WorldWideScience

Sample records for understand evolutionary theory

  1. Written Extended-Response Questions as Classroom Assessment Tools for Meaningful Understanding of Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieswandt, Martina; Bellomo, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed grade 12 biology students' answers to written extended-response questions that describe hypothetical scenarios of animals' evolution. We investigated whether these type of questions are suitable for students (n = 24) to express a meaningful understanding of evolutionary theory. Meaningful understanding is comprised…

  2. Evolutionary theories of aging. 1. The need to understand the process of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L; Genoud, M

    1999-01-01

    In a Forum article Le Bourg (1998) criticized recent tests of evolutionary theories of aging and suggested alternative explanations for the long lifespan of ant queens and the positive relationship between body size and lifespan in mammals. Moreover, he attempts to criticize evolutionary theories of aging by showing that explanations other than evolutionary theories of aging probably account for the variation in human lifespan across countries. Here we show that the arguments of Le Bourg suffer several problems. First, many of the arguments reveal a misunderstanding of the process of natural selection. Second, some of the arguments reflect a lack of knowledge of evolutionary theories of aging (e.g. pre-reproductive mortality is not predicted to influence lifespan of organisms contrary to what is claimed). Finally, his final example on lifespan in humans simply is a straw-man because serious evolutionary biologists are well aware of the importance of confounding variables and would certainly not make the type of conclusion suggested by Le Bourg. Although a critical discussion of evolutionary theories of aging is welcome, we believe that the alternative explanations proposed by Le Bourg are implausible and reflect a misunderstanding of the process of natural selection. Copyright 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Utilizing worldview theory to determine the factors influencing the understanding of evolutionary concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors impacting students' ability to develop understanding of evolutionary theory. A novel approach to worldview theory was employed according to which individuals are seen as having one worldview that is comprised of many perspectives. One's worldview is comprised of numerous worldview assumptions, some of which coalesce to form worldview perspectives. Some assumptions are consistent with a scientific perspective while others are more consistent with a religious perspective. Scientific and religious perspectives were quantified based on participants' agreement with assumptions associated with each perspective. Participants completed a 103-item questionnaire addressing several variables: understanding of evolution, understanding of photosynthesis (non-confounding variable), strength of worldview perspectives and exposure to factors influencing the development of worldview perspectives. Increased exposure to factors influencing the development of a strong scientific worldview perspective was hypothesized to cause an increased understanding of evolution. The dependent variable understanding was measured by scores on two Likert-type measures. A causal-comparative study was conducted with 13 high school biology teachers and 67 high school biology students. To determine causation t-tests compared the mean scores on the variables measured. Extreme-group methods were used and data was analyzed for statistical differences between mean scores. Strong scientific worldview perspectives (t=1.003, p=3.19) and exposure to scientific factors (t=2.373, p=.02) were associated with a higher understanding of evolution. Strong religious worldview perspectives (t=-1.991, p=.05) and exposure to religious factors (t=-1.059, p=.31) were associated with a lower understanding of evolution. The results suggest that scientific worldview perspectives play an important role in increasing understanding of evolution; however, religious worldview

  4. Parent-Offspring Conflict Theory: An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding Conflict within Human Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Del Giudice, Marco; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research demonstrate that conflict shapes and permeates a broad range of family processes. In the current article, we argue that greater insight, integration of knowledge, and empirical achievement in the study of family conflict can be realized by utilizing a powerful theory from evolutionary biology that is barely known within…

  5. Paleoanthropology and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Paleoanthropologists of the first half of the twentieth century were little concerned either with evolutionary theory or with the technicalities and broader implications of zoological nomenclature. In consequence, the paleoanthropological literature of the period consisted largely of a series of descriptions accompanied by authoritative pronouncements, together with a huge excess of hominid genera and species. Given the intellectual flimsiness of the resulting paleoanthropological framework, it is hardly surprising that in 1950 the ornithologist Ernst Mayr met little resistance when he urged the new postwar generation of paleoanthropologists to accept not only the elegant reductionism of the Evolutionary Synthesis but a vast oversimplification of hominid phylogenetic history and nomenclature. Indeed, the impact of Mayr's onslaught was so great that even when developments in evolutionary biology during the last quarter of the century brought other paleontologists to the realization that much more has been involved in evolutionary histories than the simple action of natural selection within gradually transforming lineages, paleoanthropologists proved highly reluctant to follow. Even today, paleoanthropologists are struggling to reconcile an intuitive realization that the burgeoning hominid fossil record harbors a substantial diversity of species (bringing hominid evolutionary patterns into line with that of other successful mammalian families), with the desire to cram a huge variety of morphologies into an unrealistically minimalist systematic framework. As long as this theoretical ambivalence persists, our perception of events in hominid phylogeny will continue to be distorted.

  6. Chilean Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers and Undergraduate Students' Understandings of Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Hernán; Jiménez, Juan; Santibáñez, David; Vergara, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of the theory of evolution to scientific knowledge, a number of misconceptions continue to be found among teachers and undergraduate students. The aim of the present study was to describe and characterise knowledge about evolution among 120 freshman undergraduate students of two natural sciences programmes (environmental…

  7. Understanding and Acceptance of Evolutionary Theory Among Turkish University Students = Türk Üniversite Öğrencileri Arasında Evrim Teorisini Anlama ve Kabul Etme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan BAHÇEKAPILI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance level of evolutionary theory and factors predicting it were examined among Psychology majors from Doğuş University and Bahçeşehir University (N=99. About half of the students accepted evolutionary theory, which is a higher percentage than in previous reports. Positive attitudes towards science and parents’ education were positively correlated with acceptance whereas religiosity was negatively correlated. Understanding of evolutionary theory was surprisingly low. Understanding the theory and understanding the nature of science were unrelated to acceptance. Recommendations are made to improve the teaching of evolutionary theory.

  8. Environmental evolutionary graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Wes; Puleo, Gregory J

    2014-11-07

    Understanding the influence of an environment on the evolution of its resident population is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Great progress has been made in homogeneous population structures while heterogeneous structures have received relatively less attention. Here we present a structured population model where different individuals are best suited to different regions of their environment. The underlying structure is a graph: individuals occupy vertices, which are connected by edges. If an individual is suited for their vertex, they receive an increase in fecundity. This framework allows attention to be restricted to the spatial arrangement of suitable habitat. We prove some basic properties of this model and find some counter-intuitive results. Notably, (1) the arrangement of suitable sites is as important as their proportion, and (2) decreasing the proportion of suitable sites may result in a decrease in the fixation time of an allele. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolutionary and mechanistic theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kimberly A; Reynolds, Rose M

    2005-01-01

    Senescence (aging) is defined as a decline in performance and fitness with advancing age. Senescence is a nearly universal feature of multicellular organisms, and understanding why it occurs is a long-standing problem in biology. Here we present a concise review of both evolutionary and mechanistic theories of aging. We describe the development of the general evolutionary theory, along with the mutation accumulation, antagonistic pleiotropy, and disposable soma versions of the evolutionary model. The review of the mechanistic theories focuses on the oxidative stress resistance, cellular signaling, and dietary control mechanisms of life span extension. We close with a discussion of how an approach that makes use of both evolutionary and molecular analyses can address a critical question: Which of the mechanisms that can cause variation in aging actually do cause variation in natural populations?

  10. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks, adaptive dynamics and evolutionary rescue theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Regis; Legendre, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive dynamics theory has been devised to account for feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. Doing so opens new dimensions to and raises new challenges about evolutionary rescue. Adaptive dynamics theory predicts that successive trait substitutions driven by eco-evolutionary feedbacks can gradually erode population size or growth rate, thus potentially raising the extinction risk. Even a single trait substitution can suffice to degrade population viability drastically at once and cause ‘evolutionary suicide’. In a changing environment, a population may track a viable evolutionary attractor that leads to evolutionary suicide, a phenomenon called ‘evolutionary trapping’. Evolutionary trapping and suicide are commonly observed in adaptive dynamics models in which the smooth variation of traits causes catastrophic changes in ecological state. In the face of trapping and suicide, evolutionary rescue requires that the population overcome evolutionary threats generated by the adaptive process itself. Evolutionary repellors play an important role in determining how variation in environmental conditions correlates with the occurrence of evolutionary trapping and suicide, and what evolutionary pathways rescue may follow. In contrast with standard predictions of evolutionary rescue theory, low genetic variation may attenuate the threat of evolutionary suicide and small population sizes may facilitate escape from evolutionary traps. PMID:23209163

  11. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks, adaptive dynamics and evolutionary rescue theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Regis; Legendre, Stéphane

    2013-01-19

    Adaptive dynamics theory has been devised to account for feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. Doing so opens new dimensions to and raises new challenges about evolutionary rescue. Adaptive dynamics theory predicts that successive trait substitutions driven by eco-evolutionary feedbacks can gradually erode population size or growth rate, thus potentially raising the extinction risk. Even a single trait substitution can suffice to degrade population viability drastically at once and cause 'evolutionary suicide'. In a changing environment, a population may track a viable evolutionary attractor that leads to evolutionary suicide, a phenomenon called 'evolutionary trapping'. Evolutionary trapping and suicide are commonly observed in adaptive dynamics models in which the smooth variation of traits causes catastrophic changes in ecological state. In the face of trapping and suicide, evolutionary rescue requires that the population overcome evolutionary threats generated by the adaptive process itself. Evolutionary repellors play an important role in determining how variation in environmental conditions correlates with the occurrence of evolutionary trapping and suicide, and what evolutionary pathways rescue may follow. In contrast with standard predictions of evolutionary rescue theory, low genetic variation may attenuate the threat of evolutionary suicide and small population sizes may facilitate escape from evolutionary traps.

  12. Evolutionary theories of depression: a critical review.

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    Hagen, Edward H

    2011-12-01

    We critically review evolutionary theories of major depressive disorder (MDD). Because most instances of MDD appear to be caused by adversity, evolutionary theories of MDD generally propose that sadness and low mood evolved as beneficial responses to adversity, and that MDD is dysfunctional sadness and low mood. If so, MDD research should focus much more heavily on understanding the healthy functions of sadness and low mood to better understand how they dysfunction. A debate about the boundary between healthy sadness and MDD is then reviewed. In part, this debate turns on whether MDD's costliest symptoms could provide unknown benefits. Therefore, the review concludes by discussing 2 theories that explore possible benefits of prolonged anhedonia and suicidality.

  13. Multiple explanations in Darwinian evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Walter J

    2010-03-01

    Variational evolutionary theory as advocated by Darwin is not a single theory, but a bundle of related but independent theories, namely: (a) variational evolution; (b) gradualism rather than large leaps; (c) processes of phyletic evolution and of speciation; (d) causes for the formation of varying individuals in populations and for the action of selective agents; and (e) all organisms evolved from a common ancestor. The first four are nomological-deductive explanations and the fifth is historical-narrative. Therefore evolutionary theory must be divided into nomological and historical theories which are both testable against objective empirical observations. To be scientific, historical evolutionary theories must be based on well corroborated nomological theories, both evolutionary and functional. Nomological and general historical evolutionary theories are well tested and must be considered as strongly corroborated scientific theories. Opponents of evolutionary theory are concerned only with historical evolutionary theories, having little interest in nomological theory. Yet given a well corroborated nomological evolutionary theory, historical evolutionary theories follow automatically. If understood correctly, both forms of evolutionary theories stand on their own as corroborated scientific theories and should not be labeled as facts.

  14. Toward a general evolutionary theory of oncogenesis.

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    Ewald, Paul W; Swain Ewald, Holly A

    2013-01-01

    We propose an evolutionary framework, the barrier theory of cancer, which is based on the distinction between barriers to oncogenesis and restraints. Barriers are defined as mechanisms that prevent oncogenesis. Restraints, which are more numerous, inhibit but do not prevent oncogenesis. Processes that compromise barriers are essential causes of cancer; those that interfere with restraints are exacerbating causes. The barrier theory is built upon the three evolutionary processes involved in oncogenesis: natural selection acting on multicellular organisms to mold barriers and restraints, natural selection acting on infectious organisms to abrogate these protective mechanisms, and oncogenic selection which is responsible for the evolution of normal cells into cancerous cells. The barrier theory is presented as a first step toward the development of a general evolutionary theory of cancer. Its attributes and implications for intervention are compared with those of other major conceptual frameworks for understanding cancer: the clonal diversification model, the stem cell theory and the hallmarks of cancer. The barrier theory emphasizes the practical value of distinguishing between essential and exacerbating causes. It also stresses the importance of determining the scope of infectious causation of cancer, because individual pathogens can be responsible for multiple essential causes in infected cells.

  15. Policy folklists and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barry

    2014-07-22

    Policy folklists present a set of alleged historical facts seen as relevant to some social issue. Although the validity of these folklists is dubious, leaders and writers circulate them in the media, variants arise, and the lists continue on, sometimes for decades. Folklists are repeated because their messages are appealing and their users are credible. Because folklists are on the record, we can examine their origins and changes. This report draws an analogy with evolutionary theory and suggests that biological mechanisms of self-repair, boundary maintenance, plasticity, speciation, and predation have significant interpretations for folklists, and clarify how the lists win the credence of otherwise skeptical people.

  16. Evolutionary theories of aging and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    2002-02-07

    The purpose of this article is to provide students and researchers entering the field of aging studies with an introduction to the evolutionary theories of aging, as well as to orient them in the abundant modern scientific literature on evolutionary gerontology. The following three major evolutionary theories of aging are discussed: 1) the theory of programmed death suggested by August Weismann, 2) the mutation accumulation theory of aging suggested by Peter Medawar, and 3) the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging suggested by George Williams. We also discuss a special case of the antagonistic pleiotropy theory, the disposable soma theory developed by Tom Kirkwood and Robin Holliday. The theories are compared with each other as well as with recent experimental findings. At present the most viable evolutionary theories are the mutation accumulation theory and the antagonistic pleiotropy theory; these theories are not mutually exclusive, and they both may become a part of a future unifying theory of aging. Evolutionary theories of aging are useful because they open new opportunities for further research by suggesting testable predictions, but they have also been harmful in the past when they were used to impose limitations on aging studies. At this time, the evolutionary theories of aging are not ultimate completed theories, but rather a set of ideas that themselves require further elaboration and validation. This theoretical review article is written for a wide readership.

  17. Towards a mechanistic foundation of evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebeli, Michael; Ispolatov, Yaroslav; Simon, Burt

    2017-02-15

    Most evolutionary thinking is based on the notion of fitness and related ideas such as fitness landscapes and evolutionary optima. Nevertheless, it is often unclear what fitness actually is, and its meaning often depends on the context. Here we argue that fitness should not be a basal ingredient in verbal or mathematical descriptions of evolution. Instead, we propose that evolutionary birth-death processes, in which individuals give birth and die at ever-changing rates, should be the basis of evolutionary theory, because such processes capture the fundamental events that generate evolutionary dynamics. In evolutionary birth-death processes, fitness is at best a derived quantity, and owing to the potential complexity of such processes, there is no guarantee that there is a simple scalar, such as fitness, that would describe long-term evolutionary outcomes. We discuss how evolutionary birth-death processes can provide useful perspectives on a number of central issues in evolution.

  18. Evolutionary approaches to understanding sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Kavanau, J

    2005-04-01

    A major controversy over REM sleep's role in memory processing may owe to inadequate allowances for the highly conservative nature of evolutionary adaptations. The controversy hinges on whether NREM sleep, alone, retains primitive memory processing capabilities. The selective pressure for primitive sleep, is thought to have been the need to obviate conflicts between enormous neural processing requirements of complex visual analysis and split-second control of movements, on the one hand, and memory processing, on the other. The most efficient memory processing during mammalian and avian sleep appears to be a two-step process: synapses in individual component circuits of events are reinforced primarily by slow brain waves during NREM sleep, with the reinforced components temporally bound by fast waves, and manifested as dreams, during REM sleep. This dual action could account for partitioning of sleep periods into multiple NREM-REM cycles. It is proposed that in the absence of REM sleep, all needed memory processing can be accomplished by NREM sleep, alone, though less efficiently. Many symptoms of fatal familial insomnia are attributed to subnormal nightly reinforcement of brain circuitry because of almost total loss of sleep, and compensatory responses thereto during waking. During this disorder, sensory circuitry seemingly is spared by virtue of its supernormal reinforcement during almost continuous waking. Contrariwise, sparing of an adult's 'higher faculties' in encephalitis lethargica appears to owe to supernormal circuit reinforcement during almost continuous sleep.

  19. Evolutionary theory and the naturalist fallacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2008-01-01

    The article is an invited response to a target article by Joseph Carroll entitled "An evolutionary paradigm for literary study". It argues that the target article  misuse the fact that works of art are based on adaptations that were fitness-enhancing in the era of evolutionary adaptations to claim...... that great work of art are also automatically fitness-enhancing in the present day environment, at that there are simple correllations between whether a work of art has a high aesthetic value and whether it is fitness-enhancing or not.  Keywords :  Evolutionary aesthetics, film theory, literary theory...

  20. Evolutionary theory and the naturalist fallacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2008-01-01

    that great work of art are also automatically fitness-enhancing in the present day environment, at that there are simple correllations between whether a work of art has a high aesthetic value and whether it is fitness-enhancing or not.  Keywords :  Evolutionary aesthetics, film theory, literary theory......The article is an invited response to a target article by Joseph Carroll entitled "An evolutionary paradigm for literary study". It argues that the target article  misuse the fact that works of art are based on adaptations that were fitness-enhancing in the era of evolutionary adaptations to claim...

  1. The structure of microbial evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, J

    2007-12-01

    The study of microbial phylogeny and evolution has emerged as an interdisciplinary synthesis, divergent in both methods and concepts from the classical evolutionary biology. The deployment of macromolecular sequencing in microbial classification has provided a deep evolutionary taxonomy hitherto deemed impossible. Microbial phylogenetics has greatly transformed the landscape of evolutionary biology, not only in revitalizing the field in the pursuit of life's history over billions of years, but also in transcending the structure of thought that has shaped evolutionary theory since the time of Darwin. A trio of primary phylogenetic lineages, along with the recognition of symbiosis and lateral gene transfer as fundamental processes of evolutionary innovation, are core principles of microbial evolutionary biology today. Their scope and significance remain contentious among evolutionists.

  2. Evolutionary Theories in Environmental and Resource Economics: Approaches and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Gowdy, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in evolutionary theory have important implications for environmental economics. A short overview is offered of evolutionary thinking in economics. Subsequently, major concepts and approaches in evolutionary biology and evolutionary economics are presented and compared. Attention is

  3. Testing evolutionary theories of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Daryl P; Sear, Rebecca; Mace, Ruth; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2007-12-07

    Why do women cease fertility rather abruptly through menopause at an age well before generalized senescence renders child rearing biologically impossible? The two main evolutionary hypotheses are that menopause serves either (i) to protect mothers from rising age-specific maternal mortality risks, thereby protecting their highly dependent younger children from death if the mother dies or (ii) to provide post-reproductive grandmothers who enhance their inclusive fitness by helping to care and provide for their daughters' children. Recent theoretical work indicates that both factors together are necessary if menopause is to provide an evolutionary advantage. However, these ideas need to be tested using detailed data from actual human life histories lived under reasonably 'natural' conditions; for obvious reasons, such data are extremely scarce. We here describe a study based on a remarkably complete dataset from The Gambia. The data provided quantitative estimates for key parameters for the theoretical model, which were then used to assess the actual effects on fitness. Empirically based numerical analysis of this nature is essential if the enigma of menopause is to be explained satisfactorily in evolutionary terms. Our results point to the distinctive (and perhaps unique) role of menopause in human evolution and provide important support for the hypothesized evolutionary significance of grandmothers.

  4. An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding the Origin of Eukaryotes.

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    Blackstone, Neil W

    2016-04-27

    Two major obstacles hinder the application of evolutionary theory to the origin of eukaryotes. The first is more apparent than real-the endosymbiosis that led to the mitochondrion is often described as "non-Darwinian" because it deviates from the incremental evolution championed by the modern synthesis. Nevertheless, endosymbiosis can be accommodated by a multi-level generalization of evolutionary theory, which Darwin himself pioneered. The second obstacle is more serious-all of the major features of eukaryotes were likely present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor thus rendering comparative methods ineffective. In addition to a multi-level theory, the development of rigorous, sequence-based phylogenetic and comparative methods represents the greatest achievement of modern evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, the rapid evolution of major features in the eukaryotic stem group requires the consideration of an alternative framework. Such a framework, based on the contingent nature of these evolutionary events, is developed and illustrated with three examples: the putative intron proliferation leading to the nucleus and the cell cycle; conflict and cooperation in the origin of eukaryotic bioenergetics; and the inter-relationship between aerobic metabolism, sterol synthesis, membranes, and sex. The modern synthesis thus provides sufficient scope to develop an evolutionary framework to understand the origin of eukaryotes.

  5. An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding the Origin of Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil W. Blackstone

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two major obstacles hinder the application of evolutionary theory to the origin of eukaryotes. The first is more apparent than real—the endosymbiosis that led to the mitochondrion is often described as “non-Darwinian” because it deviates from the incremental evolution championed by the modern synthesis. Nevertheless, endosymbiosis can be accommodated by a multi-level generalization of evolutionary theory, which Darwin himself pioneered. The second obstacle is more serious—all of the major features of eukaryotes were likely present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor thus rendering comparative methods ineffective. In addition to a multi-level theory, the development of rigorous, sequence-based phylogenetic and comparative methods represents the greatest achievement of modern evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, the rapid evolution of major features in the eukaryotic stem group requires the consideration of an alternative framework. Such a framework, based on the contingent nature of these evolutionary events, is developed and illustrated with three examples: the putative intron proliferation leading to the nucleus and the cell cycle; conflict and cooperation in the origin of eukaryotic bioenergetics; and the inter-relationship between aerobic metabolism, sterol synthesis, membranes, and sex. The modern synthesis thus provides sufficient scope to develop an evolutionary framework to understand the origin of eukaryotes.

  6. The Evolving Theory of Evolutionary Radiations.

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    Simões, M; Breitkreuz, L; Alvarado, M; Baca, S; Cooper, J C; Heins, L; Herzog, K; Lieberman, B S

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations have intrigued biologists for more than 100 years, and our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with these radiations continues to grow and evolve. Recently it has been recognized that there are many different types of evolutionary radiation beyond the well-studied adaptive radiations. We focus here on multifarious types of evolutionary radiations, paying special attention to the abiotic factors that might trigger diversification in clades. We integrate concepts such as exaptation, species selection, coevolution, and the turnover-pulse hypothesis (TPH) into the theoretical framework of evolutionary radiations. We also discuss other phenomena that are related to, but distinct from, evolutionary radiations that have relevance for evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Theory of Evolutionary Algorithms (Dagstuhl Seminar 15211)

    OpenAIRE

    Doerr, Benajmin; Hansen, Nikolaus; Igel, Christian; Thiele, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the talks and discussions at the Dagstuhl Seminar 15211 "Theory of Evolutionary Algorithms". This seminar, now in its 8th edition, is the main meeting point of the highly active theory of randomized search heuristics subcommunities in Australia, Asia, North America, and Europe. Topics intensively discussed include rigorous runtime analysis and computational complexity theory for randomised search heuristics, information geometry of randomised search, and synergies betwee...

  8. Deconstructing Darwin: Evolutionary theory in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, David L

    2005-01-01

    The topic of this paper is external versus internal explanations, first, of the genesis of evolutionary theory and, second, its reception. Victorian England was highly competitive and individualistic. So was the view of society promulgated by Malthus and the theory of evolution set out by Charles Darwin and A.R. Wallace. The fact that Darwin and Wallace independently produced a theory of evolution that was just as competitive and individualistic as the society in which they lived is taken as evidence for the impact that society has on science. The same conclusion is reached with respect to the reception of evolutionary theory. Because Darwin's contemporaries lived in such a competitive and individualistic society, they were prone to accept a theory that exhibited these same characteristics. The trouble is that Darwin and Wallace did not live in anything like the same society and did not formulate the same theory. Although the character of Victorian society may have influenced the acceptance of evolutionary theory, it was not the competitive, individualistic theory that Darwin and Wallace set out but a warmer, more comforting theory.

  9. Infinite populations and counterfactual frequencies in evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Marshall

    2006-06-01

    One finds intertwined with ideas at the core of evolutionary theory claims about frequencies in counterfactual and infinitely large populations of organisms, as well as in sets of populations of organisms. One also finds claims about frequencies in counterfactual and infinitely large populations--of events--at the core of an answer to a question concerning the foundations of evolutionary theory. The question is this: to what do the numerical probabilities found throughout evolutionary theory correspond? The answer in question says that evolutionary probabilities are 'hypothetical frequencies' (including what are sometimes called 'long-run frequencies' and 'long-run propensities'). In this paper, I review two arguments against hypothetical frequencies. The arguments have implications for the interpretation of evolutionary probabilities, but more importantly, they seem to raise problems for biologists' claims about frequencies in counterfactual or infinite populations of organisms and sets of populations of organisms. I argue that when properly understood, claims about frequencies in large and infinite populations of organisms and sets of populations are not threatened by the arguments. Seeing why gives us a clearer understanding of the nature of counterfactual and infinite population claims and probability in evolutionary theory.

  10. Evolutionary Game Theory and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on the article Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past by Van Vugt, Hogan, and Kaiser. This article offers a fresh perspective on leaders, followers, and their possible origins in nonhuman and primitive human behavior patterns. The connections between group coordination, leadership, and game theory have some…

  11. Eco-Evolutionary Theory and Insect Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, David J; Dukic, Vanja; Dushoff, Jonathan; Fleming-Davies, Arietta; Dwyer, Greg

    2017-06-01

    Eco-evolutionary theory argues that population cycles in consumer-resource interactions are partly driven by natural selection, such that changes in densities and changes in trait values are mutually reinforcing. Evidence that the theory explains cycles in nature, however, is almost nonexistent. Experimental tests of model assumptions are logistically impractical for most organisms, while for others, evidence that population cycles occur in nature is lacking. For insect baculoviruses in contrast, tests of model assumptions are straightforward, and there is strong evidence that baculoviruses help drive population cycles in many insects, including the gypsy moth that we study here. We therefore used field experiments with the gypsy moth baculovirus to test two key assumptions of eco-evolutionary models of host-pathogen population cycles: that reduced host infection risk is heritable and that it is costly. Our experiments confirm both assumptions, and inserting parameters estimated from our data into eco-evolutionary insect-outbreak models gives cycles closely resembling gypsy moth outbreak cycles in North America, whereas standard models predict unrealistic stable equilibria. Our work shows that eco-evolutionary models are useful for explaining outbreaks of forest insect defoliators, while widespread observations of intense selection on defoliators in nature and of heritable and costly resistance in defoliators in the lab together suggest that eco-evolutionary dynamics may play a general role in defoliator outbreaks.

  12. Evolutionary theories of aging can explain why we age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourg, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging explain why we age. These theories take into account the fact that, in the wild, mean lifespan of many species is usually shorter than it could be in protected environments. In such conditions, because most of animals die before reaching old age, there is no selection in favor or against alleles with effects at old age. Alleles with negative effects at this age can thus accumulate in successive generations, particularly if they also have positive effects at young age and are thus retained by selection. This chapter describes the evolutionary theories of aging and their consequences for the understanding of the biology of aging as well as the challenges to these theories. It is argued that these theories offer a reasonable explanation to the existence of the aging process even if they can surely be refined.

  13. Evolutionary game theory: cells as players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummert, Sabine; Bohl, Katrin; Basanta, David; Deutsch, Andreas; Werner, Sarah; Theissen, Günter; Schroeter, Anja; Schuster, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    In two papers we review game theory applications in biology below the level of cognitive living beings. It can be seen that evolution and natural selection replace the rationality of the actors appropriately. Even in these micro worlds, competing situations and cooperative relationships can be found and modeled by evolutionary game theory. Also those units of the lowest levels of life show different strategies for different environmental situations or different partners. We give a wide overview of evolutionary game theory applications to microscopic units. In this first review situations on the cellular level are tackled. In particular metabolic problems are discussed, such as ATP-producing pathways, secretion of public goods and cross-feeding. Further topics are cyclic competition among more than two partners, intra- and inter-cellular signalling, the struggle between pathogens and the immune system, and the interactions of cancer cells. Moreover, we introduce the theoretical basics to encourage scientists to investigate problems in cell biology and molecular biology by evolutionary game theory.

  14. Hauke Brunkhorst: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions: Evolutionary Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)......Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)...

  15. Evaluating Two Approaches to Helping College Students Understand Evolutionary Trees through Diagramming Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Judy; Meir, Eli; Herron, Jon C.; Maruca, Susan; Stal, Derek

    2008-01-01

    To understand evolutionary theory, students must be able to understand and use evolutionary trees and their underlying concepts. Active, hands-on curricula relevant to macroevolution can be challenging to implement across large college-level classes where textbook learning is the norm. We evaluated two approaches to helping students learn…

  16. Using Evolutionary Theory to Guide Mental Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisko, Zachary; Mulsant, Benoit H; McKenzie, Kwame; Andrews, Paul W

    2016-03-01

    Evolutionary approaches to medicine can shed light on the origins and etiology of disease. Such an approach may be especially useful in psychiatry, which frequently addresses conditions with heterogeneous presentation and unknown causes. We review several previous applications of evolutionary theory that highlight the ways in which psychiatric conditions may persist despite and because of natural selection. One lesson from the evolutionary approach is that some conditions currently classified as disorders (because they cause distress and impairment) may actually be caused by functioning adaptations operating "normally" (as designed by natural selection). Such conditions suggest an alternative illness model that may generate alternative intervention strategies. Thus, the evolutionary approach suggests that psychiatry should sometimes think differently about distress and impairment. The complexity of the human brain, including normal functioning and potential for dysfunctions, has developed over evolutionary time and has been shaped by natural selection. Understanding the evolutionary origins of psychiatric conditions is therefore a crucial component to a complete understanding of etiology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Applied evolutionary theories for engineering of secondary metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Brian O

    2016-12-01

    An expanded definition of 'secondary metabolism' is emerging. Once the exclusive provenance of naturally occurring organisms, evolved over geological time scales, secondary metabolism increasingly encompasses molecules generated via human engineered biocatalysts and biosynthetic pathways. Many of the tools and strategies for enzyme and pathway engineering can find origins in evolutionary theories. This perspective presents an overview of selected proposed evolutionary strategies in the context of engineering secondary metabolism. In addition to the wealth of biocatalysts provided via secondary metabolic pathways, improving the understanding of biosynthetic pathway evolution will provide rich resources for methods to adapt to applied laboratory evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Endosymbiosis and its implications for evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2015-08-18

    Historically, conceptualizations of symbiosis and endosymbiosis have been pitted against Darwinian or neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory. In more recent times, Lynn Margulis has argued vigorously along these lines. However, there are only shallow grounds for finding Darwinian concepts or population genetic theory incompatible with endosymbiosis. But is population genetics sufficiently explanatory of endosymbiosis and its role in evolution? Population genetics "follows" genes, is replication-centric, and is concerned with vertically consistent genetic lineages. It may also have explanatory limitations with regard to macroevolution. Even so, asking whether population genetics explains endosymbiosis may have the question the wrong way around. We should instead be asking how explanatory of evolution endosymbiosis is, and exactly which features of evolution it might be explaining. This paper will discuss how metabolic innovations associated with endosymbioses can drive evolution and thus provide an explanatory account of important episodes in the history of life. Metabolic explanations are both proximate and ultimate, in the same way genetic explanations are. Endosymbioses, therefore, point evolutionary biology toward an important dimension of evolutionary explanation.

  19. Why Darwin would have loved evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel S

    2016-09-14

    Humans have marvelled at the fit of form and function, the way organisms' traits seem remarkably suited to their lifestyles and ecologies. While natural selection provides the scientific basis for the fit of form and function, Darwin found certain adaptations vexing or particularly intriguing: sex ratios, sexual selection and altruism. The logic behind these adaptations resides in frequency-dependent selection where the value of a given heritable phenotype (i.e. strategy) to an individual depends upon the strategies of others. Game theory is a branch of mathematics that is uniquely suited to solving such puzzles. While game theoretic thinking enters into Darwin's arguments and those of evolutionists through much of the twentieth century, the tools of evolutionary game theory were not available to Darwin or most evolutionists until the 1970s, and its full scope has only unfolded in the last three decades. As a consequence, game theory is applied and appreciated rather spottily. Game theory not only applies to matrix games and social games, it also applies to speciation, macroevolution and perhaps even to cancer. I assert that life and natural selection are a game, and that game theory is the appropriate logic for framing and understanding adaptations. Its scope can include behaviours within species, state-dependent strategies (such as male, female and so much more), speciation and coevolution, and expands beyond microevolution to macroevolution. Game theory clarifies aspects of ecological and evolutionary stability in ways useful to understanding eco-evolutionary dynamics, niche construction and ecosystem engineering. In short, I would like to think that Darwin would have found game theory uniquely useful for his theory of natural selection. Let us see why this is so. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Information theory, evolutionary innovations and evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas

    2017-12-05

    How difficult is it to 'discover' an evolutionary adaptation or innovation? I here suggest that information theory, in combination with high-throughput DNA sequencing, can help answer this question by quantifying a new phenotype's information content. I apply this framework to compute the phenotypic information associated with novel gene regulation and with the ability to use novel carbon sources. The framework can also help quantify how DNA duplications affect evolvability, estimate the complexity of phenotypes and clarify the meaning of 'progress' in Darwinian evolution.This article is part of the themed issue 'Process and pattern in innovations from cells to societies'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Empirical verification of evolutionary theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyryakov, Pavlo; Gomez-Perez, Alejandra; Glebov, Anastasia; Asbah, Nimara; Bruno, Luigi; Meunier, Carolynne; Iouk, Tatiana; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2016-10-25

    We recently selected 3 long-lived mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a lasting exposure to exogenous lithocholic acid. Each mutant strain can maintain the extended chronological lifespan after numerous passages in medium without lithocholic acid. In this study, we used these long-lived yeast mutants for empirical verification of evolutionary theories of aging. We provide evidence that the dominant polygenic trait extending longevity of each of these mutants 1) does not affect such key features of early-life fitness as the exponential growth rate, efficacy of post-exponential growth and fecundity; and 2) enhances such features of early-life fitness as susceptibility to chronic exogenous stresses, and the resistance to apoptotic and liponecrotic forms of programmed cell death. These findings validate evolutionary theories of programmed aging. We also demonstrate that under laboratory conditions that imitate the process of natural selection within an ecosystem, each of these long-lived mutant strains is forced out of the ecosystem by the parental wild-type strain exhibiting shorter lifespan. We therefore concluded that yeast cells have evolved some mechanisms for limiting their lifespan upon reaching a certain chronological age. These mechanisms drive the evolution of yeast longevity towards maintaining a finite yeast chronological lifespan within ecosystems.

  2. A novel classification system for evolutionary aging theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Lucas S; Aigaki, Toshiro; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Balduino, Alex; Mânica da Cruz, Ivana B; Heddle, Jonathan G

    2013-01-01

    Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial), maladaptive (neutral), assisted death (detrimental), and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental). We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.

  3. Measuring the Acceptance of Evolutionary Theory in Texas 2-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jack; Scott, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary theory is the central unifying theory of the life sciences. However, acceptance and understanding of the theory have been found to be lacking in the general public, high school, and university populations. Prior research has linked low acceptance of the theory to a poor knowledge base in evolution, to the nature of science, and to…

  4. Selective evolutionary generation systems: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Amor A.

    This dissertation is devoted to the problem of behavior design, which is a generalization of the standard global optimization problem: instead of generating the optimizer, the generalization produces, on the space of candidate optimizers, a probability density function referred to as the behavior. The generalization depends on a parameter, the level of selectivity, such that as this parameter tends to infinity, the behavior becomes a delta function at the location of the global optimizer. The motivation for this generalization is that traditional off-line global optimization is non-resilient and non-opportunistic. That is, traditional global optimization is unresponsive to perturbations of the objective function. On-line optimization methods that are more resilient and opportunistic than their off-line counterparts typically consist of the computationally expensive sequential repetition of off-line techniques. A novel approach to inexpensive resilience and opportunism is to utilize the theory of Selective Evolutionary Generation Systems (SECS), which sequentially and probabilistically selects a candidate optimizer based on the ratio of the fitness values of two candidates and the level of selectivity. Using time-homogeneous, irreducible, ergodic Markov chains to model a sequence of local, and hence inexpensive, dynamic transitions, this dissertation proves that such transitions result in behavior that is called rational; such behavior is desirable because it can lead to both efficient search for an optimizer as well as resilient and opportunistic behavior. The dissertation also identifies system-theoretic properties of the proposed scheme, including equilibria, their stability and their optimality. Moreover, this dissertation demonstrates that the canonical genetic algorithm with fitness proportional selection and the (1+1) evolutionary strategy are particular cases of the scheme. Applications in three areas illustrate the versatility of the SECS theory: flight

  5. Evolutionary Theory as a Guide to Socioscientific Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.

    2005-01-01

    Evolutionary theory serves as the fundamental cornerstone to all life science; yet students frequently possess misconceptions regarding evolution or resist learning the idea altogether. This study, which emerged from a larger project focused on informal reasoning, explores how college students' conceptions of evolutionary theory affect their…

  6. Functional Interdependence Theory: An Evolutionary Account of Social Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2017-11-01

    Social interactions are characterized by distinct forms of interdependence, each of which has unique effects on how behavior unfolds within the interaction. Despite this, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that allow people to detect and respond to the nature of interdependence in any given interaction. We propose that interdependence theory provides clues regarding the structure of interdependence in the human ancestral past. In turn, evolutionary psychology offers a framework for understanding the types of information processing mechanisms that could have been shaped under these recurring conditions. We synthesize and extend these two perspectives to introduce a new theory: functional interdependence theory (FIT). FIT can generate testable hypotheses about the function and structure of the psychological mechanisms for inferring interdependence. This new perspective offers insight into how people initiate and maintain cooperative relationships, select social partners and allies, and identify opportunities to signal social motives.

  7. Cultural evolutionary theory: How culture evolves and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanza, Nicole; Kolodny, Oren; Feldman, Marcus W

    2017-07-24

    Human cultural traits-behaviors, ideas, and technologies that can be learned from other individuals-can exhibit complex patterns of transmission and evolution, and researchers have developed theoretical models, both verbal and mathematical, to facilitate our understanding of these patterns. Many of the first quantitative models of cultural evolution were modified from existing concepts in theoretical population genetics because cultural evolution has many parallels with, as well as clear differences from, genetic evolution. Furthermore, cultural and genetic evolution can interact with one another and influence both transmission and selection. This interaction requires theoretical treatments of gene-culture coevolution and dual inheritance, in addition to purely cultural evolution. In addition, cultural evolutionary theory is a natural component of studies in demography, human ecology, and many other disciplines. Here, we review the core concepts in cultural evolutionary theory as they pertain to the extension of biology through culture, focusing on cultural evolutionary applications in population genetics, ecology, and demography. For each of these disciplines, we review the theoretical literature and highlight relevant empirical studies. We also discuss the societal implications of the study of cultural evolution and of the interactions of humans with one another and with their environment.

  8. The Relationship between College Zoology Students' Beliefs about Evolutionary Theory and Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Anne; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Researchers administered surveys to college zoology students prior to, and immediately following a study of evolutionary theory, to assess their understanding and acceptance of evidence supporting the theory. Results showed students had many misconceptions about the theory. Their beliefs interfered with their ability to objectively view scientific…

  9. Towards a richer evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M

    2013-11-06

    Most examples of the application of evolutionary game theory to problems in biology involve highly simplified models. I contend that it is time to move on and include much more richness in models. In particular, more thought needs to be given to the importance of (i) between-individual variation; (ii) the interaction between individuals, and hence the process by which decisions are reached; (iii) the ecological and life-history context of the situation; (iv) the traits that are under selection, and (v) the underlying psychological mechanisms that lead to behaviour. I give examples where including variation between individuals fundamentally changes predicted outcomes of a game. Variation also selects for real-time responses, again resulting in changed outcomes. Variation can select for other traits, such as choosiness and social sensitivity. More generally, many problems involve coevolution of more than one trait. I identify situations where a reductionist approach, in which a game is isolated from is ecological setting, can be misleading. I also highlight the need to consider flexibility of behaviour, mental states and other issues concerned with the evolution of mechanism.

  10. How cultural evolutionary theory can inform social psychology and vice versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-10-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the theories and findings of mainstream social psychology and of cultural evolutionary theory can be mutually beneficial. Social psychology provides cultural evolution with a set of empirically verified microevolutionary cultural processes, such as conformity, model-based biases, and content biases, that are responsible for specific patterns of cultural change. Cultural evolutionary theory provides social psychology with ultimate explanations for, and an understanding of the population-level consequences of, many social psychological phenomena, such as social learning, conformity, social comparison, and intergroup processes, as well as linking social psychology with other social science disciplines such as cultural anthropology, archaeology, and sociology.

  11. An Evolutionary Game Theory Model of Spontaneous Brain Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, Dario; Talarico, Agostino; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Mocenni, Chiara; Santarnecchi, Emiliano

    2017-11-22

    Our brain is a complex system of interconnected regions spontaneously organized into distinct networks. The integration of information between and within these networks is a continuous process that can be observed even when the brain is at rest, i.e. not engaged in any particular task. Moreover, such spontaneous dynamics show predictive value over individual cognitive profile and constitute a potential marker in neurological and psychiatric conditions, making its understanding of fundamental importance in modern neuroscience. Here we present a theoretical and mathematical model based on an extension of evolutionary game theory on networks (EGN), able to capture brain's interregional dynamics by balancing emulative and non-emulative attitudes among brain regions. This results in the net behavior of nodes composing resting-state networks identified using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), determining their moment-to-moment level of activation and inhibition as expressed by positive and negative shifts in BOLD fMRI signal. By spontaneously generating low-frequency oscillatory behaviors, the EGN model is able to mimic functional connectivity dynamics, approximate fMRI time series on the basis of initial subset of available data, as well as simulate the impact of network lesions and provide evidence of compensation mechanisms across networks. Results suggest evolutionary game theory on networks as a new potential framework for the understanding of human brain network dynamics.

  12. Evolutionary game theory using agent-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Christoph; Schossau, Jory; Hintze, Arend

    2016-12-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a successful mathematical framework geared towards understanding the selective pressures that affect the evolution of the strategies of agents engaged in interactions with potential conflicts. While a mathematical treatment of the costs and benefits of decisions can predict the optimal strategy in simple settings, more realistic settings such as finite populations, non-vanishing mutations rates, stochastic decisions, communication between agents, and spatial interactions, require agent-based methods where each agent is modeled as an individual, carries its own genes that determine its decisions, and where the evolutionary outcome can only be ascertained by evolving the population of agents forward in time. While highlighting standard mathematical results, we compare those to agent-based methods that can go beyond the limitations of equations and simulate the complexity of heterogeneous populations and an ever-changing set of interactors. We conclude that agent-based methods can predict evolutionary outcomes where purely mathematical treatments cannot tread (for example in the weak selection-strong mutation limit), but that mathematics is crucial to validate the computational simulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Borsboom, D.; Dolan, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    Kanazawa (2008), Templer (2008), and Templer and Arikawa (2006) claimed to have found empirical support for evolutionary theories of race differences in intelligence by correlating estimates of national IQ with indicators of reproductive strategies, temperature, and geographic distance from Africa.

  14. An evolutionary medicine approach to understanding factors that contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshiba, Kazutetsu; Tsuji, Takao; Itoh, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have been published on the causes and mechanisms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the reason for the existence of COPD and the reasons why COPD develops in humans have hardly been studied. Evolutionary medical approaches are required to explain not only the proximate factors, such as the causes and mechanisms of a disease, but the ultimate (evolutionary) factors as well, such as why the disease is present and why the disease develops in humans. According to the concepts of evolutionary medicine, disease susceptibility is acquired as a result of natural selection during the evolutionary process of traits linked to the genes involved in disease susceptibility. In this paper, we discuss the following six reasons why COPD develops in humans based on current evolutionary medical theories: (1) evolutionary constraints; (2) mismatch between environmental changes and evolution; (3) co-evolution with pathogenic microorganisms; (4) life history trade-off; (5) defenses and their costs, and (6) reproductive success at the expense of health. Our perspective pursues evolutionary answers to the fundamental question, 'Why are humans susceptible to this common disease, COPD, despite their long evolutionary history?' We believe that the perspectives offered by evolutionary medicine are essential for researchers to better understand the significance of their work.

  15. The Mismatch among Students' Views about Nature of Science, Acceptance of Evolution, and Evolutionary Science Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ann M. L.; White, Kevin J.; McCall, David

    2011-01-01

    This study explored interrelationships among high school students' views about nature of science (NOS), acceptance of evolution, and conceptual understanding of evolution, and the extent to which these may have shifted from pre- to post-instruction on evolutionary theory. Eighty-one students enrolled in ninth-grade Biology responded to…

  16. Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptijn, R.; Thomése, F.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Silverstein, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers–Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the

  17. Strategic analysis in evolutionary genetics and the theory of games

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    This paper is written in memory of John Maynard Smith. In a brief survey it discusses essential aspects of how game theory in biology relates to its counterpart in eco- nomics, the major transition in game theory initiated by. Maynard Smith, the discrepancies between genetic and phenotypic models in evolutionary biology, ...

  18. Microbial communication and virulence: lessons from evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Stephen P

    2010-12-01

    At the heart of tackling the huge challenge posed by infectious micro-organisms is the overwhelming need to understand their nature. A major question is, why do some species of bacteria rapidly kill their host whilst others are relatively benign? For example, Yersinia pestis, the causative organism of plague, is a highly virulent human pathogen whilst the closely related Yersinia pseudotuberculosis causes a much less severe disease. Using molecular techniques such as mutating certain genes, microbiologists have made significant advances over recent decades in elucidating the mechanisms that govern the production of virulence factors involved in causing disease in many bacterial species. There are also evolutionary and ecological factors which will influence virulence. Many of these ideas have arisen through the development of evolutionary theory and yet there is strikingly little empirical evidence testing them. By applying both mechanistic and adaptive approaches to microbial behaviours we can begin to address questions such as, what factors influence cooperation and the evolution of virulence in microbes and can we exploit these factors to develop new antimicrobial strategies?

  19. Understanding of evolutionary genomics of invasive species of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red rice is an aggressive, weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that infests crop fields and is a primary factor limiting rice productivity in the U.S. and worldwide. As the weedy relative of a genomic model species, red rice is a model for understanding the genetic and evolutionary mechani...

  20. The Epistemic Status of Evolutionary Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, G.; de Ridder, G.J.; van Woudenberg, R.

    2017-01-01

    The theory of evolution continues to be a bone of contention among certain groups of theistic believers. More often than not, debate about it is conducted in terms of firm blanket statements, with one side maintaining that evolution is just a proven fact and the other claiming that it is a theory in

  1. THE THEORY OF THE FIRM AND THE EVOLUTIONARY GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirghi Nicoleta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The neoclassical theory of the firm deals with the pattern of perfect competition, within which the perfect information available to economic agents provides instant allocation of production factors and access to economic goods. The Austrian School (C. Menger, L. von Mises, Hayek, etc. supported the idea of minimal state intervention on the markets, bringing important conceptual developments on the theory of the firm. Hirschleifer (1982 put forward the model of social and institutional functioning, arguing that the game theory is able to predict the outcome of the collective behavior and the human characteristics necessary for building the respective institutions.The evolutionary theory provides the firm and the entrepreneur the recognition of the functions of innovation, of generating and exploiting information and of organizing and coordinating production. The evolutionary perspective of the firm assumes the existence of a body of knowledge that is acquired through and builds up the organizational memory, subsequently found in routines, all choices being made based on these routines (Nelson and Winter, 2002. The evolution of the firm is considered to be similar to natural selection, but unlike the classic market selection, the evolutionists suggest the existence of a plurality of selection media. The present research is structured as follows: a brief introduction into the theories of the firm, the second part of the paper analyzes the theories of the firm from an institutional, neo-institutional and evolutionary perspective. In the third part of the paper the evolutionary games are described and analyzed from the evolutionary perspective of the firm. The last part of the paper represents a study of the “hawk-dove” game dynamic replicator. The final conclusions of the paper show that the evolutionary theory brings valuable contributions to the foundation of explanations regarding economic phenomena, indicating new directions for advanced

  2. A mini-review of the evolutionary theories of aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some studies testing evolutionary theories of aging and shows that they are not always confirmed. Nevertheless, many gerontologists consider now that these theories provide a general explanation of the aging process. In such conditions, we may wonder whether time has come to provisionally accept these theories in order to redirect the research efforts of gerontologists towards other directions, such as the search for new means to modulate the aging process.

