient as typical personal moral dilemmas, but contains an equally strong violation of Kant's practical imperative. While we replicate the result that women tend to embrace deontological ethics more than men in personal, but not impersonal, dilemmas, we find no gender differences in the intermediate situation. This suggests that gender differences in these type of dilemmas are driven by emotional salience, and not by the violation of the practical imperative. Additionally, we also explore whether people think that women should behave differently than men in these dilemmas. Across all three dilemmas, we find no statistically significant differences about how people think men and women should behave.
Veronika Hedija; Petr Musil
The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the p...
Dulebohn, James H; Davison, Robert B; Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Conlon, Donald E; McNamara, Gerry; Sarinopoulos, Issidoros C
Justice research examining gender differences has yielded contrasting findings. This study enlists advanced techniques in cognitive neuroscience (fMRI) to examine gender differences in brain activation patterns in response to procedural and distributive justice manipulations. We integrate social role, information processing, justice, and neuroscience literature to posit and test for gender differences in 2 neural subsystems known to be involved in the appraisal of self-relevant events. Results indicate that the relationship between justice information processing and neural activity in areas representing these subsystems is significantly influenced by gender, with greater activation for females than males during consideration of both procedural and distributive justice information. In addition, we find evidence that gender and distributive injustice interact to influence bargaining behavior, with females rejecting ultimatum game offers more frequently than males. Results also demonstrate activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and ventral striatum brain regions during procedural justice evaluation is associated with offer rejection in females, but not in males. Managerial implications based on the study's support for gender differences in justice perceptions are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Sadato, N; Ibañez, V; Deiber, M P; Hallett, M
To investigate possible gender differences in tactile discrimination tasks, we measured cerebral blood flow of seven men and seven women using positron emission tomography and (15)O water during tactile tasks performed with the right index finger. A nondiscrimination, somatosensory control task activated the left primary sensorimotor cortex and the left parietal operculum extending to the posterior insula without any gender difference. Compared with the control task, discrimination tasks activated the superior and inferior parietal lobules bilaterally, right dorsal premotor cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in both genders, consistent with the notion of right hemisphere involvement during exploratory attentional movements. In both genders, symmetric activation of the superior and inferior parietal lobules and asymmetric activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were confirmed. The former is consistent with the spatial representation of the tactile input and the latter with the spatial working memory. However, activation of the dorsal premotor cortex was asymmetric in men, whereas it was symmetric in women, the gender difference being statistically significant. This may suggest gender differences in motor programs for exploration in manipulospatial tasks such as tactile discrimination with active touch, possibly by greater interhemispheric interaction through the dorsal premotor cortices in women than in men. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria
Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a “male” disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher: Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as traditional and psychosocial risk factors. Compared with men, CVD risk in women is increased to a greater extent by some traditional factors (eg, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity,) and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors also seem to have a higher impact on CVD in women. With respect la differences in CVD management, a gender bias in favor of men has to be taken into account, in spite of greater age and higher comorbidity in women, possibly contributing to a poorer outcome. Depression has been shown to be an independent risk factor and consequence of CVD; however, concerning gender differences, The results have been inconsistent. Current evidence suggests that depression causes a greater increase in CVD incidence in women, and that female CVD patients experience higher levels of depression than men. Gensier aspects should be more intensively considered, both in further research on gender differences in comorbid depresion, and in cardiac treatment and rehabilitation, with the goal of making secondary prevention more effective. PMID:17506227
A. Joosse (Arjen)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cutaneous melanoma is developing into a major public health problem worldwide. Incidence differs greatly across the world with high incidence rates in the Unites states, Europe and especially in Australia and New Zealand, but relatively low incidence rates
Leana, Carrie R.; Feldman, Daniel C.
Study of how 94 men and 63 women perceived and coped with job loss found no significant differences in psychological and behavioral distress. However, men relied more on problem-focused activities such as job search, whereas women relied more on symptom-focused activities such as seeking social support. Marital status affected coping behavior and…
Bessette, Janelle M.; And Others
There has been virtually no investigation of the differences between male and female responses to unjust conditions. This study is a meta-analysis of those studies investigating the conditions under which individuals will assume responsibility for lower outcomes under unjust discriminatory practices. Three conditions were investigated which…
Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen
Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…
Buser, T.; Peter, N.
We examine how multitasking affects performance and check whether women are indeed better at multitasking. Subjects in our experiment perform two different tasks according to three treatments: one where they perform the tasks sequentially, one where they are forced to multitask, and one where they
Worldwide, many research has been performed to investigate differences between men and women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (the most common type of diabetes). These studies showed that the negative impact of T2D on health is higher among women compared to men. However, whether this phenomenon holds
Ignacio Zarragoitía Alonso
The article presents and analyzes the major factors involved in depression, taking into account those related to biological, psychological and social issues linked to sex and gender. Ultimately, these sex and gender-associated factors determine that the condition is present more often in women than in men, nearly doubling the cases. In addition, the article describes the singularities of depressive disorders in different reproductive periods when the disease acquires clinical specificity in a...
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani
Background Despite the existing knowledge on the association between discrimination and poor mental health, very few studies have explored gender differences in this association in Arab Americans. Objective The current study aimed to investigate whether gender moderates the association between the experience of discrimination and psychological distress in a representative sample of Arab Americans in Michigan. Methods Using data from the Detroit Arab American Study (DAAS), 2...
HAURET Laetitia; WILLIAMS Donald R.
Research over the past two decades has found significant gender differences in subjective job-satisfaction, with the result that women report greater satisfaction than men in some countries. This paper examines the so-called ?gender paradox? using data from the European Social Survey for a subset of fourteen countries in the European Union. We focus on the hypothesis that women place higher values on certain work characteristics than men, which explains the observed differential. Using estima...
Kate Wilson; David Low; Matthew Verdon; Alix Verdon
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally ...
Guo, Jing; Guo, Jing; Xu, Wu-Bing; Zhang, Jia-En; Zhao, Ben-Liang; Luo, Ming-Zhu
In order to understand whether Pomacea canaliculata exhibits gender differences in cold resistance, the survival rate and supercooling point of both P. canaliculata females and males were investigated at low temperature. The changes in physiological and biochemical indices in the body of P. canaliculata before and after the winter were also examined. The results showed that the mean supercooling point of females was -6.83 degrees C, which was significantly lower than that of the males (-6.26 degrees C). With the arrival of winter, the amounts of bound water, glycerol, lipid and glycogen of P. canaliculata increased, while the amount of free water decreased. These indices except glycerol showed significant differences between males and females. More than 90% non-acclimated snails could survive at the temperature of 10 degrees C for 7 days. The survival rate of snails exhibited significant differences in sex and shell height after being transferred at 5 degrees C for 7 days. In addition, more females were recorded during field investigation. Based on these results, we concluded that the females had higher cold tolerance than the males. This finding would provide some references for further investigation of ecological adaptation, natural sex ratio and cold tolerance mechanisms of P. canaliculata.
Leviatan, U; Cohen, J
A literature review of findings reveals that the life expectancy (LE) of females is longer than that of males and that a strong relationship exists between LE and gender differences in LE. The arguments of biological vs societal reasons for such gender differences are presented and the kibbutz society is offered as a setting to test the rivaling hypotheses. It is argued that the kibbutz society offers more similar roles for both genders than outside the kibbutz and therefore the gender differences in LE should be reduced in comparison to what is expected, given the very high LE of kibbutz members. Statistical data of the kibbutz population between the years 1975-1980 are analyzed and the results support the following conclusions: female members have higher LE but the difference is much less than expected on the basis of a regression analysis of data from 73 societies; the difference is smaller due to the relatively higher gain in LE by males; the gender differences are even smaller at age 50 compared to LE differences at birth. The Discussion section dwells upon interpretations of the findings and argues against alternative interpretations that assume selection processes for the kibbutz population. Suggestions for further studies are also made.
Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Schreiber, Liana R N
Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for selecting appropriate prevention and treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and cogn...... and cognitive differences in treatment-seeking people with pathological gambling as a function of gender....
Carl, John D.
As a parent, sociologist, and educator, the author often seems to see the world differently from others. While some see a public policy debate as a football game between winners and losers, he sees it as a vital way to create a good society. While some see education as a means to an end, he sees it as a goal in and of itself. Some see gender…
Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo
This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…
van den Besselaar, P.A.A.; Sandstrom, U.
We take up the issue of performance differences between male and female researchers, and investigate the change of performance differences during the early career. In a previous paper it was shown that among starting researchers gendered performance differences seem small to non-existent (Van
Harris, Frank, III; Harper, Shaun R.
Social scientists, educational researchers, postsecondary educators (including student affairs professionals), and others have attempted to understand problematic behavioral trends and developmental outcomes among undergraduate men. Little attention has been devoted to examining the masculine identities and ideals about manhood that these students…
Manuel, Jennifer I; Stebbins, Mary B; Wu, Elwin
This study examined gender differences in perceived unmet treatment needs among persons with and without co-occurring substance use disorders and serious mental health conditions. Data were drawn from the 2008-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (unweighted N = 37,187) to test the hypothesis that the relationships between diagnosis and perceived unmet treatment needs differ as a function of gender. Compared to individuals with a substance use disorder or severe mental illness, those with co-occurring disorders were more likely to report perceived unmet needs for substance abuse and mental health treatment. Gender significantly moderated the relationship between diagnosis and unmet needs, suggesting that men with co-occurring disorders might be more adversely affected. Findings highlight the need for better understanding of gender-diagnosis differences with respect to unmet needs for substance abuse and mental health care.
Siegling, Alexander B; Delaney, Mary E
This study examined the relationships between body image importance (BII) and perfectionism and body satisfaction in a Canadian sample of undergraduate students. Specifically, perfectionism was conceptualized as a common cause of BII and body satisfaction. Furthermore, gender-schematic processing was examined as a moderator of sex differences in BII, which have been inconsistently found. As hypothesized, there was no significant partial correlation between BII and body satisfaction, controlling for perfectionism. Also, a significant Sex × Gender Schematicity interaction indicated that gender schematicity moderates sex differences in BII. Implications for understanding individual differences in, and elevated levels of BII are discussed.
Goldman, Amy D.; Penner, Andrew M.
This study provides an international perspective on mathematics by examnnng mathematics self-concept, achievement, and the desire to enter a career involving mathematics among eighth graders in 49 countries. Using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, this study shows that self-concept in mathematics is more closely related to the desire to enter a career using mathematics than achievement is. Further, while gender differences in mathematics self-concept are smaller in more egalitarian countries, both girls and boys have lower mathematics self-concepts and less interest in mathematics careers in these countries. These findings reveal a policy paradox: policies aimed at training the next generation of STEM professionals often highlight the need to close the gender gap, but countries with smaller gender gaps have fewer boys and girls interested in mathematics-intensive careers. We conclude by highlighting the importance of disentangling instrumental and expressive aspects of gender inequality in STEM fields. PMID:27840545
Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng
The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception—women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence. PMID:27362361
Mugoya, George C T; Ernst, Kacey
Stigma associated with HIV/AIDS directly and indirectly drives HIV transmission. We examined how factors associated with HIV-related stigma differed by gender, using data from the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). Descriptive, bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted on selected HIV-related stigma indicators for men and women. Bivariate analyses showed significant gender differences in the overall HIV Stigma index with a higher proportion of women than men presented at the highest stigma level (4.9% vs 2.7%, p gender differences were found in employment, marital status, ethnicity, region of residence, wealth and media exposure. Our results showed that women in the general Kenyan population had higher stigmatic attitudes than men. This was associated with differences in risk factor profile and confirmed previous literature on complexity of social-cultural factors associated with HIV-related stigma.
Full Text Available Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological responses to trauma, differences in appraisal, interpretation or experience of threat, coping style or social support. In this context, the use of an animal model for PTSD to analyze some of these gender-related differences may be of particular utility. Animal models of PTSD offer the opportunity to distinguish between biological and socio-cultural factors, which so often enter the discussion about gender differences in PTSD prevalence.
Because of the social meaning smoking has acquired and because of different trends in male and female initiation rates, it is reasonable to suspect that different psychosocial factors predict smoking in teen-age boys and girls. A literature review revealed external pressures such as peer and parental smoking are important for both boys and girls though their influence may be moderated differentially by age and type of smoking behavior assessed. Some data support the hypothesis that female smoking is associated with self-confidence, social experience, and rebellion, whereas male smoking is associated with social insecurity. Overall, group differences such as gender and socioeconomic status are well-documented in terms of smoking prevalence but underexplored in the area of psychosocial predictors. In this review, gender differences have been documented with sufficient frequency to warrant further attention to develop gender specific components of smoking prevention programs.
Matias García Terán; Gabriela A Cabanillas; Valeria E Morán; Fabián O Olaz
Different authors claim that the differences found in the social skills repertoire of men and women could be explained by gender orientation. The purpose of this study is to determine if there are gender differences in social skills in university students from Córdoba (Argentina). The Social Skills Questionnaire for College Students (SSQ-C) (Morán, Olaz & Del Prette, in preparation) was applied to a sample of 1076 university students of both sexes, aged between 18 and 25 years old, from 56 u...
Mullinax, Margo; Higgins, Jenny; Wagman, Jennifer; Nakyanjo, Neema; Kigozi, Godfrey; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria; Gray, Ronald; Nalugoda, Fred
Women's rights and gender empowerment programmes are now part of the international agenda for improving global public health, the benefits of which are well documented. However, the public health community has, yet, to address how people define and understand gender equality and how they enact the process of empowerment in their lives. This study uses safe homes and respect for everyone (SHARE), an anti-violence intervention in rural Rakai, Uganda, as a case study to investigate perceptions of gender equality. Investigators analysed 12 focus groups of adult women and men to explore how macro-level concepts of gender equality are being processed on an interpersonal level and the effects on health outcomes. Respondents generally agreed that women lack basic rights. However, they also expressed widespread disagreement about the meanings of gender equality, and reported difficulties integrating the concepts of gender equality into their interpersonal relationships. Community members reported that equality, with the resulting shift in gender norms, could expose women to adverse consequences such as violence, infidelity and abandonment with increased sexual health risks, and potential adverse effects on education. Efforts to increase women's rights must occur in conjunction with community-based work on understandings of gender equality.
Schuch, Jerome J. J.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Jonge, Peter
Background: Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology,
Notes how females are known to excel over males in most reading tasks, but not consistently so in tasks that require processing information from maps, tables, charts and diagrams, so called "Documents." Describes and analyzes gender differences on Document tasks, and investigates if and how the pattern of differences varies over countries. (SG)
Langen, A.M.L. van; Bosker, R.J.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.
Although the participation rates of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (or STEM) education is poor in most Western countries, considerable differences across countries exist as well. This may be due to differences in the so-called gender achievement gaps, that is, delays of
Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.
Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…
Zur, O.; And Others
This study showed that war does have an appeal to both men and women, but that appeal is different and is related to the set of moral concerns that are unique to each gender. To assess the different aspects of men's and women's attitudes towards war, a 48-item Likert-type scale was constructed and administered to 148 students. Results showed that…
Children begin to engage in pretend play, develop receptive and expressive language, and use mental representation at approximately the same time in their development. The researchers set out to investigate whether boys and girls have different fantasy worlds. The study thus explores gender differences in pretend play ...
This paper analyzes gender differences in jobs while in school using school-class-based samples, a setting in which education differences, “glass ceilings”, and career interruptions due to parenthood are irrelevant. I find that in this early stage of life boys already earn substantially more than
This study aimed at investigating gender differences in attitudes toward science in Ghanaian schools. It also attempted to study developmental differences in attitudes toward science between pupils when they were in grade 7 and when they got to grade 9 two years after. A stratified random sample (N=248) was obtained ...
