WorldWideScience

Sample records for understand environmental issues

  1. an understanding of environmental concepts and issues among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environmental knowledge, attitudes and concern are also conflicting. As there is disagreement about the direction of relationships between different variables, therefore, there is a need to investigate the understanding of environmental concepts and issues among Grade 10-12 students from rural and urban schools.

  2. An understanding of environmental concepts and issues among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and understanding of Grade 10-12 students about selected environmental concepts and issues such as population, ozone layer, green house effect, and acid rain. Another aim of this study is to find out whether there is any difference between the knowledge and ...

  3. Environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove-White, Robin

    1985-01-01

    There is still very little official acceptance that environmental factors will impose major constraints on the development of energy supply options in the United Kingdom in the future. This paper argues that such an acceptance is needed urgently and should begin to affect governmental policies immediately. UK energy policy ought to be to intensify energy efficiency and conservation throughout the economy and hence reduce the need to expand new supply sources. The general energy requirements in the UK are first considered. Problems of energy supply expansion, particularly nuclear power and coal are considered. Resolution of the problems identified in the UK political and administrative context is discussed. Then the environmental aspects are considered. A comment on the paper follows and raises two questions about market-based energy policy; does it preclude intervention to promote economic efficiency in the use of energy and, does it lead to economic efficiency. (U.K.)

  4. Environmental Issues are Controversial Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary Allaire

    The extensive social-scientific interest and continuing relevance of environmental study assure its immediate and long-range importance in the social studies. But the crisis atmosphere surrounding this issue threatens a thoughtful, systematic approach to the subject, and poses the danger of a careless rush to activity. As social studies educators,…

  5. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... about NICHD preeclampsia research in the sidebar.) Preterm Birth Preterm (premature) birth is birth before the baby ...

  6. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  7. Understanding nuclear issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-09-01

    In our days technological progress for the benefit of society is slowed down by the fact that common citizens (opinion-forming media reporters, journalists, furthermore elected decision-makers) are underinformed about basic numerical facts concerning harms and benefits of high technology. Here a comparative risk study is presented about smoking, ozone hole, global warming, and ionizing radiation. This approach has turned out to be successful in educating the youth in Hungary; because school-going teenagers do understand numbers. (author)

  8. Understanding nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, G.

    1999-01-01

    In our days technological progress for the benefit of society is slowed down by the fact that common citizens (opinion-forming media reporters, journalists, furthermore elected decision-makers) are underinformed about basic numerical facts concerning harms and benefits of high technology. Here a comparative risk study is presented about smoking, ozone hole, global warming, and ionizing radiation. This approach has turned out to be successful in educating the youth in Hungary; because school-going teenagers do understand numbers. (author)

  9. ENVIROSUITE: USING STATE-OF-THE-ART SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SCIENCE ISSUES AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FITTS, J.P.; KALB, P.D.; FRANCIS, A.J.; FUHRMANN, M.; DODGE, C.J.; GILLOW, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Although DOE's Environmental Management program has made steady progress in cleaning up environmental legacies throughout the DOE complex, there are still significant remediation issues that remain to be solved. For example, DOE faces difficult challenges related to potential mobilization of radionuclides (e.g., actinides) and other hazardous contaminants in soils, removal and final treatment of high-level waste and residuals from leaking tanks, and the long-term stewardship of remediated sites and engineered disposal facilities, to name just a few. In some cases, new technologies and technology applications will be required based on current engineering expertise. In others, however, basic scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms of how contaminants behave under specific conditions and how they interact with the environment, from which new engineering solutions can emerge. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Stony Brook University, scientists have teamed to use state-of-the-art synchrotron techniques to help understand the basic interactions of contaminants in the environment. Much of this work is conducted at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which is a user facility that provides high energy X-ray and ultraviolet photon beams to facilitate the examination of contaminants and materials at the molecular level. These studies allow us to determine how chemical speciation and structure control important parameters such as solubility, which in turn drive critical performance characteristics such as leaching. In one study for example, we are examining the effects of microbial activity on actinide contaminants under conditions anticipated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. One possible outcome of this research is the identification of specific microbes that can trap uranium or other contaminants within the intracellular structure and help mitigate mobility. In another study, we are exploring the interaction of contaminants with

  10. Energy and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current energy-environmental issues. Firstly, the environmental problems associated with energy production and use are briefly described. Secondly, the paper reviews the availability of technological solutions to environmental problems, focussing particularly on atmospheric emission control. Finally, it moves on to look at recent policy developments in some parts of the world. Since the paper is written from the perspective of an industrialized country, emerging policy issues in Europe, Japan, and North America receive the greatest attention, with a particular focus on Europe where greenhouse gases and the proposed carbon tax have received a particularly high priority. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the issues arising from the 1992 UNCED (UN Conference on Environment and Development) and implications for the diffusion of cleaner technologies from North to South. (author). 36 refs

  11. Landfilling: Environmental Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    to air, soil and water caused by the processes stabilizing the waste in the landfill. The main factors controlling the actual environmental impacts from the landfilling are: the nature and amount of the waste landfilled, the geological and hydrological setting of the landfill, the landfill technology......, the extent and quality of the technical environmental protection measures introduced, the daily operation and the timescale. This chapter describes the main potential environmental impacts from landfills. The modern landfill is able to avoid most of these impacts. However, in the planning and design...... of landfills it is important to understand the potential environmental impacts, which must be avoided. The emissions of landfill gas and leachate causing most of the environmental risks are described in detail in the chapters addressing specific landfill types: Chapter 10.5 (mineral waste landfill), Chapter 10...

  12. Environmental issues in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Environmental issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs

  14. Understanding environmental and climatic influences on regional differences and spatio-temporalscale issues of dengue fever transmission in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serman, E. A.; Akanda, A. S. S.; Ginsberg, H. S.; Couret, J.

    2015-12-01

    Each year, there are an estimated 50-100 million cases of dengue fever worldwide, roughly 30 times the number of cases as 50 years ago, with some estimates even higher. Puerto Rico (PR) has experienced epidemic dengue activity since 1963, and the disease is currently endemic. Since 1990 there have been 4 large epidemics, the most recent in 2010 where there were nearly 27,000 cases reported, amounting to almost 1% of the island's total population. Because no vaccine is currently available, effective control is dependent on our ability to understand the complex relationship between environmental factors, mosquito vector ecology, and disease epidemiology. Dengue virus is transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, as humans are the preferred host for Ae. aegypti. The purpose of our analysis is to assess temporal and spatial patterns of dengue transmission in PR and relate this to both climatic and anthropogenic factors. Unlike past studies, which have used San Juan to represent the island as a whole, our research will investigate regional dynamics in dengue transmission, as preliminary results have shown significant differences in population density, disease incidence, and environmental and climatic variables. Data from the Passive Dengue Surveillance System of CDC, meteorological observations from NCDC, and remote sensing data from USGS and NASA will be used together to identify relationships between climate, urbanization, and dengue incidence for PR at various spatial and temporal scales. Preliminary climatic factors considered include precipitation, temperature, humidity, and soil moisture. Finally, we will assess measures of urbanization such as land cover, land use, population density, and infrastructure that can make regional differences in dengue incidence each year. Results from this study could help create early warning systems for dengue surveillance in Puerto Rico, and develop techniques that can be applied to other areas of the world.

  15. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  16. JPRS Report Environmental Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-30

    on recorders, refrigerators, detergents, and fragrances ? Is the capacities to be modernized. These can be created this not a way to provide garment...ernment Publcations issued by the Superintendent of Back issues or single copies of the DAILY Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash- REPORTs

  17. Teachers' understandings and enactments of social and environmental justice issues in the classroom: What's "critical" in the manufacturing of road-smart squirrels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, Alison J.

    How do five new teachers understand and enact counter-hegemonic pedagogies in their own classes? This study developed from this question. The question arose as I taught critical environmental education, a counter-hegemonic pedagogy, to preservice science teachers. I encouraged the exploration of social and environmental injustices and how they function to reproduce dominant economic agendas. To understand how five teachers, in the second year of their practice and my former students, made sense of the critical environmental education I taught them, I used Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology as my research frame. Gadamer argues that meaning develops through dialogue, so data collection occurred mainly through lively research conversations over leisurely dinners. As practicing teachers, the six of us jointly explored taken-for-granted meanings and actions in our everyday pedagogical experiences. In these conversations we made meaning (the hermeneutic aspect) of the lived experiences (phenomenological aspect) of incorporating critical environmental education into our practices. This led me to a deeper understanding and increased awareness of how science education reform agendas have influenced and shaped our individual science pedagogies. The analytic lens of critical education showed that these teachers were strongly influenced by the dominant science reform agenda. Regardless of the science curriculum, or the strong social and environmental beliefs some of these teachers held, they did not perceive the teaching of the social and environmental justice issues to be 'critical' or 'their job.' They demonstrated a belief that it was 'critical' to teach well-defined, "hard science" facts. Student success, hence teacher success, involved playing the academic game well and gaining long-term financial security. Re/viewing the data stories through the additional analytic lens of feminist poststructuralism, I saw how dominant discourse constructs the identity of teachers

  18. Australian uranium - the environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddler, H.

    1980-01-01

    The principal theme of this paper is the changing pattern of issues which have dominated the environmental debate over uranium mining in Australia. These issues include the safeguards policy, a domestic energy policy, nuclear waste, economic development, particular environmental problems of the Alligator Rivers region and the social impact of uranium mining on the Aborigines. The special administrative arrangements which the Government has established for environmental protection in the Alligator Rivers region are outlined

  19. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-03

    today is part of the first stage of the National Environmental Program [Programa Nacional do Meio Ambiente ]. This program is finan- cially supported...thereby take in an increased amount of the poisonous ambient air. It is well that this agency that has attached itself to Komsomolsk has at least...has become the leader of the all-union ’black list.’ We occupy first place in terms of the level of dust in the ambient air (exceeding the norms

  20. Issues of environmental (irresponsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dundelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author reflects the questions of humans’ relationship to the environment and of their ecological behaviour that becomes together with the development of modern technologies increasingly relevant just as the question whether humans are able to affect fundamentally the environment on the Earth by their activities. According to some authors (e.g. Ehrlich, 1968; Gore, 2006; Wilson, 1995; Winter, Koger, 2009; Šmajs, 2005 human survival is directly connected with people’s relationship to the nature; but other influential authors have contradictory opinions or they are at least afraid of overestimation of ecological activities that can lead to neglecting of other important problems (e.g. Simon, 1981; Goklany, 2007; Lomborg, 2007; Klaus, 2007, 2009.These issues are dealt in this article mainly from the perspective of psychological theories and concepts – the Freud’s concept of unconsciousness is discussed as well as groupthink, theory of dissonance, contingency trap, Milgram’s theory of autonomous and agentic state of consciousness, group and intergroup behaviour, social dilemma – tragedy of the commons. Achieving a sustainable way of life depends on the equilibrium between consumption of individuals and regenerative abilities of the natural environment. However, people still behave as if they were separated from the nature. The linking axis of this article is the question of psychic powers causing individual and collective ecological (irresponsibility and the resulting consequences.

  1. Issues in environmental survey design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Several environmental survey design issues are discussed and illustrated with surveys designed by Research Triangle Institute statisticians. Issues related to sampling and nonsampling errors are illustrated for indoor air quality surveys, radon surveys, pesticide surveys, and occupational and personal exposure surveys. Sample design issues include the use of auxiliary information (e.g. for stratification), and sampling in time. We also discuss the reduction and estimation of nonsampling errors, including nonresponse and measurement bias

  2. Shared Understandings: Environmental Perspectives of Kenyan Community Members and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigely, Cassie F.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Environmental issues are a shared human concern as communities in all nations and geographic regions are grappling with environmental degradation. Despite this concern, there are multiple different viewpoints on the current state of environmental issues and how to understand these problems. Understanding how different communities conceive of the…

  3. Survey of Environmental Issues in the Civilian Aviation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The civilian aviation industry is increasingly being required to comply with the myriad environmental laws currently in force. To gain a better understanding of the types of environmental issues that are being dealt with in the industry, a survey of ...

  4. C-FERST Environmental Issue Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to the 45 issue profiles for C-FERST users, organized with tabs to show issues related to pollutants, environmental media, health effects, other community issues, and all issues.

  5. Tribal-FERST Environmental Issue Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to the 45 issue profiles for Tribal-FERST users, organized with tabs to show issues related to pollutants, environmental media, health effects, other community issues, and all issues.

  6. Environmental issues in operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulingam, Suresh

    Adoption of sustainable operating practices is becoming an increasingly important issue for many organizations in the world today. In this dissertation, I use empirical methods to investigate factors that influence the adoption of sustainable practices and also identify issues that may hinder the adoption of such practices. I explore these issues in two diverse settings. In Chapter 1, I investigate the adoption and non-adoption of energy efficiency initiatives using a database of over 100,000 recommendations provided to more than 13,000 small and medium sized manufacturing firms. Even though the average payback across all recommendations is just over one year, many of these profitable opportunities are not implemented. Using a probit instrumental variable model, I identify four biases in the adoption of these recommendations. First, managers are myopic as they miss out on many profitable opportunities. Second, managers are more influenced by upfront costs than by net benefits when evaluating such initiatives. Third, adoption of a recommendation depends not only on its characteristics but also on the sequence in which the recommendations are presented. Adoption rates are higher for initiatives appearing early in a list of recommendations. Finally, adoption is not influenced by the number of options provided to decision makers. This contributes to the debate about whether or not choice overload occurs. We highlight decision biases previously unobserved in the Operations Management literature using field data rather than experimental data. We draw implications for enhancing adoption of energy efficiency initiatives and for other decision contexts where a collection of process improvement recommendations are made to firms. In Chapter 2, I examine the depth of adoption of the voluntary LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) standards for green buildings. Depth of adoption refers to the extent to which the buildings adopt practices related to the standard

  7. Uncertainty arguments in environmental issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, P.B.

    A large part of environmental policy is based upon scientific studies of the likely health, safety, and ecological consequences of human actions and practices. These studies, however, are frequently vulnerable to epistemological and methodological criticisms which challenge their validity. Epistemological criticisms can be used in ethical and political philosophy arguments to challenge the applicability of scientific knowledge to environmental policy, and, in turn, to challenge the democratic basis of specific environmental policies themselves. Uncertainty arguments thus draw upon philosophy of science, epistemology, ethics, and political philosophy to establish conclusions of practical relevance to environmental quality. A theory of how and when uncertainty arguments ought to be given credence in environmental decision making requires an account of how scientific research ought to integrated into environmental policy generally, plus an account of how public environmental policy is to be set in a democracy.

  8. Environmental reporting as a strategic issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn

    1997-01-01

    Organisations are facing ever increasing demands or pressures from various stakeholder to raise their environmental standards. Raising the environmental standards includes improving and documenting the environmental performance in relation to production processes, products and logistics.This pape...... adresses environmental reporting as an important issue in strategic management, since many of environmental management are related to the availability of environmental information both inside and outside the company.......Organisations are facing ever increasing demands or pressures from various stakeholder to raise their environmental standards. Raising the environmental standards includes improving and documenting the environmental performance in relation to production processes, products and logistics.This paper...

  9. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental issues in the 21st century D.B. Chambers SENES Consultants Limited, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada Abstract. This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards -- environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others -- will be

  10. Environmental Issues in Thyroid Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Antonelli, Alessandro; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors are determinant for the appearance of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) in susceptible subjects. Increased iodine intake, selenium, and vitamin D deficiency, exposure to radiation, from nuclear fallout or due to medical radiation, are environmental factors increasing AITD. Cigarette smoking is associated with Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy, while it decreases the risk of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. Viral infections are important environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AITD, too, particularly human parvovirus B19 (EVB19) and hepatitis C virus. Among the many chemical contaminants, halogenated organochlorines and pesticides variably disrupt thyroid function. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites and polybrominated diethyl ethers bind to thyroid transport proteins, such as transthyretin, displace thyroxine, and disrupt thyroid function. Among drugs, interferon- and iodine-containing drugs have been associated with AITD. Moreover intestinal dysbiosis causes autoimmune thyroiditis. To reduce the risk to populations and also in each patient, it is necessary to comprehend the association between environmental agents and thyroid dysfunction.

  11. Understanding Environmental Security: A Military Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, William

    2000-01-01

    .... In the context of this report environmental security is a process of addressing those environmental issues having the potential to cause crisis or conflict to such an extent that they represent...

  12. Theoretical Issues in Environmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshansky, Harold M.

    1974-01-01

    Author addressed a central task in the development of an interdisciplinary field of inquiry into manenvironment relations: namely, theory development. He decried the lack of comprehensive theoretical reasoning that has characterized environmental research and suggested directions for expanded conceptual work. (Editor/RK)

  13. Environmental Issues in Managing Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Diette, Gregory B; McCormack, Meredith C; Hansel, Nadia N; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2008-01-01

    Management of asthma requires attention to environmental exposures both indoors and outdoors. Americans spend most of their time indoors, where they have a greater ability to modify their environment. The indoor environment contains both pollutants (eg, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, secondhand smoke, and ozone) and allergens from furred pets, dust mites, cockroaches, rodents, and molds. Indoor particulate matter consists of particles generated from indoor sources such as cooking and c...

  14. Environmental issues on the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesniak, K.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide an overview of a number of lesser-known federal programs designed to protect environmental resources. These regulatory schemes protect a variety of resources: wetlands and water resources; endangered plant and animal species; historical structures and artifacts; and others. Despite the fact that many of these regulatory programs have been in existence since the 1970's, many decisionmakers in the oil and gas and petrochemical industries know little or nothing about how author's may impact their business. Nonetheless, as many of the clients in the industry have discovered, their impact is substantial and can be debilitating to otherwise thoughtfully planned construction or facility expansion programs

  15. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the ICRP's current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards - environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others - will be increasingly important in the future. What level of risk is it reasonable to accept? What is meant by 'reasonable'? How much risk can be engineered away, for how long, and at what

  16. Surface engineering and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguero, A.

    2007-01-01

    Surface engineering addresses the modification of the microstructure and/or composition of the surface of components by mechanical, physical or chemical methods that may imply adding a material in order to change the surface properties of said components. One of its most important consequences is the significant increase of the useful life of a variety of components in a large number of industrial applications. Moreover, it contributes to energy savings by increasing efficiencies as it allows higher combustion temperatures, by allowing the use of lighter components and by significant friction reduction. In this paper, surface engineering is introduced, as well as its different modalities, examples of industrial applications and positive and negative environmental impacts. (Author) 29 refs

  17. ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING INVOLVEMENT IN MONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae TODEA; Ionela Cornelia CIOCA

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present some aspects referring to the relationship between environment and accounting, to effectiveness and manner in which environmental issues are monitored through accounting. The main objectives considered, aims at presenting international, European and national accounting standards, addressing environmental issues and the manner in which they are presented in accounting and then in the financial statements of Alba countys entities. The scientific approac...

  18. Issues and framework of environmental health in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Murad, Wahid

    2010-04-01

    Environmental health problems in Malaysia are mostly attributed to atmospheric pollution, water pollution, climate change, ozone depletion, and solid waste management, as well as toxic, chemical, and hazardous waste management. The Ministry of Health, Malaysia, has been vigorously pursuing the environmental health agenda by collaborating with other agencies at district, state, national, and international levels. This article discusses the issues and management framework of environmental health in Malaysia. Some issues requiring further investigation in order to clearly understand the trade-off between atmospheric change and environmental health are suggested. These suggestions are developed with particular reference to appraisals concerned with the development and implementation of environmental policy, programs, and practice. Research on the relevant issues is discussed and a framework is built involving a comprehensive review of the literature and existing framework of Malaysian environmental health.

  19. What Do People Know about Key Environmental Issues? A Review of Environmental Knowledge Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelia, Beth; Murphy, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results from 15 little publicized state and national environmental surveys in the US that used similar questions. Our analysis reveals trends in adult understanding of environmental issues. These trends indicate that many may have difficulty making informed decisions about environmental policy as citizens, voters, and…

  20. Emerging issues in environmental cracking in hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, P.L.; Morra, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive research and engineering application efforts have been made to understand and manage environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in high temperature water. EAC is a complex phenomena involving dozens of important parameters, and important issues continue to emerge as careful studies have been performed. This paper summarizes a number of emerging issues, and highlights the need for improvements in experimental sophistication and for deeper probing into the nature and importance of these emerging issues. (author)

  1. Environmental issues in managing asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diette, Gregory B; McCormack, Meredith C; Hansel, Nadia N; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2008-05-01

    Management of asthma requires attention to environmental exposures both indoors and outdoors. Americans spend most of their time indoors, where they have a greater ability to modify their environment. The indoor environment contains both pollutants (eg, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, secondhand smoke, and ozone) and allergens from furred pets, dust mites, cockroaches, rodents, and molds. Indoor particulate matter consists of particles generated from indoor sources such as cooking and cleaning activities, and particles that penetrate from the outdoors. Nitrogen dioxide sources include gas stoves, furnaces, and fireplaces. Indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are linked to asthma morbidity. The indoor ozone concentration is mainly influenced by the outdoor ozone concentration. The health effects of indoor ozone exposure have not been well studied. In contrast, there is substantial evidence of detrimental health effects from secondhand smoke. Guideline recommendations are not specific for optimizing indoor air quality. The 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program asthma guidelines recommend eliminating indoor smoking and improving the ventilation. Though the guidelines state that there is insufficient evidence to recommend air cleaners, air cleaners and reducing activities that generate indoor pollutants may be sound practical approaches for improving the health of individuals with asthma. The guidelines are more specific about allergen avoidance; they recommend identifying allergens to which the individual is immunoglobin E sensitized and employing a multifaceted, comprehensive strategy to reduce exposure. Outdoor air pollutants that impact asthma include particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, and guidelines recommend that individuals with asthma avoid exertion outdoors when these pollutants are elevated. Outdoor allergens include tree, grass, and weed pollens, which vary in concentration by season

  2. Intertextuality for Handling Complex Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byhring, Anne Kristine; Knain, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere is the need for handling complexity more pertinent than in addressing environmental issues. Our study explores students' situated constructs of complexity in unfolding discourses on socio-scientific issues. Students' dialogues in two group-work episodes are analysed in detail, with tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics. We identify…

  3. Nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling: Actual issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies are being spoken of as the driving force behind a new industrial revolution. Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. The size of nanoparticles allows them to interact strongly with biological structures, so they present potential human and environmental health risk. Nanometer size presents also a problem for separation, recovery, and reuse of the particulate matter. Therefore, industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials could have strong impact on human health and the environment or the problematic of nanomaterials recycling. The catch-all term ''nanotechnology' is not sufficiently precise for risk governance and risk management purposes. The estimation of possible risks depends on a consideration of the life cycle of the material being produced, which involves understanding the processes and materials used in manufacture, the likely interactions between the product and individuals or the environment during its manufacture and useful life, and the methods used in its eventual disposal. From a risk-control point of view it will be necessary to systematically identify those critical issues, which should be looked at in more detail. Brief review of actual trends in nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling is given in this paper.

  4. Issues in infrastructure and environmental planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, Gerardus; Ike, Paul; Voogd, Henk; Linden, Gerard; Voogd, Henk

    2004-01-01

    This chapter focuses on issues of Environmental and Infrastructure planning (EIP). The object of EIP is illustrated with the help of the three layers of the Environmental Layer Concept (ELC) – the Ground Layer, the Infrastructure Layer and the Occupancy Layer. The Ground Layer represents the natural

  5. Environmental issues related to uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorber, D.M.; Chambers, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted

  6. Environmental ethics: An African understanding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    based on the eco-bio-communitarian attitude of 'live and let live' can be substituted for the aggressive motivation of domination to the immeasurable advantage of the whole of mankind (Tangwa, 2004: 394). SOME CRITICAL COMMENTS ON AFRICAN. ORIENTATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. Ogungbemi's proposal ...

  7. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  8. World guide to environmental issues and organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackley, Peter

    1990-01-01

    This volume seeks to describe, factually and in everyday language, the main environmental issues so that users may have a common, agreed starting point for their debate when voicing their particular opinions or proposals. The topics selected for Part I (Issues) cover the major environmental issues and debates that are common in many parts of the world and which have led or are leading to legislation and control. These include: acid deposition; the Antarctic; deforestation; the greenhouse effect; desertification; loss of biological diversity; marine pollution; nuclear power; ozone depletion; renewable energy; vehicle emissions; and water quality. Part II, on environmental or ''green'' politics, provides reference to the environmental parties in the major countries in which they are established and active. Environmental concern has led to a large number of meetings, conventions, treaties and agreements to give a framework in which governments and industry have to operate. The most important of these are listed in Part III with details of the results and implications. Part IV provides brief details of the activities and officials of many organizations throughout the world involved in environmental affairs. For those wanting to know more than can be included in these pages a bibliography provides a reference to other titles and authors for many books, articles and reports about most of the issues covered in this volume. (author)

  9. Conveying Environmental Issues with and through Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, K. V.

    2016-12-01

    Art has the ability to convey serious environmental issues, inspiring people to respond personally Kim Abeles is an artist who crosses disciplines and media to explore and map urban and global environments. She has exhibited with a unique range of collaborators including smog control agencies, science and natural history museums, and educational and healthcare professionals. Her work has been exhibited across the world. Since 1985, her art projects have explored topics including air and water pollution, refuse and recycling, and consumption. This presentation will discuss three unconventional art projects from inspiration to impact including results. Most can be replicated in any educational or community setting to increase understanding of environmental issues. Abeles's Smog Collector series makes images from polluted air, helping viewers to see the air they breathe in an accessible, engaging, and visceral way. In addition to exhibitions of this work in art museums and galleries, it has been displayed in vehicle emissions testing booths to increase awareness and behavior change, and the process has been taught as curriculum in schools. Abeles sees consumption as a primary problem that leads to environmental decay. Her Paper Person was made from the California Science Center's paper trash that was generated on a single day by their visitors (Earth Day 2009). The 40' x 48' sculpture is in the permanent collection of the CSC, and the text accompanying the artwork prompts visitors to consider bringing their lunches next time instead of buying fast food. Similarly, Paper Person (Harvard Westlake School) is a figurative sculpture made of one week of students' paper trash. Exhibited in the school's gallery, students were able to identify their own scraps, and to see how their consumption and trash adds up. When the artwork was exhibited, the school decided to change the way they handled their lunch preparation, bottled water, and trash. gallery-of-solutions was a recent

  10. Philosophical Aspects of Global Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutinaa, Tatyana V.; Baksheev, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this paper is determined by understanding of global environmental problems in the context of social ecology. The purpose of this paper is the analysis of main modern environmental global problems created by the equipment representing a public and social basis for the practical transformation of public relations and also the…

  11. Environmental ethics: An African understanding | Ojomo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 8 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Environmental issues for intensive biomass production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattersall Smith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of IEA Bioenergy Task XII Activity 4.2 'Environmental Issues' was to evaluate environmental sustainability of intensive biomass systems and develop guidelines to ensure environmental soundness of such systems. Eight countries participated in the work: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden, U.S.A. and U.K. During the period 1995-1997, collaborators have: evaluated environmental sustainability of intensive biomass production systems; assessed environmental sustainability of utilizing biosolids, e.g., wastewater sludge and wood ash, and effluents, to increase productivity of conventional and short rotation forestry systems; and evaluated and developed environmental guidelines for deployment of bioenergy production systems. The forestry and bioenergy industrial sectors were active participants in all Activity field study tours and workshops. This paper reviews achievements of Task XII Activity 4.2 and suggests where future international collaboration is required to achieve sustainable forestry bioenergy production systems 62 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  13. Issues regarding environmental protection in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Draghicescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental protection” activity in our country should be approached by taking into consideration its entire complexity, and the most reliable solutions may be provided only by direct and permanent reference to the vast issue of social development in its entirety. The present work aims to draw attention towards pollution, the main cause of environmental deterioration in Romania, as well as towards the management of waste materials, while taking into account the national strategy. In Romania, environmental protection is a distinct domain of the national policy, establishing the priority objectives by “The National Strategy for Environmental Protection”, according to the communitarian strategy, as well as to the tendencies and initiatives existing at global level. Our country’s efforts over the past years with respect to environmental protection are very important in the framework of contemporary economy and are reflected in the expenses incurred for environmental protection.

  14. Environmental Refugees: Ethical Issues Involving Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2010-01-01

    Environmental refugees are produced when the human population exceeds the carrying capacity of a particular region and its inhabitants are forced to search for a more hospitable area. Since not much has been done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or other issues of global warming, there will continue to be more environmental refugees for the next decade or more. Considering that the biosphere is made up of finite resources and finite space per capita, an increasing population will cause mor...

  15. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications. 15 or not managed, conflicts are likely to escalate and intensify. White et al. (2009:244) state: 'What distinguishes conflicts from mere disagreement is thus a behavioural expression of formerly latent attitudes where one party is perceived to take action at the ...

  16. Plantation agriculture in the tropics - environmental issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    Plantation agriculture is more than 400 years old and contributes to the regional and national economies in many tropical countries. This paper reviews some of the main environmental issues related to plantation agriculture with perennial crops, including soil erosion, soil fertility decline,

  17. Understanding leadership in the environmental sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, L.; Hicks, C.; Cohen, P.; Case, P.; Prideaux, M.; Mills, D.

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is often assumed, intuitively, to be an important driver of sustainable development. To understand how leadership is conceptualised and analysed in the environmental sciences and to discover what this research says about leadership outcomes, we conducted a review of environmental leadership research over the last ten years. We find that much of the environmental leadership literature we reviewed focuses on a few key individuals and desirable leadership competencies. It also reports...