  3. Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptijn, Ralf; Thomese, Fleur; Liefbroer, Aart C; Silverstein, Merril

    2013-05-01

    This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the Chinese Anhui Survey (n=4026). In the Netherlands, grandparental investments are biased towards daughters' children, which is in accordance with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. But in China, grandparental investments are biased towards sons' children, which is in conflict with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. This study found no support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. These results raise doubts over the relevance of paternity uncertainty as an explanation of a grandparental investment bias towards daughters' children that is often found in Western populations. The results suggest that discriminative grandparental investments are better understood as the outcome of cultural prescriptions and economic motives.

  4. Evolutionary theories of imprinting--enough already!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tom; Mills, Walter

    2008-01-01

    In our view, the conflict theory of imprinting explains the evolution of parental allele-specific gene expression patterns in the somatic tissues of mammals and angiosperms. Not surprisingly, given its importance in mammalian development and pathology, the evolution of imprinting continues to attract considerable interest from theoretical and experimental biologists. However, we contend that much of the ensuing debate is of poor quality. We discuss several problems with the manner in which workers in the field engage in this debate and we argue for a more formal approach to the discussion of theories of the evolution of imprinting.

  5. Evolutionary economic theories of sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable development has become the dominant concept in the study of interactions between the economy and the biophysical environment, as well as a generally accepted goal of environmental policy. So far, economists have predominantly applied standard or neo-classical theory to environmental

  6. Evolutionary game theory: molecules as players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Katrin; Hummert, Sabine; Werner, Sarah; Basanta, David; Deutsch, Andreas; Schuster, Stefan; Theissen, Günter; Schroeter, Anja

    2014-12-01

    In this and an accompanying paper we review the use of game theoretical concepts in cell biology and molecular biology. This review focuses on the subcellular level by considering viruses, genes, and molecules as players. We discuss in which way catalytic RNA can be treated by game theory. Moreover, genes can compete for success in replication and can have different strategies in interactions with other genetic elements. Also transposable elements, or "jumping genes", can act as players because they usually bear different traits or strategies. Viruses compete in the case of co-infecting a host cell. Proteins interact in a game theoretical sense when forming heterodimers. Finally, we describe how the Shapley value can be applied to enzymes in metabolic pathways. We show that game theory can be successfully applied to describe and analyse scenarios at the molecular level resulting in counterintuitive conclusions.

  7. Understanding readers' understanding theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Tierney, Robert J; Mitchell, Judy Nichols

    2013-01-01

    This collection features papers addressing current issues in reading comprehension from cognitive and linguistic perspectives. Organized into three sections, the volume investigates text considerations and reader-text interactions. Each paper presents a substantial and comprehensive review of theory and research related to cognition and reading comprehension.

  8. Niche construction in evolutionary theory: the construction of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANAN GUPTA

    2017-07-06

    Jul 6, 2017 ... Keywords. niche construction; standard evolutionary theory; coevolution; natural selection; philosophy of biology; post-truth. In recent years, fairly ...... that the proximate cause of the architect's design has far greater explanatory power in ... general principle rather than a phenomenon that exists as a specific ...

  9. Niche construction in evolutionary theory: the construction of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANAN GUPTA

    2017-07-06

    Jul 6, 2017 ... Keywords. niche construction; standard evolutionary theory; coevolution; natural selection; philosophy of biology; post-truth. In recent years, fairly ... process in its own right, almost at par with natural selec- tion. Claims have .... depletion of available resources by an increasing popu- lation eventually has a ...

  10. Biology Students' Beliefs about Evolutionary Theory and Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Anne; Baldwin, Beatrice

    1995-01-01

    Data from 212 high school biology students in two schools in Louisiana show that students bring increased religious bias to the classroom due to a resurgence of religious conservatism and that these beliefs interfere with their abilities to view scientific evidence about evolution objectively. Those who did not believe evolutionary theory cited…

  11. Gender and Evolutionary Theory in Workplace Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Erika; Wright, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Ideas from evolutionary theories are increasingly taken up in health promotion. This article seeks to demonstrate how such a trend has the potential to embed essentialist and limiting stereotypes of women and men in health promotion practice. Design: We draw on material gathered for a larger ethnographic study that examined how…

  12. The stability concept of evolutionary game theory a dynamic approach

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    These Notes grew from my research in evolutionary biology, specifically on the theory of evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS theory), over the past ten years. Personally, evolutionary game theory has given me the opportunity to transfer my enthusiasm for abstract mathematics to more practical pursuits. I was fortunate to have entered this field in its infancy when many biologists recognized its potential but were not prepared to grant it general acceptance. This is no longer the case. ESS theory is now a rapidly expanding (in both applied and theoretical directions) force that no evolutionary biologist can afford to ignore. Perhaps, to continue the life-cycle metaphor, ESS theory is now in its late adolescence and displays much of the optimism and exuberance of this exciting age. There are dangers in writing a text about a theory at this stage of development. A comprehensive treatment would involve too many loose ends for the reader to appreciate the central message. On the other hand, the current central m...

  13. Evolutionary game theory: Theoretical concepts and applications to microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Erwin

    2010-10-01

    Ecological systems are complex assemblies of large numbers of individuals, interacting competitively under multifaceted environmental conditions. Recent studies using microbial laboratory communities have revealed some of the self-organization principles underneath the complexity of these systems. A major role of the inherent stochasticity of its dynamics and the spatial segregation of different interacting species into distinct patterns has thereby been established. It ensures the viability of microbial colonies by allowing for species diversity, cooperative behavior and other kinds of “social” behavior. A synthesis of evolutionary game theory, nonlinear dynamics, and the theory of stochastic processes provides the mathematical tools and a conceptual framework for a deeper understanding of these ecological systems. We give an introduction into the modern formulation of these theories and illustrate their effectiveness focussing on selected examples of microbial systems. Intrinsic fluctuations, stemming from the discreteness of individuals, are ubiquitous, and can have an important impact on the stability of ecosystems. In the absence of speciation, extinction of species is unavoidable. It may, however, take very long times. We provide a general concept for defining survival and extinction on ecological time-scales. Spatial degrees of freedom come with a certain mobility of individuals. When the latter is sufficiently high, bacterial community structures can be understood through mapping individual-based models, in a continuum approach, onto stochastic partial differential equations. These allow progress using methods of nonlinear dynamics such as bifurcation analysis and invariant manifolds. We conclude with a perspective on the current challenges in quantifying bacterial pattern formation, and how this might have an impact on fundamental research in non-equilibrium physics.

  14. Toward an alternative evolutionary theory of religion: looking past computational evolutionary psychology to a wider field of possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Nathaniel F

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive science of the last half-century has been dominated by the computational theory of mind and its picture of thought as information processing. Taking this picture for granted, the most prominent evolutionary theories of religion of the last fifteen years have sought to understand human religiosity as the product or by-product of universal information processing mechanisms that were adaptive in our ancestral environment. The rigidity of such explanations is at odds with the highly context-sensitive nature of historical studies of religion, and thus contributes to the apparent tug-of-war between scientific and humanistic perspectives. This essay argues that this antagonism stems in part from a deep flaw of computational theory, namely its notion of information as pre-given and context-free. In contrast, non-computational theories that picture mind as an adaptive, interactive process in which information is jointly constructed by organism and environment offer an alternative approach to an evolutionary understanding of human religiosity, one that is compatible with historical studies and amenable to a wide range of inquiries, including some limited kinds of theological inquiry.

  15. Testing Punctuated Equilibrium Theory Using Evolutionary Activity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodberry, O. G.; Korb, K. B.; Nicholson, A. E.

    The Punctuated Equilibrium hypothesis (Eldredge and Gould,1972) asserts that most evolutionary change occurs during geologically rapid speciation events, with species exhibiting stasis most of the time. Punctuated Equilibrium is a natural extension of Mayr's theories on peripatric speciation via the founder effect, (Mayr, 1963; Eldredge and Gould, 1972) which associates changes in diversity to a population bottleneck. That is, while the formation of a foundation bottleneck brings an initial loss of genetic variation, it may subsequently result in the emergence of a child species distinctly different from its parent species. In this paper we adapt Bedau's evolutionary activity statistics (Bedau and Packard, 1991) to test these effects in an ALife simulation of speciation. We find a relative increase in evolutionary activity during speciations events, indicating that punctuation is occurring.

  16. Evidence Combination From an Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Han, Deqiang; Dezert, Jean; Deng, Yong; Shyr, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is a primary methodology for multisource information fusion because it is good at dealing with uncertain information. This theory provides a Dempster's rule of combination to synthesize multiple evidences from various information sources. However, in some cases, counter-intuitive results may be obtained based on that combination rule. Numerous new or improved methods have been proposed to suppress these counter-intuitive results based on perspectives, such as minimizing the information loss or deviation. Inspired by evolutionary game theory, this paper considers a biological and evolutionary perspective to study the combination of evidences. An evolutionary combination rule (ECR) is proposed to help find the most biologically supported proposition in a multievidence system. Within the proposed ECR, we develop a Jaccard matrix game to formalize the interaction between propositions in evidences, and utilize the replicator dynamics to mimick the evolution of propositions. Experimental results show that the proposed ECR can effectively suppress the counter-intuitive behaviors appeared in typical paradoxes of evidence theory, compared with many existing methods. Properties of the ECR, such as solution's stability and convergence, have been mathematically proved as well.

  17. Radiation hormesis: challenging LNT theory via ecological and evolutionary considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Peter A

    2002-04-01

    Ecological and evolutionary considerations suggest that radiation hormesis is made up of two underlying components. The first (a) is background radiation hormesis based upon the background exposure to which all organisms are subjected throughout evolutionary time. The second and much larger component (b) is stress-derived radiation hormesis arising as a protective mechanism derived from metabolic adaptation to environmental stresses throughout evolutionary time especially from climate-based extremes. Since (b) > > (a), hormesis for ionizing radiation becomes an evolutionary expectation at exposures substantially exceeding background. This biological model renders linear no-threshold theory invalid. Accumulating evidence from experimental organisms ranging from protozoa to rodents, and from demographic studies on humans, is consistent with this interpretation. Although hormesis is not universally accepted, the model presented can be subjected to hypothesis-based empirical investigations in a range of organisms. At this stage, however, two consequences follow from this evolutionary model: (1) hormesis does not connote a value judgement usually expressed as a benefit; and (2) there is an emerging and increasingly convincing case for reviewing and relaxing some recommended radiation protection exposure levels in the low range.

  18. Falsification of matching theory and confirmation of an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics in a critical experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Calvin, Olivia L; Hackett, Ryan; Klapes, Bryan

    2017-07-01

    Two competing predictions of matching theory and an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics, and one additional prediction of the evolutionary theory, were tested in a critical experiment in which human participants worked on concurrent schedules for money (Dallery et al., 2005). The three predictions concerned the descriptive adequacy of matching theory equations, and of equations describing emergent equilibria of the evolutionary theory. Tests of the predictions falsified matching theory and supported the evolutionary theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution and development: some insights from evolutionary theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID JEAN R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental biology and evolutionary biology are both mature integrative disciplines which started in the 19th century and then followed parallel and independent scientific pathways. Recently, a genetical component has stepped into both disciplines (developmental genetics and evolutionary genetics pointing out the need for future convergent maturation. Indeed, the Evo-Devo approach is becoming popular among developmental biologists, based on the facts that distant groups share a common ancestry, that precise phylogenies can be worked out and that homologous genes often play similar roles during the development of very different organisms. In this essay, I try to show that the real future of Evo-Devo thinking is still broader. The evolutionary theory is a set of diverse concepts which can and should be used in any biological field. Evolutionary thinking trains to ask « why » questions and to provide logical and plausible answers. It can shed some light on a diversity of general problems such as how to distinguish homologies from analogies, the costs and benefits of multicellularity, the origin of novel structures (e.g. the head, or the evolution of sexual reproduction. In the next decade, we may expect a progressive convergence between developmental genetics and quantitative genetics.

  20. The ecology of cancer from an evolutionary game theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Jorge M; Santos, Francisco C; Dingli, David

    2014-08-06

    The accumulation of somatic mutations, to which the cellular genome is permanently exposed, often leads to cancer. Analysis of any tumour shows that, besides the malignant cells, one finds other 'supporting' cells such as fibroblasts, immune cells of various types and even blood vessels. Together, these cells generate the microenvironment that enables the malignant cell population to grow and ultimately lead to disease. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of tumour growth and response to therapy is incomplete unless the interactions between the malignant cells and normal cells are investigated in the environment in which they take place. The complex interactions between cells in such an ecosystem result from the exchange of information in the form of cytokines- and adhesion-dependent interactions. Such processes impose costs and benefits to the participating cells that may be conveniently recast in the form of a game pay-off matrix. As a result, tumour progression and dynamics can be described in terms of evolutionary game theory (EGT), which provides a convenient framework in which to capture the frequency-dependent nature of ecosystem dynamics. Here, we provide a tutorial review of the central aspects of EGT, establishing a relation with the problem of cancer. Along the way, we also digress on fitness and of ways to compute it. Subsequently, we show how EGT can be applied to the study of the various manifestations and dynamics of multiple myeloma bone disease and its preceding condition known as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We translate the complex biochemical signals into costs and benefits of different cell types, thus defining a game pay-off matrix. Then we use the well-known properties of the EGT equations to reduce the number of core parameters that characterize disease evolution. Finally, we provide an interpretation of these core parameters in terms of what their function is in the ecosystem we are describing and generate

  1. Evolutionary games in Wright's island model: kin selection meets evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2010-12-01

    This article studies evolutionary game dynamics in Wright's infinite island model. I study a general n × n matrix game and derive a basic equation that describes the change in frequency of strategies. A close observation of this equation reveals that three distinct effects are at work: direct benefit to a focal individual, kin-selected indirect benefit to the focal individual via its relatives, and the cost caused by increased kin competition in the focal individual's natal deme. Crucial parameters are the coefficient of relatedness between two individuals and its analogue for three individuals. I provide a number of examples and show when the traditional inclusive fitness measure is recovered and when not. Results demonstrate how evolutionary game theory fits into the framework of kin selection. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. [Schizophrenia in the light of the evolutionary theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Dawid; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the article was to review the hypotheses of schizophrenia in the light of the evolutionary theory. The authors distinguished adaptationist and non-adaptationist hypotheses concerning the evolutionary underpinnings of schizophrenia. The adaptationist hypotheses are firmly based on notions of adaptation, natural selection and proximate and ultimate causes. The standard hypotheses of this sort proposed by Steven and Price as well as by Pollimeni and Reiss were discussed. Also, the other similar conceptions originated from McGuire and Troisi and proposed by David Horrobin were presented of which the latter is especially promising and worth further investigating. The non-adaptationistic authors criticised many assumptions of the adapationist program i.e. too broad use of term "adaptation" in the area of human behaviour or the very idea of proximate and ultimate causes. Unlike the adaptionists, they focus their attention on other aspects of the evolutionary processes i.e. the role of the mutation and also they are searching in a much intensive way than their opponents for verification of the hypotheses based on the empirical evidence. The theories developed by Crow and by Yeo were listed among the non-adaptationistic ones and presented.

  3. Application of network methods for understanding evolutionary dynamics in discrete habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Gili; Fefferman, Nina H

    2017-06-01

    In populations occupying discrete habitat patches, gene flow between habitat patches may form an intricate population structure. In such structures, the evolutionary dynamics resulting from interaction of gene-flow patterns with other evolutionary forces may be exceedingly complex. Several models describing gene flow between discrete habitat patches have been presented in the population-genetics literature; however, these models have usually addressed relatively simple settings of habitable patches and have stopped short of providing general methodologies for addressing nontrivial gene-flow patterns. In the last decades, network theory - a branch of discrete mathematics concerned with complex interactions between discrete elements - has been applied to address several problems in population genetics by modelling gene flow between habitat patches using networks. Here, we present the idea and concepts of modelling complex gene flows in discrete habitats using networks. Our goal is to raise awareness to existing network theory applications in molecular ecology studies, as well as to outline the current and potential contribution of network methods to the understanding of evolutionary dynamics in discrete habitats. We review the main branches of network theory that have been, or that we believe potentially could be, applied to population genetics and molecular ecology research. We address applications to theoretical modelling and to empirical population-genetic studies, and we highlight future directions for extending the integration of network science with molecular ecology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. New pillars of evolutionary theory in the light of genomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Carrascal, Camilo Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionist theory proposed by Darwin is one of the fundamental pillars in biology. Darwin's theory was solidified with the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology thanks to the rediscovery of Mendel's work, which laid the genetic basis of heredity. In recent years, great progress has been acquired in the sequencing and analyses of complete genomes, which have provided several elements to discuss some Darwinists tenets of evolution. The evidence of gene duplication and whole-genome duplication, the horizontal gene transfer and the endosymbiosis process question the idea that evolution proceeds through the gradual accumulation of infinitesimally small random changes. The new evidence of neutral selection on the genomics context reveals other mechanisms of evolution not necessarily related with the idea of progress or with an adaptationist program as was originally stated by the Darwin's theory. in this paper, I present these and other concepts such as gene regulation, molecular mechanisms of development and some environmental aspects (epigenesis and phenotypic plasticity) as starting points to think in the necessity to update the evolutionary theory which in my opinion should be more inclusive, pluralistic and consistent with our current knowledge.

  5. Limitations of Evolutionary Theory in Explaining Marital Satisfaction and Stability of Couple Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Cabrera García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The explanation of marital satisfaction and stability in trajectories of couple relationships has been the central interest in different studies (Karney, Bradbury. & Johnson, 1999; Sabatelli & Ripoll, 2004; Schoebi, Karney & Bradbury, 2012. However, there are still several questions and unknown aspects surrounding the topic. Within this context, the present reflection seeks to analyze whether the principles of Evolutionary Theory suffice to explain three marital trajectories in terms of satisfaction and stability. With this in mind, we have included other explanations proposed by the Psychosocial Theory that Evolutionary Theory does not refer to in order to better understand mating behavior. Moreover, other factors that could account for satisfied and stable relationships were analyzed. Suggestions for future investigations include the analysis of other marital trajectories that may or may not end in separation or divorce but are not included in this article.

  6. Statistical physics and computational methods for evolutionary game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to Evolutionary Game Theory (EGT) which is an emerging field in the area of complex systems attracting the attention of researchers from disparate scientific communities. EGT allows one to represent and study several complex phenomena, such as the emergence of cooperation in social systems, the role of conformity in shaping the equilibrium of a population, and the dynamics in biological and ecological systems. Since EGT models belong to the area of complex systems, statistical physics constitutes a fundamental ingredient for investigating their behavior. At the same time, the complexity of some EGT models, such as those realized by means of agent-based methods, often require the implementation of numerical simulations. Therefore, beyond providing an introduction to EGT, this book gives a brief overview of the main statistical physics tools (such as phase transitions and the Ising model) and computational strategies for simulating evolutionary games (such as Monte Carlo algor...

  7. Integrating Evolutionary Game Theory into Mechanistic Genotype-Phenotype Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuli; Jiang, Libo; Ye, Meixia; Sun, Lidan; Gragnoli, Claudia; Wu, Rongling

    2016-05-01

    Natural selection has shaped the evolution of organisms toward optimizing their structural and functional design. However, how this universal principle can enhance genotype-phenotype mapping of quantitative traits has remained unexplored. Here we show that the integration of this principle and functional mapping through evolutionary game theory gains new insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits. By viewing phenotype formation as an evolutionary system, we formulate mathematical equations to model the ecological mechanisms that drive the interaction and coordination of its constituent components toward population dynamics and stability. Functional mapping provides a procedure for estimating the genetic parameters that specify the dynamic relationship of competition and cooperation and predicting how genes mediate the evolution of this relationship during trait formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Symbiogenesis and Synthetic Evolutionary Theory: The Third Synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provoro, N A; Tikhonovich, I A; Vorobyov, N I

    2015-06-01

    Integration of the concepts of symbiogenesis and synthetic evolutionary theory is the main path for the development of evolutionary biology. It is based on the analysis of cooperative adaptations that evolve under the impact of symbiotic-specific selective pressures responsible for the formation of super-species hereditary systems--metagenomes, symbiogenomes, and hologenomes. The genetic integration of nonrelated organisms (symbiogenesis) is determined by the inheritance of microsymbionts by hosts resulted in the complication of mutualistic interactions according to the scheme: pleiotropic symbiosis --> mutual partner's exploitation --> interspecies altruism. This evolution may result in the loss of genetic individuality in microsymbionts; this loss is expressed as a deep reduction in their genomes. A significant number of these may be exported to the host, resulting in the transformation of symbiotic systems into novel, genetically integral organisms.

  9. Backbones of evolutionary history test biodiversity theory for microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, James P; Kembel, Steven W; Sharpton, Thomas J

    2015-07-07

    Identifying the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that determine biological diversity is a central question in ecology. In microbial ecology, phylogenetic diversity is an increasingly common and relevant means of quantifying community diversity, particularly given the challenges in defining unambiguous species units from environmental sequence data. We explore patterns of phylogenetic diversity across multiple bacterial communities drawn from different habitats and compare these data to evolutionary trees generated using theoretical models of biodiversity. We have two central findings. First, although on finer scales the empirical trees are highly idiosyncratic, on coarse scales the backbone of these trees is simple and robust, consistent across habitats, and displays bursts of diversification dotted throughout. Second, we find that these data demonstrate a clear departure from the predictions of standard neutral theories of biodiversity and that an alternative family of generalized models provides a qualitatively better description. Together, these results lay the groundwork for a theoretical framework to connect ecological mechanisms to observed phylogenetic patterns in microbial communities.

  10. The evolutionary theories of aging revisited--a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubuncic, Predrag; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2009-01-01

    This short review portrays the evolutionary theories of aging in the light of the existing discoveries from genomic and molecular genetic studies on aging and longevity. At the outset, an historical background for the development of the evolutionary theories of aging is presented through the works of August Weismann (programmed death and the germ plasm theories) including his exceptional theoretical postulation, later experimentally validated by the existence of cell division limits. Afterwards, the theory of mutation accumulation of Peter Medawar and the theory modification by Charlesworth (late-life mortality plateau) are presented as well as the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis of George Williams, and the disposable soma theory of Kirkwood and Holliday. These theories are discussed in the light of the different research studies, which include studies on insulin signaling and longevity, the possibility that nuclear factor kappa B may be a major mediator of aging, studies of anti-aging Sirtuins and studies on heat shock proteins and longevity and on gene sets as biomarkers of aging. Finally, the proposals for future research in biogerontology, such as studies on the control of protein synthesis, validation of biomarkers of aging, understanding the biochemistry of longevity and research in the field of gerontologic pathology are presented. Likewise, further attention is suggested regarding the work on telomere shortening, stem cells and studies on understanding the biochemical and molecular basis for longevity in centenarians. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. A quantitative evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J

    2013-10-01

    The idea that behavior is selected by its consequences in a process analogous to organic evolution has been discussed for over 100 years. A recently proposed theory instantiates this idea by means of a genetic algorithm that operates on a population of potential behaviors. Behaviors in the population are represented by numbers in decimal integer (phenotypic) and binary bit string (genotypic) forms. One behavior from the population is emitted at random each time tick, after which a new population of potential behaviors is constructed by recombining parent behavior bit strings. If the emitted behavior produced a benefit to the organism, then parents are chosen on the basis of their phenotypic similarity to the emitted behavior; otherwise, they are chosen at random. After parent behavior recombination, the population is subjected to a small amount of mutation by flipping random bits in the population's bit strings. The behavior generated by this process of selection, reproduction, and mutation reaches equilibrium states that conform to every empirically valid equation of matching theory, exactly and without systematic error. These equations are known to describe the behavior of many vertebrate species, including humans, in a variety of experimental, naturalistic, natural, and social environments. The evolutionary theory also generates instantaneous dynamics and patterns of preference change in constantly changing environments that are consistent with the dynamics of live-organism behavior. These findings support the assertion that the world of behavior we observe and measure is generated by evolutionary dynamics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  12. A deeper integration of Selfish Goal Theory and modern evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2014-04-01

    Conceptually integrating Selfish Goal Theory with modern evolutionary psychology amplifies theoretical power. Inconsistency, a key principle of Selfish Goal Theory, illustrates this insight. Conflicting goals of seeking sexual variety and successful mate retention furnish one example. Siblings have evolved goals to cooperate and compete, a second example. Integrating Selfish Goal Theory with evolutionary theory can explain much inconsistent goal-directed behavior.

  13. Students' Perceptions of the Nature of Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.; Boujaoude, Saouma

    2005-01-01

    This study explored how some college students understand the nature of the theory of evolution and how they evaluate its scientific status. We conducted semistructured interviews with 15 college biology seniors in which we asked them to explain why they think evolution assumes the status of a scientific theory, how it compares to other scientific…

  14. Theory of mind and Verstehen (understanding) methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    Theory of mind is a prominent, but highly controversial, field in psychology, psychiatry, and philosophy of mind. Simulation theory, theory-theory and other views have been presented in recent decades, none of which are monolithic. In this article, various views on theory of mind are reviewed, and methodological problems within each view are investigated. The relationship between simulation theory and Verstehen (understanding) methodology in traditional human sciences is an intriguing issue, although the latter is not a direct ancestor of the former. From that perspective, lessons for current clinical psychiatry are drawn. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Understanding herding based on a co-evolutionary model for strategy and game structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Keke; Cheng, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •We model herding effect in emergency from perspective of evolutionary game theory. •Rational subpopulation survives only when the game parameter is significantly large. •Herding effect may arise if the relative rewarding for rational agents is small. •Increasing the relative rewarding for rational agents will prevent herding effect. •The evolution result is unstable if the game parameter approaches critical points. -- Abstract: So far, there has been no conclusion on the mechanism for herding, which is often discussed in the academia. Assuming escaping behavior of individuals in emergency is rational rather than out of panic according to recent findings in social psychology, we investigate the behavioral evolution of large crowds from the perspective of evolutionary game theory. Specifically, evolution of the whole population divided into two subpopulations, namely the co-evolution of strategy and game structure, is numerically simulated based on the game theoretical models built and the evolutionary rule designed, and a series of phenomena including extinction of one subpopulation and herding effect are predicted in the proposed framework. Furthermore, if the rewarding for rational agents becomes significantly larger than that for emotional ones, herding effect will disappear. It is exciting that some phase transition points with interesting properties for the system can be found. In addition, our model framework is able to explain the fact that it is difficult for mavericks to prevail in society. The current results of this work will be helpful in understanding and restraining herding effect in real life

  16. The ABCs of an evolutionary education science: The academic, behavioral, and cultural implications of an evolutionary approach to education theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Rick, Jr.

    -/cognitive-focused learning goals. Chapter 5 explores the cognitive effects that "teaching evolution" has on the learner. This chapter examines the effects that a course on evolutionary theory has on university undergraduate students in understanding and applying evolution and how learning the evolutionary toolkit affects critical thinking skills and domain transfer of knowledge. The results demonstrate that a single course on evolutionary theory increases students' acceptance and understanding of evolution and science, and, in effect, increases critical thinking performance.

  17. Using Aha! Moments to Understand Leadership Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori L.; Lewis, Lauren J.

    2012-01-01

    As Huber (2002) noted, striving to understand how leadership is taught and learned is both a challenge and an opportunity facing leadership educators. This article describes the "Leadership Aha! Moment" assignment used in a leadership theory course to help students recognize the intersection of leadership theories and their daily lives while…

  18. Understanding leader representations: Beyond implicit leadership theory

    OpenAIRE

    Knee, Robert Everett

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish evidence for the suggested integration of the theories of connectionism and leadership. Recent theoretical writings in the field of leadership have suggested that the dynamic representations generated by the connectionist perspective is an appropriate approach to understanding how we perceive leaders. Similarly, implicit leadership theory (ILT) explains that our cognitive understandings of leaders are based on a cognitive structure that we u...

  19. Reframing developmental biology and building evolutionary theory's new synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Alfred I

    2010-01-01

    Gilbert and Epel present a new approach to developmental biology: embryogenesis must be understood within the full context of the organism's environment. Instead of an insular embryo following a genetic blueprint, this revised program maintains that embryogenesis is subject to inputs from the environment that generate novel genetic variation with dynamic consequences for development. Beyond allelic variation of structural genes and of regulatory loci, plasticity-derived epigenetic variation completes the triad of the major types of variation required for evolution. Developmental biology and ecology, disciplines that have previously been regarded as distinct, are presented here as fully integrated under the rubric of "eco-devo," and from this perspective, which highlights how the environment not only selects variation, it helps construct it, another synthesis with evolutionary biology must also be made, "eco-evo-devo." This second integration has enormous implications for expanding evolution theory, inasmuch as the Modern Synthesis (Provine 1971), which combined classical genetics and Darwinism in the mid-20th century, did not account for the role of development in evolution. The eco-evo-devo synthesis thus portends a major theoretical inflection in evolutionary biology. Following a description of these scientific developments, comment is offered as to how this new integrated approach might be understood within the larger shifts in contemporary biology.

  20. [Evolutionary theories of asymmetrization of organisms, brain and body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geodakian, V A

    2005-01-01

    Growth of a dispersion of elements of unitary systems (US) inevitably transfrorms them into the binary connected differentiations (BCD). So, at a level of genes, from bisexuals have arisen females and males, and at a level of hormones (mentality, behavior), from symmetric--asymmetric: functions, organs, right-handers and left-handers. All BCD are isomorphic. They consist of subsystems preservation (conservative) and change (operative) (SP, SC). SP is more important, than SC, therefore the dispersion of their elements is less, than elements SC. This base difference. It transforms a monomodal population in bimodal, direct "ecology, (environment, E US), in consequetn (E SC SP), and synchronous evolution in asynchronous (at first SC, later SP). Then for evolution "pay" only SC. Means, asynchronous evolution is more economical, than synchronous. In it adaptive sense of any BCD. All theories of biology are theories of US. They treat subsystems not as phased but as forms, therefore may not explain BCD. The general idea of asynchronous evolution--control centre of any function arises in the left hemisphere and in the right hemisphere gets only after approbation. Hence, creates asymmetry different phases of the same function in the left and right hemisphere, but not different functions. It has allowed to reject a lot of erroneous representations and to create adaptive, internally consistent, evolutionary theories of three-demensional asymmetry of organisms, a brain, a cis-trans asymmetry of pair organs and dextrality-sinistrality, having unique explanatory and predictive potential.

  1. The use of information theory in evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Christoph

    2012-05-01

    Information is a key concept in evolutionary biology. Information stored in a biological organism's genome is used to generate the organism and to maintain and control it. Information is also that which evolves. When a population adapts to a local environment, information about this environment is fixed in a representative genome. However, when an environment changes, information can be lost. At the same time, information is processed by animal brains to survive in complex environments, and the capacity for information processing also evolves. Here, I review applications of information theory to the evolution of proteins and to the evolution of information processing in simulated agents that adapt to perform a complex task. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Against matching theory: predictions of an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Calvin, Nicholas T

    2015-05-01

    A selectionist theory of adaptive behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of resource acquisition or threat escape or avoidance. The theory is implemented by a computer program that creates an artificial organism and animates it with a population of potential behaviors. The population undergoes selection, recombination, and mutation across generations, or ticks of time, which produces a continuous stream of behavior that can be studied as if it were the behavior of a live organism. Novel predictions of the evolutionary theory can be compared to predictions of matching theory in a critical experiment that arranges concurrent schedules with reinforcer magnitudes that vary across conditions in one component of the schedules but not the other. Matching theory and the evolutionary theory make conflicting predictions about the outcome of this critical experiment, such that the results must disconfirm at least one of the theories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Implications of the Cognitive Sciences for the Relation between Religion and Science Education: The Case of Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; De Smedt, Johan; De Cruz, Helen; Boudry, Maarten; Braeckman, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between religion and science education in the light of the cognitive sciences. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible, a view that suggests that learning and understanding evolutionary theory has no effect on students' religious beliefs and vice versa. We develop a cognitive…

  4. The Use of Evolutionary Approaches to Understand Single Cell Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei eLuo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of environmental bacteria and archaea remain uncultivated, yet their genome sequences are rapidly becoming available through single cell sequencing technologies. Reconstructing metabolism is one common way to make use of genome sequences of ecologically important bacteria, but molecular evolutionary analysis is another approach that, while currently underused, can reveal important insights into the function of these uncultivated microbes in nature. Because genome sequences from single cells are often incomplete, metabolic reconstruction based on genome content can be compromised. However, this problem does not necessarily impede the use of phylogenomic and population genomic approaches that are based on patterns of polymorphisms and substitutions at nucleotide and amino acid sites. These approaches explore how various evolutionary forces act to assemble genetic diversity within and between lineages. In this mini-review, I present examples illustrating the benefits of analyzing single cell genomes using evolutionary approaches.

  5. Behavioral variability in an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Andrei; McDowell, J J

    2016-03-01

    McDowell's evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics (McDowell, 2004) instantiates populations of behaviors (abstractly represented by integers) that evolve under the selection pressure of the environment in the form of positive reinforcement. Each generation gives rise to the next via low-level Darwinian processes of selection, recombination, and mutation. The emergent patterns can be analyzed and compared to those produced by biological organisms. The purpose of this project was to explore the effects of high mutation rates on behavioral variability in environments that arranged different reinforcer rates and magnitudes. Behavioral variability increased with the rate of mutation. High reinforcer rates and magnitudes reduced these effects; low reinforcer rates and magnitudes augmented them. These results are in agreement with live-organism research on behavioral variability. Various combinations of mutation rates, reinforcer rates, and reinforcer magnitudes produced similar high-level outcomes (equifinality). These findings suggest that the independent variables that describe an experimental condition interact; that is, they do not influence behavior independently. These conclusions have implications for the interpretation of high levels of variability, mathematical undermatching, and the matching theory. The last part of the discussion centers on a potential biological counterpart for the rate of mutation, namely spontaneous fluctuations in the brain's default mode network. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. Game Theory-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm for Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanci Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Many approaches that model specific intelligent behaviors perform excellently in solving complex optimization problems. Game theory is widely recognized as an important tool in many fields. This paper introduces a game theory-inspired evolutionary algorithm for global optimization (GameEA. A formulation to estimate payoff expectations is provided, which is a mechanism to make a player become a rational decision-maker. GameEA has one population (i.e., set of players and generates new offspring only through an imitation operator and a belief-learning operator. An imitation operator adopts learning strategies and actions from other players to improve its competitiveness and applies these strategies to future games where one player updates its chromosome by strategically copying segments of gene sequences from a competitor. Belief learning refers to models in which a player adjusts his/her strategies, behavior or chromosomes by analyzing the current history information to improve solution quality. Experimental results on various classes of problems show that GameEA outperforms the other four algorithms on stability, robustness, and accuracy.

  7. Evolutionary rescue: linking theory for conservation and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Helen K; Martin, Guillaume; Martin, Oliver Y; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    Evolutionary responses that rescue populations from extinction when drastic environmental changes occur can be friend or foe. The field of conservation biology is concerned with the survival of species in deteriorating global habitats. In medicine, in contrast, infected patients are treated with chemotherapeutic interventions, but drug resistance can compromise eradication of pathogens. These contrasting biological systems and goals have created two quite separate research communities, despite addressing the same central question of whether populations will decline to extinction or be rescued through evolution. We argue that closer integration of the two fields, especially of theoretical understanding, would yield new insights and accelerate progress on these applied problems. Here, we overview and link mathematical modelling approaches in these fields, suggest specific areas with potential for fruitful exchange, and discuss common ideas and issues for empirical testing and prediction.

  8. How Cultural Evolutionary Theory Can Inform Social Psychology and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the…

  9. Using Ancient DNA to Understand Evolutionary and Ecological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Cooper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA provides a unique means to record genetic change through time and directly observe evolutionary and ecological processes. Although mostly based on mitochondrial DNA, the increasing availability of genomic sequences is leading to unprecedented levels of resolution. Temporal studies of ...

  10. Evolutionary psychology and evolutionary developmental psychology: understanding the evolution of human behavior and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Causey, Kayla

    2010-02-01

    This is an introduction to this special issue on evolutionary psychology (EP) and evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP). We suggest here that, contrary to some common assumptions, mainstream psychology continues to be essentially non Darwinian and that EP and EDP are new approaches that can potentially help us to change this situation. We then present the organization of the special issue (composed of six papers). We conclude that evolution is certainly not the final consideration in psychology, but emphasize its importance as the basis upon which all modern behaviors and development are built.

  11. An Evolutionary Modelling Approach To Understanding The Factors Behind Plant Invasiveness And Community Susceptibility To Invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John; Topping, Christopher John; James, Penri

    2011-01-01

    Ecologists have had limited success in understanding which introduced species may become invasive. An evolutionary model is used to investigate which traits are associated with invasiveness. Translocation experiments were simulated in which species were moved into similar but evolutionary younger...... observed to be species and community combination specific. This evolutionary study represents a novel in silico attempt to tackle invasiveness in an experimental framework, and may provide a new methodology for tackling these issues....

  12. Robust Estimation of Evolutionary Distances with Information Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minh Duc; Allison, Lloyd; Dix, Trevor I; Bodén, Mikael

    2016-05-01

    Methods for measuring genetic distances in phylogenetics are known to be sensitive to the evolutionary model assumed. However, there is a lack of established methodology to accommodate the trade-off between incorporating sufficient biological reality and avoiding model overfitting. In addition, as traditional methods measure distances based on the observed number of substitutions, their tend to underestimate distances between diverged sequences due to backward and parallel substitutions. Various techniques were proposed to correct this, but they lack the robustness against sequences that are distantly related and of unequal base frequencies. In this article, we present a novel genetic distance estimate based on information theory that overcomes the above two hurdles. Instead of examining the observed number of substitutions, this method estimates genetic distances using Shannon's mutual information. This naturally provides an effective framework for balancing model complexity and goodness of fit. Our distance estimate is shown to be approximately linear to elapsed time and hence is less sensitive to the divergence of sequence data and compositional biased sequences. Using extensive simulation data, we show that our method 1) consistently reconstructs more accurate phylogeny topologies than existing methods, 2) is robust in extreme conditions such as diverged phylogenies, unequal base frequencies data, and heterogeneous mutation patterns, and 3) scales well with large phylogenies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Understanding geometric algebra for electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, John W

    2011-01-01

    "This book aims to disseminate geometric algebra as a straightforward mathematical tool set for working with and understanding classical electromagnetic theory. It's target readership is anyone who has some knowledge of electromagnetic theory, predominantly ordinary scientists and engineers who use it in the course of their work, or postgraduate students and senior undergraduates who are seeking to broaden their knowledge and increase their understanding of the subject. It is assumed that the reader is not a mathematical specialist and is neither familiar with geometric algebra or its application to electromagnetic theory. The modern approach, geometric algebra, is the mathematical tool set we should all have started out with and once the reader has a grasp of the subject, he or she cannot fail to realize that traditional vector analysis is really awkward and even misleading by comparison"--Provided by publisher.

  14. Understanding snacking through a practice theory lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, Richard

    2015-11-01

    This article approaches snacking from a practice theory perspective in order to understand how this reframing may afford new insights. In doing so it also contributes to sociological thinking on eating practices and their reproduction as well as reflecting upon the ontological assertions of practice theory and its theory of social change. In particular this article argues that the re-conceptualisation serves to clarify a sociological research agenda for eating practices associated with snacking. It is argued that setting snacking within routine temporalities and spatialities and as bound up in the recursivity between practices and relations is especially important for thinking about snacking sociologically. In common with applications of practice theory in the field of sustainability transitions the aim is to move beyond individualistic assumptions of behaviour change and instead situate snacking as an eating practice with health implications that has emerged within the social, temporal, economic and cultural organisation of everyday life. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  15. Understanding nursing units with data and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diers, Donna; Hendrickson, Karrie; Rimar, Joan; Donovan, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Nursing units are social systems whose function depends on many variables. Available nursing data, combined with a theory of organizational diagnosis, can be used to understand nursing unit performance. One troubled unit served as a case study in organizational diagnosis and treatment using modern methods of data mining and performance improvement. Systems theory did not prescribe how to fix an underbounded system. The theory did suggest, however, that addressing the characteristics of overbounded and underbounded systems can provide some order and structure and identify helpful resources. In this instance, the data analysis served to help define the unit's problems in conjunction with information gained from talking with the nurses and touring the unit, but it was the theory that gave hints for direction for change.

  16. Mimetic Theory and the evolutionary paradox of schizophrenia: The archetypal scapegoat hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Daniel Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Schizophrenia poses an evolutionary paradox, being genetically mediated yet associated with reduced fecundity. Numerous hypotheses have attempted to address this, but few describe how the schizophrenic phenotype itself might constitute an evolutionary adaptation. This paper draws on René Girard's theory on human origins, which claims that humans evolved a tendency to mimic both the desires and the behaviours of each other (mimetic theory). This would have promoted social cohesion and co-operation, but at the cost of intra-group rivalry and conflict. The mimetic dynamic would have escalated such conflicts into reciprocal internecine violence, threatening the survival of the entire group. Girard theorised that the "scapegoat mechanism" emerged, by which means such violence was curtailed by the unanimity of "all against one", thus allowing the mimetic impulse to safely evolve further, making language and complex social behaviours possible. Whereas scapegoating may have emerged in the entire population, and any member of a community could be scapegoated if necessary, this paper proposes that the scapegoat mechanism would have worked better in groups containing members who exhibited traits, recognised by all others, which singled them out as victims. Schizophrenia may be a functional adaptation, similar in evolutionary terms to altruism, in that it may have increased inclusive fitness, by providing scapegoat victims, the choice of whom was likely to be agreed upon unanimously, even during internecine conflict, thus restoring order and protecting the group from self-destruction. This evolutionary hypothesis, uses Girardian anthropology to combine the concept of the schizophrenic as religious shaman with that of the schizophrenic as scapegoat. It may help to reconcile divergent philosophical concepts of mental illness, and also help us to better understand, and thus counter, social exclusion and stigmatisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. "Evolutionary Theory Seems so Easy": Reply to Lucal and Hanson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalek, Richard; Martin, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    As the authors stated early in their article (Machalek and Martin 2010), evolutionary ideas have been gaining traction in the work of a growing number of sociologists in recent years. Much of their thinking derives from work inspired by sociobiology. However, many sociologists are critical of and unreceptive to incorporating evolutionary biology…

  18. Games of life and death: antibiotic resistance and production through the lens of evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Peter L; Chandler, Josephine R; Kerr, Benjamin

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we demonstrate how game theory can be a useful first step in modeling and understanding interactions among bacteria that produce and resist antibiotics. We introduce the basic features of evolutionary game theory and explore model microbial systems that correspond to some classical games. Each game discussed defines a different category of social interaction with different resulting population dynamics (exclusion, coexistence, bistability, cycling). We then explore how the framework can be extended to incorporate some of the complexity of natural microbial communities. Overall, the game theoretical perspective helps to guide our expectations about the evolution of some forms of antibiotic resistance and production because it makes clear the precise nature of social interaction in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lifespan divergence between social insect castes: challenges and opportunities for evolutionary theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Boris H; van Doorn, G Sander; Weissing, Franz J; Pen, Ido

    2016-08-01

    The extraordinarily long lifespans of queens (and kings) in eusocial insects and the strikingly large differences in life expectancy between workers and queens challenge our understanding of the evolution of aging and provide unique opportunities for studying the causes underlying adaptive variation in lifespan within species. Here we review the major evolutionary theories of aging, focusing on their scope and limitations when applied to social insects. We show that reproductive division of labor, interactions between kin, caste-specific gene regulation networks, and the integration of colony-level trade-offs with individual-level trade-offs provide challenges to the classical theories We briefly indicate how these challenges could be met in future models of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in lifespan between and within different castes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bridging developmental systems theory and evolutionary psychology using dynamic optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H

    2013-07-01

    Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic optimization integrates developmental systems theorists' focus on dynamics and contingency with the 'design stance' of evolutionary psychology. It provides a theoretical framework as well as a set of tools for exploring the properties of developmental systems that natural selection might favor, given particular evolutionary ecologies. We also discuss limitations of the approach. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The Phenotypic Gambit: Selective Pressures and ESS Methodology in Evolutionary Game Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubin, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    The ‘phenotypic gambit,’ the assumption that we can ignore genetics and look at the fitness of phenotypes to determine the expected evolutionary dynamics of a population, is often used in evolutionary game theory. However, as this paper will show, an overlooked genotype to phenotype map can

  2. Bridging developmental systems theory and evolutionary psychology using dynamic optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankenhuis, W.E.; Panchanathan, K.; Barrett, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven

  3. What can ecosystems learn? Expanding evolutionary ecology with learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Daniel A; Watson, Richard A; Szathmáry, Eörs; Mills, Rob; Powers, Simon T; Doncaster, C Patrick; Czapp, Błażej

    2015-12-08

    The structure and organisation of ecological interactions within an ecosystem is modified by the evolution and coevolution of the individual species it contains. Understanding how historical conditions have shaped this architecture is vital for understanding system responses to change at scales from the microbial upwards. However, in the absence of a group selection process, the collective behaviours and ecosystem functions exhibited by the whole community cannot be organised or adapted in a Darwinian sense. A long-standing open question thus persists: Are there alternative organising principles that enable us to understand and predict how the coevolution of the component species creates and maintains complex collective behaviours exhibited by the ecosystem as a whole? Here we answer this question by incorporating principles from connectionist learning, a previously unrelated discipline already using well-developed theories on how emergent behaviours arise in simple networks. Specifically, we show conditions where natural selection on ecological interactions is functionally equivalent to a simple type of connectionist learning, 'unsupervised learning', well-known in neural-network models of cognitive systems to produce many non-trivial collective behaviours. Accordingly, we find that a community can self-organise in a well-defined and non-trivial sense without selection at the community level; its organisation can be conditioned by past experience in the same sense as connectionist learning models habituate to stimuli. This conditioning drives the community to form a distributed ecological memory of multiple past states, causing the community to: a) converge to these states from any random initial composition; b) accurately restore historical compositions from small fragments; c) recover a state composition following disturbance; and d) to correctly classify ambiguous initial compositions according to their similarity to learned compositions. We examine how the

  4. Inherit the policy: A sociocultural approach to understanding evolutionary biology policy in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gregory D.

    South Carolina biology Indicator 5.6 calls for students to "Summarize ways that scientists use data from a variety of sources to investigate and critically analyze aspects of evolutionary theory" (South Carolina Department of Education, 2006). Levinson and Sutton (2001) offered a sociocultural approach to policy that considers cultural and historical influences at all levels of the policy process. Lipsky (1980/2010) and others have identified teachers as de facto policy makers, exercising broad discretion in the execution of their work. This study looks to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior as an initial framework to inform how evolutionary biology policy in South Carolina is conceptualized and understood at different levels of the policy process. The results of this study indicate that actors in the state's evolutionary biology policy process draw upon a myriad of Discourses (Gee, 1999/2005). These Discourses shape cultural dynamics and the agency of the policy actors as they navigate conflicting messages between testing mandates and evolutionary biology policy. There indeed exist gaps between how evolutionary biology policy in South Carolina is conceptualized and understood at the different levels of the policy process. Evidence from this study suggests that appropriation-level policy actors must be brought into the Discourse related to the critical analysis of evolutionary biology and academic freedom legislation must be enacted if South Carolina biology Indicator 5.6 is to realize practical significance in educational policy.