Bonnard, Claire; Giret, Jean-Francois
Gender differences in wage expectations may affect investment in human capital and increase inequalities in the labour market. Our research based on a survey of first-year students at a French university aims to focus on expectations at the beginning of the career. Our results show that anticipated earnings differ significantly between men and…
This study was undertaken to examine gender differences in mathematics achievement among fifth and sixth grade students and to identify the factors that account for variations in their performance. The findings indicate a difference in favor of boys among sixth graders. In addition, the regression analysis results suggest ...
This exploratory study investigated gender differences in Internet identification and Internet anxiety. A sample of 231 students (138 females and 93 males) from four different schools participated in the study. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Factor analysis was carried out to test for construct validity.
Burke, Penny Jane
This article explores work published in "Teaching in Higher Education" that critically engages complex questions of difference and emotion in higher education pedagogies. It considers the ways that difference is connected to gender and misrecognition, and is experienced at the level of emotion, often through symbolic forms of violence…
Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…
This paper investigated gender difference and students problem solving skills in mathematics probability by senior secondary school students with a view to determining differences in operational steps and levels of achievers. A total of 300 male and female students were randomly selected from 10 schools in the three ...
Seng, Alice Seok Hoon; Tan, Lee Choo
This study reports on cultural and gender differences in the spatial abilities of children based on the Water Level Task. The Piagetian theory of age-related developmental differences in performance on the Water Level Task was explored with Chinese and Malay children living in Singapore. Results indicate that children in this study did not perform…
The purpose of this study was therefore to examine gender and ethnical differences in motor proficiency among Senior Phase learners in a South African city. A total of 239 13- to 14-year-old learners, from eight schools of different socioeconomic backgrounds in Potchefstroom, were assessed using the Bruininks- Oseretsky ...
Burke, Penny Jane
This paper draws attention to gendered inequalities in relation to pedagogic participation, the politics of difference and the concept of "shame." I use the term "pedagogic participation" to illuminate the relationship between formations of difference, policy concerns to improve "equity" and higher education…
Voyer, Daniel; Saunders, Kristin A
The purpose of the present study was to examine possible gender differences in strategy when completing the mental rotations test. Two experiments examined gender differences and the factor structure on outcomes that can be obtained on this test. Experiment 1 involved large groups testing and Experiment 2 used small groups. Factor analytic results in both experiments generally supported the notion that items with one wrong and one blank response or one correct and one blank reflect reluctance to guess, whereas one correct and one wrong or two wrong answers reflect propensity to guess. Even though the factor structure was the same in males and females, the data provided mitigated support for the hypothesis that males have a higher propensity to guess and females show a greater reluctance to guess. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the interpretation of gender differences on the MRT.
Otero Dadín, C; Rodríguez Salgado, D; Andrade Fernández, E
To analyze gender differences in memory and the influence of the natural sex hormone cycles on it. A total of 20 men and 19 women were assessed with memory tests two times coinciding with two hormonal phases of the diurnal cycle of testosterone in men or menstrual cycle in women. It was observed that women perform better than men in delayed verbal memory as well as in immediate and delayed object recall, and men in digit span. It was also found that there was a significant effect of the hormonal cycles on verbal working memory, immediate object recall and on the spatial component of visuoconstructive memory. Finally, hormonal cycles determine the existence and direction of gender differences in verbal working memory, delayed object recall and in the spatial component of visuoconstructive memory. Natural sex hormone cycles seem to influence gender differences in some measurements of memory.
Full Text Available Recently, the diffusion of the Internet as a retail and distribution channel has undergone a great growth. This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of gender differences on online buying. The study explored gender differences among 13 factors concerning the internet buyer. With regard to factors and consistent with Hypothesis and sub hypothesis, differences were detected across genders using t-student tests and the findings were in alignment with the ANOVA test. For data collection and final testing of the E-SAT model a questionnaire was designed and distributed among 100 randomly people who resided in Iran. The analysis show that merchandising, security and company items gained more scores for men than women in online shopping.
Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin
The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.
Molina, J Alberto; Giménez-Nadal, J Ignacio; Cuesta, José A; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir; Sanchez, Angel
The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences.
J Alberto Molina
Full Text Available The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences.
Buccelli, C; Della Casa, E; Paternoster, M; Niola, M; Pieri, M
Gender differences in substance use/abuse have been the focus of research in the last 15 years. Initiation, use patterns, acceleration of disease course, and help-seeking patterns are known to be influenced by gender differences with regard to biological, psychological, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This paper presents a systematic review of published data on gender differences in the use/abuse of psychoactive and psychotic drugs, focusing on the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. The basis for this paper was obtained by Medline searches using the search terms "human" and "gender", combined with individual drug names or "drugs of abuse". The reference lists of these papers were further checked for other relevant studies. The gender difference in drug abuse is more evident in adults than in adolescents (13-19 years): adult men are 2-3 times more likely than women to develop drug abuse/dependence disorders and approximately 4 times as likely to have an alcohol use disorder. Such prevalence rates have not been observed in adolescents. Differences between men and women involve: (i) the biological response to the drug, (ii) the progression to drug dependence, and (iii) the comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, which may be due to both sociocultural factors and innate biological differences. A crucial role played by ovarian hormones (oestrogens and progesterone) has been documented in both human and animal model studies. Epidemiological data on how particular psychobiological and physiological characteristics in females influence vulnerability to both drug addiction and toxicological consequences of drugs are still in their infancy. Significant gaps remain in our knowledge, which are primarily attributable to the lack of empirical data that only a systematic and multidisciplinary approach to the topic can generate. The introduction of gender into forensic toxicological evaluations may help elucidate the relationship between the body's absorption of abused drugs
Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J
In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Full Text Available The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the public sector. It is exactly this issue, which is discussed in this article, its aim being to identify the extent of the gender pay gap in the selected Czech public sector company. The article concentrates on finding the main causes for the existence of wage differences between men and women and determining whether the company inclines to wage discrimination against women. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is used to define, which part of the gender pay gap can be attributed to the different characteristics of men and women and which part stays unexplained. It is this unexplained part that can be the result of wage discrimination against women.
Voyer, Daniel; Postma, Albert; Brake, Brandy; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne
The goal of the present study was to quantify the magnitude of gender differences in object location memory tasks. A total of 123 effect sizes (d) drawn from 36 studies were included in a meta-analysis using a hierarchical approach. Object identity memory (37 effect sizes) and object location memory (86 effect sizes) tasks were analyzed separately. Object identity memory task showed significant gender differences that were homogeneous and in favor of women. For the object location memory tasks, effect sizes had to be partitioned by age (younger than 13, between 13 and 18, older than 18), object type (common, uncommon, gender neutral, geometric, masculine, feminine), scoring method (accuracy, time, distance), and type of measure (recall, recognition) to achieve homogeneity. Significant gender differences in favor of females were obtained in all clusters above the age of 13, with the exception of feminine, uncommon, and gender-neutral objects. Masculine objects and measures of distance produced significant effects in favor of males. Implications of these results for future work and for theoretical interpretations are discussed.
Alazraki, Adina L; Braithwaite, Kiery A
Gender-based differences commonly encountered in pediatric nuclear medicine reflect both basic embryologic differences of the sexes, which are evident from infancy, and evolving physiological changes due to gender, which occur as the pediatric patient grows, undergoes puberty, and matures to adulthood. It is important for a nuclear medicine physician or radiologist to know both the gender and the age of a patient when interpreting her or his studies. It is also important that the reading physician be familiar with the normally evolving physiological changes that are specific for that patient's stage of development. It is particularly important that the reading physician consider such changes when comparing serial studies of the patient that are acquired during the patient's transitions through her or his different significant stages of development. Many pediatric nuclear medicine imaging protocols are modifications or adaptations of the protocols for adult imaging. Physicians reading pediatric studies must routinely incorporate knowledge on age and gender that is relevant to the patient for any given study. The age-defined gender-based subtleties of potential findings in pediatric nuclear medicine studies are often underrecognized. However, they are often of interest and at times important in the workup of both benign entities and pathologic processes of the pediatric patient.
With every Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders that has been published, there has been controversy within controversy; however, what appears to be lacking is the importance of truly understanding what, why, and how the changes impact the community at large. Issues such as homosexuality, the five axial diagnostic system, and transitioning from a medical model to a biopsychosocial model have been hot topics that have led clinicians to challenge the reliability and validity of the manual throughout history. As clinicians and medical professionals, it is important to objectively look at the manual and become educated on how and why these changes exist. With that being said, this commentary aims to challenge the article " Problems with the Sexual Disorders Sections of DSM-5" by Colin A. Ross (2015). The structure of this commentary purposefully mirrors the structure of the commentary that it is challenging.
Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Auyeung, Bonnie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon
Objective The relationship between sex/gender differences and autism has attracted a variety of research ranging from clinical and neurobiological to etiological, stimulated by the male bias in autism prevalence. Findings are complex and do not always relate to each other in a straightforward manner. Distinct but interlinked questions on the relationship between sex/gender differences and autism remain underaddressed. To better understand the implications from existing research and to help design future studies, we propose a 4-level conceptual framework to clarify the embedded themes. Method We searched PubMed for publications before September 2014 using search terms “‘sex OR gender OR females’ AND autism.” A total of 1,906 articles were screened for relevance, along with publications identified via additional literature reviews, resulting in 329 articles that were reviewed. Results Level 1, “Nosological and diagnostic challenges,” concerns the question, “How should autism be defined and diagnosed in males and females?” Level 2, “Sex/gender-independent and sex/gender-dependent characteristics,” addresses the question, “What are the similarities and differences between males and females with autism?” Level 3, “General models of etiology: liability and threshold,” asks the question, “How is the liability for developing autism linked to sex/gender?” Level 4, “Specific etiological–developmental mechanisms,” focuses on the question, “What etiological–developmental mechanisms of autism are implicated by sex/gender and/or sexual/gender differentiation?” Conclusions Using this conceptual framework, findings can be more clearly summarized, and the implications of the links between findings from different levels can become clearer. Based on this 4-level framework, we suggest future research directions, methodology, and specific topics in sex/gender differences and autism. PMID:25524786
Clemens, Benjamin; Junger, Jessica; Pauly, Katharina; Neulen, Josef; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane; Frölich, Dirk; Mingoia, Gianluca; Derntl, Birgit; Habel, Ute
Recent research found gender-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies examining the differences in rs-FC between men, women, and individuals who report a discrepancy between their anatomical sex and their gender identity, i.e. gender dysphoria (GD). To address this important issue, we present the first fMRI study systematically investigating the differences in typical resting-state networks (RSNs) and hormonal treatment effects in 26 male-to-female GD individuals (MtFs) compared with 19 men and 20 women. Differences between male and female control groups were found only in the auditory RSN, whereas differences between both control groups and MtFs were found in the auditory and fronto-parietal RSNs, including both primary sensory areas (e.g. calcarine gyrus) and higher order cognitive areas such as the middle and posterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Overall, differences in MtFs compared with men and women were more pronounced before cross-sex hormonal treatment. Interestingly, rs-FC between MtFs and women did not differ significantly after treatment. When comparing hormonally untreated and treated MtFs, we found differences in connectivity of the calcarine gyrus and thalamus in the context of the auditory network, as well as the inferior frontal gyrus in context of the fronto-parietal network. Our results provide first evidence that MtFs exhibit patterns of rs-FC which are different from both their assigned and their aspired gender, indicating an intermediate position between the two sexes. We suggest that the present study constitutes a starting point for future research designed to clarify whether the brains of individuals with GD are more similar to their assigned or their aspired gender.
Drawing on a four-year research project on Canadian primary caregiving fathers, as well two recent projects on the first year of parenting, this article highlights several theoretical and substantive issues in the study of gender equality and gender differences in parenting. First, I call for shifts from a focus on domestic tasks toward domestic and community-based responsibilities. Second, I argue that the political terrain underpinning the study of mothering and fathering calls for clarity on how researchers interpret the constant interplay between equality and differences. Third, while there has been some change over time, parental responsibilities remain gendered because they are deeply rooted in habitus and embodiment across specific spatial and temporal contexts.
Thorup, A; Albert, Nancy; Bertelsen, M
OBJECTIVE: Gender differences in psychosis have been investigated, and the results have contributed to a better understanding of the disease, but many questions are unanswered. In clinical terms, women and men with psychosis differ in terms of access to social support, tendency of substance abuse......, level of functioning and symptom patterns. We aimed to investigate how gender differences at onset of psychosis develop during the first 5years of treatment. METHOD: A total of 578 patients with a first-episode psychosis in the schizophrenia spectrum were included in the Danish OPUS trial - a randomized...... clinical trial comparing 2years of intensive early-intervention programme with standard treatment. All patients were assessed with validated instruments at inclusion, and after 2 and 5years. Data were analysed for significant gender differences. RESULTS: Males have significantly higher levels of negative...
Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety
Ritvo, Paul; Myers, Ronald E; Paszat, Lawrence; Serenity, Mardie; Perez, Daniel F; Rabeneck, Linda
Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario's program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for
Rudolf, M C; Tomanovich, O; Greenberg, J; Friend, L; Alario, A J
Studies of health behavior in adults show that women report more morbidity and greater health service utilization than do men, despite lower mortality rates. Explanations involve social and biological gender differences in adult life. Infirmary utilization at a residential summer camp where parental influence is minimized was studied to determine whether these gender differences occur in the pediatric age group. Three hundred ninety-eight campers, 8 to 18 years old were studied. Girls were observed to make greater use of the infirmary than boys (p less than .01) and were especially likely to present with minor trauma, both musculoskeletal (p less than .05) and skin (p less than .01). No correlation was found between age and frequency of visits. Obvious morbidity was similar for boys and girls, in that no gender difference was observed in those visiting for definite medical indications alone or in those admitted. However, a difference was evident in those visiting for minor and trivial problems, particularly in those making three or more visits for minor and trivial problems (p less than .01). Although obvious morbidity was no different in campers, girls used the infirmary more than boys in a manner similar to that reported for adult health behavior. This suggests that gender differences occur earlier than suspected and are not simply related to adult social roles.
Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping
Since gender effect is inconsistent and grade effect has not been addressed in previous studies, we investigated both effects on the daily sleep patterns in a group of young college students. The sample consisted of 237 students aged 18-24 years. Each subject completed a 7-day sleep log. Gender differences were found in several sleep variables and those were mostly not dependent on weekday/weekend difference. The female students went to bed and rose earlier and had longer sleep latency, more awakenings, and poorer sleep quality than the male. Gender differences were also shown in the relationship between sleep quality and other sleep variables. The correlation between sleep quality and rise time, time in bed, and sleep efficiency was stronger in men than in women. In contrast, grade differences were mostly dependent on weekday/weekend difference. The freshmen rose earlier and had shorter sleep time than did the other students on weekdays only. Sleep latency was the longest in seniors on weekdays only. This study showed that gender differences in sleep patterns and sleep difficulties were remarkable in the group of young college students. Alarmed by the high prevalence of sleep difficulties among general college students, it is recommended that the students should be informed of their sleep problems and the consequences.
Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter
Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this "gender paradox" in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others' or one's own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one's ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth.