  18. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, M. [Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy; Ranney, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

  19. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    With public attention increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, there is enormous potential for the commercial use of biomass to accelerate. Renewable feedstocks such as biomass can provide more environmentally balanced sources of energy and other non-food products than fossil fuels. Biomass utilization is in a precarious position, however, with public attention increasingly focused on both its potential and the strength of the challenges it faces. The paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 through 4 catalogue the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups; wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier; gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 is devoted to a conclusion and summary

  20. Environmental issues in cities and mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental deterioration is one of the major issues of today's world. It not only poses serious threats to human life, health and property at local level but also presents big challenges for the sustain ability of global environment The developing countries like Pakistan are facing much bigger problems due to their rapid urbanization and lack of resources to meet the increasing demands of urban areas. Although, the problems have global dimensions, their solution lies at the local level. This paper presents an overview of the environmental issues with special reference to Pakistan and identifies the role of various stakes holders including the national, provincial and local governments, industrial and trade community, NGO's and citizens for rehabilitation and improvement of the environment. The combination of a large population and poor resource environment means that judicious means of energy use and minimum waste systems of production as well as lifestyles must be employed for sustainable development.(author)

  1. Environmental licensing issues for cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, G.S.; Bibbo, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    The siting and licensing of cogeneration and independent power production (IPP) facilities is a complex process involving a number of interrelated engineering, economic, and environmental impact considerations. Important considerations for the siting and licensing of such facilities include air quality control and air quality impacts, water supply and wastewater disposal, and applicable noise criteria and noise impact considerations. Air quality control and air quality impact considerations for power generation facilities are commonly reviewed in the public forum, and most project developers are generally aware of the key air quality licensing issues. These issues include Best Available Control Technology (BACT) demonstration requirements, and air quality modeling requirements. BACT is a case-by-case determination, which causes uncertainty, in that developers have difficulty in projecting the cost of required control systems. Continuing developments in control technology may cause this problem to continue in the 1990's. Air quality modeling can be a problem in hilly terrain or within or near an urban environment, which could delay or preclude permitting of a new cogeneration or IPP facility in such locations. This paper discusses several environmental issues which are less frequently addressed than air quality issues, namely water/wastewater and noise. The design features of typical cogeneration and IPP facilities that affect water supply requirements, wastewater volumes, and noise emissions are discussed. Then, the site selection and impact review process are examined to identify typical constraints and trade-offs that can develop relative to water, wastewater, and noise issues. Trends in permit review requirements for water, wastewater, and noise are examined. Finally, innovative approaches that can be used to resolve potential development constraints for water, wastewater, and noise issues are discussed

  2. Understanding Game-Based Learning Cultures: Introduction to Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, Jason A.; Carr-Chellman, Alison

    2017-01-01

    This special issue expands our understanding of teaching and learning through video game play, with specific attention to culture. The issue gives insight into the ways educators, researchers, and developers should be discussing and designing for impactful learner-centered game-based learning experiences. The issue features forward-thinking…

  3. Celtic spirituality and contemporary environmental issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Duncan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Celtic spirituality has a long and distinguished ancestry with its origins in pre-Christian times. It was inculturated among peoples in the far west of Europe, particularly in Ireland, Scotland and the north and south-west of England. It was different from Roman Christianity in distinct ways until the mid-7th century CE when Roman Christianity became the norm in Britain and Ireland. This spirituality has endured throughout the centuries and has experienced a revival from the latter half of the 20th century. From its inception, it has been closely linked to the environment. Over the years many key aspects of Celtic spirituality have been integrated in many religious traditions and shows similarities with and can contribute to a new ethical perspective on environmental issues. This article investigates the current environmental crisis from a faith perspective and attempts to draw lessons from Celtic traditions of spirituality in a scientific age.

  4. Near surface spent fuel storage: environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.; Shipler, D.B.; McKee, R.W.; Glenn, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Interim storage of spent fuel appears inevitable because of the lack of reprocessing plants and spent fuel repositories. This paper examines the environmental issues potentially associated with management of spent fuel before disposal or reprocessing in a reference scenario. The radiological impacts of spent fuel storage are limited to low-level releases of noble gases and iodine. Water needed for water basin storage of spent fuel and transportation accidents are considered; the need to minimize the distance travelled is pointed out. Resource commitments for construction of the storage facilities are analyzed

  5. Global Environmental change: Understanding the Human Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrisette, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    This book is from the National Research Council's Committee on the Human dimensions of Global Change. The object is to examine what is known about human dimensions of global environmental change, identify the major immediate needs for knowledge, and recommend a strategy over the next 5-10 years. Case studies are used in human causes of global change. issues related to theory, methods, and data are covered, as well as institutional needs for interdicipinary approaches

  6. Understanding leadership in the environmental sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa S. Evans

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is often assumed, intuitively, to be an important driver of sustainable development. To understand how leadership is conceptualized and analyzed in the environmental sciences and to discover what this research says about leadership outcomes, we conducted a review of environmental leadership research over the last 10 years. We found that much of the environmental leadership literature focuses on a few key individuals and desirable leadership competencies. The literature also reports that leadership is one of the most important of a number of factors contributing to effective environmental governance. Only a subset of the literature highlights interacting sources of leadership, disaggregates leadership outcomes, or evaluates leadership processes in detail. We argue that the literature on environmental leadership is highly normative. Leadership is typically depicted as an unequivocal good, and its importance is often asserted rather than tested. We trace how leadership studies in the management sciences are evolving and argue that, taking into account the state of the art in environmental leadership research, more critical approaches to leadership research in environmental science can be developed.

  7. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  8. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  9. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Špirková, M., E-mail: marta.spirkova@stuba.sk; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J. [Paulínska 16, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava (Slovakia)

    2016-04-21

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  10. Ethnosocial issues within the covers of "Knowledge. Understanding. Skill” Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Erokhina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article reviews the most interesting publications regarding the issues of actual ethnosocial processes published in the well-known Russian journal "Knowledge. Understanding, Skill” which marks its 10th anniversary this year.

  11. Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

    This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and

  12. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  13. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S

    2003-01-01

    effective instrumentation and institutional support. Some environmental regulations have not succeeded as they do not match the technical requirements and economic reality of the country or region, or because they do not take the institutional capabilities of the society that has to implement them into consideration. For the survival and sustenance of the SMEs in the leather industry, it may be a viable alternative to carry out the tanning process in a decentralized fashion such that the raw to semi-finished process is carried out in the large scale sector while the semi-finished to finished process could either be reserved or open to competition as per the countries' requirements. But the issue of concern is whether it is fair that the raw to semi-finished tanning process, containing 70% of the pollution discharge should be undertaken by developing countries alone, especially if it is at the cost of their survival! However, the game analysed in the paper reveals that tanning units in developing countries would prefer to comply with the regulations and stay in the industry, the alternatives being to collude or to compete!

  14. Environmental audits: Tax, accounting and disclosure issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKnight, R.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the financial and legal issues associated with environmental audits, with an emphasis on tax issues. Accelerated depreciation write-offs are provided for qualified pollution control equipment, and may also qualify for tax credits. The Accounting Standards Committee recommends that provision should be made for future removal and site restoration costs and net of expected recoveries, in a rational and systematic manner by charges to income. Under the Federal Income Tax Act (ITA), future reclamation and shutdown costs will only be deductible if they pass three hurdles: a liability which requires the expenditure of funds in the future may not necessarily be an expense; if the liability can be viewed as an expense, is it incurred for the purpose of gaining or producing income; and is a deduction prohibited because it is on account of capital. A proposed solution to these problems is to adopt the US model that allows the deduction of estimated costs of reclaiming land that is disturbed during the current year at mines and waste disposal sites. Tax treatment of compliance costs, securities law disclosure, proposed federal government policies, proposed regulatory measures, and proposed fiscal measures are discussed

  15. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Science Communication for the Public Understanding of Nuclear Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment represent characteristics of nuclear issues in the public arena. Nuclear issue, in the public arena, is a kind of risk rather than technology that we are willing to use for good purpose. There are uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment as characteristics of nuclear. The notion of the public, here is of active, sensitive, and sensible citizens, with power and influence. The public understands nuclear issues less through direct experience or education than through the filter of mass media. Trust has been a key issue on public understanding of nuclear issues. Trust belongs to human. The public understanding process includes perception, interpretation, and evaluation. Therefore, science communication is needed for public understanding. Unfortunately, science communication is rarely performed well, nowadays, There are three important actors-the public, experts, and media. Effective science communication means finding comprehensible ways of presenting opaque and complex nuclear issues. It makes new and strong demands on experts. In order to meet that requirement, experts should fulfill their duty about developing nuclear technology for good purpose, understand the public before expecting the public to understand nuclear issues, accept the unique culture of the media process, take the responsibility for any consequence which nuclear technologies give rise to, communicate with an access route based on sensibility and rationality, have a flexible angle in the science communication process, get creative leadership for the communication process with deliberation and disagreement, make efficient use of various science technologies for science communication. We should try to proceed with patience, because science communication makes for a more credible society

  17. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  18. Rapid issue tracking: A method for taking the pulse of the public discussion of environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Patrick Reed; Ashley. Goldhor-Wilcock

    2009-01-01

    Environmental communication professionals and other decision makers need to understand public sentiment toward environmental issues to effectively carry out their stewardship responsibilities. However, it is often difficult to obtain timely and reliable information about public discussion and debate regarding these issues. This paper describes an approach designed to...

  19. Understanding Current Safety Issues for Trajectory Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael; Stewart, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Increases in procedural complexity were investigated as a possible contributor to flight path deviations in airline operations. Understanding current operational issues and their causes must be embraced to maintain current safety standards while increasing future functionality. ASRS data and expert narratives were used to discover factors relating to pilot deviations. Our investigation pointed to ATC intervention, automation confusion, procedure design, and mixed equipment as primary issues. Future work will need to include objective data and mitigation strategies.

  20. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class

  1. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D. [National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class.

  2. Environmental issue identification for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrell, D.J.; Jones, K.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation of environmental issues is provided in this report. It contains summary of the thought process that was used during the area characterization studies for a geological repository for high-level radioactive wastes. Environmental issues are discussed separately for construction, operation, and long term isolation aspects of a repository in basalt. During construction the primary environmental concerns are public perception and water resources; intermediate concerns are air quality, ecosystems, physical resources, and cultural and social resources. During operation, the primary environmental issues concern the transport of radioactive materials and physical resources. Long term environmental issues envolve water resources and borehole plugging

  3. Environmental issues of offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Placing wind farms offshore eliminates some of the obstacles encountered when siting wind farms on shore like visual influence on the landscape, annoyance to inhabitants from noise and flickering light, conflicts with other planning interests etc. Other challenges remain - like influence on birds - and new are added like influence on marine life, hydrography and marine traffic. While there are now 20 years of experience in assessing and meeting environmental challenges associated with land based wind installations little is known of the effects of offshore wind installations. The planning and approval procedure for each offshore wind farm installed so far has been on a case-by-case basis as have the demands for environmental surveys prior to installation and monitoring programs during construction and operation. The meeting gathered 24 people from five different countries. Participants came from government agencies, energy agencies (or suppliers) universities and research institutes (both ecological and technical). The aim of the meeting was to make an inventory of the already existing and available information on environmental aspects of offshore wind energy. Another aim was to give recommendations to the COD-project (Concerted action for Offshore wind energy Deployment) on how to proceed within the work package regarding: Collection of information on activities (projects) of participating countries, including at least birds, benthic flora and fauna, sub-sea noise, visual intrusion, and coastal impacts. The meeting mainly focused on: National programs to enforce offshore wind energy; Studies and experiences of influence on birds and sea mammals; Experience and application of Environmental Impact Assessment. One outcome of the COD-project will be a database of environmental issues. At the end of the meeting it was discussed, what kind of information this database should contain: 1. Base line data; 2. Methods for investigating biological data; 3. Methods for the

  4. Environmental issues and challenges. Tomorrow's Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, H.

    1998-01-01

    In this Un Year of the Ocean -1998- multiple activities are focusing the attention of the public, policy-makers, and media on the planet's largest natural resource. As the new millennium approaches, there is an increasing urgency to highlight the ocean's role in a broad range of human activities and to heighten awareness about the need to preserve this vital resource for the future. The health and understanding of the oceans will continue to be of critical concern for the foreseeable future. Among these many activities is a major event, led by the IAEA, to focus attention on the ocean - the International Symposium on Marine Pollution to be held in Monaco. 5-9 October 1998. This article briefly reviews major issues being examined at the Symposium that affect the ocean's health and future, and highlights cooperative initiatives involving and the IAEA and its global partners. Other featured articles in this edition of the IAEA Bulletin present contemporary examples of how the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco is serving the interests of countries in matters pertaining to the quality of the ocean environment. They address not only the activities of MEL itself, but also those organized in association with other IAEA departments, UN agencies and international organizations

  5. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  6. Examining the Conflict and Interconnectedness of Young People's Ideas about Environmental Issues, Responsibility and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Leigh; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people's environmental views are typically conflicted, with little recognition of the links between environmental issues or between environmental responsibility and action. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether young people's understanding of the environment is in conflict or whether they are forming interconnections…

  7. Environmental Issues in Jordan, Solutions and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Nidal A.   Hadadin; Zeyad S.   Tarawneh

    2007-01-01

    Jordans natural resources are limited to support population in a sustainable manner. However, its environment is exposed to a number of threats. In order to best explain Jordan's environmental difficulties, it would be prudent to focus individually on each of these major concerns: water shortages, agriculture/land and air pollution. This study focuses on the environmental problems in Jordan and has addressed the process of reversing environmental decline. A true foundation of environmental pr...

  8. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental crises and problems throughout the world are widespread and increasing rapidly. In relation to these concerns, the article discusses the following aspects: people and the environment, environmental conflicts, climate change and environmental conflicts, and management implications. The section on people ...

  9. Understanding the complex interplay between tourism, disability and environmental contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Tanya L; McKercher, Bob; Yau, Matthew K

    2007-02-28

    To explore and describe the complex issues and factors related to participation in tourism as perceived by people with disabilities in Hong Kong. Naturalistic inquiry using key informant interviews and focus groups with 86 people with disabilities. Interviews were transcribed, translated and coded to develop themes and relationships. Triangulation of three investigators from different backgrounds occurred. The Process of Becoming Travel Active emerged as a six-stage process, intricately related to the personal/disability context and the environmental/travel context. Personal and environmental factors contribute to the six-stage model explaining the complex interplay between tourism, disability and environmental context. Understanding the complexity provides insight into ways to increase active participation in tourism. Health, tourism and disability sectors have a role to play in the development of accessible tourism.

  10. Understanding the development of international environmental agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jens

    There are many different theoretical schools concerned with how international regimes develop, and each supplies its own interpretation focusing on one or a few aspects of the process. Such ‘one shot’ explanations may be fruitful for scientific debate, but less useful as conceptual frameworks...... for practitioners and planners manoeuvring in a complex world. On the basis of a review of selected theories of international and environmental regulation, this article initiates the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the development of internationalenvironmental agreements. The point...... of departure for developing the model is the actor-structure debate within social science and theory of international relations. Based on critical realism, a framework is developed specifying the relation between collective action problem situations and negotiation situations. It is argued that the main...

  11. Temas ambientais relevantes Relevant environmental issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneas Salati

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available NESTE trabalho, são indicados os principais temas ambientais para o Brasil, num futuro próximo (2022. Impactos do aumento da temperatura são estudados através de cenários, que podem modificar o balanço hídrico em algumas regiões, tendo sido observado um aumento da ordem de 0,78ºC no período de 1917 a 2003, na região de Piracicaba. Para a região amazônica, foi observado um aumento de 0,56ºC durante o século XX. Tanto o desmatamento quanto as Mudanças Climáticas Globais atuam na direção de um aumento da temperatura, enquanto o desmatamento influi na direção de uma diminuição das precipitações. O desmatamento provoca, ainda, uma grande perda de biodiversidade, sendo estimadas em uma perda entre 8.000 até 34.000 espécies, considerando-se que o desmatamento aumenta em 1% ao ano.THIS PAPER indicates the environmental issues that must necessarily be approached, in Brazil, in a near future (2022. A study was made on some aspects of the effects of deforestation and Global Climate Change. A temperature rise around 0,78% has been observed during period of 1917 and 2003 in the Piracicaba region. For the Amazon region a rise of 0,56% was observed the 20th Century. The existing information indicates that not only deforestation but also Global Climate Changes act upon temperature rise. Deforestation has direct influence in precipitation decrease. The consequences of Global Climate Change are still unknown, being that some models indicate a precipitation rise and others a decrease. Deforestation also provokes great biodiversity loss, estimated between 8.000 to 34.000 species, considering that deforestation raises 1% per year.

  12. Environmental Adult Education. Trends and Issues Alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    Environmentalism has become a part of the culture, and environmentalists now constitute a major social movement. The solutions to many current environmental problems require a local or national response, but solutions to other problems will require a global response. Major United Nations reports have recognized that solving global environmental…

  13. Special issue on Environmental Reform in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenfeld, D.A.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    To date, most studies of environmental reform have focused on the experiences of advanced, industrialized societies in Europe and the Americas. Discussions of and theories on multi-level and multi-actor (environmental) governance, shifts in governance styles, ecological modernization, and the

  14. Special Issue Environmental Governance in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, N.T.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the face of unprecedented economic and industrial growth levels, China is rapidly developing its system of environmental governance. Coming from a conventional command-and-control approach to environmental policy, which fitted well its centrally planned economy, transitional China is swiftly

  15. Information Fusion Issues in the UK Environmental Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Earth is a complex, interacting system which cannot be neatly divided by discipline boundaries. To gain an holistic understanding of even a component of an Earth System requires researchers to draw information from multiple disciplines and integrate these to develop a broader understanding. But the barriers to achieving this are formidable. Research funders attempting to encourage the integration of information across disciplines need to take into account culture issues, the impact of intrusion of projects on existing information systems, ontologies and semantics, scale issues, heterogeneity and the uncertainties associated with combining information from diverse sources. Culture - There is a cultural dualism in the environmental sciences were information sharing is both rewarded and discouraged. Researchers who share information both gain new opportunities and risk reducing their chances of being first author in an high-impact journal. The culture of the environmental science community has to be managed to ensure that information fusion activities are encouraged. Intrusion - Existing information systems have an inertia of there own because of the intellectual and financial capital invested within them. Information fusion activities must recognise and seek to minimise the potential impact of their projects on existing systems. Low intrusion information fusions systems such as OGC web-service and the OpenMI Standard are to be preferred to whole-sale replacement of existing systems. Ontology and Semantics - Linking information across disciplines requires a clear understanding of the concepts deployed in the vocabulary used to describe them. Such work is a critical first step to creating routine information fusion. It is essential that national bodies, such as geological surveys organisations, document and publish their ontologies, semantics, etc. Scale - Environmental processes operate at scales ranging from microns to the scale of the Solar System and

  16. Higher Education Students' Perceptions of Environmental Issues and Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinonen, Tuula; Palmberg, Irmeli; Kukkonen, Jari; Yli-Panula, Eija; Persson, Christel; Vilkonis, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find higher education students' perceptions about environmental issues and how the perceptions are related to perceptions of media coverage. This study investigates higher education students' perceptions of the seriousness of environmental issues and their relation to perceptions of media coverage. Higher education students…

  17. Perception Of Environmental Issues By Fuelwood Sellers In Borgu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to examine fuelwood sellers' perception of environmental issues in Borgu Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. A total of 120 fuelwood sellers supplied primary data on their socio-economic characteristics, sources of information on environmental issues, tree species commanding high ...

  18. HVDC power transmission environmental issues review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.H.; Weil, D.E. [Bailey Research Associates, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report strives to define the various environmental effects associated with HVDC lines, discusses the current knowledge of their potential effects on biological and non-biological systems, and compares these effects associated with ac lines where appropriate.

  19. HVDC power transmission environmental issues review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.H.; Weil, D.E.; Stewart, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report strives to define the various environmental effects associated with HVDC lines, discusses the current knowledge of their potential effects on biological and non-biological systems, and compares these effects associated with ac lines where appropriate

  20. Environmental issues of the Ljubljana urban region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Špes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The main environmental problems of Ljubljana urban region which are obstacle of sustain-able development are presented in the paper, especially the main sources of air pollution and water manegment. Actual quality of life in urban environment is seen also in noise pollu-tion, quality and accessibility of green areas and in traffic. On the end the article discusses the attitudes of Ljubljana residents to environmental problems and quality of life in urban region.

  1. Global issues and the natural environmental sciences in curricula for engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik, Janusz; Loizeau, Jean-Luc

    2000-01-01

    Environmental engineering curricula flourish in many Technical Universities in Europe. A quick survey of the teaching content suggests that there is little attention given in the majority of curricula to global issues as they relate to natural environmental sciences and human ecology. We argue that this may result in a lack of fundamental understanding of natural environmental systems among new generation of engineers with negative consequences for environmental management an implementation o...

  2. Environmental ethics: An African understanding | Ojomo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the fundamental underlying features connecting these environmental ethical theories is their grounding in Western perspectives and cultural experiences. Given that environmental concerns are global concerns, and that the imperative of environmental ethics is challenging those life-threatening concerns, critical ...

  3. Environmental issues in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shekhar

    1998-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the environmental impacts of hydro and thermal power projects, specifically of large dams and coal based thermal power stations. After identifying the likely environmental impacts of such projects, the paper investigates the reasons why such impacts are not adequately controlled in projects in India. The paper also explores the problems with the planning process. It attempts to identify some of the basic problems with the power sector in India and ends by giving a series of specific recommendations which might make the energy sector more friendly to the environment. (author)

  4. Environmental issues facing the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Environmental policies and regulations are having profound effects on the oil industry. The industry is affected by controls on both its production and processing activities and on the use of its own products. The environmental impacts of upstream activities, epitomized by the Exxon Valdez accident, are leading to more expensive tanker designs. Oil markets can be changed by sulphur controls driven by concern about acid rain and new requirements in the USA to change gasoline specifications in order to reduce urban smog. The problem of climate change and CO 2 emissions poses even more fundamental challenges to the oil industry, with the prospect of reduced markets in the longer term. (author)

  5. A continent in chaos: Africa's environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, R

    1994-12-01

    Half of Africa's almost 450 million inhabitants have no access to health services, while two-thirds lack safe drinking water, according to a 1991 report by the World Bank. Most Africans are also seriously affected by poverty, civil war, indoor and outdoor pollutants, diarrhea-causing microbes, tropical diseases such as malaria, rapid population growth, inadequate sanitation and sewage treatment, poor environmental management, corrupt government policies, desertification and deforestation, mining, and the overuse of pesticides and insecticides. Environmentally-related diseases compromise the continent's productivity, making it more difficult to generate revenue to fight the environmental health problems. Industrial pollutants remain rare, however, since almost 80% of sub-Saharan Africa remains pastoral or agro-pastoral. Even so, urbanization is exposing growing numbers of sub-Saharan Africans to hazardous and toxic wastes. Developing countries ship their most dangerous wastes to Africa because their own domestic environmental laws and the high costs of disposal make it difficult and expensive to dispose of them at home. The author discusses population growth in Africa; the lack of good data on the environment and health in Africa; infant and child mortality; water, sewage, and garbage; agriculture, mining, and industry; and sustainable development and the future.

  6. Environmental issues of an intermediate city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.

    2005-01-01

    Our urban centers present a unique dimension of environmental problems. They are at one and the same time, enormous consumers of natural resources and produces of waste and pollution. In this respect intermediate cities and small towns appear to be more vulnerable to natural catastrophes and ecological accidents caused by human factors. While in large cities there exist pressure groups which attain government attention for the solution of their problems and have well equipped municipalities. However, a vast majority of the population lives in rural areas and depends upon medium sized cities and towns for access to services. These cities and towns form the pivot of economic, social, cultural and political life for a large part of the population. Therefore, it deserves more attention than bigger ones. This paper explores local people perception about urban environmental problems exist in the city. Attempts are also made to shape and guide municipality efforts to overcome such problems with available resources. (author)

  7. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  8. Business ethics, peace and environmental issues

    OpenAIRE

    Aßländer, Michael; Goessling, T.

    2017-01-01

    Large parts of the recent business ethics debate either focus on ethical behavior in and of companies or discuss corporate duties vis-à-vis its stakeholders. Also theories on Corporate Social Responsibilities or Corporate Citizenship often take a management perspective putting duties of business organizations in the center of their considerations. Less attention is paid to the infuence of business in the broader ecological and social context. Thus, for example, environmental threads such as o...

  9. Environmental issues and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.

    1995-01-01

    Health safety and environmental liabilities of the 'nuclear industry' reflect those of industry in general and may broadly be divided into two areas: criminal liability for regulatory non-compliance; and civil liability for damage caused to persons and their property (for example, neighbours, employees etc). In addition, environmental liability may be incurred as a result of powers of the regulatory authorities to clean up contamination and to recoup the cost. These are in addition to the regime of strict liability imposed, where relevant, by the Nuclear Installations Act 1965. In the case of environmental liabilities, 'owners;, 'occupiers', 'persons responsible', 'persons in control' may all be held to be liable and for the most part these terms remain undefined both under English law and European Community (now European Union) law. This potentially has ramifications for current and former owners and operators, their boards and senior managers, other employees, parent companies, shareholders and their lenders and investors - of particular relevance in the context of privatization. (author)

  10. Maintaining Program Understanding - Issues, Tools, and Future Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas; Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    documentation tools are reviewed. The tools are selected on basis of relevance for the key documentation issues, and relative to the common attention and interest of the particular tool in the documentation communities. As a conclusion of the paper, and as a final contribution, a number of future directions....... One approach to maintaining program understanding is to document decisions and rationales behind a program as informal textual explanations---internal documentation. The starting point of this paper is a particular paradigm for program documentation called Elucidative Programming. As the first...... the distance between the documentation and the program. Documentation occasions are points in time for capturing and formulating the understanding of the program. During the years a large number of documentation tools have been developed. As the second contribution of the paper, a number of contemporary...

  11. Neutron activation analysis as analytical tool of environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) ia applicable to the sample of wide range of research fields, such as material science, biology, geochemistry and so on. However, respecting the advantages of NAA, a sample with small amounts or a precious sample is the most suitable samples for NAA, because NAA is capable of trace analysis and non-destructive determination. In this paper, among these fields, NAA of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) sample is discussed emphasizing on the use of obtained data as an analytical tool of environmental issue. Concentration of PM in air is usually very low, and it is not easy to get vast amount of sample even using a high volume air sampling devise. Therefore, high sensitive NAA is suitable to determine elements in PM samples. Main components of PM is crust oriented silicate, and so on in rural/remote area, and carbonic materials and heavy metals are concentrated in PM in urban area, because of automobile exhaust and other anthropogenic emission source. Elemental pattern of PM reflects a condition of air around the monitoring site. Trends of air pollution can be traced by periodical monitoring of PM by NAA method. Elemental concentrations in air change by season. For example, crustal elements increase in dry season, and sea salts components increase their concentration when wind direction from sea is dominant. Elements that emitted from anthropogenic sources are mainly contained in fine portion of PM, and increase their concentration during winter season, when emission from heating system is high and air is stable. For further analysis and understanding of environmental issues, indicator elements for various emission sources, and elemental concentration ratios of some environmental samples and source portion assignment techniques are useful. (author)

  12. Variations analysis of the Society's preference structure regarding environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel S, Enrique; Zambrano B, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    Society's preference structure regarding environmental issues is understood as the relative importance the society gives to various topics that collectively conform the environmental issues. Based on the hypothesis that this structure behavior and its definition vary with time, proposals are presented related to the concepts and a working plan allowing performing the structure's dynamic analysis. A method is described to gather information based on the systematic reading of a nation wide newspaper during a period time. A comparison is done between the resulting structure and several aspects as the environmental legislation, government plans and summits and environmental milestones

  13. Environmental restoration and statistics: Issues and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1991-10-01

    Statisticians have a vital role to play in environmental restoration (ER) activities. One facet of that role is to point out where additional work is needed to develop statistical sampling plans and data analyses that meet the needs of ER. This paper is an attempt to show where statistics fits into the ER process. The statistician, as member of the ER planning team, works collaboratively with the team to develop the site characterization sampling design, so that data of the quality and quantity required by the specified data quality objectives (DQOs) are obtained. At the same time, the statistician works with the rest of the planning team to design and implement, when appropriate, the observational approach to streamline the ER process and reduce costs. The statistician will also provide the expertise needed to select or develop appropriate tools for statistical analysis that are suited for problems that are common to waste-site data. These data problems include highly heterogeneous waste forms, large variability in concentrations over space, correlated data, data that do not have a normal (Gaussian) distribution, and measurements below detection limits. Other problems include environmental transport and risk models that yield highly uncertain predictions, and the need to effectively communicate to the public highly technical information, such as sampling plans, site characterization data, statistical analysis results, and risk estimates. Even though some statistical analysis methods are available ''off the shelf'' for use in ER, these problems require the development of additional statistical tools, as discussed in this paper. 29 refs

  14. Aquaculture: Environmental, toxicological, and health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David W; Cole, Richard; Gaydos, Steven J; Gray, Jon; Hyland, Greg; Jacques, Mark L; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Sawhney, Charu; Au, William W

    2009-07-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, supplying approximately 40% of the world's fish food. Besides such benefit to the society, the industry does have its problems. There are occupational hazards and safety concerns in the aquaculture industry. Some practices have caused environmental degradation. Public perception to farmed fish is that they are "cleaner" than comparable wild fish. However, some farmed fish have much higher body burden of natural and man-made toxic substances, e.g. antibiotics, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants, than wild fish. These contaminants in fish can pose health concerns to unsuspecting consumers, in particular pregnant or nursing women. Regulations and international oversight for the aquaculture industry are extremely complex, with several agencies regulating aquaculture practices, including site selection, pollution control, water quality, feed supply, and food safety. Since the toxicological, environmental, and health concerns of aquaculture have not been adequately reviewed recently, we are providing an updated review of the topic. Specifically, concerns and recommendations for improving the aquaculture industry, and for protection of the environment and the consumers will be concisely presented.

  15. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  16. 78 FR 68101 - Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors and Specific Environmental Guidance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0212: NRC-2013-0211] Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors and Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors Reviews... Environmental Issues Associated with New Reactors'' and draft ISG ESP/ COL-ISG-027, ``Interim Staff Guidance on...

  17. Data Issues of Global Environmental Reporting: Experiences form GEO-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerden J van; MNV; SB5; LWD; LLO

    2000-01-01

    The report highlights major problems encountered when trying to derive policy-relevant environmental information from underlying core data sets. Major data gaps and shortcomings are identified for reporting on global environment problems and sustainable development. Issues of data integration,

  18. Special Issue: Response of Microbial Communities to Environmental Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Stingl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues such as eutrophication, ocean acidification, sea level rise, saltwater intrusion, increase in carbon dioxide levels, or rise of average global temperatures, among many others, are impacting and changing whole ecosystems [...

  19. Changes in student's measures of environmental literacy as a result of instruction on environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Denise Marie

    The goal of environmental education is to increase students' environmental literacy by changing their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Within current university systems the tendency has developed to meet this goal by including education about environmental issues in biology courses that teach about ecology. The assumption is that ecological knowledge and environmental issues are closely associated. Thus, many college level introductory biology courses include discussion of environmental issues. However, there is very little, if any, research to indicate whether instruction on environmental topics within the curriculum of a biology class is an effective means to influence students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (all measures of environmental 'literacy') in relation to environmental issues. The overall purpose of this study is to determine if education in environmental issues, as currently practiced in an introductory biology class at a large university, is sufficient to increase the environmental literacy of college students. This study tests a commonly held assumption that students learn about environmental issues and change their attitudes toward environmental issues as a result of instruction. The results of this study indicate that this assumption may be false and education provided in a particular subject area does not necessarily result in substantive changes in students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, or behavior.

  20. Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarani, Giovanna; Botti, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementation of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues.