  5. Perceived consequences of evolution: College students perceive negative personal and social impact in evolutionary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Sarah K.; Ranney, Michael; Schindel, Jennifer

    2003-03-01

    Evolutionary science has consequences for individuals and society, ranging from the way we interpret human behavior to our notions of spirituality and the purpose of our existence. Popular portrayals of evolution depict a paradoxical theory, a source of knowledge and human connections, but also a threat to our humanity and freedom. Using quantitative and qualitative methodology, we examined how college-educated adults (n = 135) from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds perceive the impact of evolutionary theory on individuals and society. We identified a continuum of perspectives, ranging from strong creationist to strong evolutionist. Using the model of knowledge as an ecology (Demastes, Good, & Peebles, Science Education, 79, 637-666, 1995; Nardi & O'Day, Information ecologies: Using technology with heart, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999), we examined the relationships among participants' beliefs, their perceptions regarding the social and personal impact of evolutionary theory, their prior exposure to and knowledge of evolutionary theory, and their opinions regarding the teaching of evolution. Evolutionists and creationists differed in their prior exposure to evolutionary theory, and their opinions about some aspects of teaching, but showed striking similarities regarding perceived impact. All groups viewed the consequences of accepting evolutionary principles in a way that might be considered undesirable: increased selfishness and racism, decreased spirituality, and a decreased sense of purpose and self-determination. From a science education perspective, this one-sided interpretation is troublesome because it runs counter to the available evidence and theories in evolutionary science, and we consider ways of fostering more balanced presentation and appraisal of evolutionary theory.

  6. Expanding Evolutionary Theory beyond Darwinism with Elaborating, Self-Organizing, and Fractionating Complex Evolutionary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, Lynn S.; Pyle, E. J.; Whitmeyer, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Earth systems increase in complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness with time, driven by tectonic/solar energy that keeps the systems far from equilibrium. The evolution of Earth systems is facilitated by three evolutionary mechanisms: "elaboration," "fractionation," and "self-organization," that share…

  7. Bridging the gap between Schumpeterian competition and evolutionary game theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    . Formulated as evolutionary games, the set of strategies can easily be extended from innovators and imitators to routinists, complementors, and mixers. All strategies are presented in relation to a modified version of the Hawk-Dove Game. In this setting, the possibility of coexistence of several Schumpeterian...

  8. Bridging Developmental Systems Theory and Evolutionary Psychology Using Dynamic Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic…

  9. Inherit the Policy: A Sociocultural Approach to Understanding Evolutionary Biology Policy in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    South Carolina biology Indicator 5.6 calls for students to "Summarize ways that scientists use data from a variety of sources to investigate and critically analyze aspects of evolutionary theory" (South Carolina Department of Education, 2006). Levinson and Sutton (2001) offered a sociocultural approach to policy that considers cultural…

  10. Evolutionary game theory for physical and biological scientists. I. Training and validating population dynamics equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D

    2014-08-06

    Failure to understand evolutionary dynamics has been hypothesized as limiting our ability to control biological systems. An increasing awareness of similarities between macroscopic ecosystems and cellular tissues has inspired optimism that game theory will provide insights into the progression and control of cancer. To realize this potential, the ability to compare game theoretic models and experimental measurements of population dynamics should be broadly disseminated. In this tutorial, we present an analysis method that can be used to train parameters in game theoretic dynamics equations, used to validate the resulting equations, and used to make predictions to challenge these equations and to design treatment strategies. The data analysis techniques in this tutorial are adapted from the analysis of reaction kinetics using the method of initial rates taught in undergraduate general chemistry courses. Reliance on computer programming is avoided to encourage the adoption of these methods as routine bench activities.

  11. Toward an integrated evolutionary understanding of the mammalian placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, Derek E.

    2012-01-01

    The placenta is fundamentally important for the success of pregnancy. Disruptions outside the normal range for placenta function can result in pregnancy failure and other complications. The anatomy of the placenta varies greatly across mammals, as do key parameters in pregnancy such as neonatal body mass, length of gestation and number of offspring per pregnancy. An accurate understanding of the evolution of the mammalian placenta will require at minimum the integration of anatomical, developmental, physiological, genetic, and epigenetic data. Currently available data suggest that the placenta is a dynamic organ that has evolved rapidly in a lineage specific manner. Examination of the placenta from the perspective of human evolution shows that many anatomical features of the human placenta are relatively conserved. Despite the anatomical conservation of the human placenta there are many recently evolved placenta specific genes (e.g. CGB, LGALS13, GH2) that are important in the development and function of the human placenta. Other mammalian genomes have also evolved specific suites of placenta-expressed genes. For example, rodents have undergone expansions of the cathepsin and prolactin families, and artiodactyls have expanded their suite of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. In addition to lineage-specific birth-and-death of gene family members, the pattern of imprinted loci varies greatly among species. Taken together, these studies suggest that a strategy reliant upon the sampling of placenta expressed and imprinted genes from a phylogenetically diverse range of species is appropriate for unraveling the conserved and derived aspects of placenta biology. PMID:21306776

  12. Generalized topological spaces in evolutionary theory and combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Bärbel M R; Stadler, Peter F

    2002-01-01

    The search spaces in combinatorial chemistry as well as the sequence spaces underlying (molecular) evolution are conventionally thought of as graphs. Recombination, however, implies a nongraphical structure of the combinatorial search spaces. These structures, and their implications for search process itself, are heretofore not well understood in general. In this contribution we review a very general formalism from point set topology and discuss its application to combinatorial search spaces, fitness landscapes, evolutionary trajectories, and artificial chemistries.

  13. Toward a synthesis of developmental biology with evolutionary theory and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Ralf J; Mayer, Melanie G

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary conservation of developmental mechanisms is a truism in biology, but few attempts have been made to integrate development with evolutionary theory and ecology. To work toward such a synthesis, we summarize studies in the nematode model Pristionchus pacificus, focusing on the development of the dauer, a stress-resistant, alternative larval stage. Integrative approaches combining molecular and genetic principles of development with natural variation and ecological studies in wild populations have identified a key role for a developmental switch mechanism in dauer development and evolution, one that involves the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12. DAF-12 is a crucial regulator and convergence point for different signaling inputs, and its function is conserved among free-living and parasitic nematodes. Furthermore, DAF-12 is the target of regulatory loops that rely on novel or fast-evolving components to control the intraspecific competition of dauer larvae. We propose developmental switches as paradigms for understanding the integration of development, evolution, and ecology at the molecular level.

  14. Theories about evolutionary origins of human hepatitis B virus in primates and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez Souza

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Some hypotheses about the evolutionary origins of human hepatitis B virus have been debated since the ‘90s. One theory suggested a New World origin because of the phylogenetic co-segregation between some New World human hepatitis B virus genotypes F and H and woolly monkey human hepatitis B virus in basal sister-relationship to the Old World non-human primates and human hepatitis B virus variants. Another theory suggests an Old World origin of human hepatitis B virus, and that it would have been spread following prehistoric human migrations over 100,000 years ago. A third theory suggests a co-speciation of human hepatitis B virus in non-human primate hosts because of the proximity between the phylogeny of Old and New World non-human primate and their human hepatitis B virus variants. The importance of further research, related to the subject in South American wild fauna, is paramount and highly relevant for understanding the origin of human hepatitis B virus.

  15. Theories about evolutionary origins of human hepatitis B virus in primates and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez; Drexler, Jan Felix; Lima, Renato Santos de; Rosário, Mila de Oliveira Hughes Veiga do; Netto, Eduardo Martins

    2014-01-01

    The human hepatitis B virus causes acute and chronic hepatitis and is considered one of the most serious human health issues by the World Health Organization, causing thousands of deaths per year. There are similar viruses belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family that infect non-human primates and other mammals as well as some birds. The majority of non-human primate virus isolates were phylogenetically close to the human hepatitis B virus, but like the human genotypes, the origins of these viruses remain controversial. However, there is a possibility that human hepatitis B virus originated in primates. Knowing whether these viruses might be common to humans and primates is crucial in order to reduce the risk to humans. To review the existing knowledge about the evolutionary origins of viruses of the Hepadnaviridae family in primates. This review was done by reading several articles that provide information about the Hepadnaviridae virus family in non-human primates and humans and the possible origins and evolution of these viruses. The evolutionary origin of viruses of the Hepadnaviridae family in primates has been dated back to several thousand years; however, recent analyses of genomic fossils of avihepadnaviruses integrated into the genomes of several avian species have suggested a much older origin of this genus. Some hypotheses about the evolutionary origins of human hepatitis B virus have been debated since the '90s. One theory suggested a New World origin because of the phylogenetic co-segregation between some New World human hepatitis B virus genotypes F and H and woolly monkey human hepatitis B virus in basal sister-relationship to the Old World non-human primates and human hepatitis B virus variants. Another theory suggests an Old World origin of human hepatitis B virus, and that it would have been spread following prehistoric human migrations over 100,000 years ago. A third theory suggests a co-speciation of human hepatitis B virus in non-human primate

  16. Methodological problems in evolutionary biology. XI. Optimal foraging theory revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vd Steen, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Optimality theory, particularly optimal foraging theory (OFT), has spurned controversy over decades. I argue that the controversy results from conceptual pitfalls. The focus in this article is on pitfalls underlying the concept of constraint. Constraints in OFT models are a means to distinguish

  17. The Normative Foundations of Emancipatory Theory: Evolutionary versus Pragmatic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Explains the significance of Habermasian theory for the emancipatory tradition, analyzes certain problems of the theory and argues that an expanded dialogue with American pragmatism would strengthen both its sociological and its normative dimensions. Raises critical questions about pseudohistorical, normative justification in general sociological…

  18. Strategic analysis in evolutionary genetics and the theory of games

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the theory of games. PETER HAMMERSTEIN*. Institute for Theoretical Biology, Humboldt University Berlin,. Invalidenstrasse 43, D-10115 Berlin, Germany ... John Maynard Smith; game theory; evolutionarily stable strategy; population genetics; genetic constraint; phenotypic ..... redundant activation signalling paths. If one of ...

  19. A Study of Driver’s Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers’ route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver’s route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver’s route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  20. A study of driver's route choice behavior based on evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Ji, Yanjie; Du, Muqing; Deng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers' route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver's route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver's route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  1. Research on Evolutionary Mechanism of Agile Supply Chain Network via Complex Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Ru Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper establishes the evolutionary mechanism model of agile supply chain network by means of complex network theory which can be used to describe the growth process of the agile supply chain network and analyze the complexity of the agile supply chain network. After introducing the process and the suitability of taking complex network theory into supply chain network research, the paper applies complex network theory into the agile supply chain network research, analyzes the complexity of agile supply chain network, presents the evolutionary mechanism of agile supply chain network based on complex network theory, and uses Matlab to simulate degree distribution, average path length, clustering coefficient, and node betweenness. Simulation results show that the evolution result displays the scale-free property. It lays the foundations of further research on agile supply chain network based on complex network theory.

  2. Testing Two Evolutionary Theories of Human Aging with DNA Methylation Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Chloe; McRae, Allan F; Powell, Joseph E; Wiener, Howard W; Aslibekyan, Stella; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Absher, Devin M; Arnett, Donna K; Montgomery, Grant W; Visscher, Peter M; Cutler, David J; Conneely, Karen N

    2017-12-01

    The evolutionary theories of mutation accumulation (MA) and disposable soma (DS) provide possible explanations for the existence of human aging. To better understand the relative importance of these theories, we devised a test to identify MA- and DS-consistent sites across the genome using familial DNA methylation data. Two key characteristics of DNA methylation allowed us to do so. First, DNA methylation exhibits distinct and widespread changes with age, with numerous age-differentially-methylated sites observed across the genome. Second, many sites show heritable DNA methylation patterns within families. We extended heritability predictions of MA and DS to DNA methylation, predicting that MA-consistent age-differentially-methylated sites will show increasing heritability with age, while DS-consistent sites will show the opposite. Variance components models were used to test for changing heritability of methylation with age at 48,601 age-differentially-methylated sites across the genome in 610 individuals from 176 families. Of these, 102 sites showed significant MA-consistent increases in heritability with age, while 2266 showed significant DS-consistent decreases in heritability. These results suggest that both MA and DS play a role in explaining aging and aging-related changes, and that while the majority of DNA methylation changes observed in aging are consistent with epigenetic drift, targeted changes exist and may mediate effects of aging-related genes. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. Understanding grounded theory: principles and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K; Biley, F

    1997-05-01

    Grounded theory was developed initially by Glaser and Strauss as a means to enable the 'systematic discovery of theory from the data of social research' and was first presented in The Discovery of Grounded Theory'( 1 ). The methodology was developed in response to the overwhelming belief held by positivist thinkers that qualitative research was unscientific because it rejected controlled experiments and appeared to embrace interpretation.

  4. Objective reduction in evolutionary multiobjective optimization: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhoff, Dimo; Zitzler, Eckart

    2009-01-01

    Many-objective problems represent a major challenge in the field of evolutionary multiobjective optimization--in terms of search efficiency, computational cost, decision making, visualization, and so on. This leads to various research questions, in particular whether certain objectives can be omitted in order to overcome or at least diminish the difficulties that arise when many, that is, more than three, objective functions are involved. This study addresses this question from different perspectives. First, we investigate how adding or omitting objectives affects the problem characteristics and propose a general notion of conflict between objective sets as a theoretical foundation for objective reduction. Second, we present both exact and heuristic algorithms to systematically reduce the number of objectives, while preserving as much as possible of the dominance structure of the underlying optimization problem. Third, we demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed objective reduction method in the context of both decision making and search for a radar waveform application as well as for well-known test functions.

  5. Doves and hawks in economics revisited: An evolutionary quantum game theory based analysis of financial crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauske, Matthias; Kunz, Jennifer; Bernius, Steffen; König, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    The last financial and economic crisis demonstrated the dysfunctional long-term effects of aggressive behaviour in financial markets. Yet, evolutionary game theory predicts that under the condition of strategic dependence a certain degree of aggressive behaviour remains within a given population of agents. However, as a consequence of the financial crisis, it would be desirable to change the “rules of the game” in a way that prevents the occurrence of any aggressive behaviour and thereby also the danger of market crashes. The paper picks up this aspect. Through the extension of the well-known hawk-dove game by a quantum approach, we can show that dependent on entanglement, evolutionary stable strategies also can emerge, which are not predicted by the classical evolutionary game theory and where the total economic population uses a non-aggressive quantum strategy.

  6. Evolutionary Theory and Economic Policy with Reference to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Gowdy

    2005-01-01

    The policy recommendations of most economists are driven by a view of economic reality embodied in Walrasian general equilibrium theory. Ironically, the Walrasian system has been all but abandoned by leading economic theorists. It has been demonstrated to be theoretically untenable, its basic assumptions about human decision making have been empirically falsified, and it consistently makes poor predictions of economic behavior. The current revolution in welfare economics offers opportunities ...

  7. Commentary: Should Gender Differences Be Included in the Evolutionary Upgrade to Cognitive Load Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Recent upgrades to cognitive load theory suggest that evolutionary processes have shaped the way that working memory processes cultural and social information. According to evolutionarily educational psychologists, some forms of information are processed with lower working memory loads than other forms. The former are evolutionarily salient and…

  8. Evolutionary Theory in Undergraduate Biology Programs at Lebanese Universities: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaardingerbroek, Barend; Hachem-El-Masri, Yasmine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gauge the profile of evolutionary theory in Lebanese undergraduate biology programs. The research focused mainly on the views of university biology department heads, given that they are the people who exercise the most direct influence over their departments' ethos. An Australasian sample was chosen as a reference…

  9. Ikhwan al-Safa, Ibn Miskawayh, Biruni and Biological Evolutionary Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miandari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory contains two major ideas: common descent and natural selection. This theory goes back to mid-nineteenth century and Darwin. Some scholars have claimed that this theory had been given by Muslims such as Ikhwan al-Safa, Ibn Miskawayh, and Biruni. Among contemporary scholars who agree with this claim are Ebrahimzadeh, Motahari, and Azkaei. But there are scholars who disagree with this claim, among them are Nasr and Falatouri. Nasr says that those Muslims believed in "the great chain of being." And Falatouri says especifically about Biruni that he believed in some kind of gradual evolution, not a Darwinian one. In this paper we first explain these opinions. Then to clarify what is at stake, evolutionary theory and the great chain of being will be described. Criticisms and suggestions come next. We argue that because evolutinary theory was the result of gradual changes of the great chain of being, there is some truth in the ideas of the first camp. And because the great chain that those Muslims hold was of the type of that of Ibn Sina, there is also some truth in the ideas of the second camp. At last we claim that the great chain of the type that Mulla Sadra maintained is consistent with evolutionary theory.

  10. Testing evolutionary theories of aging in wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Anne M; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2005-06-01

    Classic theories for the evolution of senescence predict that rates of aging should be highest in populations in which extrinsic mortality is high. This predication is called into question in new work by David Reznick and co-workers, who found that guppies Poecilia reticulata derived from natural populations with high levels of predation live the longest in the laboratory. This study illustrates that the effect of mortality on aging might depend on how we define aging, and on the particular cause of increased mortality.

  11. In Darwin's Footsteps: An On and Off-Campus Approach to Teaching Evolutionary Theory and Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillie, Lynn; Bizub, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    The study of evolutionary theory and fieldwork in animal behavior is enriched when students leave the classroom so they may test their abilities to think and act like scientists. This article describes a course on evolutionary theory and animal behavior that blended on campus learning with field experience in the United States and in Ecuador and…

  12. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  13. Applying ecological and evolutionary theory to cancer: a long and winding road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Frédéric; Fisher, Daniel; Fort, Philippe; Marie, Jean-Pierre; Daoust, Simon; Roche, Benjamin; Grunau, Christoph; Cosseau, Céline; Mitta, Guillaume; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Rousset, François; Lassus, Patrice; Assenat, Eric; Grégoire, Damien; Missé, Dorothée; Lorz, Alexander; Billy, Frédérique; Vainchenker, William; Delhommeau, François; Koscielny, Serge; Itzykson, Raphael; Tang, Ruoping; Fava, Fanny; Ballesta, Annabelle; Lepoutre, Thomas; Krasinska, Liliana; Dulic, Vjekoslav; Raynaud, Peggy; Blache, Philippe; Quittau-Prevostel, Corinne; Vignal, Emmanuel; Trauchessec, Hélène; Perthame, Benoit; Clairambault, Jean; Volpert, Vitali; Solary, Eric; Hibner, Urszula; Hochberg, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, cancer has been described as a process of Darwinian evolution, with somatic cellular selection and evolution being the fundamental processes leading to malignancy and its many manifestations (neoangiogenesis, evasion of the immune system, metastasis, and resistance to therapies). Historically, little attention has been placed on applications of evolutionary biology to understanding and controlling neoplastic progression and to prevent therapeutic failures. This is now beginning to change, and there is a growing international interest in the interface between cancer and evolutionary biology. The objective of this introduction is first to describe the basic ideas and concepts linking evolutionary biology to cancer. We then present four major fronts where the evolutionary perspective is most developed, namely laboratory and clinical models, mathematical models, databases, and techniques and assays. Finally, we discuss several of the most promising challenges and future prospects in this interdisciplinary research direction in the war against cancer.

  14. Evolutionary theory of ageing and the problem of correlated Gompertz parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Oskar; Missov, Trifon I

    2016-11-07

    The Gompertz mortality model is often used to evaluate evolutionary theories of ageing, such as the Medawar-Williams' hypothesis that high extrinsic mortality leads to faster ageing. However, fits of the Gompertz mortality model to data often find the opposite result that mortality is negatively correlated with the rate of ageing. This negative correlation has been independently discovered in several taxa and is known in actuarial studies of ageing as the Strehler-Mildvan correlation. We examine the role of mortality selection in determining late-life variation in susceptibility to death, which has been suggested to be the cause of this negative correlation. We demonstrate that fixed-frailty models that account for heterogeneity in frailty do not remove the correlation and that the correlation is an inherent statistical property of the Gompertz distribution. Linking actuarial and biological rates of ageing will continue to be a pressing challenge, but the Strehler-Mildvan correlation itself should not be used to diagnose any biological, physiological, or evolutionary process. These findings resolve some key tensions between theory and data that affect evolutionary and biological studies of ageing and mortality. Tests of evolutionary theories of ageing should include direct measures of physiological performance or condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modern evolutionary mechanics theories and resolving the programmed/non-programmed aging controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Theodore C

    2014-10-01

    Modern programmed (adaptive) theories of biological aging contend that organisms including mammals have generally evolved mechanisms that purposely limit their lifespans in order to obtain an evolutionary benefit. Modern non-programmed theories contend that mammal aging generally results from natural deteriorative processes, and that lifespan differences between species are explained by differences in the degree to which they resist those processes. Originally proposed in the 19th century, programmed aging in mammals has historically been widely summarily rejected as obviously incompatible with the mechanics of the evolution process. However, relatively recent and continuing developments described here have dramatically changed this situation, and programmed mammal aging now has a better evolutionary basis than non-programmed aging. Resolution of this issue is critically important to medical research because the two theories predict that very different biological mechanisms are ultimately responsible for age-related diseases and conditions.

  16. Fibrous tissues growth and remodeling: Evolutionary micro-mechanical theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanir, Yoram

    2017-10-01

    Living fibrous tissues are composite materials having the unique ability to adapt their size, shape, structure and mechanical properties in response to external loading. This adaptation, termed growth and remodeling (G&R), occurs throughout life and is achieved via cell-induced turnover of tissue constituents where some are degraded and new ones are produced. Realistic mathematical modeling of G&R provides insight into the basic processes, allows for hypotheses testing, and constitutes an essential tool for establishing clinical thresholds of pathological remodeling and for the production of tissue substitutes aimed to achieve target structure and properties. In this study, a general 3D micro-mechanical multi-scale theory of G&R in fibrous tissue was developed which connects between the evolution of the tissue structure and properties, and the underlying mechano-biological turnover events of its constituents. This structural approach circumvents a fundamental obstacle in modeling growth mechanics since the growth motion is not bijective. The model was realized for a flat tissue under two biaxial external loadings using data-based parameter values. The predictions show close similarity to characteristics of remodeled adult tissue including its structure, anisotropic and non-linear mechanical properties, and the onset of in situ pre-strain and pre-stress. The results suggest that these important features of living fibrous tissues evolve as they grow.

  17. Perinatal sadness among Shuar women: support for an evolutionary theory of psychic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Edward H; Barrett, H Clark

    2007-03-01

    Psychiatry faces an internal contradiction in that it regards mild sadness and low mood as normal emotions, yet when these emotions are directed toward a new infant, it regards them as abnormal. We apply parental investment theory, a widely used framework from evolutionary biology, to maternal perinatal emotions, arguing that negative emotions directed toward a new infant could serve an important evolved function. If so, then under some definitions of psychiatric disorder, these emotions are not disorders. We investigate the applicability of parental investment theory to maternal postpartum emotions among Shuar mothers. Shuar mothers' conceptions of perinatal sadness closely match predictions of parental investment theory.

  18. Understanding Feedback: A Learning Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review's scope also includes feedback in classrooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory adhered to. Findings show that regardless of the…

  19. Understanding feedback: A learning theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review’s scope also includes feedback in class- rooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory

  20. Study on Cooperative Mechanism of Prefabricated Producers Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyao Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good cooperation mechanism is an important guarantee for the advancement of industrialization construction. To strengthen the partnership between producers, we analyze the behavior evolution trend of both parties using an evolutionary game theory. Based on the original model, the mechanism of coordination and cooperation between prefabricated producers is explained under the condition of punishment and incentive. The results indicate that stable evolutionary strategies exist under both cooperation and noncooperation, and the evolutionary results are influenced by the initial proportion of both decision-making processes. The government can support the production enterprises to establish a solid partnership through effective punishment and incentive mechanisms to reduce the initial cost in the supply chain of prefabricated construction, resulting in a win-win situation.

  1. [[Epigenetic theory of evolution as a basis for a new evolutionary synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodnitskiĭ, D L

    2001-01-01

    There are two evolutionary theories in current biology--"modern synthesis" and "epigenetic theory". The first one is based on the assumption of hard correspondence between phenotypes and genotypes. For this reason the theory of modern synthesis is principally incompatible with developmental biology. In contrast, the epigenetic theory considers evolution as a process of environmentally controlled transformation of ontogeny. It is compatible with observed embryological regularities and used as a basis for wider evolutionary synthesis combining both Darwinian and Lamarckian mechanisms. Individual developmental system can generate only a constrained number of morphologic states. This circumstance is a nomogenetic component of the epigenetic theory: the same morphosis simultaneously appears in a number of individuals in response to environmental influence. Since the initial phenotypic change occurs to be not random, a meeting of a female and a male with the same morphosis is an event of sufficiently high probability. The nomogenetic component allows to get over the famous argument of F. Jenkin--a problem that is still difficult to explain in terms of the theory of modern synthesis.

  2. Understanding Social Networks: Theories, Concepts, and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadushin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Despite the swift spread of social network concepts and their applications and the rising use of network analysis in social science, there is no book that provides a thorough general introduction for the serious reader. "Understanding Social Networks" fills that gap by explaining the big ideas that underlie the social network phenomenon.…

  3. [Debating Darwin in Spain: anti-Darwinian evolutionary theories and modern synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Centenary celebrations of Darwin's birth were held in Valencia and Lorca in 1909. Fifty years later, the meetings and the publications of the Spanish scientific community on the occasion of the centenary of the publication of "On the Origin of Species" showed a proximity and an acceptance towards the theses of the evolutionary modern synthesis. During the first half of the 20th century, there were controversies in Spain between the Darwinian and anti-Darwinian positions. In addition, non-Darwinian evolutionary theories were spread and supported. Though the assumptions of the synthetic theory of evolution were soon known, commented and discussed, the majority trend in the 40s and 50s was to incline towards finalist and vitalist interpretations of evolution.

  4. Evolutionary game theory and the evolution of neuron populations, ring rates, and decisionmaking

    OpenAIRE

    Yosef Cohen; Jeremiah Cohen

    2009-01-01

    Ours, is the first application of dynamical evolutionary games to decision making in neuroscience. Firing neurons are the players. The strategy is their firing rate. Neurons with equal firing rates define a population. The neurons do not know the rules of the game, they do not know what the reward is, they are not required to be rational and they do not even know they are playing the game. Interactions are inhibitory. The theory confirms experimental data about decision making in vision: (i )...

  5. An Evolutionary Comparison of the Handicap Principle and Hybrid Equilibrium Theories of Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Patrick; Zollman, Kevin J S

    2015-01-01

    The handicap principle has come under significant challenge both from empirical studies and from theoretical work. As a result, a number of alternative explanations for honest signaling have been proposed. This paper compares the evolutionary plausibility of one such alternative, the "hybrid equilibrium," to the handicap principle. We utilize computer simulations to compare these two theories as they are instantiated in Maynard Smith's Sir Philip Sidney game. We conclude that, when both types of communication are possible, evolution is unlikely to lead to handicap signaling and is far more likely to result in the partially honest signaling predicted by hybrid equilibrium theory.

  6. An Evolutionary Comparison of the Handicap Principle and Hybrid Equilibrium Theories of Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Patrick; Zollman, Kevin J. S.

    2015-01-01

    The handicap principle has come under significant challenge both from empirical studies and from theoretical work. As a result, a number of alternative explanations for honest signaling have been proposed. This paper compares the evolutionary plausibility of one such alternative, the “hybrid equilibrium,” to the handicap principle. We utilize computer simulations to compare these two theories as they are instantiated in Maynard Smith’s Sir Philip Sidney game. We conclude that, when both types of communication are possible, evolution is unlikely to lead to handicap signaling and is far more likely to result in the partially honest signaling predicted by hybrid equilibrium theory. PMID:26348617

  7. Evolutionary quantum game theory in the context of socio-economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanauske, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of socio-economic systems depend on the interdependent decision processes of its underlying system components. The mathematical model to describe the strategic decision of players within a socio-economic game is ''game theory''. ''Quantum game theory'' is a mathematical and conceptual amplification of classical game theory. The space of all conceivable decision paths is extended from the purely rational, measurable space in the Hilbert-space of complex numbers - which is the mathematical space where quantum theory is formulated. By the concept of a potential entanglement of the imaginary quantum strategy parts, it is possible to include cooperate decision path, caused by cultural or moral standards. If this strategy entanglement is large enough, then additional Nash equilibria can occur, previously present dominant strategies could become nonexistent and new evolutionary stable strategies do appear for some game classes. Within this PhD thesis the main results of classical and quantum games are summarized and all of the possible game classes of evolutionary (2 player)-(2 strategy) games are extended to quantum games. It is shown that the quantum extension of classical games with an underlying dilemma-like structure give different results, if the strength of strategic entanglement is above a certain barrier. After the German summary and the introduction paper, five different applications of the theory are discussed within the thesis. (orig.)

  8. The firm as a Darwin machine: How generalized Darwinism can further the development of an evolutionary theory of economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelhorst, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The debate on the ontological foundations of evolutionary economics has reached a stage where discussions of these foundations are increasingly leading to the conclusion that there is a need to move from considerations of the general principles of evolutionary theory to the development of concrete

  9. Towards a general, population-level understanding of eco-evolutionary change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Coulson, T.

    2013-01-01

    Most population-level studies of eco-evolutionary dynamics assume that evolutionary change occurs in response to ecological change and vice versa. However, a growing number of papers report simultaneous ecological and evolutionary change, suggesting that the eco-evolutionary consequences of

  10. The limits of weak selection and large population size in evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Allen, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a mathematical approach to studying how social behaviors evolve. In many recent works, evolutionary competition between strategies is modeled as a stochastic process in a finite population. In this context, two limits are both mathematically convenient and biologically relevant: weak selection and large population size. These limits can be combined in different ways, leading to potentially different results. We consider two orderings: the [Formula: see text] limit, in which weak selection is applied before the large population limit, and the [Formula: see text] limit, in which the order is reversed. Formal mathematical definitions of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits are provided. Applying these definitions to the Moran process of evolutionary game theory, we obtain asymptotic expressions for fixation probability and conditions for success in these limits. We find that the asymptotic expressions for fixation probability, and the conditions for a strategy to be favored over a neutral mutation, are different in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits. However, the ordering of limits does not affect the conditions for one strategy to be favored over another.

  11. Geometrical envelopes: Extending graphical contemporary niche theory to communities and eco-evolutionary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffel, Thomas; Daufresne, Tanguy; Massol, François; Klausmeier, Christopher A

    2016-10-21

    Contemporary niche theory is a powerful structuring framework in theoretical ecology. First developed in the context of resource competition, it has been extended to encompass other types of regulating factors such as shared predators, parasites or inhibitors. A central component of contemporary niche theory is a graphical approach popularized by Tilman that illustrates the different outcomes of competition along environmental gradients, like coexistence and competitive exclusion. These food web modules have been used to address species sorting in community ecology, as well as adaptation and coexistence on eco-evolutionary time scales in adaptive dynamics. Yet, the associated graphical approach has been underused so far in the evolutionary context. In this paper, we provide a rigorous approach to extend this graphical method to a continuum of interacting strategies, using the geometrical concept of the envelope. Not only does this approach provide community and eco-evolutionary bifurcation diagrams along environmental gradients, it also sheds light on the similarities and differences between those two perspectives. Adaptive dynamics naturally merges with this ecological framework, with a close correspondence between the classification of singular strategies and the geometrical properties of the envelope. Finally, this approach provides an integrative tool to study adaptation between levels of organization, from the individual to the ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding driver behavior at grade crossings through signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report uses signal detection theory (SDT) to model motorists decisionmaking strategies at grade crossings in order to understand the factors that influence such decisions and to establish a framework for evaluating the impact of proposed coun...

  13. Understanding driver behavior at grade crossings through signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    This report uses signal detection theory (SDT) to model motorists decisionmaking strategies at grade crossings in order to understand the factors that influence such decisions and to establish a framework for evaluating the impact of proposed coun...

  14. Combining evolutionary game theory and network theory to analyze human cooperation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scatà, Marialisa; Di Stefano, Alessandro; La Corte, Aurelio; Liò, Pietro; Catania, Emanuele; Guardo, Ermanno; Pagano, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the evolutionary dynamics of human cooperation in a social network. • We introduce the concepts of “Critical Mass”, centrality measure and homophily. • The emergence of cooperation is affected by the spatial choice of the “Critical Mass”. • Our findings show that homophily speeds up the convergence towards cooperation. • Centrality and “Critical Mass” spatial choice partially offset the impact of homophily. - Abstract: As natural systems continuously evolve, the human cooperation dilemma represents an increasingly more challenging question. Humans cooperate in natural and social systems, but how it happens and what are the mechanisms which rule the emergence of cooperation, represent an open and fascinating issue. In this work, we investigate the evolution of cooperation through the analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of behaviours within the social network, where nodes can choose to cooperate or defect following the classical social dilemmas represented by Prisoner’s Dilemma and Snowdrift games. To this aim, we introduce a sociological concept and statistical estimator, “Critical Mass”, to detect the minimum initial seed of cooperators able to trigger the diffusion process, and the centrality measure to select within the social network. Selecting different spatial configurations of the Critical Mass nodes, we highlight how the emergence of cooperation can be influenced by this spatial choice of the initial core in the network. Moreover, we target to shed light how the concept of homophily, a social shaping factor for which “birds of a feather flock together”, can affect the evolutionary process. Our findings show that homophily allows speeding up the diffusion process and make quicker the convergence towards human cooperation, while centrality measure and thus the Critical Mass selection, play a key role in the evolution showing how the spatial configurations can create some hidden patterns, partially

  15. Sex differences, evolutionary psychology and biosocial theory : Biosocial theory is no alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxen, Marc F.

    Biosocial theory claims that evolution did not design human psychological sex differences. It argues that these are the result of the allocation of men and women into different sex roles, based on physical differences. This article argues, however, that biosocial theory is not an alternative to

  16. Attachment within life history theory: an evolutionary perspective on individual differences in attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepsenwol, Ohad; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2018-03-15

    In this article, we discuss theory and research on how individual differences in adult attachment mediate the adaptive calibration of reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation. We first present an integration of attachment theory and life history theory. Then, we discuss how early harsh and/or unpredictable environments may promote insecure attachment by hampering parents' ability to provide sensitive and reliable care to their children. Finally, we discuss how, in the context of harsh and/or unpredictable environments, different types of insecure attachment (i.e. anxiety and avoidance) may promote evolutionary adaptive reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  18. A test of evolutionary policing theory with data from human societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kümmerli

    Full Text Available In social groups where relatedness among interacting individuals is low, cooperation can often only be maintained through mechanisms that repress competition among group members. Repression-of-competition mechanisms, such as policing and punishment, seem to be of particular importance in human societies, where cooperative interactions often occur among unrelated individuals. In line with this view, economic games have shown that the ability to punish defectors enforces cooperation among humans. Here, I examine a real-world example of a repression-of-competition system, the police institutions common to modern human societies. Specifically, I test evolutionary policing theory by comparing data on policing effort, per capita crime rate, and similarity (used as a proxy for genetic relatedness among citizens across the 26 cantons of Switzerland. This comparison revealed full support for all three predictions of evolutionary policing theory. First, when controlling for policing efforts, crime rate correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens. This is in line with the prediction that high similarity results in higher levels of cooperative self-restraint (i.e. lower crime rates because it aligns the interests of individuals. Second, policing effort correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens, supporting the prediction that more policing is required to enforce cooperation in low-similarity societies, where individuals' interests diverge most. Third, increased policing efforts were associated with reductions in crime rates, indicating that policing indeed enforces cooperation. These analyses strongly indicate that humans respond to cues of their social environment and adjust cheating and policing behaviour as predicted by evolutionary policing theory.

  19. Network coding and evolutionary theory for performance enhancement in wireless cooperative clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Militano, Leonardo; Fitzek, Frank; Iera, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    , portions of a file to be successively exchanged among all cluster members over wireless local area network (WLAN) links. Besides showing the beneficial effects of cooperation, this paper also focuses on the performance enhancement that can be achieved when using the network coding paradigm, whose...... deployment revealed to be very effective in the depicted scenario. The selection of the nodes acting as sources for file injection into the cluster is a critical aspect for the effectiveness of the whole system. Therefore, the potentialities offered by the evolutionary theory applied to the specific problem...

  20. Homosexual mating preferences from an evolutionary perspective: sexual selection theory revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobrogge, Kyle L; Perkins, Patrick S; Baker, Jessica H; Balcer, Kristen D; Breedlove, S Marc; Klump, Kelly L

    2007-10-01

    Studies in evolutionary psychology and sexual selection theory show that heterosexual men prefer younger mating partners than heterosexual women in order to ensure reproductive success. However, previous research has generally not examined differences in mating preferences as a function of sexual orientation or the type of relationship sought in naturalistic settings. Given that homosexual men seek partners for reasons other than procreation, they may exhibit different mating preferences than their heterosexual counterparts. Moreover, mating preferences may show important differences depending on whether an individual is seeking a long-term versus a short-term relationship. The purpose of the present study was to examine these issues by comparing partner preferences in terms of age and relationship type between homosexual and heterosexual men placing internet personal advertisements. Participants included 439 homosexual and 365 heterosexual men who placed internet ads in the U.S. or Canada. Ads were coded for the participant's age, relationship type (longer-term or short-term sexual encounter) sought, and partner age preferences. Significantly more homosexual than heterosexual men sought sexual encounters, although men (regardless of sexual orientation) seeking sexual encounters preferred a significantly wider age range of partners than men seeking longer-term relationships. These findings suggest that partner preferences are independent of evolutionary drives to procreate, since both types of men preferred similar ages in their partners. In addition, they highlight the importance of examining relationship type in evolutionary studies of mating preferences, as men's partner preferences show important differences depending upon the type of relationship sought.

  1. Analyzing Students’ Level of Understanding on Kinetic Theory of Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhuda, T.; Rusdiana, D.; Setiawan, W.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to analysis students’ level of understanding on gas kinetic theory. The method used is descriptive analytic with 32 students at the 11th grade of one high school in Bandung city as a sample. The sample was taken using random sampling technique. Data collection tool used is an essay test with 23 questions. The instrument was used to identify students’ level of understanding and was judged by four expert judges before it was employed, from 27 questions become to 23 questions, for data collection. Questions used are the conceptual understanding including the competence to explain, extrapolate, translate and interpret. Kinetic theory of gases section that was tested includes ideal gas law, kinetic molecular theory and equipartition of energy. The result shows from 0-4 level of understanding, 19% of the students have partial understanding on the 3th level and 81% of them have partial understanding with a specific misconception on 2th level. For the future research, it is suggested to overcome these conceptual understanding with an Interactive Lecture Demonstrations teaching model and coupled with some teaching materials based on multi-visualization because kinetic theory of gases is a microscopic concept.

  2. Molecular evolutionary rates are not correlated with temperature and latitude in Squamata: an exception to the metabolic theory of ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Jonathan; Loiseau, Oriane; Romiguier, Jonathan; Salamin, Nicolas

    2016-05-20

    The metabolic theory of ecology stipulates that molecular evolutionary rates should correlate with temperature and latitude in ectothermic organisms. Previous studies have shown that most groups of vertebrates, such as amphibians, turtles and even endothermic mammals, have higher molecular evolutionary rates in regions where temperature is high. However, the association between molecular evolutionary rates and temperature or latitude has never been tested in Squamata. We used a large dataset including the spatial distributions and environmental variables for 1,651 species of Squamata and compared the contrast of the rates of molecular evolution with the contrast of temperature and latitude between sister species. Using major axis regressions and a new algorithm to choose independent sister species pairs, we found that temperature and absolute latitude were not associated with molecular evolutionary rates. This absence of association in such a diverse ectothermic group questions the mechanisms explaining current pattern of species diversity in Squamata and challenges the presupposed universality of the metabolic theory of ecology.

  3. Evolutionary Naturalism and the Logical Structure of Valuation: The Other Side of Error Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Richards

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On one standard philosophical position adopted by evolutionary naturalists, human ethical systems are nothing more than evolutionary adaptations that facilitate social behavior. Belief in an absolute moral foundation is therefore in error. But evolutionary naturalism, by its commitment to the basic valutional concept of fitness, reveals another, logical error: standard conceptions of value in terms of simple predication and properties are mistaken. Valuation has instead, a relational structure that makes reference to respects, subjects and environments. This relational nature is illustrated by the analogy commonly drawn between value and color. Color perception, as recognized by the ecological concept, is relational and dependent on subject and environment. In a similar way, value is relational and dependent on subject and environment. This makes value subjective, but also objective in that it is grounded on facts about mattering. At bottom, values are complex relational facts. The view presented here, unlike other prominent relational and naturalistic conceptions of value, recognizes the full range of valuation in nature. The advantages of this relational conception are first, that it gets valuation right; second, it provides a framework to better explain and understand valuation in all its varieties and patterns.

  4. Evolutionary Naturalism and the Logical Structure of Valuation: The Other Side of Error Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Richards

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On one standard philosophical position adopted by evolutionary naturalists, human ethical systems are nothing more than evolutionary adaptations that facilitate social behavior. Belief in an absolute moral foundation is therefore in error. But evolutionary naturalism, by its commitment to the basic valutional concept of fitness, reveals another, logical error: standard conceptions of value in terms of simple predication and properties are mistaken. Valuation has instead, a relational structure that makes reference to respects, subjects and environments. This relational nature is illustrated by the analogy commonly drawn between value and color. Color perception, as recognized by the ecological concept, is relational and dependent on subject and environment. In a similar way, value is relational and dependent on subject and environment. This makes value subjective, but also objective in that it is grounded on facts about mattering. At bottom, values are complex relational facts. The view presented here, unlike other prominent relational and naturalistic conceptions of value, recognizes the full range of valuation in nature. The advantages of this relational conception are first, that it gets valuation right; second, it provides a framework to better explain and understand valuation in all its varieties and patterns.

  5. Evolutionary Game Theory-Based Collaborative Sensing Model in Emergency CRAHNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasirekha GVK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Game theory has been a tool of choice for modeling dynamic interactions between autonomous systems. Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs constituted of autonomous wireless nodes are a natural fit for game theory-based modeling. The game theory-based model is particularly suitable for “collaborative spectrum sensing” where each cognitive radio senses the spectrum and shares the results with other nodes such that the targeted sensing accuracy is achieved. Spectrum sensing in CRAHNs, especially when used in emergency scenarios such as disaster management and military applications, needs to be not only accurate and resource efficient, but also adaptive to the changing number of users as well as signal-to-noise ratios. In addition, spectrum sensing mechanism must also be proactive, fair, and tolerant to security attacks. Existing work in collaborative spectrum sensing has mostly been confined to resource efficiency in static systems using request-based reactive sensing resulting in high latencies. In this paper, evolutionary game theory (EGT is used to model the behavior of the emergency CRAHNS, providing an efficient model for collaborative spectrum sensing. The resulting implementation model is adaptive to the changes in its environment such as signal-to-noise ratio and number of users in the network. The analytical and simulation models presented validate the system design and the desired performance.

  6. Ecosystemic Complexity Theory of Conflict: Understanding the Fog of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Greg; Lassiter, Pamela S.; Hill, Michele B.; Moore, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors often engage in conflict mediation in professional practice. A model for understanding the complex and subtle nature of conflict resolution is presented. The ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict is offered to assist practitioners in navigating the fog of conflict. Theoretical assumptions are discussed with implications for clinical…

  7. The Emergence of New Industries in Space: An evolutionary understanding of industry emergence from a geographical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Anne Nygaard

    of this paper to contribute to the recently emerged evolutionary thinking in economic geography (Boschma, Martin 2007, Boschma, Frenken 2006, Grabher 2009) with a conceptual clarification of industry emergence. The paper first reviews the definition of emerging industries as it appears in the field...... of industrial organisational economics (Porter 1980) and in evolutionary economics (Dosi 1984, Nelson, Winter 1982). Second, the paper discusses the particularity that characterizes the temporal scope of industry emergence and it is claimed that the literature often lack attention to periods that precede......, the paper draws on the recent conceptual framework of ‘regional branching’ that is able to capture the emergence of new industries in their geographical context. Regional branching builds on the evolutionary understanding of industry development and modifies previous understanding of industry emergence...

  8. Gender Inequality in Interaction--An Evolutionary Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcroft, Rosemary L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I argue that evolutionary theorizing can help sociologists and feminists better understand gender inequality. Evolutionary theory explains why control of the sexuality of young women is a priority across most human societies both past and present. Evolutionary psychology has extended our understanding of male violence against…

  9. Quantifying the Role of Homophily in Human Cooperation Using Multiplex Evolutionary Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Alessandro; Scatà, Marialisa; La Corte, Aurelio; Liò, Pietro; Catania, Emanuele; Guardo, Ermanno; Pagano, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Nature shows as human beings live and grow inside social structures. This assumption allows us to explain and explore how it may shape most of our behaviours and choices, and why we are not just blindly driven by instincts: our decisions are based on more complex cognitive reasons, based on our connectedness on different spaces. Thus, human cooperation emerges from this complex nature of social network. Our paper, focusing on the evolutionary dynamics, is intended to explore how and why it happens, and what kind of impact is caused by homophily among people. We investigate the evolution of human cooperation using evolutionary game theory on multiplex. Multiplexity, as an extra dimension of analysis, allows us to unveil the hidden dynamics and observe non-trivial patterns within a population across network layers. More importantly, we find a striking role of homophily, as the higher the homophily between individuals, the quicker is the convergence towards cooperation in the social dilemma. The simulation results, conducted both macroscopically and microscopically across the network layers in the multiplex, show quantitatively the role of homophily in human cooperation.

  10. Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy : A Critical Analysis of Kevin MacDonald's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofnas, Nathan

    2018-03-10

    MacDonald argues that a suite of genetic and cultural adaptations among Jews constitutes a "group evolutionary strategy." Their supposed genetic adaptations include, most notably, high intelligence, conscientiousness, and ethnocentrism. According to this thesis, several major intellectual and political movements, such as Boasian anthropology, Freudian psychoanalysis, and multiculturalism, were consciously or unconsciously designed by Jews to (a) promote collectivism and group continuity among themselves in Israel and the diaspora and (b) undermine the cohesion of gentile populations, thus increasing the competitive advantage of Jews and weakening organized gentile resistance (i.e., anti-Semitism). By developing and promoting these movements, Jews supposedly played a necessary role in the ascendancy of liberalism and multiculturalism in the West. While not achieving widespread acceptance among evolutionary scientists, this theory has been enormously influential in the burgeoning political movement known as the "alt-right." Examination of MacDonald's argument suggests that he relies on systematically misrepresented sources and cherry-picked facts. It is argued here that the evidence favors what is termed the "default hypothesis": Because of their above-average intelligence and concentration in influential urban areas, Jews in recent history have been overrepresented in all major intellectual and political movements, including conservative movements, that were not overtly anti-Semitic.