Seamans, Marissa J; Robinson, Whitney R; Thorpe, Roland J; Cole, Stephen R; LaVeist, Thomas A
To investigate whether the gender gap in obesity prevalence is greater among U.S. blacks than whites in a study designed to account for racial differences in socioeconomic and environmental conditions. We estimated age-adjusted, race-stratified gender gaps in obesity (% female obese - % male obese, defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) in the National Health Interview Survey 2003 and the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore 2003 study (EHDIC-SWB). EHDIC-SWB is a population-based survey of 1381 adults living in two urban, low-income, racially integrated census tracts with no race difference in income. In the National Health Interview Survey, the obesity gender gap was larger in blacks than whites as follows: 7.7 percentage points (ppts; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4-11.9) in blacks versus -1.5 ppts (95% CI: -2.8 to -0.2) in whites. In EHDIC-SWB, the gender gap was similarly large for blacks and whites as follows: 15.3 ppts (95% CI: 8.6-22.0) in blacks versus 14.0 ppts (95% CI: 7.1-20.9) in whites. In a racially integrated, low-income urban community, gender gaps in obesity prevalence were similar for blacks and whites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Understanding the potential differences in metabolic capacity and kinetics between various common laboratory species as well as between genders is an important facet of chemical risk assessment that is often overlooked, particularly for chemicals which undergo non-cytochrome P450...
Dykstra, Pearl Annette; deJong-Gierveld, Jenny
In this study, Weiss's (1973) theorizing about the sources of emotional and social loneliness is elaborated - with notions about the asymmetric gratifications derived from marriage, about the conflicting loyalties that result from remarriage, and about selection into marriage - in order to reach an understanding of gender differences in…
E.J.F. Canton (Erik); I. Verheul (Ingrid)
textabstractThis paper explores the role of social interactions at the work floor for understanding gender pay differences in the EU. Using data from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey, we find that sex similarity of subordinate and supervisor decreases the pay disadvantage for women in
Moreno-Campoy, E E; Mérida-De la Torre, F J; Martos-Crespo, F; Plebani, M
Gender is one of the factors that can influence the use of health resources. The use of tumour markers is widespread, due to the importance of these in monitoring cancer development. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of gender on the use of tumour markers, and to investigate whether there are differences in their use. A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study, with a 2-year follow-up, was conducted in the catchment area of the University Hospital of Padua. An analysis was performed on 23,059 analytical requests for tumour markers. A descriptive and frequency analysis was performed on all variables. The statistical analysis was performed using Chi squared, Student t and Mann-Whitney U to test for significance. The number of requests for women (1.5) was lower than men (1.6). In patients with tumour pathology, the number of requests was higher than in patients without tumour disease. In the analysis by disease and gender, the difference remained significant. As regards the number of tumour markers per request, the difference between genders was also significant: 2.13 in males versus 2.85 in women. Similar results were obtained when requests for tumour markers linked to gender-related diseases were eliminated. There are differences in the use of tumour markers by gender with the number of requests for male patients being higher than for females. However, the number of tumour markers per request is greater in women than in men. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Vahter, Marie; Akesson, Agneta; Liden, Carola; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Berglund, Marika
There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating gender differences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Gender differences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain gender differences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major gender differences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future
Black, Alice A. (Jill)
Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34
Understanding how metabolism kinetics differ between genders and species is important in developing informative pharmacokinetic models and accurately assessing risk. Metabolism of the conazole fungicide Triadimefon (TDN) was studied in hepatic microsomes of SD rats and CD-1 mice...
Full Text Available Two of the most examined dimension of reading strategies that have an affective influence on different genders are cognitive strategy and metacognitive strategy. This study was aimed to find out whether reading comprehension using different strategies would have different result or not for the two different genders. The researchers used a quantitative causal-comparative research approach, and data were collected from two instruments: reading comprehension test and questionnaires. A number of 50 students (25 females and 25 males from one of the universities in Banjarmasin participated in this study. The results showed that between the two types of strategies, the cognitive strategy was mostly favoured by the male students, and metacognitive strategy was favoured by the female students. Nevertheless, their metacognitive or cognitive reading strategies preference does not significantly differ in their reading comprehension score. The interaction between two independent variables did not significantly happen in this research. The choice of using certain reading strategy was not determined by the category of gender. In other words, a certain type of gender using a certain type strategy did not give better results in reading comprehension.
Wunderlich, R E; Cavanagh, P R
To analyze gender differences in foot shape in a large sample of young individuals. Univariate t-tests and multivariate discriminant analyses were used to assess 1) significant differences between men and women for each foot and leg dimension, standardized to foot length, 2) the reliability of classification into gender classes using the absolute and standardized variable sets, and 3) the relative importance of each variable to the discrimination between men and women. Men have longer and broader feet than women for a given stature. After normalization of the measurements by foot length, men and women were found to differ significantly in two calf, five ankle, and four foot shape variables. Classification by gender using absolute values was correct at least 93% of the time. Using the variables standardized to foot length, gender was correctly classified 85% of the time. This study demonstrates that female feet and legs are not simply scaled-down versions of male feet but rather differ in a number of shape characteristics, particularly at the arch, the lateral side of the foot, the first toe, and the ball of the foot. These differences should be taken into account in the design and manufacture of women's sport shoes.
Full Text Available Background: Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. Objective: We offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household in rural South Africa. Methods: We use data from the 2002 round of the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System. Our analytical sample includes 22,997 children aged 6‒18 who were neither parents themselves nor lived with a partner or partner's family. We employ ordinary least squares regression models to examine the effects of structure and composition on educational progress of girls and boys. Results: Non-nuclear structures are associated with similar negative effects for both boys and girls compared to children growing up in nuclear households. However, the presence of other kin in the absence of one or both parents results in gendered effects favouring boys. Conclusions: The absence of any gendered effects when using a household structure typology suggests that secular changes to attitudes about gender equity trump any specific gendered processes stemming from particular configurations. On the other hand, gendered effects that appear when one or both parents are absent show that traditional gender norms and/or resource constraints continue to favour boys. Contribution: We have shown the value of unpacking household structure to better understand how gender norms and gendered resource allocations are linked to an important outcome for children in sub-Saharan Africa.
Sahera Shabnam S, Gopathy Sridevi, Prema Sembulingam
Full Text Available Introduction: Men and women are similar in their cognitive appraisal of a stress. But their behavior is different when exposed to stress. As stress responses and cognitive abilities are closely associated with autonomic nervous system, an attempt had been made to evaluate the behavioral pattern of autonomic functional status in males and females under stressed conditions. Methodology: 30 normal young male and female students (15 each participated in this study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, heart rate (HR and heart rate variation (HRV were recorded before and after postural change, Valsalva maneuver and cold exposure. Results: SBP and DBP decreased and HR increased after standing from lying posture (p < 0.000 in both the genders. But the changes were less in males than in females (SBP and HR – non significant, DBP p < 0.008, 30:15 ratio was higher in males (p < 0.001 upon standing. After Valsalva maneuver, SBP decreased (p < 0.05 and DBP increased (p < 0.000 with a higher Valsalva ratio (p < 0.002 in females than in males. After exposure to cold, males showed more decrease in SBP and DBP and less increase in HR (non-significant than females. Discussion: Results reveal more sympathetic activity in males than in females when exposed to stress. This may be because of the altered baroreceptor mechanism, male-female type of fat distribution, difference in vascular bed resistance, influence of cortisol and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Conclusion: The fact that females have less tolerance to stress may help us in understanding the sex linked pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and developing a different approach in treating the similar cardiovascular disease in men and women.
Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin
The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…
Buzzetti, Elena; Parikh, Pathik M; Gerussi, Alessio; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel
Although gender-based medicine is a relatively recent concept, it is now emerging as an important field of research, supported by the finding that many diseases manifest differently in men and women and therefore, might require a different treatment. Sex-related differences regarding the epidemiology, progression and treatment strategies of certain liver diseases have long been known, but most of the epidemiological and clinical trials still report results only about one sex, with consequent different rate of response and adverse reactions to treatment between men and women in clinical practice. This review reports the data found in the literature concerning the gender-related differences for the most representative hepatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wiepking, P.; Maas, W.A.F.
In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all
Donnelly, C. A.; Bartley, L. M.; Ghani, A. C.; Le Fevre, A. M.; Kwong, G. P.; Cowling, B. J.; van Sighem, A. I.; de Wolf, F.; Rode, R. A.; Anderson, R. M.
To test and characterize the dependence of viral load on gender in different countries and racial groups as a function of CD4 T-cell count. Plasma viral load data were analysed for > 30,000 HIV-infected patients attending clinics in the USA [HIV Insight (Cerner Corporation, Vienna, VA, USA) and Plum
Bonanno, Philip; Kommers, Petrus A.M.
This paper reports work in progress investigating gender difFerences and styles in the use of digital games amongst advanced level biology students. It is an elaboration on previous work exploring the relationship between cognitive style and academic performance in Maltese students taking biology ai
This study was a survey designed to assess the role of personality type and gender differences in compliance with safety work behaviour in a sample of 189 employees drawn from Dangote Cement Company Plc located in Gboko, Benue State. The participants consisted of 156 males and 37 females. Their ages ranged ...
Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel
Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…
Oliver, Mary Beth; Green, Stephen
Examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from action adventure and sad films and to animated previews of a prototypical male versus female movie. Girls were more likely than boys to report and express sadness regarding sad segments. Intensities of sadness increased with age. Emotional responses to action adventure…
Jellesma, F.C.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.
The aims of this study were (1) to confirm gender differences in crying in middle childhood and (2) to identify factors that may explain why girls cry more than boys in a Dutch sample (North Holland and Utrecht). We examined 186 children’s (age: 9-13 years) self-reports on crying, catharsis, seeking
Chew, Irene Keng-Howe; Halim, Hendrick; Matsui, Tamao
Measures of career self-efficacy and work activity self-efficacy were completed by 405 male and 346 female Singaporean university students. Men had significantly higher self-efficacy in realistic and enterprising occupations, women in artistic, investigative, and social occupations. Gender differences in career self-efficacy were predicted by…
van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Wierslnca-Post, J. Esther C.
Purpose: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in
The study examined the significant gender and family characteristics differences in work-family conflict, family-work conflict among workers in Lagos metropolis. Employee's perception as reflected in self reports constituted the central features of a model underlying the study, as perception is believed to be related to the ...
Aziz, Fakhra; Kalsoom, Qudsia; Quraishi, Uzma; Hasan, Sibte
This descriptive, qualitative study aimed at identifying disparities in perceptions of males and females regarding gender-based differences in educational leadership. Data were gathered purposively from 20 renowned male and female educationists having a long experience of leadership in various institutes of Pakistan. An open-ended questionnaire…
Harb, Jibrel; Abu Bakar, Nadzrah; Krish, Pramela
This paper reports a quantitative study on gender differences in attitudes when learning oral skills via technology. The study was conducted at Tafila Technical University, Jordan, with 70 female and 30 male students, to find out if female students are better and faster in learning a language than male. Specifically, it seeks to investigate…
This study investigated gender differences in Job Ability Perception and Task Performance among professionals in male dominated professions. The study was a descriptive survey research design. Four professions from the male dominated professions were randomly selected from Lagos and Rivers States. A total of 800 ...
Feng, Mingyu; Roschelle, Jeremy; Mason, Craig; Bhanot, Ruchi
Recent studies [10, 23] using US nationwide databases showed high school boys spent significantly less time doing homework than girls, based on their responses to questionnaires and surveys. To investigate gender differences in homework in middle school, in this paper, we analyzed computer log data and standardized test scores of more than 1,000…
This paper presents findings of a study conducted in Kumasi, Ghana, on the gender differences of psychosocial distress that victims of sexual abuse experience. Using a cross sectional design, data was collected from 141 victims, similar to the extant literature the male victims in this study were less than 20%.
Therefore, in this paper, we present results from an exploratory investigation that attempted to elucidate perceived gender differences in intuitive decision making in the workplace. Based upon interviews of 51 experienced professionals, we report: 1) how this sample of male and female practitioners defined intuition, and 2) ...
Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad
Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…
Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen
The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent form of major media in the world, it has become the second most important medium as perceived by boys and girls. No gender difference was found in adolescents' motives for using the Internet. The ranking of relative importance of motives for adolescents going online was searching for information, followed by socializing, and boredom avoidance for both boys and girls. However, a gender difference in online activities seems to persist. Searching for homework information and playing games were the most popular online activities for all adolescents. However, while girls tended to view the Internet more as a means of searching for information and e-mailing friends, boys tended to use it more for playing games and down-loading software.
The study examined age and gender differences in the premarital sexual attitudes exhibited by adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional design was employed. A total of 1044 participants in four age categories were drawn from 4 secondary schools and 4 universities all located within three states of South-West ...
The study investigated gender differences in decisions on student disciplinary behaviours by selected Kenyan secondary school disciplinary panels which may be due to composition of disciplinary panels, perceptions of students presenting with disciplinary behaviours and behaviour expectations of students on the basis of ...
This study investigated gender differences in Egyptian adolescents' perception of parental involvement practices when controlling for the effect of adolescents' prior academic achievement and level of educational aspiration. Subjects of this study included 187 first-year students enrolled in four high schools in El-Minia city in ...
Using data from 2000/2001 Tanzania's Household Budget Survey (HBS), we investigate these aspects by analyzing ..... 4The HBS included 12 sources of water, but we consider private tape water in the house or outside the house and public water ..... 'Gender Differences in Labor Market Decisions in Rural Guatemala'.
Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Wyatt, Todd M.
Preschoolers' socialization of emotion and its contribution to emotional competence is likely to be highly gendered. In their work, the authors have found that mothers often take on the role of emotional gatekeeper in the family, and fathers act as loving playmates, but that parents' styles of socialization of emotion do not usually differ for…
Saadoon F. Alazmy
Sep 7, 2011 ... tionnaire. After data were fed to the Excel program; several methods were used to verify data entry. These methods in- cluded the following: simple frequency, .... certificate and earn more money. However, nationality and marital status did not differ significantly by gender. The find- ings of the present study ...
In the present study gender differences in psychological adjustment of Spinal Cord Injured (SCI) patients was studied. The sample of 70 SCI patients (35 male and 35 female) was selected from the National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) Islamabad, Bagh and Muzafrabad, (Azad & Jammu Kashmir AJK).
Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan
Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…
Kenton, Sherron B.
Presents an outline for a half-day seminar on gender differences in workplace communication, which can be modified for a class lecture/workshop in a graduate management communication or an undergraduate business communication course. Appends a role-play activity for use in the seminar. (SR)
Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.
This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…
This resulted in three factors namely, Internet identification, Internet anxiety and Internet use. A significant negative relationship was found between Internet identification and Internet anxiety and a significant positive relationship was found between Internet identification and Internet use. Significant gender differences were ...
This paper examined the gender differences in attitude towards mathematics in Nigerian secondary schools. A descriptive survey method was adopted for the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select twenty secondary schools in Makurdi Metropolis of Benue State. Three hundred and seventy-five ...
Aims: This study aims to review the influence of gender-specific differences and patient demographics on cardiac device and pacing mode selection over a 10- year period. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent first implantation of the cardiac device between January 1, 2006 and June 31, 2016.
Lopez, J. Derek
This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…
Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.
The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…
Sarouphim, Ketty M.; Chartouny, Madona
The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in students' mathematics achievement and in their attitudes toward mathematics. Another purpose was to examine mathematics teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their male and female students' ability. The sample consisted of 692 students (353 girls, 339 boys) between the ages of…
Background There is currently a dearth of knowledge on gender differences in mortality among patients on ART in Africa. Methods Using data from the national ART monitoring and evaluation system, a survival analysis of all healthcare workers, teachers, and police/army personnel who accessed ART in Malawi by June, ...
The study examined gender and aspired occupational differences on Bakare Vocational Interest Inventory (BVII). Two hundred and twenty (56 males and 164 females) undergraduate students participated in the study. Their ages ranged between 16-30 years with a M age of 21.79 and SD age of 2.61. The BVII by Bakare ...
Wiepking, Pamala; Maas, Ineke
In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all
The study assessed gender differences in practice of HIV voluntary counselling among secondary school adolescents in Edo State. One hypothesis guided the study. This was a descriptive study based on survey research design. One thousand, nine hundred and eighty eight (1988) secondary school adolescents were ...