  1. Participative democracy and local environmental issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Emmanuel [EPE, 41 rue des Trois Fontanot, 92024 Nanterre cedex (France); Tazdait, Tarik [CIRED-C.N.R.S-E.H.E.S.S, Campus du Jardin Tropical 45 bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, 94736 Nogent Sur Marne cedex (France); Tovar, Elisabeth [Centre d' Etudes des Politiques Economiques de l' Universite d' Evry (EPEE), Evry (France)

    2008-12-01

    The present paper deals with the management of environmental quality at the level of a city. More precisely, we propose two different contractualisms among citizens that allow them to reduce the polluting emissions caused by their consumption of both a private and a collective good. In the first contractualism, the mayor proposes to citizens to establish neighbourhood committees. They have the responsibility of defining the total amount of polluting emission by private and public transportation means in their neighbourhood. It comes out that the mediation of the neighbourhood committees brings out a lower total pollution than in the case where each individual citizen acts on his own interest. However the emission level brought out by the neighbourhood committees is not Pareto-optimal. On the other hand, extending the first coalitional game by a supplementary stage focused on bargaining between the neighbourhood committees, allows us to define a participative democracy procedure. This two-stage procedure brings about a Pareto-optimal pollution level. (author)

  2. Environmental quality as a public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Mercury is a persistent, bio-accumulative toxin that has been linked to numerous health effects in wildlife and humans. Mercury is a potent neurotoxin which may also harm the brain, kidneys and lungs. The unborn child and young infants are at special risk of brain damage from mercury exposure. Hospitals' use of mercury in chemical solutions, thermometers, blood pressure gauges, batteries, and fluorescent lamps make them large contributors to the overall mercury emission into the environment. Most hospitals recognize the dangers of mercury. In a recent survey, 4 out of 5 hospitals asked have policies in place to eliminate the use of mercury containing products and 62% require vendors to disclose the presence of mercury in chemicals that the hospital purchases. Only 12% distribute mercury-containing thermometers to new parent. Ninety two percent teach their employees about the health and environmental effects of mercury and 46 percent teach all employees how to clean up mercury spills. However, the same study showed that many hospitals have not implemented those policies. Forty two percent were not aware if they still purchased items containing mercury. In addition, 49% still purchase mercury thermometers, 44% purchase mercury gastrointestinal diagnostic equipment, and 64% still purchase mercury lab thermometers.

  3. Agriculture land use and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.M.L

    2005-01-01

    There is agro-pastoral farming system prevalent in mountainous and sub-mountainous areas of Himalayan region including Azad Jammu and Kashmir. As such, Agriculture Sector includes Crop-husbandry, livestock farming and forestry in its ambit. There are varied forms of land uses, like crop farming, forestry, animal husbandry, fisheries, wildlife conservation etc. Therefore, the paper attempts to spotlight the interplay of these land uses with respect to the environment in general with specific reference to AJK and other mountainous and sub- mountainous regions of Northern Pakistan. Agricultural activities have both negative and beneficial effects on the environment. The negative effects in the forms of physical degradation of the soil due to agriculture are: soil erosion, desertification, water logging and salinity and soil compaction. The land use practices such as overgrazing, deforestation and some cultivation practices, removal of vegetative cover or hedgerows, lack of proper drainage outlets, accentuate these problems. The improper management of water use and sometimes excessive mechanization and Ploughing further aggravates problem of physical degradation of the soil. The chemical degradation, as a result of agricultural practices, include acidification, Salinization, contamination caused by pesticides and insecticides and resultantly water and air pollution, and loss of habitats and biodiversity. Further negative effects emerging out of agricultural practices are greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient losses and lowering of humus content, which makes soil susceptible to compaction and erosion. The beneficial environmental effects emanating from the use of best agricultural management practices and integrated farming systems are protection of soil fertility and stability, prevention of excessive run offs. It also provides habitats for varied forms of flora and fauna, reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2)/ and reduce the incidence and severity of natural

  4. Social and Environmental Issues in Corporative Management: A Romanian Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia DASCĂLU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex process of monitoring entities environmental impact entails ability, respect for the environment and reduction of the ecological footprint. This research defines Romanian trends as regards the effects and actions to adapt to climate change and characterizes corporate management in terms of compliance with environmental management systems requirements. The main objective is to assess the current state of environmental management implementation and identifies relevant social and environmental issues that companies use to include in corporate management. The current agenda would allow developing a framework for environmental management implementation in Romanian entities, in order to assume the corporate social responsibility.

  5. Using Community Forums to Enhance Public Engagement in Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Monroe; A. Oxarart; L. McDonell; R. Plate

    2009-01-01

    As environmental issues become more complex, the public may be less interested in becoming knowledgeable enough to participate in decision-making. Yet its input can be critically important in some community-based issues. A community forum is one tool designed to provide information, enable participants to ask questions to experts and create an open atmosphere for...

  6. Special issue: Supply chain and logistics decisions under environmental aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Demirel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This editor’s note has a twofold objective: (1 to present a brief summary about the environmental issues in supply chain and logistics decisions (2 to present general information about the papers published in the special issue.

  7. International Environmental Problems, Issue Linkage and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze-Gil, J.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores the circumstances under which issue linkage can be applied to achieve cooperation on international environmental problems in general and on environmental problems in the European Union in particular. A major topic in this thesis is the development and analysis of cooperative and

  8. Environmental Education: Understanding the World around Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Environmental education teaches children and adults how to learn about and investigate their environment and to make intelligent, informed decisions about how they can take care of it. It is taught in traditional classrooms, in communities, and in settings like nature centers, museums, parks, and zoos. Learning about the environment involves many…

  9. Urbanization and subsurface environmental issues: an attempt at DPSIR model application in Asian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago-on, Karen Ann Bianet; Kaneko, Shinji; Fujikura, Ryo; Fujiwara, Akimasa; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Toru; Zhang, Junyi; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Tanaka, Katsuya; Lee, Backjin; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-04-15

    This paper synthesizes existing information and knowledge on subsurface environments to understand the major cause and effect relationships of subsurface environmental issues by using the DPSIR (Driving force-Pressure-Status-Impact-Response) approach as the framework of analysis. Description is given to the major subsurface environmental issues common among the selected Asian cities (Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei and Tokyo), such as excessive groundwater abstraction, land subsidence and groundwater contamination. The DPSIR framework is used to analyze the issues and problems of subsurface in key stages and suggestions are made for additional indicators to improve our description of the stages of urban development for the future.

  10. Environmental issues in the oilsands : problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, G.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental challenges facing the oil sand industry in Alberta are discussed, including the cumulative effects to air, water quality, aquatic ecosystems, soils, vegetation, wildlife, human health and traditional land use. Each of these concerns are briefly reviewed, using Suncor's announced developments as the background. Although ground level excesses of SO 2 and NO x are not expected to be an issue, there are concerns about acidification. Soils and sensitive water bodies can potentially be affected by acid deposition as a result of SO 2 and NO x emissions. Historical ozone monitoring has shown that peak hourly ozone levels have not exceeded air quality guidelines in the last five years in either Fort McKay or Fort McMurray. The conclusion is that environmental impacts are manageable, but predictions based on environmental assessment should be monitored, and if necessary, corrective action be taken. The recent spate of multi-stakeholder collaborative projects such as the Regional Aquatic Monitoring Program (RAMP), the Canadian Oil Sands Network for Research and Development (CONRAD), and the Regional Air Quality Coordinating Committee (RAQCC) collectively do a very good job of ensuring responsible management of environmental and socio-economic issues. An environmental management system model structured with a regional board representing various stakeholders with a number of technical issue groups reporting to the Board has been proposed. The proposed model is now under assessment by the Cumulative Environmental Effects Management Initiative (CEEM), a group that includes aboriginal groups, federal, provincial, and municipal governments, environmental groups and regional resource industries

  11. Applied Geochemistry Special Issue on Environmental geochemistry of modern mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Environmental geochemistry is an integral part of the mine-life cycle, particularly for modern mining. The critical importance of environmental geochemistry begins with pre-mining baseline characterization and the assessment of environmental risks related to mining, continues through active mining especially in water and waste management practices, and culminates in mine closure. The enhanced significance of environmental geochemistry to modern mining has arisen from an increased knowledge of the impacts that historical and active mining can have on the environment, and from new regulations meant to guard against these impacts. New regulations are commonly motivated by advances in the scientific understanding of the environmental impacts of past mining. The impacts can be physical, chemical, and biological in nature. The physical challenges typically fall within the purview of engineers, whereas the chemical and biological challenges typically require a multidisciplinary array of expertise including geologists, geochemists, hydrologists, microbiologists, and biologists. The modern mine-permitting process throughout most of the world now requires that potential risks be assessed prior to the start of mining. The strategies for this risk assessment include a thorough characterization of pre-mining baseline conditions and the identification of risks specifically related to the manner in which the ore will be mined and processed, how water and waste products will be managed, and what the final configuration of the post-mining landscape will be.In the Fall 2010, the Society of Economic Geologists held a short course in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in Denver, Colorado (USA) to examine the environmental geochemistry of modern mining. The intent was to focus on issues that are pertinent to current and future mines, as opposed to abandoned mines, which have been the focus of numerous previous short courses. The geochemical

  12. International environmental law: Emerging issues of concern to chemists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As a result of the pending unification of the Western European nations into a single market, the unfolding political changes in Eastern Europe, and concern about environmental problems - such as global warming - which transcend traditional national boundaries, there have been many recent developments in international environmental law. A comprehensive environmental regulatory program is under development in Western Europe, while countries in other areas of the world are developing individual programs. Additionally, a number of multi-national agreements on environmental issues have been reached. This talk reviews these developments as they affect both the research and production chemists and addresses: (a) the effect of evolving environmental law on the development of new chemical products, (b) anticipated changes in the manufacturing sector resulting from imposition of new pollution controls in many nations and (c) the environmental impact assessment preconditions to which new and expanded facilities in many nations might be subject

  13. Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordana Pagliarani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementation of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues.

  14. Summary of commercial conservation programs environmental issues and program consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachler, M.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration. The purpose of the report is to compare and contrast the environmental requirements and issues involving Bonneville's residential conservation programs. In addition to environmental issues that Bonneville has addressed in environmental documents, this report also briefly examines new issues that may affect residential conservation programs. The key environmental concern confronting each of the programs with measures aimed at reducing air leakage in houses (both new and existing) is indoor air quality. There are inconsistencies in how the Weatherization Program and the New Homes programs approach indoor air quality. However, these differences make sense, given the character and constraints affecting how each program operates. Newer issues that have arisen include global warming, potential health effects of mineral and glass fibers, and possible fire hazards associated with plastic foam and cellulose insulation. Bonneville staff are aware of these issues as they relate to conservation programs. No action appears necessary at this time.

  15. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E

    2016-11-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1) documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children's obesity and academic performance; (2) promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3) clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ.

  16. Environmental Decision Making and Information Technology: Issues Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, S.; Fletcher, T.; Mechling, J.; Tonn, B.; Turner, R.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the Information Technology and Environmental Decision Making Workshop that was held at Harvard University, October 1-3, 1998. Over sixty participants from across the US took part in discussions that focused on the current practice of using information technology to support environmental decision making and on future considerations of information technology development, information policies, and data quality issues in this area. Current practice is focusing on geographic information systems and visualization tools, Internet applications, and data warehousing. In addition, numerous organizations are developing environmental enterprise systems to integrate environmental information resources. Plaguing these efforts are issues of data quality (and public trust), system design, and organizational change. In the future, much effort needs to focus on building community-based environmental decision-making systems and processes, which will be a challenge given that exactly what needs to be developed is largely unknown and that environmental decision making in this arena has been characterized by a high level of conflict. Experimentation and evaluation are needed to contribute to efficient and effective learning about how best to use information technology to improve environmental decision making.

  17. Young People's Conversations about Environmental and Sustainability Issues in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Öhman, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Young people's conversations about environmental and sustainability issues in social media and their educational implications are under-researched. Understanding young people's meaning-making in social media and the experiences they acquire could help teachers to stage pluralistic and participatory approaches to classroom discussions about the…

  18. Using Phenomenology to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Recently, I applied a phenomenological methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing phenomenological research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that phenomenology, with its…

  19. College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

  20. Health, safety and environmental issues in thin film manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.; Baumann, A.E.; Hill, R.; Patterson, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation is made of Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) aspects for the manufacturing, use and decommissioning of CdTe, CIS and a-Si modules. Issues regarding energy requirements, resource availability, emissions of toxic materials, occupational health and safety and module waste

  1. Introducing Ethical, Social and Environmental Issues in ICT Engineering Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, Rafael; Aller, Celia Fernández; Anguera, Áurea; Portillo, Eloy

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in undergraduate ICT engineering degrees at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. The experience before the Bologna Process was concentrated on developing elective courses related mainly on the field of the International Development Cooperation. The…

  2. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  3. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  4. Chinese College Students' Perceptions about Global Versus Local Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined Chinese college students' perceptions of internal (certainty, tangibility, complexity, significance, and danger) and external characteristics (personal knowledge, human responsibility, impact on personal life, and predicted trend) of 9 global and 8 local environmental issues. Subjects (N = 108) demonstrated by completing a…

  5. Environmental change, climate, and health: issues and research methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMichael, A. J. (Anthony J.); Martens, Willem Jozef Meine

    2002-01-01

    ... relationships. The agenda of research and policy advice must be extended to include the larger-framed and longer-term environmental change issues. This book identifies the nature and scope of the problem, and explores the conceptual and methodological approaches to studying these relationships, modelling their future realization, providing estimates of health i...

  6. Simulating human behavior for understanding and managing environmental resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander; Mosler, Hans Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Computer simulation allows for the experimental study of dynamic interactions between human behavior and complex environmental systems. Behavioral determinants and processes as identified in social-scientific theory may be formalized in simulated agents to obtain a better understanding of

  7. Coalbed methane produced water in China: status and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yanjun; Tang, Dazhen; Xu, Hao; Li, Yong; Gao, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    As one of the unconventional natural gas family members, coalbed methane (CBM) receives great attention throughout the world. The major associated problem of CBM production is the management of produced water. In the USA, Canada, and Australia, much research has been done on the effects and management of coalbed methane produced water (CMPW). However, in China, the environmental effects of CMPW were overlooked. The quantity and the quality of CMPW both vary enormously between coal basins or stratigraphic units in China. The unit produced water volume of CBM wells in China ranges from 10 to 271,280 L/well/day, and the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) ranges from 691 to 93,898 mg/L. Most pH values of CMPW are more than 7.0, showing the alkaline feature, and the Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl are typical types of CMPW in China. Treatment and utilization of CMPW in China lag far behind the USA and Australia, and CMPW is mainly managed by surface impoundments and evaporation. Currently, the core environmental issues associated with CMPW in China are that the potential environmental problems of CMPW have not been given enough attention, and relevant regulations as well as environmental impact assessment (EIA) guidelines for CMPW are still lacking. Other potential issues in China includes (1) water quality monitoring issues for CMPW with special components in special areas, (2) groundwater level decline issues associated with the dewatering process, and (3) potential environmental issues of groundwater pollution associated with hydraulic fracturing.

  8. Understanding and Developing Controversial Issues in College Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.; Gainey, Randy R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses common controversial issues in different college disciplines, such as the death penalty and drug legalization. Also suggests useful methods for encouraging enlightening discussions, such as verbal and physical cues, student-centered activities, and text selection. (SLD)

  9. Maintaining Program Understanding - Issues, Tools, and Future Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas; Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    The understanding of a program is a key aspect of software development. The understanding is a prerequisite for the initial development efforts. This paper is concerned with the challenge of maintaining the program understanding with the purpose of supporting later phases in the program life time....... One approach to maintaining program understanding is to document decisions and rationales behind a program as informal textual explanations---internal documentation. The starting point of this paper is a particular paradigm for program documentation called Elucidative Programming. As the first...

  10. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  11. Study on fusion energy conformity with global environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kenichi

    1998-01-01

    Global environmental conformity has been one of the most important issues discussed recently as being required for all human activities. From this point of view, this report investigates whether nuclear fusion can be a benign energy source for the global environment. First of all, we chose the following global environmental problems: (1) Global warming, (2) Acid rain, (3) Ozonosphere destruction, (4) Air pollution, (5) Environmental hormones, (6) Radiation and radioactive materials, (7) Electromagnetic waves, and (8) Heat drainage from an energy source. Secondly, these problems were fully surveyed in terms of their relationships with proposed nuclear fusion power plant. Finally, as a result of this discussion, it was confirmed that a fusion power plant would not produce any new problems, but would partially contribute to solving some of the environmental problems. (author)

  12. Climate Change and Environmental assessments: Issues in an African Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfelt, Arne; Naess, Lars Otto

    1997-12-31

    The present report discusses the potential for integrating climate change issues into environmental assessments of development actions, with an emphasis on sub-Sahara Africa. The study is motivated by the fact that future climate change could have significant adverse impacts on the natural and socio-economic environment in Africa. Yet, to date global change issues, including climate change, have been largely overlooked in the process of improving environmental assessment procedures and methodologies. It is argued that although emissions of greenhouse gases in Africa are negligible today, it is highly relevant to include this aspect in the planning of long-term development strategies. The report discusses potential areas of conflicts and synergies between climate change and development goals. The general conclusion is that environmental assessments could be an appropriate tool for addressing climate change issues, while there are still several obstacles to its practical implementation. Four priority areas are suggested for further work: (1) Environmental accounting, (2) harmonization and standard-setting, (3) implementation, and (4) risk management. 82 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Industrial pollutions is an environmental issue of Karachi urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, M.H.; Abro, M.I.; Essani, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Industrial pollution is one of the serious Environmental issues of the Karachi urban area, categorized as air pollution and water pollution. The localization more the 6000 industries in Karachi urban area at four different sites of Sindh industrial trading estate, Landhi industrial trading estate, Korangi industrial area west Warf industrials, Port Qasim industrial. Area and Hub industrial are near Karachi city. The major iron and steel industries includes Pakistan steel mills and its allied industries at Bin Qasim more than 100 re-rolling industries are located at site area. Karachi ship yard engineering works, Peoples steel Mill, automobile industries and various manufacturing industries which requires metal and its alloy in manufacturing of product mostly located at Bin Qasim, Korangi, and Shershah site areas. None of the industrial sector contain the waster treatment or recycling plant. The ill planted growth of Karachi and its industries caused the environmental degradation of the city and its coastal areas complete with massive mangrove destruction, air water, fishing, and agriculture possessing a potential threat to the lives of more than 10 million citizens. The environmental issues of the metal related industries include the scrap, waste and pollution. Scrapes am waste of the metal industries can be reused in other manufacturing of engineering materials or recycled to produce the new material. However the pollution is the one of the major environmental issue related with the metal industries which need the considerable research and development work in order to over come the serve environmental issues of the urban areas. This article reviews and identifies the level of industrial pollution emphasized on metal related industries of the Karachi urban areas. (author)

  14. Online Higher Education Instruction to Foster Critical Thinking When Assessing Environmental Issues - the Brownfield Action Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Peter; Liddicoat, Joseph; Dittrick, Diane; Maenza-Gmelch, Terryanne; Kelsey, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, there are presently over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly into the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part online for more than a decade in environmental science courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies, conduct environmental site assessment investigations, and work collaboratively to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue or crisis.

  15. Proceedings of Seminar on Emerging Environmental Issues in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhami, M.S.I.; Anees, S.

    1999-01-01

    The seminar on emerging environmental issues in Pakistan was held from December 5-7, 1998, in Islamabad, Pakistan. The nature and magnitude of environmental contamination, and who is exposed to it, depend not only on scientific and technological factors but also reflect economic, political, social and many other influences. In the process of creating social and economic benefits to society, industrial production generates hazardous waste and chemical contaminants that impact negatively on quality of life. The main emphases in this proceedings are on different type pollution and their impacts on humane life. (A.B.)

  16. Mindless decision making and environmental issues: gestalt/feature-intensive processing and contextual reasoning in environmental decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Matthew J; Hess, Adam B; Ranes, Bethany

    2007-09-01

    In the absence of relevant information in working memory during decision consideration, respondents tend to rely on a style of cognitive processing that may result in premature or inaccurate decision making (M. J. Sharps, 2003). M. J. Sharps and S. S. Martin (2002) demonstrated this effect in executive decision making. In the present study, the authors extended these methods to decisions about environmental issues. Respondents rated decisions about issues such as overpopulation, energy policy, and food production in the presence or absence of simple pertinent information. The presence of such information in the immediate context of environmental decisions, and therefore in working memory, significantly improved respondents' ability to understand negative decision consequences. These results demonstrate the importance of contextual information in environmental decision making.

  17. Small and medium sized enterprises and sustainability: managers' values and engagement with environmental and climate change issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Anja; Williams, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an in-depth, qualitative study into the pro-environmental engagement of small businesses in the east of England, with respect to climate change in particular. Managers of environmentally pro-active small businesses were asked about the proenvironmental measures they had implemented in their firms, their motivations for doing so, and their understanding of climate change. The managers in this study had a relatively good understanding of environmental issues in general a...

  18. Health, safety and environmental issues in thin film manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Alsema, E.A.; Baumann, A.E.; Hill, R.; Patterson, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation is made of Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) aspects for the manufacturing, use and decommissioning of CdTe, CIS and a-Si modules. Issues regarding energy requirements, resource availability, emissions of toxic materials, occupational health and safety and module waste treatment are reviewed. Waste streams in thin film module manufacturing are analyzed in detail and treatment methods are discussed. Finally the technological options for thin film module recycling are inve...

  19. Introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in ICT engineering degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Miñano; Celia Fernández Aller; Áurea Anguera; Eloy Portillo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in undergraduate ICT engineering degrees at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. The experience before the Bologna Process was concentrated on developing elective courses related mainly on the field of the International Development Cooperation. The integration of those topics within the current ICT engineering curricula, adapted to the European Higher Education Area framework, has significantly imp...

  20. Health care labor relations law--understanding the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, S P; Keith, C L

    1981-01-01

    The 1974 amendments to the Labor Management Relations Act have created new problems of statutory interpretation in the rapidly evolving area of health care labor law. By including nonprofit hospitals under the auspices of the Act, the amendments have opened up a new area for unionization and have given rise to questions concerning the types of bargaining units that are appropriate in health care facilities. In the following article, the authors discuss these questions and other current issues in health care labor relations law. The issues include the determination of relevant bargaining units, the status of state nursing associations as labor organizations, and the ten-day strike notice requirement of the Labor Management Relations Act.

  1. The Local Residents’ Concerns about Environmental Issues in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanus A. Aregay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes public awareness and perception about current issues of environmental and water resources in China in comparison to the socio-economic issues. The ranking, Likert scale, and ordered logit analysis were applied to data from 1773 sample residents in northwest China. The results show that the residents rank the degradation of the ecological environment and water resources as the most important issue, and education, political involvement, gender, employment, and residential location play significant roles in explaining the observed differences in concern. Of the possible environmental and water resource restoration policies, residents ranked water quantity and quality, agricultural and industrial water use, erosion control, vegetation restoration, wildlife habitat, animal brooding and migration services, biodiversity landscape, and eco-tourism from one to nine in order of importance, respectively. The results are relevant for policymaking and imply that environmental restoration is a high public demand. Welfare gains from investments in it would be higher or equal to gains from other socio-economic and livelihood activities. Thus, public policies must emphasize restoring and maintaining a sustainable ecological environment.

  2. The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) theory. Part B: Critical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaika, Dimitra; Zervas, Efthimios

    2013-01-01

    According to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) theory, the process of economic growth is expected to limit the environmental degradation created in the early stages of development. The first article of this study reviews the empirical studies examining various factors, other than income, that may lead to an EKC-pattern. The current article reviews in the first part the major critiques on the EKC-speculation which relate to the following issues: the normal distribution of world income, the feedback from environmental degradation to economic growth, the characteristics of the pollutant in question, various econometric issues, the evolution of consumption when income rises and the assumption about a common developmental pattern in all countries. The second part discusses additional matters reported indirectly in the literature and/or must be further examined. There are doubts whether the GDP-series captures the transition of production to the three productive sectors in empirical estimations and whether services are less polluting compared to industry activities. Finally, the original Kuznets-theory, which laid the groundwork for the EKC-concept, does not seem to solve income inequality problems. - Highlights: • The basic critiques on the EKC-concept are presented. • Some additional issues, not explicitly presented in the literature, must be further examined. • The examination of such critiques is essential to define the validity-bounds of the EKC-concept. • The construction of structural models comes up to be more urgent than ever

  3. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, P.C.; Swaminathan, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)

  4. Environmental sampling: Issues for the cut-off regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The fissile material cut-off treaty (FMCT) initiative under the Conference on Disarmament mandate is envisioned to include certain aspects of environmental sampling and monitoring. One of the intents of this treaty is to bring certain non-NPT signatories (e.g., threshold states) under this treaty agreement along with the nuclear weapon states (NWSs). This paper provides a brief overview of some of the relevant issues that may be involved in the implementation and use of environmental monitoring for (1) verification of the cut-off regime declarations, (2) the detection of undeclared activities, and, (3) application in non-routine inspections. The intent is to provide backstopping information important for treaty negotiators. Specific issues addressed within this paper include signature sampling, differences in the proposed detection regime, potential signature integrators, specific examples and spoofing concerns. Many of these issues must be carefully considered and weighed in order to create a credibly verifiable inspection regime. Importantly, the cut-off treaty must enable nondiscriminatory implementation, while carefully assuring that nonproliferation treaty requirements are maintained (i.e., preventing unintentional release of critical weapons design information--potentially through environmental sampling and analysis)

  5. Understanding food security issues in remote Western Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Nyaradi, Anett; Lester, Matthew; Sauer, Kay

    2014-08-01

    Food insecurity in remote Western Australian (WA) Indigenous communities. This study explored remote community store managers' views on issues related to improving food security in order to inform health policy. A census of all remote WA Indigenous community store managers was conducted in 2010. Telephone interviews sought managers' perceptions of community food insecurity, problems with their store, and potential policy options for improving the supply, accessibility, affordability and consumption of nutritious foods. Descriptive analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows version 17.0. Managers stated that freight costs and irregular deliveries contributed to high prices and a limited range of foods. Poor store infrastructure, compromised cold chain logistics, and commonly occurring power outages affected food quality. Half of the managers said there was hunger in their community because people did not have enough money to buy food. The role of nutritionists beyond a clinical and educational role was not understood. Food security interventions in remote communities need to take into consideration issues such as freight costs, transport and low demand for nutritious foods. Store managers provide important local knowledge regarding the development and implementation of food security interventions. SO WHAT? Agencies acting to address the issue of food insecurity in remote WA Indigenous communities should heed the advice of community store managers that high food prices, poor quality and limited availability are mainly due to transport inefficiencies and freight costs. Improving healthy food affordability in communities where high unemployment and low household income abound is fundamental to improving food security, yet presents a significant challenge.

  6. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Planning and Strategic Business Development Div.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S. [Columbia Environmental Services, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  7. Environmental and energy issues in an open economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyungsoo

    The environmental and energy consequences of globalization have become an important topic of debate. My dissertation examines the interaction between environmental and energy issues and international trade. Specifically, I investigate environmental regulations and policy in an open economy. In the first chapter, I analyze how an environmental tax on pollution from consumption affects trade flows and welfare in an open economy. In particular, I argue that the effect of an environmental tax on the direction of trade flows depends on who is directly burdened by the regulation (consumers or producers) regardless of who is the polluter. In the case of pollution generated by consumers, a tax on consumers who are the polluters tends to increase exports and reduce imports of dirty goods. This result is the opposite of the well-known effect arising from taxes on pollution-intensive industries. Stringent environmental regulations on pollution-intensive industries diminishes exports and increases imports of dirty industries. In terms of welfare, I show the importance of targeting the policy instrument to the correct source of pollution. Assuming pollution is caused by the consumption of a good, a production tax has a weak effect on increasing welfare through reducing pollution. Furthermore, welfare can fall if the production tax ratio is too high, leading to reduced national income. The second chapter is motivated by recent trends in the U.S. economy: increasing imports from China, decreasing energy consumption, and increasing output. There are two primary theoretical approaches related to the relationship between energy use in U.S. manufacturing and increasing imports from China: Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) trade theory and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH). These two frameworks generate opposite predictions about the relationship between these trends. H-O theory suggests that with increased Chinese import penetration, U.S. manufacturing should move toward more energy

  8. Environmental issues related to oil and gas access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniuk, T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation discussed the environmental issues that petroleum companies face in northeast British Columbia. Petroleum exploration, development, production, abandonment and transportation activities in the province must follow provincial and federal regulations as well as government policies and guidelines which define environmental assessment, protection, and mitigation standards. A discussion about the regulatory framework in British Columbia can be found in the 'British Columbia Oil and Gas Handbook' which is available on the INTERNET at http://natural.gov.bc.ca/handpubs/oilgashb/bcoghb.htm. It was suggested that companies wishing to conduct drilling or exploration activities in sensitive areas should allow extra time (up to one year) to obtain approval for such activities. British Columbia's environmental setting includes five zones - the Alpine Tundra, the Spruce-Willow-Birch zone, the Engelmannn Spruce-Subalpine Fir forests, the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone, and the Boreal White and Black Spruce zone. Four discrete oil and gas guideline zones with differing standards have been developed. These are: (1) the Northern Rocky Mountains, (2) the Northeastern Slopes, (3) the Southeastern Slopes, and (4) the Northern Plains. A set of interim environmental guidelines are in effect to direct activity away from any sensitive area. Three sub-regional land use planning areas have also been established in the Prince George Forest Region which includes Dawson Creek, Fort St. John and Fort Nelson. Petroleum operators in these regions are obliged to deal with issues regarding aboriginal involvement, stream crossings, access management, and air quality. 40 refs

  9. Possible future environmental issues for fossil fuel technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaway, L.D.

    1979-07-01

    The work reported here was carried out for the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy to identify and assess 15 to 20 major environmental issues likely to affect the implementation of fossil energy technologies between 1985 and 2000. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; and true and modified in situ oil shale retorting. Environmental analysis of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. The 16 environmental issues identified as those most likely for future regulatory actions and the main features of, and the possible regulatory actions associated with, each are as follows: disposal of solid waste from coal conversion and combustion technologies; water consumption by coal and oil shale conversion technologies; siting of coal conversion facilities; the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect; emission of polycyclic organic matter (POM); impacts of outer continental shelf (OCS) oil development; emission of trace elements; groundwater contamination; liquefied natural gas (LNG), safety and environmental factors; underground coal mining - health and safety; fugitive emissions from coal gasification and liquefaction - health and safety; boomtown effects; emission of fine particulates from coal, oil and oil shale technologies; emission of radioactivity from the mining and conversion of coal; emission of nitrogn oxides; and land disturbance from surface mining. (LTN)

  10. Issues and Solutions of International Understanding Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li

    2013-01-01

    School in China has actively implemented International Understanding Education to foster a cosmopolitan perspective. The educational principle is to respect people of various socio-cultural backgrounds through comparing China's culture with that of other countries. However, my survey revealed that such education in practice is limited to…

  11. An Inquiry into the Issue of Understanding and Practicing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Democratic election which ought to be the hallmark of democracy has suffered so much in Nigeria. Lack of proper understanding of what it means to have democracy has been one of the major problems that plague our state Nigeria's experience in governance and politics since independence has been a struggle. As the ...

  12. Understanding Global / Local Cultural Leadership : Issues and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolsteeg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Cultural leaders sail between the Scylla and Charibdis of aggregated trans- and supranational cultural-political discourses and the cultural needs of local communities. How do these dynamics influence the work of cultural leaders? How can we understand the work of cultural leaders to connect

  13. Environmental Identity: A New Approach to Understanding Students' Participation in Environmental Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksha, Amanda P.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an understanding of how participants express their environmental identities during an environmental learning program. Past research on the outcomes of environmental learning programs has focused primarily on changes in knowledge and attitudes. However, even if knowledge or attitudes can be accurately measured,…

  14. Understanding Current and Future Issues in Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Stuart; Mattsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Sharing activities underpinned by the technologies of the Internet have become dominant in the activities of individuals, business and governments. Recently, such sharing activity has grown from information and media content to wider resources, including money, physical goods and services — coined...... collaborative consumption. Sustainability is often cited as a key driver, underpinned by economic, social and environmental benefits. If successful, the sharing of such resources is likely to have a potentially disruptive impact on incumbents in traditional supply chains. However, given the embryonic state...