  11. Evolutionary transitions between sex-determining mechanisms: a review of theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, G S

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary diversity of sex-determining mechanisms found in nature is thought to have arisen by the addition, modification or replacement of regulators at the upstream end of the sex-determining pathway. The spread of a novel regulator of sex determination can manifest itself by an evolutionary transition between environmental and genetic sex determination, for example, or between male and female heterogamety. Both kinds of transition have occurred frequently in the course of evolution. In this paper, various evolutionary forces acting on sex-determining mutations that can bias transitions in one direction or the other are reviewed. Furthermore, the adaptive significance of the main modes of sex determination are discussed, and the common principle underlying ultimate explanations for environmental sex determination, genetic sex determination and maternal control over sex determination in the offspring are highlighted. Most of the current theory concentrates on the population-genetic aspects of sex determination transitions, using models that do not reflect the developmental mechanisms involved in sex determination. However, the increasing availability of molecular data creates opportunities for the future development of mechanistic models that will further clarify how selection and developmental architecture interact to direct the evolution of sex determination genes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Future directions in the ontogeny of plant defence: understanding the evolutionary causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kasey E; Boege, Karina

    2017-04-01

    Plant defence often varies by orders of magnitude as plants develop from the seedling to juvenile to mature and senescent stages. Ontogenetic trajectories can involve switches among defence traits, leading to complex shifting phenotypes across plant lifetimes. While considerable research has characterised ontogenetic trajectories for now hundreds of plant species, we still lack a clear understanding of the molecular, ecological and evolutionary factors driving these patterns. In this study, we identify several non-mutually exclusive factors that may have led to the evolution of ontogenetic trajectories in plant defence, including developmental constraints, resource allocation costs, multi-functionality of defence traits, and herbivore selection pressure. Evidence from recent physiological studies is highlighted to shed light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation and activation of these developmental changes. Overall, our goal is to promote new research avenues that would provide evidence for the factors that have promoted the evolution of this complex lifetime phenotype. Future research focusing on the questions and approaches identified here will advance the field and shed light on why defence traits shift so dramatically across plant ontogeny, a widespread but poorly understood ecological pattern. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. T.C. Pratt’s self-control/life-course theory – a proposal of evolutionary development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Florek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the theory of self-control/life-course by T. C. Pratt. Its advantages were presented as a synthesis of two important theoretical trends in criminology. Important deficits in this theory have also been pointed out. Above all, however, the argument was presented that Pratt’s proposal could be supplemented and developed within an evolutionary approach. The authors presented some detailed proposals in this respect and pointed to the potential directions and key assumptions of the project to further explain the relationship between the level of self-control and the evolutionary perspective on the course of an individual’s life.

  14. Phenotypic engineering of sperm-production rate confirms evolutionary predictions of sperm competition theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekii, Kiyono; Vizoso, Dita B; Kuales, Georg; De Mulder, Katrien; Ladurner, Peter; Schärer, Lukas

    2013-04-22

    Sperm production is a key male reproductive trait and an important parameter in sperm competition theory. Under sperm competition, paternity success is predicted to depend strongly on male allocation to sperm production. Furthermore, because sperm production is inherently costly, individuals should economize in sperm expenditure, and conditional adjustment of the copulation frequency according to their sperm availability may be expected. However, experimental studies showing effects of sperm production on mating behaviour and paternity success have so far been scarce, mainly because sperm production is difficult to manipulate directly in animals. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to manipulate sperm-production rate, by employing dose-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) of a spermatogenesis-specific gene, macbol1, in the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We demonstrate (i) that our novel dose-dependent RNAi approach allows us to induce high variability in sperm-production rate; (ii) that a reduced sperm-production rate is associated with a decreased copulation frequency, suggesting conditional adjustment of mating behaviour; and (iii) that both sperm production and copulation frequency are important determinants of paternity success in a competitive situation, as predicted by sperm competition theory. Our study clearly documents the potential of phenotypic engineering via dose-dependent RNAi to test quantitative predictions of evolutionary theory.

  15. Debating Darwin in Spain: anti-darwinian evolutionary theories and modern synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelayo, Francisco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Centenary celebrations of Darwin’s birth were held in Valencia and Lorca in 1909. Fifty years later, the meetings and the publications of the Spanish scientific community on the occasion of the centenary of the publication of On the Origin of Species showed a proximity and an acceptance towards the theses of the evolutionary modern synthesis. During the first half of the 20th century, there were controversies in Spain between the Darwinian and anti-Darwinian positions. In addition, non-Darwinian evolutionary theories were spread and supported. Though the assumptions of the synthetic theory of evolution were soon known, commented and discussed, the majority trend in the 40’s and 50’s was to incline towards finalist and vitalist interpretations of evolution.

    En 1909 se celebraron en Valencia y Lorca homenajes a Darwin en el primer centenario del nacimiento. Medio siglo después, los actos y publicaciones de la comunidad científica española con motivo del centenario de la publicación de On the Origin of Species, coincidieron en mostrar una cercanía y aceptación hacia las tesis de la síntesis moderna de la evolución. Durante la primera mitad del siglo XX, en España se desarrollaron controversias entre las posturas darwinistas y antidarwinistas y se difundieron y apoyaron teorías evolucionistas no darwinistas. Aunque pronto se conocieron, comentaron y discutieron los supuestos de la teoría sintética de la evolución, la tendencia mayoritaria en los años cuarenta y cincuenta fue inclinarse por interpretaciones vitalistas y finalistas.

  16. How to Love the Bomb: Trying to solve the prisoner's dilemma with evolutionary game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castela, Vasco

    Economists traditionally see altruistic acts as irrational. However, in the Prisoner's Dilemma, a rational player can do worse than a moral player. The rules of the game imply that one cannot defend one's best interest if one tries to. Game theory has struggled to explain how an agent could have access to the strategically best outcome without behaving irrationally, but with little success. Can a complex systems approach do better?. Peter Danielson, using Evolutionary Game Theory, has avoided some of the assumptions of Game Theory by using a complexity approach to reframe the problem, and offers a solution of sorts. According to Danielson, the foundations of altruism are mechanisms of deterrence that rely on credible threat - we are nice for fear of retaliation. He is both right and wrong. It will be argued that utilitarian, consequentialist principles must have been at work to create the conditions for altruistic acts to be performed. It is wrong to expect, however, that the same reasons are the reasons for action. In order for a model of genuine altruism to be possible, an extra cog must be inserted in the mechanism of causality in order to distance moral action from its strategic advantages. If emotions fulfill this role, we can tell a story in which it is rational to act on altruistic motivations and materially advantageous to hold such motivations. Moral sentiments can be seen as a tool designed by evolution to help optimize cooperation in a social environment. The proposed account integrates the Humean theory of motivation with Robert Frank's commitment model and Aristotle's views on moral education, keeping an adequate story of how it can be in our material interest to be moral without having to renounce to the existence of genuine acts of altruism.

  17. Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

    2013-06-01

    This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not.

  18. Evolutionary Mechanisms for Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2013-01-01

    Robert Weiss (1973) conceptualized loneliness as perceived social isolation, which he described as a gnawing, chronic disease without redeeming features. On the scale of everyday life, it is understandable how something as personally aversive as loneliness could be regarded as a blight on human existence. However, evolutionary time and evolutionary forces operate at such a different scale of organization than we experience in everyday life that personal experience is not sufficient to understand the role of loneliness in human existence. Research over the past decade suggests a very different view of loneliness than suggested by personal experience, one in which loneliness serves a variety of adaptive functions in specific habitats. We review evidence on the heritability of loneliness and outline an evolutionary theory of loneliness, with an emphasis on its potential adaptive value in an evolutionary timescale. PMID:24067110

  19. Integrative Assessment of Evolutionary Theory Acceptance and Knowledge Levels of Biology Undergraduate Students from a Brazilian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Gustavo Medina; Bobrowski, Vera Lucia

    2018-01-01

    The integrative role that Evolutionary theory plays within Biology is recognised by most scientific authors, as well as in governmental education policies, including Brazilian policies. However, teaching and learning evolution seems problematic in many countries, and Brazil is among those. Many factors may affect teachers' and students'…

  20. Arabidopsis CPR5 is a senescence-regulatory gene with pleiotropic functions as predicted by the evolutionary theory of senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Hai-Chun; Anderson, Lisa; Sturre, Marcel J. G.; Hille, Jacques; Dijkwel, Paul P.

    2007-01-01

    Arabidopsis CPR5 is a senescence-regulatory gene with pleiotropic functions as predicted by the evolutionary theory of senescence Hai-Chun Jing1,2, Lisa Anderson3, Marcel J.G. Sturre1, Jacques Hille1 and Paul P. Dijkwel1,* 1Molecular Biology of Plants, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and

  1. The puzzle of partial migration: Adaptive dynamics and evolutionary game theory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leenheer, Patrick; Mohapatra, Anushaya; Ohms, Haley A; Lytle, David A; Cushing, J M

    2017-01-07

    We consider the phenomenon of partial migration which is exhibited by populations in which some individuals migrate between habitats during their lifetime, but others do not. First, using an adaptive dynamics approach, we show that partial migration can be explained on the basis of negative density dependence in the per capita fertilities alone, provided that this density dependence is attenuated for increasing abundances of the subtypes that make up the population. We present an exact formula for the optimal proportion of migrants which is expressed in terms of the vital rates of migrant and non-migrant subtypes only. We show that this allocation strategy is both an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) as well as a convergence stable strategy (CSS). To establish the former, we generalize the classical notion of an ESS because it is based on invasion exponents obtained from linearization arguments, which fail to capture the stabilizing effects of the nonlinear density dependence. These results clarify precisely when the notion of a "weak ESS", as proposed in Lundberg (2013) for a related model, is a genuine ESS. Secondly, we use an evolutionary game theory approach, and confirm, once again, that partial migration can be attributed to negative density dependence alone. In this context, the result holds even when density dependence is not attenuated. In this case, the optimal allocation strategy towards migrants is the same as the ESS stemming from the analysis based on the adaptive dynamics. The key feature of the population models considered here is that they are monotone dynamical systems, which enables a rather comprehensive mathematical analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrating mechanistic organism--environment interactions into the basic theory of community and evolutionary ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskett, Marissa L

    2012-03-15

    This paper presents an overview of how mechanistic knowledge of organism-environment interactions, including biomechanical interactions of heat, mass and momentum transfer, can be integrated into basic theoretical population biology through mechanistic functional responses that quantitatively describe how organisms respond to their physical environment. Integrating such functional responses into simple community and microevolutionary models allows scaling up of the organism-level understanding from biomechanics both ecologically and temporally. For community models, Holling-type functional responses for predator-prey interactions provide a classic example of the functional response affecting qualitative model dynamics, and recent efforts are expanding analogous models to incorporate environmental influences such as temperature. For evolutionary models, mechanistic functional responses dependent on the environment can serve as fitness functions in both quantitative genetic and game theoretic frameworks, especially those concerning function-valued traits. I present a novel comparison of a mechanistic fitness function based on thermal performance curves to a commonly used generic fitness function, which quantitatively differ in their predictions for response to environmental change. A variety of examples illustrate how mechanistic functional responses enhance model connections to biologically relevant traits and processes as well as environmental conditions and therefore have the potential to link theoretical and empirical studies. Sensitivity analysis of such models can provide biologically relevant insight into which parameters and processes are important to community and evolutionary responses to environmental change such as climate change, which can inform conservation management aimed at protecting response capacity. Overall, the distillation of detailed knowledge or organism-environment interactions into mechanistic functional responses in simple population

  3. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and cancer therapy: An evolutionary game theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Heydar; Kebriaei, Hamed; Veisi, Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Inactivation of alleles in tumor suppressor genes (TSG) is one of the important issues resulting in evolution of cancerous cells. In this paper, the evolution of healthy, one and two missed allele cells is modeled using the concept of evolutionary game theory and replicator dynamics. The proposed model also takes into account the interaction rates of the cells as designing parameters of the system. Different combinations of the equilibrium points of the parameterized nonlinear system is studied and categorized into some cases. In each case, the interaction rates' values are suggested in a way that the equilibrium points of the replicator dynamics are located on an appropriate region of the state space. Based on the suggested interaction rates, it is proved that the system doesn't have any undesirable interior equilibrium point as well. Therefore, the system will converge to the desirable region, where there is a scanty level of cancerous cells. In addition, the proposed conditions for interaction rates guarantee that, when a trajectory of the system reaches the boundaries, then it will stay there forever which is a desirable property since the equilibrium points have been already located on the boundaries, appropriately. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the suggestions in the elimination of the cancerous cells in different scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Incorporating an ontogenetic perspective into evolutionary theory of sexual size dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chun-Chia; Iwasa, Yoh; Nakazawa, Takefumi

    2016-02-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) describes divergent body sizes of adult males and females. While SSD has traditionally been explained by sexual and fecundity selection, recent advances in physiology and developmental biology emphasize that SSD would occur proximately because of sexual differences in ontogenetic growth trajectories (i.e., growth rate and duration). Notably, these ontogenetic traits are subject to energetic or time constraints and thus traded off with fitness components (e.g., survival and reproduction). To elucidate the importance of such ontogenetic trade-offs in the evolution of SSD, we developed a new theoretical framework by extending quantitative genetic models for the evolution of sexual dimorphism in which we reinterpret the trait as body size and reformulate sex-specific fitness in size-dependent manners. More specifically, we assume that higher growth rate or longer growth duration leads to larger body size and higher reproductive success but incurs the cost of lower survivorship or shorter reproduction period. We illustrate how two sexes would optimize ontogenetic growth trajectories in sex-specific ways and exhibit divergent body sizes. The present framework provides new insights into the evolutionary theory of SSD and predictions for empirical testing. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Genes, communities & invasive species: understanding the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, J J; Thrall, P H; Ericson, L

    2013-08-01

    Reciprocal interactions between hosts and pathogens drive ecological, epidemiological and co-evolutionary trajectories, resulting in complex patterns of diversity at population, species and community levels. Recent results confirm the importance of negative frequency-dependent rather than 'arms-race' processes in the evolution of individual host-pathogen associations. At the community level, complex relationships between species abundance and diversity dampen or alter pathogen impacts. Invasive pathogens challenge these controls reflecting the earliest stages of evolutionary associations (akin to arms-race) where disease effects may be so great that they overwhelm the host's and community's ability to respond. Viewing these different stabilization/destabilization phases as a continuum provides a valuable perspective to assessment of the role of genetics and ecology in the dynamics of both natural and invasive host-pathogen associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Landscape community genomics: understanding eco-evolutionary processes in complex environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic factors influencing evolutionary processes are often categorically lumped into interactions that are environmentally (e.g., climate, landscape) or community-driven, with little consideration of the overlap or influence of one on the other. However, genomic variation is strongly influenced by complex and dynamic interactions between environmental and community effects. Failure to consider both effects on evolutionary dynamics simultaneously can lead to incomplete, spurious, or erroneous conclusions about the mechanisms driving genomic variation. We highlight the need for a landscape community genomics (LCG) framework to help to motivate and challenge scientists in diverse fields to consider a more holistic, interdisciplinary perspective on the genomic evolution of multi-species communities in complex environments.

  7. Phenotypic Novelty in EvoDevo: The Distinction Between Continuous and Discontinuous Variation and Its Importance in Evolutionary Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tim; Müller, Gerd B

    The introduction of novel phenotypic structures is one of the most significant aspects of organismal evolution. Yet the concept of evolutionary novelty is used with drastically different connotations in various fields of research, and debate exists about whether novelties represent features that are distinct from standard forms of phenotypic variation. This article contrasts four separate uses for novelty in genetics, population genetics, morphology, and behavioral science, before establishing how novelties are used in evolutionary developmental biology (EvoDevo). In particular, it is detailed how an EvoDevo-specific research approach to novelty produces insight distinct from other fields, gives the concept explanatory power with predictive capacities, and brings new consequences to evolutionary theory. This includes the outlining of research strategies that draw attention to productive areas of inquiry, such as threshold dynamics in development. It is argued that an EvoDevo-based approach to novelty is inherently mechanistic, treats the phenotype as an agent with generative potential, and prompts a distinction between continuous and discontinuous variation in evolutionary theory.

  8. Extended inclusive fitness theory: synergy and assortment drives the evolutionary dynamics in biology and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    W.D. Hamilton's Inclusive Fitness Theory explains the conditions that favor the emergence and maintenance of social cooperation. Today we know that these include direct and indirect benefits an agent obtains by its actions, and through interactions with kin and with genetically unrelated individuals. That is, in addition to kin-selection, assortation or homophily, and social synergies drive the evolution of cooperation. An Extended Inclusive Fitness Theory (EIFT) synthesizes the natural selection forces acting on biological evolution and on human economic interactions by assuming that natural selection driven by inclusive fitness produces agents with utility functions that exploit assortation and synergistic opportunities. This formulation allows to estimate sustainable cost/benefit threshold ratios of cooperation among organisms and/or economic agents, using existent analytical tools, illuminating our understanding of the dynamic nature of society, the evolution of cooperation among kin and non-kin, inter-specific cooperation, co-evolution, symbioses, division of labor and social synergies. EIFT helps to promote an interdisciplinary cross fertilization of the understanding of synergy by, for example, allowing to describe the role for division of labor in the emergence of social synergies, providing an integrated framework for the study of both, biological evolution of social behavior and economic market dynamics. Another example is a bio-economic understanding of the motivations of terrorists, which identifies different forms of terrorism.

  9. Modern application of evolutionary theory to psychology: key concepts and clarifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Aaron T; Shackelford, Todd K

    2006-01-01

    Darwinian selection has become the centerpiece of biology, and in the past few decades many psychologists and anthropologists have recognized the value of using an evolutionary perspective to guide their work. With a focus on evolved psychological mechanisms and associated information processing features, evolutionary psychology has risen as a compelling and fruitful approach to the study of human psychology and behavior. In this article we review the instrument of evolution: natural selection, the products of evolution, and the impact of evolutionary thinking on modern psychological science. We conclude that as prejudicial barriers are overcome, as more evolutionary psychological work is conducted, and as hypothesized psychological mechanisms are substantiated in other disciplines, evolutionary psychology will emerge as the metatheory for psychology.

  10. An application of evolutionary game theory to social dilemmas: the traveler's dilemma and the minimum effort coordination game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swami Iyer

    Full Text Available The Traveler's Dilemma game and the Minimum Effort Coordination game are two social dilemmas that have attracted considerable attention due to the fact that the predictions of classical game theory are at odds with the results found when the games are studied experimentally. Moreover, a direct application of deterministic evolutionary game theory, as embodied in the replicator dynamics, to these games does not explain the observed behavior. In this work, we formulate natural variants of these two games as smoothed continuous-strategy games. We study the evolutionary dynamics of these continuous-strategy games, both analytically and through agent-based simulations, and show that the behavior predicted theoretically is in accord with that observed experimentally. Thus, these variants of the Traveler's Dilemma and the Minimum Effort Coordination games provide a simple resolution of the paradoxical behavior associated with the original games.

  11. An application of evolutionary game theory to social dilemmas: the traveler's dilemma and the minimum effort coordination game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Swami; Reyes, Joshua; Killingback, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Traveler's Dilemma game and the Minimum Effort Coordination game are two social dilemmas that have attracted considerable attention due to the fact that the predictions of classical game theory are at odds with the results found when the games are studied experimentally. Moreover, a direct application of deterministic evolutionary game theory, as embodied in the replicator dynamics, to these games does not explain the observed behavior. In this work, we formulate natural variants of these two games as smoothed continuous-strategy games. We study the evolutionary dynamics of these continuous-strategy games, both analytically and through agent-based simulations, and show that the behavior predicted theoretically is in accord with that observed experimentally. Thus, these variants of the Traveler's Dilemma and the Minimum Effort Coordination games provide a simple resolution of the paradoxical behavior associated with the original games.

  12. An Application of Evolutionary Game Theory to Social Dilemmas: The Traveler's Dilemma and the Minimum Effort Coordination Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Swami; Reyes, Joshua; Killingback, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Traveler's Dilemma game and the Minimum Effort Coordination game are two social dilemmas that have attracted considerable attention due to the fact that the predictions of classical game theory are at odds with the results found when the games are studied experimentally. Moreover, a direct application of deterministic evolutionary game theory, as embodied in the replicator dynamics, to these games does not explain the observed behavior. In this work, we formulate natural variants of these two games as smoothed continuous-strategy games. We study the evolutionary dynamics of these continuous-strategy games, both analytically and through agent-based simulations, and show that the behavior predicted theoretically is in accord with that observed experimentally. Thus, these variants of the Traveler's Dilemma and the Minimum Effort Coordination games provide a simple resolution of the paradoxical behavior associated with the original games. PMID:24709851

  13. Radioprotection of the environment: on the context of biodiversity and evolutionary theory. A reference organism has no genetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cedervall, Bjoern

    2008-01-01

    The recent efforts to define a basis for radioprotection of the environment include some concepts and ideas related to various endpoints which need a clarification. This paper focuses on the biodiversity concept and the context of individuals of a species as well as that of the species as a gene pool. A major problem with the ambition to radioprotect biodiversity is the concept 'reference organism' which has no genetic properties and therefore is in contradiction with a real biological species. Biodiversity and the species (gene pool) concept are, just as any other areas of biology, integral parts of evolutionary theory. With the reference organism as a basis no meaningful reasoning can take place which relates data on radioactivity levels or mutations to potential effects on populations or biodiversity. It is therefore suggested that the national and international bodies involved in radioprotection of the environment take advantage of evolutionary theory as a reference frame. (author)

  14. Current and potential roles of archaeology in the development of cultural evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Raven

    2018-04-05

    Archaeology has much to contribute to the study of cultural evolution. Empirical data at archaeological timescales are uniquely well suited to tracking rates of cultural change, detecting phylogenetic signals among groups of artefacts, and recognizing long-run effects of distinct cultural transmission mechanisms. Nonetheless, these are still relatively infrequent subjects of archaeological analysis and archaeology's potential to help advance our understanding of cultural evolution has thus far been largely unrealized. Cultural evolutionary models developed in other fields have been used to interpret patterns identified in archaeological records, which in turn provides independent tests of these models' predictions, as demonstrated here through a study of late Prehistoric stone projectile points from the US Southwest. These tests may not be straightforward, though, because archaeological data are complex, often representing events aggregated over many years (or centuries or millennia), while processes thought to drive cultural evolution (e.g. biased learning) operate on much shorter timescales. To fulfil archaeology's potential, we should continue to develop models specifically tailored to archaeological circumstances, and explore ways to incorporate the rich contextual data produced by archaeological research.This article is part of the theme issue 'Bridging cultural gaps: interdisciplinary studies in human cultural evolution'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  15. Rethinking the transmission gap: What behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology mean for attachment theory: A comment on Verhage et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Boutwell, Brian B; Barnes, J C; Shackelford, Todd K

    2017-01-01

    Traditional attachment theory posits that attachment in infancy and early childhood is the result of intergenerational transmission of attachment from parents to offspring. Verhage et al. (2016) present meta-analytic evidence addressing the intergenerational transmission of attachment between caregivers and young children. In this commentary, we argue that their appraisal of the behavioral genetics literature is incomplete. The suggested research focus on shared environmental effects may dissuade the pursuit of profitable avenues of research and may hinder progress in attachment theory. Specifically, further research on the "transmission gap" will continue to limit our understanding of attachment etiology. We discuss recent theoretical developments from an evolutionary psychological perspective that can provide a valuable framework to account for the existing behavioral genetic data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Evolutionary game theory and social learning can determine how vaccine scares unfold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Chris T; Bhattacharyya, Samit

    2012-01-01

    Immunization programs have often been impeded by vaccine scares, as evidenced by the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) autism vaccine scare in Britain. A "free rider" effect may be partly responsible: vaccine-generated herd immunity can reduce disease incidence to such low levels that real or imagined vaccine risks appear large in comparison, causing individuals to cease vaccinating. This implies a feedback loop between disease prevalence and strategic individual vaccinating behavior. Here, we analyze a model based on evolutionary game theory that captures this feedback in the context of vaccine scares, and that also includes social learning. Vaccine risk perception evolves over time according to an exogenously imposed curve. We test the model against vaccine coverage data and disease incidence data from two vaccine scares in England & Wales: the whole cell pertussis vaccine scare and the MMR vaccine scare. The model fits vaccine coverage data from both vaccine scares relatively well. Moreover, the model can explain the vaccine coverage data more parsimoniously than most competing models without social learning and/or feedback (hence, adding social learning and feedback to a vaccine scare model improves model fit with little or no parsimony penalty). Under some circumstances, the model can predict future vaccine coverage and disease incidence--up to 10 years in advance in the case of pertussis--including specific qualitative features of the dynamics, such as future incidence peaks and undulations in vaccine coverage due to the population's response to changing disease incidence. Vaccine scares could become more common as eradication goals are approached for more vaccine-preventable diseases. Such models could help us predict how vaccine scares might unfold and assist mitigation efforts.

  17. Genes are information, so information theory is coming to the aid of evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, William B

    2015-11-01

    Speciation is central to evolutionary biology, and to elucidate it, we need to catch the early genetic changes that set nascent taxa on their path to species status (Via 2009). That challenge is difficult, of course, for two chief reasons: (i) serendipity is required to catch speciation in the act; and (ii) after a short time span with lingering gene flow, differentiation may be low and/or embodied only in rare alleles that are difficult to sample. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Smouse et al. (2015) have noted that optimal assessment of differentiation within and between nascent species should be robust to these challenges, and they identified a measure based on Shannon's information theory that has many advantages for this and numerous other tasks. The Shannon measure exhibits complete additivity of information at different levels of subdivision. Of all the family of diversity measures ('0' or allele counts, '1' or Shannon, '2' or heterozygosity, F(ST) and related metrics) Shannon's measure comes closest to weighting alleles by their frequencies. For the Shannon measure, rare alleles that represent early signals of nascent speciation are neither down-weighted to the point of irrelevance, as for level 2 measures, nor up-weighted to overpowering importance, as for level 0 measures (Chao et al. 2010, )2015. Shannon measures have a long history in population genetics, dating back to Shannon's PhD thesis in 1940 (Crow 2001), but have received only sporadic attention, until a resurgence of interest in the last ten years, as reviewed briefly by Smouse et al. (2015). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Understanding Jordanian Psychiatric Nurses’ Smoking Behaviors: A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun M. Aldiabat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs. Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking.

  19. Evolutionary context for understanding and manipulating plant responses to past, present and future atmospheric [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Lau, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in atmospheric [CO2] is a prominent feature of the environmental history over which vascular plants have evolved. Periods of falling and low [CO2] in the palaeo-record appear to have created selective pressure for important adaptations in modern plants. Today, rising [CO2] is a key component of anthropogenic global environmental change that will impact plants and the ecosystem goods and services they deliver. Currently, there is limited evidence that natural plant populations have evolved in response to contemporary increases in [CO2] in ways that increase plant productivity or fitness, and no evidence for incidental breeding of crop varieties to achieve greater yield enhancement from rising [CO2]. Evolutionary responses to elevated [CO2] have been studied by applying selection in controlled environments, quantitative genetics and trait-based approaches. Findings to date suggest that adaptive changes in plant traits in response to future [CO2] will not be consistently observed across species or environments and will not be large in magnitude compared with physiological and ecological responses to future [CO2]. This lack of evidence for strong evolutionary effects of elevated [CO2] is surprising, given the large effects of elevated [CO2] on plant phenotypes. New studies under more stressful, complex environmental conditions associated with climate change may revise this view. Efforts are underway to engineer plants to: (i) overcome the limitations to photosynthesis from today's [CO2] and (ii) benefit maximally from future, greater [CO2]. Targets range in scale from manipulating the function of a single enzyme (e.g. Rubisco) to adding metabolic pathways from bacteria as well as engineering the structural and functional components necessary for C4 photosynthesis into C3 leaves. Successfully improving plant performance will depend on combining the knowledge of the evolutionary context, cellular basis and physiological integration of plant responses to varying

  20. Understanding the nuclear controversy: An application of cultural theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaff, Shashi van de

    2016-01-01

    The need for a secure and sustainable energy future has become firmly entrenched on the global political agenda. Governments worldwide are seeking solutions that will ensure security of their energy supplies, while reducing carbon emissions in the fight against climate change. Advocates of nuclear power have reframed the technology as the most reliable, cost-effective and immediate solution to both of these policy problems, and predicted the emergence of a 'nuclear renaissance’. However, there is little evidence to date that suggests a nuclear renaissance has actually taken place. Public opinion polling demonstrates that many remain unconvinced of the need for nuclear power. This paper uses Cultural Theory as a heuristic to understand why the arguments for a nuclear renaissance have been largely unsuccessful. It argues that the failure of nuclear advocates to engage with a wider cross-section of world-views has prevented the controversy surrounding nuclear power from being resolved, and the nuclear renaissance from becoming a reality. In doing so, this paper builds upon a growing recognition of the contribution that social science research can make to understanding public acceptance of energy policy choices. - Highlights: • There is little evidence of a nuclear renaissance taking place in Western Europe or North America. • Public opinion on nuclear power continues to be deeply divided. • Pro-nuclear arguments are dominated by a particular cultural rationality. • A broader range of cultural perspectives needs to be recognised for the nuclear debate to progress.

  1. Understanding the Intersections of Paradigm, Meta-Theory, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Researchers rely on theories to guide the research process. Theories provide directions in formulating research questions and in the interpretation of findings. The choice of theory to guide inquiry must relate to research paradigm and corresponding meta-theory. However, many beginning scholars experience difficulty in ...

  2. An Evolutionary Game Theory Model of Revision-Resistant Motivations and Strategic Reasoning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeLancey, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Strong reciprocity and other forms of cooperation with non-kin in large groups and in one-time social interactions is difficult to explain with traditional economic or with simple evolutionary accounts...

  3. Temperature dependence of evolutionary diversification: differences between two contrasting model taxa support the metabolic theory of ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machac, A; Zrzavý, J; Smrckova, J; Storch, D

    2012-12-01

    Biodiversity patterns are largely determined by variation of diversification rates across clades and geographic regions. Although there are multiple reasons for this variation, it has been hypothesized that metabolic rate is the crucial driver of diversification of evolutionary lineages. According to the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE), metabolic rate - and consequently speciation - is driven mainly by body size and environmental temperature. As environmental temperature affects metabolic rate in ecto- and endotherms differently, its impact on diversification rate should also differ between the two types of organisms. Employing two independent approaches, we analysed correlates of speciation rates and, ultimately, net diversification rates for two contrasting taxa: plethodontid salamanders and carnivoran mammals. Whereas in the ectothermic plethodontids speciation rates positively correlated with environmental temperature, in the endothermic carnivorans a reverse, negative correlation was detected. These findings comply with predictions of the MTE and suggest that similar geographic patterns of biodiversity across taxa (e.g. ecto- and endotherms) might have been generated by different ecological and evolutionary processes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Female orgasm rates are largely independent of other traits: implications for "female orgasmic disorder" and evolutionary theories of orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsch, Brendan P; Miller, Geoffrey F; Bailey, J Michael; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-08-01

    The criteria for "female orgasmic disorder" (FOD) assume that low rates of orgasm are dysfunctional, implying that high rates are functional. Evolutionary theories about the function of female orgasm predict correlations of orgasm rates with sexual attitudes and behavior and other fitness-related traits. To test hypothesized evolutionary functions of the female orgasm. We examined such correlations in a community sample of 2,914 adult female Australian twins who reported their orgasm rates during masturbation, intercourse, and other sexual activities, and who completed demographic, personality, and sexuality questionnaires. Orgasm rates during intercourse, other sex, and masturbation. Although orgasm rates showed high variance across women and substantial heritability, they were largely phenotypically and genetically independent of other important traits. We found zero to weak phenotypic correlations between all three orgasm rates and all other 19 traits examined, including occupational status, social class, educational attainment, extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, impulsiveness, childhood illness, maternal pregnancy stress, marital status, political liberalism, restrictive attitudes toward sex, libido, lifetime number of sex partners, risky sexual behavior, masculinity, orientation toward uncommitted sex, age of first intercourse, and sexual fantasy. Furthermore, none of the correlations had significant genetic components. These findings cast doubt on most current evolutionary theories about female orgasm's adaptive functions, and on the validity of FOD as a psychiatric construct. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Evolutionary Nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Robert L

    2017-05-01

    Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as "maladaptive." In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic) adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or evolutionary tradeoffs. Evolutionary adaptation to a terrestrial environment resulted in a vulnerable energy-consuming renal tubule and a hypoxic, hyperosmolar microenvironment. Natural selection favors successful energy investment strategy: energy is allocated to maintenance of nephron integrity through reproductive years, but this declines with increasing senescence after ~40 years of age. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include restricted fetal growth or preterm birth (life history tradeoff resulting in fewer nephrons), evolutionary selection for APOL1 mutations (that provide resistance to trypanosome infection, a tradeoff), and modern life experience (Western diet mismatch leading to diabetes and hypertension). Current advances in genomics, epigenetics, and developmental biology have revealed proximate causes of kidney disease, but attempts to slow kidney disease remain elusive. Evolutionary medicine provides a complementary approach by addressing ultimate causes of kidney disease. Marked variation in nephron number at birth, nephron heterogeneity, and changing susceptibility to kidney injury throughout life history are the result of evolutionary processes. Combined application of molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), developmental programming and life history theory may yield new strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  6. Through an understanding of thermoluminescence phenomena from Einstein radiation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto H, B.; Vazquez C, G.A.; Azorin, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work we made an outline of Einstein's radiation theory and its connection with elementary TL theory. We did not pretend in this paper to discuss advanced TL theories in these terms. Our main goal was to explore the simplest relationships among radiation theory, such as, transition probabilities and mean time-lives with kinetic parameters of the Randall-Wilkins model. (Author)

  7. Intention recognition, commitment and their roles in the evolution of cooperation from artificial intelligence techniques to evolutionary game theory models

    CERN Document Server

    Han, The Anh

    2013-01-01

    This original and timely monograph describes a unique self-contained excursion that reveals to the readers the roles of two basic cognitive abilities, i.e. intention recognition and arranging commitments, in the evolution of cooperative behavior. This book analyses intention recognition, an important ability that helps agents predict others’ behavior, in its artificial intelligence and evolutionary computational modeling aspects, and proposes a novel intention recognition method. Furthermore, the book presents a new framework for intention-based decision making and illustrates several ways in which an ability to recognize intentions of others can enhance a decision making process. By employing the new intention recognition method and the tools of evolutionary game theory, this book introduces computational models demonstrating that intention recognition promotes the emergence of cooperation within populations of self-regarding agents. Finally, the book describes how commitment provides a pathway to the evol...

  8. Understanding Technology Adoption: Theory and Future Directions for Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Evan T.

    2009-01-01

    How and why individuals adopt innovations has motivated a great deal of research. This article examines individuals' computing adoption processes through the lenses of three adoption theories: Rogers's innovation diffusion theory, the Concerns-Based Adoption Model, the Technology Acceptance Model, and the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of…

  9. Understanding Leadership Theory: The Documentary of Sir Ernest Shackleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheramie, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Leadership theory is one of the most complex groups of theories to teach management students; nevertheless, it is the one of the most interesting and often desired topics to learn from students. Many organizations are seeking soft skills that are commonly discussed in leadership theory such as building relationships with followers, taking…

  10. Understanding streaming in Dictyostelium discoideum: theory versus experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallon, J C; Dalton, Brittany; Malani, Chelsea

    2011-07-01

    Recent experimental work involving Dictyostelium discoideum seems to contradict several theoretical models. Experiments suggest that localization of the release of the chemoattractant cyclic adenosine monophosphate to the uropod of the cell is important for stream formation during aggregation. Yet several mathematical models are able to reproduce streaming as the cells aggregate without taking into account localization of the chemoattractant. A careful analysis of the experiments and the theory suggests the two major features of the system which are important to stream formation are random cell motion and chemotaxis to regions of higher cell density. Random cell motion acts to reduce streaming, whereas chemotaxis to regions of higher cell density reinforces streaming. With this understanding, the experimental results can be explained in a manner consistent with the theoretical results. In all the experiments, alterations in the two main factors of random motion and chemotaxis to regions of higher cell density, not the localization of the release of the chemoattractant, can explain the results as they relate to streaming. Additionally, a comparison of results from a mathematical model that simulates cells which localize the chemoattractant and cells which do not shows little difference in the streaming patterns.

  11. The understanding of theory and practice in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Nielsen, Gitte

    This project deals with the matter of nursing education on professional bachelor level in Denmark. It is a fact that opinions differ in the matter of what can and must be learned in respectively clinical practice and in theoretical practice in a professional nursing training. The aim of this proj......This project deals with the matter of nursing education on professional bachelor level in Denmark. It is a fact that opinions differ in the matter of what can and must be learned in respectively clinical practice and in theoretical practice in a professional nursing training. The aim...... of this project is to investigate the understandings of clinical as well as theoretical training in nursing education, and to discuss which implications and problems these opinions can have for the nursing students’ competences to develop the profession. The method of this project consists of three qualitative...... focus group interviews. The informants are nursing students, teachers from a university college and clinical instructors from a university hospital. The three focus group interviews are conducted from a theoretical frame of reference regarding the matter of theory and practice. The method of data...

  12. [Evolutionary histology and the theory of evolution (on the 100th anniversary of the birth of Academician A. A. Zavarzin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoian, E N

    1986-02-01

    Darwin's theory did not touch upon the problem of evolution of tissues. An attempt made by Heckel to explain phylogeny of tissues, basing on principles of selection and divergence, failed. It was not at once understood that evolution of separate levels of organization possessed certain specificity. The theory of parallelism, suggested by A. A. Zavarzin, stated the notion on specific regularities in evolution of tissues. Having analysed the correlation between the theory of evolution and evolutional histology, A. A. Zavarzin demonstrated that darwinism developed predominantly at the theory of speciation. This approach is correct for the period of the new evolutionary synthesis, too. The synthetic theory of evolution does not take into consideration evolution of tissues. A. A. Zavarzin's theory contributed to reorganization of methodology of the evolutional biology. The historical method was enriched by a certain principle on specific regularities of evolution for each level of organization in the alive. Simultaneously, the genesis of the parallelism theory discovered that correct explanation of the regularities in evolution of tissues is possible only under conditions that the evolution of histostructures can be inserted into the evolution of ontogenesis and species.

  13. Not just a theory--the utility of mathematical models in evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servedio, Maria R; Brandvain, Yaniv; Dhole, Sumit; Fitzpatrick, Courtney L; Goldberg, Emma E; Stern, Caitlin A; Van Cleve, Jeremy; Yeh, D Justin

    2014-12-01

    Progress in science often begins with verbal hypotheses meant to explain why certain biological phenomena exist. An important purpose of mathematical models in evolutionary research, as in many other fields, is to act as “proof-of-concept” tests of the logic in verbal explanations, paralleling the way in which empirical data are used to test hypotheses. Because not all subfields of biology use mathematics for this purpose, misunderstandings of the function of proof-of-concept modeling are common. In the hope of facilitating communication, we discuss the role of proof-of-concept modeling in evolutionary biology.

  14. Not just a theory--the utility of mathematical models in evolutionary biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R Servedio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Progress in science often begins with verbal hypotheses meant to explain why certain biological phenomena exist. An important purpose of mathematical models in evolutionary research, as in many other fields, is to act as “proof-of-concept” tests of the logic in verbal explanations, paralleling the way in which empirical data are used to test hypotheses. Because not all subfields of biology use mathematics for this purpose, misunderstandings of the function of proof-of-concept modeling are common. In the hope of facilitating communication, we discuss the role of proof-of-concept modeling in evolutionary biology.

  15. Theory of quasi-Chaplygin unstable media and evolutionary principle for selecting spontaneous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, S.K.; Trubnikov, B.A.; Institut Atomnoi Energii, Moscow, USSR)

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional ideal gas with negative compressibility described by quasi-Chaplygin equations is discussed. Its reduction to a Laplace equation is shown, and an evolutionary principle for selecting spontaneous solutions is summarized. Three extremely simple spontaneous solutions are obtained along with multidimensional self-similar solutions. The Buneman instability in a plasma is considered as an example. 17 references

  16. A Learning-Style Theory for Understanding Autistic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name–number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities

  17. A learning-style theory for understanding autistic behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding autism’s ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically-developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup-table (LUT learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low and high dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name-number association in a phonebook. However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response. The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm, restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity, impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn

  18. A system dynamics model based on evolutionary game theory for green supply chain management diffusion among Chinese manufacturers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yihui; Govindan, Kannan; Zhu, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a system dynamics (SD) model is developed to guide the subsidy policies to promote the diffusion of green supply chain management (GSCM) in China. The relationships of stakeholders such as government, enterprises and consumers are analyzed through evolutionary game theory. Finally......, the GSCM diffusion process is simulated by the model with a case study on Chinese automotive manufacturing industry. The results show that the subsidies for manufacturers are better than that for consumers to promote GSCM diffusion, and the environmental awareness is another influential key factor....

  19. Evolutionary perspectives on ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Martin

    2017-10-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, ageing is a decrease in fitness with chronological age - expressed by an increase in mortality risk and/or decline in reproductive success and mediated by deterioration of functional performance. While this makes ageing intuitively paradoxical - detrimental to individual fitness - evolutionary theory offers answers as to why ageing has evolved. In this review, I first briefly examine the classic evolutionary theories of ageing and their empirical tests, and highlight recent findings that have advanced our understanding of the evolution of ageing (condition-dependent survival, positive pleiotropy). I then provide an overview of recent theoretical extensions and modifications that accommodate those new discoveries. I discuss the role of indeterminate (asymptotic) growth for lifetime increases in fecundity and ageing trajectories. I outline alternative views that challenge a universal existence of senescence - namely the lack of a germ-soma distinction and the ability of tissue replacement and retrogression to younger developmental stages in modular organisms. I argue that rejuvenation at the organismal level is plausible, but includes a return to a simple developmental stage. This may exempt a particular genotype from somatic defects but, correspondingly, removes any information acquired during development. A resolution of the question of whether a rejuvenated individual is the same entity is central to the recognition of whether current evolutionary theories of ageing, with their extensions and modifications, can explain the patterns of ageing across the Tree of Life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An evolutionary approach for gene selection and classification of microarray data based on SVM error-bound theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Rameswar; Kurita, Takio

    2010-04-01

    Microarrays have thousands to tens-of-thousands of gene features, but only a few hundred patient samples are available. The fundamental problem in microarray data analysis is identifying genes whose disruption causes congenital or acquired disease in humans. In this paper, we propose a new evolutionary method that can efficiently select a subset of potentially informative genes for support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. The proposed evolutionary method uses SVM with a given subset of gene features to evaluate the fitness function, and new subsets of features are selected based on the estimates of generalization error of SVMs and frequency of occurrence of the features in the evolutionary approach. Thus, in theory, selected genes reflect to some extent the generalization performance of SVM classifiers. We compare our proposed method with several existing methods and find that the proposed method can obtain better classification accuracy with a smaller number of selected genes than the existing methods. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The EvoDevoCI: A Concept Inventory for Gauging Students' Understanding of Evolutionary Developmental Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Kathryn E.; Hiatt, Anna; Davis, Gregory K.; Trujillo, Caleb; French, Donald P.; Terry, Mark; Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science 2011 report "Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education" encourages the teaching of developmental biology as an important part of teaching evolution. Recently, however, we found that biology majors often lack the developmental knowledge needed to understand evolutionary…

  2. "Evo in the News:" Understanding Evolution and Students' Attitudes toward the Relevance of Evolutionary Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanti, Lynn M.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the effects of exposure to the "Evo in the News" section of the "Understanding Evolution" website on students' attitudes toward biological evolution in undergraduates in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at Syracuse University. Students' attitudes toward evolution and changes therein were…

  3. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  4. Merging molecular mechanism and evolution: theory and computation at the interface of biophysics and evolutionary population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serohijos, Adrian W R; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2014-06-01

    The variation among sequences and structures in nature is both determined by physical laws and by evolutionary history. However, these two factors are traditionally investigated by disciplines with different emphasis and philosophy-molecular biophysics on one hand and evolutionary population genetics in another. Here, we review recent theoretical and computational approaches that address the crucial need to integrate these two disciplines. We first articulate the elements of these approaches. Then, we survey their contribution to our mechanistic understanding of molecular evolution, the polymorphisms in coding region, the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) of mutations, the observed folding stability of proteins in nature, and the distribution of protein folds in genomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolutionary theory of bacterial quorum sensing: when is a signal not a signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Stephen P; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A; Griffin, Ashleigh S

    2007-07-29

    The term quorum sensing (QS) is used to describe the communication between bacterial cells, whereby a coordinated population response is controlled by diffusible molecules produced by individuals. QS has not only been described between cells of the same species (intraspecies), but also between species (interspecies) and between bacteria and higher organisms (inter-kingdom). The fact that QS-based communication appears to be widespread among microbes is strange, considering that explaining both cooperation and communication are two of the greatest problems in evolutionary biology. From an evolutionary perspective, intraspecies signalling can be explained using models such as kin selection, but when communication is described between species, it is more difficult to explain. It is probable that in many cases this involves QS molecules being used as 'cues' by other species as a guide to future action or as manipulating molecules whereby one species will 'coerce' a response from another. In these cases, the usage of QS molecules cannot be described as signalling. This review seeks to integrate the evolutionary literature on animal signalling with the microbiological literature on QS, and asks whether QS within bacteria is true signalling or whether these molecules are also used as cues or for the coercion of other cells.

  6. Evolutionary considerations on complex emotions and music-induced emotions. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M.

    2015-06-01

    Recent efforts to uncover the neural underpinnings of emotional experiences have provided a foundation for novel neurophysiological theories of emotions, adding to the existing body of psychophysiological, motivational, and evolutionary theories. Besides explicitly modeling human-specific emotions and considering the interactions between emotions and language, Koelsch et al.'s original contribution to this challenging endeavor is to identify four brain areas as distinct "affect systems" which differ in terms of emotional qualia and evolutionary pathways [1]. Here, we comment on some features of this promising Quartet Theory of Emotions, focusing particularly on evolutionary and biological aspects related to the four affect systems and their relation to prevailing emotion theories, as well as on the role of music-induced emotions.

  7. An empirical test of evolutionary theories for reproductive senescence and reproductive effort in the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Arnold, Stevan J; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2007-04-07

    Evolutionary theory predicts that differential reproductive effort and rate of reproductive senescence will evolve under different rates of external mortality. We examine the evolutionary divergence of age-specific reproduction in two life-history ecotypes of the western terrestrial garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. We test for the signature of reproductive senescence (decreasing fecundity with age) and increasing reproductive effort with age (increasing reproductive productivity per gram female) in replicate populations of two life-history ecotypes: snakes that grow fast, mature young and have shorter lifespans, and snakes that grow slow, mature late and have long lives. The difference between life-history ecotypes is due to genetic divergence in growth rate. We find (i) reproductive success (live litter mass) increases with age in both ecotypes, but does so more rapidly in the fast-growth ecotype, (ii) reproductive failure increases with age in both ecotypes, but the proportion of reproductive failure to total reproductive output remains invariant, and (iii) reproductive effort remains constant in fast-growth individuals with age, but declines in slow-growth individuals. This illustration of increasing fecundity with age, even at the latest ages, deviates from standard expectations for reproductive senescence, as does the lack of increases in reproductive effort. We discuss our findings in light of recent theories regarding the phenomenon of increased reproduction throughout life in organisms with indeterminate growth and its potential to offset theoretical expectations for the ubiquity of senescence.

  8. Advising with Understanding: Considering Hermeneutic Theory in Academic Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin-Scharff, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    One might say that good advising requires understanding of those being advised. Yet, the way to achieve an accurate understanding of each advisee is unclear. An introduction to the field of hermeneutics, including an outline of Martin Heidegger's notion of human being and existential understanding, is presented to offer advisors a new opportunity…

  9. Evolutionary cost management in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, C.G.; Mazzini, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The reader is urged to consider the material in ''The Evolutionary Theory of Cost Management'' carefully before proceeding with the material in this paper. The recommendations in this paper flow from the revised line of thinking generated by the evolutionary approach. The suggestions will be difficult to accept in the absence of an understanding of the underlying theory. Although the authors briefly discuss some of the theory, it is nevertheless recommended that the reader develop a fuller understanding of the concepts by studying the prior paper

  10. Designing a performance measurement system for supply chain using balanced scorecard, path analysis, cooperative game theory and evolutionary game theory: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hootan Eskafi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, supply chain management is known as the key factor for achieving competitive advantage. Better customer service, revenue improvement and cost reduction are the results of this philosophy. Organizations can manage the performance of their firms by appropriate goal setting, identifying criteria and continuous performance measurement, which creates a good view for the business circumstances. Developing and defining appropriate indicators at different levels of chain is necessary for implementing a performance measurement system. In this study, we propose a new method to determine the measurement indicators and strategies of the company in term of balanced scorecard. The study is a combination of balanced scorecard, path analysis, evolutionary game theory and cooperative game theory for strategic planning. The study offers an appropriate program for future activities of organizations and determines the present status of the firm. The implementation of the proposed method is introduced for a food producer and the results are analyzed.