Stewart, Christie; Root, Melissa M.; Koriakin, Taylor; Choi, Dowon; Luria, Sarah R.; Bray, Melissa A.; Sassu, Kari; Maykel, Cheryl; O'Rourke, Patricia; Courville, Troy
This study investigated developmental gender differences in mathematics achievement, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-19 years) of the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Participants were divided into two age categories: 6 to 11 and 12 to 19. Error categories within the Math Concepts & Applications…
Arens, A. Katrin; Watermann, Rainer
The present study focuses on political efficacy in terms of students' competence self-perceptions related to the domain of politics. The investigation addresses the mean level development and longitudinal relations to outcome variables including gender differences. Drawing on a sample of N = 2,504 German students, political efficacy, along with…
The results show some similarities and differences between female and mate smokers. In the light of this, it seems appropriate to suggest that more gender sensitive approaches to dealing with smoking problems might achieve better outcomes. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol.9(2) 2001:65-77 ...
The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in relation to students' perceptions of school guidance and counselling (G&C) services in Mberengwa district, Zimbabwe. The convergent parallel design was used in the study. A total of 114 students (68 males and 76 females) randomly selected students ...
The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…
Yeo, S.; Rosen, B.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Lim, S.
Objective: To examine gender differences and similarities in the psychophysical and brain responses to acupuncture at GB34, a point that is frequently used to treat motor function issues in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Methods: Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation in response
The need to identify critical factors necessary to improve the mandate attainment of the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) Scheme informed this study on gender, location and rural-urban differences in the goal attainment of NYSC in South West Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling procedure, 120 outgoing youth corps ...
This study was undertaken in order to determine gender differences in anaerobic power of undergraduate physical education students. An attempt was also made to assess the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and indices of anaerobic power: peak power (PP), Mean power (MP), and fatigue index (FI) ...
This study examined gender differences in smoking among university students using a descriptive survey research design. Seventy-two participants (male: 34; female: 38; age range: 21 to 35 years; mean age: 25.6 years) were randomly drawn from all faculties who were attending a seminar on leadership. A questionnaire ...
The study examined gender differences in self esteem and perceived social support of street children in Ibadan, Nigeria. A survey research design was employed where the participants were purposively sampled in the study. One hundred and forty eight (N=148) children of the street comprising of 129 males and 19 females ...
This study examined middle-age gender differences in career challenges and emotional intelligence and its counselling implications. The study aimed at sensitizing the development of adult counselling programme for the middle-age persons. Survey design was adopted to obtain samples (800) from a large population of ...
Background: Injection pain, which distresses patients, is a major disadvantage of propofol as an induction agent. Lignocaine pretreatment is the most popular method for reducing this pain but this drug alone cannot eliminate the problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the gender differences in pain ...
Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Netuka, I.; Malý, J.; Bešík, J.; Ošťádalová, Ivana
Roč. 234, č. 9 (2009), s. 1011-1019 ISSN 1535-3702 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : gender differences * ischemia/ reperfusion injury * cardioprotection Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.635, year: 2009
This study examined gender differences in communication patterns of females in single-sex and mixed-sex schools. The design of the study was an ex-post facto design. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. All the population of 218 senior secondary II female students was used for the study which ...
A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and…
Hubbard, William H. J.
A growing literature seeks to explain why so many more women than men now attend college. A commonly cited stylized fact is that the college wage premium is, and has been, higher for women than for men. After identifying and correcting a bias in estimates of college wage premiums, I find that there has been essentially no gender difference in the…
Riese, Marilyn L.
To investigate differences in mothers' interaction patterns with their neonate twins based on birth order, relative size at birth, or gender, 37 neonate twins and their mothers were observed during the first 10 minutes of a feeding in a hospital nursery. Time-sampling recordings were made of maternal behaviors related to proximal stimulation,…
This paper investigates gender differences in spatial mobility with respect to participation in off-farm employment in rural Tanzania. The mobility issue arises because the recent increase in women participation in off-farm employment is likely to saturate the local labor market/off-farm opportunities and dampen the rural ...
Gender differences in aerobic fitness of pre-adolescent school children in Makurdi, Nigeria. DT Goon, AL Toriola, BS Shaw. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and DanceVol. 12(4) 2006: pp. 356-368. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...
Background: Recognizing patient satisfaction and expectation is considered as important components of assessing quality of care. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the gender difference on the patient satisfaction with psychiatrists and explore their expectation from physicians to mental health care needs. Design: ...
Findings show that despite the women\\'s important role in agricultural production, disparities exist in the delivery of extension services and training programmes in the province. The need to train, deploy and target women and men in extension services is emphasized. Keywords: gender differences, agricultural extension ...
The study determined gender differences among students in the utilization of electronic information resources in Ramat Library, University of Maiduguri. One objective,with corresponding hypotheses guided the study. The survey research method was used. The population for the study comprised 13,995 (thirteen thousand, ...
The conclusion of the study was that there were differences with respect to age, gender, course of study and school type in students' aspirations for entrepreneurial careers, while there was none regarding form/class level. Among the counselling implications are that counsellors must take into consideration personal and ...
This paper examines the relationship between entrepreneurial activities and gender differences in West Africa, using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) panel estimation across countries. Taking a cue from the Liberal feminist theory, this paper supports that the entrepreneurial disposal of women influences their ...
Redžić Saduša F.
Full Text Available Examples of anti-feminine and pro-feminine reasoning with Otto Weininger, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Sigmund Freud, Arthur Schopenhauer, Aristotle, Simone de Beauvoir, Pierre Bourdieu, Harriet Taylor Mill and John Stuart Mill. Review of these theories points to the need to respect distinction (physical characteristics of sex and (culture defined characteristic of the gender when analyzing differences and similarities between the sexes, as well as the need for insight into the mechanism (or mechanismsof connection between the nature of social perception and gender stereotypes, whose existence is an indicator, and one of the causes of hatred towards women.
Eddleston, Kimberly A; Veiga, John F; Powell, Gary N
Using survey data from 400 managers, the authors examined whether gender self-schema would explain sex differences in preferences for status-based and socioemotional career satisfiers. Female gender self-schema, represented by femininity and family role salience, completely mediated the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for socioemotional career satisfiers. However, male gender self-schema, represented by masculinity and career role salience, did not mediate the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for status-based career satisfiers. As expected, male managers regarded status-based career satisfiers as more important and socioemotional career satisfiers as less important than female managers did. The proposed conceptualization of male and female gender self-schemas, which was supported by the data, enhances understanding of adult self-schema and work-related attitudes and behavior.
Mathias, Krista; Hirdes, John P
Gender can have separate and interacting effects on mental health. Gender-based analysis provides insight into these effects on mental health, and it can provide evidence to inform policy and practice to meet these gender-specific needs among persons in forensic mental health settings. Both individual and facility-level characteristics play a role in restriction to room as a form of control intervention in forensic mental health. Understanding the gender differences associated with the factors that increase a person's risk of restriction to room can allow for more targeted interventions and provide insight into policies that will help reduce these types of control interventions. © 2015 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.
Carrus, D; Christodoulou, T; Hadjulis, M; Haldane, M; Galea, A; Koukopoulos, A; Kumari, V; Frangou, S
Gender is known to modulate the clinical course and severity of bipolar disorder (BD). Although cognitive abnormalities are an established feature of BD, there is limited information regarding whether gender also influences the pattern and severity of cognitive impairment. We evaluated the performance of 86 remitted patients with BD, type 1, (BD-I) (36 male and 50 female) and 46 healthy participants (21 male and 25 female) on tasks of general intellectual ability, memory encoding, recognition and retrieval, response inhibition and executive function (abstraction and perseveration). The impact of illness severity in patients was assessed using the global assessment of functioning (GAF). We found a gender effect and an interaction between diagnosis and gender on immediate memory, implicating encoding and retrieval processes, both showing male BD-I patients being disadvantaged compared with female patients and healthy controls. Immediate memory correlated with GAF scores and this association was statistically significant for male BD-I patients. Our findings suggest that gender differences in BD-I are associated with memory function, particularly processes relating to encoding and retrieval, and may contribute to poor functional outcome particularly in men.
Kaminski, Patricia L; Hayslip, Bert
Ninety-five adults aged 60-91 completed measures of Body-as-Object Esteem (BOE) (i.e., appearance) and Body-as-Process Esteem (BPE) (i.e., function) to explore gender differences in body esteem among older adults. As hypothesized, a significant age by gender interaction revealed that men become more disparaging of the appearance and function of their bodies in their last decades of life, while women do not. Level of physical disability was negatively correlated with BOE, particularly for disabled women. Furthermore, as is seen across the lifespan, self-esteem is a significant predictor of BOE. Disabled participants who were older than 74 years had disproportionately low BPE scores and similarly poor global self-esteem. Whether working with older adults or studying body esteem in this population, it is vital that both dimensions of body esteem are assessed along with the impact of disability status, gender, self-esteem, and age.
Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G
This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism, and right-wing authoritarianism. Gender differences in homophobia were additionally conditioned by participants' adult attachment styles: Men with dismissing styles evidenced the highest levels of homophobia, whereas women with dismissing styles demonstrated the lowest levels; that is, a fear of intimacy seemed to contribute to homophobic attitudes found among heterosexual men. This was the first U.S. study of the relationship between adult attachment styles and right-wing authoritarianism, and further investigation is warranted.
Reynolds, Matthew R; Scheiber, Caroline; Hajovsky, Daniel B; Schwartz, Bryanna; Kaufman, Alan S
The gender similarities hypothesis by J. S. Hyde ( 2005 ), based on large-scale reviews of studies, concludes that boys and girls are more alike than different on most psychological variables, including academic skills such as reading and math (J. S. Hyde, 2005 ). Writing is an academic skill that may be an exception. The authors investigated gender differences in academic achievement using a large, nationally stratified sample of children and adolescents ranging from ages 7-19 years (N = 2,027). Achievement data were from the conormed sample for the Kaufman intelligence and achievement tests. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause, and multigroup mean and covariance structure models were used to test for mean differences. Girls had higher latent reading ability and higher scores on a test of math computation, but the effect sizes were consistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. Conversely, girls scored higher on spelling and written expression, with effect sizes inconsistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. The findings remained the same after controlling for cognitive ability. Girls outperform boys on tasks of writing.
Wells, Jonathan C K; Marphatia, Akanksha A; Cole, Tim J; McCoy, David
Obesity is widely assumed to be associated with economic affluence; it has therefore been assumed to become more common with economic development. However, obesity has also been associated with poverty. These contrary findings highlight the need for an examination of the contribution of social and economic factors to the global distribution of obesity. Males and females may be differently exposed to social and economic inequality, however few studies have considered possible gender differences in the association between socio-economic indices and obesity prevalence. We analysed between-country associations between obesity prevalence and three social or economic indices: per capita gross domestic product (GDP), the Gini index of national wealth inequality, and the gender inequality index (GII). We considered the genders separately, the gender average, and also the gender difference (female excess) in obesity prevalence. Across 68 countries listing sample size, there were 3 obese women for every 2 obese men. Within populations, obesity prevalence in males and females was strongly correlated (r = 0.74), however, only 17% of the female excess prevalence was accounted for by the gender-average prevalence. In both genders, there was a positive association between obesity prevalence and GDP that attenuated at higher GDP levels, with this association weaker in females than males. Adjusting for GDP, both the Gini index and GII were associated with excess female obesity. These analyses highlight significant gender differences in the global distribution of obesity, and a gender difference in the association of obesity prevalence with socio-economic factors. The magnitude of female excess obesity is not constant across populations, and is greater in countries characterised by gender inequality and lower GDP. These findings indicate that improving women's status may be a key area for addressing the global obesity epidemic over the long term, with potential benefits for the
Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI, is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally in their penultimate year of school and selected by teachers as being high performing in physics. Together with the overall differences in facility, we have investigated how the content and presentation of multiple-choice questions (MCQs affects the particular answers selected by male and female students. Differences in the patterns of responses by male and female students indicate that males and females might be modeling situations in different ways. Some strong patterns were found in the gender gaps when the questions were categorized in five broad dimensions: content, process required, difficulty, presentation, and context. Almost all questions saw male students performing better, although gender differences were relatively small for questions with a more abstract context. Male students performed significantly better on most questions with a concrete context, although notable exceptions were found, including two such questions where female students performed better. Other categories that showed consistently large gaps favoring male students include questions with projectile motion and other two-dimensional motion or forces content, and processes involving interpreting diagrams. Our results have important implications, suggesting that we should be able to reduce the gender gaps in performance on MCQ tests by changing the way information is presented and setting questions in contexts that are less likely to favor males over females. This is important as MCQ
Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally in their penultimate year of school and selected by teachers as being high performing in physics. Together with the overall differences in facility, we have investigated how the content and presentation of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) affects the particular answers selected by male and female students. Differences in the patterns of responses by male and female students indicate that males and females might be modeling situations in different ways. Some strong patterns were found in the gender gaps when the questions were categorized in five broad dimensions: content, process required, difficulty, presentation, and context. Almost all questions saw male students performing better, although gender differences were relatively small for questions with a more abstract context. Male students performed significantly better on most questions with a concrete context, although notable exceptions were found, including two such questions where female students performed better. Other categories that showed consistently large gaps favoring male students include questions with projectile motion and other two-dimensional motion or forces content, and processes involving interpreting diagrams. Our results have important implications, suggesting that we should be able to reduce the gender gaps in performance on MCQ tests by changing the way information is presented and setting questions in contexts that are less likely to favor males over females. This is important as MCQ tests are
Verde, Paola; Piccardi, Laura; Bianchini, Filippo; Guariglia, Cecilia; Carrozzo, Paolo; Morgagni, Fabio; Boccia, Maddalena; Di Fiore, Giacomo; Tomao, Enrico
The coding of space as near and far is not only determined by arm-reaching distance, but is also dependent on how the brain represents the extension of the body space. Recent reports suggest that the dissociation between reaching and navigational space is not limited to perception and action but also involves memory systems. It has been reported that gender differences emerged only in adverse learning conditions that required strong spatial ability. In this study we investigated navigational versus reaching memory in air force pilots and a control group without flight experience. We took into account temporal duration (working memory and long-term memory) and focused on working memory, which is considered critical in the gender differences literature. We found no gender effects or flight hour effects in pilots but observed gender effects in working memory (but not in learning and delayed recall) in the nonpilot population (Women's mean = 5.33; SD= 0.90; Men's mean = 5.54; SD= 0.90). We also observed a difference between pilots and nonpilots in the maintenance of on-line reaching information: pilots (mean = 5.85; SD=0.76) were more efficient than nonpilots (mean = 5.21; SD=0.83) and managed this type of information similarly to that concerning navigational space. In the navigational learning phase they also showed better navigational memory (mean = 137.83; SD=5.81) than nonpilots (mean = 126.96; SD=15.81) and were significantly more proficient than the latter group. There is no gender difference in a population of pilots in terms of navigational abilities, while it emerges in a control group without flight experience. We found also that pilots performed better than nonpilots. This study suggests that once selected, male and female pilots do not differ from each other in visuo-spatial abilities and spatial navigation.
Kling, K C; Hyde, J S; Showers, C J; Buswell, B N
Two analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in global self-esteem. In analysis I, a computerized literature search yielded 216 effect sizes, representing the testing of 97,121 respondents. The overall effect size was 0.21, a small difference favoring males. A significant quadratic effect of age indicated that the largest effect emerged in late adolescence (d = 0.33). In Analysis II, gender differences were examined using 3 large, nationally representative data sets from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). All of the NCES effect sizes, which collectively summarize the responses of approximately 48,000 young Americans, indicated higher male self-esteem (ds ranged from 0.04 to 0.24). Taken together, the 2 analyses provide evidence that males score higher on standard measures of global self-esteem than females, but the difference is small. Potential reasons for the small yet consistent effect size are discussed.