  15. Understanding and education of nuclear power development issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction of nuclear power to China; the understanding of nuclear power in China, education of nuclear power among chinese people. Through such efforts of The Chinese Nuclear Association the Chinese people already have the basic knowledge and support the nuclear power in general. But there are about fifty percent of people who do not know the nuclear power stations in China and thirty-six percent who do not know the benefit of nuclear power because of the vast and different education level in some undeveloped rural areas where the education can not reach

  16. How Understandings Colour the Means and Ends in the Case of Environmental Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2002-01-01

    Different understandings of the concept of innovation have resulted in different means and ends in the innovation activities within Dan-ish industry. The different emphasis on economic, technical, organ-isational, inter-organisational and institutional issues in product and process-innovation has...... influenced the initiatives made by state, market and civil society. Focusing on environmental innovations, this is revealed in the initiatives and outcome of the previous envi-ronmental policy in Denmark. The paper, makes an analyti-cal distinction between different understandings of innovation, ex...

  17. Environmental issues in dentistry--mercury. FDI Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, P L; Arenholt-Bindslev, D; Schmalz, G; Halbach, S; Berendsen, H

    1997-04-01

    One of the consequences of placing amalgam restorations is that mercury is required for the trituration process. In turn, this raises the issue of the possible environmental impact of mercury. This report considers ways in which any impact can be modified and reduced by careful attention to mercury usage and hygiene in the dental practice, the use of filters and separators in waste water pipes and the appropriate disposal of waste contaminated with amalgam. The total amount of mercury discharged into the environment varies considerably in different parts of the world due to both natural and human activities. The extent to which dentistry adds to this total also varies according to local circumstances and requirements. Recommendations are given for further development of ways to reduce mercury discharge and for further research into the environmental impact of the metal.

  18. Issues with choice architecture, environmental ethics, and globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankowski, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Cass R. Sunstein's book The Ethics of Influence appears to have three ideological features notable for purposes of this essay. The book emphasizes choice architecture (and related notions such as nudges and defaults), which should be ethically scrutinized to guard against ethical abuses and to assist us in ethically desirable uses of scientific psychology and behavioral economics. (1) This particular book focuses more on scrutinizing nation-state government than on corporate activities. (2) This book focuses more on domestically directed governmental action than on externally directed governmental action. (3) This book focuses more on certain developed liberal democracies than on the more comprehensive global situation. Sunstein is especially interested in environmental issues, particularly energy policy, global warming, and climate change. This essay argues that Sunstein's conceptual scheme can be fruitfully expanded to progress toward a normative environmental ethics that can be integrated with the insights of global political economy.

  19. Social and ethical issues in environmental risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Deborah H

    2011-07-01

    The recognition of the social and ethical aspects of radiation risk management has been an important part of international projects following the Chernobyl accident of 1986. This study comments on the science and policy issues in environmental risk assessment, including the social and ethical dimensions of emergency preparedness and remediation experiences gained from the Chernobyl accident. While the unique situation of Fukushima, combined with an earthquake and tsunami, raises its own social and political challenges, it is hoped that some of the lessons learnt from Chernobyl will be relevant to long-term management of the Fukushima site. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  20. Coal, energy efficiency and environmental issues in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Barker, R.; Asamoah, J.K.; Barnard, W.O.

    1997-01-01

    Like China, a large portion of South Africa's primary energy is sourced from coal, and is likely to remain South Africa's major source of energy for the short to medium term. It is imperative to address the environmental dimension as an integral component of coal energy considerations. This issue is discussed through energy efficiency, and South Africa's Low-Smoke Coal Programme as it pertains to the use of coal in households. South Africa is engaged on several other programmes to minimise the impact of coal on the atmospheric environment. Some of those activities have been outlined in this paper. (R.P.)

  1. ATTITUDES TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: A CASE OF BOPHELONG TOWNSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Maloma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the attitudes that the households of Bophelong Townshiphave towards environmental issues in their area. Focus was placed on issuespertaining to air pollution and littering in the Township. The study investigatedthe attitudes of households as to the causes of pollution and littering in their area.Emphasis was also placed on their attitudes as to who should take the initiativeand responsibility for the abatement of the pollution and the cleaning of the area.The results highlight the factors that should be considered when looking athousehold attitude towards pollution in a South African Township.

  2. Nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anåker, Anna; Nilsson, Maria; Holmner, Åsa; Elf, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues and examine how nurses perceive their role in contributing to the process of sustainable development. Climate change and its implications for human health represent an increasingly important issue for the healthcare sector. According to the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics, nurses have a responsibility to be involved and support climate change mitigation and adaptation to protect human health. This is a descriptive, explorative qualitative study. Nurses (n = 18) were recruited from hospitals, primary care and emergency medical services; eight participated in semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews and 10 participated in two focus groups. Data were collected from April-October 2013 in Sweden; interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Two main themes were identified from the interviews: (i) an incongruence between climate and environmental issues and nurses' daily work; and (ii) public health work is regarded as a health co-benefit of climate change mitigation. While being green is not the primary task in a lifesaving, hectic and economically challenging context, nurses' perceived their profession as entailing responsibility, opportunities and a sense of individual commitment to influence the environment in a positive direction. This study argues there is a need for increased awareness of issues and methods that are crucial for the healthcare sector to respond to climate change. Efforts to develop interventions should explore how nurses should be able to contribute to the healthcare sector's preparedness for and contributions to sustainable development. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Emerging photovoltaic technologies: Environmental and health issues update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D. [Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Group, Department of Applied Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    1997-02-01

    New photovoltaic (PV) technologies promise low-cost, reliable PV modules and have the potential for significant PV penetration into the energy market. These prospects for commercialization have attracted renewed interest in the advantageous environmental impact of using PV and also in the potential environmental, health and safety (EHS) burdens in PV manufacturing and decommissioning. In this paper, we highlight recent studies on EHS issues: (a) An integrated energy-environmental-economic analysis which shows that large-scale use of PV can significantly contribute to alleviating the greenhouse effect; in the United States alone, it could displace 450 million tons of carbon emissions by the year 2030, (b) Recycling of the spent modules and scarp is economically feasible; current research centers on improving the efficiency and economics of recycling CdTe and CIS modules, (c) Toxicological studies conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) compared the acute toxicity of CdTe, CIS, and CGS; CdTe was the most toxic, and CGS the least toxic of the three. Additional studies are now comparing the systemic toxicity of these compounds with the toxicity of their precursors. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Environmental and waste management issues, causes, characteristics, and cures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    The department of Energy (DOE) views as one of its most challenging problems the minimization, management, and cleanup of waste materials generated from Departmental operations. The challenges for the DOE have striking similarities to the environmental restoration and waste management challenges associated with energy production and the mining and mineral processing industries. Their challenges relate to uranium mining and the resulting mill tailings; decontamination and decommissioning of facilities; processing of nuclear materials and production of weapons components. Add to this the challenge of environmental restoration solutions for waste disposal practices of the past. The fundamental goal of the DOE is to ensure that risks to human health and safety and to the environment posed by the department's past, present, and future operations are either eliminated to reduced to prescribed levels by the year 2019. To achieve this goal they must be able to assess environmental and health impacts resulting from the low concentrations of contaminants. This paper presents an overview of the causes, characteristics, and cures for these environmental restoration and waste management issues

  5. Personality traits and environmental choices: On the search for understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farizo, Begoña A; Oglethorpe, David; Soliño, Mario

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that individuals will choose among alternative courses of action for power generation from wind farms according to their personality profiles. Through a factor analysis we found that certain characteristics of personality do indeed have an effect on environmental choice. The study involves an extensive survey based on the Big Five Traits model to find a pattern of choice that will help to better understand environmental decisions and be useful for policy makers to identify target groups and preview reactions to different courses of action. The research is potentially useful for the better preparation and design of publicity material, awareness raising campaigns and information provision for complex or unpopular policies affecting the environment or in environmental education in general. This research is especially interested in shedding some light on how personality is involved in the processes of environmental decision making, despite the limitations of the present study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Editorial: Social and Environmental Accounting Research (SEA - A Special Issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Beck

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available For what is now an extended period of time, a number of researchers have been working in what could bedescribed as “an isolated, very small and persecuted community… seeking to reify this mysterious oddity thatwas social accounting (emphasis in original” (Gray, 2007, p. 2. However, with increasing commercial andregulatory emphasis globally on environmental degradation and rehabilitation, climate change and the socialresponsibilities of the corporate world, this isolated, small community has not only gained a voice, but anincreased profile and credibility for researchers in the area. As such, social and environmental accounting(SEA research (as it is now known boasts both a history and a future as a stand-alone sub-discipline ofaccounting research. More and more emerging scholars are opting for research programs that encompass orengage with SEA issues. Indeed, many major accounting conferences (such as the European AccountingAssociation (EAA and Accounting and Finance Association of Australian and New Zealand (AFAANZoffer dedicated SEA streams. SEA is no longer a special issue! But as noted above, this was not always thecase…..

  7. Introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in ICT engineering degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Miñano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experience of introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in undergraduate ICT engineering degrees at the Universidad Politécnica of Madrid. It is an example of both bottom-up and top-down approach, as it has been positively influenced by the European Higher Education Area framework and some external recommendations, plus the significant contribution regarding motivation, drive and previous experience of the teachers involved. The experience before the Bologna Process was concentrated on developing elective courses related on the field of the International Development Cooperation. The integration of those topics within the current engineering curricula, adapted to the European Higher Education Area framework, is being implemented in compulsory courses, elective activities and into Final Year Project. It implies a holistic and comprehensive approach, where appropriate contents, teaching methodologies and assessment methods have been adapted to deal with ethical, social and environmental issues in our academic context. Our work is still in progress and there are a lot of challenges to face, such as improving teaching methodologies, the assessment tools and the achievement of a broader implication of the faculty.

  8. Using carbon footprint to evaluate environmental issues of food transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konieczny P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The international trade of food commodities is still growing and food products are transported sometimes for a long distance using  various modes. Food transportation issues should be discussed  not only in respect to quality and safety concerns but also from environmental point of view.  Numerous approaches are  proposed to study impacts of food transportation along typical food chain on environment. Carbon footprint based on seems to be an interesting indicator for such analysis.  Material and methods: The analysis carried out in this study is based mainly on data presented in paper and reports published in recent decade, including some opinions available on various internet websites.    Results and conclusions:  The greenhouse gas emissions associated food transport along whole food supply chain. Carbon footprint  can be used to study various environmental impacts on each chain stage including primary production, food processing, fuel and energy consumption in food distribution, retail issues and product use  by consumer during household consumption. Adding these together all of the greenhouse gas emissions gives the total carbon footprint for a product useful to affect consumer nutritional behaviors.  

  9. Environmental safety issues for molecular beam epitaxy platform growth technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Shigekazu; Shirahama, Hiroyuki; Kouji, Yoshiharu

    2001-07-01

    The choice of a technology must clearly depend on its ability to fulfill not only material requirements but also environmental safety criteria. Therefore, the possibility of environmental impact raises questions related to safety and in the near future, the tolerable amount of hazardous materials, particularly for crystal growth of compound semiconductors. In the epitaxial field, both molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have already been acknowledged as well-established production methods and are playing important roles in the mass production of various device structures. Currently, however, it is common knowledge that there still exists one critical issue, namely, that of environmental safety with respect to the use of many hazardous materials. In MOCVD growth, large amounts of arsine (AsH 3) and phosphine (PH 3) are used, and in MBE growth the problem of higher amounts of arsine generation than the TLV (threshold limited value: 50 ppb) is commonly faced, particularly during maintenance procedures. By using gas source MBE (GSMBE), the arsenic contamination (adhesion) onto the wall inside the growth chamber is markedly reduced compared with that in the case of conventional MBE, and unintentional arsine generation is suppressed to be under the TLV. In addition, the consumption efficiency for hydrides is higher than 80%. This value is significantly higher than in the case of alternative growth methods, such as MBE (3-10%) and MOCVD (1-20%).

  10. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, S. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Energy Research Program

    2002-02-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO{sub 2}/ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO{sub 2}/t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO{sub 2} emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  11. Environmental impact of radioactive releases: Addressing global issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    1996-01-01

    In the decade after the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm in 1972, the IAEA organized a series of international meetings with themes concerned with radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. In the atmosphere of concern for the environment which followed the UN Conference, the IAEA-sponsored meetings provided a focal point for international discussion and served to summarize the state of knowledge on radionuclide behaviour in different environmental media. A considerable amount of research was, at that time, being directed in IAEA Member States towards achieving an understanding of the behavior of radionuclides, and especially of long-lived radionuclides, in the terrestrial and aquatic environments

  12. 19th Annual conference ampersand exposition: Global strategies for environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The 19th Annual conference and exposition on Global Strategies for Environmental Issues was held June 12-15, 1994 in New Orleans, Louisiana. This volume contains abstracts of the oral presentations. They are organized into the following sections: Environmental Management; Biodiversity/sustainable Development; Gulf Regional Issues; Environmental Ethics/Equity; NEPA Symposium; International Environmental Issues; Global Environmental Effects; and, Risk Assessment. Abstracts of poster sessions are also included

  13. 78 FR 56750 - Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear... Staff Guidance (ISG) ESP/COL-ISG-026, ``Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues ] Associated with... Notice: Draft Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues Associated with New Reactors. ML12326A742...

  14. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... environmental issues. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in these procedures, the Administrator may... United States is a member or participant; or (b) Concise reviews of the environmental issues involved...

  15. 30 CFR 280.31 - Whom will MMS notify about environmental issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Whom will MMS notify about environmental issues? 280.31 Section 280.31 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 280.31 Whom will MMS notify about environmental issues? (a...

  16. POLICY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USING SIMULATION TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchitel, Kirsten; Tanana, Heather

    2014-11-01

    This report examines the relationship between simulation-based science and judicial assessments of simulations or models supporting evaluations of environmental harms or risks, considering both how it exists currently and how it might be shaped in the future. This report considers the legal standards relevant to judicial assessments of simulation-based science and provides examples of the judicial application of those legal standards. Next, this report discusses the factors that inform whether there is a correlation between the sophistication of a challenged simulation and judicial support for that simulation. Finally, this report examines legal analysis of the broader issues that must be addressed for simulation-based science to be better understood and utilized in the context of judicial challenge and evaluation. !

  17. The contribution of geomorphological research to environmental issues in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Bocco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the development of Mexican geomorphology and specially its contribution to environmental issues. To this end, a thorough literature review was carried out; papers were differentiated according to the type of journal (Mexican and international. Special emphasis was placed on analyzing whether the interest on environment was derived from a well defined theoretical framework, in particular in terms of the insertion of geomorphology in the geographic arena in Mexico. The review has focused on secientific papers duly refereed and available at the Internet. Thus other research was not included. However, that the database described in this paper represents a solid sample of the entire universe of the efforts of Mexican geomorphologists.

  18. Licensing and Environmental Issues of Wave Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Frank; Tedd, James; Prado, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    . Different National settings and traditional use of ocean space, as well as different levels of advance in terms of legislation and procedural effectiveness make it extremely difficult to set out implementation strategies for ocean wave energy technologies. The paper includes a brief experience review from......The major non-technical barrier for large-scale wave energy implementation is the wide range of licensing issues and potential environmental concerns, in addition to significant National/regional differences in licensing procedures and permit requirements. Whereas some pilot plants have had...... a special standing or facilitated access to operating licenses due to their experimental character, the move of wave energy projects towards commercial applications implies complex procedures for obtaining licenses both with respect to the construction and deployment and operation phases, as well...

  19. Overview of Safety and Environmental Issues for Inertial Fusion Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet, S. J.; Brereton, S. J.; Perlado, J. M.; Seki, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Tobin, M. T.

    1997-06-01

    This paper summarizes safety and environmental issues of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE): inventories, effluents, maintenance, accident safety, waste management, and recycling. The fusion confinement approach among inertial and magnetic options affects how the fusion reaction is maintained and which materials surround the reaction chamber. The target fill technology has a major impact on the target factory tritium inventory. IFE fusion reaction chambers usually employ some means to protect the first structural wall from fusion pulses. This protective fluid or granular bed also moderates and absorbs most neutrons before they reach the first structural wall. Although the protective fluid activates, most candidate fluids have low activation hazard. Hands-on maintenance seems practical for the driver, target factory, and secondary coolant systems; remote maintenance is likely required for the reaction chamber, primary coolant, and vacuum exhaust cleanup systems. The driver and fuel target facility are well separated from the main reaction chamber.

  20. Environmental Guidance Regulatory Bulletin - revised rule issued, October 17, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On September 15, 1994, at 59 FR 47384-47495, the Environmental Protection Agency promulgated a Final Rule revising 40 CFR Part 300; the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). One of the primary purposes of the revised NCP is to provide for efficient, coordinated, and effective action to minimize adverse impact from oil discharges and hazardous substance releases. The NCP is required by Section 105 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act and Section 311 (c) (2) of the Clean Water Act. The NCP establishes an organizational structure and procedures for preparing for and responding to discharges of oil and releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants under these two Acts. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA) amends the existing provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and creates major new authorities addressing oil, and to a lesser extent, hazardous substance spill response. These amendments to the CWA, in turn, require revision of the NCP. The OPA specifies a number of revisions to the NCP that enhance and expand upon the current framework, standards, and procedures for response. A Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on changes to the NCP was issued on October 22, 1993 (58 FR 54702). DOE solicited comments on the proposed rule from DOE program and field offices, and submitted those comments to EPA on December 20, 1993

  1. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental...

  2. Environmental degradation, population displacement and global security: An overview of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    An initial investigation is presented on the interrelationship between environmental degradation and population displacements, in the broader context of how this linkage affects human security. Emphasis is placed on both the causes and effects of population movements, with specific examples drawn from Southeast Asia. Types of migrants, the importance of environmental degradation with respect to other contributing factors, and the effects on origin and destination regions are considered. A key issue is the multi-causality of population displacements and the importance of improving understanding of the issues in order to develop appropriate policies. It is clear from the study that the discussion of environment as a cause or contributing factor to population displacement has, to date, been speculative, and the information provided largely anecdotal. 58 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Partner Country Series: Understanding Energy Challenges in India - Policies, Players and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    A combination of rapidly increasing energy demand and fuel imports plus growing concern about economic and environmental consequences is generating growing calls for effective and thorough energy governance in India. Numerous policy reforms over the past 20 years have shifted the country’s energy sector from a state-dominated system towards one that is based on market principles. However, with the reform process left unfinished, India now finds itself trapped halfway along the transition to an open and well-performing energy sector. India suffered from the largest power outage ever in late July 2012, affecting nearly half of the population. While this incident highlights the importance of modern and smart energy systems, it indicates that the country is increasingly unable to deliver a secure supply of energy to its population, a quarter of which still lacks access to electricity. Understanding Energy Challenges in India aims to provide an informative and holistic understanding of India’s energy sector to stakeholders in India as well as the broad public. The publication explores in detail the policies, players and issues of the country’s power, coal, oil and gas, renewables and nuclear sectors. It also highlights the key challenges India faces, challenges that must be resolved for the evolution of the fast-growing country’s energy sector towards a sustainable energy future and eventually critical for the prospects of the Indian and global economies.

  4. Analysis of Insertion of Environmental Issues in two Degree Course Chemistry of a Public University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago do Nascimento Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work consists in a research on the inclusion of environmental matters in two degree courses of Chemistry in a public university. We started from the idea that discussing environmental issues in the academic context, in particular in the context of the Degree in Chemistry, is being very necessary nowadays, due to what society is going through, which is what we call "environmental crisis". Our main objective was to identify how the formation of the Chemistry teacher in these two courses has contemplated the inclusion of environmental issues as defined in the guidelines of official documents which they are subjected to. To structure all our discussion, we had as the theoretical background the production cycle of the curriculum policies developed by Ball and Bowe (1992, establishing this research in three main contexts presented by them (context influence, text production context and practice context. Therefore, a documental research in the national curriculum guidelines that drive the training of teachers / Chemistry teachers and educational projects of each course was conducted as well as interviews with coordinators and teachers of these courses, trying to understand the inclusion of discussions and questions that lead to an environmentally oriented education.

  5. Understanding Mechanism of Photocatalytic Microbial Decontamination of Environmental Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabilal Regmi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Several photocatalytic nanoparticles are synthesized and studied for potential application for the degradation of organic and biological wastes. Although these materials degrade organic compounds by advance oxidation process, the exact mechanisms of microbial decontamination remains partially known. Understanding the real mechanisms of these materials for microbial cell death and growth inhibition helps to fabricate more efficient semiconductor photocatalyst for large-scale decontamination of environmental wastewater or industries and hospitals/biomedical labs generating highly pathogenic bacteria and toxic molecules containing liquid waste by designing a reactor. Recent studies on microbial decontamination by photocatalytic nanoparticles and their possible mechanisms of action is highlighted with examples in this mini review.

  6. The importance of defining technical issues in interagency environmental negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B.L.; Burkardt, N.; Taylor, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    The role of technical clarity in successful multiparty negotiations was studied. Investigations involved in-depth interviews with the principal participants in six consultations conducted under the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s hydroelectric power project licensing procedures. Technical clarity was especially important in these cases because they concerned science-based questions. The principal issues in the six cases were fish passage, instream flow for fish habitat, and entrainment of fish in hydropower turbines. It was concluded that technical clarity was one of the most critical elements in resolving these conflicts. In the least successful negotiations, parties failed to address the basic values of the dispute before plunging into technical studies. The results of those studies usually highlighted the potential for negative outcomes and increased polarization between the participants. In the most successful negotiations, the various parties shared an understanding of each of their basic values. These shared understandings led to technical studies that cast the negotiation in a positive light and illuminated possible solutions.

  7. Chinese-American headway on some environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Although Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji may have failed to gain entrance for his country into the World Trade Organization during his April visit to the United States, the two countries concluded a series of agreements as part of the Second Session of the 2-year-old U.S.-China Policy Forum on Environment and Development.A memorandum of understanding on a $100 million clean energy program accelerates the export of clean U.S. environmental technologies in the area of energy efficiency renewable energy, and pollution reduction. A statement of intent on the development of a Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions Trading Feasibility Study calls for China to develop a study to test the effectiveness of emissions trading in China as a market-based approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. And a Memorandum of Understanding on a natural gas pipeline project, signed by the Enron Corporation and the China National Petroleum Corporation, opens the way to jointly developing a natural gas pipeline to help offer an alternative to fossil fuels.

  8. Effects of Exposure to Environmental Groups on Student Awareness of Environmental Issues and Their Desire to Be Locally Involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ann M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated changes in high school students' awareness of environmental issues and their intent to be involved with local environmental groups after attendance at an environmental fair that exposed them to local environmental groups. A comparison of prefair and postfair surveys given to students indicated a highly significant increase…

  9. Foundational Issues in Educating Young People for Understanding and Appreciation of the Religions in Their Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This is a conceptual paper considering some of the foundational issues that a teacher needs to have at least considered (if not resolved) when he or she sets out to encourage students to understand and appreciate the variety of religions in their communities. The first issue is that of what to call the enterprise; the second relates to assumed…

  10. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  11. Environmental issues of petroleum exploration and production: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Dorsey, Nancy S.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is the lifeblood of our planet Earth, an essential commod- ity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the increasing world population, and this dominance is expected to continue for several more decades (Edwards, 1997; Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2004). In the United States, petroleum production started in 1859 when Drake's well was drilled near Titusville, Pennsylvania, and oil and natural gas currently supply approximately 63% of the energy consumption; forecasts indicate that by 2025, their use will increase by about 40% to 28.3 million bbl/day and to 31.4 tcf/yr (EIA, 2004). The clear benefits of petroleum consumption, however, can carry major environmental impacts that may be regional or global in scale, in- cluding air pollution, global climate change, and oil spills. This vol- ume of Environmental Geosciences, covering environmental impacts of petroleum exploration and production, does not address these major impacts directly because air pollution and global warming are issues related primarily to petroleum and coal uses, and major oil spills are generally attributed to marine petroleum transportation, such as the Exxon Valdez's 1989 spill of 260,000 bbl of oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Exploration for and production of petroleum, however, have caused local detrimental impacts to soils, surface and groundwa- ters, and ecosystems in the 36 producing states in the United States (Richter and Kreitler, 1993; Kharaka and Hanor, 2003). These im- pacts arose primarily from the improper disposal of some of the large volumes (presently estimated at 20 billion bbl/yr total pro- duced) of saline water produced with oil and gas, from accidental hydrocarbon and produced-water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were orphaned or not correctly plugged (Kharaka et al., 1995; Veil et al., 2004). Impacts and ground-surface disturbances, in the order

  12. Environmental management in the USSR. Issue 9. Collection of papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratsiansky, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The 9th English-language issue in the series 'Environmental management in the USSR' deals with expert assessment of programmes and relevant governmental decisions on the elimination of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The collection features the Decision of the USSR Supreme Soviet 'On the Unified Programme for the Elimination of Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident and the Resultant Situation' adopted on 25 April 1990 and the Report of the Subcommission for State Programmes of the RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR for the Elimination of Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident in 1990-1995 under the Commission of Experts of the USSR State Planning Committee. To complement the corresponding sections of the Report the collection presents materials on the sociological, socio-psychological and medico-psychological dimensions of the expert appraisal of the general situation existing in the area suffering the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The present publication has been suggested by the USSR Supreme Soviet Committee for Ecology and Natural Resources Management

  13. Expanding scale, increasing risk: population as an environmental issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, R

    1994-11-01

    Rather than blaming our environmental problems on population growth alone or on dramatic increases in per capita consumption and rather than making dire predictions about the collapse of resources such as food supplies, it should be recognized that population growth puts pressure on the carrying capacity of the planet simply by increasing human activity. The environmental indicators which cause concern about the future include the fact that productivity has been sapped in almost 11% of the earth's surface, that 15.4 million hectares of tropical rain forest disappeared each year during the 1980s, that 1.7 billion people lack access to adequate drinking water, that pollution has depleted the ozone shield and threatens global warming, and that each year 27,000 species become extinct. The deforestation of Easter Island, which occurred as population grew between the 5th or 6th century and 1500 A.D., is an example of an ecosystem destroyed by population growth. When events like this happened in the past, people either colonized other places or survived in smaller numbers. However, today the world is full, and successful migration depends upon the good will of the receiving community (which is usually in short supply). As humanity concentrates in urban areas, emerging diseases will continue to take their toll. Researchers are attempting to develop models and identify mechanisms to contribute to our understanding of the many indirect ways that population affects the environment. Complicating factors include the fact that wealthier nations have a disproportionate (to their population numbers) effect on the environment and the fact that some ecosystems or resource bases are more vulnerable than others. In the meantime, population momentum will assure that population will continue to grow at unprecedented rates before it stabilizes when fertility declines outpace mortality declines. This stabilization is necessary to halt and ultimately reverse environmental degradation. This

  14. DV169 Comparative assessment of consumption patterns and environmental issues in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, I.

    2005-01-01

    In this MSc research project the consumption patterns and environmental issues in the developing country Ecuador were studied. Within the ‘Center for Energy and Environmental Studies’ this is a first step in the combined research field of environmental issues and consumption patterns in developing

  15. MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  16. Actinides and environmental interfaces: striving for molecular-level understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heino Nitsche

    2005-01-01

    Actinides can undergo a variety of complex chemical reactions in the environment. In addition to the formation of solid precipitates, colloids and dissolved solution species common to aqueous systems, actinide ions can interact with the surrounding geo and biomedia to change oxidation states or sorb on surfaces and colloids. The rate of migration is determined by aqueous solubility, and interactions with solid surfaces such as minerals, soils, natural organic matter, and soil microorganisms Sorption of aqueous actinide species on biological and geological matrices can be quantitatively described by a surface complexation or site-binding model. The disadvantage of this model is the difficulty in the experimental determination of the model parameters and surface reaction constants. Usually, a set of surface reactions and species are proposed based on knowledge of the solution speciation of the solute, and the reaction constants are usually derived by fitting computer-calculated absorption curves to experimental data. Because this process typically involves a large number of potentially adjustable parameters, it is likely to lead to non-unique parameter fitting and does not always result in a consistent set of parameters for the same systems. A fundamental molecular-level understanding of sorption processes of actinides on environmental surfaces is required to better understand and predict their transport behavior in nature. Several different surface spectroscopic techniques have been applied to the characterization of the adsorbed species and surface reactions and a direct determination of the sorbed species and surface reactions has become possible. The non-linear optical techniques of second harmonic and sum frequency generation (SHG and SFG) are ideally suited to study surfaces and interfaces of mineral oxides, biosurfactants and biopolymers, organic adlayers adsorbed on solid/mineral surfaces and soil organic matter, including humic and fulvic acids. Resonant

  17. Incorporating Environmental and Sustainability Issues into the Curriculum in a Mineralogy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, G. W.

    2013-12-01

    A traditional curriculum in mineralogy addresses classic subject matter such as crystal chemistry, crystallography, systematic mineralogy and optical mineralogy. This is entirely reasonable and appropriate, as these time-honored aspects of mineralogy are fundamental to students' understanding of Earth Materials; they are also important building blocks for an understanding of other geologic disciplines such as petrology, structural geology, and sedimentology. Due to the impressive breadth and amount of subject material that is covered in most mineralogy courses, time constraints do not allow instructors to branch out into more contemporary subjects. In our increasingly technologically-advanced (and crowded) modern society, issues pertaining to the environment and sustainability are at the forefront of scientific thought. In many introductory physical geoscience courses these issues are addressed and incorporated into the curriculum, thereby giving students valuable scientific background in modern environmental issues. However, in upper division classes (such as mineralogy) there is little time or motivation for instructors to add new content or to connect the course content with current environmental or societal concerns, even though there may be significant and meaningful opportunities to do so throughout the quarter or semester. Consequently, many students' understanding of environmental issues remains at an introductory or cursory level. In my mineralogy class at the University of California San Diego (UCSD), I teach a traditional curriculum with a modern approach that uses dynamic lectures, makes use of multimedia, and also utilizes current best teaching practices. As a department, we have recently made an increased effort to educate our students about environmental issues. Accordingly, I have integrated environmental and sustainability topics (when they are pertinent) into the curriculum as a regular component of the course. These topics typically relate to how

  18. Resolving environmental issues in energy development: roles for the Department of Energy and its field offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellickson, P.L.; Merrow, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study asks what the Department of Energy (DOE) might do to resolve environmental conflicts that arise during the implementation of energy projects or programs. We define implementation as efforts to establish an energy facility at a specific site. The environmental concerns surrounding implementation serve as touchstones of the relevance and feasibility of national energy policies. We have analyzed geothermal development in California and oil shale development in Colorado and Utah and addressed the following questions: By what processes are energy and environmental tradeoffs made. In what circumstances can DOE participation in these processes lead to a more satisfactory outcome. What options does DOE have for resolving environmetal issues and how can it choose the best option. How can DOE establish an effective working relationship with both the governmental and private groups affected by the siting and operation of energy projects. The government's most effective role in resolving environmental conflicts and uncertainties is to improve communications among the concerned parties. This role requires flexibility and evenhandedness from the government as well as an understanding of the local conditions and a commitment to appropriate local solutions. Involving local sources at every stage of the environmental impact analysis will reduce the probability of conflicts and make those that do arise more easily resolvable.