  11. Foundational errors in the Neutral and Nearly-Neutral theories of evolution in relation to the Synthetic Theory: is a new evolutionary paradigm necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2013-01-01

    The Neutral Theory of Evolution (NTE) proposes mutation and random genetic drift as the most important evolutionary factors. The most conspicuous feature of evolution is the genomic stability during paleontological eras and lack of variation among taxa; 98% or more of nucleotide sites are monomorphic within a species. NTE explains this homology by random fixation of neutral bases and negative selection (purifying selection) that does not contribute either to evolution or polymorphisms. Purifying selection is insufficient to account for this evolutionary feature and the Nearly-Neutral Theory of Evolution (N-NTE) included negative selection with coefficients as low as mutation rate. These NTE and N-NTE propositions are thermodynamically (tendency to random distributions, second law), biotically (recurrent mutation), logically and mathematically (resilient equilibria instead of fixation by drift) untenable. Recurrent forward and backward mutation and random fluctuations of base frequencies alone in a site make life organization and fixations impossible. Drift is not a directional evolutionary factor, but a directional tendency of matter-energy processes (second law) which threatens the biotic organization. Drift cannot drive evolution. In a site, the mutation rates among bases and selection coefficients determine the resilient equilibrium frequency of bases that genetic drift cannot change. The expected neutral random interaction among nucleotides is zero; however, huge interactions and periodicities were found between bases of dinucleotides separated by 1, 2... and more than 1,000 sites. Every base is co-adapted with the whole genome. Neutralists found that neutral evolution is independent of population size (N); thus neutral evolution should be independent of drift, because drift effect is dependent upon N. Also, chromosome size and shape as well as protein size are far from random.

  12. Intuitive understanding of nonlocality as implied by quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, D.G.; Hiley, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    The fact is brought out that the essential new quality implied by the quantum theory is nonlocality; i.e., that a system cannot be analyzed into parts whose basic properties do not depend on the state of the whole system. This is done in terms of the causal interpretation of the quantum theory, proposed by one of us (D.B.) in 2952, involving the introduction of the ''quantum potential.'' It is shown that this approach implies a new universal type of description, in which the standard or canonical form is always supersystem-system-subsystem; and this leads to the radically new notion of unbroken wholeness of the entire universe. Finally, some of the implications of extending these notions to the relativity domain, and in so doing, a novel concept of time, in terms of which relativity and quantum theory may eventually be brought together, is indicated

  13. Toward a Mechanics of Adaptive Behavior: Evolutionary Dynamics and Matching Theory Statics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.; Popa, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm.…

  14. Learning theory: a driving force in understanding orbitofrontal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannald, Michael A; Jones, Joshua L; Takahashi, Yuji K; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2014-02-01

    Since it was demonstrated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is critical to reversal learning, there has been considerable interest in specifying its role in flexible, outcome-guided behavior. Behavioral paradigms from the learning theory tradition, such as outcome devaluation, blocking, Pavlovian to instrumental transfer, and overexpectation have been a driving force in this research. The use of these procedures has revealed OFC's unique role in forming and integrating information about specific features of events and outcomes to drive behavior and learning. These studies highlight the power and importance of learning theory principles in guiding neuroscience research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Understanding the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Staff Workshop Handout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early Childhood Today, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In his "Theory of Multiple Intelligences," Dr. Howard Gardner expands the concept of intelligence to include such areas as music, spatial relations, and interpersonal knowledge in addition to the traditional view of two intelligences--mathematical and linguistic. Using biological as well as cultural research, Gardner formulated a list of seven…

  16. Using the theory of planned behaviour to understand brand love

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegner, Sabrina; Fenko, Anna; Teravest, Annemiek

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Brand love is perceived as one of the main objectives in brand management. Nevertheless, research into the factors influencing brand love are scarce. This paper aims to apply the theory of planned behaviour to the context of brand love and investigate the influence of several factors on

  17. Interspecies gene transfer as a method for understanding the genetic basis for evolutionary change: Progress, Pitfalls and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachezar A. Nikolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent revolution in high throughput sequencing and associated applications provides excellent opportunities to catalogue variation in DNA sequences and gene expression between species. However, understanding the astonishing diversity of the Tree of Life requires understanding the phenotypic consequences of such variation and identification of those rare genetic changes that are causal to diversity. One way to study the genetic basis for trait diversity is to apply a transgenic approach and introduce genes of interest from a donor into a recipient species. Such interspecies gene transfer (IGT is based on the premise that if a gene is causal to the morphological divergence of the two species, the transfer will endow the recipient with properties of the donor. Extensions of this approach further allow identifying novel loci for the diversification of form and investigating cis- and trans-contributions to morphological evolution. Here we review recent examples from both plant and animal systems that have employed IGT to provide insight into the genetic basis of evolutionary change. We outline the practice of IGT, its methodological strengths and weaknesses, and consider guidelines for its application, emphasizing the importance of phylogenetic distance, character polarity, and life history. We also discuss future perspectives for exploiting IGT in the context of expanding genomic resources in emerging experimental systems and advances in genome editing.

  18. Phylogenetic incongruence in E. coli O104: understanding the evolutionary relationships of emerging pathogens in the face of homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilong Hao

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O104:H4 was identified as an emerging pathogen during the spring and summer of 2011 and was responsible for a widespread outbreak that resulted in the deaths of 50 people and sickened over 4075. Traditional phenotypic and genotypic assays, such as serotyping, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, permit identification and classification of bacterial pathogens, but cannot accurately resolve relationships among genotypically similar but pathotypically different isolates. To understand the evolutionary origins of E. coli O104:H4, we sequenced two strains isolated in Ontario, Canada. One was epidemiologically linked to the 2011 outbreak, and the second, unrelated isolate, was obtained in 2010. MLST analysis indicated that both isolates are of the same sequence type (ST678, but whole-genome sequencing revealed differences in chromosomal and plasmid content. Through comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of five O104:H4 ST678 genomes, we identified 167 genes in three gene clusters that have undergone homologous recombination with distantly related E. coli strains. These recombination events have resulted in unexpectedly high sequence diversity within the same sequence type. Failure to recognize or adjust for homologous recombination can result in phylogenetic incongruence. Understanding the extent of homologous recombination among different strains of the same sequence type may explain the pathotypic differences between the ON2010 and ON2011 strains and help shed new light on the emergence of this new pathogen.

  19. Cancer treatment as a game: integrating evolutionary game theory into the optimal control of chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, Paul A; Gatenby, Robert A; Brown, Joel S

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy for metastatic cancer commonly fails due to evolution of drug resistance in tumor cells. Here, we view cancer treatment as a game in which the oncologists choose a therapy and tumors ‘choose’ an adaptive strategy. We propose the oncologist can gain an upper hand in the game by choosing treatment strategies that anticipate the adaptations of the tumor. In particular, we examine the potential benefit of exploiting evolutionary tradeoffs in tumor adaptations to therapy. We analyze a math model where cancer cells face tradeoffs in allocation of resistance to two drugs. The tumor ‘chooses’ its strategy by natural selection and the oncologist chooses her strategy by solving a control problem. We find that when tumor cells perform best by investing resources to maximize response to one drug the optimal therapy is a time-invariant delivery of both drugs simultaneously. However, if cancer cells perform better using a generalist strategy allowing resistance to both drugs simultaneously, then the optimal protocol is a time varying solution in which the two drug concentrations negatively covary. However, drug interactions can significantly alter these results. We conclude that knowledge of both evolutionary tradeoffs and drug interactions is crucial in planning optimal chemotherapy schedules for individual patients. (paper)

  20. Can evolutionary theory explain the slow development of knowledge about the level of safety built into roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2017-09-01

    In several papers, Hauer (1988, 1989, 2000a, 2000b, 2016) has argued that the level of safety built into roads is unpremeditated, i.e. not the result of decisions based on knowledge of the safety impacts of design standards. Hauer has pointed out that the development of knowledge about the level of safety built into roads has been slow and remains incomplete even today. Based on these observations, this paper asks whether evolutionary theory can contribute to explaining the slow development of knowledge. A key proposition of evolutionary theory is that knowledge is discovered through a process of learning-by-doing; it is not necessarily produced intentionally by means of research or development. An unintentional discovery of knowledge is treacherous as far as road safety is concerned, since an apparently effective safety treatment may simply be the result of regression-to-the-mean. The importance of regression-to-the-mean was not fully understood until about 1980, and a substantial part of what was regarded as known at that time may have been based on studies not controlling for regression-to-the-mean. An attempt to provide an axiomatic foundation for designing a safe road system was made by Gunnarsson and Lindström (1970). This had the ambition of providing universal guidelines that would facilitate a preventive approach, rather than the reactive approach based on accident history (i.e. designing a system known to be safe, rather than reacting to events in a system of unknown safety). Three facts are notable about these principles. First, they are stated in very general terms and do not address many of the details of road design or traffic control. Second, they are not based on experience showing their effectiveness. Third, they are partial and do not address the interaction between elements of the road traffic system, in particular road user adaptation to system design. Another notable fact consistent with evolutionary theory, is that the safety margins built

  1. Understanding the work of telehealth implementation using Normalization Process Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Janet Gwyneth

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation uses the theoretical constructs of Normalization Process Theory (NPT) to examine the successful implementation of an innovative telehealth service that delivers occupational health nursing services to a large healthcare employee population over a wide geographic area. Telehealth services have come to be regarded as a possible means to improve access to health care services, clinical efficiency, and cost effectiveness in an era where there are shrinking resources and growing ...

  2. Theories to aid understanding and implementation of interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Multiple events are calling for greater interprofessional collaboration and communication, including initiatives aimed at enhancing patient safety and preventing medical errors. Education is 1 way to increase collaboration and communication, and is an explicit goal of interprofessional education (IPE). Yet health professionals to date are largely educated in isolation. IPE differs from most traditional continuing education in that knowledge is largely socially created through interactions with others and involves unique collaborative skills and attitudes. It requires thinking differently about what constitutes teaching and learning. The article draws upon a small number of social and learning theories to explain the rationale for IPE needing a new way of thinking, and proposes approaches to guide development and implementation of IP continuing education. Social psychology and complexity theory explain the influence of the dynamism and interaction of internal (cognitive) and external (environmental) factors upon learning and set the stage for IPE. Theories related to professionalism and stereotyping, communities of practice, reflective learning, and transformative learning appear central to IPE and guide specific educational interventions. In sum, IPE requires CE to adopt new content, recognize new knowledge, and use new approaches for learning; we are now in a different place.

  3. Adolescent grandchildren's perceptions of grandparents' involvement in UK: an interpretation from life course and evolutionary theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Tanskanen, Antti O

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we study grandparental involvement from the viewpoint of evolutionary theory and sociological life course perception. We have used 'the Involved Grandparenting and Child Well-Being 2007' survey, which is the first nationally representative sample of British and Welsh adolescents aged 11-16 ( n  = 1,488). First, we explore with the descriptive statistics the amount of grandparental involvement reported by adolescents. The result follows the predicted pattern: maternal grandparent is reported to involve in a grandchild's life the most, second maternal grandfather, third paternal grandmother and the last paternal grandfather. Second, we focus more closely on separate grandparents and show with four linear regression models which factors are connected to each grandparent's involvement. Grandchild's age, grandparent's health, grandparent's labour force participation and distance between a grandparent and a grandchild were factors that have similar effects in relation to all grandparents. Marital status mattered only for grandfathers, whereas family structure of a grandchild has opposite effects in relation to maternal and paternal grandparents. Grandchild's sex, grandparent's age, the number of grandchildren and the number of living grandparents all mattered, but only with respect to some grandparents. The study shows that it is advantageous to merge sociological and evolutionary viewpoints when studying a grandparental involvement in a modern society.

  4. Longitudinal Associations between Children’s Understanding of Emotions and Theory of Mind

    OpenAIRE

    O’Brien, Marion; Weaver, Jennifer Miner; Nelson, Jackie A.; Calkins, Susan; Leerkes, Esther; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind competence and knowledge of emotions were studied longitudinally in a sample of preschoolers aged 3 (n =263) and 4 (n =244) years. Children were assessed using standard measures of theory of mind and emotion knowledge. Three competing hypotheses were tested regarding the developmental associations between children’s theory of mind abilities and their knowledge of emotions. First, that an understanding of emotion develops early and informs children’s understanding of others’ thi...

  5. Understanding knowledge as a commons from theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ostrom, Elinor

    2011-01-01

    Looking at knowledge as a shared resource: experts discuss how to define, protect, and build the knowledge commons in the digital age. Knowledge in digital form offers unprecedented access to information through the Internet but at the same time is subject to ever-greater restrictions through intellectual property legislation, overpatenting, licensing, overpricing, and lack of preservation. Looking at knowledge as a commons―as a shared resource―allows us to understand both its limitless possibilities and what threatens it. In Understanding Knowledge as a Commons, experts from a range of disciplines discuss the knowledge commons in the digital era―how to conceptualize it, protect it, and build it. Contributors consider the concept of the commons historically and offer an analytical framework for understanding knowledge as a shared social-ecological system. They look at ways to guard against enclosure of the knowledge commons, considering, among other topics, the role of research libraries, the advantage...

  6. Understanding wind power technology theory, deployment and optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffarczyk, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy technology has progressed enormously over the last decade. In coming years it will continue to develop in terms of power ratings, performance and installed capacity of large wind turbines worldwide, with exciting developments in offshore installations. Designed to meet the training needs of wind engineers, this introductory text puts wind energy in context, from the natural resource to the assessment of cost effectiveness and bridges the gap between theory and practice. The thorough coverage spans the scientific basics, practical implementations and the modern state of technology

  7. Understanding how biodiversity unfolds through time under neutral theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missa, Olivier; Dytham, Calvin; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-04-05

    Theoretical predictions for biodiversity patterns are typically derived under the assumption that ecological systems have reached a dynamic equilibrium. Yet, there is increasing evidence that various aspects of ecological systems, including (but not limited to) species richness, are not at equilibrium. Here, we use simulations to analyse how biodiversity patterns unfold through time. In particular, we focus on the relative time required for various biodiversity patterns (macroecological or phylogenetic) to reach equilibrium. We simulate spatially explicit metacommunities according to the Neutral Theory of Biodiversity (NTB) under three modes of speciation, which differ in how evenly a parent species is split between its two daughter species. We find that species richness stabilizes first, followed by species area relationships (SAR) and finally species abundance distributions (SAD). The difference in timing of equilibrium between these different macroecological patterns is the largest when the split of individuals between sibling species at speciation is the most uneven. Phylogenetic patterns of biodiversity take even longer to stabilize (tens to hundreds of times longer than species richness) so that equilibrium predictions from neutral theory for these patterns are unlikely to be relevant. Our results suggest that it may be unwise to assume that biodiversity patterns are at equilibrium and provide a first step in studying how these patterns unfold through time. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Understanding predicted shifts in diazotroph biogeography using resource competition theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dutkiewicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the sensitivity of the biogeography of nitrogen fixers to a warming climate and increased aeolian iron deposition in the context of a global earth system model. We employ concepts from the resource-ratio theory to provide a simplifying and transparent interpretation of the results. First we demonstrate that a set of clearly defined, easily diagnosed provinces are consistent with the theory. Using this framework we show that the regions most vulnerable to province shifts and changes in diazotroph biogeography are the equatorial and South Pacific, and central Atlantic. Warmer and dustier climates favor diazotrophs due to an increase in the ratio of supply rate of iron to fixed nitrogen. We suggest that the emergent provinces could be a standard diagnostic for global change models, allowing for rapid and transparent interpretation and comparison of model predictions and the underlying mechanisms. The analysis suggests that monitoring of real world province boundaries, indicated by transitions in surface nutrient concentrations, would provide a clear and easily interpreted indicator of ongoing global change.

  9. Existential analytic understanding of emotion: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfried Längle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief introduction to existential analysis (EA. It briefly describes how to develop this phenomenological approach and its main provisions. The emotion is deemed as a specific perception of a meaningful life. Emotionality plays a significant role in the existential analysis of anthropology and practice. The former one is the cornerstone of existence, and takes its place among the other three measurements in the existential theory of the EA. The paper presents a phenomenological description of the four-step process of the emotion emergence. It shows how during this process vitality is stimulated, so emotions are important to humans. This is an existential analytic theory of emotions, which explains the importance of the EA practice of affection feeling (fühlen and intuitive feeling (sense, i.e. spüren. The first is related to human life and the need for the detection values, the second one is related to the authenticity and ethics. In this pater, we consider the difference between the affect and the emotion. In the last three paragraphss theyform of emotional dysfunction is fiscribed, some of the studies in this area and the main elements of emotional and affective therapy.

  10. Integrating geochemical investigations and geospatial assessment to understand the evolutionary process of hydrochemistry and groundwater quality in arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Alharbi, Talal; Mansour, Basma

    2018-04-12

    Groundwater is the key for life in arid areas. Aquifer overexploitation and climatic conditions can significantly deteriorate groundwater quality. The Al-Qassim area in central Saudi Arabia is characterized by dense agricultural use and is irrigated mainly by fossil groundwater from the Saq Aquifer. Understanding the area's hydrochemistry, major factors governing groundwater quality, and alternative uses of the groundwater are the main goals of this study. Groundwater samples were collected and examined for major, minor, and trace elements. Ionic relationships, hydrochemical facies, geospatial distributions, and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the hydrochemical processes at play. The salinity and nitrate concentrations of the Saq Aquifer's groundwater were found to increase in the outcrop areas more than the confined areas. The spatial distributions were fragmented by three main factors: (i) modern recharge by relatively brackish water, (ii) irrigation return flow in intensive farming areas, and (iii) overexploitation and draining of deep and relatively saline zones of the aquifer. Seven water types were found representing the alkaline water with a predominance of sulfate-chloride ions and earth alkaline water with a predominance of sulfate and chloride. Mixing between fresh and brackish water, dissolution of mineral phases, silicate weathering, and reverse ion exchange were recognized as the evolutionary processes, while evaporation played a minor role. Cluster analyses characterized the fresh groundwater zone, modern groundwater recharge zone, and anthropogenic influence zone. In the confined areas, nearly all the groundwater was appropriate for domestic use and irrigation. In the outcrop areas, some limitations were found due to unsuitable conditions.

  11. Limited resources and evolutionary learning may help to understand the mistimed reproduction in birds caused by climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Daniel; Llebot, Josep E; Méndez, Vicenç

    2008-08-01

    We present an agent-based model inspired by the Evolutionary Minority Game (EMG), albeit strongly adapted, to the case of competition for limited resources in ecology. The agents in this game become able, after some time, to predict the a priori best option as a result of an evolution-driven learning process. We show that a self-segregated social structure can emerge from this process, i.e., extreme learning strategies are always favoured while intermediate learning strategies tend to die out. This result may contribute to understanding some levels of organization and cooperative behaviour in ecological and social systems. We use the ideas and results reported here to discuss an issue of current interest in ecology: the mistimings in egg laying observed for some species of bird as a consequence of their slower rate of adaptation to climate change in comparison with that shown by their prey. Our model supports the hypothesis that habitat-specific constraints could explain why different populations are adapting differently to this situation, in agreement with recent experiments.

  12. Evolutionary Theory and the "New Sciences": Rekindling Our Imagination for Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiak, Irene E.

    2000-01-01

    Adult educators can use the concepts of chaos, emergence, creativity, and transformation from biological and physical sciences and evolution theories to reassess the prominence of transformation as an educational orientation. Developmental potential can be facilitated in learners who are at crisis points, struggling with inner turbulence, or…

  13. Molecular insights into the historic demography of bowhead whales: understanding the evolutionary basis of contemporary management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C D; Hoffman, J I; George, J C; Suydam, R S; Huebinger, R M; Patton, J C; Bickham, J W

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of genetic variation observed within species reflect evolutionary histories that include signatures of past demography. Understanding the demographic component of species' history is fundamental to informed management because changes in effective population size affect response to environmental change and evolvability, the strength of genetic drift, and maintenance of genetic variability. Species experiencing anthropogenic population reductions provide valuable case studies for understanding the genetic response to demographic change because historic changes in the census size are often well documented. A classic example is the bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus, which experienced dramatic population depletion due to commercial whaling in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Consequently, we analyzed a large multi-marker dataset of bowhead whales using a variety of analytical methods, including extended Bayesian skyline analysis and approximate Bayesian computation, to characterize genetic signatures of both ancient and contemporary demographic histories. No genetic signature of recent population depletion was recovered through any analysis incorporating realistic mutation assumptions, probably due to the combined influences of long generation time, short bottleneck duration, and the magnitude of population depletion. In contrast, a robust signal of population expansion was detected around 70,000 years ago, followed by a population decline around 15,000 years ago. The timing of these events coincides to a historic glacial period and the onset of warming at the end of the last glacial maximum, respectively. By implication, climate driven long-term variation in Arctic Ocean productivity, rather than recent anthropogenic disturbance, appears to have been the primary driver of historic bowhead whale demography.

  14. Molecular insights into the historic demography of bowhead whales: understanding the evolutionary basis of contemporary management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C D; Hoffman, J I; George, J C; Suydam, R S; Huebinger, R M; Patton, J C; Bickham, J W

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of genetic variation observed within species reflect evolutionary histories that include signatures of past demography. Understanding the demographic component of species' history is fundamental to informed management because changes in effective population size affect response to environmental change and evolvability, the strength of genetic drift, and maintenance of genetic variability. Species experiencing anthropogenic population reductions provide valuable case studies for understanding the genetic response to demographic change because historic changes in the census size are often well documented. A classic example is the bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus, which experienced dramatic population depletion due to commercial whaling in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Consequently, we analyzed a large multi-marker dataset of bowhead whales using a variety of analytical methods, including extended Bayesian skyline analysis and approximate Bayesian computation, to characterize genetic signatures of both ancient and contemporary demographic histories. No genetic signature of recent population depletion was recovered through any analysis incorporating realistic mutation assumptions, probably due to the combined influences of long generation time, short bottleneck duration, and the magnitude of population depletion. In contrast, a robust signal of population expansion was detected around 70,000 years ago, followed by a population decline around 15,000 years ago. The timing of these events coincides to a historic glacial period and the onset of warming at the end of the last glacial maximum, respectively. By implication, climate driven long-term variation in Arctic Ocean productivity, rather than recent anthropogenic disturbance, appears to have been the primary driver of historic bowhead whale demography. PMID:23403722

  15. Understanding diffusion theory and Fick's law through food and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Larissa; Nyberg, Kendra; Rowat, Amy C

    2015-09-01

    Diffusion is critical to physiological processes ranging from gas exchange across alveoli to transport within individual cells. In the classroom, however, it can be challenging to convey the concept of diffusion on the microscopic scale. In this article, we present a series of three exercises that use food and cooking to illustrate diffusion theory and Fick's first law. These exercises are part of a 10-wk undergraduate course that uses food and cooking to teach fundamental concepts in physiology and biophysics to students, including nonscience majors. Consistent demonstration of practical applications in a classroom setting has the potential to fundamentally change how students view the role of science in their lives (15). Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  16. EVOLUTIONARY CONCEPTION OF SNOW METAMORPHISM BASED ON CRYSTAL-MORPHOLOGY AND THEORY OF SYMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Kolomyts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel approach to the study of development of microstructures in snowpack based on the crystal-morphology and on the fundamental laws of natural symmetry. An empirical deterministic model describing the sublimation-metamorphic cycle in seasonal snow cover and the polymorphic variants of this cycle is suggested. Staging in the formation of crystal shapes and self-development of snow microstructure in snow layers is revealed. The crystal shapes are the result of successive process of superposition of ice crystal-chemical symmetry and dissymmetry of the soil – snow cover – atmosphere system, according to the known P. Curie principle. Morphological classification of snow crystals in seasonal snow cover is developed on the base of evolutionary model. Evolution of snow microstructure is conditioned by a marked degree by probabilistic conformity to natural laws, manifesting itself in the processes of auto-regulation of metamorphism. These processes include two types of regulation: the self-regulation of snow layers, on the one hand, and the regulation related to external conditions – under the influence of atmospheric perturbations, on the other hand. The accounting the processes of auto-regulation of snow metamorphism for allows development of new methods in short- and long-term avalanche forecast.

  17. Evolution in Mind: Evolutionary Dynamics, Cognitive Processes, and Bayesian Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchow, Jordan W; Bourgin, David D; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2017-07-01

    Evolutionary theory describes the dynamics of population change in settings affected by reproduction, selection, mutation, and drift. In the context of human cognition, evolutionary theory is most often invoked to explain the origins of capacities such as language, metacognition, and spatial reasoning, framing them as functional adaptations to an ancestral environment. However, evolutionary theory is useful for understanding the mind in a second way: as a mathematical framework for describing evolving populations of thoughts, ideas, and memories within a single mind. In fact, deep correspondences exist between the mathematics of evolution and of learning, with perhaps the deepest being an equivalence between certain evolutionary dynamics and Bayesian inference. This equivalence permits reinterpretation of evolutionary processes as algorithms for Bayesian inference and has relevance for understanding diverse cognitive capacities, including memory and creativity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A short history of evolutionary theory Uma breve história da teoria evolutiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Perreira da Silva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the Theory of Evolution has been told a number of times by historians, philosophers, professors, writers, scientists and so on. However, many of these versions differ from or even contradict one another. In this article, the history of the Theory of Evolution is retold according to a dialectical-materialistic perspective. It analyzes the historical contradictions between Darwinian evolution theory and Mendel's model, the background that led to the synthetic theory of evolution, the debate carried out by classic schools and the result of synthesis, as well as the still current debate between Neutralism and Selectionism. Finally, it also discusses the interpretative model used ("an idiosyncratic dialectic materialism", mainly in relation with Popper's and Kuhn's models.A história da teoria evolutiva tem sito contada inúmeras vezes por historiadores, filósofos, professores, escritores, cientistas etc. Contudo, muitas destas versões diferem entre si ou mesmo se contradizem. Neste trabalho, a história da teoria evolutiva é recontada a partir de uma perspectiva materialista dialética. São analisadas as contradições históricas entre a teoria evolutiva darwiniana e o modelo mendeliano, o caminho para a teoria sintética da evolução, o debate entre as escolas clássica e do balanco que sucedeu a síntese, bem como o debate, ainda atual, entre neutralismo e selecionismo. Ao final, o modelo interpretativo utilizado ("um materialismo dialético idiossincrático" é discutido, principalmente, em relação aos modelos popperiano e kuhniano.

  19. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand the Beliefs of Chinese Teachers Concerning Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the beliefs of Physical Education (PE) teachers regarding Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Twenty PE teachers participated in this study. Data collection consisted of a survey on demographic data and semistructured interviews. The research results indicate that the teachers…

  20. Exploring the Factors Related to Acceptance of Evolutionary Theory among Turkish Preservice Biology Teachers: Toward a More Informative Conceptual Ecology for Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Hasan; Donnelly, Lisa A.; Yilmaz, Irfan

    2008-01-01

    In this study, using multiple regression analysis, we aimed to explore the factors related to acceptance of evolutionary theory among preservice Turkish biology teachers using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical lens. We aimed to determine the extent to which we can account for the variance in acceptance of evolutionary…

  1. Theory Building- Towards an understanding of business model innovation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Boer, Harry; Lindgren, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Companies today, in some industries more than others, invest more capital and resources just to stay competitive, develop more diverse solutions, and increasingly start to think more radically, when considering to innovate their business model. However, the development and innovation of business...... models is a complex venture and has not been widely researched yet. The objective of this paper is therefore 1) to build a [descriptive] theoretical understanding, based on Christensen's (2005) three-step procedure, to business models and their innovation and, as a result of that, 2) to strengthen...... researchers' and practitioners' perspectives as to how the process of business model innovation can be realized. By using various researchers' perspectives and assumptions, we identify relevant inconsistencies, which consequently lead us to propose possible supplementary solutions. We conclude our paper...

  2. Evolutionary constraints and the neutral theory. [mutation-caused nucleotide substitutions in DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, T. H.; Kimura, M.

    1984-01-01

    The neutral theory of molecular evolution postulates that nucleotide substitutions inherently take place in DNA as a result of point mutations followed by random genetic drift. In the absence of selective constraints, the substitution rate reaches the maximum value set by the mutation rate. The rate in globin pseudogenes is about 5 x 10 to the -9th substitutions per site per year in mammals. Rates slower than this indicate the presence of constraints imposed by negative (natural) selection, which rejects and discards deleterious mutations.

  3. Lifespan divergence between social insect castes : Challenges and opportunities for evolutionary theories of aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Boris H.; van Doorn, G. Sander; Weissing, Franz J.; Pen, Ido

    The extraordinarily long lifespans of queens (and kings) in eusocial insects and the strikingly large differences in life expectancy between workers and queens challenge our understanding of the evolution of aging and provide unique opportunities for studying the causes underlying adaptive variation

  4. Tales of the quantum understanding physics' most fundamental theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hobson, Art

    2017-01-01

    Everybody has heard that we live in a world made of atoms. But far more fundamentally, we live in a universe made of quanta. Many things are not made of atoms: light, radio waves, electric current, magnetic fields, Earth's gravitational field, not to mention exotica such a neutron stars, black holes, dark energy, and dark matter. But everything, including atoms, is made of highly unified or "coherent" bundles of energy called "quanta" that (like everything else) obey certain rules. In the case of the quantum, these rules are called "quantum physics." This is a book about quanta and their unexpected, some would say peculiar, behavior--tales, if you will, of the quantum. The quantum has developed the reputation of being capricious, bewildering, even impossible to understand. The peculiar habits of quanta are certainly not what we would have expected to find at the foundation of physical reality, but these habits are not necessarily bewildering and not at all impossible or paradoxical. This book explains those h...

  5. Cancer research meets evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, John W; Scott Findlay, C; Kassen, Rees; Spencer, Sabrina L; Maley, Carlo C

    2009-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection provides insights into the etiology and treatment of cancer. On a microscopic scale, neoplastic cells meet the conditions for evolution by Darwinian selection: cell reproduction with heritable variability that affects cell survival and replication. This suggests that, like other areas of biological and biomedical research, Darwinian theory can provide a general framework for understanding many aspects of cancer, including problems of great clinical importance. With the availability of raw molecular data increasing rapidly, this theory may provide guidance in translating data into understanding and progress. Several conceptual and analytical tools from evolutionary biology can be applied to cancer biology. Two clinical problems may benefit most from the application of Darwinian theory: neoplastic progression and acquired therapeutic resistance. The Darwinian theory of cancer has especially profound implications for drug development, both in terms of explaining past difficulties, and pointing the way toward new approaches. Because cancer involves complex evolutionary processes, research should incorporate both tractable (simplified) experimental systems, and also longitudinal observational studies of the evolutionary dynamics of cancer in laboratory animals and in human patients. Cancer biology will require new tools to control the evolution of neoplastic cells.

  6. Longitudinal Associations between Children’s Understanding of Emotions and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Marion; Weaver, Jennifer Miner; Nelson, Jackie A.; Calkins, Susan; Leerkes, Esther; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind competence and knowledge of emotions were studied longitudinally in a sample of preschoolers aged 3 (n =263) and 4 (n =244) years. Children were assessed using standard measures of theory of mind and emotion knowledge. Three competing hypotheses were tested regarding the developmental associations between children’s theory of mind abilities and their knowledge of emotions. First, that an understanding of emotion develops early and informs children’s understanding of others’ thinking. Alternatively, having a basic theory of mind may help children learn about emotions. Thirdly, that the two domains are separate aspects of children’s social cognitive skills such that each area develops independently. Results of hierarchical regressions supported the first hypothesis that early emotion understanding predicts later theory of mind performance, and not the reverse. PMID:21895570

  7. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  8. The evolutionary development of the scientific mind: A grounded theory of adventuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Katrina Martin

    Teaching and learning science is hard, and the cognitive skills needed to be successful in science are complex. Science educators have explored a number of different ways to teach and learn science that impacts the widest variety of learners in a classroom. The grounded theory of adventuring explains both why scientific thinking is an evolutionarily important trait and illustrates a common thread throughout a variety of teaching and learning behaviors. Adventuring incorporates the dimensions of exploring, mavericking, and acquiring and applying skills that are the hallmarks of positive science education. The disciplines of psychology, sociology, biology, and ecology are connected in this study in order to fully illustrate the complexities of the subject. By exploring the psychology/sociology of teachers teaching science and students learning science, and connecting that to the biology of the hardware, this study explains how we could be teaching and learning science in a way for which our brains are best suited, and in ways that reach all learners.

  9. An Evolutionary Route for the Moral Development of Nursing Students: A Constructivist Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Hadi; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Vedadhir, Abouali; Abbasszadeh, Abbass; Bernstein, Colleen

    2017-08-31

    Developing moral competency is a main aim of educational systems, especially in healthcare-related disciplines. The aim of this study was to explore the moral development process in nursing students. This study used a constructivist grounded theory. Twenty-five semistructured, face-to-face interview with 22 participants were conducted to gather the data. The participants were nursing students and educators attending three nursing schools in Tehran. Moral development evolves within nursing students following a stepwise progression. Within each step or phase, students experience specific changes with regard to both their practical skills and their moral capabilities and competencies. Three main steps were identified: moral transition, moral reconstruction, and moral internalization. Techno-scientific competence, biomedical competence, and nursing competence are developed in each step, respectively. Moral competency in nursing students develops along with their competency as nursing practitioners. To facilitate progress through each phase, it needs to be ensured that the learning experiences that students are exposed to during each consecutive year of study facilitate as much as possible the development of moral competence.

  10. The social making of educational theory: Unraveling how to understand the content, emergence and transformation of educational theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine; Hansen, Christian Sandbjerg

    of the ideas and theories put forth by the ‘great’ philosophical-educational thinkers, which is analyzed in terms of logical-coherence and/or moral-ethical value. 2) A historical approach that place focus on the different historical individuals and their changing educational ideas or theories, often vaguely......This article concerns the question of how it is possible to study, understand and explain the content, emergence and transformation of educational theories. Based on a reading of the Danish scene we detect three main positions: 1) A philosophical approach that place focus on the content...... expressed as views, and, through detailed archival studies, analyze these as part of a realistic and contextual story of the individuals, their motives and ideas, in time. 3) Approaches that unite in their inspiration from Michel Foucault, and which analyzes educational ideas and theories not through...

  11. Evolutionary Game Theory-Based Evaluation of P2P File-Sharing Systems in Heterogeneous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Matsuda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-Peer (P2P file sharing is one of key technologies for achieving attractive P2P multimedia social networking. In P2P file-sharing systems, file availability is improved by cooperative users who cache and share files. Note that file caching carries costs such as storage consumption and processing load. In addition, users have different degrees of cooperativity in file caching and they are in different surrounding environments arising from the topological structure of P2P networks. With evolutionary game theory, this paper evaluates the performance of P2P file sharing systems in such heterogeneous environments. Using micro-macro dynamics, we analyze the impact of the heterogeneity of user selfishness on the file availability and system stability. Further, through simulation experiments with agent-based dynamics, we reveal how other aspects, for example, synchronization among nodes and topological structure, affect the system performance. Both analytical and simulation results show that the environmental heterogeneity contributes to the file availability and system stability.

  12. Computational evolutionary perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D; Singh, Manish

    2012-01-01

    Marr proposed that human vision constructs "a true description of what is there". He argued that to understand human vision one must discover the features of the world it recovers and the constraints it uses in the process. Bayesian decision theory (BDT) is used in modem vision research as a probabilistic framework for understanding human vision along the lines laid out by Marr. Marr's contribution to vision research is substantial and justly influential. We propose, however, that evolution by natural selection does not, in general, favor perceptions that are true descriptions of the objective world. Instead, research with evolutionary games shows that perceptual systems tuned solely to fitness routinely outcompete those tuned to truth. Fitness functions depend not just on the true state of the world, but also on the organism, its state, and the type of action. Thus, fitness and truth are distinct. Natural selection depends only on expected fitness. It shapes perceptual systems to guide fitter behavior, not to estimate truth. To study perception in an evolutionary context, we introduce the framework of Computational Evolutionary Perception (CEP). We show that CEP subsumes BDT, and reinterprets BDT as evaluating expected fitness rather than estimating truth.

  13. Do age-specific survival patterns of wild boar fit current evolutionary theories of senescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelon, Marlène; Focardi, Stefano; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Gimenez, Olivier; Bonenfant, Christophe; Franzetti, Barbara; Choquet, Rémi; Ronchi, Francesca; Baubet, Eric; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2014-12-01

    Actuarial senescence is widespread in age-structured populations. In growing populations, the progressive decline of Hamiltonian forces of selection with age leads to decreasing survival. As actuarial senescence is overcompensated by a high fertility, actuarial senescence should be more intense in species with high reproductive effort, a theoretical prediction that has not been yet explicitly tested across species. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) females have an unusual life-history strategy among large mammals by associating both early and high reproductive effort with potentially long lifespan. Therefore, wild boar females should show stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized related mammals. Moreover, being polygynous and much larger than females, males should display higher senescence rates than females. Using a long-term monitoring (18 years) of a wild boar population, we tested these predictions. We provided clear evidence of actuarial senescence in both sexes. Wild boar females had earlier but not stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized ungulates. Both sexes displayed similar senescence rates. Our study indicates that the timing of senescence, not the rate, is associated with the magnitude of fertility in ungulates. This demonstrates the importance of including the timing of senescence in addition to its rate to understand variation in senescence patterns in wild populations. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Children's understanding of Aesop's fables: relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janette; Beatty, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined children's developing understanding of Aesop's fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop's fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old) and Senior (5-year-old) Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children's responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children's theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children's fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children's ability to judge characters' intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.

  15. Influence of Particle Theory Conceptions on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding of Osmosis and Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHarbi, Nawaf N. S.; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Won, Mihye

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the understanding of diffusion, osmosis and particle theory of matter concepts among 192 pre-service science teachers in Saudi Arabia using a 17-item two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test. The data analysis showed that the pre-service teachers' understanding of osmosis and diffusion concepts was mildly correlated with…

  16. Approaches to understanding the impact of life-history features on plant-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. Burdon; Peter H. Thrall; Adnane Nemri

    2012-01-01

    Natural plant-pathogen associations are complex interactions in which the interplay of environment, host, and pathogen factors results in spatially heterogeneous ecological and epidemiological dynamics. The evolutionary patterns that result from the interaction of these factors are still relatively poorly understood. Recently, integration of the appropriate spatial and...

  17. Current Understanding of the Formation and Adaptation of Metabolic Systems Based on Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Takemoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Formation and adaptation of metabolic networks has been a long-standing question in biology. With recent developments in biotechnology and bioinformatics, the understanding of metabolism is progressively becoming clearer from a network perspective. This review introduces the comprehensive metabolic world that has been revealed by a wide range of data analyses and theoretical studies; in particular, it illustrates the role of evolutionary events, such as gene duplication and horizontal gene transfer, and environmental factors, such as nutrient availability and growth conditions, in evolution of the metabolic network. Furthermore, the mathematical models for the formation and adaptation of metabolic networks have also been described, according to the current understanding from a perspective of metabolic networks. These recent findings are helpful in not only understanding the formation of metabolic networks and their adaptation, but also metabolic engineering.

  18. Applying theory-driven approaches to understanding and modifying clinicians' behavior: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew B; Jensen, Peter S; Jaccard, James; Gollwitzer, Peter; Oettingen, Gabriele; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2007-03-01

    Despite major recent research advances, large gaps exist between accepted mental health knowledge and clinicians' real-world practices. Although hundreds of studies have successfully utilized basic behavioral science theories to understand, predict, and change patients' health behaviors, the extent to which these theories-most notably the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and its extension, the theory of planned behavior (TPB)-have been applied to understand and change clinician behavior is unclear. This article reviews the application of theory-driven approaches to understanding and changing clinician behaviors. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched, along with bibliographies, textbooks on health behavior or public health, and references from experts, to find article titles that describe theory-driven approaches (TRA or TPB) to understanding and modifying health professionals' behavior. A total of 19 articles that detailed 20 studies described the use of TRA or TPB and clinicians' behavior. Eight articles describe the use of TRA or TPB with physicians, four relate to nurses, three relate to pharmacists, and two relate to health workers. Only two articles applied TRA or TPB to mental health clinicians. The body of work shows that different constructs of TRA or TPB predict intentions and behavior among different groups of clinicians and for different behaviors and guidelines. The number of studies on this topic is extremely limited, but they offer a rationale and a direction for future research as well as a theoretical basis for increasing the specificity and efficiency of clinician-targeted interventions.

  19. Urban Geography Evolving: Toward an Evolutionary Urban Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weaver Russell C.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing interest in the application of evolutionary concepts to research questions in human geography, the literature is largely characterised by metaphors or analogies that are disconnected from a broader evolutionary theoretical framework. This paper takes initial steps toward developing such a framework for the subfield of urban geography by defining critical elements and relationships from Darwinian and multilevel selection theories. It then synthesises those components in an application to the issues of urban blight and disorder, to demonstrate how an evolutionary understanding of urban spatial phenomena - an “evolutionary urban geography” - can produce new insights for managing complex processes.

  20. The Importance of Evolutionary Theory for Developmental Science--And Vice Versa: The Case of Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The empirical and conceptual interrelations of phylogeny (evolution) and ontogeny (development) may prove to be more important than previously acknowledged. It is argued that this holds particularly for evolutionary psychology. For instance, an evolutionary point of view will add to the explanation of (the shape of) pre- and post-reductive phases…

  1. The social making of educational theory: Unraveling how to understand the content, emergence and transformation of educational theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine; Hansen, Christian Sandbjerg

    main manifested positions by and large ignore the use of a theoretically reflected and empirically based notion of the social conditions that play a part in the production and circulation of educational ideas and theories. Thus, in the final part of the article, we argue for a fourth position inspired...... by the so-called new sociology of knowledge, and especially the work of Pierre Bourdieu. This position excels by its effort to overcome the internal-external dichotomy that haunts the philosophical as well as the historical position and by its explanatory power drawn from a multidimensional theory of social......This article concerns the question of how it is possible to study, understand and explain the content, emergence and transformation of educational theories. Based on a reading of the Danish scene we detect three main positions: 1) A philosophical approach that place focus on the content...

  2. Why an extended evolutionary synthesis is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gerd B

    2017-10-06

    Since the last major theoretical integration in evolutionary biology-the modern synthesis (MS) of the 1940s-the biosciences have made significant advances. The rise of molecular biology and evolutionary developmental biology, the recognition of ecological development, niche construction and multiple inheritance systems, the '-omics' revolution and the science of systems biology, among other developments, have provided a wealth of new knowledge about the factors responsible for evolutionary change. Some of these results are in agreement with the standard theory and others reveal different properties of the evolutionary process. A renewed and extended theoretical synthesis, advocated by several authors in this issue, aims to unite pertinent concepts that emerge from the novel fields with elements of the standard theory. The resulting theoretical framework differs from the latter in its core logic and predictive capacities. Whereas the MS theory and its various amendments concentrate on genetic and adaptive variation in populations, the extended framework emphasizes the role of constructive processes, ecological interactions and systems dynamics in the evolution of organismal complexity as well as its social and cultural conditions. Single-level and unilinear causation is replaced by multilevel and reciprocal causation. Among other consequences, the extended framework overcomes many of the limitations of traditional gene-centric explanation and entails a revised understanding of the role of natural selection in the evolutionary process. All these features stimulate research into new areas of evolutionary biology.

  3. Evolutionary accounts of human behavioural diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gillian R.; Dickins, Thomas E.; Sear, Rebecca; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Human beings persist in an extraordinary range of ecological settings, in the process exhibiting enormous behavioural diversity, both within and between populations. People vary in their social, mating and parental behaviour and have diverse and elaborate beliefs, traditions, norms and institutions. The aim of this theme issue is to ask whether, and how, evolutionary theory can help us to understand this diversity. In this introductory article, we provide a background to the debate surrounding how best to understand behavioural diversity using evolutionary models of human behaviour. In particular, we examine how diversity has been viewed by the main subdisciplines within the human evolutionary behavioural sciences, focusing in particular on the human behavioural ecology, evolutionary psychology and cultural evolution approaches. In addition to differences in focus and methodology, these subdisciplines have traditionally varied in the emphasis placed on human universals, ecological factors and socially learned behaviour, and on how they have addressed the issue of genetic variation. We reaffirm that evolutionary theory provides an essential framework for understanding behavioural diversity within and between human populations, but argue that greater integration between the subfields is critical to developing a satisfactory understanding of diversity. PMID:21199836

  4. Evolutionary quantum game theory in the context of socio-economic systems; Evolutionaere Quanten-Spieltheorie im Kontext sozio-oekonomischer Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanauske, Matthias

    2011-02-14

    The evolution of socio-economic systems depend on the interdependent decision processes of its underlying system components. The mathematical model to describe the strategic decision of players within a socio-economic game is ''game theory''. ''Quantum game theory'' is a mathematical and conceptual amplification of classical game theory. The space of all conceivable decision paths is extended from the purely rational, measurable space in the Hilbert-space of complex numbers - which is the mathematical space where quantum theory is formulated. By the concept of a potential entanglement of the imaginary quantum strategy parts, it is possible to include cooperate decision path, caused by cultural or moral standards. If this strategy entanglement is large enough, then additional Nash equilibria can occur, previously present dominant strategies could become nonexistent and new evolutionary stable strategies do appear for some game classes. Within this PhD thesis the main results of classical and quantum games are summarized and all of the possible game classes of evolutionary (2 player)-(2 strategy) games are extended to quantum games. It is shown that the quantum extension of classical games with an underlying dilemma-like structure give different results, if the strength of strategic entanglement is above a certain barrier. After the German summary and the introduction paper, five different applications of the theory are discussed within the thesis. (orig.)

  5. Prospect Theory: Contributions to Understanding Actors, Causes and Consequences of Conflict in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Trott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite many recognized shortcomings, Rational Choice Theory remains the dominant perspective on decision-making in the literature on African conflict, whether overtly acknowledged or not. Prospect Theory, originally derived from the field of behavioural economics, can complement and advance this perspective not only by explaining the behaviour of actors, but also by allowing for predictions and the devising of strategies to avoid or end on-going conflicts based on a set of systematic biases that influence how actors make decisions. After a brief definition of Prospect Theory, this work will begin with an overview of the existing literature on decision-making as it relates to conflict, examine how Rational Choice is inadequate in explaining much human behaviour and thus how Prospect Theory can fill this gap. It will then move on to give a fuller definition of the various hypotheses derived from Prospect Theory that pertain to the study of conflict. An example of the application of Prospect Theory to a related field in which thorough research has been conducted, Deterrence Theory, will be used to demonstrate the model’s potential for study in other areas. This will be followed by a more in-depth analysis of the ways in which Prospect Theory can contribute to understanding the behaviour of actors in war, the causes of conflict, and the consequences in the African context. It will conclude with a summary and proposition for further research that can advance this analysis.

  6. A grounded theory approach to the subjective understanding of urban soundscape in Sheffield

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F.; Kang, J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain a greater insight into the factors that affect individuals' preferences and understanding of urban soundscapes. Based on a grounded theory approach, with 53 participants in Sheffield, five categories have been revealed for the subjective understanding of soundscape: soundscape definition, soundscape memory, soundscape sentiment, soundscape expectation, and soundscape aesthetics. More specifically, to some extent, the value people place on sounds does not lie i...