The informal networks in organizations have been under increasing scrutiny in the past years, and several aspects of those informal structures have been studied, among those the gender differences. In order to go beyond the intuitive and prejudicial characterization, several researchers have...... important competencies stated by male and female managers in Danish companies. While the results seem to indicate that there are fewer differences between the genders than might be expected, using a factor analysis indicates that there are some structural differences suggesting that the proposition about...... performed empirical analyses using networks theory. This has resulted in a number of well-founded propositions about how male and female managers develop and use different informal networks. One key finding, among others, is the proposition that female managers seem to develop dual networks (one with other...
Moema de Rezende Vergara
Full Text Available In the recent works about Brazilian public understanding of science, gender has been poorly used as an analytical category. This paper has as its main goal to bridge this gap by analyzing a section called ‘Letters for a Lady‘, in the journal O Vulgarizador that sought to teach all about Darwinism to women in the Brazil of the 19th century. So the notion of gender will help us understand the tension between masculinity and femininity in the text written by the literary critic Rangel S. Paio.
Ronzitti, Silvia; Lutri, Vittorio; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta
Background and aim Gambling is a widespread recreational activity in the UK. A significant percentage of gamblers develop subclinical or clinically relevant problem gambling issues, but only a low percentage of them seek treatment. Although characteristics of pathological gamblers from treatment-seeking population have been examined in some research, only a few studies have explored the differences between females and males. This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demogr...
Li, Qing; Chen, Jianhui; Wan, Bo; Li, Xiaofan
Hematology is a difficult aspect of medicine for students to learn. Students need hematology clerkship training to develop their clinical skills. The influence of gender on different teaching methods and performance in foreign medical students is still unknown, especially in hematology clerkship. To address this issue, we tested performance differences between foreign male and female students in clinical practice. Twenty-two foreign medical students attended a two-week hematology clerkship in...
Iimura, Shuhei; Taku, Kanako
Prior work has indicated that female adolescents mature more quickly than males with regard to the various personality dimensions. From the developmental perspectives, this study aimed to explore gender differences in the relationships between resilience and the Big Five personality traits in Japanese adolescents. Middle school students ( N = 310, 155 females, age range = 14-15 years) participated in an online survey. The results demonstrated that females had higher Conscientiousness than males. Stepwise regression analyses indicated that Neuroticism was the most influential predictor of resilience in females, whereas Extraversion was the most important predictor in males. Multigroup path analysis demonstrated that the effect of Neuroticism on resilience was greater for females; however, the effects of all other variables did not differ across genders. Considering gender differences is important to understand the relationship between resilience and the Big Five dimensions among adolescents.
Dong, XinQi; Chen, Ruijia
This study aimed to explore the gender differences in the experiences of loneliness in the U.S. Chinese older population. The data were drawn from the PINE study, a population-based study of U.S. Chinese adults aged 60 years and older. The Revised-University of California at Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (R-UCLA) was used to measure loneliness. Overall, older Chinese women (28.3%) had a higher rate of loneliness than older men (23.3%, p loneliness. This study indicates that gender differences exist in the prevalence, symptoms, and correlates of loneliness. Longitudinal studies should be undertaken to understand gender differences in risk factors and outcomes of loneliness.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression in measuring, explaining and evaluating (i gender differences in expressing migration aspirations, and (ii a gender effect on migration motivation of university students in Croatia. The results supported the thesis that migration is a complex gendering process that assumes subjective assessment of the whole set of interrelated motives. According to logistic regression, gender is a significant predictor of migration aspirations among the selected demographic and socio-economic variables. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that gender and migration aspirations in interaction matter when it comes to migration motives, particularly related to the perceived importance of social networks. Females, and especially those who aspire to migrate, assessed these motives as more important than males.
Kim, YoungHo; Park, InKyoung; Kang, SooJin
The current study investigated how adolescents perceive their own health risks and compare their own likelihood of health risks with that of others of the same age. Moreover, the study identified the differences in health risk perceptions between males and females. A total of 625 adolescents (314 males and 311 females) from the Nowon district, geographically located in northern Seoul, voluntarily participated. In order to measure health risk perceptions a Korean version of self-other risk judgments profile was used. The findings indicated that study participants, regardless of gender and age, tend to underestimate their vulnerability to majority of health risk events. Furthermore, there were significant gender and age differences in health risk perception and perception bias in all health risk domains. The present study suggests that further research is needed to identify realistic and unrealistic perception mechanism for a large number of people from different demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2018.
Kessing, Lars Vedel
OBJECTIVES: To investigate gender differences in the phenomenology of episodes in bipolar disorder as according to ICD-10. METHODS: All patients who got a diagnosis of a manic episode/bipolar disorder in a period from 1994 to 2002 at the first outpatient treatment ever or at the first discharge...... from psychiatric hospitalization ever in Denmark were identified in a nationwide register. RESULTS: Totally, 682 outpatients and 1037 inpatients got a diagnosis of a manic episode/bipolar disorder at the first contact ever. Significantly more women were treated as outpatients than as inpatients. Women...... patients treated during hospitalization more women than men presented with mixed episodes. CONCLUSIONS: Besides differences in the prevalence of mixed episodes and comorbid substance abuse few gender differences are found among patients presenting with a manic episode/bipolar disorder at first contact...
Jones, Randall M; Taylor, Denise E; Dick, Andrew J; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L
This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social institutions. Gender differences were identified for preference, activity, and influence in bedroom design and decoration. Girls and boys differed in the type of items contained in their bedrooms. Girls' rooms contained stuffed animals and pictures of people, including themselves, more frequently than the boys' rooms. In contrast, boys' rooms contained sports-related items, and things for building or that they had built themselves. Although bedroom design activity for both boys and girls was influenced by older teens, friends, media, and popular culture, boys (but not girls) were also influenced by their mothers, fathers, girlfriends, and activities such as sports, Boy or Girl Scouts, and music lessons.
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Milan, Stephanie; Vannucci, Anna
Although developmental trajectories of anxiety symptomatology have begun to be explored, most research has focused on total anxiety symptom scores during childhood and early adolescence, using racially/ethnically homogenous samples. Understanding the heterogeneous courses of anxiety disorder symptoms during middle to late adolescence has the potential to clarify developmental risk models of anxiety and to inform prevention programs. Therefore, this study specifically examined gender differences in developmental trajectories of anxiety disorder symptoms (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from middle to late adolescence in a diverse community sample (N = 1000; 57 % female; 65 % White), assessed annually over 2 years. Latent growth curve modeling revealed that girls exhibited a slight linear decrease in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder symptoms, whereas boys exhibited a stable course. These models suggested that one trajectory was appropriate for panic disorder symptoms in both girls and boys. Growth mixture models indicated the presence of four latent generalized anxiety disorder symptom trajectory classes: low increasing, moderate decreasing slightly, high decreasing, and very high decreasing rapidly. Growth mixture models also suggested the presence of five latent social anxiety disorder symptom trajectory classes: a low stable trajectory class and four classes that were qualitatively similar to the latent generalized anxiety disorder trajectories. For both generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder symptoms, girls were significantly more likely than boys to be in trajectory classes characterized by moderate or high initial symptoms that subsequently decreased over time. These findings provide novel information regarding the developmental course of anxiety disorder symptoms in adolescents.
Full Text Available While the gender disparity in health and mortality in various stages of life in India is well documented, there is limited evidence on female disadvantage in health-care expenditure (HCE.Examine the gender difference in HCE in short-term and major morbidity in India, and understand the role of factors underlying the difference.Using two rounds of nationally representative panel data-the India Human Development Survey (IHDS 2004-2005 and 2011-2012 (IHDS I & II-we calculate morbidity prevalence rate and mean HCE by gender, and examine the adjusted effect of gender on major morbidity-related HCE by using a two-part regression model. Further, we performed Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of the gender gap in HCE in major morbidity to understand the contribution of demographic and socio-economic factors.Health-care expenditure on females was systematically lower than on males across all demographic and socio-economic groups. Multivariate analysis confirms that female HCE is significantly lower than male HCE even after controlling demographic and socio-economic factors (β = -0.148, p = 0.000, CI:-0.206-0.091. For both short-term and major morbidity, a female disadvantage on HCE increased from IHDS I to IHDS II. For instance, the male-female gap in major morbidity related expenditure increased from INR 1298 to INR 4172. A decomposition analysis of gender gap in HCE demonstrates that about 48% of the gap is attributable to differences in demographic and socio-economic factors (endowment effect, whereas 50% of the gap is due to the differential effect of the determinants (coefficient effect.Indians spend less on female health care than on male health care. Most of the gender gap in HCE is not due to differential distribution of factors affecting HCE.
Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won
Gender differences in pathological gambling disorder (PGD) have received little investigation. This study was constructed to detail the demographic and phenomenological differences in men and women with PGD. We assessed gender differences in 131 subjects with PGD who were evaluated in terms of demographic characteristics, clinical features of PGD, and treatment history. Seventy-eight (60%) subjects were women, and 53 (40%) were men. Men had an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, while women progressed to pathological gambling sooner after beginning to gamble. In terms of gambling behavior, men were more likely to engage in blackjack, cards, sporting events, and the track, whereas women played slot machines and bingo. Women reported that loneliness was the major trigger to gambling, while men were more likely to gamble secondary to sensory stimuli. Although men were as likely as women to have filed bankruptcy because of gambling, women were more likely to have written bad checks and men were more likely to have lost significant savings. Both groups were equally likely to seek treatment, but Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and outpatient therapy were reported equally ineffective in reducing gambling symptoms. There appear to be some gender differences in the clinical features of PGD, and these differences may have treatment implications. Copyright 2002 by W.B. Saunders Company
Pekić Jasmina M.
Full Text Available The article focuses on the phenomenon of school indiscipline which proved to be an important factor of disruption in the teaching process. The aims of our research were to determine whether there were gender and age differences in expressing indiscipline during a class, as well as to examine the latent space of the School Indiscipline Scale. The sample included 897 students (42.1% boys and 57.9% girls who attend elementary (46.6% or secondary (53.4% school, aged 12 - 19. The instrument used was the Scale of School Indiscipline. The results of the component analysis indicated four components: nonparticipation, aggression, defiance to authority and cheating. By applying the MANOVA test we detected gender differences in all four subscales: that girls tend to cheat or not participate in the teaching process, while boys are more inclined to aggression and authority defiance. Regarding age differences it was noted that elementary school students are more inclined to behave aggressively while secondary school students tend not to participate and cheat. Bearing in mind that knowing gender and age differences of expressing unwanted behavior in school is very important it seems that the success of any prevention programs depend, to a large extent, upon their congruence with the students with different characteristics.
Rucklidge, Julia J
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is recognized to exist in males and females although the literature supports a higher prevalence in males. However, when girls are diagnosed with ADHD, they are more often diagnosed as predominantly inattentive than boys with ADHD. This article provides a review of gender differences noted across the lifespan. Males and females with ADHD are more similar than different, and generally ADHD profiles are not sex specific. Small gender differences have been found: adolescent girls with ADHD have lower self-efficacy and poorer coping strategies than adolescent boys with ADHD; rates of depression and anxiety may be higher, and physical aggression and other externalizing behaviors lower in girls and women with ADHD. Men with ADHD seem to be incarcerated more often than women with ADHD. However, many studies suffer from small sample sizes, referral biases, differences in diagnostic procedures, and possible rater influences. Treatments are reviewed and discussed with reference to the reported gender differences in functioning and the global deficits noted in all samples. The data available so far suggest that treatments are likely to be equally effective in males and females. However, referral bias is a problem, in that females with ADHD are less likely to be referred for treatment than males with ADHD. Future research should include equal representation of both sexes in samples such that sex by treatment analyses can be routinely conducted. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McPherson, Andrew; Martin, Colin R
To investigate gender differences in locus of control in an alcohol-dependent population. Locus of control helps to explain behaviour in terms of internal (the individual is responsible) or external (outside forces, such as significant other people or chance, are responsible) elements. Past research on gender differences in locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence has shown mixed results. There is a need then to examine gender and locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence to ascertain the veracity of any locus of control differences as a function of gender. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control form-C was administered to clients from alcohol dependence treatment centres in the West of Scotland. Independent t-tests were carried out to assess gender differences in alcohol dependence severity and internal/external aspects of locus of control. One hundred and eighty-eight (53% females) participants were recruited from a variety of alcohol dependence treatment centres. The majority of participants (72%) came from Alcoholics Anonymous groups. Women revealed a greater internal locus of control compared with men. Women also had a greater 'significant others' locus of control score than men. Men were more reliant on 'chance' and 'doctors' than women. All these trends were not, however, statistically significant. Gender differences in relation to locus of control and alcohol dependence from past studies are ambiguous. This study also found no clear statistically significant differences in locus of control orientation as a function of gender. This article helps nurses to contextualise health behaviours as a result of internal or external forces. It also helps nursing staff to better understand alcohol dependence treatment in relation to self-efficacy and control. Moreover, it highlights an important concept in health education theory. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cheng, Grand H L; Chan, Darius K S; Tong, Po Yee
This study was designed to examine the qualities of online friendships with different gender compositions that had been maintained for varying periods of time. A total of 167 Hong Kong Internet-users rated the qualities of their same-sex and cross-sex online friendships on measures such as intimacy, trust, self-disclosure, and relational satisfaction. A 2 (gender of respondents: male vs. female) x 2 (gender of online friends: same-sex vs. opposite-sex) x 3 (duration of friendships: less than 1 year vs. 1-2 years vs. more than 2 years) factorial design was adopted. MANOVA results reveal the three-way interaction effect on intimacy, trust, and relational satisfaction. Specifically, the qualities of male-female, female-male, and female-female online friendships were generally higher for those with a longer duration than those at the early stage of friendship development. However, the qualities of male-male friendships that had been maintained for more than 2 years were lower than those maintained for 2 years or less. These findings suggest that qualities of online friendships are subject to effects of gender composition and duration. The conceptual implications of these results are discussed.
Spence John C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research has been conducted on gender differences in perceived environmental correlates of physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of gender in the link between perceived environment and PA. Methods Using a telephone-administered survey, data was collected on leisure time physical activity (LTPA, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, and self-efficacy in a representative sample of 1209 adults from the province of Alberta, Canada. LTPA was regressed on ten measures of perceived neighbourhood environment and self-efficacy in a series of logistic regressions. Results Women were more likely than men to perceive their neighbourhood as unsafe to go for walks at night (χ2 = 67.46, p 2 = 6.73, p 2 = 11.50, p 2 = 4.30, p Conclusion The results provide additional support for the use of models in which gender is treated as a potential moderator of the link between the perceived environment and PA. Further, the results suggest the possibility of differential interventions to increase PA based on factors associated with gender.