  19. The Effect of Using Socio-Scientific Issues Approach in Teaching Environmental Issues on Improving the Students' Ability of Making Appropriate Decisions towards These Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zo'bi, Abdallah Salim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify nature of students' decisions patterns towards environmental issues and the possibility to improve these decisions during teaching process using Socio-Scientific Issues Approach. And to achieve this, the researcher prepared and developed tools of the study represented by a test of open questions focused on…

  20. China's Environmental Problems: Selected Issues and Solutions in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    1996-01-01

    China has experienced outstanding economic growth in recent decades, but not without environmental problems and costs. Environmental costs have included increased air and water pollution, loss of natural vegetation cover and deforestation, soil erosion and a decline in the fertility of the soil and biodiversity loss. Consequently, some writers have questioned whether China’s rate of growth is environmentally sustainable and doubt if China will attain middle-income status in the next century b...

  1. Environmental issues associated with the generation of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The environmental impacts of energy are recognised as paramount in discussions concerning sustainable development. The environmental impacts that may arise at each stage of the life cycles relevant to the production of electricity from natural gas, coal, oil, nuclear and renewable energy sources are described. Emissions data are discussed for releases to the water, air and land environments. Methods and studies to assign economic costs to environmental impacts are highlighted. (au) (10 refs.)

  2. An African Understanding of Environmental Ethics | Ojomo | Thought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global concerns about the current environmental crisis have culminated in some controversial environmental ethical theories, among which are normative environmental ethics, sentientist ethics, biocentric ethics, ecocentric ethics and eco-feminist ethics. One of the underlying features connecting these environmental ...

  3. Prenatal imprinting by environmental toxicants: really an important issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Ernst v. Mühlendahl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal imprinting of sexual behaviour and of other traits by environmental toxicants has been one important topic in the ongoing discussions in environmental medicine. This review of the literature shows that, so far, concrete data are sparse and, in part, contradictory.

  4. Analysis of poultry farmers perception on environmental issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study recommends among others that this high perception potential could be used as premise by relevant stakeholders or agencies responsible for environmental protection, in providing farmers with appropriate innovations on environmental management and protection. Keywords: Poultry farming, Perception, ...

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.75 - Who assesses environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects? 102-80.75 Section 102-80.75 Public... Management Assessment of Environmental Issues § 102-80.75 Who assesses environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects? Federal agencies must assess required environmental issues...

  6. Images of climate change in the news: Visual framing of a global environmental issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebich Hespanha, S.; Rice, R. E.; Montello, D. R.; Retzloff, S.; Tien, S.

    2012-12-01

    News media play a powerful role in disseminating and framing information and shaping public opinion on environmental issues. Choices of text and images that are made by the creators and distributors of news media not only influence public perception about which issues are important, but also surreptitiously lead consumers of these media to perceive certain aspects or perspectives on an issue while neglecting to consider others. Our research was motivated by a desire to obtain comprehensive quantitative and qualitative understanding of the types of information - both textual and visual -- that have been provided to the U.S. public over the past several decades through news reports about climate change. As part of this project, we documented and examined 118 themes in 19 categories presented in 350 randomly-selected visual images from U.S. news coverage of global climate change between 1969 and late 2009. This study examines how the use of imagery in print news positions climate change within public and private arenas and how it emphasizes particular geographic, political, scientific, technological, sociological, and ideological aspects of the issue.

  7. Integration of Environmental Issues in a Physics Course: 'Physics by Inquiry' High School Teachers' Integration Models and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimori, David Abiya

    As we approach the second quarter of the twenty-first century, one may predict that the environment will be among the dominant themes in the political and educational discourse. Over the past three decades, particular perspectives regarding the environment have begun to emerge: (i) realization by human beings that we not only live on earth and use its resources at an increasingly high rate but we also actually belong to the earth and the total ecology of all living systems, (ii) there are strong interactions among different components of the large and complex systems that make up our environment, and (iii) the rising human population and its impact on the environment is a great concern (Hughes & Mason, 2014). Studies have revealed that although the students do not have a deep understanding of environmental issues and lack environmental awareness and attitudes necessary for protecting the environment, they have great concern for the environment (Chapman & Sharma, 2001; Fien, Yencken, & Sykes, 2002). However, addressing environmental issues in the classroom and other disciplines has never been an easy job for teachers (Pennock & Bardwell, 1994; Edelson, 2007). Using multiple case studies, this study investigated how three purposefully selected physics teachers teaching a 'Physics by Inquiry' course integrated environmental topics and issues in their classroom. Particularly this study looked at what integration models and practices the three physics teachers employed in integrating environmental topics and issues in their classroom and what challenges the teachers faced while integrating environmental topics in their classrooms. Data collection methods including field notes taken from observations, teachers' interviews and a collection of artifacts and documents were used. The data were coded analyzed and organized into codes and categories guided by Fogarty (1991) models of curriculum integration and Ham and Sewing (1988) four categories of barriers to environmental

  8. Students' Understandings of Religious Identities and Relations: Issues of Social Cohesion and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…

  9. Advancing Our Understanding of Cross-Cultural Issues in Consumer Science and Consumer Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, H.; Torelli, Carlos J.; van Herk, Hester; Torelli, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has resulted in a more complex marketplace. Growing multi-culturalism of consumer markets and increased global competition are pushing marketing scholars to better understand cross-cultural issues in consumer science and consumer psychology. The chapters in this book cover the field to

  10. College Students' Use of Science Content during Socioscientific Issues Negotiation: Impact of Evolution Understanding and Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Samantha R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the evolution science content used during college students' negotiation of biology-based socioscientific issues (SSI) and examine how it related to students' conceptual understanding and acceptance of biological evolution. Specific research questions were, (1a) what specific evolutionary science content do…

  11. Western Australian High School Students' Understandings about the Socioscientific Issue of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to…

  12. Nanotechnology and Environmental, Health, and Safety: Issues for Consideration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sargent, John F

    2008-01-01

    ... of one to 100 nanometers. A key issue before Congress regarding nanotechnology is how best to protect human health, safety, and the environment as nanoscale materials and products are researched, developed, manufactured, used, and discarded...

  13. Views of elementary and middle school Turkish students toward environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozgul; Boone, William J.; Andersen, Hans O.

    2004-12-01

    This study was conducted in order to identify the intensity of Turkish students' views with regard to environmental issues presented in the national curriculum and to determine how these views differ by gender, grade level, previous science achievement, socio-economic status (SES), and school location. For this project, a 51-item Attitude Toward Environmental Issues Scale (ATEIS) was created and utilized. In total, the scale involved 30 distinct environmental issues. These environmental issues are emphasized in the current Turkish science education curriculum. A total of 458 students in grade 4-8 classrooms completed the scale. Rasch analysis results indicated that, in general, the students felt environmental problems should be confronted in Turkey. But when students were presented with a range of survey items stating that a particular environmental issue should take precedence over economic growth, it was often very difficult for students to agree. On the other hand, when students were simply presented a range of survey issues concerning environmental problems in Turkey, it was easy for them to agree with the presence (or importance) of these environmental issues in Turkey. Subsequent analysis suggested that the set of ATEIS survey items were understood and functioned in a similar measurement manner for male and female students, as well as elementary and middle school students. Results of ANOVA analyses indicated that recent high achievement in science courses resulted in more positive attitudes toward environmental issues. T-test analyses revealed that the older female students of this data set exhibited more support for environmental issues than did male students. Students with high family income, and those students living in urban areas, displayed more positive attitudes toward environmental issues than did students with low family income, and those living in suburban areas.

  14. An update on environmental, health and safety issues of interest to the photovoltaic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Viren, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    There is growing interest in the environmental, health, and safety issues related to new photovoltaic technologies as they approach commercialization. Such issues include potential toxicity of II--VI compounds; the impacts of new environmental regulations on module manufacturers; and, the need for recycling of spent modules and manufacturing wastes. This paper will review these topics. 20 refs.

  15. An update on environmental, health and safety issues of interest to the photovoltaic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Viren, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-08-01

    There is growing interest in the environmental, health, and safety issues related to new photovoltaic technologies as they approach commercialization. Such issues include potential toxicity of II--VI compounds; the impacts of new environmental regulations on module manufacturers; and, the need for recycling of spent modules and manufacturing wastes. This paper will review these topics. 20 refs.

  16. Environmental Issues in the Didactic Materials in Schools in Republic of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravic, Milutin; Ivkovic, Sonja; Segedinac, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology…

  17. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  18. 75 FR 37790 - Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Issue a Supplemental Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Issue a Supplemental Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Project June 23, 2010. On March 23, 2010, Commission staff issued an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Project. On April 22, 2010, the U.S...

  19. Environmental issues of synthetic transportation fuels from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    This report, Background paper #3, contains papers written for Office of : Technology Assessment to assist in preparation of the report, Increased : Automobile Fuel Efficiency and Synthetic Fuels: Alternatives for Reducing Oil : Imports. Environmental...

  20. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Preventing or Responding to Environmentally Caused Conflicts The UN identifies five channels through which climate change can have security...LR), an environmental toxin pollutant produced by a species of cyanobacteria that makes water unsafe for human use. The authors claim that this...company claims that their sodium- sulphur unit will store 20-40 kWh in a package the size of a refrigerator, operate below 90°C, and withstand 3,650

  1. Preliminary evaluation of environmental issues on the use of peat as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.; Richardson, S.; Walters, A.; Boesch, L.; Thomson, W.; Irons, J.

    1980-03-14

    A study to characterize the environmental issues, that would arise from an extensive peat utilization program has been initiated. The objectives of this preliminary report are to: identify the environmental issues and potential problems; examine the significance of issues in the geographical regions where peat use could be developed; and establish a methodology by which issues can be resolved or clarified through future coordinated private, state, and federal programs. An overview of peat development including discussions on conversion technologies, extraction and harvesting procedures, and land reclamation is presented. Environmental concerns are in the areas of water resources and quality, air quality, health and safety issues, solid waste management, and land reclamation. The general environmental issues, resource availability, and attitudes associated with potential peat development in ten states, containing an estimated 90 percent of US peat resources were described. The ten states reviewed are Alaska, Minnesota, Michigan, Maine, North and South Carolina, Wisconsin, New York, Florida, and Louisiana. (DMC)

  2. Climate patriots? Concern over climate change and other environmental issues in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Bruce; Lester, Libby

    2017-08-01

    Echoing the anti-pollution and resource conservation campaigns in the United States in the early-to-mid-twentieth century, some scholars advocate mobilising support for environmental issues by harnessing the notion of environmental patriotism. Taking action to reduce the impact of global warming has also been cast as a patriotic cause. Drawing upon quantitative data from a recent national survey, we examine the link between patriotism and environmental attitudes in Australia, focussing upon climate change. We find that patriotism has a largely neutral association with concern over environmental issues, with the exception of climate change and, to a lesser extent, wildlife preservation. Expressing concern over climate change appears to be unpatriotic for some Australians. Even after controlling for political party identification and other important correlates of environmental issue concerns, patriots are less likely than others to prioritise climate change as their most urgent environmental issue and less likely to believe that climate change is actually occurring.

  3. [Reports on the impact of objects emitting electromagnetic fields on the environment: issues concerning their better understanding by non-specialists in telecommunication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieńkowski, Paweł

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents issues concerning a better understanding of reports on the impact of objects emitting electromagnetic fields on the environment among non-specialists in telecommunication. A proposed universal model of the radiation pattern of antenna base stations to widen the information contained in environmental audits as well as a vocabulary of basic technical terms in colloquial language are discussed.

  4. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  5. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  6. Environmental issues and solutions for exploratory drilling in sensitive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Chevron USA Production Company (CPDN), the National Forest Service (FS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) successfully utilized a multi-disciplinary team approach to design and implement innovative environmental solutions to drill the 8,000 foot deep, Hunter Creek exploratory well. The project was located in the Bridger-Teton National Forest, less than 20 miles from Grand Teton National Park. Acquiring permission from the FS, the BLM, and ultimately, the public to drill the Hunter Creek well involved substantial teamwork in identifying many potential, environmental pitfalls. Creative, workable and cost-effective mitigation measures employed at Hunter Creek included: utilizing a helicopter and limiting vehicle use of an existing road, conducting environmental and safety training, an erosion control and reclamation plan, designing an environmentally friendly, near-zero-discharge drilling location, initiating a water quality monitoring program to establish baseline data and to ensure protection of surface and ground water, designing a waste minimization plan, identifying threatened and endangered and special status species possibly affected by project activities, and ensuring compliance with all mitigation measures and Federal and State regulations. The Hunter Creek project successfully demonstrates that oil and gas exploration can be conducted with a soft footprint in environmentally sensitive areas if mitigation measures are front-end loaded in the project and honored by all personnel involved. Teamwork, training and communication were found to be indispensable components of achieving success at Hunter Creek

  7. Environmental issues and creditor's rights in Alberta and Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, P.T.; Lee, S.; Milani, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    A clarification of the ranking of environmentally related claims in bankruptcy and receivership proceedings, was presented. Also, the liability that a creditor assumes when taking control of a debtor's business or assets, particularly where environmental contaminants are concerned, was explained. The way that environmental law operates and the sorts of liability it imposes and upon whom, was also explained. Generally, environmental legislation imposes liability upon the owner of a contaminated property, whether or not the owner caused or created the problem. However, legislation also exists which imposes liability on the party in control and on the party which caused the contamination. A review of cases which deal with environmental legislation and their impact upon receivers in Saskatchewan and Alberta, was presented. Ways in which secured creditors can assess liability and minimize risks, were also described. The proposed amendments to the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (BIA) expand the current limited protection from personal liability for trustees in bankruptcy and extend it to receivers, trustees, monitors and agents

  8. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.

  9. Policy Paper 05: Regional Cooperation and Environmental Issues in Northeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Peter; Zarsky, Lyuba

    1993-01-01

    Hayes and Zarsky describe the rapidly emerging agenda for regional collaboration on environmental issues in Northeast Asia. In Part One, they describe briefly some of the major transfrontier or regional environmental issues in Northeast Asia that represent a menu of opportunities for cooperation (and potential conflict) between states. These issues include transfrontier air pollution (acid rain only), marine pollution (radionuclides and oil only), migratory species (fish only), and trade-envi...

  10. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Pyhälä

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental change (GEC is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC - particularly in small-scale societies - and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014 that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i cognition, (ii culture and knowledge, and (iii possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a "meta-language" around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  11. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  12. 76 FR 12960 - SFIREG Environmental Quality Issues Working Committee; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit: Update, feedback; 6. Washington State White Paper on... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0001; FRL-8866-3] SFIREG Environmental Quality Issues Working Committee; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...

  13. The Garbage Crisis: Environmental Issues for Adult ESL Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Helen

    This module on the garbage crisis is for intermediate and advanced learners of English as a Second Language. It seeks to inform learners about this issue and to give them an opportunity to direct their concerns about the environment into positive action. The guide uses the problem-posing methodology of Paulo Freire. This methodology has three…

  14. Solid Waste In Municipalities of Agreste Pernambucano: Environmental Education Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana B. Lima

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The homo sapiens that dominates occupying actions on earth should be a citizen with socio-environmental responsibility; their omission and neglect reverberate throughout the ecosystem. To achieve the balance between different ecological systems there is a global consensus for sustainable development, it is strongly anchored in environmental education with government support. The objective of this research was to evaluate the knowledge and actions about the A3P and the significance of the 5Rs of sustainability, together with 20 public managers from two municipalities in the Agreste region of Pernambuco, using questionnaires with closed questions. From a total of respondents 100% (n20, they reported that they did not know information about the A3P Environmental Agenda. 70% (n14 reported that cities are not adequately prepared for solid waste to dispose. These information obtained in the research demonstrates that although there is a figure of the environmental manager, it is often not able to fulfill the goals in the governmental sphere..

  15. 75 FR 12745 - SFIREG Environmental Quality Issues Working Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... CONTACT, preferably at least 10 days prior to the meeting, to give EPA as much time as possible to process... Kendall, Field and External Affairs Division (7506P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental... Secretary, P.O. Box 466, Milford, DE 19963; telephone number (302) 422- 8152; fax (302) 422-2435; e-mail...

  16. Some Environmental Issues of Inland Valleys: A Case Study | Asiam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that inland valleys can be real environmental liability because produce from such valleys can be polluted and hence can be a source of social conflict particularly when they fringe mineral concessions as the adverse impacts could be unfortunately attributed to mining activity and similar land uses.

  17. Hakeem O. Ijaiya* Abstract The issue of transnational environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    The industrial activities of a neighbouring State which generate substances in the air, water, and land sharing boundaries are felt across borders. The pollution emanating from this state gives raise to Transnational Environmental Pollution.1 Transnational responsibility is embedded in the rule that a state takes liability for its ...

  18. Using the Environmental Intelligence Framework to Address Arctic Issues: A Case Study of Alaskan Fisheries and Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, J. T.; Osborne, E.; Bamzai, A. S.; Starkweather, S.

    2017-12-01

    Profound environmental change in the Arctic region is driving an urgent need for faster and more efficient knowledge creation and delivery for residents of the Arctic as well as stakeholders around the globe. The overarching issues at play include environmental stewardship, community health and cultural survival. To effectively address these issues, the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IAPRC) recently established the Environmental Intelligence Collaboration Team (EICT) that integrates observing capabilities, modelling efforts and data management. Since its inception, the EICT has been working to create pathways to environmental knowledge that sustains end-to-end integration of research across the linked steps of data integration, environmental observing, predictive modelling, assessing responsiveness to stakeholder needs and ultimately providing decision support. The EICT is currently focusing on the carbon-climate aspect of environmental knowledge and identifing specific decision-making needs to meet policy goals for topics such as carbon emissions from permafrost thaw, increasing wildfire frequency and ocean acidification. As a case study, we applied the Environmental Intelligence framework to understanding the effects of ocean acidification in southern Alaska where there are critical commercial and subsistence fisheries. The results of this work revealed that there is currently a 5-month window of optimal growing conditions at a hatchery facility for many juvenile shellfish although that window is expected to close by 2040. The outcome of this work relates directly to fisheries management decisions and identifies the need for continued Environmental Intelligence collection to monitor and mitigate ocean acidification in the Alaskan region.

  19. Earth Observation from Space - The Issue of Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrieu, Sylvie; Nelson, Ross F.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing scientists work under assumptions that should not be taken for granted and should, therefore, be challenged. These assumptions include the following: 1. Space, especially Low Earth Orbit (LEO), will always be available to governmental and commercial space entities that launch Earth remote sensing missions. 2. Space launches are benign with respect to environmental impacts. 3. Minimization of Type 1 error, which provides increased confidence in the experimental outcome, is the best way to assess the significance of environmental change. 4. Large-area remote sensing investigations, i.e. national, continental, global studies, are best done from space. 5. National space missions should trump international, cooperative space missions to ensure national control and distribution of the data products. At best, all of these points are arguable, and in some cases, they're wrong. Development of observational space systems that are compatible with sustainability principles should be a primary concern when Earth remote sensing space systems are envisioned, designed, and launched. The discussion is based on the hypothesis that reducing the environmental impacts of thedata acquisition step,which is at the very beginning of the information streamleading to decision and action, will enhance coherence in the information streamand strengthen the capacity of measurement processes to meet their stated functional goal, i.e. sustainable management of Earth resources. We suggest that unconventional points of view should be adopted and when appropriate, remedial measures considered that could help to reduce the environmental footprint of space remote sensing and of Earth observation and monitoring systems in general. This article discusses these five assumptions inthe contextof sustainablemanagementof Earth's resources. Takingeachassumptioninturn,we find the following: (1) Space debris may limit access to Low Earth Orbit over the next decades. (2) Relatively speaking, given

  20. Understanding Participant and Practitioner Outcomes of Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental education can deliver benefits to individuals, society and the environment, but few studies have asked practitioners or participants what they feel these benefits are. This research compares the perspectives of practitioners and participants in environmental education projects, using questionnaires, focus groups and participant…

  1. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    Recycling Warwick Ventures at the University of Warwick, Coventry, England, has announced a new technology, using pyrolysis and fluidized beds that they...is filled with active carbon granules that remove all harmful chemicals, e.g., endocrine disruptors. According to the developers, each ―tea bag...www.gpo.gov/fdsys/ granule /FR-2010-09-17/2010-23321 EPA Issues Final SNURs for Carbon Nanotubes http://nanotech.lawbc.com/2010/09/articles/united-states

  2. PRIORITIES OF REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: THE ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Kudryavtseva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods of eliciting priority ecological problems are analyzed in the article. The problem of air pollution is considered to be the foreground issue for both the Ural Federal District and Russia; that was due substantiated. An extended technique of setting priorities for air pollutants and techniques for integral ecological and social assessment of air pollution acuteness extent in the region have been offered; calculations for the Ural Federal District have been made according to the techniques mentioned.

  3. Tourism in Austria: biodiversity, environmental sustainability, and growth issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Asad Saleem; Shah, Syed Asim; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the long-run and causal relationships between international tourism, biodiversity loss, environmental sustainability, and specific growth factors under the premises of sustainable tourism in Austria, by using a consistent time series data from 1975 to 2015. The results reveal that inbound tourism, per capita income, and population density affected the potential habitat area while population density largely affected the food production in a country. Inbound tourism and population density both deteriorate the environmental quality in a form of increasing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and fossil fuel energy consumption while per capita income reduces the fossil fuel energy consumption. Food exports increase per capita income, while food imports and population density both decrease economic growth. Inbound tourism and economic growth advance population density while forest area and food exports decrease the population density. The study supports growth-led tourism and growth-led food production in a country.

  4. Environmental microbiology as a mosaic of explored ecosystems and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Denis; Bonin, Patricia; Duran, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Microbes are phylogenetically (Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and viruses) and functionally diverse. They colonize highly varied environments and rapidly respond to and evolve as a response to local and global environmental changes, including those induced by pollutants resulting from human activities. This review exemplifies the Microbial Ecology EC2CO consortium's efforts to explore the biology, ecology, diversity, and roles of microbes in aquatic and continental ecosystems.

  5. Industrial integration of environmental issues into the organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2005-01-01

    The past two decades have seen increasing efforts to consider the potential negative effects of a product’s manufacture, use and disposal on the local and global environment. Over this time two main schools of research practice have emerged: an analytical school of practice, targeted at the accou......The past two decades have seen increasing efforts to consider the potential negative effects of a product’s manufacture, use and disposal on the local and global environment. Over this time two main schools of research practice have emerged: an analytical school of practice, targeted....... These two schools of environmental research practice are mirrored in the way in which industry approaches environmental problems. Since the definition in 1987 of Sustainable Development efforts have been made to relate the goals and ideals of sustainability to the domain of product development, thus adding...... are developed and used – and to where environmental effects occur in the lifetime of a product. The role of the product developer is thus more complex in relation to sustainability, as the focus for improvement of a product may not (and very often does not) lie in the physical artefactual ingredients...

  6. Argumentation in elementary science education: addressing methodological issues and conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ebru

    2017-11-01

    In this review essay I respond to issues raised in Mijung Kim and Wolff-Michael Roth's paper titled "Dialogical argumentation in elementary science classrooms", which presents a study dealing with dialogical argumentation in early elementary school classrooms. Since there is very limited research on lower primary school students' argumentation in school science, their paper makes a contribution to research on children's argumentation skills. In this response, I focus on two main issues to extend the discussion in Kim and Roth's paper: (a) methodological issues including conducting a quantitative study on children's argumentation levels and focusing on children's written argumentation in addition to their dialogical argumentation, and (b) investigating children's conceptual understanding along with their argumentation levels. Kim and Roth emphasize the difficulty in determining the level of children's argumentation through the Toulmin's Argument Pattern and lack of high level arguments by children due to their difficulties in writing texts. Regarding these methodological issues, I suggest designing quantitative research on coding children's argument levels because such research could potentially provide important findings on children's argumentation. Furthermore, I discuss alternative written products including posters, figures, or pictures generated by children in order to trace children's arguments, and finally articulating argumentation and conceptual understanding of children.

  7. Biodiesel fuel costs and environmental issues when powering railway locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Abdul; Ziemer, Norbert; Tatara, Robert; Moraga, Reinaldo; Mirman, Clifford; Vohra, Promod

    2010-09-15

    Issues for adopting biodiesel fuel, instead of petrodiesel, to power railroad locomotives are engine performance and emissions, fuel infrastructure, and fuel cost. These are evaluated for B2 through B100 blends. Biodiesel's solvent action on fuel systems is addressed. With biodiesel, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions are unchanged or reduced. Nitrogen oxides are elevated but it is believed that engine alterations can minimize these emissions. A Transportation Model, using data from a major railway, has demonstrated that refueling depots can be fully supplied with biodiesel at a pricing premium of 1% to 26%, depending on blend and geographical location.

  8. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Harvey

    2008-01-01

    The global environmental sanitation crisis cannot be denied: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world’s population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the t...

  9. The Brazilian experience with alcohol fuel: microeconomic and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seroa da Motta, R.

    1990-01-01

    Producers and consumers in Brazil are not longer regarding alcohol (ethanol) as a valuable fuel choice. Although the falling of oil prices has contributed to this situation, the lack of concern on microeconomic behaviour has also played an important role. Furthermore, environmental gains derived from the use of a mixture of alcohol and gasoline have been forgotten when alcohol fuel is evaluated. From the Brazilian experience some fruitful lessons can be learnt, to support research efforts for renewable energy programmes in Europe and the U.S.A. (author)

  10. Danish offshore wind. Key environmental issues - a follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    This follow-up to the Danish environmental monitoring programme on large-scale offshore wind power builds on the result of the former programme of 2006 and focuses on updated knowledge on harbour porpoises, water birds and fish communities, and on the cumulative effects of wind farms. The scientific quality of the projects in this follow-up has been assessed by experts from the International Advisory Panel of Experts on Marine Ecology (IAPEME), who have commented on the results in an independent evaluation which is reproduced in this publication. (LN)

  11. Environmental and safety issues of the fusion fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental and safety concerns inherent in the development of fusion energy, and the current Department of Energy programs seeking to: (1) develop safe and reliable techniques for tritium control; (2) reduce the quantity of activation products produced; and (3) provide designs to limit the potential for accidents that could result in release of radioactive materials. Because of the inherent safety features of fusion and the early start that has been made in safety problem recognition and solution, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial power

  12. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The global environmental sanitation crisis cannot be denied: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world’s population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized.

  13. Public Involvement in Environmental Issues with Reference to Jajahan Kuala Krai, Kelantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghazi Ismail

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems are very serious and complex to be resolved through science approach, technical and legislation solely. Hence, the inclucive and active involvement and participation of civil is wanted. Civil society is inter parties interested and sure they involved directly with every planned development project and practiced at area they. Earlier study has proven that public societal involvement in environmental issue is still low and minimum. The study conducted in Jajahan Kuala Krai, Kelantan is intended to find out how far population knowledge in study area on environmental issues and the level of involvement the in said issue. This study involved 174 respondents. The study between demographic factor with respondent knowledge in environmental issues shows that is a significant relationship between respondent income and education with value of p respectively 0.039 and 0.036. The association between demographic factor with respondent's knowledge in local environmental issue on the other hand shows that there are significant relationship between gender, age, income, education and resident period with the value of p respectively 0.045, 0.000, 0.029, 0.046 and 0.000. For demographic factor in association with environmental issues, has shown that there is a significant relationship between age, income, education and resident period with the value of p respectively 0.036, 0.041, 0.001 and 0.001. The results that found respondent income factor and education did influence on respondents knowledge level and involvement in environmental issues. As a conclusion, an actively engaged society in related environmental issues is very important due to the assurance of environmental quality that always will be protected.

  14. Western Australian High School Students' Understandings about the Socioscientific Issue of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2015-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to participate in this discourse. The purpose of this study was to examine Western Australian high school students' understanding of climate change and the greenhouse effect, in order to identify their alternative conceptions about climate change science and provide a baseline for more effective teaching. A questionnaire designed to elicit students' understanding and alternative conceptions was completed by 438 Year 10 students (14-15 years old). A further 20 students were interviewed. Results showed that students know different features of both climate change and the greenhouse effect, however not necessarily all of them and the relationships between. Five categories of alternative conceptions were identified. The categories were (1) the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer; (2) types of greenhouse gases; (3) types of radiation; (4) weather and climate and (5) air pollution. These findings provide science educators a basis upon which to develop strategies and curriculum resources to improve their students' understanding and decision-making skills about the socioscientific issue, climate change.

  15. A review of occupational safety and health issues relevant to the Environmental Restoration Program: Selected case histories and associated issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, A.M.; Siegel, M.R.; McKinney, M.C.

    1994-08-01

    Since the 1940s, US Department of Energy (DOE) sites have been used for nuclear materials processing and production, warhead testing, and weapons research and development. These activities have resulted in extensive environmental contamination. DOE has established a goal to cleanup and restore the groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water at its facilities across the nation. To achieve this goal, many workers will be needed to conduct the cleanup. These workers will need training and will be required to follow occupational safety and health (OSH) regulations and guidelines. Compliance with the OSH regulations and guidelines will have an anomous influence on the schedule, money, and technology needed for environmental restoration. Therefore, one area that must be considered in the early stages of long-term planning is the impact of OSH issues on the environmental restoration process. The DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigate the impact of these issues on the environmental restoration process

  16. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.

    1992-09-01

    Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

  17. Environmental issues in oil and gas operations in Yukon and in the N.W.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacWilliam, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Companies planning an expansion into the two territories ought to examine the way each territory deals with potential environmental issues such as spills, releases, contaminated sites and the reclamation of land. Recent legislation has provided each territory with a certain amount of autonomy, which includes the ability to oversee environmental protection. The Yukon, in particular, has considerable freedom in addressing environmental issues relating to oil and gas activities. Both territories are subject to the input and approval of the federal government and First Nations citizens where their respective interests or lands are involved. An overview is included of the regulation of environmental matters north of the 60th parallel. Although the expansion of oil and gas companies into the two territories 'north of 60' offers new opportunities, operators must consider the potential for environmental issues such as spills, releases, site contamination and reclamation of land. In the Yukon where the government has assumed jurisdiction to regulate oil and gas resources, it is implementing a comprehensive regime to deal with environmental issues, at first, in draft form. In contrast, in the N.W.T. the federal government retains considerable control over gas and oil rights and the consequent environmental issues, and, accordingly, it is essential to be aware of federal environmental regulations for the time being

  18. INTEGRATED MECHANISMS FOR APROACHING PRIORITY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AT GLOBAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    iLDIKO iOAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated mechanisms for approaching priority environmentalissues at global level. At global level, there are considered priorityenvironmental issues two interdependent processes that are essential for thesupport the processes that provide living conditions and wellbeing for the entirehumankind: climate change and loss of biodiversity. Payments of ecosystemservices became already well-known and applied economic instruments, althoughthere are still many uncertainties in the knowledge of eco-economic interdependencies.The paper discusses these aspects in the first part highlighting advantagesand disadvantages, while in the second part there is analyzed an integratedprogram of the United Nations, which was designed for making progress towardboth climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The REDD program – Reduction ofEmissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation – is addressed to developingcountries and it started in 2008. Based on assessment reports we will try toformulate a number of conclusions regarding the program’s effectiveness.