  7. Remembering the evolutionary Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allan

    2006-03-01

    Throughout his career as a writer, Sigmund Freud maintained an interest in the evolutionary origins of the human mind and its neurotic and psychotic disorders. In common with many writers then and now, he believed that the evolutionary past is conserved in the mind and the brain. Today the "evolutionary Freud" is nearly forgotten. Even among Freudians, he is regarded to be a red herring, relevant only to the extent that he diverts attention from the enduring achievements of the authentic Freud. There are three ways to explain these attitudes. First, the evolutionary Freud's key work is the "Overview of the Transference Neurosis" (1915). But it was published at an inopportune moment, forty years after the author's death, during the so-called "Freud wars." Second, Freud eventually lost interest in the "Overview" and the prospect of a comprehensive evolutionary theory of psychopathology. The publication of The Ego and the Id (1923), introducing Freud's structural theory of the psyche, marked the point of no return. Finally, Freud's evolutionary theory is simply not credible. It is based on just-so stories and a thoroughly discredited evolutionary mechanism, Lamarckian use-inheritance. Explanations one and two are probably correct but also uninteresting. Explanation number three assumes that there is a fundamental difference between Freud's evolutionary narratives (not credible) and the evolutionary accounts of psychopathology that currently circulate in psychiatry and mainstream journals (credible). The assumption is mistaken but worth investigating.

  8. Understanding self-controlled motor learning protocols through the self determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Sanli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT. Three micro theories within the macro theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory & Organismic Integration Theory are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  9. Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Elizabeth A; Patterson, Jae T; Bray, Steven R; Lee, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  10. Teaching and Learning Medication Calculations: A Grounded Theory of Conceptual Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susan

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to identify the process of nursing students' attainment of conceptual understanding when learning medication dosage calculations. This study utilized a grounded theory research design with a blended theoretical framework of constructivism and symbolic interaction. A process of conceptual understanding began with the teaching and learning experiences in the classroom and progressed to students' reengagement with the course content outside of the classroom. Confusion was the core category of the process. Students who were able to work through the confusion and solve problems were able to attain conceptual understanding and progress to more complex problem solving. Nurse educators need to identify teaching and learning strategies that promote conceptual understanding. Helping students to get beyond memorization and move to understanding of medication calculations can help students' critical thinking and problem solving ability and lead to conceptual understanding.

  11. Students' Understanding of Loops and Nested Loops in Computer Programming: An APOS Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding of loops and nested loops concepts. Sixty-three mechanical engineering students attending an introductory programming course participated in the study. APOS (Action, Process, Object, Schema) is a constructivist theory developed originally for mathematics education. This study is the…

  12. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  13. Describing Pre-Service Teachers' Developing Understanding of Elementary Number Theory Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ziv

    2012-01-01

    Although elementary number theory topics are closely linked to foundational topics in number and operations and are prevalent in elementary and middle grades mathematics curricula, little is currently known about how students and teachers make sense of them. This study investigated pre-service elementary teachers' developing understanding of…

  14. Imaginary Companions, Theory of Mind and Emotion Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Pons, Francisco; Bender, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of imaginary companions (ICs) has received little attention in developmental psychology, even though it can be observed in approximately 25% of preschool-aged children. Only a few studies have investigated the effect of ICs on children's theory of mind and emotion understanding, and the results are partial or inconsistent. This…

  15. Understanding the Nature of Science and Scientific Progress: A Theory-Building Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuy, Maria; Scardamalia, Marlene; Bereiter, Carl; Prinsen, Fleur; Resendes, Monica; Messina, Richard; Hunsburger, Winifred; Teplovs, Chris; Chow, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In 1993 Carey and Smith conjectured that the most promising way to boost students' understanding of the nature of science is a "theory-building approach to teaching about inquiry." The research reported here tested this conjecture by comparing results from two Grade 4 classrooms that differed in their emphasis on and technological…

  16. Imaginary companions, theory of mind and emotion understanding in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Pons, Francisco; Bender, Patrick Karl

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of imaginary companions (ICs) has received little attention in developmental psychology, even though it can be observed in approximately 25% of preschool-aged children. Only a few studies have investigated the effect of ICs on children's theory of mind and emotion understanding, an...

  17. “‘What Is Ethical Cannot be Taught’ – Understanding Moral Theories as Descriptions of Moral Grammar”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Marie Søndergaard

    2018-01-01

    become some of the most prominent critics of both particular contemporary moral theories and the idea of moral theory as such. Nonetheless, we will see how Wittgenstein’s later philosophy offers us resources for a revised understanding of the role and status of moral theories according to which theories...

  18. Understanding valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory using origami molecular models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endah Saraswati, Teguh; Saputro, Sulistyo; Ramli, Murni; Praseptiangga, Danar; Khasanah, Nurul; Marwati, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is conventionally used to predict molecular geometry. However, it is difficult to explore the full implications of this theory by simply drawing chemical structures. Here, we introduce origami modelling as a more accessible approach for exploration of the VSEPR theory. Our technique is simple, readily accessible and inexpensive compared with other sophisticated methods such as computer simulation or commercial three-dimensional modelling kits. This method can be implemented in chemistry education at both the high school and university levels. We discuss the example of a simple molecular structure prediction for ammonia (NH3). Using the origami model, both molecular shape and the scientific justification can be visualized easily. This ‘hands-on’ approach to building molecules will help promote understanding of VSEPR theory.

  19. Understanding valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory using origami molecular models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswati, Teguh Endah; Saputro, Sulistyo; Ramli, Murni; Praseptiangga, Danar; Khasanah, Nurul; Marwati, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is conventionally used to predict molecular geometry. However, it is difficult to explore the full implications of this theory by simply drawing chemical structures. Here, we introduce origami modelling as a more accessible approach for exploration of the VSEPR theory. Our technique is simple, readily accessible and inexpensive compared with other sophisticated methods such as computer simulation or commercial three-dimensional modelling kits. This method can be implemented in chemistry education at both the high school and university levels. We discuss the example of a simple molecular structure prediction for ammonia (NH_3). Using the origami model, both molecular shape and the scientific justification can be visualized easily. This ‘hands-on’ approach to building molecules will help promote understanding of VSEPR theory. (paper)

  20. Applying Ecodevelopmental Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understand HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Johis; Huang, Shi; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-03

    HIV/AIDS is listed as one of the top 10 reasons for the death of Hispanics between the ages of 15 and 54 in the United States. This cross sectional, descriptive secondary study proposed that using both the systemic (ecodevelopmental) and the individually focused (theory of reasoned action) theories together would lead to an increased understanding of the risk and protective factors that influence HIV risk behaviors in this population. The sample consisted of 493 Hispanic adolescent 7th and 8th graders and their immigrant parents living in Miami, Florida. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used for the data analysis. Family functioning emerged as the heart of the model, embedded within a web of direct and mediated relationships. The data support the idea that family can play a central role in the prevention of Hispanic adolescents' risk behaviors.

  1. Linguistic inter-understanding gives evidence in favor of the mental models theory: Induction and comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López-Astorga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic inter-understanding is a communicative phenomenon that is well known and that has been studied in detail. It basically consists of the fact that an individual speaking a language is able to understand another person speaking a different language, and this without deeply knowing this last language or being able to express himself/herself in it. The phenomenon, which is especially frequent in the case of very similar languages, occurs because of certain inferential processes that can happen in the human mind when people try to interpret information in a distinct language. In this way, the main aim of this paper is to show how such processes are very akin to some of those that the mental models theory attributes to the human reasoning ability, and that hence linguistic inter-understanding can be considered as evidence that this last theory is, at least partially, correct.

  2. The Foundation Role for Theories of Agency in Understanding Information Systems Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Johnston

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that theories of agency form a foundation upon which we can build a deeper understanding of information systems design. We do so by firstly recognising that information systems are part of purposeful sociotechnical systems and that consequently theories of agency may help in understanding them. We then present two alternative theories of agency (deliberative and situational, mainly drawn from the robotics and artificial intelligence disciplines, and in doing so, we note that existing information system design methods and ontological studies of those methods implicitly adhere to the deliberative theory of agency. We also note that while there are advantages in specific circumstances from utilising the situated theory of agency in designing complex systems, because of their differing ontological commitments, such systems would be difficult to analyse and evaluate using ontologies currently used in information systems. We then provide evidence that such situational information systems can indeed exist, by giving a specific example (the Kanban system, which has emerged from manufacturing practice. We conclude that information systems are likely to benefit from creating design approaches supporting the production of situational systems.

  3. When Injury Clouds Understanding of Others: Theory of Mind after Mild TBI in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellerose, Jenny; Bernier, Annie; Beaudoin, Cindy; Gravel, Jocelyn; Beauchamp, Miriam H

    2015-08-01

    There is evidence to suggest that social skills, such as the ability to understand the perspective of others (theory of mind), may be affected by childhood traumatic brain injuries; however, studies to date have only considered moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aimed to assess theory of mind after early, mild TBI (mTBI). Fifty-one children who sustained mTBI between 18 and 60 months were evaluated 6 months post-injury on emotion and desires reasoning and false-belief understanding tasks. Their results were compared to that of 50 typically developing children. The two groups did not differ on baseline characteristics, except for pre- and post-injury externalizing behavior. The mTBI group obtained poorer scores relative to controls on both the emotion and desires task and the false-belief understanding task, even after controlling for pre-injury externalizing behavior. No correlations were found between TBI injury characteristics and theory of mind. This is the first evidence that mTBI in preschool children is associated with theory of mind difficulties. Reduced perspective taking abilities could be linked with the social impairments that have been shown to arise following TBI.

  4. Understanding schizophrenia as a disorder of consciousness: biological correlates and translational implications from quantum theory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2015-04-30

    From neurophenomenological perspectives, schizophrenia has been conceptualized as "a disorder with heterogeneous manifestations that can be integrally understood to involve fundamental perturbations in consciousness". While these theoretical constructs based on consciousness facilitate understanding the 'gestalt' of schizophrenia, systematic research to unravel translational implications of these models is warranted. To address this, one needs to begin with exploration of plausible biological underpinnings of "perturbed consciousness" in schizophrenia. In this context, an attractive proposition to understand the biology of consciousness is "the orchestrated object reduction (Orch-OR) theory" which invokes quantum processes in the microtubules of neurons. The Orch-OR model is particularly important for understanding schizophrenia especially due to the shared 'scaffold' of microtubules. The initial sections of this review focus on the compelling evidence to support the view that "schizophrenia is a disorder of consciousness" through critical summary of the studies that have demonstrated self-abnormalities, aberrant time perception as well as dysfunctional intentional binding in this disorder. Subsequently, these findings are linked with 'Orch-OR theory' through the research evidence for aberrant neural oscillations as well as microtubule abnormalities observed in schizophrenia. Further sections emphasize the applicability and translational implications of Orch-OR theory in the context of schizophrenia and elucidate the relevance of quantum biology to understand the origins of this puzzling disorder as "fundamental disturbances in consciousness".

  5. Personal construct psychology: a theory to help understand professional development, a philosophy to support it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.

  6. Understanding the dimensions of intensive care: transpersonal caring and complexity theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Keyla Cristiane; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2009-01-01

    This is a descriptive, interpretive and qualitative study carried out at the ICU of a Brazilian teaching hospital. It aimed to understand the dimensions of human caring experienced by health care professionals, clients and their family members at an ICU, based on human caring complexity. The Transpersonal Caring and Complexity theories support theory and data analysis. The following dimensions of care emerged from the themes analyzed according to Ricoeur: self-care, care as an individual value, professional vs. informal care, care as supportive relationship, affective care, humanized care, care as act/attitude, care practice; educative care, dialogical relationship, care coupled to technology, loving care, interactive care, non-care, care ambience, the essence of life and profession, and meaning/purpose of care. We believe in care that encompasses several dimensions presented here, based on the relationship with the other, on the empathetic, sensitive, affectionate, creative, dynamic and understanding being in the totality of the human being.

  7. Using theories of practice to understand HIV-positive persons varied engagement with HIV services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten; Wringe, Alison; Seeley, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This article considers the potential of ‘theories of practice’ for studying and understanding varied (dis)engagement with HIV care and treatment services and begins to unpack the assemblage of elements and practices that shape the nature and duration of individuals’ interactions...... with HIV services. Methods: We obtained data from a multicountry qualitative study that explores the use of HIV care and treatment services, with a focus on examining the social organisation of engagement with care as a practice and as manifested in the lives of people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa...... engagement with HIV services and were intrinsically linked to the discursive, cultural, political and economic fabric of the participating countries. Conclusion: Practice theory provides HIV researchers and practitioners with a useful vocabulary and analytical tools to understand and steer people...

  8. A framework for evolutionary systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Laurence

    2009-02-24

    Many difficult problems in evolutionary genomics are related to mutations that have weak effects on fitness, as the consequences of mutations with large effects are often simple to predict. Current systems biology has accumulated much data on mutations with large effects and can predict the properties of knockout mutants in some systems. However experimental methods are too insensitive to observe small effects. Here I propose a novel framework that brings together evolutionary theory and current systems biology approaches in order to quantify small effects of mutations and their epistatic interactions in silico. Central to this approach is the definition of fitness correlates that can be computed in some current systems biology models employing the rigorous algorithms that are at the core of much work in computational systems biology. The framework exploits synergies between the realism of such models and the need to understand real systems in evolutionary theory. This framework can address many longstanding topics in evolutionary biology by defining various 'levels' of the adaptive landscape. Addressed topics include the distribution of mutational effects on fitness, as well as the nature of advantageous mutations, epistasis and robustness. Combining corresponding parameter estimates with population genetics models raises the possibility of testing evolutionary hypotheses at a new level of realism. EvoSysBio is expected to lead to a more detailed understanding of the fundamental principles of life by combining knowledge about well-known biological systems from several disciplines. This will benefit both evolutionary theory and current systems biology. Understanding robustness by analysing distributions of mutational effects and epistasis is pivotal for drug design, cancer research, responsible genetic engineering in synthetic biology and many other practical applications.

  9. Exploring potentials of sense-making theory for understanding social processes in public hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    This paper has point of departure in a planning process on energy infrastructure in Denmark and focuses on a particular public hearing meeting characterised by trenchant opposition and distrust to the authorities among the public. It points at the need to understand the interaction between author...... of such a public meeting and the importance of trust and openness in the social processes in a public hearing....... authorities and the public in such planning often characterised by conflict. A sense-making framework is developed based on Karl Weick's theory to investigate how participants at the meeting change their understanding aspects like other actors' opinions and the infrastructure project. Through interviews...

  10. EXAMINING THE STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING LEVEL TOWARDS THE CONCEPTS OF SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Özcan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Special theory of relativity is one of the difficult subjects of physics to be understood by the students. The current research designed as a qualitative research aim to determine the pre-service physics teachers’ understanding level and the alternative conceptions about three core concepts of special theory of relativity, such as time dilatation, length contraction and reference frames. The data were collected through semi structured interviews and were analyzed by using content analysis. At the end of the analysis process the understanding level of the students was determined to be “complete understanding”, “incomplete understanding” and “misunderstanding”. In order to achieve this, the students’ conceptual frameworks based on the operational definitions made by the students were determined firstly. The findings obtained in this research indicate that high school teachers as well as university instructors should take special care with some points in the teaching of the subjects related with special theory of relativity. This research might be useful to other studies to be done in the future, especially for investigating the students’ mental models related to special theory of relativity.

  11. CEOS Theory: A Comprehensive Approach to Understanding Hard to Maintain Behaviour Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Ron

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to CEOS theory, a comprehensive theory for understanding hard to maintain behaviour change. The name CEOS is an acronym for Context, Executive, and Operational Systems theory. Behaviour is theorised to be the result of the moment by moment interaction between internal needs (operational processes) in relation to environmental conditions, and for humans this is augmented by goal-directed, executive action which can transcend immediate contingencies. All behaviour is generated by operational processes. Goal-directed behaviours only triumph over contingency-generated competing behaviours when operational processes have been sufficiently activated to support them. Affective force can be generated around executive system (ES) goals from such things as memories of direct experience, vicarious experience, and emotionally charged communications mediated through stories the person generates. This paper makes some refinements and elaborations of the theory, particularly around the role of feelings, and of the importance of stories and scripts for facilitating executive action. It also sketches out how it reconceptualises a range of issues relevant to behaviour change. CEOS provides a framework for understanding the limitations of both informational and environmental approaches to behaviour change, the need for self-regulatory strategies and for taking into account more basic aspects of human functioning. © 2016 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  12. Using Bourdieu's theory of practice to understand ICT use amongst nurse educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Dit-Dariel, Odessa; Wharrad, Heather; Windle, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Implementing changes in practice in either clinical or educational settings remains challenging. In the context of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) adoption, the literature focuses either on organisational factors influencing its implementation, or on individual factors influencing its adoption into practice. Separately both fail to examine the issue holistically. Bourdieu's theory of practice provides a method for reconciling the two. To provide a practical example of how Bourdieu's theory of practice can be employed to better understand nurse educators' responses to ICT. Exploratory descriptive design, using a Bourdieusian case-study to guide a documentary analysis. In 2009 a two-part study was conducted within a Department of Nursing (DON) in higher education (HE) in England. First Bourdieu's theory of practice was used to develop a case-study; then nurse educators were recruited for a Q-methodology (Q) study. This paper focuses exclusively on the case study and the use of the theory of practice to interpret the findings from the Q-study. Nursing's transition into academia, promotions criteria in HE and the value placed on research over teaching have influenced educators' responses to technology. The use of Bourdieu's framework provides a rich and contextual backdrop for understanding how organisational factors interact to influence individuals' responses to technology adoption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Christian faith-based recovery theory: understanding God as sponsor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Shirley M

    2012-12-01

    This article reports the development of a substantive theory to explain an evangelical Christian-based process of recovery from addiction. Faith-based, 12-step, mutual aid programs can improve drug abstinence by offering: (a) an intervention option alone and/or in conjunction with secular programs and (b) an opportunity for religious involvement. Although literature on religion, spirituality, and addiction is voluminous, traditional 12-step programs fail to explain the mechanism that underpins the process of Christian-based recovery (CR). This pilot study used grounded theory to explore and describe the essence of recovery of 10 former crack cocaine-addicted persons voluntarily enrolled in a CR program. Data were collected from in-depth interviews during 4 months of 2008. Audiotapes were transcribed verbatim, and the constant comparative method was used to analyze data resulting in the basic social process theory, understanding God as sponsor. The theory was determined through writing theoretical memos that generated key elements that allow persons to recover: acknowledging God-centered crises, communicating with God, and planning for the future. Findings from this preliminary study identifies important factors that can help persons in recovery to sustain sobriety and program administrators to benefit from theory that guides the development of evidence-based addiction interventions.

  14. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweiki E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement

  15. Generating or developing grounded theory: methods to understand health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Grounded theory is a qualitative research methodology that aims to explain social phenomena, e.g. why particular motivations or patterns of behaviour occur, at a conceptual level. Developed in the 1960s by Glaser and Strauss, the methodology has been reinterpreted by Strauss and Corbin in more recent times, resulting in different schools of thought. Differences arise from different philosophical perspectives concerning knowledge (epistemology) and the nature of reality (ontology), demanding that researchers make clear theoretical choices at the commencement of their research when choosing this methodology. Compared to other qualitative methods it has ability to achieve understanding of, rather than simply describing, a social phenomenon. Achieving understanding however, requires theoretical sampling to choose interviewees that can contribute most to the research and understanding of the phenomenon, and constant comparison of interviews to evaluate the same event or process in different settings or situations. Sampling continues until conceptual saturation is reached, i.e. when no new concepts emerge from the data. Data analysis focusses on categorising data (finding the main elements of what is occurring and why), and describing those categories in terms of properties (conceptual characteristics that define the category and give meaning) and dimensions (the variations within properties which produce specificity and range). Ultimately a core category which theoretically explains how all other categories are linked together is developed from the data. While achieving theoretical abstraction in the core category, it should be logical and capture all of the variation within the data. Theory development requires understanding of the methodology not just working through a set of procedures. This article provides a basic overview, set in the literature surrounding grounded theory, for those wanting to increase their understanding and quality of research output.

  16. NifH and NifD phylogenies: an evolutionary basis for understanding nitrogen fixation capabilities of methanotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Ricke, Peter; Liesack, Werner

    2004-05-01

    The ability to utilize dinitrogen as a nitrogen source is an important phenotypic trait in most currently known methanotrophic bacteria (MB). This trait is especially important for acidophilic MB, which inhabit acidic oligotrophic environments, highly depleted in available nitrogen compounds. Phylogenetically, acidophilic MB are most closely related to heterotrophic dinitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus BEIJERINCKIA: To further explore the phylogenetic linkage between these metabolically different organisms, the sequences of nifH and nifD gene fragments from acidophilic MB of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa, and from representatives of Beijerinckia, were determined. For reference, nifH and nifD sequences were also obtained from some type II MB of the alphaproteobacterial Methylosinus/Methylocystis group and from gammaproteobacterial type I MB. The trees constructed for the inferred amino acid sequences of nifH and nifD were highly congruent. The phylogenetic relationships among MB in the NifH and NifD trees also agreed well with the corresponding 16S rRNA-based phylogeny, except for two distinctive features. First, different methods used for phylogenetic analysis grouped the NifH and NifD sequences of strains of the gammaproteobacterial MB Methylococcus capsulatus within a clade mainly characterized by Alphaproteobacteria, including acidophilic MB and type II MB of the Methylosinus/Methylocystis group. From this and other genomic data from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, it is proposed that an ancient event of lateral gene transfer was responsible for this aberrant branching. Second, the identity values of NifH and NifD sequences between Methylocapsa acidiphila B2 and representatives of Beijerinckia were clearly higher (98.5 and 96.6 %, respectively) than would be expected from their 16S rRNA-based relationships. Possibly, these two bacteria originated from a common acidophilic dinitrogen-fixing ancestor, and were subject to similar evolutionary pressure

  17. Integrating evolutionary game theory into an agent-based model of ductal carcinoma in situ: Role of gap junctions in cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekian, Negin; Habibi, Jafar; Zangooei, Mohammad Hossein; Aghakhani, Hojjat

    2016-11-01

    There are many cells with various phenotypic behaviors in cancer interacting with each other. For example, an apoptotic cell may induce apoptosis in adjacent cells. A living cell can also protect cells from undergoing apoptosis and necrosis. These survival and death signals are propagated through interaction pathways between adjacent cells called gap junctions. The function of these signals depends on the cellular context of the cell receiving them. For instance, a receiver cell experiencing a low level of oxygen may interpret a received survival signal as an apoptosis signal. In this study, we examine the effect of these signals on tumor growth. We make an evolutionary game theory component in order to model the signal propagation through gap junctions. The game payoffs are defined as a function of cellular context. Then, the game theory component is integrated into an agent-based model of tumor growth. After that, the integrated model is applied to ductal carcinoma in situ, a type of early stage breast cancer. Different scenarios are explored to observe the impact of the gap junction communication and parameters of the game theory component on cancer progression. We compare these scenarios by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test succeeds in proving a significant difference between the tumor growth of the model before and after considering the gap junction communication. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test also proves that the tumor growth significantly depends on the oxygen threshold of turning survival signals into apoptosis. In this study, the gap junction communication is modeled by using evolutionary game theory to illustrate its role at early stage cancers such as ductal carcinoma in situ. This work indicates that the gap junction communication and the oxygen threshold of turning survival signals into apoptosis can notably affect cancer progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Theory of mind and children’s understanding of teaching and learning during early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlin Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How children understand the concepts of teaching and learning is inherently underpinned by their mental state understanding and critical to the successful transition to formal schooling. Knowledge is a private representational mental state; learning is a knowledge change process that can be either intentional or not; and teaching is an intentional attempt to change others’ knowledge state. Theory of mind (ToM facilitates children’s understanding of knowledge state and change as well as teaching and learning intention in various aspects, including knowing you do not know; knowing what other people know; knowing that other people do not know what you know; and knowing how knowledge comes about. This paper highlights the integral relation between children’s ToM development and their teaching and learning concept based on review of empirical research and discusses the implication for early childhood education and school transition.

  19. Fixation Time for Evolutionary Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai

    Evolutionary graph theory (EGT) is recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. EGT is successful for explaining biological evolution and some social phenomena. It is extremely important to consider the time of fixation for EGT in many practical problems, including evolutionary theory and the evolution of cooperation. This study characterizes the time to asymptotically reach fixation.

  20. Expanding the understanding of motivation in the theory of public service contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    The understanding of what drives efficient performance is only partial in the standard theory of public service contracting where performance essentially is explained as dependent on extrinsic incentives. In this paper I claim that intrinsic motivations and the dynamics between intrinsic motivati......The understanding of what drives efficient performance is only partial in the standard theory of public service contracting where performance essentially is explained as dependent on extrinsic incentives. In this paper I claim that intrinsic motivations and the dynamics between intrinsic...... motivations and extrinsic incentives also have a role for explaining performance. This role is not limited to shifts from the public to the private service sector, as suggested by current supplements to standard theory, but it is also extended to play a part in on-going and recurrent contractual relationships...... with private service providers. In order to address my claim, I provide an embedded case study based on qualitative data of motivations and motivational dynamics within a set of external contractual relations managed through a performance management scheme by a public contracting agency. I find...

  1. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  2. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  3. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples' behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of "leaders" on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of "followers", people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  4. Rethinking the patient: using Burden of Treatment Theory to understand the changing dynamics of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Carl R; Eton, David T; Boehmer, Kasey; Gallacher, Katie; Hunt, Katherine; MacDonald, Sara; Mair, Frances S; May, Christine M; Montori, Victor M; Richardson, Alison; Rogers, Anne E; Shippee, Nathan

    2014-06-26

    In this article we outline Burden of Treatment Theory, a new model of the relationship between sick people, their social networks, and healthcare services. Health services face the challenge of growing populations with long-term and life-limiting conditions, they have responded to this by delegating to sick people and their networks routine work aimed at managing symptoms, and at retarding - and sometimes preventing - disease progression. This is the new proactive work of patient-hood for which patients are increasingly accountable: founded on ideas about self-care, self-empowerment, and self-actualization, and on new technologies and treatment modalities which can be shifted from the clinic into the community. These place new demands on sick people, which they may experience as burdens of treatment. As the burdens accumulate some patients are overwhelmed, and the consequences are likely to be poor healthcare outcomes for individual patients, increasing strain on caregivers, and rising demand and costs of healthcare services. In the face of these challenges we need to better understand the resources that patients draw upon as they respond to the demands of both burdens of illness and burdens of treatment, and the ways that resources interact with healthcare utilization. Burden of Treatment Theory is oriented to understanding how capacity for action interacts with the work that stems from healthcare. Burden of Treatment Theory is a structural model that focuses on the work that patients and their networks do. It thus helps us understand variations in healthcare utilization and adherence in different healthcare settings and clinical contexts.

  5. The Development of Danish OHS Regulation - Organizational Understanding and Program Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim, Rikke; Jensen, Per Langaa; Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on a major recent amendment of the Danish Working Environment regulation concerning the cooperation of health and safety between employees and employer. The amendment, which came into force in October 2010, consists of four elements: 1) change of terminology, 2) flexibility...... in organizing OHS, 3) link between the companies’ overall strategic management and OHS and 4) continuously competence development for the health and safety representatives. In this paper we present and analyze the individual elements of the legislative amendment. Subsequent we investigate the organizational...... understanding that underlies the amendment and we explore the program theory that the different elements of the reform subscribe to....

  6. Sex differences in sex drive, sociosexuality, and height across 53 nations: testing evolutionary and social structural theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A

    2009-10-01

    By analyzing cross-cultural patterns in five parameters--sex differences, male and female trait means, male and female trait standard deviations--researchers can better test evolutionary and social structural models of sex differences. Five models of biological and social structural influence are presented that illustrate this proposal. Using data from 53 nations and from over 200,000 participants surveyed in a recent BBC Internet survey, I examined cross-cultural patterns in these five parameters for two sexual traits--sex drive and sociosexuality--and for height, a physical trait with a biologically based sex difference. Sex drive, sociosexuality, and height all showed consistent sex differences across nations (mean ds = .62, .74, and 1.63). Women were consistently more variable than men in sex drive (mean female to male variance ratio = 1.64). Gender equality and economic development tended to predict, across nations, sex differences in sociosexuality, but not sex differences in sex drive or height. Parameters for sociosexuality tended to vary across nations more than parameters for sex drive and height did. The results for sociosexuality were most consistent with a hybrid model--that both biological and social structural influences contribute to sex differences, whereas the results for sex drive and height were most consistent with a biological model--that evolved biological factors are the primary cause of sex differences. The model testing proposed here encourages evolutionary and social structural theorists to make more precise and nuanced predictions about the patterning of sex differences across cultures.

  7. Evolutionary Connectionism: Algorithmic Principles Underlying the Evolution of Biological Organisation in Evo-Devo, Evo-Eco and Evolutionary Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard A; Mills, Rob; Buckley, C L; Kouvaris, Kostas; Jackson, Adam; Powers, Simon T; Cox, Chris; Tudge, Simon; Davies, Adam; Kounios, Loizos; Power, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of variation, selection and inheritance, on which evolution by natural selection depends, are not fixed over evolutionary time. Current evolutionary biology is increasingly focussed on understanding how the evolution of developmental organisations modifies the distribution of phenotypic variation, the evolution of ecological relationships modifies the selective environment, and the evolution of reproductive relationships modifies the heritability of the evolutionary unit. The major transitions in evolution, in particular, involve radical changes in developmental, ecological and reproductive organisations that instantiate variation, selection and inheritance at a higher level of biological organisation. However, current evolutionary theory is poorly equipped to describe how these organisations change over evolutionary time and especially how that results in adaptive complexes at successive scales of organisation (the key problem is that evolution is self-referential, i.e. the products of evolution change the parameters of the evolutionary process). Here we first reinterpret the central open questions in these domains from a perspective that emphasises the common underlying themes. We then synthesise the findings from a developing body of work that is building a new theoretical approach to these questions by converting well-understood theory and results from models of cognitive learning. Specifically, connectionist models of memory and learning demonstrate how simple incremental mechanisms, adjusting the relationships between individually-simple components, can produce organisations that exhibit complex system-level behaviours and improve the adaptive capabilities of the system. We use the term "evolutionary connectionism" to recognise that, by functionally equivalent processes, natural selection acting on the relationships within and between evolutionary entities can result in organisations that produce complex system-level behaviours in evolutionary

  8. Sympathy, empathy, and compassion: A grounded theory study of palliative care patients' understandings, experiences, and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Shane; Beamer, Kate; Hack, Thomas F; McClement, Susan; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Chochinov, Harvey M; Hagen, Neil A

    2017-05-01

    Compassion is considered an essential element in quality patient care. One of the conceptual challenges in healthcare literature is that compassion is often confused with sympathy and empathy. Studies comparing and contrasting patients' perspectives of sympathy, empathy, and compassion are largely absent. The aim of this study was to investigate advanced cancer patients' understandings, experiences, and preferences of "sympathy," "empathy," and "compassion" in order to develop conceptual clarity for future research and to inform clinical practice. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and then independently analyzed by the research team using the three stages and principles of Straussian grounded theory. Data were collected from 53 advanced cancer inpatients in a large urban hospital. Constructs of sympathy, empathy, and compassion contain distinct themes and sub-themes. Sympathy was described as an unwanted, pity-based response to a distressing situation, characterized by a lack of understanding and self-preservation of the observer. Empathy was experienced as an affective response that acknowledges and attempts to understand individual's suffering through emotional resonance. Compassion enhanced the key facets of empathy while adding distinct features of being motivated by love, the altruistic role of the responder, action, and small, supererogatory acts of kindness. Patients reported that unlike sympathy, empathy and compassion were beneficial, with compassion being the most preferred and impactful. Although sympathy, empathy, and compassion are used interchangeably and frequently conflated in healthcare literature, patients distinguish and experience them uniquely. Understanding patients' perspectives is important and can guide practice, policy reform, and future research.

  9. Theory that explains an Aboriginal perspective of learning to understand and manage diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Emma; Johnson, Craig; Kemp, Bernie; Smith, Valerie; Johnson, Monica; Townsend, Billie

    2017-02-01

    To use grounded theory and participatory research methodology to explain how Aboriginal people learn to understand and manage type 2 diabetes. Aboriginal people with diabetes were invited to participate in one of five focus groups (n=25, male=12, female=13). Focus groups and education sessions were conducted by Aboriginal members of the research team. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed, with coding and first level analysis undertaken by all members of the research team. Participants described colonisation and dislocation from Country and family members' experiences with diabetes as significant historical influences which, in conjunction with the model of care experienced and the type of interaction with health services, shaped how they came to understand and manage their diabetes. Patient experience of a model of care alone is not what influences understanding and management of diabetes in Aboriginal people. Implications for Public Health: Health service improvements should focus on understanding past experiences of Aboriginal patients, improving interactions with health services and supporting holistic family centred models of care. Focusing on just the model of care in absence of other improvements is unlikely to deliver health benefits to Aboriginal people. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Using Sandia's Z Machine and Density Functional Theory Simulations to Understand Planetary Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Seth

    2017-06-01

    The use of Z, NIF, and Omega have produced many breakthrough results in high pressure physics. One area that has greatly benefited from these facilities is the planetary sciences. The high pressure behavior of planetary materials has implications for numerous geophysical and planetary processes. The continuing discovery of exosolar super-Earths demonstrates the need for accurate equation of state data to better inform our models of their interior structures. Planetary collision processes, such as the moon-forming giant impact, require understanding planetary materials over a wide-range of pressures and temperatures. Using Z, we examined the shock compression response of some common planetary materials: MgO, Mg2SiO4, and Fe2O3 (hematite). We compare the experimental shock compression measurements with density functional theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. The combination of experiment and theory provides clearer understanding of planetary materials properties at extreme conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Understanding the nature of apraxia of speech: Theory, analysis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrie J. Ballard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have interpreted the behaviours of individuals with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS as impairment of linguistic phonological processing, motor control, or both. Acoustic, kinematic, and perceptual studies of speech in more recent years have led to significant advances in our understanding of the disorder and wide acceptance that it affects phonetic - motoric planning of speech. However, newly developed methods for studying nonspeech motor control are providing new insights, indicating that the motor control impairment of AOS extends beyond speech and is manifest in nonspeech movements of the oral structures. We present the most recent developments in theory and methods to examine and define the nature of AOS. Theories of the disorder are then related to existing treatment approaches and the efficacy of these approaches is examined. Directions for development of new treatments are posited. It is proposed that treatment programmes driven by a principled account of how the motor system learns to produce skilled actions will provide the most efficient and effective framework for treating motorbased speech disorders. In turn, well controlled and theoretically motivated studies of treatment efficacy promise to stimulate further development of theoretical accounts and contribute to our understanding of AOS.

  12. Understanding the divide between the theory and practice of organisational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Pollack

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different ways that academics and practitioners write about and discuss change management, to develop an understanding of whether there is a divide between the theory and practice of change management. This research used scientometric research techniques to compare three corpora: one based on the most cited research in the general management literature on change management; one based on the most cited research in specialist change management journals; and one based on interviews with practising change managers. It was found that the general management literature emphasised an abstract understanding of knowledge management and the learning organisation, while the change management literature focused more on issues associated with value, culture and social identity. The practitioners emphasised issues at the individual, project and team levels, the need for the effective use of targeted communication to achieve organisational change objectives, and the value of rapidly identifying key drivers in a new context. This research found significant differences between these three corpora, which lends support to other researchers’ claims of a divide between theory and practice in change management.

  13. Understanding family health information seeking: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    Although a family health history can be used to assess disease risk and increase health prevention behaviors, research suggests that few people have collected family health information. Guided by the Theory of Motivated Information Management, this study seeks to understand the barriers to and facilitators of interpersonal information seeking about family health history. Individuals who were engaged to be married (N = 306) were surveyed online and in person to understand how factors such as uncertainty, expectations for an information search, efficacy, and anxiety influence decisions and strategies for obtaining family health histories. The results supported the Theory of Motivated Information Management by demonstrating that individuals who experienced uncertainty discrepancies regarding family heath history had greater intention to seek information from family members when anxiety was low, outcome expectancy was high, and communication efficacy was positive. Although raising uncertainty about family health history may be an effective tool for health communicators to increase communication among family members, low-anxiety situations may be optimal for information seeking. Health communication messages must also build confidence in people's ability to communicate with family to obtain the needed health information.

  14. Adaptive radiation of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 in experimental microcosms provides an understanding of the evolutionary ecology and molecular biology of A-L interface biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Anna; Kusmierska, Anna; McLaughlin, Kimberley; Moshynets, Olena; Spiers, Andrew J

    2017-07-03

    Combined experimental evolutionary and molecular biology approaches have been used to investigate the adaptive radiation of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 in static microcosms leading to the colonisation of the air-liquid interface by biofilm-forming mutants such as the Wrinkly Spreader (WS). In these microcosms, the ecosystem engineering of the early wild-type colonists establishes the niche space for subsequent WS evolution and colonisation. Random WS mutations occurring in the developing population that deregulate diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP homeostasis result in cellulose-based biofilms at the air-liquid interface. These structures allow Wrinkly Spreaders to intercept O2 diffusing into the liquid column and limit the growth of competitors lower down. As the biofilm matures, competition increasingly occurs between WS lineages, and niche divergence within the biofilm may support further diversification before system failure when the structure finally sinks. A combination of pleiotropic and epistasis effects, as well as secondary mutations, may explain variations in WS phenotype and fitness. Understanding how mutations subvert regulatory networks to express intrinsic genome potential and key innovations providing a selective advantage in novel environments is key to understanding the versatility of bacteria, and how selection and ecological opportunity can rapidly lead to substantive changes in phenotype and in community structure and function. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The numeracy understanding in medicine instrument: a measure of health numeracy developed using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Marilyn M; Walker, Cindy M; Cappaert, Kevin J; Ganschow, Pamela S; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; McGinley, Emily L; Del Pozo, Sam; Schauer, Carrie; Tarima, Sergey; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Health numeracy can be defined as the ability to understand and apply information conveyed with numbers, tables and graphs, probabilities, and statistics to effectively communicate with health care providers, take care of one's health, and participate in medical decisions. To develop the Numeracy Understanding in Medicine Instrument (NUMi) using item response theory scaling methods. A 20-item test was formed drawing from an item bank of numeracy questions. Items were calibrated using responses from 1000 participants and a 2-parameter item response theory model. Construct validity was assessed by comparing scores on the NUMi to established measures of print and numeric health literacy, mathematic achievement, and cognitive aptitude. Community and clinical populations in the Milwaukee and Chicago metropolitan areas. Twenty-nine percent of the 1000 respondents were Hispanic, 24% were non-Hispanic white, and 42% were non-Hispanic black. Forty-one percent had no more than a high school education. The mean score on the NUMi was 13.2 (s = 4.6) with a Cronbach α of 0.86. Difficulty and discrimination item response theory parameters of the 20 items ranged from -1.70 to 1.45 and 0.39 to 1.98, respectively. Performance on the NUMi was strongly correlated with the Wide Range Achievement Test-Arithmetic (0.73, P < 0.001), the Lipkus Expanded Numeracy Scale (0.69, P < 0.001), the Medical Data Interpretation Test (0.75, P < 0.001), and the Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test (0.82, P < 0.001). Performance was moderately correlated to the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy (0.43, P < 0.001). The NUMi was found to be most discriminating among respondents with a lower-than-average level of health numeracy. The NUMi can be applied in research and clinical settings as a robust measure of the health numeracy construct.

  16. Evolutionary developmental perspective for the origin of turtles: the folding theory for the shell based on the developmental nature of the carapacial ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The body plan of the turtle represents an example of evolutionary novelty for acquisition of the shell. Unlike similar armors in other vertebrate groups, the turtle shell involves the developmental repatterning of the axial skeleton and exhibits an unusual topography of musculoskeletal elements. Thus, the turtle provides an ideal case study for understanding changes in the developmental program associated with the morphological evolution of vertebrates. In this article, the evolution of the turtle-specific body plan is reviewed and discussed. The key to understanding shell patterning lies in the modification of the ribs, for which the carapacial ridge (CR), a turtle-specific embryonic anlage, is assumed to be responsible. The growth of the ribs is arrested in the axial part of the body, allowing dorsal and lateral oriented growth to encapsulate the scapula. Although the CR does not appear to induce this axial arrest per se, it has been shown to support the fan-shaped patterning of the ribs, which occurs concomitant with marginal growth of the carapace along the line of the turtle-specific folding that takes place in the lateral body wall. During the process of the folding, some trunk muscles maintain their ancestral connectivities, whereas the limb muscles establish new attachments specific to the turtle. The turtle body plan can thus be explained with our knowledge of vertebrate anatomy and developmental biology, consistent with the evolutionary origin of the turtle suggested by the recently discovered fossil species, Odontochelys. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Freud: the first evolutionary psychologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCroy, D

    2000-04-01

    An evolutionary perspective on attachment theory and psychoanalytic theory brings these two fields together in interesting ways. Application of the evolutionary principle of parent-offspring conflict to attachment theory suggests that attachment styles represent context-sensitive, evolved (adaptive) behaviors. In addition, an emphasis on offspring counter-strategies to adult reproductive strategies leads to consideration of attachment styles as overt manifestations of psychodynamic mediating processes, including the defense mechanisms of repression and reaction formation.

  18. Learning network theory : its contribution to our understanding of work-based learning projects and learning climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, R.F.; Moorsel, M.A.A.H. van

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of Van der Krogt's learning network theory (1995) for our understanding of the concepts of work-related learning projects and learning climate in organisations. The main assumptions of the learning network theory are presented and transferred to the level of

  19. Toward a Better Understanding of Population Genetics: Pop!World--A Virtual, Inquiry-Based Tool for Teaching Population Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Jessica; Ramamurthy, Bina; Dittmar, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Population genetics is fundamental to understanding evolutionary theory, and is taught in most introductory biology/evolution courses. Many students are unaware that understanding this topic requires pertinent knowledge

  20. Towards a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies: Insights from Social Representations Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batel, Susana; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, social research has been examining what contributes to the attitude-behaviour gap in people's responses to large-scale renewable energy technologies. The NIMBY explanation for the gap has long dominated that area of research, but has also been criticised. Alternative proposals to NIMBY were advanced, but it is still evident that some of those maintain presuppositions of NIMBY and that this area of research needs more integration, namely at a theoretical level. In this paper we argue that to overcome those aspects it is relevant, first, to situate the promotion of renewable energy production as a social change process in today's societies, and, second, to therefore consider the socio-psychological aspects involved in people's responses to social change. We discuss specifically how the Theory of Social Representations may help us with that and contribute to a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. [Development of premature children: caregivers' understanding according to the Bioecological Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Rayla Amaral; Veríssimo, Maria de La Ó Ramallo

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the conceptions of premature children caregivers on child development and associated factors. An exploratory-descriptive qualitative study of 12 families with children under three years of age. Interviews were submitted to thematic content analysis, systematized into the categories of Bioecological Theory of Human Development: Process, Person, Context and Time, and in the Functional Development category. There are concerns about impairment in the current and future development of a Person/child defined as fragile as a result of premature birth (Time dimension), minimized by the scope of observable competencies such as motor skills. The Context, especially family and health services, and Proximal Processes, described as one-way caregiver interactions, are considered determinants of development. Functional Development is considered a natural consequence and result of education. The support network is crucial, supporting or limiting care. Concerns about the development mobilize caregivers to stimulate the premature child/person and requests family and healthcare assistance.

  2. Theoretical Approaches in Evolutionary Ecology: Environmental Feedback as a Unifying Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Sébastien

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary biology and ecology have a strong theoretical underpinning, and this has fostered a variety of modeling approaches. A major challenge of this theoretical work has been to unravel the tangled feedback loop between ecology and evolution. This has prompted the development of two main classes of models. While quantitative genetics models jointly consider the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of a focal population, a separation of timescales between ecology and evolution is assumed by evolutionary game theory, adaptive dynamics, and inclusive fitness theory. As a result, theoretical evolutionary ecology tends to be divided among different schools of thought, with different toolboxes and motivations. My aim in this synthesis is to highlight the connections between these different approaches and clarify the current state of theory in evolutionary ecology. Central to this approach is to make explicit the dependence on environmental dynamics of the population and evolutionary dynamics, thereby materializing the eco-evolutionary feedback loop. This perspective sheds light on the interplay between environmental feedback and the timescales of ecological and evolutionary processes. I conclude by discussing some potential extensions and challenges to our current theoretical understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

  3. The wild type as concept and in experimental practice: A history of its role in classical genetics and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Tarquin

    2017-06-01

    Wild types in genetics are specialised strains of laboratory experimental organism which principally serve as standards against which variation is measured. As selectively inbred lineages highly isolated from ancestral wild populations, there appears to be little wild or typical about them. I will nonetheless argue that they have historically been successfully used as stand-ins for nature, allowing knowledge produced in the laboratory to be extrapolated to the natural world. In this paper, I will explore the 19th century origins of the wild type concept, the theoretical and experimental innovations which allowed concepts and organisms to move from wild nature to laboratory domestication c. 1900 (resulting in the production of standardised lab strains), and the conflict among early geneticists between interactionist and atomist accounts of wild type, which would eventually lead to the conceptual disintegration of wild types and the triumph of genocentrism and population genetics. I conclude by discussing how the strategy of using wild type strains to represent nature in the lab has nonetheless survived the downfall of the wild type concept and continues to provide, significant limitations acknowledged, an epistemically productive means of investigating heredity and evolutionary variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. UNDERSTANDING THE DEVALUATION OF VULNERABLE GROUPS: A NOVEL APPLICATION OF INSTITUTIONAL ANOMIE THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Eva M.; Zick, Andreas; Messner, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    Prejudices legitimize the discrimination against groups by declaring them to be of unequal, especially of less, worth. This legitimizing power is highly relevant in social conflicts of modern societies that are governed by market-oriented value systems. However, prejudice research has yet to be linked to sociological discourses on the marketization of society. We argue that Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT), a theory originally developed to explain crime rates, offers a fruitful macro-sociological framework for a better understanding of micro-social prejudices that emerge along with processes of marketization. Extending IAT to explain prejudices in a German study based on survey data offers a first attempt to underpin our theoretical hypotheses with empirical data. Although the results need to be interpreted with due caution, they suggest that the extended IAT model can be usefully applied to explain how a marketized mentality is related to different forms of institutional integration, and how it is conducive to specific prejudices that emerge in market-dominated societies against purported economically burdening social groups. PMID:26004470

  5. Understanding the devaluation of vulnerable groups: A novel application of Institutional Anomie Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hövermann, Andreas; Groß, Eva M; Zick, Andreas; Messner, Steven F

    2015-07-01

    Prejudices legitimize the discrimination against groups by declaring them to be of unequal, especially of less, worth. This legitimizing power is highly relevant in social conflicts of modern societies that are governed by market-oriented value systems. However, prejudice research has yet to be linked to sociological discourses on the marketization of society. We argue that Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT), a theory originally developed to explain crime rates, offers a fruitful macro-sociological framework for a better understanding of micro-social prejudices that emerge along with processes of marketization. Extending IAT to explain prejudices in a German study based on survey data offers a first attempt to underpin our theoretical hypotheses with empirical data. Although the results need to be interpreted with due caution, they suggest that the extended IAT model can be usefully applied to explain how a marketized mentality is related to different forms of institutional integration, and how it is conducive to specific prejudices that emerge in market-dominated societies against purported economically burdening social groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understanding Teen Pregnancy with American Indian Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippel, Elizabeth A; Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle B

    2017-07-01

    Objectives American Indian girls have higher teen pregnancy rates than the national rate. Intervention studies that utilize the Theory of Reasoned Action have found that changing attitudes and subjective norms often leads to subsequent change in a variety of health behaviors in young adults. The current study goal is to better understand sexual decision-making among American Indian youth using the Theory of Reasoned Action model and to introduce ways to utilize attitudes and subjective norms to modify risky behaviors. Methods The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 16 focus groups with American Indian young people aged 16-24. Results Attitudes towards, perceived impact of, and perception of how others felt about teen pregnancy vary between American Indian parents and non-parents. Particularly, young American Indian parents felt more negatively about teen pregnancy. Participants also perceived a larger impact on female than male teen parents. Conclusions There are differences between American Indian parents and non-parents regarding attitudes towards, the perceived impact of, and how they perceived others felt about teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy prevention programs for American Indian youth should include youth parents in curriculum creation and curriculum that addresses normative beliefs about teen pregnancy and provides education on the ramifications of teen pregnancy to change attitudes.