Liu, Y; Zhang, Y; Cho, Y T; Obayashi, Y; Arai, A; Tamashiro, H
The effects of socio-economic factors on suicide were gender-dependent. Japanese suicide mortality gender ratio (male: female) had gradually increased during the twentieth century. With the data covering 1947-2010 collected from Japanese official websites, we conducted non-parametric rank test, curve estimations, spearman ranking correlation and quantile regression in succession with Stata version 12.0. The suicide mortality rate in male with a "U" shape had been always higher than that in female with a "J" shape. The male suicide mortality peaked around in 1955 (38.5 per 100,000 populations), dropped quickly afterwards until the 1970s; it increased in the 1980s with another peak in 2003 (33.2 per 100,000 populations). For female, an overall decreasing trend was seen with a peak during the 1950s (23.5 per 100,000 populations in 1958). It dropped gradually afterwards with small variations in 1970s and 80s, and was stabilized after 1995 (9.3 per 100,000 populations). The unemployment rate could be used as a single positive predictor of suicide mortality for men (pimpact of mental disorders was not analyzed and age-specific analysis was not conducted. The findings of these gender differences in, and the associated factors with, suicide in Japan, warranted further studies including delineation of the implications of differential economic pressure between genders, as well as child-rearing pressure and marriage satisfaction. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Rosselli, Francine; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G Terence; May, Alexis; Kraemer, Helena C
This study examined gender differences in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms including body image concerns (body checking or avoidance), binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. A random sample of members (ages 18-35 years) of a health maintenance organization was recruited to complete a survey by mail or on-line. Items were drawn from the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Body Shape Questionnaire. Among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating, whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observed, with women significantly more likely than men to report body checking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes ("Number Needed to Treat") were small to moderate. Few studies of eating disorders include men, yet our findings suggest that a substantial minority of men also report eating disorder symptoms.
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; May, Alexis; Kraemer, Helena C.
Objective This study examined gender differences in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms including body image concerns (body checking or avoidance), binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Method A random sample of members (ages 18 to 35) of a health maintenance organization was recruited to complete a survey by mail or on-line. Items were drawn from the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results Among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observe, with women significantly more likely than men to report body checking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes (“Number Needed to Treat”) were small to moderate. Conclusions Few studies of eating disorders include men, yet our findings suggest that a substantial minority of men also report eating disorder symptoms. PMID:19107833
Kakuru, D.M.; Burg, van der Margreet
Gender inequalities have persisted in Uganda¿s primary education regardless of specific interventions put in place to eliminate them. These include the implementation of Universal Primary Education in 1997. Research was carried out to understand the reasons for the persistence of these inequalities.
Full Text Available This paper reports on progress and conclusions of two-year research of gender issues in studying computer science at Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad. Using statistics on data gathered by a survey, the work presented here focused on identifying, understanding, and correlating both female and male students’ performance, professional motivation, ambition, confidence level and attitudes towards differences, learning quality and nature of the field. Results show agreement with theoretical predictions and significant improvement over previous efforts; providing profound implications for future studies of gender-sensitive IT education in the region and beyond.
Gloria Moss; Rod W Gunn
This study examines the implications of a gendered website production and preference aesthetic for the teaching of computer studies. Where the website production aesthetic is concerned, it finds evidence of statistically significant differences on 13 of the 23 factors against which sixty student websites were rated. These results were suggestive of a website aesthetic continuum with male and female production aesthetic tendencies at either end. The preference tests, conducted with 67 subjects...
Devine, Amy; Solt?sz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Goswami, Usha; Sz?cs, D?nes
Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning difficulty specific to mathematics learning. The prevalence of DD may be equivalent to that of dyslexia, posing an important challenge for effective educational provision. Nevertheless, there is no agreed definition of DD and there are controversies surrounding cutoff decisions, specificity and gender differences. In the current study, 1004 British primary school children completed mathematics and reading assessments. The prevalence of DD and gende...
We examine gender differences in bargaining outcomes in a highly competitive and commonly used market: the taxi market in Lima, Peru. Examining the entire path of negotiation we find that men face higher initial prices and rejection rates. These differentials are consistent with both statistical and taste-based discrimination. To identify the source of the inferior treatment of men we conduct an experiment where passengers send a signal on valuation before negotiating. The signal eliminates g...
Yolanda Pena-Boquete; Melchor Fernandez
Human capital and productive structure could account for an important part of the differences in productivity between Spanish regions; nevertheless we consider that gender wage discrimination could also have effects on it. The existence of a degree of discrimination means that there is a wage differential in which employer prefer to hire less productive workers instead of discriminated workers. Thus, the cost of producing a unit of product would be higher than the cost of producing without di...
Harris, Taylor; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Wenzel, Suzanne
Experiencing sexual victimization prior to becoming homeless is common among homeless youth and is associated with increased HIV risk behavior. This study examined mediating variables that underlie this association, adding to the understanding of gender differences in these paths. Participants were homeless youth in Los Angeles recruited through service access centers who completed a computerized self-administered interview in English or Spanish using an iPad. Findings indicate a high presence of sexual victimization across both genders. Female participants experienced posttraumatic stress disorder and subsequent engagement with exchange sex, whereas male participants were primarily involved in substance use risk pathways. Results indicate paths in the association between sexual victimization and HIV risk behavior differ between male and female homeless youth. Gender-specific, mental-health-informed interventions targeting sexual risk reduction are warranted.
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani
Despite the existing knowledge on the association between discrimination and poor mental health, very few studies have explored gender differences in this association in Arab Americans. The current study aimed to investigate whether gender moderates the association between the experience of discrimination and psychological distress in a representative sample of Arab Americans in Michigan. Using data from the Detroit Arab American Study (DAAS), 2003, this study recruited Arab Americans (337 males, 385 females) living in Michigan, United States. The main independent variable was discrimination. The main outcome was psychological distress. Covariates included demographic factors (age), socioeconomic status (education, employment, and income), and immigration characteristics (nativity and years living in United States). Gender was the focal moderator. We used multivariable regression with and without discrimination × gender interaction term. In the pooled sample, discrimination was positively associated with psychological distress [ B = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.22-1.03, p = 0.003]. We found a significant gender × discrimination interaction in the pooled sample ( B = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.01-1.59, p = 0.050), suggesting a stronger association in males than females. In our gender-specific model, higher discrimination was associated with higher psychological distress among male ( B = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.33-1.42, p = 0.002) but not female ( B = 0.18, 95% CI = -0.43 to 0.78, p = 0.567) Arab Americans. While discrimination is associated with poor mental health, a stronger link between discrimination and psychological symptoms may exist in male compared to female Arab Americans. While efforts should be made to universally reduce discrimination, screening for discrimination may be a more salient component of mental health care for male than female Arab Americans.
Pitel, Lukas y; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
BACKGROUND: Many studies of adolescent health-related behaviors have assessed the effects of gender and parental socioeconomic position (SEP) but not their mutual modification. We investigated socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviors among Slovak adolescents and the potential
Conclusion: This study provides additional support for the premise that the utilization of psychiatric services needs to be viewed from the perspective of Liberians and that there are differences in preferences across groups. Our results suggest that service providers and policy makers take into account the age of the patient ...
González-Ortega, I; Echeburúa, E; Corral, P; Polo-López, R; Alberich, S
The current study aims to identify predictors of pathological gambling (PG) severity, taking gender differences into account, in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. The sample for this study consisted of 103 subjects (51 women and 52 men) meeting current DSM-IV-TR criteria for PG. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine different risk factors (gender, age, impulsivity, sensation seeking, self-esteem) and risk markers (depression, anxiety, gambling-related thoughts, substance abuse) as predictors of PG severity. Impulsivity, maladjustment in everyday life and age at gambling onset were the best predictors in the overall sample. When gender differences were taken into account, duration of gambling disorder in women and depression and impulsivity in men predicted PG severity. In turn, a high degree of severity in the South Oaks Gambling Screen score was related to older age and more familiy support in women and to low self-esteem and alcohol abuse in men. Female gamblers were older than male gamblers and started gambling later in life, but became dependent on gambling more quickly than men. Further research should examine these data to tailor treatment to specific patients' needs according to sex and individual characteristics. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Fucic, A; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L
. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180µg/L (range 0.10-0.69µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50µg/L (range 0.80-39.91µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation...... between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6-7 year old...... girls, 11 year old boys and 10-11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further...
Allison, Katelyn F; Keenan, Karen A; Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Nagai, Takashi; Deluzio, Jennifer; McGrail, Mark; Lephart, Scott M
The repeal of the Direct Ground Combat Assignment Rule has renewed focus on examining performance capabilities of female military personnel and their ability to occupy previously restricted military occupational specialties. Previous research has revealed female Soldiers suffer a greater proportion of musculoskeletal injuries compared to males, including a significantly higher proportion of lower extremity, knee, and overuse injuries. Potential differences may also exist in musculoskeletal, biomechanical, and physiological characteristics between male and female Soldiers requiring implementation of gender-specific training in order to mitigate injury risk and enhance performance. To examine differences in musculoskeletal, biomechanical, and physiological characteristics in male and female Soldiers. A total of 406 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) Soldiers (348 male; 58 female) participated. Subjects underwent testing for flexibility, isokinetic and isometric strength (percent body weight), single-leg balance, lower body biomechanics during a stop jump and drop landing, body composition, anaerobic power/capacity, and aerobic capacity. Independent t tests assessed between-group comparisons. Women demonstrated significantly greater flexibility (Pphysiological characteristics. Sex-specific interventions may aid in improving such characteristics to optimize physical readiness and decrease the injury risk during gender-neutral training, and decreasing between-sex variability in performance characteristics may result in enhanced overall unit readiness. Identification of sex-specific differences in injury patterns and characteristics should facilitate adjustments in training in order for both sexes to meet the gender-neutral occupational demands for physically demanding military occupational specialties.
Research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has focused primarily on Vietnam War veterans. A handful of recent studies have been conducted on samples of the general population. We sought to examine gender differences in exposure to traumatic events and in the emergence of PTSD following exposure in the general population. A representative sample of 2181 persons in the Detroit metropolitan area, ages 18-45 years. Subjects were interviewed to assess history of traumatic events and PTSD using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria. The risk of PTSD was assessed in relation to a representative sample of traumas experienced in the population. Lifetime prevalence of traumatic events was slightly higher in men than in women. The risk for PTSD following traumatic experiences was twofold higher in women than in men. This gender difference was primarily due to women's greater risk of PTSD following events that involved assaultive violence. The probability of PTSD in women versus men exposed to assaultive violence was 36% versus 6%. Prior exposure to assaultive violence was associated with an increased risk of PTSD from a subsequent trauma; the gender difference in the vulnerability for PTSD is not explained by prior exposure. Duration of PTSD was longer in women than in men. The burden of PTSD in U.S. communities is greater in women than in men, chiefly due to the greater effect of assaultive violence on women.
Full Text Available Hematology is a difficult aspect of medicine for students to learn. Students need hematology clerkship training to develop their clinical skills. The influence of gender on different teaching methods and performance in foreign medical students is still unknown, especially in hematology clerkship. To address this issue, we tested performance differences between foreign male and female students in clinical practice. Twenty-two foreign medical students attended a two-week hematology clerkship in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital. The lecture-based learning (LBL method and mixed team-based learning (MTBL method were used in hematology clerkship. Eight foreign students were assigned to LBL group, and fourteen foreign medical students were assigned to MTBL group. Our previous work found that MTBL methods benefit both foreign medical students and Chinese postgraduates. In this study, practice scores and case-writing scores were analyzed between boys and girls. The results showed that the mean of scores in practice test scores and case writing scores was not significantly different between genders (P>0.05, as well as subgroup analysis in LBL and MTBL groups (P>0.05. This study indicated that practice test scores and case-writing scores in hematology clerkship were the same between boys and girls, which were not related to teaching methods. This study also indicated that both genders can benefit from the new MTBL teaching methods.
Merryfeather, Lyn; Bruce, Anne
Increasingly, people are living their lives without strict attachment to one gender. In this paper, we discuss key discourses identified in a literature review of transgender and transsexual issues in nursing. Our aim is to highlight the power of dominant discourse and lack of adequate understanding of gender diversity on the part of nurses. We use stories of trans people to illustrate these discourses. An increased awareness may support respectful care of those who do not fit comfortably within culturally defined parameters of male and female. The invisibility of gender diversity in health care remains a threat to ethical nursing care. The effects of invisibility of transgender people in health care result in a cycle of repetition where those who have been denied recognition in turn avoid disclosure. Key discourses addressing trans people in nursing literature include invisibility, advocacy, cultural competence, and emancipation. There is a need for further education about gender diversity in order to dispel and counter misunderstandings, stigma, and invisibility. This can be achieved through sustained efforts in nursing research and educational curricula to include gender diversity and trans people. Policies for the protection of those who change their sex or identify outside the dominant gender schema are urgently needed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gotshall, Robert W.; Tsai, Pai-Feng; Frey, Mary A. B.
The cardiovascular responses of men and women to the stand test were compared by measuring respective values for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance during a 5-min supine and a 5-min standing test in ten subjects of each gender. It was found that, while the male and female subjects had similar heart rate values, all other responses exhibited greater changes in men than in women. While differences in the height of the subjects did not account for differences in cardiovascular responses, no mechanism responsible for these differences could be identified.
Mallampalli, Monica P; Carter, Christine L
Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions.
Elliman, N A; Green, M W; Wan, W K
Males are increasingly subjected to pressures to conform to aesthetic body stereotypes. There is, however, comparatively little published research on the aetiology of male body shape concerns. Two experiments are presented, which investigate the relationship between gender specific body shape concerns and colour-naming performance. Each study comprised a between subject design, in which each subject was tested on a single occasion. A pictorial version of a modified Stroop task was used in both studies. Subjects colour-named gender specific obese and thin body shape images and semantically homogeneous neutral images (birds) presented in a blocked format. The first experiment investigated female subjects (N = 68) and the second investigated males (N = 56). Subjects also completed a self-report measure of eating behaviour. Currently dieting female subjects exhibited significant colour-naming differences between obese and neutral images. A similar pattern of colour-naming performance was found to be related to external eating in the male subjects.
Full Text Available Low current transcranial electrical stimulation is an effective but somewhat inconsistent tool for augmenting neuromodulation. In this study, we used 3D MRI guided electrical transcranial stimulation (GETS modeling to estimate the range of current intensities received at cortical brain tissues. Combined T1, T2, Proton Density MRIs from 24 adult subjects (12 male and 12 female were modeled with virtual electrodes placed at F3, F4, C3 and C4. Two sizes of electrodes 20 mm round and 50 x 45 mm square were examined at 0.5, 1 and 2 mA input currents. The intensity of current received was sampled in a one centimeter sphere placed at the cortex directly under each scalp electrode. There was a tenfold range in the current received by individuals. A large gender difference was observed with female subjects receiving significantly less current at targeted parietal cortex than male subjects when stimulated at identical current levels (P <0.05. Larger electrodes delivered somewhat larger amounts of current then the smaller ones (P <0.01. Electrodes in the frontal regions delivered less current than those in the parietal region (P<0.05. There were large individual differences in current levels the subjects received. Analysis of the cranial bone showed that the gender difference and the frontal parietal differences are due to differences in cranial bone. Males have more cancellous parietal bone and females more dense parietal bone (p<0.01. These differences should be considered when planning transcranial electrical stimulation studies and call into question earlier reports of gender differences due to hormonal influences.
Theppeang, Keson; Glass, Thomas A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Todd, Andrew C; Rohde, Charles A; Schwartz, Brian S
We sought to identify predictors of lead concentrations in the blood, tibias, and patellae of older adults and to describe differences by gender, race/ethnicity, and other factors that can influence lead toxicokinetics and, thus modify health effects. Participants aged 50 to 70 years (N=1140) were randomly identified from selected neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured lead concentrations by anodic stripping voltammetry (in blood) and (109)Cd-induced K-shell x-ray fluorescence (in bone). We used multiple linear regression to identify predictors of lead concentrations. Mean (SD) lead concentrations in blood, tibias, and patellae were 3.5 (2.4) mug/dL, 18.9 (12.5) mug/g, and 6.8 (18.1) mug/g, respectively. Tibia concentrations were 29% higher in African Americans than in Whites (P lead concentrations and by gender on the association of age to tibia lead concentrations. Patella lead concentrations differed by gender; apolipoprotein E genotype modified this relation. African Americans evidenced a prominent disparity in lifetime lead dose. Women may be at higher risk of release of lead from bone and consequent health effects because of increased bone demineralization with aging.