  19. Environmental issues in planning building energy efficiency R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhar, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has initiated analyses on the relationship and impact of buildings energy conservation on the environment. A plethora of activities involving DOE, its national laboratories and other organizations are addressing various aspects of global climate change, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and indoor air quality. Elements of the current task include (1) a literature review of buildings' contribution to these problems; (2) inventories of OBT studies directly and indirectly related to these environmental problems, and other germane DOE and non-DOE projects; (3) identifying OBT projects that should be done; and (4) analyzing differential impacts on the environment of alternative OBT planning strategies and varying National Energy Strategy scenarios. The success of this project relies, at least in part, on suggestions from the buildings research community on information sources, literature, and ideas that OBT should consider

  20. Do environmental and climate change issues threaten sustainable development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The atmospheric environment is presently under threat from anthropogenic emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases to the extent that irreversible changes to the climate, the ozone layer and the quality of the air could occur. While the required changes in practice and regulations may hit economies if the induced costs are to be internalised, the impact of ignoring these requirements might even threaten the concept of sustainable development. The prospects of environmental pollution, depletion of ozone layer and climate change due to human activities have sparked a variety of controversies on many fronts. These topics are discussed with respect to the imposed threats to the sustainable development, and with particular attention paid to delays in urgent emission reductions. (author)

  1. Energy and Environmental Issues, 1991. Transportation research record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Mitigation of Traffic Mortality of Endangered Brown Pelicans on Coastal Bridges; Cooperation Between State Highway and Environmental Agencies in Dealing With Hazardous Waste in the Right-of-Way; Comparison of Intersection Air Quality Models' Ability to Simulate Carbon Monoxide Concentrations in an Urban Area; Model Calculation of Environment-Friendly Traffic Flows in Urban Networks; Sensitivity Analysis for Land Use, Transportation, and Air Quality; Special Events and Carbon Monoxide Violations: TSM, Crowd Control, Economics, and Solutions to Adverse Air Quality Impacts; Mode Split at Large Special Events and Effects on Air Quality; Internal Consistency and Stability of Measurements of Community Reaction to Noise; Impact and Potential Use of Attitude and Other Modifying Variables in Reducing Community Reaction to Noise; Techniques for Aesthetic Design of Freeway Noise Barriers; Effects of Road Surface Texture on Traffic and Vehicle Noise; Electrokinetic Soil Processing in Waste Remediation and Treatment: Synthesis of Available Data; Site Remediation by In Situ Vitrification

  2. Waste management and environmental issues at Callide B Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert-Smith, J.E.W.

    1995-01-01

    Callide B is a coal-fired power station located east of Biloela in the Callide Valley of Central Queensland. To protect the Callide Valley groundwater, a zero waste-water discharge concept was adopted for the power station. This strategy is possible because waste-water volumes are minimized through natural evaporation, is re-used for ash transport and remaining wastes (mainly ash and water) are held behind a clay-cored earth dam 3.2 km in length. This paper describes the environmental monitoring programs, dam surveillance and waste management adopted to maintain the quality of the Callide Valley resource. Groundwater quality downstream of the power station site is considered good to marginal. It is used extensively as a source of irrigation water for agriculture and also supplies 40 percent of Biloela's town water requirements. (author). 8 figs., 17 refs

  3. Efficient energy utilization and environmental issues applied to power planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Hector, E-mail: hcampbellr@gmail.com [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd Benito Juarez y calle de la Normal, Col Insurgentes Este, CP 21280, Mexicali, B.C., Mexico, P.O. Box 3439, Calexico, CA 92232 (United States); Montero, Gisela; Perez, Carlos [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd Benito Juarez y calle de la Normal, Col Insurgentes Este, CP 21280, Mexicali, B.C., Mexico, P.O. Box 3439, Calexico, CA 92232 (United States); Lambert, Alejandro [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd Benito Juarez y calle de la Normal, Col Insurgentes Este, CP 21280, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    This document shows the importance of policies for electric energy savings and efficient energy utilization in power planning. The contributions of economic, social, and environmental items were evaluated according to their financial effects in the delay of investments, reduction of production costs and decrement of environmental emissions. The case study is Baja California, Mexico; this system has a unique primary source: geothermal energy. Whether analyzing the planning as usual or planning from the supply side, the forecast for 2005-2025 indicates that 4500 MW additional installed capacity will be required (3-times current capacity), representing an investment that will emit 12.7 Mton per year of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere and will cost US$2.8 billion. Systemic planning that incorporates polices of energy savings and efficiency allows the reduction of investments and pollutant emissions. For example, a reduction of 20% in the growth trend of the electricity consumption in the industrial customers would save US$10.4 billion over the next 20 years, with a potential reduction of 1.6 Mton/year of CO{sub 2}. The increase in geothermal power generation is also attractive, and it can be combined with the reduction of use and energy losses of utilities, which would save US$13.5 billion and prevent the discharge of 8.5 Mton/year of CO{sub 2}. - Highlights: > We contrast power planning methods for supply electricity for economy development. > Importance of policies for electricity savings and efficient use in power planning. > Systemic planning facilitates decision-making process for electricity optimization. > Supply-side planning will cause climb in prices and loss of energy self-sufficiency. > Power planning should be immersed in an environment of appropriate energy policies.

  4. Environmental issues in Sweden 1973 1989: Science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwgren, Marianne; Segrell, Björn

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental agenda in Sweden during the last two decades. A content analysis was made of all articles in a Swedish journal, Miljö-Aktuellt. Further, to elucidate the evolutionary process of problem formulation and reformulation, two cases were investigated, dealing with the impact of plant nutrients and mercury on surface water quality. The transport of heavy metals is an essential component of the ecological process and problem of acidification, and similarly, plant nutrients are part of the concept of eutrophication. Two concepts, the research cycle and the policy cycle, are tentatively applied to the conceptualizations of acidification and eutrophication. Additional data for the latter part of the study is supplied from parliamentary motions during 1973 1989. The substance/media focus of the 1970s was connected to a point-source abatement strategy, which mainly aimed at removing negative effects at a local level. The development of a national preventive strategy is traced in problem formulations related to “processes” going on in the technosphere: wastes, noise, energy production, traffic, and toxic substances. This period lasted from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, and the need for improved resource management as a means to control environmental problems has been a generally accepted idea. However, this does not mean that measures actually taken are sufficient in a material balance perspective. Further, in the 1980s there was a strong emphasis upon processes in the ecosphere. This focus also implies source-related policies. To a certain extent, the remedies are within the scope of national capabilities, but the international dimension is becoming increasingly important. Scientific proofs of resource and environment degradation are essential to induce political action and to stimulate international cooperation. From this study, however, it is not possible to assess the existence of any particular policy

  5. Learning in and about rural places: Connections and tensions between students' everyday experiences and environmental quality issues in their community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Weible, Jennifer L.

    2017-03-01

    Guided by sociocultural perspectives on the importance of place as a resource for learning, we investigated 14- and 15-year old students' understandings of their community and water quality during a school-based watershed unit. Methods included a theory-driven thematic analysis of field notes and video transcripts from four biology classrooms, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 67 pairs of matched pre- and post-intervention mindmaps, and a content analysis of 73 student reflections. As they learned about water quality, learners recognized the relevance of the watershed's health to the health of their community. Students acknowledged the impacts of local economically driven activities (e.g., natural gas wells, application of agrichemicals) and leisure activities (e.g., boating, fishing) on the watershed's environmental health. As students learned in and about their watershed, they experienced both connections and tensions between their everyday experiences and the environmental problems in their community. The students suggested individual sustainability actions needed to address water quality issues; however, the students struggled to understand how to act collectively. Implications of rural experiences as assets to future environmental sciences learning are discussed as well as the implications of educational experiences that do not include an advocacy component when students uncover environmental health issues. We suggest further consideration is needed on how to help young people develop action-oriented science knowledge, not just inert knowledge of environmental problems, during place-based education units.

  6. Hanford tank clean up: A guide to understanding the technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gephart, R.E.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the most difficult technical challenges in cleaning up the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State will be to process the radioactive and chemically complex waste found in the Site`s 177 underground storage tanks. Solid, liquid, and sludge-like wastes are contained in 149 single- and 28 double-shelled steel tanks. These wastes contain about one half of the curies of radioactivity and mass of hazardous chemicals found on the Hanford Site. Therefore, Hanford cleanup means tank cleanup. Safely removing the waste from the tanks, separating radioactive elements from inert chemicals, and creating a final waste form for disposal will require the use of our nation`s best available technology coupled with scientific advances, and an extraordinary commitment by all involved. The purpose of this guide is to inform the reader about critical issues facing tank cleanup. It is written as an information resource for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting to gain a basic understanding about the waste in Hanford`s tanks -- how the waste was created, what is in the waste, how it is stored, and what are the key technical issues facing tank cleanup. Access to information is key to better understanding the issues and more knowledgeably participating in cleanup decisions. This guide provides such information without promoting a given cleanup approach or technology use.

  7. Hanford tank clean up: A guide to understanding the technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the most difficult technical challenges in cleaning up the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State will be to process the radioactive and chemically complex waste found in the Site's 177 underground storage tanks. Solid, liquid, and sludge-like wastes are contained in 149 single- and 28 double-shelled steel tanks. These wastes contain about one half of the curies of radioactivity and mass of hazardous chemicals found on the Hanford Site. Therefore, Hanford cleanup means tank cleanup. Safely removing the waste from the tanks, separating radioactive elements from inert chemicals, and creating a final waste form for disposal will require the use of our nation's best available technology coupled with scientific advances, and an extraordinary commitment by all involved. The purpose of this guide is to inform the reader about critical issues facing tank cleanup. It is written as an information resource for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting to gain a basic understanding about the waste in Hanford's tanks -- how the waste was created, what is in the waste, how it is stored, and what are the key technical issues facing tank cleanup. Access to information is key to better understanding the issues and more knowledgeably participating in cleanup decisions. This guide provides such information without promoting a given cleanup approach or technology use

  8. Talking trash: the economic and environmental issues of landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. per-capita figure for garbage production has topped four pounds per person per day, and that amount is rising at roughly 5% per year. In the past, municipal solid waste was sent to the nearest local landfill or incinerator. But in 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instituted the first federal standards for landfills, designed to make them safer. Over 10,000 small municipal landfills have since been consolidated into an estimated 3,500 newer, safer landfills, some of which are "megafills" that can handle up to 10,000 tons of waste a day. The new landfills are outfitted to prevent air and water pollution and limit the spread of disease by scavengers. Although the new landfills provide better controls against air and water pollution as well as an alternate source of municipal income, they are not entirely problem-free. Some experts believe the new landfill technology has not been properly tested and will therefore not provide protection in the long run. Others feel that poorer, less well-informed communities are targeted as sites for new landfills. In addition, many people that live near megafills, which may draw garbarge from several states, are unhappy about the noise, truck traffic, odors, and pests caused by the facilities. PMID:10417373

  9. Achieving a secure energy future: Environmental and economic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, David; Herdendorf, M.; Eisenfeld, S.

    1994-01-01

    Energy, economics, and the environment are interdependent. Land, water, atmospheric, and biological resources are being degraded by current high energy consumption. U.S. energy consumption is the highest in the world and the U.S. Department of Energy reports that the United States has only about 10 years of known and potentially discoverable oil reserves. The U.S. should reduce its energy consumption by one half to help restore the quality of the environment while improving the American standard of living by strengthening the economy and increasing the number of jobs. Because of the interdependence of energy, economics, and the environment, energy efficiency and transition to renewable energy sources are critical. An estimated 40% of current energy consumption could be produced employing solar energy technologies, but would require about 20% of total U.S. land area. Therefore, the development of solar energy technologies to substitute for fossil energy is projected to compete for land required for agriculture and forestry as well as have other environmental impacts

  10. Environmental quality of Long Island Sound: Assessment and management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, D.A.; Farrow, D.R.G.; Robertson, A.; Monahan, R.; Stacey, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    Estimated pollutant loadings to Long Island Sound (LIS) are presented and discussed in the context of current information on population trends and land-use characteristics within the drainage basin of the sound. For the conventional pollutants (BOD, N, and P) and for most of the metals examined, the fluxes to LIS from wastewater treatment plants approach or exceed the fluxes from riverine sources. Urban runoff is a significant source for only a few contaminants, such as lead and petroleum hydrocarbons. Atmospheric flux estimates made for other areas are extrapolated to LIS, and this source appears to be significant for lead, zinc, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated pesticides. Continued population growth is projected through 2010, both in the urban centers of the western sound and in the coastal counties surrounding the central and eastern portions of LIS. This growth will place increased pollution pressure on the sound and increased demands on already scarce coastal and estuarine land-use categories. Close interaction between environmental planners, managers, and scientists is required to identify effective control strategies for reducing existing pollutant stress to the sound and for minimizing the effects of future development

  11. Using GIS to understand the environmental chemistry of manganese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron on the other hand is very low in the mine working area and is high on the northern part of the study area. Suggestions are advanced for the Mn interplay in the soils and environment around the Kgwakgwe abandoned Mn oxides ore mine. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol 9(2) 2005: 37- ...

  12. Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.

    1993-12-31

    If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass.

  13. Understanding the Environment. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    The document is a student resource unit to be used in teaching high school vocational agriculture students about the environment. The relationship between ecology and changes in the ecosystems induced by man are discussed. The kinds of environmental problems treated are pollution, land use, and natural resources. Some causes of environmental…

  14. Environmental and ethical issues and waste management approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, M.

    1996-01-01

    Pronouncing the words ''radioactive waste'' can easily arouse mistrust, or even irrational fear, by wittingly or unwittingly referring to Hiroshima or Chernobyl, by exploiting the lax attitude to this type of waste in certain countries and by speculating on the complex issues involved, which are beyond the general public's grasp. It would be unacceptable to paint such a black picture of nuclear waste, just as it would be to keep glossing over the problems that it poses. Waste managers have a duty to convince scientists and politicians and public opinion in general, with arguments based on serious scientific research, that safe technical solutions do exist. But will this be enough? The general public of course knows very little about science. But people are prepared to put their trust in science provided that they are not subjected to a free for all between scientists from opposing camps attacking each other with unintelligible arguments. However, other types of reactions, more difficult to control, can be expected from some quarters of the general public. For instance, a reaction of instinctive and passionate mistrust has already emerged in different forms over the centuries, with its roots buried in ancestral culture and as such varying from region to region and country to country. Nuclear waste may also provide yet another opportunity to demonstrate opposition to something ostensibly being imposed by Central Government. The only solution here is for decisions to be worked out at grass roots level through a gradual process of wide consultation, with the necessary backing of elected local authorities. For these reasons, the process of setting up an underground laboratory possibly followed by radioactive waste storage has to be a gradual one, with thorough consultation at all levels at each stage under the constant supervision of ad hoc committees of scientific experts, each new step forward only being decided by the political authorities after completing the proper

  15. Radioactive contamination in metal recycling industry - an environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Metal recycling has become an important industrial activity worldwide; it is seen as being socially and environmentally beneficial because it conserves natural ore resources and saves energy. However, there have been several accidents over the past decades involving orphan radioactive sources or other radioactive material that were inadvertently collected as metal scrap that was destined for recycling. The consequences of these accidents have been serious with regard to the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation as well as from an economic point of view. India produces and exports steel products to various countries. In the recent years there were rejection and return of steel products as they were found to be contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials. During investigation of incidents of radioactive contamination in steel products exported from India, it was observed that steel products are contaminated with low level radioactivity. Though radioactivity level in steel products is found to be too low to pose any significant hazards to the handling personnel or to the users or the public at large, its presence is undesirable and need to be probed as to how it has entered in the steel products. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) has investigated the incidents of such nature in the recent past and it is gathered that the steel products are made out of steel produced in a foundry where metal scrap containing radioactive material has been used. In this talk, incidents of radioactive contamination, its roots cause, and its radiological impact on person, property and environment, lessons learnt, remedial measures and international concerns will be discussed

  16. How Do Learners in Developed and Developing Countries Relate to Environmental Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the framework of earlier research on environmental education for sustainability, using data collected in the ROSE Project. Attention was focused mainly on students' responses to sections and items related to environmental issues, regarding their countries' degree of development. The research questions dealt…

  17. Environmental Issues in the Media--Students' Perceptions in the Three Nordic-Baltic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinonen, Tuula; Yli-Panula, Eija; Svens, Maria; Vilkonis, Rytis; Persson, Christel; Palmberg, Irmeli

    2014-01-01

    The media, as a source of information, is supposed to have a significant role in effecting people's environmental knowledge and attitudes. The purpose of this study was to find students' perceptions of environmental issues as presented in the media and how students in Finland, Lithuania and Sweden used these media sources in the matters related to…

  18. Illustrating Environmental Issues by Using the Production-Possibility Frontier: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Nancy; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    The authors develop a new classroom experimental game to illustrate environmental issues by using the production-possibility frontier in an introductory economics course. Waste evolves as a byproduct of the production of widgets. Environmental cleanup is produced by reallocating scarce resources away from the production of the dirty good. In…

  19. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  20. Laser applications to chemical and environmental analysis: introduction to the feature issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M G; Shaw, R W; Sick, V

    1999-03-20

    This issue of Applied Optics features 16 papers describing chemical and environmental measurements made possible by lasers. Many of these contributions were presented at the Optical Society of America Topical Meeting on Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, held in Orlando, Florida, 9-11 March 1998.

  1. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; King, E A

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  3. Computational intelligence in earth sciences and environmental applications: issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkassky, V; Krasnopolsky, V; Solomatine, D P; Valdes, J

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces a generic theoretical framework for predictive learning, and relates it to data-driven and learning applications in earth and environmental sciences. The issues of data quality, selection of the error function, incorporation of the predictive learning methods into the existing modeling frameworks, expert knowledge, model uncertainty, and other application-domain specific problems are discussed. A brief overview of the papers in the Special Issue is provided, followed by discussion of open issues and directions for future research.

  4. SpaceTime Environmental Image Information for Scene Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    framework for real-time foreground detection . J Real-Time Image Process . 2015;10:423–433. 36. Tu Z, Zheng A, Yang E, Luo B, Hussain A. A biologically...important to incorporate space- and time-varying environmental image information from the very beginning of the data collection process so that the recorded...of Congress), and c) nuclear power plant , Bushehr, Iran (photo courtesy of Behrouz Mehri/AFP/Getty Images

  5. Understanding, Classifying, and Selecting Environmentally Acceptable Hydraulic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    organizations such as the Coordinating European Council (CEC), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ( OECD ), and the United States...international standards with respect to biodegradability testing and classifications (such as OECD ), will be considered by USACE on a case-by-case basis...Army Corps of Engineers • Engineer Research and Development Center Fluid chemistry. In addition to the critical environmental properties detailed above

  6. Visualizing and Understanding Socio-Environmental Dynamics in Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Omeara, K.; Guikema, S.; Scott, A.; Bessho, A.; Logan, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Baltimore, like any city, is the sum of its component neighborhoods, institutions, businesses, cultures, and, ultimately, its people. It is also an organism in its own right, with distinct geography, history, infrastructure, and environments that shape its residents even as it is shaped by them. Sometimes these interactions are obvious but often they are not; while basic economic patterns are widely documented, the distribution of socio-spatial and environmental connections often hides below the surface, as does the potential that those connections hold. Here we present results of a collaborative initiative on the geography, design, and policy of socio-environmental dynamics of Baltimore. Geospatial data derived from satellite imagery, demographic databases, social media feeds, infrastructure plans, and in situ environmental networks, among other sources, are applied to generate an interactive portrait of Baltimore City's social, health, and well-being dynamics. The layering of data serves as a platform for visualizing the interconnectedness of the City and as a database for modeling risk interactions, vulnerabilities, and strengths within and between communities. This presentation will provide an overview of project findings and highlight linkages to education and policy.

  7. Understanding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Wilson, Nick; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-11-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies.

  8. Environmental victims: environmental injustice issues that threaten the health of children living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureton, Shava

    2011-01-01

    Children living in poverty are disproportionately at risk from and affected by environmental hazards. According to the National Center for Children in Poverty, 13 million children in America live in poverty. Thus, not only are millions of children living in poverty but are also living in environments that are hazardous to their health. Impoverished children are more likely to live in environments with heavily polluting industries, hazardous waste sites, contaminated water and soil, in old housing with deteriorating lead-based paint, in areas with limited access to healthy food, and more. Poor children residing in these toxic environments are either at risk or suffer from a myriad of health disparities, such as asthma, cancer, lead poisoning, obesity, and hyperactivity. This unfortunate reality is better known as environmental injustice. Environmental injustice recognizes that economically disadvantaged groups are adversely affected by environmental hazards more than other groups. To remedy this dilemma, environmental justice seeks to address these unfair burdens of environmental health hazards on poor communities. The purpose of this article is to (a) examine the environmental living conditions of children living in poverty, (b) examine the environmental health disparities of children living in poverty, (c) discuss environmental justice legislation, (d) describe government initiatives to improve environmental health, and (e) propose recommendations that executes measures to protect the health of children.

  9. Making US Soil Taxonomy more scientifically applicable to environmental and food security issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, Curtis; Lindbo, David L.; Wysocki, Doug; Schoeneberger, Phil; Libohova, Zamir

    2017-04-01

    US Department of Agriculture began mapping soils in the 1890s on a county-by-county basis until most of the conterminous United States was mapped by the late 1930s. This first-generation mapping was followed by a second-generation that re-mapped the US beginning in the 1940s. Soil classification during these periods evolved into the current system of Soil Taxonomy which is based on (1) soil features as natural phenomena and on (2) soil properties important for agriculture and other land uses. While this system has enabled communication among soil surveyors, the scientific applicability of Soil Taxonomy to address environmental and food security issues has been under-utilized. In particular, little effort has been exerted to understand how soil taxa interact and function together as larger units—as soil systems. Thus, much soil-geomorphic understanding that could be applied to process-based modeling remains unexploited. The challenge for soil taxonomists in the United States and elsewhere is to expand their expertise and work with modelers to explore how soil taxa are linked to each other, how they influence water, nutrient, and pollutant flow through the landscape, how they interact with ecology, and how they change with human land use.

  10. Consumer understanding and nutritional communication: key issues in the context of the new EU legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Trijp, Hans C M

    2009-12-01

    Nutrition communication by means of nutrition and health claims and otherwise, holds the potential to contribute to public health by stimulating informed healthier food choices and enhanced health-focussed competition in the market place, provided that the health messages are trustworthy (i.e. scientifically substantiated) and correctly used and interpreted by the consumer. Not surprisingly, these two considerations constitute the cornerstone of the new EU legislation on nutrition and health claims, in which evidence for consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a new requirement. To review some of the key issues in consumer understanding of nutritional communication as a basis for reflection on the consumer understanding element of the new EU legislation on nutrition and health claims. There is a need for more methodologically advanced research in consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims as a basis for truly assessing the real-life use of such information and its actual effect on consumer food choices. Such approaches are pertinent in light of the evaluation and approval process of (new) nutrition and health claims as required under the new EU legislation on nutrition and health claims.

  11. The use of ‘macro’ legal analysis in the understanding and development of global environmental governance

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the manner in which ‘macro’ legal analysis can potentially assist in overcoming some of the issues that are faced in the understanding and development of global environmental governance (GEG). It argues that the analysis of law through separate and distinct disciplines such as environmental law, trade law, corporate law, and human rights law, results in what this article refers to as ‘micro’ legal analysis. As such, it contends that this can have the effect of creating o...

  12. The climate that conceals the forest - How the climate issue overshadows environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainteny, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    As priority seems to be given to the struggle against climate change and global warming (climate has a central role in environmental policies), the author, while acknowledging that the climate issue is an important one, states that this issue not only governs environmental policies, but also tends to overshadow other important environmental issues, and even to impair them. These other issues are air pollution, water pollution, loss of biodiversity, or soil degradation. The author outlines that they also have critical effects, notably in terms of premature deaths, of induced economic losses, and that they are present with a high priority in the recommendations made by international bodies. For example, he outlines that cars are addressed in terms of CO 2 emissions, and not in terms of release of nitrogen oxides or particles which have a well-known negative impact on health. Thus, he puts some political decisions and orientations into question again

  13. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe{sub 2}- based photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberspacher, C. [UNISUN, Newbury Park, CA (United States); Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues.

  14. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe2- based photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe 2 or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues

  15. Microbial Electrochemistry and its Application to Energy and Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Jason Thomas

    chamber. In experiments where the redox active protein was allowed to pass through the permeable membrane, iron dissolution was 14-fold greater than experiments where the protein was held to one chamber by a non-permeable membrane. Confirmation of a redox active protein could reshape or understanding of subsurface redox processes. The final topic in this study discusses electron transfer within the cell for production of fermentation products. Glycerol, which is an unwanted side-product of biodiesel transesterfication, is utilized as a carbon source for fermentation. Bacterial samples harvested from Galena Creek soil (NGC) are shown in this study to be efficient consumers of glycerol. NGC microbe was characterized through 16s rDNA genetic sequencing and determined to belong to genus Clostridium. Clostridium NGC was able to consume glycerol at 29.7gpl within 72hrs grown in a media containing 50gpl glycerol. All observed fermentation metabolites were characterized and quantified through an HPLC. Glycerol consumption rates and metabolite production rates were observed using varying media recipes. This study has found that NGC has higher selectivity for low weight acids at lower yeast extract concentration and higher selectivity for larger acids and alcohols at higher yeast extract concentrations.

  16. Public opinion on environmental and energy issues. Result of the census after 3 years of the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    The public opinion on the energy and environmental issues has changed greatly in Japan through experiences in and along the Great East Japan Earthquake. We conducted a social survey in order to grasp public opinions for environment and energy issues in March, 2014, which obtained 2313 valid responses (response rate was 64.3%). For the energy and environmental issues, while respondents show high interests in matters related to the Fukushima accident and nuclear power generation as well as electricity prices, they show relatively low interest in every other aspect. With regard to Japan's energy policy in the future, as expectations for renewable and natural sources of energy are large, about 60% of respondents have negative attitude in restart of nuclear power. For nuclear power, as compared to the previous survey conducted in August 2008, evaluation of 'control-ability of environmental impacts' and 'the power companies' risk management ability' was greatly reduced in particular. These results suggest the importance of provoke interest in the energy issues in general, as a premise to seek an understanding of the activities of the government and power companies. Furthermore, in order for the power companies to restore trust from the public, it is important to sympathize to public's anticipations of impacts on the health and environment through uses of nuclear power in the future. (author)

  17. Understanding Environmental Education in the People's Republic of China: A National Policy, Locally Interpreted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tammy Yim-Lin; Lidstone, John

    1998-01-01

    Describes the processes whereby environmental policies are created and disseminated in China and points to some of the issues facing western educators who wish to work with Chinese colleagues in advancing global sustainability. (Author/PVD)

  18. Worldwide Report, Environmental Quality, No. 388, China Addresses Environmental Issues -- IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-04

    1 Incorporating Environmental Protection Into Economic Planning Emphasized ( Zhu Zhongjie; HUANJING BAOHU, Sep 82) ...................... .8...RENMIN RIBAO, 3 Aug 82) ...................................... 103 Distribution, Variation of Pollutants in Jiaozhou Bay Studied (SHANDONG HAIYANG ...pp 5-7, 17 [Article by Zhu Zhongjie [2612 6988 2638]: "Several Views on Drawing Up Environmental Protection Plans"] [Text] Editor’s note: How to better

  19. Sustainability performance for Brazilian electricity power industry: An assessment integrating social, economic and environmental issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartori, S.; Witjes, S.; Campos, L.M.S.

    2017-01-01

    The increased pressure on companies to address sustainability issues has resulted in the development of several voluntary corporate sustainability integration approaches. The array of existing approaches is large and overwhelming, resulting in companies not understanding what corporate

  20. Global environmental issues related to energy supply: the environmental case for increased efficiency of energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The environmental costs of energy supply have been rising, reinforcing the effect of increased monetary costs in creating incentives for increasing the efficiency with which energy is used. Quantifying these environmental costs is difficult, but it is instructive to try. The estimates presented here for the direct public-health damages of electricity generation with coal and nuclear power show overlapping uncertainties, with no clear basis for preferring either of these energy sources over the other on these grounds. Impacts of energy supply on climate and ecosystems - such as through carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere and acid precipitation - may ultimately do even greater damage to human well-being than the more publicized and more readily quantified air-pollution and accident hazards. Systematic comparison of energy supply with other industrial activities and with agriculture as a cause of regional and global environmental disruptions confirms the widespread impression of energy's key role in large-scale environmental problems. (author)

  1. Issues and major steps in a conceptual framework for environmental costing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePape, D.; Kristjanson, E.R.; Onyebuchi, E.I.; Wojczynski, E.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of applying monetary values to environmental consequences as a means of integrating environmental considerations into utility resource planning is explored. The need for estimation and integration of environmental costs and benefits is becoming more important due to public concern over environmental degradation, rapidly increasing costs of mitigating environmental damage, increased liability for compensation for such damage, pressures to consider environmental externalities, and a corporate desire to operate responsibly. Manitoba Hydro established a task force to develop general approaches and specific techniques for evaluation and integration of environmental costs and benefits into utility planning. The utility's conceptual framework for monetizing and integrating environmental costs and benefits is described, including identification of potential environmental impacts, evaluation of environmental impacts, estimation of monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits, and integration of these costs and benefits into the resource planning process. Key issues that must be addressed to implement this conceptual framework include the need for earlier environmental impact assessments and the need for mitigation and compensation prediction methodologies. 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Environmental issues of repository licensing: an evaluation of a hypothetical high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.L.; McGinnis, J.T.; Harper, C.M.; Battelle Columbus Labs., OH)

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents results of an environmental assessment conducted under the direction of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage program. The study defined a range of potential environmental effects of constructing, operating, decommissioning, and long-term isolation of a nuclear waste repository. The analytical methodology used to determine potential environmental effects required definition of a hypothetical environmental setting and repository. Potentially applicable regulatory requirements were identified and were used as guidelines to evaluate permitting feasibility. The environmental effects of repository development were analyzed for the two major time periods of concern: short term (the period of construction, operation, and decommissioning) and long term (the isolation period after decommissioning). As a result of this analysis, major environmental uncertainties and issues were identified. 11 references, 5 figures

  3. Perception and Understanding of Invasive Alien Species Issues by Nature Conservation and Horticulture Professionals in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Piqueray, Julien; Halford, Mathieu; Nulens, Greet; Vincke, Jan; Mahy, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine how two professional sectors in Belgium, horticulture professionals and nature reserve managers (those directly involved in conservation), view the issues associated with invasive plant species. We developed and utilized a questionnaire that addressed the themes of awareness, concept and use of language, availability of information, impacts and, finally, control and available solutions. Using co-inertia analyses, we tested to what extent the perception of invasive alien species (IAS) was dependent upon the perception of Nature in general. Only forty-two percent of respondent horticulture professionals and eighty-two percent of nature reserve managers had a general knowledge of IAS. Many individuals in both target groups nonetheless had an accurate understanding of the scientific issues. Our results therefore suggest that the manner in which individuals within the two groups view, or perceive, the IAS issue was more the result of lack of information than simply biased perceptions of target groups. Though IAS perceptions by the two groups diverged, they were on par with how they viewed Nature in general. The descriptions of IAS by participants converged with the ideas and concepts frequently found in the scientific literature. Both managers and horticulture professionals expressed a strong willingness to participate in programs designed to prevent the spread of, and damage caused by, IAS. Despite this, the continued commercial availability of many invasive species highlighted the necessity to use both mandatory and voluntary approaches to reduce their re-introduction and spread. The results of this study provide stakeholders and conservation managers with practical information on which communication and management strategies can be based.