  7. A Big Data Guide to Understanding Climate Change: The Case for Theory-Guided Data Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghmous, James H; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-09-01

    Global climate change and its impact on human life has become one of our era's greatest challenges. Despite the urgency, data science has had little impact on furthering our understanding of our planet in spite of the abundance of climate data. This is a stark contrast from other fields such as advertising or electronic commerce where big data has been a great success story. This discrepancy stems from the complex nature of climate data as well as the scientific questions climate science brings forth. This article introduces a data science audience to the challenges and opportunities to mine large climate datasets, with an emphasis on the nuanced difference between mining climate data and traditional big data approaches. We focus on data, methods, and application challenges that must be addressed in order for big data to fulfill their promise with regard to climate science applications. More importantly, we highlight research showing that solely relying on traditional big data techniques results in dubious findings, and we instead propose a theory-guided data science paradigm that uses scientific theory to constrain both the big data techniques as well as the results-interpretation process to extract accurate insight from large climate data .

  8. Sympathy, empathy, and compassion: A grounded theory study of palliative care patients’ understandings, experiences, and preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Shane; Beamer, Kate; Hack, Thomas F; McClement, Susan; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Chochinov, Harvey M; Hagen, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Compassion is considered an essential element in quality patient care. One of the conceptual challenges in healthcare literature is that compassion is often confused with sympathy and empathy. Studies comparing and contrasting patients’ perspectives of sympathy, empathy, and compassion are largely absent. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate advanced cancer patients’ understandings, experiences, and preferences of “sympathy,” “empathy,” and “compassion” in order to develop conceptual clarity for future research and to inform clinical practice. Design: Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and then independently analyzed by the research team using the three stages and principles of Straussian grounded theory. Setting/participants: Data were collected from 53 advanced cancer inpatients in a large urban hospital. Results: Constructs of sympathy, empathy, and compassion contain distinct themes and sub-themes. Sympathy was described as an unwanted, pity-based response to a distressing situation, characterized by a lack of understanding and self-preservation of the observer. Empathy was experienced as an affective response that acknowledges and attempts to understand individual’s suffering through emotional resonance. Compassion enhanced the key facets of empathy while adding distinct features of being motivated by love, the altruistic role of the responder, action, and small, supererogatory acts of kindness. Patients reported that unlike sympathy, empathy and compassion were beneficial, with compassion being the most preferred and impactful. Conclusion: Although sympathy, empathy, and compassion are used interchangeably and frequently conflated in healthcare literature, patients distinguish and experience them uniquely. Understanding patients’ perspectives is important and can guide practice, policy reform, and future research. PMID:27535319

  9. Phages of lactic acid bacteria: The role of genetics in understanding phage-host interactions and their co-evolutionary processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahony, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Stockdale, Stephen; Sinderen, Douwe van

    2012-01-01

    Dairy fermentations are among the oldest food processing applications, aimed at preservation and shelf-life extension through the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures, in particular strains of Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. Traditionally this was performed by continuous passaging of undefined cultures from a finished fermentation to initiate the next fermentation. More recently, consumer demands on consistent and desired flavours and textures of dairy products have led to a more defined approach to such processes. Dairy (starter) companies have responded to the need to define the nature and complexity of the starter culture mixes, and dairy fermentations are now frequently based on defined starter cultures of low complexity, where each starter component imparts specific technological properties that are desirable to the product. Both mixed and defined starter culture approaches create the perfect environment for the proliferation of (bacterio)phages capable of infecting these LAB. The repeated use of the same starter cultures in a single plant, coupled to the drive towards higher and consistent production levels, increases the risk and negative impact of phage infection. In this review we will discuss recent advances in tracking the adaptation of phages to the dairy industry, the advances in understanding LAB phage-host interactions, including evolutionary and genomic aspects.

  10. Phages of lactic acid bacteria: The role of genetics in understanding phage-host interactions and their co-evolutionary processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, Jennifer, E-mail: j.mahony@ucc.ie [Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland); Ainsworth, Stuart; Stockdale, Stephen [Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland); Sinderen, Douwe van, E-mail: d.vansinderen@ucc.ie [Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland); Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland)

    2012-12-20

    Dairy fermentations are among the oldest food processing applications, aimed at preservation and shelf-life extension through the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures, in particular strains of Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. Traditionally this was performed by continuous passaging of undefined cultures from a finished fermentation to initiate the next fermentation. More recently, consumer demands on consistent and desired flavours and textures of dairy products have led to a more defined approach to such processes. Dairy (starter) companies have responded to the need to define the nature and complexity of the starter culture mixes, and dairy fermentations are now frequently based on defined starter cultures of low complexity, where each starter component imparts specific technological properties that are desirable to the product. Both mixed and defined starter culture approaches create the perfect environment for the proliferation of (bacterio)phages capable of infecting these LAB. The repeated use of the same starter cultures in a single plant, coupled to the drive towards higher and consistent production levels, increases the risk and negative impact of phage infection. In this review we will discuss recent advances in tracking the adaptation of phages to the dairy industry, the advances in understanding LAB phage-host interactions, including evolutionary and genomic aspects.

  11. The Relationship between Biology Teachers' Understanding of the Nature of Science and the Understanding and Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Hernán; Cuevas, Emilia; Becerra, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of the theory of evolution (TE) to scientific knowledge, a number of misconceptions continue to be found among biology teachers. In this context, the first objective of this study was to identify the impact of professional development programme (PDP) on teachers' understanding of nature of science (NOS) and evolution and on…

  12. Theory of Mind "emotion", developmental characteristics and social understanding in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Françoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). Echelles Différentielles d'Efficiences Intellectuelles. Forme Révisée (EDEI-R). Paris: Editions et Applications Psychologiques) was used to match participants and to assess social understanding. ECOSSE (Lecocq, P. (1996). L'E.CO.S.SE. Une épreuve de compréhension syntaxico-sémantique. Paris: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion) assessed the level of syntactic and semantic comprehension of French speaking, to ensure a good comprehension of the questions in ToM-emotion tasks. Adapted tasks of the understanding of causes and consequences of emotions (Quintal, G. (2001). La compréhension des émotions chez les enfants d'âge préscolaire dans le cadre d'une théorie de l'esprit. Un-published master's thesis, University of Montreal, Québec) assessed ToM-emotion abilities (Nader-Grosbois, N., Thirion-Marissiaux, A.-F., & Grosbois, M. (2003). Adapted tests for assessment of the Theory of Mind of causes and consequences of emotions (unpublished documents). Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium). Similarities in the development of ToM-emotion abilities and social understanding were found, respectively, in both groups (delay hypothesis in ID participants). Some differences between groups were observed in the links between social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities. Significant correlations between developmental characteristics (verbal and non-verbal cognition) and ToM-emotion abilities were obtained for both groups. Verbal cognition explained an important part of the variance of ToM results (understanding of causes and consequences of emotions). The impact of chronological age on ToM-emotion abilities was also examined and is discussed.

  13. Children's understanding of the immune system: Integrating the cognitive-developmental and intuitive theories' perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry-Boozer, Kristine L.

    Traditional cognitive-developmental researchers have provided a large body of evidence supporting the stage-like progression of children's cognitive development. Further, from this body of research comes evidence that children's understanding of HIV/AIDS develops in much the same way as their understanding of other illness-related concepts. Researchers from a newer perspective assert that biological concepts develop from intuitive theories. In general, as children are exposed to relevant content and have opportunities to organize this information, their theories become more accurate and differentiated. According to this perspective, there are no broad structural constraints on developing concepts, as asserted by cognitive developmental theorists. The purpose of the current study was two-fold: to provide support for both theoretical perspectives, while at the same time to explore children's conceptualizations of the immune system, which has not been done previously in the cognitive-developmental literature. One hundred ninety children ranging in age from 4 years old through 11 years old, and a group of adults, participated. Each participant was interviewed regarding health concepts and the body's function in maintaining health. Participants were also asked to report if they had certain experiences that would have led to relevant content exposure. Qualitative analyses were utilized to code the interviews with rubrics based on both theoretical perspectives. Quantitative analyses consisted of a series of univariate ANOVAs (and post hoc tests when appropriate) examining all three coding variables (accuracy, differentiation, and developmental level) across various age-group combinations and exposure groups. Results of these analyses provided support for both theoretical perspectives. When the data were analyzed for developmental level by all ages, a stage-like progression consistent with Piagetian stages emerged. When accuracy and differentiation were examined (intuitive

  14. Evolutionary explanations for natural language: criteria from evolutionary biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, W.; de Boer, B.

    2008-01-01

    Theories of the evolutionary origins of language must be informed by empirical and theoretical results from a variety of different fields. Complementing recent surveys of relevant work from linguistics, animal behaviour and genetics, this paper surveys the requirements on evolutionary scenarios that

  15. Darwin, and the role of theories in evolutionary thinking Darwin y el papel de las teorías en el pensamiento evolutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMÁN MANRÍQUEZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The section "Special Features" is dedicated to share with its readers thematic works about natural history, ecology and evolution. In this introduction we focus on the role that theories play in the construction of evolutionary thinking. First, we briefly show the importance of Lamarck's work in the context of pre-Darwinian theories about organic evolution. Then, the main components of the Darwinian theoretical core and its postDarwinian extensions are thoroughly discussed. Finally the essays following this introduction in the present issue are summarized.La sección "Temas especiales" está dedicada a compartir con sus lectores trabajos temáticos sobre historia natural, ecología y evolución. En esta introducción nos centraremos en el papel que juegan las teorías en la construcción del pensamiento evolutivo. En primer lugar, se mostrará brevemente la importancia de la obra de Lamarck en el contexto de las teorías predarwinianas sobre evolución orgánica. Luego se discutirán en detalle los principales componentes del núcleo teórico del darwinismo así como sus extensiones postdarwinianas. Finalmente se resumen los ensayos que siguen a la presente introducción.

  16. Understanding physical activity in individuals with prediabetes: an application of social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lorian M; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vallance, Jeff K; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-documented evidence implicating physical activity (PA) in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, the overwhelming majority of individuals with prediabetes are not physically active enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of the social cognitive theory (SCT) in understanding PA behaviour in individuals with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes (N = 232) completed a mailed questionnaire assessing demographics, self-reported PA (MET.min/wk) and SCT constructs for PA MET.min/wk. For PA MET.min/wk, scheduling and task efficacy both had significant effects on PA (β = .30 and .22, respectively). Goal formation also had a direct effect on PA for scheduling, coping and task efficacy (β = .20, .34 and .30, respectively). Task, coping and scheduling efficacy explained a significant portion of the variance in PA behaviour. Overall, SCT appears to have merit as a model for understanding PA in individuals with prediabetes. Further evaluative inquiry is needed to establish support for the use of the SCT as a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating PA behaviour change interventions in this population.

  17. Children’s understanding of Aesop’s fables: Relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Patricia Pelletier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined children’s developing understanding of Aesop’s fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop’s fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old and Senior (5-year-old Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children’s responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children’s theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children’s fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children’s ability to judge characters’ intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.

  18. Evolutionary dynamics in structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Tarnita, Corina E.; Antal, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics shape the living world around us. At the centre of every evolutionary process is a population of reproducing individuals. The structure of that population affects evolutionary dynamics. The individuals can be molecules, cells, viruses, multicellular organisms or humans. Whenever the fitness of individuals depends on the relative abundance of phenotypes in the population, we are in the realm of evolutionary game theory. Evolutionary game theory is a general approach that can describe the competition of species in an ecosystem, the interaction between hosts and parasites, between viruses and cells, and also the spread of ideas and behaviours in the human population. In this perspective, we review the recent advances in evolutionary game dynamics with a particular emphasis on stochastic approaches in finite sized and structured populations. We give simple, fundamental laws that determine how natural selection chooses between competing strategies. We study the well-mixed population, evolutionary graph theory, games in phenotype space and evolutionary set theory. We apply these results to the evolution of cooperation. The mechanism that leads to the evolution of cooperation in these settings could be called ‘spatial selection’: cooperators prevail against defectors by clustering in physical or other spaces. PMID:20008382

  19. Contemporary issues in evolutionary biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We are delighted to bring to the readers, a set of peer-reviewed papers on evolutionary biology, published as a special issue of the Journal of Genetics. These papers emanated from ruminations upon and discussions at the Foundations of. Evolutionary Theory: the Ongoing Synthesis meeting at Coorg, India, in February ...

  20. Reappraising the relationship between maternal age and postpartum depression according to the evolutionary theory: Empirical evidence from a survey in primary health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Marcela N; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Moraes, Claudia L; Reichenheim, Michael E; Lobato, Gustavo

    2012-12-15

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a widespread worldwide phenomenon, but its etiology remains unclear. This study reappraised how evolutionary theory could explain PPD as an adaptation through investigating the relationship between maternal age and PPD, and if this relationship is modified according to the number of children at home. A cross-sectional study carried out in five primary health care units included 811 participants randomly selected among mothers of children up to five postpartum months in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Postpartum depression was defined by scores above 11 on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and statistical analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression models. One hundred and ninety-seven (24.3%, CI 95% 21.3-27.2) participants were classified as PPD positives. Maternal age was significantly associated to PPD (OR=0.96, p-value=0.019) independently of socioeconomic and reproductive characteristics, conjugal status or substance consumption by the couple. Thus, for each additional year, a reduction of 4% in the chance of developing PPD could be anticipated, effect which was not modified by the number of children at home (p-value=0.602). Information on social support was not included in this analysis since its relationship with maternal mental health would be better evaluated in a prospective fashion. These findings suggest that adaptive mechanisms shaped through human generations persist contributing to the development of PPD in contemporary societies. According to this evolutionary approach, as maternal age advances the reproductive potential diminishes and, consequently, mothers are less prone to develop PPD and reduce investment in new offspring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  2. Evolutionary Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    of biological and cultural evolution. Demographic variation within and among human populations is influenced by our biology, and therefore by natural selection and our evolutionary background. Demographic methods are necessary for studying populations of other species, and for quantifying evolutionary fitness...

  3. Understanding sport continuation: an integration of the theories of planned behaviour and basic psychological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Fostering individuals' long-term participation in activities that promote positive development such as organised sport is an important agenda for research and practice. We integrated the theories of planned behaviour (TPB) and basic psychological needs (BPN) to identify factors associated with young adults' continuation in organised sport over a 12-month period. Prospective study, including an online psycho-social assessment at Time 1 and an assessment of continuation in sport approximately 12 months later. Participants (N=292) aged between 17 and 21 years (M=18.03; SD=1.29) completed an online survey assessing the theories of planned behaviour and basic psychological needs constructs. Bayesian structural equation modelling (BSEM) was employed to test the hypothesised theoretical sequence, using informative priors for structural relations based on empirical and theoretical expectations. The analyses revealed support for the robustness of the hypothesised theoretical model in terms of the pattern of relations as well as the direction and strength of associations among the constructs derived from quantitative summaries of existing research and theoretical expectations. The satisfaction of basic psychological needs was associated with more positive attitudes, higher levels of perceived behavioural control, and more favourable subjective norms; positive attitudes and perceived behavioural control were associated with higher behavioural intentions; and both intentions and perceived behavioural control predicted sport continuation. This study demonstrated the utility of Bayesian structural equation modelling for testing the robustness of an integrated theoretical model, which is informed by empirical evidence from meta-analyses and theoretical expectations, for understanding sport continuation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transmissible cancers in an evolutionary context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is an evolutionary and ecological process in which complex interactions between tumour cells and their environment share many similarities with organismal evolution. Tumour cells with highest adaptive potential have a selective advantage over less fit cells. Naturally occurring transmissible cancers provide an ideal model system for investigating the evolutionary arms race between cancer cells and their surrounding micro-environment and macro-environment. However, the evolutionary landscapes in which contagious cancers reside have not been subjected to comprehensive investigation. Here, we provide a multifocal analysis of transmissible tumour progression and discuss the selection forces that shape it. We demonstrate that transmissible cancers adapt to both their micro-environment and macro-environment, and evolutionary theories applied to organisms are also relevant to these unique diseases. The three naturally occurring transmissible cancers, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) and Tasmanian devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) and the recently discovered clam leukaemia, exhibit different evolutionary phases: (i) CTVT, the oldest naturally occurring cell line is remarkably stable; (ii) DFTD exhibits the signs of stepwise cancer evolution; and (iii) clam leukaemia shows genetic instability. While all three contagious cancers carry the signature of ongoing and fairly recent adaptations to selective forces, CTVT appears to have reached an evolutionary stalemate with its host, while DFTD and the clam leukaemia appear to be still at a more dynamic phase of their evolution. Parallel investigation of contagious cancer genomes and transcriptomes and of their micro-environment and macro-environment could shed light on the selective forces shaping tumour development at different time points: during the progressive phase and at the endpoint. A greater understanding of transmissible cancers from an evolutionary ecology perspective will provide novel avenues for

  5. Defining fitness in evolutionary models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    jgen/087/04/0339-0348. Keywords. fitness; invasion exponent; adaptive dynamics; game theory; Lyapunov exponent; invasibility; Malthusian parameter. Abstract. The analysis of evolutionary models requires an appropriate definition for fitness.

  6. Perspectiva evolucionária na teoria social crítica de Habermas The evolutionary perspective in Habermas' critical social theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodomiro José Bannwart Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Busca-se acompanhar o desenvolvimento da teoria evolucionária no pensamento de Habermas, a partir da afirmação colhida no prólogo de Problemas de Legitimação do Capitalismo Tardio, de 1973: "O caráter programático evidencia que uma teoria da evolução social hoje se encontra apenas esboçada, mas que, no entanto, deveria constituir a base da teoria da sociedade". A atenção é direcionada à forma como Habermas reorienta o sentido evolucionário do desdobramento histórico à luz do conceito de mundo da vida, como esfera de realização da ação comunicativa. Objetiva-se investigar como é projetada nesse modelo de ação, por meio da linguagem, a tarefa de produção e reprodução simbólica do consenso normativo entre os participantes do mundo social, ao mesmo tempo em que Habermas sinaliza haver um telos de integração social imanente à própria prática comunicativa. Nesse sentido, procurar-se-á demonstrar que, assim como a pragmática universal serve de base teórica para a análise de processos de distorção da linguagem e de socialização anormais, a teoria da evolução social serve de parâmetro para uma teoria social crítica com intenção emancipatória de avaliar o desdobramento empírico e contingente da dinâmica histórica.We seek to follow the development of evolutionary theory in the thought of Habermas, starting with the statement taken from the Prologue of Legitimation Crisis, 1973: "The programmatic character of Part I of this book makes clear that a theory of social evolution, although it must be the basis of social theory, is today still scarcely at all developed." Attention is directed to how Habermas reorients the evolutionary meaning of historical development in light of the concept of lifeworld as the sphere of the realization of communicative action. We seek to investigate how Habermas' model assigns, by means of language, the task of symbolic production and reproduction of the normative consensus

  7. "There is a chain of connections": using syndemics theory to understand HIV treatment side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marilou

    2018-03-12

    Side effects are central to the experience of living longer with HIV but rarely have they been studied alone. Unlike other aspects of that experience, like quality of life, treatment adherence, chronicity, episodic disability, aging, health, and viral load suppression, side effects have not benefited from the same level of empirical and theoretical engagement from qualitative researchers. In this paper, we draw on syndemics theory and 50 qualitative interviews to better understand the experience of HIV treatment side effects. Two main categories were identified in the data: side effects as a product and side effects as a risk factor. The first category suggests that side effects are not just the product of taking antiretroviral drugs. They are also the product of particular conditions and tend to cluster with other health problems. The second category puts forward the idea that side effects can act as a syndemic risk factor by exposing PLWH to a greater risk of developing health problems and creating conditions in which psychosocial issues are more likely to emerge. The paper concludes by calling for more research on the complex nature of side effects and for the development of comprehensive approaches for the assessment and management of side effects.

  8. Understanding cannabis use in first-episode psychosis: an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Anna; Evangeli, Michael; Harrop, Chris; di Forti, Marta

    2012-02-01

    The study aims to examine whether an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model predicts the frequency of past and intended cannabis use in young adults with psychosis. A cross-sectional correlational design was used with 32 participants (aged 18-36 years old) within 3 years (mean = 7 months) of their first psychotic episode. TPB variables and a measure of social influence (descriptive norms) were measured. The TPB accounted for a large amount of the variance in both the frequency of past cannabis use (25%) and in the intended frequency of future cannabis use (36%). The addition of descriptive norms (beliefs about the frequency of others' cannabis use) accounted for a significant additional amount of the variance in past use (19%). Adding the 'friends' component of descriptive norms only led to a model that accounted for 52% of the variance in past cannabis use. Descriptive social norms should be considered when trying to understand cannabis use in early psychosis. Interventions should take account of the individual's attitude towards cannabis, their perceived control over its use and its social context. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Activity theory and genre ecology: Conceptual tools for understanding technical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winberg, Christine

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a year-long project in an architectural technology department, which studied students’ oral language development in plenary discussions in a first year History and Appreciation of Architecture course. Data was obtained by videotaping classroom activities, and by interviewing the lecturer and students who were participants in the course. The data was analysed, using categories suggested by Activity Theory. The category of ‘rules’ was selected from the activity system for further analysis, using a Genre Ecology approach. The findings of the study show how technical communication is managed within a classroom based activity system comprising lecturer and students, and graphic and verbal texts, in a context of learning. Learning, teaching, and expert discourses of the architectural review genre interact and are negotiated by participants. Through participation in plenary discussion, students from diverse backgrounds contribute to one another’s experience of architectural design, and by valuing and responding to students’ contributions, the lecturer facilitates students’ understanding of the ‘rules’ of architectural communication, and enables students to access an expanded repertoire of the genre of architectural review.

  10. The "Mysteries of Hypnosis:" Helping Us Better Understand Hypnosis and Empathic Involvement Theory (EIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Wickramasekera II (2015) has penned a comprehensive and thoughtful review article demonstrating how empathy is intimately involved in the psychology and neurophysiology of hypnosis and the self. Hypnosis is a very "mental" or subjective phenomenon for both the client and the research participant. To better assess the mind of the client/participant during hypnosis, it is my belief that we need to generate more "precise" phenomenological descriptors of the mind during hypnosis and related empathic conditions, as Wickramasekera II (2015) has suggested in his article. Although any phenomenological methodology will have its limits and disadvantages, noetics (as defined in the article below) can help us better understand hypnosis, empathic involvement theory, and the brain/mind/behavior interface. By quantifying the mind in a comprehensive manner, just as the brain is comprehensively quantified via fMRI and qEEG technologies, noetic analysis can help us more precisely assess the mind and relate it to the brain and human behavior and experience.

  11. Understanding how replication processes can maintain systems away from equilibrium using Algorithmic Information Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Sean D

    2016-02-01

    Replication can be envisaged as a computational process that is able to generate and maintain order far-from-equilibrium. Replication processes, can self-regulate, as the drive to replicate can counter degradation processes that impact on a system. The capability of replicated structures to access high quality energy and eject disorder allows Landauer's principle, in conjunction with Algorithmic Information Theory, to quantify the entropy requirements to maintain a system far-from-equilibrium. Using Landauer's principle, where destabilising processes, operating under the second law of thermodynamics, change the information content or the algorithmic entropy of a system by ΔH bits, replication processes can access order, eject disorder, and counter the change without outside interventions. Both diversity in replicated structures, and the coupling of different replicated systems, increase the ability of the system (or systems) to self-regulate in a changing environment as adaptation processes select those structures that use resources more efficiently. At the level of the structure, as selection processes minimise the information loss, the irreversibility is minimised. While each structure that emerges can be said to be more entropically efficient, as such replicating structures proliferate, the dissipation of the system as a whole is higher than would be the case for inert or simpler structures. While a detailed application to most real systems would be difficult, the approach may well be useful in understanding incremental changes to real systems and provide broad descriptions of system behaviour. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding gender differences in m-health adoption: a modified theory of reasoned action model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Guo, Xitong; Lai, Kee-Hung; Guo, Feng; Li, Chenlei

    2014-01-01

    Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly popular in healthcare, but research on m-health adoption is rare. This study was designed to obtain a better understanding of m-health adoption intention. We conducted an empirical research of a 481-respondent sample consisting of 44.7% women and 55.3% men and developed a modified theory of reasoned action (TRA) model by incorporating the nonlinearities between attitude and subjective norms and the moderating effect of gender. The results indicate that, based on the study population in China: (1) facilitating conditions, attitude, and subjective norms are significant predictors of m-health adoption intention; (2) the model including the nonlinearities enhances its explanatory ability; (3) males enjoy a higher level of m-health adoption intention compared with females; (4) the modified TRA model can predict men's behavior intention better than that of women; and (5) males have an Edgeworth-Pareto substitutability between attitude and subjective norms in predicting m-health adoption intention. Thus, we found gender differences in m-health adoption from the perspective of social psychology.

  13. Development of premature children: caregivers' understanding according to the Bioecological Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayla Amaral Lemos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Understanding the conceptions of premature children caregivers on child development and associated factors. METHOD An exploratory-descriptive qualitative study of 12 families with children under three years of age. Interviews were submitted to thematic content analysis, systematized into the categories of Bioecological Theory of Human Development: Process, Person, Context and Time, and in the Functional Development category. RESULTS There are concerns about impairment in the current and future development of a Person/child defined as fragile as a result of premature birth (Time dimension, minimized by the scope of observable competencies such as motor skills. The Context, especially family and health services, and Proximal Processes, described as one-way caregiver interactions, are considered determinants of development. Functional Development is considered a natural consequence and result of education. The support network is crucial, supporting or limiting care. CONCLUSION Concerns about the development mobilize caregivers to stimulate the premature child/person and requests family and healthcare assistance.

  14. Analysis of Undergraduate Students’ Mathematical Understanding Ability of the Limit of Function Based on APOS Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afgani, M. W.; Suryadi, D.; Dahlan, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to know the level of undergraduate students’ mathematical understanding ability based on APOS theory perspective. The APOS theory provides an evaluation framework to describe the level of students’ understanding and mental structure about their conception to a mathematics concept. The levels of understanding in APOS theory are action, process, object, and schema conception. The subjects were 59 students of mathematics education whom had attended a class of the limit of function at a university in Palembang. The method was qualitative descriptive with 4 test items. The result showed that most of students were still at the level of action conception. They could calculate and use procedure precisely to the mathematics objects that was given, but could not reach the higher conception yet.

  15. Recensión: Hauke Brunkhorst, Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alvear

    Full Text Available Resumen Erigido sobre un intento de armonización de las posibilidades de observación (externa e interna que ofrecen la teoría de sistemas y la teoría crítica, Hauke Brunkhorst desarrolla en Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions una comprensión de la evolución social que, en concordancia con aquellas tradiciones, no sólo da cuenta de la posibilidad de cambios evolutivos de carácter gradual (por incremento de complejidad sistémica sino también de carácter revolucionario (a través de conflictos de tipo estructural. Si bien estos últimos necesitan de los primeros para poder ser estabilizados y así producir nuevas coacciones normativas que actúan como direccionadores del curso de la evolución social general, aquellos no quedarían exentos de la lógica que el autor resume con su reminiscencia a la dialéctica de la ilustración. En ésta queda claro que el progreso moral y/o los avances sociales y jurídicos siempre pueden ser leídos y utilizados para generar nuevas formas de opresión y dominación.

  16. An investigation of meaningful understanding and effectiveness of the implementation of Piagetian and Ausubelian theories in physics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Ann

    One section of college students (N = 25) enrolled in an algebra-based physics course was selected for a Piagetian-based learning cycle (LC) treatment while a second section (N = 25) studied in an Ausubelian-based meaningful verbal reception learning treatment (MVRL). This study examined the students' overall (concept + problem solving + mental model) meaningful understanding of force, density/Archimedes Principle, and heat. Also examined were students' meaningful understanding as measured by conceptual questions, problems, and mental models. In addition, students' learning orientations were examined. There were no significant posttest differences between the LC and MVRL groups for students' meaningful understanding or learning orientation. Piagetian and Ausubelian theories explain meaningful understanding for each treatment. Students from each treatment increased their meaningful understanding. However, neither group altered their learning orientation. The results of meaningful understanding as measured by conceptual questions, problem solving, and mental models were mixed. Differences were attributed to the weaknesses and strengths of each treatment. This research also examined four variables (treatment, reasoning ability, learning orientation, and prior knowledge) to find which best predicted students' overall meaningful understanding of physics concepts. None of these variables were significant predictors at the.05 level. However, when the same variables were used to predict students' specific understanding (i.e. concept, problem solving, or mental model understanding), the results were mixed. For forces and density/Archimedes Principle, prior knowledge and reasoning ability significantly predicted students' conceptual understanding. For heat, however, reasoning ability was the only significant predictor of concept understanding. Reasoning ability and treatment were significant predictors of students' problem solving for heat and forces. For density

  17. Evolutionary adaptations: theoretical and practical implications for visual ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostervold, Knut Inge; Watten, Reidulf G; Volden, Frode

    2014-01-01

    The literature discussing visual ergonomics often mention that human vision is adapted to light emitted by the sun. However, theoretical and practical implications of this viewpoint is seldom discussed or taken into account. The paper discusses some of the main theoretical implications of an evolutionary approach to visual ergonomics. Based on interactional theory and ideas from ecological psychology an evolutionary stress model is proposed as a theoretical framework for future research in ergonomics and human factors. The model stresses the importance of developing work environments that fits with our evolutionary adaptations. In accordance with evolutionary psychology, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) and evolutionarily-novel environments (EN) are used as key concepts. Using work with visual display units (VDU) as an example, the paper discusses how this knowledge can be utilized in an ergonomic analysis of risk factors in the work environment. The paper emphasises the importance of incorporating evolutionary theory in the field of ergonomics. Further, the paper encourages scientific practices that further our understanding of any phenomena beyond the borders of traditional proximal explanations.

  18. Domestication as a model system for the extended evolutionary synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeder, Melinda A

    2017-10-06

    One of the challenges in evaluating arguments for extending the conceptual framework of evolutionary biology involves the identification of a tractable model system that allows for an assessment of the core assumptions of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). The domestication of plants and animals by humans provides one such case study opportunity. Here, I consider domestication as a model system for exploring major tenets of the EES. First I discuss the novel insights that niche construction theory (NCT, one of the pillars of the EES) provides into the domestication processes, particularly as they relate to five key areas: coevolution, evolvability, ecological inheritance, cooperation and the pace of evolutionary change. This discussion is next used to frame testable predictions about initial domestication of plants and animals that contrast with those grounded in standard evolutionary theory, demonstrating how these predictions might be tested in multiple regions where initial domestication took place. I then turn to a broader consideration of how domestication provides a model case study consideration of the different ways in which the core assumptions of the EES strengthen and expand our understanding of evolution, including reciprocal causation, developmental processes as drivers of evolutionary change, inclusive inheritance, and the tempo and rate of evolutionary change.

  19. Analyzing the evolutionary mechanisms of the Air Transportation System-of-Systems using network theory and machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya

    Complexity in the Air Transportation System (ATS) arises from the intermingling of many independent physical resources, operational paradigms, and stakeholder interests, as well as the dynamic variation of these interactions over time. Currently, trade-offs and cost benefit analyses of new ATS concepts are carried out on system-wide evaluation simulations driven by air traffic forecasts that assume fixed airline routes. However, this does not well reflect reality as airlines regularly add and remove routes. A airline service route network evolution model that projects route addition and removal was created and combined with state-of-the-art air traffic forecast methods to better reflect the dynamic properties of the ATS in system-wide simulations. Guided by a system-of-systems framework, network theory metrics and machine learning algorithms were applied to develop the route network evolution models based on patterns extracted from historical data. Constructing the route addition section of the model posed the greatest challenge due to the large pool of new link candidates compared to the actual number of routes historically added to the network. Of the models explored, algorithms based on logistic regression, random forests, and support vector machines showed best route addition and removal forecast accuracies at approximately 20% and 40%, respectively, when validated with historical data. The combination of network evolution models and a system-wide evaluation tool quantified the impact of airline route network evolution on air traffic delay. The expected delay minutes when considering network evolution increased approximately 5% for a forecasted schedule on 3/19/2020. Performance trade-off studies between several airline route network topologies from the perspectives of passenger travel efficiency, fuel burn, and robustness were also conducted to provide bounds that could serve as targets for ATS transformation efforts. The series of analysis revealed that high

  20. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  1. The Role of Degeneration Theory in the Understanding of Mental Illness, Colombia First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Vásquez Valencia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on medical journals and theses from the first half of the twentieth century, this article analyzes the role played by the theory of degeneration in the understanding of mental illness in Colombia. It is particularly interesting to show how Colombian physicians have appropriated concepts such as degeneration, diathesis, morbid heredity and stigmas of degeneration since the early 20th century to describe, classify and define mental illnesses present in Colombian territory. During this period the theory of degeneration served as the conceptual and theoretical framework for understanding the etiology, genesis and evolution of mental illness.

  2. [Evolutionary process unveiled by the maximum genetic diversity hypothesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Min; Xia, Meng-Ying; Huang, Shi

    2013-05-01

    As two major popular theories to explain evolutionary facts, the neutral theory and Neo-Darwinism, despite their proven virtues in certain areas, still fail to offer comprehensive explanations to such fundamental evolutionary phenomena as the genetic equidistance result, abundant overlap sites, increase in complexity over time, incomplete understanding of genetic diversity, and inconsistencies with fossil and archaeological records. Maximum genetic diversity hypothesis (MGD), however, constructs a more complete evolutionary genetics theory that incorporates all of the proven virtues of existing theories and adds to them the novel concept of a maximum or optimum limit on genetic distance or diversity. It has yet to meet a contradiction and explained for the first time the half-century old Genetic Equidistance phenomenon as well as most other major evolutionary facts. It provides practical and quantitative ways of studying complexity. Molecular interpretation using MGD-based methods reveal novel insights on the origins of humans and other primates that are consistent with fossil evidence and common sense, and reestablished the important role of China in the evolution of humans. MGD theory has also uncovered an important genetic mechanism in the construction of complex traits and the pathogenesis of complex diseases. We here made a series of sequence comparisons among yeasts, fishes and primates to illustrate the concept of limit on genetic distance. The idea of limit or optimum is in line with the yin-yang paradigm in the traditional Chinese view of the universal creative law in nature.

  3. Anxiety: an evolutionary approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Bateson, M; Brilot, B; Nettle, D

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental illnesses, with huge attendant suffering. Current treatments are not universally effective, suggesting that a deeper understanding of the causes of anxiety is needed. To understand anxiety disorders better, it is first necessary to understand the normal anxiety response. This entails considering its evolutionary function as well as the mechanisms underlying it. We argue that the function of the human anxiety response, and homologues in other ...

  4. ALCANCES E LIMITES DA PSICOLOGIA EVOLUTIVA PARA A COMPREENSÃO DA MENTE SCOPE AND LIMITS OF EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF MIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverson leite Bastos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O que pretendemos, na extensão que um artigo permite, é convergir dois domínios de modelos contemporâneos para a compreensão da mente. Ambos são ferramentas heurísticas fundamentais que possibilitam, por um lado, a teoria da mente modular, entender aspectos importantes da cognição humana como linguagem, memória, aprendizagem (ciências cognitivas e, por outro, modelos advindos da psicologia evolutiva que explicam certos aparentes desperdícios comportamentais. Os pressupostos fundamentais de ambas as metáforas são distintos: o modelo modular é produto das ciências cognitivas e o modelo evolucionista é produto do princípio de seleção sexual. Basicamente, como ferramenta heurística a teoria modular demonstra ser a mente um cômputo, como produto da seleção (seleção natural, que processa informação; já a teoria da mente ornamental propõe uma ideia estranha que Amotz Zahavi chamou de princípio de handicap (seleção sexual.
    Our intent with this article, given its space limitations, is converging two contemporary models of mind domain. Both are fundamental heuristic tools, being the first, the modular theory of mind, which enables us to understand important aspects of human cognition such as language, memory, learning (cognitive sciences. The second, the ornamental mind theory, explains certain apparent wasteful behaviors. The fundamental presuppositions of both metaphors are distinct: whilst the modular model is a product of cognitive sciences, the ornamental model is the yield of the sexual selection principle. Basically, as heuristic tools, the modular theory demonstrates the mind as a computation, as a product of selection (natural selection which processes information; on its turn, the ornamental mind theory proposes an awkward idea, which Amotz Zahavi called the handicap principle (sexual selection.

  5. Creating creationists: The influence of 'issues framing' on our understanding of public perceptions of clash narratives between evolutionary science and belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsdon-Baker, Fern

    2015-05-01

    Clash narratives relating to evolutionary science and personal belief are a recurrent theme in media or public space discourse. However, a 2009 British Council poll undertaken in 10 countries worldwide shows that the perception of a necessary clash between evolutionary worldviews and belief in a God is a minority viewpoint. How then does the popular conception that there is an ongoing conflict between evolution and belief in God arise? One contributing factor is the framing and categorization of creationism and evolutionism within large-scale surveys for use within media campaigns. This article examines the issue framing within four polls conducted in the United Kingdom and internationally between 2008 and 2013. It argues that by ignoring the complexity and range of perspectives individuals hold, or by framing evolutionary science as atheistic, we are potentially creating 'creationists' - including 'Islamic creationists' - both figuratively and literally. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Evolutionary biology today and the call for an extended synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futuyma, Douglas J

    2017-10-06

    Evolutionary theory has been extended almost continually since the evolutionary synthesis (ES), but except for the much greater importance afforded genetic drift, the principal tenets of the ES have been strongly supported. Adaptations are attributable to the sorting of genetic variation by natural selection, which remains the only known cause of increase in fitness. Mutations are not adaptively directed, but as principal authors of the ES recognized, the material (structural) bases of biochemistry and development affect the variety of phenotypic variations that arise by mutation and recombination. Against this historical background, I analyse major propositions in the movement for an 'extended evolutionary synthesis'. 'Niche construction' is a new label for a wide variety of well-known phenomena, many of which have been extensively studied, but (as with every topic in evolutionary biology) some aspects may have been understudied. There is no reason to consider it a neglected 'process' of evolution. The proposition that phenotypic plasticity may engender new adaptive phenotypes that are later genetically assimilated or accommodated is theoretically plausible; it may be most likely when the new phenotype is not truly novel, but is instead a slight extension of a reaction norm already shaped by natural selection in similar environments. However, evolution in new environments often compensates for maladaptive plastic phenotypic responses. The union of population genetic theory with mechanistic understanding of developmental processes enables more complete understanding by joining ultimate and proximate causation; but the latter does not replace or invalidate the former. Newly discovered molecular phenomena have been easily accommodated in the past by elaborating orthodox evolutionary theory, and it appears that the same holds today for phenomena such as epigenetic inheritance. In several of these areas, empirical evidence is needed to evaluate enthusiastic speculation

  7. Evolutionary thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps’ book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging “integral” or “evolutionary” cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps. PMID:26478766

  8. Evolutionary Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Demography is the quantitative study of population processes, while evolution is a population process that influences all aspects of biological organisms, including their demography. Demographic traits common to all human populations are the products of biological evolution or the interaction...... of biological and cultural evolution. Demographic variation within and among human populations is influenced by our biology, and therefore by natural selection and our evolutionary background. Demographic methods are necessary for studying populations of other species, and for quantifying evolutionary fitness...

  9. Using the self-determination theory to understand Chinese adolescent leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan

    2017-05-01

    This study applies the self-determination theory (SDT) to test the hypothesized relationships among perceived autonomy support from parents, physical education (PE) teachers, and peers, the fulfilment of psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness), autonomous motivation, and leisure-time physical activity of Chinese adolescents. There are 255 grade six to eight student participants from four middle schools around Shanghai, China included in this study. An accelerometer was used to measure the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The participants completed the questionnaires regarding SDT variables. The structural equation modelling was applied to examine the hypothesized relationships among the study variables. The model of hypothesized relationships demonstrated a good fit with the data [X 2  = 20.84, df = 9, P = .01; CFI = 0.98; IFI = 0.98; SRMR = 0.04; RMSEA = 0.05]. The findings revealed that autonomy support from parents, PE teachers, and peers foster social conditions in which the three basic psychological needs can be met. In turn, autonomy, competence, and relatedness are positively associated with autonomous motivation for MVPA. The autonomous motivation positively relates to the MVPA time of adolescents. The three psychological needs partially mediate the influence of autonomy support from parents (β = 0.18, P < .01; Bootstrap 95% CI = 0.06-0.33) and teachers (β = 0.17, P < .01; Bootstrap 95% CI = 0.03-0.26) in the autonomous motivation. In conclusion, these findings support the applicability of SDT in understanding and promoting physical activity of Chinese adolescents.

  10. Using self-determination theory to understand motivation deficits in schizophrenia: the 'why' of motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect-disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or 'passing time'. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: (1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; (2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; (3) more disconnected-disengaged. Higher disconnected-disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Authentic Assessment Tool for the Measurement of Students' Understanding of the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttisela, Karntarat

    2017-01-01

    There are various types of instructional media related to Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) but there is a lack of diversity of resources devoted to assessment. This research presents an assessment and comparison of students' understanding of VSEPR theory before and after tuition involving the use of the foam molecule model (FMM) and…

  12. Addressing Pre-Service Teachers' Understandings and Difficulties with Some Core Concepts in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and…

  13. Graphic Symbols as "The Mind on Paper": Links between Children's Interpretive Theory of Mind and Symbol Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Lauren J.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)--the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their…

  14. Applying Self-Efficacy Theory to Understanding the Behavioral Expectations of College Students with Disabilities in Requesting Accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitker-Magin, Mikael C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply Bandura's self-efficacy theory to understanding the behavior of college students with disabilities in requesting accommodations. Students with disabilities were recruited from 20 two-year and four-year postsecondary institutions by asking student disabilities services staff to forward an email invitation to…

  15. "It's Not My Fault": Using Neutralization Theory to Understand Cheating by Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Nicole; McQuillan, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    According to neutralization theory, to justify unethical behavior delinquents often embrace strategies that deflect personal responsibility for their actions from them and toward other persons or contextual factors outside their control. Drawing on neutralization theory, this case study explores how middle school students endorsed comparable…

  16. How Analogue Research Can Advance Descriptive Evaluation Theory: Understanding (and Improving) Stakeholder Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bernadette; Mark, Melvin M.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation theories can be tested in various ways. One approach, the experimental analogue study, is described and illustrated in this article. The approach is presented as a method worthy to use in the pursuit of what Alkin and others have called descriptive evaluation theory. Drawing on analogue studies conducted by the first author, we…

  17. An Applied Relevance Theory of the Making and Understanding of Rhetorical Arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Relevance theory in linguistic pragmatics is applied to the field of rhetorical argument. The applied theory allows for multiple coincidental relevances (strategic, rational, and worldly) during the communication of arguments corresponding to horizons of awareness with regard to which arguments are made and understood. (32 references) (LB)

  18. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  19. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  20. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex McAvoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  1. Attachment theory as a guide to understanding and working with transference and the real relationship in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelso, Charles J; Palma, Beatriz; Bhatia, Avantika

    2013-11-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an extraordinary amount of conceptual and empirical work on attachment theory in psychology and psychotherapy. Attachment theory is discussed in the present article as a way of understanding and fostering therapeutic work with 2 other key relationship constructs that have been theorized to be elements of all psychotherapies: client transference and the real relationship existing between the therapist and patient. Fundamental features of attachment, transference, and the real relationship are summarized. Particular emphasis is given to the role of the therapist as a secure base and a safe haven within the real relationship, and to the patient's internal working model as it relates to transference. A case of long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy conducted by the first author is presented to illuminate the 3 main constructs. The case demonstrates both the usefulness of attachment theory and the fact that any single theory cannot explain all of the complex features of a given treatment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Using A Semiotic Metatheory for Theory Understanding, Appraisal, and Use: An Illustrative Social Work Translation of the Affect Control Theory of Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Forte

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Charles Sanders Peirce’s creed, “Do Not Block Inquiry,” and his triadic model of the signs serve as the base for a semiotic metatheory of science and scientific theory. Semioticians characterize science as a universe of diverse sign systems, and scientists as members of different language communities.This paper introduces this approach. Affect control theorists ponder and investigate how actors, identities, actions, objects, emotions, and social settings are interrelated during interaction. Semiotic tools and principles guide the translation of the Affect Control Theory(ACT of emotion. ACT is summarized and appraised for its value in increasing our understanding of human behavior in the social environment, its suitability to social work, and its applicability. ACT technical words are translated into simpler language, ACT displays into words, and ACT’s interactionist language is translated into the language of ecosystems theory. Suggestions for strengthening ACT and for promoting semiotic translation are included.

  3. Translating multilevel theory into multilevel research: Challenges and opportunities for understanding the social determinants of psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Yudron, Monica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Subramanian, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The observation that features of the social environment, including family, school, and neighborhood characteristics, are associated with individual-level outcomes has spurred the development of dozens of multilevel or ecological theoretical frameworks in epidemiology, public health, psychology, and sociology, among other disciplines. Despite the widespread use of such theories in etiological, intervention, and policy studies, challenges remain in bridging multilevel theory and empirical research. This paper set out to synthesize these challenges and provide specific examples of methodological and analytical strategies researchers are using to gain a more nuanced understanding of the social determinants of psychiatric disorders, with a focus on children’s mental health. To accomplish this goal, we begin by describing multilevel theories, defining their core elements, and discussing what these theories suggest is needed in empirical work. In the second part, we outline the main challenges researchers face in translating multilevel theory into research. These challenges are presented for each stage of the research process. In the third section, we describe two methods being used as alternatives to traditional multilevel modeling techniques to better bridge multilevel theory and multilevel research. These are: (1) multilevel factor analysis and multilevel structural equation modeling; and (2) dynamic systems approaches. Through its review of multilevel theory, assessment of existing strategies, and examination of emerging methodologies, this paper offers a framework to evaluate and guide empirical studies on the social determinants of child psychiatric disorders as well as health across the lifecourse. PMID:24469555

  4. Using group consciousness theories to understand political activism: case studies of Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, and Ingo Hasselbach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E

    2010-12-01

    I describe and integrate several theories of group consciousness and collective action, along with 3 case studies of political activists. I have 2 goals: (1) to use the theories to help us understand something puzzling about each life and (2) to use the cases to complicate and expand the theories. Barack Obama's case raises the question of how someone with a politicized Black identity evolved into a politician working for all oppressed people and complicates racial identity development theory. Hillary Clinton's case raises the question of how a middle-class White girl raised in a conservative family became a prominent Democratic Party politician and complicates group consciousness theories by demonstrating the importance of generation and personality. Ingo Hasselbach's (a former German neo-Nazi leader) case illustrates relative deprivation theory and raises the question of whether theories developed to explain subordinate group consciousness can be applied to movements of dominant group consciousness. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Personality © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An `evolutionary transition in individuality' or `major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can ...

  6. A New Understanding of Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Obesity: Contribution of the Self-determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttitta, Marie; Rousseau, Amélie; Guerrien, Alain

    2017-12-01

    Preservation of Quality of Life (QOL) is now a major determinant of obesity management, but little is known about variables predicting QOL. Identifying these predicting variables of QOL would provide further understanding of the QOL concept and help draw clinical implications. The Self-determination Theory (SDT) is a promising understanding perspective of the QOL. The SDT postulates that well-being and motivation are determined by the satisfaction of three needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Many researches have confirmed the relationships between these SDT's needs and well-being, but this theory has little been applied to the problem of QOL in obese children and adolescents. Literature results and theoretical implications of the SDT in understanding of QOL in youth obesity are discussed. New clinical applications could be drawn: in children with obesity, interventions promoting high satisfaction of the SDT's needs could improve their QOL and help them break the vicious circles of overweight.