Alkhadrawi, Amamah A.
The purpose of this dissertation is to discover how the myth of gender differences in STEM inform the lived experiences of male and female 12th graders in one high school in Northwest Ohio. Over the years, the observed gender gap favoring males over females in STEM ability has closed, and female students have even surpassed males in some measures. The fact that girls have met and exceeded boys in many measures of STEM ability over time suggests that the historical disparity was the result of social or psychological, and not biological, differences. Even though schools have changed throughout the years to accommodate and encourage female students in STEM, there is still a persistent disparity in participation at the highest levels of STEM in education and in careers. Males still outnumber females in the more mathematical and technical sciences, such as computer science and engineering. This study applied feminist socialization theory and phenomenology as its theoretical framework. The biggest themes that informed student"s choices and preferences were as follows: intended choices follow family influence, myth persists in subtle ways, teenagers have a limited future view, and the chicken and the egg issues of personal interests versus social influence. There are clearly more factors that contribute to this gender socialization, which may be a combination of socioeconomic status and the influence of family.
Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard
Although the link between depression and lower levels of mastery is well established, limited information exists on ethnic and gender differences in the association between the two. The current study investigated ethnic, gender, and ethnic by gender differences in the link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and low mastery in the United States. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A), 2003-2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African-American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, socioeconomic status (family income), mastery (sense of control over life), and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between mastery and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity and gender. In the pooled sample, a higher sense of mastery was associated with a lower risk of MDD. This association, however, was significant for African Americans but not Caribbean Blacks. Similarly, among African American males and females, higher mastery was associated with lower risk of MDD. Such association could not be found for Caribbean Black males or females. Findings indicate ethnic rather than gender differences in the association between depression and mastery among Black youth. Further research is needed to understand how cultural values and life experiences may alter the link between depression and mastery among ethnically diverse Black youth.
Wallen, Aaron S; Morris, Michael W; Devine, Beth A; Lu, Jackson G
Women's underperformance in MBA programs has been the subject of recent debate and policy interventions, despite a lack of rigorous evidence documenting when and why it occurs. The current studies document a performance gap, specifying its contours and contributing factors. Two behaviors by female students that may factor into the gap are public conformity and private internalization. We predicted that women conform to the norm associating maleness with technical prowess by minimizing their public assertiveness in class discussions and meetings, but that they do not internalize the norm by reducing private effort. Data from multiple cohorts of a top-ranked MBA program reveal female underperformance occurred in technical subjects (e.g., accounting), but not social subjects (e.g., marketing). As predicted, the gender effect ran not through private effort but through public assertiveness, even controlling for gender differences in interests and aptitudes. These findings support some current policy interventions while casting doubt on others.
Belenko, Steven; Houser, Kimberly A
Prisons inmates have high rates of substance abuse and associated social and health problems, and a concomitant high need for drug treatment while incarcerated. Female inmates have an even greater treatment need, yet most inmates do not participate in treatment while incarcerated. Using data from a nationally representative sample of prison inmates, this article examines the impact of gender on prison treatment participation and gender differences in the factors associated with clinical treatment participation. Females were significantly more likely to participate in prison drug treatment than males, controlling for other factors. For both males and females, severity of drug problems predicted participation in treatment. For males but not females, race was associated with prison treatment participation, and among those with drug abuse or dependence, females with co-occurring mental health problems were more likely to participate in treatment. Implications for prison assessment and treatment policies, and future research, are discussed.
Holmberg, Diane; Thibault, Tabatha M; Pringle, Jennifer D
Two studies were conducted to assess patterns of gender differences in memory for romantic relationship events. Results suggested that people believe that women have better memory for romantic relationship events than men, that better relationship memory predicts higher levels of relationship well-being, and that the association between relationship memory and relationship well-being is somewhat stronger for women than for men. Women did tend to have somewhat better relationship memory than men, as assessed via subjective reports from both partners in mixed-sex relationships, and via the number of details partners provided when asked to recall a specific relationship event (i.e., their first date). Consistent with the lay theories, both own and partner's better relationship memory predicted higher levels of relationship well-being; however, the association between better relationship memory and higher levels of relationship well-being was equally strong for both genders. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Puskar, Kathryn R; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Ren, Dianxu; Haley, Tammy M; Tark, Kirsti Hetager; Switala, Joann; Siemon, Linda
To identify and describe gender-related differences in the self-esteem and optimism levels of rural adolescents. Self-esteem and optimism have been broadly examined and are associated with health-practices, social interaction, attachment, resiliency, and personal identity. Information describing the relationship of self-esteem and optimism as it relates to gender is limited. Using a cross-sectional survey design, students (N = 193) from three high-schools in rural Pennsylvania, USA completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Optimism Scale-Life Orientation Test-Revised as part of a National Institute of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research funded study. Both instruments' mean scores were in the range of average for this population, with females scoring lower than males in both self-esteem (p self-esteem and optimism. Attention to self-esteem and optimism in female youth is recommended.
Full Text Available This article surveys feminist citizenship practices and scholarship on gender, justice, citizenship and rights in Latin America. Feminism’s critique of patriarchal privilege expressed a modern desire for greater individual freedom and collective recognition, a combination that produced tensions and some inconsistencies in regard to the «difference» question, notably in its encounter with indigenous populations. However, central to feminism’s project was the pursuit of both recognition and redistribution, which achieved greater success in the realm of law and politics than in the distribution of public and private goods. A review of Latin American feminism’s achievements reveals a history of substantial advances but a striking persistence of gender inequality, which provides a rich agenda for further investigation.
Turk, C L; Heimberg, R G; Orsillo, S M; Holt, C S; Gitow, A; Street, L L; Schneier, F R; Liebowitz, M R
The present study was an exploratory investigation of gender differences in a large sample of persons with social phobia. Potential differences in demographic characteristics, comorbidity, severity of fear, and situations feared were examined. No differences were found on history of social phobia, social phobia subtype, or comorbidity of additional anxiety disorders, mood disorders, or avoidant personality disorder. However, women exhibited more severe social fears as indexed by several assessment instruments. Some differences between men and women also emerged in their report of severity of fear in specific situations. Women reported significantly greater fear than men while talking to authority, acting/performing/giving a talk in front of an audience, working while being observed, entering a room when others are already seated, being the center of attention, speaking up at a meeting, expressing disagreement or disapproval to people they do not know very well, giving a report to a group, and giving a party. Men reported significantly more fear than women regarding urinating in public bathrooms and returning goods to a store. Additionally, there were some differences in the proportion of men and women reporting fear in different situations. Specifically, more women than men reported fear of going to a party, and more men than women reported fear of urinating in a public restroom. Gender differences among patients with social phobia are discussed in the context of traditional sex-role expectations.
Pollard, Tessa M; Wagnild, Janelle M
The aim of this systematic review was to examine gender differences in walking for leisure, transport and in total in adults living in high-income countries, and to assess whether gender differences in walking practices change across the life-course. A systematic literature search was conducted of publications dated 1995 to 2015. Papers providing quantitative data on participation in walking of both men and women aged at least 18 years in a high-income country were screened for the quality of the data on gender differences in walking. Data were extracted and results were synthesised using forest plots and narrative summary. Thirty-six studies were included in the review: 18 reported on walking for leisure, 16 on walking for transport (in total, or for particular purposes), and 14 on total walking. Most (33) studies provided data comparing the proportion of men and women who walked (at all or for a minimum duration) over a defined period, usually one week. There was consistent evidence that more women than men walk for leisure, although effect sizes were small. However, this effect varies by age: more younger women than younger men walk for leisure, but the gender difference diminishes with age and appears to reverse in the oldest age groups. Taking all ages together, there was no consistent gender difference in walking for transport or in total walking, although the small number of studies reporting on walking to undertake errands suggested that more women than men walk for this purpose. While there is little evidence that levels of total walking consistently vary by gender, our findings suggest that there are consistent gender differences in participation in walking for some purposes, including for leisure, and that there are gender differences in the impact of age on walking. We conclude that more research is needed to improve our understanding of how walking fits into the lives of women and men across the life-course, especially in relation to gender
Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is serious concern in the workplace with respect to errors, accidents, absenteeism, reduced productivity and impaired personal or professional life. Previous community studies found a female preponderance of EDS, however, there is little research on EDS and gender in occupational settings. We examined the gender differences in prevalence and risk factors of EDS among employees working at a telecommunications company in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Our outcome measure of EDS was the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A self-administered questionnaire on health and sleep including ESS was distributed to 5,571 workers between December 1999 and January 2000, and 5,072 responses were returned (91.0%). A total of 4,722 full-time, non-manual and non-shift employees aged 20-59 were used for analysis (3,909 men and 813 women). Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied for examining the gender differences in the prevalence and risk factors of EDS. The prevalence rates of EDS were 13.3% for women and 7.2% for men (Pgenders, and being married worked as a protective factor against EDS for men alone. It is obvious that a ban on overtime work and a provision of mental health hygiene are the general strategies for reducing EDS at worksites. In the case of women, we suggest the formation of effective strategies for improving women's status at home and in the workplace must also be a solution for the prevention of EDS (e.g. promoting gender equality in the division of labor at home and strengthening family care policies for working women).
Title: English: Gender Differences in the Approach to caterring Basic School Pupils Author: Věra Brabcová Department: Pedagogy Supervisor: PaedDr. Eva Marádová, CSc. ANNOTATION: The objective of the Bachelor Thesis, divided into two parts, is to find out whether there are any differences in the approach to catering; the discussed group of diners are basic school pupils of the second stage (Czech education system). The work compares the attitude of boys and girls at the age of 11 - 16. The the...
CARLOS FELIPE PARDO-VÉLEZ
Full Text Available Gender differences in the recognition of facial expressions of anger, happiness and sadness wereresearched in students 18-25 years of age. A reaction time procedure was used, and the percentage ofcorrect answers when recognizing was also measured. Though the work hypothesis expected genderdifferences in facial expression recognition, results suggest that these differences are not significant at alevel of 0.05%. Statistical analysis shows a greater easiness (at a non-significant level for women torecognize happiness expressions, and for men to recognize anger expressions. The implications ofthese data are discussed, and possible extensions of this investigation in terms of sample size andcollege major of the participants.
María Araceli Álvarez Gasca
Full Text Available The relationship between lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in college students as well as differences between men and women are analyzed. 970 students (67.4% women, 32.6% men were randomly selected and assessed on lifestyle (EV, central obesity, and metabolic syndrome(SM. Results showed 4.63% with SM and 36.65% with obesity, women predominated. Predominant EV was good and better in men than women, highest frequency of SM was in bad EV. Relationship between gender, obesity, and SM was significant for the studied population. Differences were found between men and women.
Govindan, Morgen; Gurm, Roopa; Mohan, Sathish; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Corriveau, Nicole; Goldberg, Caren; Durussel-Weston, Jean; Eagle, Kim A; Jackson, Elizabeth A
Previous studies have demonstrated gender-related differences in body composition, physical activity, and diet. This observational study assesses gender variance in independent predictors for obesity to determine targeted areas for intervention. Data from 1714 sixth-grade students enrolled in Project Healthy Schools were compared by using health behaviors and physiologic markers (lipids, random glucose, blood pressure, and resting and recovery heart rates). Students were stratified by gender and obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile by age and gender). Physiologic markers and behaviors were compared by using χ(2) analysis. Univariate associations with P obesity by gender. Nonobese students (both boys and girls) showed significantly healthier physiologic parameters compared with their obese counterparts. Two behaviors independently correlated with obesity in both boys and girls: regularly eating school lunches (odds ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.64; OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.00-1.62, respectively) and watching ≥2 hours of television per day (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.32; OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.34, respectively). Vigorous physical activity and involvement in school sports teams appeared to be protective against obesity in boys (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.98; OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.64-0.94, respectively), whereas milk consumption appeared protective in girls (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.98). Among middle-school children, we observed gender-related differences in factors associated with obesity. Additional research is warranted to determine the beneficial impact of improving school lunches and decreasing screen time, while improving our understanding of gender-related differences in milk consumption and physical activities in relation to BMI.
Matias García Terán
Full Text Available Different authors claim that the differences found in the social skills repertoire of men and women could be explained by gender orientation. The purpose of this study is to determine if there are gender differences in social skills in university students from Córdoba (Argentina. The Social Skills Questionnaire for College Students (SSQ-C (Morán, Olaz & Del Prette, in preparation was applied to a sample of 1076 university students of both sexes, aged between 18 and 25 years old, from 56 undergraduate programs distributed on five public and private universities of the city of Córdoba, Argentina. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was conducted to analyze the existence of differences between men and women. We found differences in favour of men in social skills for affective and sexual approach, and in favour of women in conversational skills, refusal assertiveness and empathic skills and expression of positive feelings; there were no differences in social skills for academic and workplace settings. The results and their possible practical implications are discussed.
Emiko Yoshikawa Egry
Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo describe the phenomenon of child neglect and understand it in a gender context.METHODRetrospective, quantitative, and exploratory study that analyzed reports of violence by a child and adolescent protection network in a Brazilian city. The theoretical and methodological basis applied was TIPESC (Theory of Nursing Praxical Intervention in Collective Health, with a gender emphasis.RESULTSNeglect of children under the age of ten represents more than half the reports received over all the years studied; more boys than girls suffered neglect and 41.4% of the reports of neglect involved children under than age of three; women were identified as being solely responsible in 67.9%, and as accessories in 17.3% of the incidents reported.CONCLUSIONChild neglect is a complex matter, the gender subordinate status inflicted on these children and their mothers who are responsible for their care underscore the social vulnerability of this group.
Full Text Available The article reviews the results of an empirical study of the coping behavior of women with different sexual orientations and gender identity. It is established that most women have an androgynous gender identity. Significant differences in the coping behavior of women with different sexual orientations and gender identity were revealed. The coping behavior of women of different sexual orientations with masculine and feminine gender identity differs more strongly than the coping behavior of women of different sexual orientation with androgynous gender identity. The data obtained can be used to form constructive strategies for coping behavior in women with different sexual orientations and gender identity.
Otto Ka-Wing Cheung
Full Text Available Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management.
Xie, Zhixin; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben
There is a significant gender imbalance on financial trading floors. This motivated us to investigate gender differences in financial risk taking under pressure. We used a well-established approach from behavior economics to analyze a series of risky monetary choices by male and female participants with and without time pressure. We also used second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and face width-to-height ratio (fWHR) as correlates of pre-natal exposure to testosterone. We constructed a structural model and estimated the participants' risk attitudes and probability perceptions via maximum likelihood estimation under both expected utility (EU) and rank-dependent utility (RDU) models. In line with existing research, we found that male participants are less risk averse and that the gender gap in risk attitudes increases under moderate time pressure. We found that female participants with lower 2D:4D ratios and higher fWHR are less risk averse in RDU estimates. Males with lower 2D:4D ratios were less risk averse in EU estimations, but more risk averse using RDU estimates. We also observe that men whose ratios indicate a greater prenatal exposure to testosterone exhibit a greater optimism and overestimation of small probabilities of success.