  4. Perception and understanding of invasive alien species issues by nature conservation and horticulture professionals in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Piqueray, Julien; Halford, Mathieu; Nulens, Greet; Vincke, Jan; Mahy, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine how two professional sectors in Belgium, horticulture professionals and nature reserve managers (those directly involved in conservation), view the issues associated with invasive plant species. We developed and utilized a questionnaire that addressed the themes of awareness, concept and use of language, availability of information, impacts and, finally, control and available solutions. Using co-inertia analyses, we tested to what extent the perception of invasive alien species (IAS) was dependent upon the perception of Nature in general. Only forty-two percent of respondent horticulture professionals and eighty-two percent of nature reserve managers had a general knowledge of IAS. Many individuals in both target groups nonetheless had an accurate understanding of the scientific issues. Our results therefore suggest that the manner in which individuals within the two groups view, or perceive, the IAS issue was more the result of lack of information than simply biased perceptions of target groups. Though IAS perceptions by the two groups diverged, they were on par with how they viewed Nature in general. The descriptions of IAS by participants converged with the ideas and concepts frequently found in the scientific literature. Both managers and horticulture professionals expressed a strong willingness to participate in programs designed to prevent the spread of, and damage caused by, IAS. Despite this, the continued commercial availability of many invasive species highlighted the necessity to use both mandatory and voluntary approaches to reduce their re-introduction and spread. The results of this study provide stakeholders and conservation managers with practical information on which communication and management strategies can be based.

  5. Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, “Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesia Ferguson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children’s environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children’s activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children’s environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children’s environmental exposure and children’s health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  6. Are Australians concerned about nanoparticles? A comparative analysis with established and emerging environmental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Adam; Rolfe, Margaret; Gillespie, James; Smith, Wayne

    2015-02-01

    Introducing new technologies into society raises considerable public concern. We determine the public concern about nanoparticles, and compare this concern to other environmental health issues such as wind farms and coal seam gas production. A repeat cross sectional survey examining views on environmental health issues, risk, chemicals and trust was undertaken in more than 1,300 Australian residents in 2000 and 2013. Logistic regression and principal component analysis was used to investigate predictors of nanoparticle concern and identify a component structure for environmental health issues that could explain a trend of future nanoparticle concern. Australians have a relatively low level of concern about the risks of nanoparticles to health when compared to their concerns about other environmental health issues. Items associated with concern included gender, a general wish to avoid chemicals and possibly trust in politicians. Concern over nanoparticles clustered with similar views on technological risks. Current public concern over the risks of nanoparticles is low. However, a reframing of the issue towards 'chemicals' is likely to have a negative effect on risk perceptions. This paper raises questions about appropriate channels for the effective communication of risk. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  8. Understanding the biological and environmental implications of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sijie

    quantified by UV-vis spectrophotometry and fitted with the Freundlich isothem. Effects of the adsorption of QDs on the photosynthetic activities of the algae are evaluated using O2 evolution and CO2 depletion assays, and the ecological impact of such adsorption is discussed. To understand the effects of nanomaterials on the cell membrane, nanoparticles (Au, TiO2, and QDs) of different surface charges and chemical compositions are introduced to HT-29 mammalian cells in Chapter 4. The polarization of the cell membrane is investigated using a FLIPR membrane potential kit. The phase of the cell membrane, in the presence of both positively and negatively charged nanoparticles, are examined using laurden, a lipophilic dye that serves as a molecular reporter on the fluidic or gel phase of the host membrane. To address the effects of nanomaterials on biological and ecological systems within the same context, Chapter 5 offers a first parallel comparison between mammalian and plant cell responses to nanomaterials. This study is conducted using a plant cell viability assay, complimented by bright field, fluorescence, and electron microscopy imaging. Discussions of this study are presented based on the hydrophobicity and solubility of C60(OH) 20 and of supramolecular complex C70-NOM, hydrophobicity and porous structure of the plant Allium cepa cell wall, and the amphiphilic structure and endocytosis of the plasma cell membrane of both Allium cepa and HT-29 cells. Chapter 6 summarizes and rationalizes results obtained from the entire dissertation research. Future work inspired by this research is presented at the end of the chapter. Specifically, this dissertation is structured to embody the following essential and complementary chapters: (1) Chapter 1: Literature review (2) Chapter 2: Nano-Eco interactions at the whole organism level; (3) Chapter 3: Nano-Eco interactions at the cellular level; (4) Chapter 4: Nano-Bio interactions at the cellular level; (5) Chapter 5: Parallel comparison

  9. Environmental Justice Is a Social Justice Issue: Incorporating Environmental Justice into Social Work Practice Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Ramona; Hacker, Alice; Begun, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Social justice education for social work practice is concerned with addressing issues of power and oppression as they impact intersections of identity, experience, and the social environment. However, little focus is directed toward the physical and natural environment despite overwhelming evidence that traditionally marginalized groups bear the…

  10. Italy's All-Volunteer Army: An Analytical Framework for Understanding the Key Policy Issues and Choices During the Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zanini, Michele

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation builds an analytical framework for understanding the key policy issues and tradeoffs affecting the Italian Army's transition from a mixed conscript/volunteer model to an All-Volunteer Force (AVF...

  11. Field verification of social and environmental issues of selected water sector projects in Punjab-Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayesha, A.

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation helps in increasing the agricultural yield and the irrigation projects are carried out for the welfare of people. The importance of environment for sustainable development of irrigation projects has been realized. Environmental Impact Assessment is being increasingly used as a tool for appropriate environmental planning. In Pakistan, PEP A (Pakistan Environmental Protection Act),1997 establishes the framework to carry out Environmental Assessment of development projects. Various national and international agencies have developed Environmental Assessment Guidelines and Checklists for systematic evaluation of environmental impacts and their mitigation. The Social and Environmental Management Unit of Punjab Irrigation and Drainage Authority developed checklist for assessment of irrigation projects in 2007. The present study was conducted on three water sector projects namely: Concrete Lining of Dhudi Minor, Improving Nikki Deg Drain System and Rehabilitation of Khanki Barrage. The field verification of social and environmental issues of the projects was carried out according to the checklist of Social and Environmental Management Unit. The most noticeable impacts which were identified include: extended canal closure, emissions and effluents, waste generation and disposal, effect on flora, public health and safety, land acquisition, and social issues. The mitigatory measures proposed: proper project scheduling to minimize the canal closure periods, waste disposal through proper planning, preparation of detailed resettlement action plans and compensation, location of labor camps away from the settlements, avoiding unnecessary cutting of trees, and deployed machinery should be in good working condition. The recommendations of the study are to review and improve the checklists through a gradual and phased process into a more comprehensive social and environmental assessment process; capacity building of all the stake holders; collaboration between different

  12. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S Y; Napier, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 5 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The Committee completed a number of reports in these subject areas, most recently NCRP Report No. 175, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. Historically this Committee addressed emerging issues of the nation pertaining to radioactivity or radiation in the environment or radioactive waste issues due either to natural origins or to manmade activities.

  13. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  14. Achieving healthy school siting and planning policies: understanding shared concerns of environmental planners, public health professionals, and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Policy decisions regarding the quality of the physical school environment-both, school siting and school facility planning policies-are often considered through the lens of environmental planning, public health, or education policy, but rarely through all three. Environmental planners consider environmental justice issues on a local level and/or consider the regional impact of a school. Public health professionals focus on toxic exposures and populations particularly vulnerable to negative health outcomes. Educators and education policymakers emphasize investing in human capital of both students and staff. By understanding these respective angles and combining these efforts around the common goals of achieving adequacy and excellence, we can work toward a regulatory system for school facilities that recognizes children as a uniquely vulnerable population and seeks to create healthier school environments in which children can learn and adults can work.

  15. Several issues related to regional environmental investigation to inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xinshan; Zhang Xiaofeng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the goal of carrying out regional environmental investigation and review of recent environmental investigations toward inland nuclear power plant(NPP) site, and combined with the characteristics between inland and coastal sites, this paper is to make deeply analysis on population distribution, environmental characteristics, feasibility of performing emergency plan, characteristics of received water and external human-induced incident of NPP vicinity, then advance several significant issues related regional environmental investigation to inland sites, and make comparison with the investigation to coastal sites. Meantime, on guarantee of the integrity of collected materials during investigation, this paper also makes several proposals to provide reference for carrying out regional environmental investigation to inland NPP site. (authors)

  16. Parametric tools over crowdsourced maps as means for participatory consideration of environmental issues in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Paula; Ballesteros, José; Gervás, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    The increasing complexity of space use and resource cycles in cities, demands an understanding of the built environment as "ecological": enabling mutation while remaining balanced and biologically sustainable. Designing man`s environment is no longer a question of defining types, but rather an act of inserting changes within a complex system. Architecture and urban planning have become increasingly aware of their condition as system-oriented disciplines, and they are in the process of developing the necessary languages, design tools, and alliances. We will argue the relevance of parametric maps as one of the most powerful of those tools, in terms of their potential for adaptive prototype design, convergence of disciplines, and collaborative work. Cities need to change in order to survive. As the main human landscape (by 2050 75% of the world's population will live in urban areas) cities follow biological patterns of behaviour, constantly replacing their cells, renovating infrastructure systems and refining methods for energy provision and waste management. They need to adapt constantly. As responsive entities, they develop their own protocols for reaction to environmental change and challenge the increasing pressure of several issues related to scale: population, mobility, water and energy supply, pollution... The representation of these urban issues on maps becomes crucial for understanding and addressing them in design. Maps enhanced with parametric tools are relational and not only they register environmental dynamics but they allow adaptation of the system through interwoven parameters of mutation. Citizens are taking part in decisions and becoming aware of their role as urban experts in a bottom-up design process of the cities where they live. Modern tools for dynamic visualisation and collaborative edition of maps have an important role to play in this process. More and more people consult maps on hand-held devices as part of their daily routine. The advent

  17. Barriers to Coverage of Transborder Environmental Issues in the Ferghana Valley of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news sources…

  18. Changing Preschool Children's Attitudes into Behavior towards Selected Environmental Issues: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…

  19. Knowledge and Morality of School-Age Children and Adolescents Regarding Environmental Issues and Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…

  20. An Assessment of the Growth in Coverage of Social and Environmental Issues in Graduate Accounting Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sharon; Weber, James

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines if there has been an increase in the attention paid to social and environmental issues (SEI) in accounting curricula. Using schools participating in the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes (BGP) program, we measure the increase in the number of accounting courses incorporating SEI across the biennial application years of…

  1. Development and Implementation of an Instructional Design for Effective Teaching of Ecosystem, Biodiversity, and Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Elif Ozata; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop an instructional design whereby ecosystem, biodiversity, and environmental issues are addressed with a holistic approach that provides more efficient teaching as well as to test the effectiveness of this design. A literature review was carried out and need-assessment was firstly made using the Readiness Test. This review…

  2. Addressing environmental issues through foraminifera – Case studies from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    for not more than past 100-150 years, beyond which we would need proxies to give us information about the past climate. During the past few decades, microfossils, especially foraminifers have become the prime source to address environmental issues. Extreme...

  3. Environmental Management Accounting in the Taiwanese Higher Education Sector: Issues and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of managing the major environmental costs from an accounting perspective. The current state of practices for managing the costs associated with the consumption of electricity, water and paper, as well as the generation of wastes within three universities in Taiwan, was investigated. The…

  4. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  5. Environmental health and hazardous waste issues related to the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D E; Peña, C; Varady, R; Suk, W A

    1996-06-01

    Environmental health and environmental quality issues along the U.S.-Mexico border have been of concern for several years. The enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the presence of the maquiladoras (foreign-owned industries using imported raw materials) have intensified those concerns recently. Efforts to assess these issues are complicated by the fact that many of the issues affecting the border region are within federal jurisdiction, but the problems are regional and local in nature. Thus, state and local governments become involved with public concerns about real and potential problems. One major problem is that environmental health data from this region are lacking, particularly from Mexico. Some new agencies such as the Border Environment Cooperation Commission, the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission, and the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation have joined several existing agencies at the federal and state level to address environmental quality and health. Several studies have been initiated to determine air and water quality, but little is being done in the areas of hazardous waste and health assessment. Several problems are anticipated in the generation of such data, such as its format and accessibility. Data gaps and research needs are discussed.

  6. Potential CERCLA reauthorization issues relevant to US DOE's Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.R.; McKinney, M.D.; Jaksch, J.A.; Dailey, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is currently scheduled to be reauthorized in 1994. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a significant stake in CERCLA reauthorization. CERCLA, along with its implementing regulation, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), is the principal legal authority governing DOE's environmental restoration program. The manner in which CERCLA-related issues are identified, evaluated, and dispatched may have a substantial impact on DOE's ability to conduct its environmental restoration program. A number of issues that impact DOE's environmental restoration program could be addressed through CERCLA reauthorization. These issues include the need to (1) address how the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) should be integrated into DOE CERCLA actions, (2) facilitate the streamlining of the Superfund process at DOE sites, (3) address the conflicts between the requirements of CERCLA and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) that are especially relevant to DOE, (4) examine the criteria for waiving applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) at DOE sites, and (5) delineate the appropriate use of institutional controls at DOE sites

  7. Higher Education Cloud Computing in South Africa: Towards Understanding Trust and Adoption issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Van Der Schyff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to study the views of key stakeholders on the issue of cloud information security within institutions of Higher Education. A specific focus is on understanding trust and the adoption of cloud computing in context of the unique operational requirements of South African universities. Contributions are made on both a methodological and theoretical level. Methodologically the study contributes by employing an Interpretivist approach and using Thematic Analysis in a topic area often studied quantitatively, thus affording researchers the opportunity to gain the necessary in-depth insight into how key stakeholders view cloud security and trust. A theoretical contribution is made in the form of a trust-centric conceptual framework that illustrates how the qualitative data relates to concepts innate to cloud computing trust and adoption. Both these contributions lend credence to the fact that there is a need to address cloud information security with a specific focus on the contextual elements that surround South African universities. The paper concludes with some considerations for implementing and investigating cloud computing services in Higher Education contexts in South Africa.

  8. Understanding Attitudes and Pro-Environmental Behaviors in a Chilean Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás C. Bronfman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection and restoration are some of the major challenges faced by our society. To address this problem, it is fundamental to understand pro-environmental behaviors in the population, as well as the factors that determine them. There are, however, very few studies conducted in Latin America that are focused in understanding the environmental behavior of its citizens. The main goal of this research was to study the environmental behaviors of a Chilean community and identify the factors that determine them. To that end, a diverse set of environmental behaviors (power and water conservation, environmentally-aware consumer behavior, biodiversity protection, rational automobile use and ecological waste management and sociodemographic and attitudinal factors—based on the VBN model—were evaluated. Survey data was obtained from a statistically representative sample (N = 1537 in Santiago, Chile. Our results suggest that several participants displayed tendencies that favor more responsible environmental behaviors, with high environmental concern, and demonstrating their ample awareness of the consequences of failing to protect the environment. Nevertheless, the highest average scores of environmental behavior were related to low cost behaviors and those that imposed the fewest behavioral restrictions. In global terms, we concluded that the youngest subjects in the lowest socioeconomic group obtained the lowest scores across the pro-environmental behavior spectrum.

  9. An Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes towards Environmental Issues in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Rabia; Saraç, Esra

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes of the pre-service teachers towards environmental issues are analysed by such variables as gender, the department of education, year, department, taking or not taking environmental education course, participating in any environmental activity, being a member of any environmental organization, and the longest duration…

  10. Environmental Durability Issues for Solar Power Systems in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Smith, Daniela C.

    1994-01-01

    Space solar power systems for use in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment experience a variety of harsh environmental conditions. Materials used for solar power generation in LEO need to be durable to environmental threats such as atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and debris impact. Another threat to LEO solar power performance is due to contamination from other spacecraft components. This paper gives an overview of these LEO environmental issues as they relate to space solar power system materials. Issues addressed include atomic oxygen erosion of organic materials, atomic oxygen undercutting of protective coatings, UV darkening of ceramics, UV embrittlement of Teflon, effects of thermal cycling on organic composites, and contamination due to silicone and organic materials. Specific examples of samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and materials returned from the first servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. Issues concerning ground laboratory facilities which simulate the LEO environment are discussed along with ground-to-space correlation issues.

  11. Understandings of Environmental Quality: Ambiguities and Values Held by Environmental Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Hull; David Richert; Erin Seekamp; David Robertson; Gregory J. Buhyoff

    2003-01-01

    The terms used to describe and negotiate environmental quality are both ambiguous and value-laden. Stakeholders intimately and actively involved in the management of forested lands were interviewed and found to use ambiguous, tautological, and value-laden definitions of terms such as health, biodiversity, sustainability, and naturalness. This confusing language...

  12. Cross border environmental issues arising from the former Soviet Union nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.R.; Dooley, J.J.; Bradley, D.J.

    1998-02-01

    Radioactive contamination from sites in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) threaten bordering states via transport through marine environments. Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Germany, Sweden, Norway, and Finland share waterways or border common bodies of water with the FSU. Cross-border contamination resulting from past and in some cases current radioactive waste practices FSU nuclear wastes could under the right circumstances destabilize military, economic, or other relationships between the FSU and these border nations. The United States has an ongoing obligation to assist many of these border nations in times of need. This analysis was sponsored by the Office of Policy and International Affairs, Office of Materials-Asset Management and National Security Policy Analysis. The Center for Environmental Security was tasked to identify cross-border and other policy issues from an extensive body of technical materials dealing with nuclear materials management in the Former Soviet Union compiled over time by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analysis focused on cross-border impacts but also provides insights into policy analysis based on this existing technical work. The efficiencies and results realized by this study indicate that this analytical methodology has merit for additional policy studies. There are three elements comprising the problem of understanding cross border transport. The amount of FSU nuclear waste that has been disposed of in ways that did not, or probably will not contain the waste is the first element. The past and probable future entry of these wastes into groundwater and surface waters, thence to seas is the second. Finally, adverse effects on human health and welfare from ingesting contaminated sea products, and from damaged fisheries and food production activities is the third

  13. Development of Lesson Plans and Student Worksheets Based Socio-Scientific Issues on Pollution Environmental Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, S.; Meyliana, M.; Arlingga, A.; Reny, R.; Siahaan, P.; Hernani, H.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop lesson plans and student worksheets based socio-scientific issues on pollution environmental topic for seventh-grade junior high school students. Environmental pollution topic split into several subtopics namely air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution. The composing of lesson plans were developed based on socio-scientific issues with five stages, namely (1) Motivate; (2) Challenge; (3) Collect scientific evidence; (4) Analyse the evidence; (5) Build knowledge and make connections; and (6) Use evidence. While student worksheets contain articles on socio-scientific issues, practice, and there are a few questions to determine students’ reasoning. The method that is used in this research is research and development (R & D method). Development model used in this study is a model of Plomp that consists of four stages, namely: (1) Initial Research; (2) Design; (3) Realization or Construction; (4) Testing, evaluation and revision; (5) Implementation, while the research was limited to the fourth stage. Lesson plans and student worksheets based on socio-scientific issues was validated through an expert validation. The result showed that lesson plans and student worksheets based socio-scientific issues on pollution theme have a very decent and be able to apply in science classroom.

  14. Modern environmental health hazards: a public health issue of increasing significance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Sanders, William H

    2009-06-01

    Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa's environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent's disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa's disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa's environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future.

  15. Job satisfaction and issues related to the retention of environmental health professionals in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zontek, Tracy L; DuVernois, Candice Cline; Ogle, Burton R

    2009-10-01

    Issues related to job satisfaction of environmental health professionals in North Carolina health departments were evaluated using an online survey instrument. Respondents (N = 433) indicated that the major issues regarding retention were inadequate or poor salary and limited opportunities for career advancement. Significant differences were found in satisfaction with salary and career advancement among regions, which may indicate the need for different intervention strategies. Salary inequities were identified for women with 6-10 and 11-15 years of experience. When overall satisfaction was correlated with salary, a positive significant association was found (r = 0.095, p = .049). Overall satisfaction was not significantly correlated with age, gender, or years of practice.

  16. Temas ambientais como "temas geradores": contribuições para uma metodologia educativa ambiental crítica, transformadora e emancipatória Environmental issues as generating issues: contributions to a critical, transforming and emancipating environmental educating methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Freitas de Campos Tozoni-Reis

    2006-06-01

    education inspired in Paulo Freire's pedagogy. According to him to educate is to know the reality in its experienced situations, as an ongoing critical process of closeness to the reality itself: to understand, to ponder, to criticize and to act are the intended pedagogical attitudes. The generating issues are strategic methods of a process of awareness about an oppressive reality in unequal societies. Such issues are the starting point to the process of building up a discovery. The generating issues spring out of the popular knowledge, taken from the daily life of the educating ones in order to replace the traditional contents. The political aspect of Paulo Freire's pedagogy are to be seen in the generating issues insofar as these ones contemplate the social and political contents that are meaningful to the life of the educating people. In this way all the educating proposals should take into consideration the local environmental issues as generating issues to the desired consciousness. Finally, it is important to say that the educating people should take part in defining and determining the issues that represent their interests as the content for an environmental and social action.

  17. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

  18. Major Environmental Issues of the Baltic Sea and Science Based Decision Support Strategies towards an Improved Environmental Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humborg, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is especially susceptible to multiple human impacts due to its estuarine mixing patterns and long water residence times. Temporally and spatially, it is one of the best investigated marginal seas worldwide allowing for a deep knowledge of natural and human processes forming this unique brackish ecosystem. In this presentation, we shortly summarize the physical, biogeochemical and ecological settings of the Baltic Sea and address major human drivers and pressures threatening its ecosystem. Further, we summarize the scientific and political efforts that led to the formulation of Baltic Sea Action Plan, a milestone for eutrophication management and European environmental governance. Further, we summarize the efforts and societal pitfalls towards an Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management, strategies to decrease loads of environmental pollutants and management of marine biodiversity/habitat issues in the unique Baltic Sea context.

  19. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  20. Functional issues and environmental qualification of digital protection systems of advanced light-water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Wood, R.T.

    1994-04-01

    Issues of obsolescence and lack of infrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. While these technologies have several advantages, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems' environmental qualification and functional reliability. To bound the problem of new I ampersand C system functionality and qualification, the authors focused this study on protection systems proposed for use in ALWRs. Specifically, both functional and environmental qualification issues for ALWR protection system I ampersand C were addressed by developing an environmental, functional, and aging data template for a protection division of each proposed ALWR design. By using information provided by manufacturers, environmental conditions and stressors to which I ampersand C equipment in reactor protection divisions may be subjected were identified. The resulting data were then compared to a similar template for an instrument string typically found in an analog protection division of a present-day nuclear power plant. The authors also identified fiber-optic transmission systems as technologies that are relatively new to the nuclear power plant environment and examined the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber-optic components and systems. One reason for the exercise of caution in the introduction of software into safety-critical systems is the potential for common-cause failure due to the software. This study, however, approaches the functionality problem from a systems point of view. System malfunction scenarios are postulated to illustrate the fact that, when dealing with the performance of the overall integrated system, the real issues are functionality and fault tolerance, not hardware vs. software

  1. Functional issues and environmental qualification of digital protection systems of advanced light-water nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Wood, R.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Issues of obsolescence and lack of infrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. While these technologies have several advantages, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems` environmental qualification and functional reliability. To bound the problem of new I&C system functionality and qualification, the authors focused this study on protection systems proposed for use in ALWRs. Specifically, both functional and environmental qualification issues for ALWR protection system I&C were addressed by developing an environmental, functional, and aging data template for a protection division of each proposed ALWR design. By using information provided by manufacturers, environmental conditions and stressors to which I&C equipment in reactor protection divisions may be subjected were identified. The resulting data were then compared to a similar template for an instrument string typically found in an analog protection division of a present-day nuclear power plant. The authors also identified fiber-optic transmission systems as technologies that are relatively new to the nuclear power plant environment and examined the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber-optic components and systems. One reason for the exercise of caution in the introduction of software into safety-critical systems is the potential for common-cause failure due to the software. This study, however, approaches the functionality problem from a systems point of view. System malfunction scenarios are postulated to illustrate the fact that, when dealing with the performance of the overall integrated system, the real issues are functionality and fault tolerance, not hardware vs. software.

  2. A Study of Fırat University Faculty of Veterinary Students' View on Environmental Issues

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEN, Rahşan; ÖZEN, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the opinion of the veterinary students about environmental issues. To this aim, studying in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Fırat University, 20 students whom were interviewed on a voluntary basis. In this study conducted with qualitative research methods, content analysis was applied to the evaluation of the data. Participants primarily focused on pollution-related problems. They have expressed the opinion: Veterinarians should take responsibility to...

  3. Furthering better communication and understanding of nuclear issues through public education: a public school teacher's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danfelser, M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent reports of national commissions and study groups have pointed out that the American educational system is not meeting the needs of its students. Uniformly, the reports call for a new instructional focus designed to achieve the goal of ''universal scientific and technological literacy for citizenship.'' The population's inability to deal with numerous controversial science-related social issues forms the basis for this call for educational reform. Foremost on the list of science-related social issues are nuclear issues in general and the storage of nuclear waste in particular. The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) 1983 publication ''Guidelines for Teaching Science Related Social Issues'' was designed to encourage stronger instructional emphasis on science-related social issues, and to provide social studies teachers with a rational and structure for the presentation of the issues. This paper discusses the dilemmas faced by educators who attempt to deal with science-related social issues. Also, it addresses the need for instructional materials in order to effectively address nuclear issues in the classroom

  4. Understanding Key Education Issues: How We Got Here and Where We Go from Here

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    In this age of education innovation and reform, schools must evolve and react to current policy trends. This accessible book offers research-based insights into six key educational trends and issues that are impacting K-12 learning today: year-round schooling, assessments, educating minorities, anti-intellectualism, issues of social promotion and…

  5. Preservice Teachers Develop an Understanding of Diversity Issues through Multicultural Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetton, Tamara L.; Savage-Davis, Emma M.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores issues of multicultural education and diversity. The authors present a preservice teacher education program that uses multicultural literature to prepare young teachers to better serve their students. The authors discuss the curriculum design of the program to help preservice teachers become more sensitive to the issues of…

  6. Global environmental issues and electric power in the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidy, G.M.; Spencer, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Development of the electric utility industry in the 21st Century will be central to the well-being of mankind. Electricity worldwide is still likely to be produced mainly from fossil fuel combustion for the foreseeable future. On a global scale, this energy sector will contribute to growing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions through most of the next century. A potential for global climate alteration has been identified with accumulation of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the Earth's atmosphere. If climate changes, adverse environmental effects are possible, acting on human systems, as well as on managed and natural ecosystems. Projected rates of increase in atmospheric CO 2 levels for the next century have motivated decision makers to consider early strategies for beginning to aggressively manage GHG emissions. The objective of this paper is to review the global issues associated with expected increases in gaseous emissions, particularly carbon dioxide from increased energy use, indicating the nature and significance of the issue. The authors emphasize a methodology integrating information on environmental issues with social and economic factors to develop informed international policies. The paper summarizes the technological choices available worldwide that could minimize the environmental impact of increasing energy use, particularly with respect to enhanced electricity production

  7. Environmental, health and safety issues related to commercializing CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberspacher, C. [UNISUN, Newbury Park, CA (United States); Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowtiz, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Photovoltaics technology is rapidly evolving towards a new generation of low-cost thin film technologies. One of the most promising materials in this new generation is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental, health and safety issues, including consideration of the sources, usage, and end-of-product-life disposal and/or recycling of the constituent materials. This work focuses on three specific environmental, health and safety (EH and S) issues related to CIS PV: (1) economics are analyzed to determine their impact on materials use and re-use; (2) Federal and California State environmental disposal and waste handling regulations are analyzed to evaluate their impact on PV module manufacturing and end-of-life module handling; and (3) the logistics and economics of product recycling and waste disposal by industries with comparable EH and S issues are examined to quantify the corresponding options available for handling, disposing of and/or recycling manufacturing by-products and end-of-life modules.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL INNOVATIVE BUSINESS SOLUTIONS AS A STRATEGIC FACTOR OF ECONOMIC SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Senin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this work lies in the fact that it attempts to disclose the key theoretical and practical issues of economic security solutions, taking into account the problems of global transformations taking place in the global economy. As part of the article we have been studied various aspects that characterize global economic, environmental trends that will shape the future of modern civilization. The article also addresses the problem of exit from the raw model of the economy, the formation of economic mechanisms that take into account environmental costs, proposed internalization of environmental externalities.The purpose/goal. The purpose of this article and its main task is to systematize the areas of environmentally oriented development of economic entities, as well as the determination of the list of key provisions of environmental policies, which will ensure the further socio-economic development of Russia in line with the green economy.Methods. In this article, based on content analysis of theoretical and empirical basic conceptual provisions of economic security were formulated in the context of eco-oriented production, the transition to which world civilization is currently implementing. It was concluded that the economic, energy, environmental and social issues of sustainable development of modern civilization is directly linked, so the transition to ecooriented production is possible, firstly, it provided aggressive reduction of production and wasteful use of traditional hydrocarbon resources, and, secondly, on the condition of rational replacement of traditional energy sources with renewable energy.Results. This article outlines the basic solutions that can be used to provide environmentally responsible operation and development of Russian business and corporate structures. Also offered in the basic decisions that are to be included in the national environmental policy as a major incentive for the further transition to a

  9. OI Issues: Type I - Understanding the Mildest Form of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flu shots and pneumonia vaccines are often recommended. Social, Emotional, and Family Issues Many people with OI ... Miembro Activo del Equipo de Cuidados de la Salud (FDA) Home Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget’s ...

  10. OEI and OPA Issue a Joint Memorandum of Understanding (2002 Memo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This MOU delineates certain interdependent functions, oversight responsibilities, and joint initiatives of the Office of Public Affairs (OPA) and the Office of Environmental Information (OEI) for the Agency's public Web site.