  7. The Links between Science, Philosophy, and Military Theory: Understanding the Past, Implications for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pellegrini, Robert

    1997-01-01

    ... with an emphasis on its interpretation by the German Romanticist philosopher Immanuel Kant. He then shows how Newtonian science and Kant's philosophy affected the military theory of Carl von Clausewitz...

  8. The Links Between Science and Philosophy and Military Theory: Understanding the Past; Implications for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pellegrini, Robert

    1995-01-01

    ... with an emphasis on its interpretation by the German Romanticist philosopher, Immanuel Kant. He then shows how Newtonian science and Kant's philosophy affected the military theory of Carl von Clausewitz...

  9. An application of signal detection theory for understanding driver behavior at highway-rail grade crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-19

    We used signal detection theory to examine if grade crossing warning devices were effective because they increased drivers' sensitivity to a train's approach or because they encouraged drivers to stop. We estimated d' and a for eight warning devices ...

  10. Interbeing and Mindfulness: A Bridge to Understanding Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Kathleen L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains and compares Thich Naht Hanh's concept of interbeing and mindfulness and Jean Watson's theory of human caring. Describes the application of mindful practices to holistic nursing and nursing education. (Contains 12 references.) (SK)

  11. Can Social Cognitive Theories Help Us Understand Nurses' Use of Electronic Health Records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Gillian; Booth, Richard; Mistry, Kartini

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health record implementations have accelerated in clinical settings around the world in an effort to improve patient safety and enhance efficiencies related to care delivery. As the largest group of healthcare professionals globally, nurses play an important role in the use of these records and ensuring their benefits are realized. Social cognitive theories such as the Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behaviour, and the Technology Acceptance Model have been developed to explain behavior. Given that variation in nurses' electronic health record utilization may influence the degree to which benefits are realized, the aim of this article is to explore how the use of these social cognitive theories may assist organizations implementing electronic health records to facilitate deeper-level adoption of this type of clinical technology.

  12. Major depression in China-to-US immigrants and US-born Chinese Americans: testing a hypothesis from culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was used to test the hypothesis that major depression was less prevalent in China-to-US immigrants who migrated to the US as adults than in US-born adult Chinese Americans. Data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) were extracted for secondary data analyses on the rates of major depression disorder (MDD) and major depressive episode (MDE) in the two groups. Findings showed that for life time MDD, the rates for China-to-US immigrant and US-born Chinese were 5.3% and 7.9% for men and 8.5% and 33.1% for women. For 12-month MDD, the corresponding rates were 2.2% and 3.4% for men, and 4.7% and 12.6% for women. For life time MDE, the corresponding rates were 6.8% and 8.8% for men; for women the rates were 8.5% and 33.1%. For 12-month MDE, the rates were 2.2% and 4.4% for men; the rates were 4.7% and 12.6% for women. Controlling for age, education level, income, BMI, marital status, and income-to-needs ratio, China-to-US immigrant women remained less likely to have life time major depression than US-born Chinese American women. While the study has the strength of utilizing nationally representative datasets, the approach is limited as the data sources lack the capacity to investigate how the strength of connection with the collectivist culture might be related to major depression in the immigrant group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. iPhos-PseEvo: Identifying Human Phosphorylated Proteins by Incorporating Evolutionary Information into General PseAAC via Grey System Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wang-Ren; Sun, Bi-Qian; Xiao, Xuan; Xu, Dong; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-05-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays a critical role in human body by altering the structural conformation of a protein, causing it to become activated/deactivated, or functional modification. Given an uncharacterized protein sequence, can we predict whether it may be phosphorylated or may not? This is no doubt a very meaningful problem for both basic research and drug development. Unfortunately, to our best knowledge, so far no high throughput bioinformatics tool whatsoever has been developed to address such a very basic but important problem due to its extremely complexity and lacking sufficient training data. Here we proposed a predictor called iPhos-PseEvo by (1) incorporating the protein sequence evolutionary information into the general pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) via the grey system theory, (2) balancing out the skewed training datasets by the asymmetric bootstrap approach, and (3) constructing an ensemble predictor by fusing an array of individual random forest classifiers thru a voting system. Rigorous jackknife tests have indicated that very promising success rates have been achieved by iPhos-PseEvo even for such a difficult problem. A user-friendly web-server for iPhos-PseEvo has been established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iPhos-PseEvo, by which users can easily obtain their desired results without the need to go through the complicated mathematical equations involved. It has not escaped our notice that the formulation and approach presented here can be used to analyze many other problems in protein science as well. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Evolutionary Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Gorelik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we advance the concept of “evolutionary awareness,” a metacognitive framework that examines human thought and emotion from a naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. We begin by discussing the evolution and current functioning of the moral foundations on which our framework rests. Next, we discuss the possible applications of such an evolutionarily-informed ethical framework to several domains of human behavior, namely: sexual maturation, mate attraction, intrasexual competition, culture, and the separation between various academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss ways in which an evolutionary awareness can inform our cross-generational activities—which we refer to as “intergenerational extended phenotypes”—by helping us to construct a better future for ourselves, for other sentient beings, and for our environment.

  15. Evolutionary macroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Macroecology focuses on ecological questions at broad spatial and temporal scales, providing a statistical description of patterns in species abundance, distribution and diversity. More recently, historical components of these patterns have begun to be investigated more deeply. We tentatively refer to the practice of explicitly taking species history into account, both analytically and conceptually, as ‘evolutionary macroecology’. We discuss how the evolutionary dimension can be incorporated into macroecology through two orthogonal and complementary data types: fossils and phylogenies. Research traditions dealing with these data have developed more‐or‐less independently over the last 20–30 years, but merging them will help elucidate the historical components of diversity gradients and the evolutionary dynamics of species’ traits. Here we highlight conceptual and methodological advances in merging these two research traditions and review the viewpoints and toolboxes that can, in combination, help address patterns and unveil processes at temporal and spatial macro‐scales.

  16. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    , they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...... cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary...

  17. Living systems theory as a paradigm for organizational behavior: understanding humans, organizations, and social processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancouver, J B

    1996-07-01

    Living systems theories have been used to model human, organization, and communication processes. This paper attempts to describe these models and to highlight the isomorphisms among the models. Particular emphasis is given to self-regulating properties of humans as a subsystem of social systems. Attention is given to the advantages of generalizing across levels and phenomena and integrating the middle-range theories that dominate the field of organizational behavior. Three broad recommendations for future research are discussed.

  18. Perspectives for understanding the relationship between the theory and the practice in teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen ÁLVAREZ ÁLVAREZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects the main theoretical proposals about the relations between theory and practice that are have been formulated in the field of teacher training. The problem that is at the bottom of the theory-practice relationship: professional alienation of teachers in education. To overcome this mostly two responses have been: focus on the theory: convert to the teacher in an intellectual, and the proposal focus on the practice: assess the importance of the personal practical knowledge of teachers. Halfway between both perspectives it is possible to raise three current and relevant lines of research for studies to illuminate the relations between theory-practice in teacher training: (1 teacher’s thought and implicit theories, (2 the reflective teacher and (3 the formulation of principles of procedure and action research and theories experienced. This review haves the objective of reveal the complexity of linked thought, research and teaching action; but it also allows us move forward in building a comprehensive framework covering various forms of approach to a subject which lies at the base of any discussion on the teaching profession and advance in the challenge of achieving a practical domain and a critical awareness in the teaching.

  19. Evolutionary game theory and criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Korosh; Grigolini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We study a regular two-dimensional network of individuals playing the Prisonner’s Dilemma game with their neighbors, assigning to each individual the adoption of two different criteria to make a choice between cooperation and defection. For a fraction q  social pressure generates criticality. When q  =  0 a large incentive to cheat yields the extinction of cooperation and a modest one leads to the survival of cooperation. We show that for K={{K}\\text{c}} the adoption of a very small value of ɛ exerts a bias in favor of either cooperation or defection, as a form of criticality-induced intelligence, which leads the system to select either the cooperation or the defection branch, when K>{{K}\\text{c}} . Intermediate values of ɛ annihilated criticality-induced cognition and, as consequence, may favor defection choice even in the case when a wise payoff consideration is expected to yield the emergence of cooperation.

  20. Beyond mental health: an evolutionary analysis of development under risky and supportive environmental conditions: an introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Bjorklund, David F

    2012-05-01

    Evolutionary approaches to behavior have increasingly captured the attention and imagination of academics and laypeople alike. One part of this trend has been the increasing influence of evolutionary theory in developmental science. The articles in this special section of Developmental Psychology attempt to demonstrate why an evolutionary analysis is needed to more fully understand the contexts and contingencies of development. The 3 theoretical articles articulate the core evolutionary logic underlying conditional adaptation (and maladaptation) to both stressful and supportive environmental conditions over development. These theoretical articles are then followed by 9 empirical articles that test these evolutionary-developmental theories and hypotheses. Finally, 6 commentaries evaluate the prospects, pitfalls, and implications of this body of work.

  1. Evolutionary robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In evolutionary robotics, a suitable robot control system is developed automatically through evolution due to the interactions between the robot and its environment. It is a complicated task, as the robot and the environment constitute a highly dynamical system. Several methods have been tried by various investigators to ...

  2. Understanding human papillomavirus vaccination intentions: comparative utility of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior in vaccine target age women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Kohut, Taylor; Salisbury, Claire M A; Salvadori, Marina I

    2013-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an exceedingly prevalent sexually transmitted infection with serious medical, sexual, and relationship consequences. HPV vaccine protection is available but vaccine uptake is very inconsistent. This research applies two major theories of health behavior uptake, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior, in an effort to understand intentions to receive HPV vaccine among vaccine target age women and men. The Theory of Reasoned Action asserts that attitudes toward HPV vaccination and perceptions of social support for HPV vaccination are the determinants of intentions to be vaccinated, whereas the Theory of Planned Behavior holds that attitudes toward vaccination, perceptions of social support for vaccination, and perceived ability to get vaccinated are the determinants of intentions to be vaccinated. Canadian university men (N=118) and women (N=146) in the HPV vaccine target age range took part in this correlational study online. Participants completed standard measures of attitudes toward HPV vaccination, perceptions of social support for vaccination, perceived ability to get vaccinated, beliefs about vaccination, and intentions to be vaccinated in the coming semester. Findings confirmed the propositions of the Theory of Reasoned Action and indicated that attitudes toward undergoing HPV vaccination and perceptions of social support for undergoing HPV vaccination contributed uniquely to the prediction of women's (R2=0.53) and men's (R2=0.44) intentions to be vaccinated in the coming semester. Clinical and public health education should focus on strengthening attitudes and perceptions of social support for HPV vaccination, and on the basic beliefs that appear to underlie attitudes and perceptions of social support for HPV vaccination, in efforts to promote HPV vaccine uptake. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Evolution Theory Teaching and Learning: What Conclusions Can We Get from Comparisons of Teachers' and Students' Conceptual Ecologies in Greece and Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we make an effort to compare studies that explore the factors related to acceptance of evolutionary theory among Greek and Turkish students-future teachers, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as the theoretical framework. We aimed to look into the acceptance and the understanding of evolutionary theory and also to…

  4. A survey of evolutionary policy: normative and positive dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Kallis, G.

    2013-01-01

    We explore public policy from the perspective of evolutionary analysis. Potential entry points for developing a normative evolutionary policy theory are examined, which involves a critical examination of the related idea of "evolutionary progress". The meaning of evolutionary policy is next studied

  5. The usefulness of Schwartz's 'Values Theory' in understanding consumer behaviour towards differentiated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Vassallo, M.; Chryssochoidis, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Values Theory adopts a generic framework whereby a set of values is employed across consumer decision-making contexts in a manner that makes no distinction among various product categories. The present study advances this theory by exhibiting the adaptation capability of the generic values...... instrument (the Portrait Value Questionnaire, PVQ), demonstrating that tailor-made PVQ versions can reflect consumers’ motives towards differentiated products (i.e. organic foods). A questionnaire was completed by approximately 1000 households in each of eight EU countries (N = 8171). The organic food...

  6. Applying Evolutionary Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. PMID:25684561

  7. Performing Desistance: How Might Theories of Desistance From Crime Help Us Understand the Possibilities of Prison Theatre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Linda; Day, Andrew; Balfour, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Despite the ubiquity of theatre projects in prisons there has been little (published) discussion of the application of theatre to the theories of criminology or rehabilitation of offenders, and scant examination of the potential for criminological theories to inform theatre practice in criminal justice settings. This article seeks to address this deficit and argues that positioning prison theatre within the discipline of positive criminology, specifically contemporary theories of desistance from crime, provides a theoretical framework for understanding the contribution that prison theatre might be making in the correctional setting. Through a review of related literature, the article explores how prison theatre may be motivating offenders toward the construction of a more adaptive narrative identity and toward the acquisition of capabilities that might usefully assist them in the process of desisting from crime. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. A Discussion of Students Understanding, Learning and Application of Theory of Science within Humanities and Social Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    and social economy and therefore problem solving practice has been the important part of what students need to learn. Michael Gibbons describes it as a shift in the culture of knowledge production where for example knowledge production in terms of quantification is a tendency. The idea of this paper...... in the university context in the 21st century. Conclusions/expected outcomes or findings I expect to find that theory of science does not play an important role as a resource for students understanding and learning of a disciplinary topic. Very often it is an appendix to student assignments and projects....... The expected conclusion is that theory of science in the context of humanities and social science still is to play an important role in the context of higher education in the 21st century but the way it is taught and learned must change in order to make it a more integrated part of knowledge production. Theory...

  9. The evolutionary paradox and the missing heritability of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jenny; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-03-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most detrimental common psychiatric disorders, occurring at a prevalence of approximately 1%, and characterized by increased mortality and reduced reproduction, especially in men. The heritability has been estimated around 70% and the genome-wide association meta-analyses conducted by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium have been successful at identifying an increasing number of risk loci. Various theories have been proposed to explain why genetic variants that predispose to schizophrenia persist in the population, despite the fitness reduction in affected individuals, a question known as the evolutionary paradox. In this review, we consider evolutionary perspectives of schizophrenia and of the empirical evidence that may support these perspectives. Proposed evolutionary explanations include balancing selection, fitness trade-offs, fluctuating environments, sexual selection, mutation-selection balance and genomic conflicts. We address the expectations about the genetic architecture of schizophrenia that are predicted by different evolutionary scenarios and discuss the implications for genetic studies. Several potential sources of "missing" heritability, including gene-environment interactions, epigenetic variation, and rare genetic variation are examined from an evolutionary perspective. A better understanding of evolutionary history may provide valuable clues to the genetic architecture of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, which is highly relevant to genetic studies that aim to detect genetic risk variants. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Theory of Mind and Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    How children understand the concepts of teaching and learning is inherently underpinned by their mental state understanding and critical to the successful transition to formal schooling. Knowledge is a private representational mental state; learning is a knowledge change process that can be either intentional or not; and teaching is an intentional…

  11. Conceptual Barriers to Progress Within Evolutionary Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N; Odling-Smee, John; Feldman, Marcus W; Kendal, Jeremy

    2009-08-01

    In spite of its success, Neo-Darwinism is faced with major conceptual barriers to further progress, deriving directly from its metaphysical foundations. Most importantly, neo-Darwinism fails to recognize a fundamental cause of evolutionary change, "niche construction". This failure restricts the generality of evolutionary theory, and introduces inaccuracies. It also hinders the integration of evolutionary biology with neighbouring disciplines, including ecosystem ecology, developmental biology, and the human sciences. Ecology is forced to become a divided discipline, developmental biology is stubbornly difficult to reconcile with evolutionary theory, and the majority of biologists and social scientists are still unhappy with evolutionary accounts of human behaviour. The incorporation of niche construction as both a cause and a product of evolution removes these disciplinary boundaries while greatly generalizing the explanatory power of evolutionary theory.

  12. Up the ANTe: Understanding Entrepreneurial Leadership Learning through Actor-Network Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sue; Kempster, Steve; Barnes, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of educators in supporting the development of entrepreneurial leadership learning by creating peer learning networks of owner-managers of small businesses. Using actor-network theory, the authors think through the process of constructing and maintaining a peer learning network (conceived of as an actor-network) and…

  13. Understanding the value of plant diversity for ecosystem functioning through niche theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Forest; Purves, Drew W.; Loreau, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity experiments have generated robust empirical results supporting the hypothesis that ecosystems function better when they contain more species. Given that ecosystems provide services that are valued by humans, this inevitably suggests that the loss of species from natural ecosystems could diminish their value. This raises two important questions. First, will experimental results translate into the real world, where species are being lost at an alarming rate? And second, what are the benefits and pitfalls of such valuation exercises? We argue that the empirical results obtained in experiments are entirely consistent with well-established theories of species coexistence. We then examine the current body of work through the lens of niche theory and highlight where closer links with theory could open up opportunities for future research. We argue that niche theory predicts that diversity–functioning relationships are likely to be stronger (and require more species) in the field than in simplified experimental settings. However, we caution that while many of the biological processes that promote coexistence can also generate diversity–function relationships, there is no simple mapping between the two. This implies that valuation exercises need to proceed with care. PMID:27928043

  14. Understanding Photos, Models and Beliefs: A Test of the Modularity Thesis of Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Tony; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    1995-01-01

    Explores the dissociation between the performance by children with autism on false belief tasks, on which they do poorly, and false photograph, false map, and false drawing tasks, on which they do well. Suggesting domain specificity in the development of representational system, the results supported the modularity of theory of mind and the…

  15. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  16. Understanding Preschool Emergent Science in a Cultural Historical Context through Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Bodil; Areljung, Sofie; Due, Karin; Ekström, Kenneth; Ottander, Christina; Tellgren, Britt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore how cultural factors interact with preschool teachers' shaping of activities with science content, and also how Activity Theory (AT) as a theoretical framework can be useful for examining interrelations within preschool systems. Qualitative data was collected from three preschools in the form of guided group…

  17. Understanding Frame-of-Reference Training Success: A Social Learning Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulsky, Lorne M.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Employing the social learning theory (SLT) perspective on training, we analysed the effects of alternative frame-of-reference (FOR) training protocols on various criteria of training effectiveness. Undergraduate participants (N = 65) were randomly assigned to one of four FOR training conditions and a control condition. Training effectiveness was…

  18. Risky Business: An Integrated Institutional Theory for Understanding High-Risk Decision Making in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lauren A.; Angulo, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Lauren A. Turner and A. J. Angulo explore how institutional theory can be applied to explain variance in higher education organizational strategies. Given strong regulatory, normative, and cultural-cognitive pressures to conform, they ask, why do some colleges engage in high-risk decision making? To answer this, they bring together classic and…

  19. A Conceptual-Pictorial Approach to the Understanding of Piaget's Theory of Mental Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattimore-Knudson, Russell S.

    Utilizing a minimum of technical terminology, this eight-chapter monograph introduces beginning psychology students to the basic concepts of Piaget's theory of mental development and to its application by parents and teachers. As an aid to learning, each of the concepts discussed is illustrated by black-and-white drawings which can be reproduced…

  20. Using Activity Theory to Understand Intergenerational Play: The Case of Family Quest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Barab, Sasha A.; Downton, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    We implemented a five-week family program called "Family Quest" where parents and children ages 9 to 13 played Quest Atlantis, a multiuser 3D educational computer game, at a local after-school club for 90-minute sessions. We used activity theory as a conceptual and an analytical framework to study the nature of intergenerational play, the…

  1. Self-Determination Theory and Middle School Mathematics Teachers: Understanding the Motivation to Attain Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Amy K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to use Self-Determination Theory as a framework to analyze middle school mathematics teachers' motivation to attain effective professional development concerning Ohio's Learning Standards as well as other instructional aspects that affect the classroom. Teachers are exceptionally busy meeting…

  2. A review of constructivism: understanding and using a relatively new theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, N

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to familiarize family medicine educators with a relatively new educational theory, "constructivism." This theory is derived from the philosophical proposition that reality is constructed by the individual. According to the more traditional theory of "objectivism," knowledge exists in the world external to personal experience. Constructivist theory postulates that personal experience cannot be separated from knowledge. In analyzing the literature, the author found that constructivism can be viewed at the cognitive (individual) and social (community) levels. Cognitive constructivism maintains that individuals develop their own models of reality using personal experience and research-based data. Two key elements of cognitive constructivism with implications for family medicine educators are promoting student independence and active learning. Social constructivism maintains that individuals use their membership in a community to continually refine and shape their models of reality. By communicating with each other (for physicians, in the "conversation of medicine"), we test our constructs. Two key elements of social constructivism with implications for application by family medicine educators are promoting collaboration and peer teaching.

  3. Understanding college students’ fruit consumption: integrating habit strength in the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The additive and interactive effect of habit strength in the explanation of young adults’ fruit consumption was studied within the context of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Additionally, behavioural and control beliefs were modelled as predictors of profile membership based on current fruit

  4. Using Grounded Theory to Understand Resiliency in Pre-Teen Children of High-Conflict Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomrenke, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Using grounded theory, this study identified factors that contributed to children's ability to utilize their resilient attributes. Children between the ages of 9 and 12 from high-conflict separated or divorced families participated in a study that examined how family and community interactions promote resilient behaviour. Substantive-level theory…

  5. FEATURES OF INVESTMENT PROCESS UNDERSTANDING BY A. SMITH AS THE FOUNDER OF CLASSICAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ovcharenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the essence and the nature of the concept of “investment”. The main conceptual elements of a scientific theory of Adam Smith are defined. The features of the investment process by Adam Smith as the driving mechanism for social and economic development of a society are revealed.

  6. Gen Y Recruitment: Understanding Graduate Intentions to Join an Organisation Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, Amanda; Lewis, Ioni; Banks, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) framework, the purpose of this paper is to explore whether the standard TPB constructs explained variance in Generation Y (Gen Y) individuals' intentions to join their ideal organisation. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed methods approach was used featuring qualitative and quantitative…

  7. Understanding Critical Race Theory as a Framework in Higher Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature to discuss how critical race theory has been applied as a theoretical framework to higher educational research in the United States and what its contributions are. To provide necessary context, I will discuss race and racism in the United States, the background of US higher education in relation to race,…

  8. Activity Theory as a Lens to Understand How Facebook Develops Knowledge Application Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarukayo, Emily; Ssentamu, Proscovia; Mayisela, Tabisa; Brown, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Uganda's higher education system has generally been criticized for concentrating on theory leading to a mismatch between training received and practical skills required by employers. Studies have documented the inability of graduates from some programmes at Makerere University in applying knowledge in the work environment. This could partly be…

  9. Understanding parental behavior in pediatric palliative care: Attachment theory as a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Joan A; Byrne, Mary W

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this conceptual paper was to present important constructs in attachment theory as they apply to parent and caregiver behavior in pediatric palliative care. Clarification of these constructs is provided with specific reference to their clinical application as well as their reflection in current empirical literature. Social attachment theory is proposed as a developmentally contextual model for the study of parenting in pediatric palliative and end-of-life care. A comprehensive search was conducted of pertinent literatures. These included classic as well as recent theory and research in attachment theory in addition to the empirical literatures on parent and family experience in pediatric palliative care, serious illness, and beyond to parental bereavement. Other relevant literature was examined with respect to the phenomena of concern. The empirical literature in pediatric palliative care supports the use of central concepts in attachment theory as foundational for further inquiry. This is evidenced in the emphasis on the importance of parental protection of the child, as well as executive activities such as decision making and other prominent parental operations, parental psychological resolution of the child's diagnosis and illness as well as coping and meaning making, and the core significance of parental relationships with providers who provide secure-base and safe-haven functions. The promise for developing integrated, conceptually based interventions from construction through implementation is of urgent importance to children and families receiving pediatric palliative care services. Focusing on key parental behaviors and processes within the context of a well-studied and contextually appropriate model will inform this task efficiently. The attachment paradigm meets these criteria and has promise in allowing us to move forward in developing well-defined, inclusive, and conceptually grounded protocols for child and family psychosocial research

  10. Emergent nested systems a theory of understanding and influencing complex systems as well as case studies in urban systems

    CERN Document Server

    Walloth, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a theory as well as methods to understand and to purposively influence complex systems. It suggests a theory of complex systems as nested systems, i. e. systems that enclose other systems and that are simultaneously enclosed by even other systems. According to the theory presented, each enclosing system emerges through time from the generative activities of the systems they enclose. Systems are nested and often emerge unplanned, and every system of high dynamics is enclosed by a system of slower dynamics. An understanding of systems with faster dynamics, which are always guided by systems of slower dynamics, opens up not only new ways to understanding systems, but also to effectively influence them. The aim and subject of this book is to lay out these thoughts and explain their relevance to the purposive development of complex systems, which are exemplified in case studies from an urban system. The interested reader, who is not required to be familiar with system-theoretical concepts or wit...

  11. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States: Systemic Emergence of Psychological Lexicon and Theory of Mind Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, D.; Buttiglieri, F.

    In recent years, a number of studies that have examined how social experiences are related to children's theory of mind development, have found that: (1) the frequency of mothers' mental state utterances used in mother-child picture-book reading, is correlated with children's theory of mind abilities; (2) mothers' use of cognitive terms is related more strongly to children's theory of mind performances than the mothers' references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, Rieffe, 2005; Ruffman, Slade, Crowe, 2002; Taumoepeau, Ruffman, 2006; Dunn, 2002). Despite the evidence for the role of mothers' language, there is disagreement over how exactly it improves children's theory of mind development. In short, mentalistic comments contain distinctive words, grammatical constructions and pragmatic features. The question is, however, which factor is critical (de Rosnay, Pons, Harris, Morrell, 2004). The present study addresses this issue and focuses on relationship between mothers' mental state terms and children's performances in theory of mind tasks (emotion understanding and false belief tasks). Mothers were asked to read some pictures to 10 children between 3;0 and 5;0. Among the different mental state references (perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative), it was found that the frequency and variety of mothers' mental state words were significantly associated with children's mental lexicon. In addition, emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Kind of emotional words that are used by the mothers with reference to the Italian language will be discussed.

  12. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  13. Proteomics in evolutionary ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, B; Millar, A H

    2016-03-01

    modifications and protein interactions of interest with high accuracy and assess protein diversity and function. Therefore, proteomic technologies can be viewed as providing evolutionary biologist with exciting novel opportunities to understand very early events in functional variation of cellular molecular machinery that are acting as part of evolutionary processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An attempt to understand the many-worlds interpretation of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    This article explores the ''Many-worlds'' interpretation of quantum mechanics, and considers the importance of the relationship between conscious mind and experimental observations. Using the perspective offered here wave function collapse is not necessary for consistency, and experiments can be repeated. The difficulty with this perspective arises from the experimentally well-established probability rule of quantum theory. The final part of the article discusses probability and conscious choice and the need for a universal consciousness. (UK)

  15. The application of statistical physics to evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Guy; Hirsh, Aaron E

    2005-07-05

    A number of fundamental mathematical models of the evolutionary process exhibit dynamics that can be difficult to understand analytically. Here we show that a precise mathematical analogy can be drawn between certain evolutionary and thermodynamic systems, allowing application of the powerful machinery of statistical physics to analysis of a family of evolutionary models. Analytical results that follow directly from this approach include the steady-state distribution of fixed genotypes and the load in finite populations. The analogy with statistical physics also reveals that, contrary to a basic tenet of the nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution, the frequencies of adaptive and deleterious substitutions at steady state are equal. Finally, just as the free energy function quantitatively characterizes the balance between energy and entropy, a free fitness function provides an analytical expression for the balance between natural selection and stochastic drift.

  16. Doctors on-line: using diffusion of innovations theory to understand internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Fiona; Grant, William; Tote, Rohit

    2004-10-01

    Family physicians must be aware of the latest and best evidence for a broad range of clinical and public health topics. The Internet is an important source of this information, but not all family physicians use the Internet. This study used "diffusion of innovations" theory to identify strategies for increasing Internet use by family physicians. We conducted a mail survey of 58 family physicians in a midsized Northeastern metropolitan area in the United States to assess Internet use and identify sources from which physicians obtain medical information. We then used diffusion of innovations theory to describe the process by which physicians learn and develop skills at using the Internet. Internet use begins when physicians are not constrained by a heavy patient volume and are able to learn about and observe the benefits of Internet use. When they experience its usefulness, their Internet browsing and searching develop and become more effortless and less time-consuming. The innovation attributes of diffusion of innovations theory act as predictors of Internet use among family physicians. Internet use by family physicians might be increased by providing them time to learn about how to use it and to experience its benefits. Integration of continuing medical education courses created for the purpose of developing and enhancing Internet usage skills into their schedule may be a workable solution. Demographic factors such as gender and training recency have no influence on Internet use by family physicians.

  17. Understanding partnership practice in primary health as pedagogic work: what can Vygotsky's theory of learning offer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Primary health policy in Australia has followed international trends in promoting models of care based on partnership between professionals and health service users. This reform agenda has significant practice implications, and has been widely adopted in areas of primary health that involve supporting families with children. Existing research shows that achieving partnership in practice is associated with three specific challenges: uncertainty regarding the role of professional expertise, tension between immediate needs and longer-term capacity development in families, and the need for challenge while maintaining relationships based on trust. Recently, pedagogic or learning-focussed elements of partnership practice have been identified, but there have been no systematic attempts to link theories of learning with the practices and challenges of primary health-care professionals working with families in a pedagogic role. This paper explores key concepts of Vygotsky's theory of learning (including mediation, the zone of proximal development, internalisation, and double stimulation), showing how pedagogic concepts can provide a bridge between the policy rhetoric of partnership and primary health practice. The use of this theory to address the three key challenges is explicitly discussed.

  18. Group Theory of Wannier Functions Providing the Basis for a Deeper Understanding of Magnetism and Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkehard Krüger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the group theory of optimally-localized and symmetry-adapted Wannier functions in a crystal of any given space group G or magnetic group M. Provided that the calculated band structure of the considered material is given and that the symmetry of the Bloch functions at all of the points of symmetry in the Brillouin zone is known, the paper details whether or not the Bloch functions of particular energy bands can be unitarily transformed into optimally-localized Wannier functions symmetry-adapted to the space group G, to the magnetic group M or to a subgroup of G or M. In this context, the paper considers usual, as well as spin-dependent Wannier functions, the latter representing the most general definition of Wannier functions. The presented group theory is a review of the theory published by one of the authors (Ekkehard Krüger in several former papers and is independent of any physical model of magnetism or superconductivity. However, it is suggested to interpret the special symmetry of the optimally-localized Wannier functions in the framework of a nonadiabatic extension of the Heisenberg model, the nonadiabatic Heisenberg model. On the basis of the symmetry of the Wannier functions, this model of strongly-correlated localized electrons makes clear predictions of whether or not the system can possess superconducting or magnetic eigenstates.

  19. Back to basics: using colour polymorphisms to study evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Erik I

    2017-04-01

    Here, I suggest that colour polymorphic study systems have been underutilized to answer general questions about evolutionary processes, such as morph frequency dynamics between generations and population divergence in morph frequencies. Colour polymorphisms can be used to study fundamental evolutionary processes like frequency-dependent selection, gene flow, recombination and correlational selection for adaptive character combinations. However, many previous studies of colour polymorphism often suffer from weak connections to population genetic theory. I argue that too much focus has been directed towards noticeable visual traits (colour) at the expense of understanding the evolutionary processes shaping genetic variation and covariation associated with polymorphisms in general. There is thus no need for a specific evolutionary theory for colour polymorphisms beyond the general theory of the maintenance of polymorphisms in spatially or temporally variable environments or through positive or negative frequency-dependent selection. I outline an integrative research programme incorporating these processes and suggest some fruitful avenues in future investigations of colour polymorphisms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evolutionary Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Igor V. Evstigneev; Thorsten Hens; Klaus Reiner Schenk-Hoppé

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary finance studies the dynamic interaction of investment strategies in financial markets. This market interaction generates a stochastic wealth dynamics on a heterogenous population of traders through the fluctuation of asset prices and their random payoffs. Asset prices are endogenously determined through short-term market clearing. Investors' portfolio choices are characterized by investment strategies which provide a descriptive model of decision behavior. The mathematical framew...

  1. Actor-Network Theory and its role in understanding the implementation of information technology developments in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Aziz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actor-Network Theory (ANT is an increasingly influential, but still deeply contested, approach to understand humans and their interactions with inanimate objects. We argue that health services research, and in particular evaluations of complex IT systems in health service organisations, may benefit from being informed by Actor-Network Theory perspectives. Discussion Despite some limitations, an Actor-Network Theory-based approach is conceptually useful in helping to appreciate the complexity of reality (including the complexity of organisations and the active role of technology in this context. This can prove helpful in understanding how social effects are generated as a result of associations between different actors in a network. Of central importance in this respect is that Actor-Network Theory provides a lens through which to view the role of technology in shaping social processes. Attention to this shaping role can contribute to a more holistic appreciation of the complexity of technology introduction in healthcare settings. It can also prove practically useful in providing a theoretically informed approach to sampling (by drawing on informants that are related to the technology in question and analysis (by providing a conceptual tool and vocabulary that can form the basis for interpretations. We draw on existing empirical work in this area and our ongoing work investigating the integration of electronic health record systems introduced as part of England's National Programme for Information Technology to illustrate salient points. Summary Actor-Network Theory needs to be used pragmatically with an appreciation of its shortcomings. Our experiences suggest it can be helpful in investigating technology implementations in healthcare settings.

  2. Space, time and thrips: biogeographic issues in the evolutionary ecology of Thysanoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Grehan

    1991-01-01

    Most participants of this symposium will be concerned with understanding thrips ecology primarily in order to develop practical and effective control strategies. Questions dealing with historical aspects (evolution) may seem of only isolated "theoretical" interest with little significance for everyday pragmatic concerns. Evolutionary theory is widely...

  3. Toward a Quantitative Understanding of the Electric Field in Thermal Metal Oxidation and a Self-Consistent Wagner Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tian-Le; Wen, You-Hai

    2014-07-03

    The electric field in the growing oxide film is important to the kinetics and mechanism of metal oxidation. However, understanding of the essential characteristics of the electric field during oxidation remains insufficient. A special-case analytical model is presented that provides a unified understanding for the electric field from the viewpoints of kinetics and thermodynamics. More general cases are studied by computer simulations that show similar characteristics in the electric field. In particular, simulations indicate that in many situations, the electrostatic potential drop across the bulk oxide is limited to ∼kBT/e, which means that the total electrostatic potential drop across the oxide film, if on the order of 1 V by rough estimation, should have contributions mostly from the electrified interfaces. Finally, regarding the Gibbs-Duhem relation, the commonly used isobaric assumption for the diffusing species is refuted. The results contained herein also provide a self-consistent understanding of Wagner's oxidation theory.

  4. Practical and effective management of libraries integrating case studies, general management theory and self-understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Moniz, Jr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at library science students and librarians with newly assigned administrative duties the book is about improving one's thinking and decision making in a role as a library manager. Most librarians get very little exposure to management issues prior to finding themselves in a management role. Furthermore, most library science students do not expect that they will need to understand management yet they quickly find that there is a need to understand this perspective to be effective at almost any library job. Effective library management is about having some tools to make decisions (such as

  5. Effective spacetime understanding emergence in effective field theory and quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the notion that quantum gravity may represent the "breakdown" of spacetime at extremely high energy scales. If spacetime does not exist at the fundamental level, then it has to be considered "emergent", in other words an effective structure, valid at low energy scales. The author develops a conception of emergence appropriate to effective theories in physics, and shows how it applies (or could apply) in various approaches to quantum gravity, including condensed matter approaches, discrete approaches, and loop quantum gravity.

  6. Beyond positivism: Understanding and addressing childhood obesity disparities through a Critical Theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Krista; Kulage, Kristine M; Lucero, Robert

    2015-10-01

    We apply Critical Theory to examine menu labeling with the aim of uncovering important implications for nursing practice, research, and policy. Our critical analysis uncovers barriers to menu labeling's effectiveness, particularly for vulnerable populations. Nurses must work to minimize the impact of these barriers and optimize the effectiveness of menu labeling, in order to strengthen the fight against obesity. We suggest changes, guided by this critical analysis, which can be implemented by nurses working in clinical practice, research, and policy. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 'What's Psychology got to do with it?' Applying psychological theory to understanding failures in modern healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydon-Grange, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) has, for over four decades, been beset with numerous 'scandals' relating to poor patient care across several diverse clinical contexts. Ensuing inquiries proceed as though each scandal is unique, with recommendations highlighting the need for more staff training, a change of culture within the NHS based upon a 'duty of candour', and proposed criminal sanctions for employees believed to breach good patient care. However, mistakes reoccur and failings in patient safety continue. While inquiries describe what went awry in each case, questions of how and why such failures came to be remain unanswered. Psychology has a role in answering these questions. Applying psychological theory can guide an understanding of the causes that lead to catastrophic failures in healthcare settings. Indeed, what is often neglected in inquiries is the role of human behaviour in contributing to these failures. Drawing upon behavioural, social and cognitive theories, a psychological analysis of key factors, typically present in clinical contexts where serious failures of care occur, is presented. Applying theory and models from the field of psychology can guide further understanding of the precipitants to poor care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Evolutionary Aesthetics and Print Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the extent to which predictions based on the theory of evolutionary aesthetics are utilized by the advertising industry. The purpose of a comprehensive content analysis of print advertising is to determine whether the items indicated by evolutionists such as animals, flowers, certain types of landscapes, beautiful humans, and some colors are part of real advertising strategies. This article has shown that many evolutionary hypotheses (although not all of them are supported by empirical data. Along with these hypotheses, some inferences from Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory were tested. It turned out that advertising uses both biological schemata and cultural patterns to make an image more likable.

  9. A Pedagogy for Global Understanding--Intercultural Dialogue: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulabaum, Nina L.

    2011-01-01

    Given the current tensions and animosities between people of varying cultural and ethnic groups, intercultural dialogue, rooted in Europe's humanist tradition, offers a concrete strategy for fostering understanding, promoting tolerance and breaking down barriers based on stereotypes and xenophobic violence. As the world's population increases each…

  10. Theory of Mind: Understanding Young Children's Pretence and Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, research has focused on the understanding of pretence as an important means for young children to conceptualise the mind. Many use the phrase "mental representation" to a mental model of some entity or concept, which describes what is inside the minds of young children in relation to a real-world situation or…

  11. Theory of Mind at Home: Linking Authoritative and Authoritarian Parenting Styles to Children's Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Jessica; Peterson, Candida C.

    2014-01-01

    Building on Vinden's pioneering research [(2001). Parenting attitudes and children's understanding of mind: A comparison of Korean American and Anglo-American families. "Cognitive Development", 16, 793-809], we examined how parents' use of authoritative versus authoritarian styles of discipline related to their children's development of…

  12. "The Otherness that Implicates the Self:" Towards an Understanding of Gendering from a Theory of Proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Donal

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider ways in which the concept of "proximity" can be put to work to understand how gendering occurs in the conduct of gender research--the theme of this special issue. If we accept that researchers are always already inside and implicated in the issues into which they inquire, and that they simultaneously establish…

  13. Understanding band gaps of solids in generalized Kohn–Sham theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdew, John P.; Yang, Weitao; Burke, Kieron; Yang, Zenghui; Gross, Eberhard K. U.; Scheffler, Matthias; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Zhang, Igor Ying; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Peng, Haowei; Sun, Jianwei; Trushin, Egor; Görling, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental energy gap of a periodic solid distinguishes insulators from metals and characterizes low-energy single-electron excitations. However, the gap in the band structure of the exact multiplicative Kohn–Sham (KS) potential substantially underestimates the fundamental gap, a major limitation of KS density-functional theory. Here, we give a simple proof of a theorem: In generalized KS theory (GKS), the band gap of an extended system equals the fundamental gap for the approximate functional if the GKS potential operator is continuous and the density change is delocalized when an electron or hole is added. Our theorem explains how GKS band gaps from metageneralized gradient approximations (meta-GGAs) and hybrid functionals can be more realistic than those from GGAs or even from the exact KS potential. The theorem also follows from earlier work. The band edges in the GKS one-electron spectrum are also related to measurable energies. A linear chain of hydrogen molecules, solid aluminum arsenide, and solid argon provide numerical illustrations. PMID:28265085

  14. Understanding band gaps of solids in generalized Kohn-Sham theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdew, John P; Yang, Weitao; Burke, Kieron; Yang, Zenghui; Gross, Eberhard K U; Scheffler, Matthias; Scuseria, Gustavo E; Henderson, Thomas M; Zhang, Igor Ying; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Peng, Haowei; Sun, Jianwei; Trushin, Egor; Görling, Andreas

    2017-03-14

    The fundamental energy gap of a periodic solid distinguishes insulators from metals and characterizes low-energy single-electron excitations. However, the gap in the band structure of the exact multiplicative Kohn-Sham (KS) potential substantially underestimates the fundamental gap, a major limitation of KS density-functional theory. Here, we give a simple proof of a theorem: In generalized KS theory (GKS), the band gap of an extended system equals the fundamental gap for the approximate functional if the GKS potential operator is continuous and the density change is delocalized when an electron or hole is added. Our theorem explains how GKS band gaps from metageneralized gradient approximations (meta-GGAs) and hybrid functionals can be more realistic than those from GGAs or even from the exact KS potential. The theorem also follows from earlier work. The band edges in the GKS one-electron spectrum are also related to measurable energies. A linear chain of hydrogen molecules, solid aluminum arsenide, and solid argon provide numerical illustrations.

  15. Understanding the Dark and Bright Sides of Anxiety: A Theory of Workplace Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bonnie Hayden; McCarthy, Julie M

    2018-01-22

    Researchers have uncovered inconsistent relations between anxiety and performance. Although the prominent view is a "dark side," where anxiety has a negative relation with performance, a "bright side" of anxiety has also been suggested. We reconcile past findings by presenting a comprehensive multilevel, multiprocess model of workplace anxiety called the theory of workplace anxiety (TWA). This model highlights the processes and conditions through which workplace anxiety may lead to debilitative and facilitative job performance and includes 19 theoretical propositions. Drawing on past theories of anxiety, resource depletion, cognitive-motivational processing, and performance, we uncover the debilitative and facilitative nature of dispositional and situational workplace anxiety by positioning emotional exhaustion, self-regulatory processing, and cognitive interference as distinct contrasting processes underlying the relationship between workplace anxiety and job performance. Extending our theoretical model, we pinpoint motivation, ability, and emotional intelligence as critical conditions that shape when workplace anxiety will debilitate and facilitate job performance. We also identify the unique employee, job, and situational characteristics that serve as antecedents of dispositional and situational workplace anxiety. The TWA offers a nuanced perspective on workplace anxiety and serves as a foundation for future work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Applying cognitive learning theories to understanding of learning in vulnerable groups of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Kuran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-twentieth century cognitive learning theories appeared as a criticism of behaviourism, and were later replaced by constructivist and connectivist learning theories. In the last two decades psychological research into cognition experienced a revival thanks to new methodological possibilities. This article brings a selection of research studies related to adult edu- cation in various ways: post-formal cognitive development stage, cognitive ageing, the meaning of crystallized intelligence in adulthood, and research into learning styles. The article proceeds with an account of research of literacy in vulnerable social groups and ends with a final chapter, which brings useful findings for researchers and adult education practitioners. In this article, the author has drawn from two separate sources. The first source are the professional premises underlying conceptualization of multi-media contents, prepared by the Slovenian Institute for Adult Education within the framework of the project titled Literacy development, and Assessment and Acknowledgement of Non-formal Learning between 2009 – 2011. The theoretical part of the underlying professional premises dealt, among other, with cognitive aspects of adult learning, which represent the basis of this article. The second source is the authorØs personal involvement in the field of cognitive psychology, or rather, in the field of cognitive sciences, in which even today learning and education of vulnerable groups of adults is given only marginal consideration in research.

  17. Theory of mind "beliefs", developmental characteristics and social understanding in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Françoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of development of ToM belief abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM belief abilities were examined. EDEI-R [Perron-Borelli M. (1996). Echelles Différentielles d'Efficiences Intellectuelles. Forme Révisée (EDEI-R). Paris: Editions et Applications Psychologiques.] was used to match participants and to assess social understanding. ECOSSE [Lecocq P. (1996). L'E.CO.S.SE. Une épreuve de compréhension syntaxico-sémantique. Paris: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.] assessed the level of syntactic and semantic comprehension of French speaking, to ensure a good comprehension of the questions in false belief tasks. Five tasks assessed the ability in visual perspective taking and in understanding of false belief. A difference in the global ToM ability was found between both groups (difference hypothesis in ID participants). Specific abilities in different ToM tasks showed developmental patterns partially different and partially similar, between ID and TD groups. The interest to assess the understanding of belief by means of several tasks is confirmed. Positive links between cognition, language and ToM abilities were found in both groups, but the impact of cognition and language on abilities in each ToM task is different in both groups. Finally, the specific impact of social understanding and of chronological age on abilities in false belief in ID group is discussed.

  18. Evolutionary and Ecological Consequences of Interspecific Hybridization in Cladocerans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenk, K.; Spaak, P.

    1995-01-01

    The evolutionary process of interspecific hybridization in cladocerans is reviewed based on ecological and population genetic data. The evolutionary consequences of hybridization, biogeographic patterns and fitness comparisons are analyzed within the conceptual framework of theories on

  19. A Simple General Model of Evolutionary Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Stefan

    Evolution is a process in which some variations that emerge within a population (of, e.g., biological species or industrial goods) get selected, survive, and proliferate, whereas others vanish. Survival probability, proliferation, or production rates are associated with the "fitness" of a particular variation. We argue that the notion of fitness is an a posteriori concept in the sense that one can assign higher fitness to species or goods that survive but one can generally not derive or predict fitness per se. Whereas proliferation rates can be measured, fitness landscapes, that is, the inter-dependence of proliferation rates, cannot. For this reason we think that in a physical theory of evolution such notions should be avoided. Here we review a recent quantitative formulation of evolutionary dynamics that provides a framework for the co-evolution of species and their fitness landscapes (Thurner et al., 2010, Physica A 389, 747; Thurner et al., 2010, New J. Phys. 12, 075029; Klimek et al., 2009, Phys. Rev. E 82, 011901 (2010). The corresponding model leads to a generic evolutionary dynamics characterized by phases of relative stability in terms of diversity, followed by phases of massive restructuring. These dynamical modes can be interpreted as punctuated equilibria in biology, or Schumpeterian business cycles (Schumpeter, 1939, Business Cycles, McGraw-Hill, London) in economics. We show that phase transitions that separate phases of high and low diversity can be approximated surprisingly well by mean-field methods. We demonstrate that the mathematical framework is suited to understand systemic properties of evolutionary systems, such as their proneness to collapse, or their potential for diversification. The framework suggests that evolutionary processes are naturally linked to self-organized criticality and to properties of production matrices, such as their eigenvalue spectra. Even though the model is phrased in general terms it is also practical in the sense

  20. Understanding bladder management on a palliative care unit: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmanis, Iris; Hay, Melissa; Shadd, Joshua; Byrne, Janette; McCallum, Sarah; Bishop, Kristen; Whitfield, Patricia; Faulds, Cathy

    2017-03-16

    Research regarding factors associated with nursing-initiated changes to bladder management at end-of-life is sparse. To explore the process of Palliative Care Unit (PCU) nurses' approach to bladder management changes. Nursing staff from one PCU in London, Canada were interviewed regarding bladder management care practices. A constructivist grounded theory was generated. Four interconnected themes emerged: humanity (compassionate support of patients); journey (making the most of a finite timeline); health condition (illness, functional decline); and context (orders, policies, supplies). These overlapping themes must be considered in light of ongoing changes which prompt recycling through the framework. While bladder management necessitates shared decision-making and individualised care, nurses' phronetic experience may serve to detect the presence of change and the need to consider other alternatives. End-of-life bladder management requires nurses to continually reconsider the significance of humanity, journey, health condition and context in light of ongoing changes.