Full Text Available There is a significant gender imbalance on financial trading floors. This motivated us to investigate gender differences in financial risk taking under pressure. We used a well-established approach from behavior economics to analyze a series of risky monetary choices by male and female participants with and without time pressure. We also used second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D and face width-to-height ratio (fWHR as correlates of pre-natal exposure to testosterone. We constructed a structural model and estimated the participants' risk attitudes and probability perceptions via maximum likelihood estimation under both expected utility (EU and rank-dependent utility (RDU models. In line with existing research, we found that male participants are less risk averse and that the gender gap in risk attitudes increases under moderate time pressure. We found that female participants with lower 2D:4D ratios and higher fWHR are less risk averse in RDU estimates. Males with lower 2D:4D ratios were less risk averse in EU estimations, but more risk averse using RDU estimates. We also observe that men whose ratios indicate a greater prenatal exposure to testosterone exhibit a greater optimism and overestimation of small probabilities of success.
Barry, Declan T; Grilo, Carlos M; Masheb, Robin M
This study examined gender differences in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Participants were 182 adults (35 male, 147 female) who were consecutively evaluated for outpatient clinical trials and met criteria for BED as outlined in the 4th ed. of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. They were administered a battery of measures to examine developmental, eating and weight-related disturbances, and psychological features associated with BED. Men and women did not differ significantly on several developmental variables (age at first overweight, age at first diet, age at onset of regular binge eating, or number of weight cycles). Men had significantly higher current body mass index (BMI), highest adult BMI, and were significantly more likely to be classified as obese. Men and women did not differ significantly on measures of current eating disorder features (binge eating, eating concerns, weight or shape concerns) but women reported significantly greater body image dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. Men and women did not differ significantly on current depression or self-esteem but men reported a greater frequency of past drug abuse problems. Although men and women who present for treatment for BED show many similarities in current eating disorder features, we observed a number of gender differences on important developmental and physical variables as well as associated psychological features. Copyright 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Rohlfsen, Leah S; Jacobs Kronenfeld, Jennie
This research examined gender differences in self-rated health (SRH) using the differential exposure and differential vulnerability explanations of gender differences in health. Trajectories of SRH were estimated using data that spanned 12 years (1992-2004) from the Health and Retirement Study. There was no gender difference in SRH at baseline, but SRH declined faster for males over time. Factors that mediated the gender difference included changes in employment status, smoking behavior, and the onset of health conditions. Moreover, were it not for gender differences in various structural and health status factors, females would have better SRH at baseline and over time. Our results differ from previous research, which often shows a female disadvantage that is reduced or disappears at older ages. Furthermore, gender differences in the predictors of SRH (exposure) contribute more to understanding gender differences in SRH than different responses to the predictors (vulnerability). © The Author(s) 2014.
Huang, Yu-Chi; Hung, Chi-Fa; Lin, Pao-Yen; Lee, Yu; Wu, Chih-Ching; Hsu, Su-Ting; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Lin, Chieh-Hsin; Wang, Liang-Jen
Past research has indicated gender differences in the clinical characteristics and course of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether gender differences in the manifestation of schizophrenia are correlated with neurosteroids, including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and pregnenolone. We further explored the potential relationship between the aforementioned neurosteroids and psychopathology. We recruited 65 schizophrenic patients (36 males and 29 females) and 103 healthy control subjects (47 males and 56 females) and obtained blood samples from the subjects in the morning while in a fasting state to determine the serum levels of DHEA, DHEA-S, and pregnenolone. The psychopathology and mood symptoms of patients with schizophrenia were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, respectively. Compared to the male control subjects, male patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower serum levels of DHEA and pregnenolone. In males with schizophrenia, the serum levels of DHEA and DHEA-S were associated with the age of onset and the duration of illness, while pregnenolone levels were associated with general symptoms of the PANSS. However, none of the neurosteroid levels were different between the female patients with schizophrenia and the female controls, and no significant correlation between neurosteroid levels and psychopathology evaluations was found among the schizophrenic females. Neurosteroids, including DHEA, DHEA-S, and pregnenolone, are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia in male patients, but not in female ones. Therefore, our findings suggest that neurosteroids may be associated with gender differences in susceptibility to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B
The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our
Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in the brain maturation during childhood and adolescence has been repeatedly documented, which may underlie the differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, our understanding of how gender modulates the development of structural connectome in healthy adults is still not entirely clear. Here we utilized graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data over a five-year period to investigate the progressive gender differences of brain network topology. The brain networks of both genders showed prominent economical "small-world" architecture (high local clustering and short paths between nodes. Additional analysis revealed a more economical "small-world" architecture in females as well as a greater global efficiency in males regardless of scan time point. At the regional level, both increased and decreased efficiency were found across the cerebral cortex for both males and females, indicating a compensation mechanism of cortical network reorganization over time. Furthermore, we found that weighted clustering coefficient exhibited significant gender-time interactions, implying different development trends between males and females. Moreover, several specific brain regions (e.g., insula, superior temporal gyrus, cuneus, putamen, and parahippocampal gyrus exhibited different development trajectories between males and females. Our findings further prove the presence of sexual dimorphism in brain structures that may underlie gender differences in behavioral and cognitive functioning. The sex-specific progress trajectories in brain connectome revealed in this work provide an important foundation to delineate the gender related pathophysiological mechanisms in various neuropsychiatric disorders, which may potentially guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders.
Sun, Yu; Lee, Renick; Chen, Yu; Collinson, Simon; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Sim, Kang
Sexual dimorphism in the brain maturation during childhood and adolescence has been repeatedly documented, which may underlie the differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, our understanding of how gender modulates the development of structural connectome in healthy adults is still not entirely clear. Here we utilized graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data over a five-year period to investigate the progressive gender differences of brain network topology. The brain networks of both genders showed prominent economical "small-world" architecture (high local clustering and short paths between nodes). Additional analysis revealed a more economical "small-world" architecture in females as well as a greater global efficiency in males regardless of scan time point. At the regional level, both increased and decreased efficiency were found across the cerebral cortex for both males and females, indicating a compensation mechanism of cortical network reorganization over time. Furthermore, we found that weighted clustering coefficient exhibited significant gender-time interactions, implying different development trends between males and females. Moreover, several specific brain regions (e.g., insula, superior temporal gyrus, cuneus, putamen, and parahippocampal gyrus) exhibited different development trajectories between males and females. Our findings further prove the presence of sexual dimorphism in brain structures that may underlie gender differences in behavioral and cognitive functioning. The sex-specific progress trajectories in brain connectome revealed in this work provide an important foundation to delineate the gender related pathophysiological mechanisms in various neuropsychiatric disorders, which may potentially guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders.
Velamuri, Malathi; Onur, Ilke
We examine gender differences in four measures of cognitive function among older individuals in India, using the 2010 pilot wave of the Longitudinal Aging Study of India (LASI) survey. We use a life-course approach and estimate the impact of circumstances in childhood, choices in adulthood and current circumstances on current cognitive functioning. Our objective is to understand the correlates of cognitive functioning in later-life more generally, and of female disadvantage in particular. We ...
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani
Although stressful life events (SLEs) predict subsequent risk of developing a major depressive episode (MDE), limited information exists on whether or not race and gender alters the predictive role of SLE on risk of MDE over a long-term period. The current study explored race and gender differences in the long-term predictive role of SLE at baseline (1986) on subsequent risk of MDE 25 years later (2011) in a nationally representative cohort in the United States. Using a life course epidemiological approach, this longitudinal study borrowed data from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study 1986-2011. Main predictor of interest was baseline SLE over the last 3 years measured at 1986. Main outcome was risk of MDE [Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)] 25 years later (2011). Covariates included demographics, socioeconomics, depressive symptoms [Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D)], chronic medical conditions, and health behaviors measured at baseline (1986). Gender and race were the focal moderators. We employed logistic regressions in the pooled sample, and specific to race and gender, to test whether or not SLE × race and SLE × gender interactions are significant. In the pooled sample, baseline SLE (1986) predicted risk of MDE 25 years later (2011). We also found a gender by SLE interaction, suggesting a stronger predictive role of SLE for subsequent clinical depression for men compared to women. Race did not modify the predictive role of SLE on subsequent risk of MDE 25 years later. How SLE predicts MDE 25 years later differs for men and women, with a stronger predictive role for men compared to women. More research is needed to better understand the complex links between gender, sex, stress, and depression.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although stressful life events (SLE predict subsequent risk of developing a major depressive episode (MDE, limited information exists on whether or not race and gender alters the predictive role of SLE on risk of MDE over a long-term period. The current study explored race and gender differences in the long-term predictive role of SLE at baseline (1986 on subsequent risk of MDE 25 years later (2011 in a nationally representative cohort in the United States.METHODS: Using a life course epidemiological approach, this longitudinal study borrowed data from the Americans’ Changing Lives Study (ACL 1986- 2011. Main predictor of interest was baseline SLE over the last three years measured at 1986. Main outcome was risk of MDE [Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI] 25 years later (2011. Covariates included demographics, socioeconomics, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CES-D], chronic medical conditions, and health behaviors measured at baseline (1986. Gender and race were the focal moderators. We employed logistic regressions in the pooled sample, and specific to race and gender, to test whether or not SLE × race and SLE × gender interactions are significant. RESULTS: In the pooled sample, baseline SLE (1986 predicted risk of MDE 25 years later (2011. We also found a gender by SLE interaction, suggesting a stronger predictive role of SLE for subsequent clinical depression for men compared to women. Race did not modify the predictive role of SLE on subsequent risk of MDE 25 year later. CONCLUSIONS: How SLE predicts MDE 25 years later differs for men and women, with a stronger predictive role for men, compared to women. More research is needed to better understand the complex links between gender, sex, stress, and depression.
Full Text Available “Hooking-up” – engaging in no-strings-attached sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners - has become a norm on college campuses, and raises the potential for disease, unintended pregnancy, and physical and psychological trauma. The primacy of sex in the evolutionary process suggests that predictions derived from evolutionary theory may be a useful first step toward understanding these contemporary behaviors. This study assessed the hook-up behaviors and attitudes of 507 college students. As predicted by behavioral-evolutionary theory: men were more comfortable than women with all types of sexual behaviors; women correctly attributed higher comfort levels to men, but overestimated men's actual comfort levels; and men correctly attributed lower comfort levels to women, but still overestimated women's actual comfort levels. Both genders attributed higher comfort levels to same-gendered others, reinforcing a pluralistic ignorance effect that might contribute to the high frequency of hook-up behaviors in spite of the low comfort levels reported and suggesting that hooking up may be a modern form of intrasexual competition between females for potential mates.
N. Nazlı Ozdemir
Full Text Available In this study, an investigation was carried out to explore if there were any gender differences in scientific creativity and its components. Par-ticipants included 704 sixth grade students who applied to the Education Programs for Talented Students (EPTS at Anadolu University in the City of Eskişehir in Turkey. Of the total sam-ple, 345 were female and 359 were male. Stu-dents’ scientific creativity was measured using the Creative Scientific Ability Test (C-SAT. It measures fluency, flexibility and creativity and hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing and evidence evaluation. The analysis showed that male students scored significantly higher on fluency and creativity and hypothesis genera-tion components of scientific creativity. Alt-hough male students had higher scores on flex-ibility, hypothesis testing and evidence evalua-tion components too, the differences between the groups were not significant. The findings shows that gender differences in scientific crea-tivity in childhood and adolescence might re-sult from differences in some particular pro-cesses.
Endendijk, Joyce J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; van der Pol, Lotte D.; van Berkel, Sheila R.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mesman, Judi
This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role
Tsai, Yi-Wen; Tsai, Tzu-I; Yang, Chung-Lin; Kuo, Ken N
Gender-sensitive tobacco control policies are being challenged, and new directions are being sought because public health efforts have reduced cigarette consumption more substantially among men than among women. To better target women, it would help to identify the protective cultural factors that promote resiliency in women and discourage them from smoking. Whereas western cultures have generated a great deal of gender-specific research and programs on the prevention of smoking in women, Asian cultures have not. Taking a personal and sociocultural perspective, this study examines the effect of gender on smoking behaviors in Taiwan. In a 2004 cross-sectional random-sampled interview survey, 827 adult men and 90 adult women smokers in Taiwan were queried about the time they began smoking, maintenance of their habits, and their readiness to change. The male/female smoking rate ratio was 9.5 (45.7% vs. 4.8%). Men smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than women (18 vs. 11). We found Taiwanese women started smoking around 20 years old, much later than their western counterparts. We also found that whereas the smoking behavior of the men was very sensitive to social environment and structural factors, that of women revolved around their desire to control their weight and handle their emotions. Differences in the smoking behavior of men and women are a result of a different sociocultural environment and the life trajectories and social circumstances embedded within it. Comprehensive tobacco control policies need to be tailored to not just smoking behavior alone or one population alone but to the determinants of smoking behavior in specific groups, for example, women. Even when targeting women, some effort may be needed on targeting women of different ethnicities, for instance, Asian women in whom the prevalence is increasing at alarming rates.
Shi, Na; Cheung, Christy M. K.; Lee, Matthew K. O.; Chen, Huaping
Social network sites (SNS) have become increasingly popular in the past few years benefiting from the rapid growth of Web 2.0 applications. However, research on the adoption and usage of SNS is limited. In this study, we attempt to understand users' continuance intention to use SNS and investigate the role of gender. A research model was developed and tested with 213 respondents from an online survey. The results confirm that users' continuance intention to use SNS is strongly determined by satisfaction. The effect of disconfirmation of maintaining offline contacts on satisfaction is more important for women, while the effect of disconfirmation of entertainment is more salient for men. Implications of this study for both researchers and practitioners are discussed.
Tsai, Pei-Chun; McDowd, Joan; Tang, Tze-Chun; Su, Chwen-Yng
The primary aim of this study was to examine whether processing speed mediates the association between gender and episodic memory in schizophrenia. Participants were 51 female and 51 male outpatients comparable on demographic, clinical, and cognitive variables. Memory tests included both verbal and visual measures. Both groups scored below the normative mean of the memory and processing speed tests, except that females performed slightly above the mean on face recognition. Females outperformed males on verbal memory, visual recognition, and processing speed. Mediation regression analyses showed processing speed mediated immediate and delayed recall for both verbal and visual memory measures. Thus processing speed appears to be a critical variable for understanding cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and may be an important target for cognitive rehabilitation.
Bukh, Jens D; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj
, personality traits and disorders, stressful life events, family history, and treatment response. RESULTS: Female patients showed a higher level of neuroticism and more residual anxiety symptoms after treatment of the depression. There were no gender differences in severity of depression, psychiatric co......-morbidity (including personality disorders), stressful life events prior to onset, family loading of psychiatric disorders, or treatment outcome. CONCLUSION: The results provide evidence for a higher level of anxiety and neuroticism among females with a recent onset of depression, whereas other clinical...
Bell, Linda; Smith, Nina; Smith, Valdemar
and special focus is given to the effects of family related variables. The descriptive statistics suggest that the family background (marital status, number of children, spouse labour force participation, education and occupation) differs substantially by gender of individuals in top management. Furthermore...... discrimination of women, as the (potential) negative effect of children and parental leave behaviour is included in the constant term and hence applies to all women in the pool of potentials. Furthermore, males' career opportunities are declining if the wife is working, whereas the women's careers are only...
Diekman, Amanda B; Steinberg, Mia; Brown, Elizabeth R; Belanger, Aimee L; Clark, Emily K
The goal congruity perspective provides a theoretical framework to understand how motivational processes influence and are influenced by social roles. In particular, we invoke this framework to understand communal goal processes as proximal motivators of decisions to engage in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). STEM fields are not perceived as affording communal opportunities to work with or help others, and understanding these perceived goal affordances can inform knowledge about differences between (a) STEM and other career pathways and (b) women's and men's choices. We review the patterning of gender disparities in STEM that leads to a focus on communal goal congruity (Part I), provide evidence for the foundational logic of the perspective (Part II), and explore the implications for research and policy (Part III). Understanding and transmitting the opportunities for communal goal pursuit within STEM can reap widespread benefits for broadening and deepening participation.