  11. Understanding Campus Culture and Student Coping Strategies for Mental Health Issues in Five Canadian Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamos, Dimitris; Lee, Alex Young Soo; Suleiman, Amanda; Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand campus mental health culture and student mental health coping strategies, and to identify the mental health needs of students as well as gaps in mental health services within postsecondary education. A videovoice method was used to identify and document health-related issues and advocate for change. Forty-one…

  12. Students' Participation in an Interdisciplinary, Socioscientific Issues Based Undergraduate Human Biology Major and Their Understanding of Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Jennifer L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Sherwood, Robert D.; Schlegel, Whitney M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether Socioscientific Issues (SSI) based learning environments affect university students' epistemological understanding of scientific inquiry differently from traditional science educational contexts. We identify and compare conceptions of scientific inquiry of students participating in an…

  13. A Dialogue About Race and Ethnicity in Education: Struggling To Understand Issues in Cross-Cultural Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carolyn M.; Larocque, Linda J.; Oberg, Steven Lynn

    2002-01-01

    A dialogic approach explores some of the complex issues related to race and ethnicity to identify implications for more effective cross-cultural leadership in diverse schools. Revisited field notes, as well as data from interviews and surveys from various research projects, provide the background about the difficulties of understanding race and…

  14. Understanding the Attitude-Action Gap: Functional Integration of Environmental Aspects in Car Purchase Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Olivier; Macharis, Cathy; Lebeau, Kenneth; Turcksin, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at understanding how a general positive attitude toward the environment results in a limited purchase of environmentally friendlier cars, often referred to as the attitude-action gap. In a first experiment 27 volunteers performed a judgment task on car purchase intention. Participants were asked to evaluate the probability of…

  15. Compensation for environmental asbestos-related diseases in South Africa: a neglected issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Ntombizodwa; Naude, Jim teWater; Murray, Jill

    2013-01-24

    Environmentally acquired asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) are of concern globally. In South Africa, there is widespread contamination of the environment due to historical asbestos mining operations that were poorly regulated. Although the law makes provision for the compensation of occupationally acquired ARDs, compensation for environmentally acquired ARDs is only available through the Asbestos Relief Trust (ART) and Kgalagadi Relief Trust, both of which are administered by the ART. This study assessed ARDs and compensation outcomes of environmental claims submitted to the Trusts. The personal details, medical diagnoses, and exposure information of all environmental claims considered by the Trusts from their inception in 2003 to April 2010 were used to calculate the numbers and proportions of ARDs and compensation awards. There were 146 environmental claimants of whom 35 (23.9%) had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 (0.7%) had lung cancer, and 77 (52.7%) had malignant mesothelioma. 53 (36.3%) claimants were compensated: 20 with fibrotic pleural disease and 33 with mesothelioma. Of the 93 (63.7%) claimants who were not compensated, 33 had no ARDs, 18 had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 had lung cancer, and 44 had mesothelioma. In addition to having ARDs, those that were compensated had qualifying domestic (33; 62.2%) or neighbourhood (20; 37.8%) exposures to asbestos. Most of the claimants who were not compensated had ARDs but their exposures did not meet the Trusts' exposure criteria. This study demonstrates the environmental impact of asbestos mining on the burden of ARDs. Mesothelioma was the most common disease diagnosed, but most cases were not compensated. This highlights that there is little redress for individuals with environmentally acquired ARDs in South Africa. To stop this ARD epidemic, there is a need for the rehabilitation of abandoned asbestos mines and the environment. These issues may not be unique to South Africa as many countries continue to mine and use

  16. Compensation for environmental asbestos-related diseases in South Africa: a neglected issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntombizodwa Ndlovu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmentally acquired asbestos-related diseases (ARDs are of concern globally. In South Africa, there is widespread contamination of the environment due to historical asbestos mining operations that were poorly regulated. Although the law makes provision for the compensation of occupationally acquired ARDs, compensation for environmentally acquired ARDs is only available through the Asbestos Relief Trust (ART and Kgalagadi Relief Trust, both of which are administered by the ART. This study assessed ARDs and compensation outcomes of environmental claims submitted to the Trusts. Methods: The personal details, medical diagnoses, and exposure information of all environmental claims considered by the Trusts from their inception in 2003 to April 2010 were used to calculate the numbers and proportions of ARDs and compensation awards. Results: There were 146 environmental claimants of whom 35 (23.9% had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 (0.7% had lung cancer, and 77 (52.7% had malignant mesothelioma. 53 (36.3% claimants were compensated: 20 with fibrotic pleural disease and 33 with mesothelioma. Of the 93 (63.7% claimants who were not compensated, 33 had no ARDs, 18 had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 had lung cancer, and 44 had mesothelioma. In addition to having ARDs, those that were compensated had qualifying domestic (33; 62.2% or neighbourhood (20; 37.8% exposures to asbestos. Most of the claimants who were not compensated had ARDs but their exposures did not meet the Trusts’ exposure criteria. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the environmental impact of asbestos mining on the burden of ARDs. Mesothelioma was the most common disease diagnosed, but most cases were not compensated. This highlights that there is little redress for individuals with environmentally acquired ARDs in South Africa. To stop this ARD epidemic, there is a need for the rehabilitation of abandoned asbestos mines and the environment. These issues may not be unique to

  17. Environmental qualification and functional issues for microprocessor-based reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Kisner, R.; Wood, R.T.; Antonescu, C.

    1992-01-01

    Issues of obsolescence and lack of intrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. This movement away from analog can be expected to increase in advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs), which will make extensive use of fiber optic transmission, multiplexing techniques, and microprocessor-based technology. Although these technologies have several advantages and, in fact, have been in widespread use in the non-nuclear industry for several years, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems' environmental and functional reliability. For example, does the new hardware introduce additional system aging degradation mechanisms that could adversely impact the safety of the plant? Do the systems introduce the possibility of new and different malfunction scenarios or increase the probability of common-mode failures that could reduce the reliability of the safety system?. Are current environmental qualification standards adequate for microprocessor-based I ampersand C systems? Accordingly in 1991 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated the qualification of advanced Instrumentation and Control Systems program at ORNL to investigate issues that may arise with the use of advanced digital I ampersand C in ALWRs. The results of our studies to date are summarized in this paper

  18. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  19. Impact of Environmental Issues on the High-Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the impact of environmental issues on the design and operation of the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This proposal for a new generation commercial supersonic transport is being pursued by NASA and its US industry partners in the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) Program. A second related paper describes the overall HSR Program, including a history of supersonic transport development that led to the present program, and a brief outline of the structure of the two-phase program and its management structure. The specific objectives are to address the four major barrier environmental issues and show their impact on the design of the airplane and potentially, its mode of operation. A brief historical perspective shows how HSR Phase I addressed these environmental topics and, with the successful completion of that program, led to the successful advocacy for the Phase II effort that followed. The Phase II program elements were discussed in the earlier paper and addressed technology programs to enhance the economic viability of the HSCT. Since many of the regulations that may effect the certification and operation of the HSCT are either not in place or well documented, a brief treatise is provided to address the status of the rules and the potential impact on the viability of the HSCT.

  20. A note on attitudes and knowledge concerning environmental issues in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Mattias; Mattsson, Leif

    2008-02-01

    As part of a larger research effort, the empirical basis for this note is responses to four out of many questions in a mailed survey, which primarily focused on national environmental objectives in Sweden. The results show that out of eight broad areas for use of tax money, five-including environment-are rated as important by over 90% of the respondents. Respondents appear to be less willing to discriminate between different issues covered by national environmental objectives, as all of these are rated as important by more than 80% of the respondents. The function of the ozone layer is an example of an environmental issue where the knowledge among people is relatively high, while this is not the case when it comes to the amount of pesticides used in agriculture. The results also show less support for actions at the individual level to improve the environment, as compared to support for actions taken by society at large through, e.g., technological improvement or policy intervention.

  1. High-quality collection and disposal of WEEE: Environmental impacts and resultant issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, John; Lyng, Kari-Anne; Askham, Cecilia; Hanssen, Ole Jørgen

    2016-11-01

    Life cycle assessment of the collection, transport and recycling of various types of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Norway shows that small amounts of critical materials (refrigerants, precious/trace metals) are vital for the overall environmental accounts of the value chains. High-quality recycling ensures that materials and energy are effectively recovered from WEEE. This recovery means that responsible waste handling confers net environmental benefits in terms of global warming potential (GWP), for all types of WEEE analysed. For refrigeration equipment, the potential reduction of GWP by high-quality recycling is so large as to be of national significance. For all waste types, the magnitude of the net benefit from recovering materials and energy exceeds the negative consequences of irresponsible disposal. One outcome of this may be widespread misunderstanding of the need for recycling. Furthermore, framing public communication on recycling in terms of avoiding negative consequences, as is essentially universal, may not convey an appropriate message. The issue is particularly important where the consumer regards products as relatively disposable and environmentally benign, and/or where the "null option" of retaining the product at end-of-life is especially prevalent. The paper highlights the implications of all these issues for policy-makers, waste collectors and recyclers, and consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrating different understandings of landscape stewardship into the design of agri-environmental schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymond, Christopher Mark; Reed, Mark; Bieling, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    understandings of landscape stewardship, with production respondents citing that AES do not encourage food production, whereas environmental and holistic farmers citing that AES do not support the development of a local green food culture and associated social infrastructure. These differences also emerged......While multiple studies have identified land managers’ preferences for agri-environmental schemes (AES), few approaches exist for integrating different understandings of landscape stewardship into the design of these measures. We compared and contrasted rural land managers’ attitudes toward AES...... and their preferences for AES design beyond 2020 across different understandings of landscape stewardship. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with similar proportions of small holders, medium holders and large holders in southwest Devon, UK. Overall, respondents most frequently cited concerns related...

  3. Understanding "Great Expectations": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlin, George

    More than 100 years after being written, "Great Expectations" is still one of the most widely studied works of fiction. This casebook of historical documents, collateral readings and essays brings to life both Charles Dickens' masterpiece and the social issues surrounding his work. The interdisciplinary approach in the casebook offers…

  4. Understanding "The Merchant of Venice": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halio, Jay L.

    "The Merchant of Venice," even in its own time, was considered William Shakespeare's most controversial play. Now, one of the most popular read and performed works, the play raises even more important issues for today, particularly anti-Semitism and the treatment of Jews. The analysis of the play in this casebook helps students interpret…

  5. The Interface of Opinion, Understanding and Evaluation While Learning about a Socioscientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzig, Stephen B.; Halverson, Kristy L.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific literacy is an important goal for science education, especially within controversial socioscientific issues. In this study, we analysed 143 students' research reports about stem cell research (SCR) for how they addressed specific source evaluation criteria provided within the assignment. We investigated students' opinions about SCR, how…

  6. Supporting Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Understanding and Coping with Complex Social Emotional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Kaitlyn P.; Gabrielsen, Terisa P.; Lewis, Danielle; Brady, Anna M.; Litchford, April

    2017-01-01

    Core deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) center around social communication and behavior. For those with ASD, these deficits complicate the task of learning how to cope with and manage complex social emotional issues. Although individuals with ASD may receive sufficient academic and basic behavioral support in school settings, supports for…

  7. Understanding Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control: A Guide to the Issues. New Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Teena

    Intended for secondary and college level students and teachers, this guide discusses the nuclear arms control issue. There are four sections. Section I discusses U.S. nuclear strategy from 1945 to the present, strategic nuclear weapons competition between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), U.S.…

  8. Industry Issue Paper: Understanding the Shared Operation of Commuter Rail Transit and Freight Railroads

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rongfang; Yang, Fei; Chen, Mei

    2004-01-01

    Seeking a thorough understanding of shared operation between commuter rail transit and freight railroads, a nationwide survey was conducted of transit and rail freight interaction. This survey contacted and received responses from all 21 commuter rail services in North America. In addition to a general understanding of the shared-use practices, this paper presents the key factors that contribute or impede successful shared-use operations between commuter rail and freight railroads by examinin...

  9. Southwest: a region under stress. [Analysis of environmental, resource-revenues, and water-resources issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Kneese, A.V.

    1978-05-01

    The southwestern states of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona share some of the nation's richest natural resources and the poorest people. One goal in the development of the area's resources will be to provide a means of raising the economic level of these people. Three major regional issues (environmental preservation, resource revenues, and water resources) must be faced in terms of the conflicting claims of the states involved. A summary of these issues illustrates the emotional and political strains that have developed. Justification for optimism is seen in the adaptability of new water users, the institutional evolution toward more flexibility in the water rights market, and the growing sophistication and assertiveness of interested parties determined to see that all positions are heard. 14 references.

  10. Factors other than environmental issues influence resource allocation decisions of school foodservice directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackes, B L; Shanklin, C W

    1999-08-01

    To identify resource allocation decisions and policies and procedures used by school foodservice directors that were based on the concepts of pollution prevention, product stewardship, and sustainable development. A questionnaire about operational characteristics (including equipment and production systems, menu selection and service style) and environmental issues was mailed to school foodservice directors. Subjects were school foodservice directors in major cities who were members of the American School Food Service Association. Of the 389 questionnaires mailed, 168 (45.5%) were returned and used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and correlation were used to analyze data. Cost factors were rated more important (P pollution prevention, product stewardship, and sustainable development practices. Recycling and energy conservation programs and use of locally grown food products would minimize the environmental impact of school foodservice operations while reducing operational costs.

  11. Environmental risk of mesothelioma in the United States: An emerging concern-epidemiological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Francine; Carbone, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Despite predictions of decline in mesothelioma following the ban of asbestos in most industrial countries, the incidence is still increasing globally, particularly in women. Because occupational exposure to asbestos is the main cause of mesothelioma, it occurs four- to eightfold more frequently in men than women, at a median age of 74 years. When mesothelioma is due to an environmental exposure, the M:F sex ratio is 1:1 and the median age at diagnosis is ~60 years. Studying environmental risk of mesothelioma is challenging because of the long latency period and small numbers, and because this type of exposure is involuntary and unknown. Individual-based methods cannot be used, and new approaches need to be found. To better understand the most recent trends of mesothelioma in the United States, all mesothelioma deaths reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during 1999-2010 were analyzed. Among all mesothelioma deaths in the United States, the 1920s birth cohort significantly predominated, and the proportion of younger cohorts constantly decreased with time, suggesting a decline in occupational exposure in these cohorts. The M:F mesothelioma sex ratio fell with time, suggesting an increased proportion of environmental cases. Environmental exposures occur in specific geographic areas. At the large scale of a state, mesotheliomas related to environmental exposure are diluted among occupational cases. The spatial analysis at a smaller scale, such as county, enables detection of areas with higher proportions of female and young mesothelioma cases, thus indicating possible environmental exposure, where geological and environmental investigations need to be carried out.

  12. Approaches and incentives to implement integrated pest management that addresses regional and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Goodell, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural, environmental, and social and policy interests have influenced integrated pest management (IPM) from its inception. The first 50 years of IPM paid special attention to field-based management and market-driven decision making. Concurrently, IPM strategies became available that were best applied both within and beyond the bounds of individual fields and that also provided environmental benefits. This generated an incentives dilemma for farmers: selecting IPM activities for individual fields on the basis of market-based economics versus selecting IPM activities best applied regionally that have longer-term benefits, including environmental benefits, that accrue to the broader community as well as the farmer. Over the past several decades, public-supported incentives, such as financial incentives available to farmers from conservation programs for farms, have begun to be employed to encourage use of conservation techniques, including strategies with IPM relevance. Combining private investments with public support may effectively address the incentives dilemma when advanced IPM strategies are used regionally and provide public goods such as those benefiting resource conservation. This review focuses on adaptation of IPM to these broader issues, on transitions of IPM from primarily individual field-based decision making to coordinated community decision making, and on the form of partnerships needed to gain long-lasting regional and environmental benefits. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of multifaceted environmental issues and model development of an Indo-Burma hotspot region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The present article provides a multifaceted critical research review on environmental issues intimately related with the socio-economy of North East India (NE), a part of Indo-Burma hotspot. Further, the article addresses the issue of sustainable development of NE India through diverse ecological practices inextricably linked with traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). The biodiversity of NE India comprises endemic floral diversity, particularly medicinal plants of importance to pharmaceutical industry, and unique faunal diversity. Nevertheless, it is very unfortunate that this great land of biodiversity is least explored taxonomically as well as biotechnologically, probably due to geographical and political constraints. Different anthropogenic and socio-economic factors have perturbed the pristine ecology of this region, leading to environmental degradation. Also, the practice of unregulated shifting cultivation (jhooming), bamboo flowering, biological invasions and anthropogenic perturbations to biodiversity exacerbate the gloomy situation. Instead of a plethora of policies, the TEK of NE people may be integrated with modern scientific knowledge in order to conserve the environment which is the strong pillar for socio-economic sector here. The aforesaid approach can be practiced in NE India through the broad implementation and extension of agroforestry practices. Further, case studies on Apatanis, ethnomedicinal plants use by indigenous tribal groups and sacred forests are particularly relevant in the context of conservation of environmental health in totality while addressing the socioeconomic impact as well. In context with the prevailing scenarios in this region, we developed an eco-sustainable model for natural resource management through agroforestry practices in order to uplift the social as well as environmental framework.

  14. Military Suicide: Developing an Understanding of Basic Issues to Provide a Lower Risk Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    prevention programs may not fully address the underlying mental health issues associated with the young adult population. As a result, the services may be inadvertently recruiting service members with increased risk....preventing suicides for currently serving service members. An exploration of available research and demographic data identifies specific...populations present specific trends in behavior and demographics that lead to suicidal behaviors. The research suggests that a significant proportion

  15. Overview of stakeholders issues and activities: report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forinash, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    Over the past year, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has implemented a new, more interactive stakeholder program in preparation for conducting a comprehensive technical update of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) after its first five years of operation. As the national repository for long-lived transuranic radioactive waste from U.S. defense activities and site clean-up, the facility continues to be of great interest both locally and nationally. We have worked actively with stakeholders since Congress established EPA as the regulator at WIPP in 1992. Early on, we visited with local communities near WIPP to understand their concerns and information needs. In response, we established toll-free telephone information lines and developed numerous public documents. During the technical review and regulatory decision regarding WIPP's safety, we provided numerous public hearings and solicited written comments on important topics. Ultimately, we issued the WIPP certification decision (1998), finding WIPP in compliance with EPA's radioactive waste disposal regulations and allowing it to open (1999). During 'lessons learned' assessments afterwards, we found that stakeholders appreciated some aspects of our program but were frustrated with the lack of two-way dialogue and were interested in getting clearer information on technical issues. We are using the 'lessons learned' in formulating our stakeholder activities for WIPP's first re-certification review, begun in March 2004. The re-certification review is intended to confirm that the WIPP continues to comply with EPA's regulations, taking into account the changes and new information gained over its first five years of operation. Key aspects of the stakeholder program are summarized below: - Define the goals for public information and participation. Our goal is to gain public acceptance, not necessarily full agreement, of our actions. We want to foster in the public

  16. Issues In-Depth: Advancing Understanding of Drug Addiction and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2009-01-01

    While most school districts utilize a drug abuse resistance curriculum, as science teachers, it is our responsibility to understand the science behind drug addiction in order to most effectively educate our students against drug abuse. In the last two decades, increases in scientific technology have permitted significant discoveries surrounding…

  17. Understanding Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" Online: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Thomas

    This casebook of materials about William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" will enrich students' understanding of the historical context of the play and encourage interpretations of its cultural meaning. Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" reflects perennial cultural concerns about order and freedom, particularly as they clash in the…

  18. A Phenomenological Study: Understanding the Management of Social Categorization Diversity Issues Associated with College Athletic Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickelman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…

  19. Sustainable Tourism Development: Exploring the Relationship of Travel Agents’ Education and Experience to Their Attitudes on Environmental Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Erdoğan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the nature of environmental attitudes of travel agents and investigated the relationship of educational level and business experience to their views on 27 environment related issues that are connected with sustainability. Data were collected from 1620 travel agents in Turkey. It was found that considerable numbers of travel agents had environmentally friendly views in respect to the factors contributing to the environmental problems, outcomes of environmental protection activities, importance of environmental criteria and environmental sensitivity of public sector, private sector and NGOs. Chi-square analyses to test the two hypotheses did not provide support for all 27 items. However, travel agents with higher education and long business experience in tourism sector hold generally more sensitive views toward environmental issues and sustainable tourism.

  20. Promoting Science-Policy Education on Global Environmental Issues: The Mercury Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, N. E.; Stokes, L. C.; Susskind, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    We present initial results from a project focusing on teaching science and engineering students about global environmental policy, funded by a NSF CAREER grant. Despite decades of growing global concern about issues such as ozone depletion, climate change, and toxic chemicals, linking science to policy is a continuing challenge, and few science students receive formal training for effective participation in global negotiations. The focus of the educational activity presented here is the development of a freely-available, interactive teaching tool in the form of a role-play simulation, called "The Mercury Game" (http://mit.edu/mercurygame). The simulation requires players to consider scientific information on an emerging global issue, mercury pollution, and collectively decide whether global policy action is appropriate and what the scope of such action might entail. Playing the game helps participants to explore the consequences of representing scientific uncertainty in various ways in a policy context. The game focuses on the credibility of various sources of technical information, strategies for representing risk and uncertainty, and the balance between scientific and political considerations. It also requires the players to grapple with political considerations, particularly the dynamic between the global "North" (the developed world) and the global "South" (the developing world) at the heart of most political conflicts. Simulation outcomes from running the simulation at two scientific conferences and as part of a graduate-level course on global environmental science and policy will be presented.

  1. Proceedings of the Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Technologies Technical and Environmental Issues Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-03-01

    Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of non-polluting alternatives to fossil and nuclear-fueled power plants to meet growing demand for electrical energy. Two emerging categories of renewable energy technologies, hydrokinetic and wave energy conversion devices, offer ways to tap the energy of moving water without impoundment (dams) or diversion required by many conventional hydroelectric facilities. These technologies include devices designed for deployment in natural streams, tidal estuaries, ocean currents, and constructed waterways, as well as devices designed to capture the energy of ocean waves. On October 26-28, 2005, 54 representatives from government, non-governmental organizations, and private business met to (1) identify the varieties of hydrokinetic energy and wave technology devices, their stages of development, and the projected cost to bring each to market; (2) identify where these technologies can best operate; (3) identify the potential environmental issues associated with these technologies and possible mitigation measures; (4) develop a list of research needs and/or practical solutions to address unresolved environmental issues. These workshop proceedings include detailed summaries of the 24 presentations made and the discussions that followed.

  2. Children's Models of Understanding of Two Major Global Environmental Issues (Ozone Layer and Greenhouse Effect).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Aims to quantify the models that 13- and 14 year-old students hold about the causes of the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion. Assesses the prevalence of those ideas that link the two phenomena. Twice as many students think that holes in the ozone layer cause the greenhouse effect than think the greenhouse effect causes ozone depletion.…

  3. Introduction to the Special Issue: Ungulates and invasive species: quantifying impacts and understanding interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossey, Bernd; Gorchov, David L

    2017-11-01

    White-tailed deer are emblematic ungulates that, due to anthropogenic modification of landscapes, currently occur at elevated densities. Elevated deer densities often co-occur with non-native plants, but it is not known if plant invasions are a consequence of deer impacts or occur independent of deer impacts on ecosystems, or whether these two stressors are synergistic. A colloquium on 'Interactions of white-tailed deer and invasive plants in forests of eastern North America' explored these topics at the 2016 annual meeting of the Botanical Society of America. Nine of those presentations are published in this special issue of AoB PLANTS .

  4. Regulatory requirements and tools for environmental assessment of hazardous wastes: understanding tribal and stakeholder concerns using Department of Energy sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Powers, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Many US governmental and Tribal Nation agencies, as well as state and local entities, deal with hazardous wastes within regulatory frameworks that require specific environmental assessments. In this paper we use Department of Energy (DOE) sites as examples to examine the relationship between regulatory requirements and environmental assessments for hazardous waste sites and give special attention to how assessment tools differ. We consider federal laws associated with environmental protection include the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as well as regulations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tribal Nations and state agencies. These regulatory regimes require different types of environmental assessments and remedial investigations, dose assessments and contaminant pathways. The DOE case studies illustrate the following points: 1) there is often understandable confusion about what regulatory requirements apply to the site resources, and what environmental assessments are required by each, 2) the messages sent on site safety issued by different regulatory agencies are sometimes contradictory or confusing (e.g. Oak Ridge Reservation), 3) the regulatory frameworks being used to examine the same question can be different, leading to different conclusions (e.g. Brookhaven National Laboratory), 4) computer models used in support of groundwater models or risk assessments are not necessarily successful in convincing Native Americans and others that there is no possibility of risk from contaminants (e.g. Amchitka Island), 5) when given the opportunity to choose between relying on a screening risk assessments or waiting for a full site-specific analysis of contaminants in biota, the screening risk assessment option is rarely selected (e.g. Amchitka, Hanford Site), and finally, 6) there needs to be agreement on whether

  5. Analysis of federal and state policies and environmental issues for bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Chandra; Chan Hilton, Amy B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate incentives and barriers to fuel ethanol production from biomass in the U.S. during the past decade (2000-2010). In particular, we examine the results of policies and economic conditions during this period by way of cellulosic ethanol activity in four selected states with the potential to produce different types of feedstocks (i.e., sugar, starch, and cellulosic crops) for ethanol production (Florida, California, Hawaii, and Iowa). Two of the four states, Iowa and California, currently have commercial ethanol production facilities in operation using corn feedstocks. While several companies have proposed commercial scale facilities in Florida and Hawaii, none are operating to date. Federal and state policies and incentives, potential for feedstock production and conversion to ethanol and associated potential environmental impacts, and environmental regulatory conditions among the states were investigated. Additionally, an analysis of proposed and operational ethanol production facilities provided evidence that a combination of these policies and incentives along with the ability to address environmental issues and regulatory environment and positive economic conditions all impact ethanol production. The 2000-2010 decade saw the rise of the promise of cellulosic ethanol. Federal and state policies were enacted to increase ethanol production. Since the initial push for development, expansion of cellulosic ethanol production has not happened as quickly as predicted. Government and private funding supported the development of ethanol production facilities, which peaked and then declined by the end of the decade. Although there are technical issues that remain to be solved to more efficiently convert cellulosic material to ethanol while reducing environmental impacts, the largest barriers to increasing ethanol production appear to be related to government policies, economics, and logistical issues. The numerous federal and state

  6. Argumentation as a Strategy for Increasing Preservice Teachers’ Understanding of Climate Change, a Key Global Socioscientific Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Findings of this study suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in addressing complex socioscientific issues (i.e. global climate change). This research examined changes in preservice teachers’ knowledge and perceptions about climate change in an innovative undergraduate-level elementary science methods course. The preservice teachers’ understanding of fundamental concepts (e.g., the difference between weather and climate, causes of recent global warming, etc.) increas...

  7. Environmental issues in planning building energy technologies R ampersand D in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhar, B.C.; Abel, F.H.; Nicholls, A.K.; Millhone, J.P.

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has begun studies on the relationship and impact of buildings energy use on the environment, particularly with respect to global climate change, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and indoor air quality. The paper presents an overview of international and US federal activity in global change to set OBT's activities in context. The paper then reviews briefly the contribution of buildings to atmospheric problems through building energy use. OBT's program primarily supports projects with indirect environmental impacts through energy efficiency (e.g., thermally activated heat pumps use natural gas instead of electricity) and the use of renewables in buildings. The paper briefly describes the OBT program and covers an inventory of projects that OBT has funded on environmental/building problems. Analyses have included three kinds of topics: (1) CFC substitutes for refrigeration equipment, (2) incorporating the cost of externalities into utility electricity generation, and (3) indoor air quality. The paper shows how environmental issues are being taken into account in planning the US R ampersand D program in building energy technologies. 27 refs

  8. Issues in using epidemiologic data to estimate cancer risks from environmental chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picciotto, I.-H.; Neutra, R.; Alexeeff, G.; Lipsett, M.; Holtzman, D. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (USA))

    Quantitative assessment of cancer is an important health policy application of environmental epidemiology. This paper addresses how epidemiology can reduce uncertainty in estimates of cancer risk from environmental exposures. To extrapolate to low levels, epidemiologic studies need well-qualified exposure data, adequate control of confounding, and a positive dose-response trend. In cases such as cadmium and arsenic, a critical issue is the shape of the dose-response curve. The data on arsenic suggest that assumption of linearity may under-estimate risk. Other uncertainties arise in extrapolating from adult males in occupational settings to a heterogeneous population exposed environmentally. Epidemiologic studies with less exposure data or negative findings may be used for a risk assessment based on animal data (e.g., ethylene dibromide, ethylene oxide, and methylene chloride). Then the hypothesized effect level for humans depends on the animal-based potency and estimated human exposures. Therefore, statistical power hinges on study size and on exposure levels (ethylene oxide, methylene chloride, and saccharin). Comparisons of human epidemiologic data and animal bioassays may permit the rejection of models and a narrowing of the range of plausible risks (e.g., ethylene dibromide, cadmium), or suggest that the animal-based assessment is not contradicted by the epidemiologic data (e.g., ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, methylene chloride).

  9. Socio-Environmental Issues of Marginal Territories within the Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIANA TOTH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The territorial system overlapping cross-border areas shapes a particularly dynamic and complex functional area. This paper synthesises several research outcomes regarding the social and environmental dysfunctions and opportunities defining the marginal territories that were emphasised during the ‘Analysis and diagnosis of the current situation in the cross-border area’, a phase of the project ‘Common Strategy of Sustainable Territorial Development of the Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Area’ (SPATIAL. The main indicators concerning the population structure and movement highlight a series of problematic aspects within the cross-border area: population decline, significant rural population concentration on the Romanian side, demographic ageing, increase in the age dependency ratio, and a negative natural growth and migration rate. The analysis also indicates areas of socio-demographic potential that are marked by population growth, a significant young population presence that is convergent with an important share of active population. In this perspective, the spatial analysis also focused on identifying natural drivers affecting development and restrictive factors, on the environmental quality evaluation, as well as on establishing areas exposed to natural and technological risks. Therefore, delineating and analysing components underlying social and environmental processes were intended to determine those issues and opportunities considered to influence the evolution of this potentially functional area.

  10. The Transmission of Environmental Values from Sources of Influence to Young Adults: Toward an Understanding of the Process Leading to Environmental Values Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depper, Gina L.

    2017-01-01

    The world faces significant environmental challenges due largely to unsustainable human behavior. Values have been found to be a direct and indirect predictor of human behavior and understanding how they are formed/influenced is critical to any strategy of behavioral change. Our understanding of how environmental values are transmitted and…

  11. Environmental contaminants: assessment and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallero, Daniel A

    2004-01-01

    ... Understanding Policy by Understanding Science Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Science Environmental Assessment and Intervention Engineering Technical Note: Cleaning up a Hazardous Waste Site Social Aspects of Environmental Science Introduction to Environmental Policy The National Environmental Policy Act Issues in Environmental Science: Co...

  12. The application of nuclear science technology to understanding and solving environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuk, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has for many years been involved in applying nuclear science-based and related technologies to the understanding of environmental processes and to the development and implementation of practical and effective solutions to site specific problems, for a broad spectrum of industry, government regulatory agencies, and other organisations in Australia, Europe, North and South America and South East Asia. ANSTO's environmental science program arose out of the need for research to predict, measure, evaluate and monitor the environmental impacts associated with : uranium mining and processing in Australia; the operation of the research reactor at Lucas Heights; and the safe treatment and disposal of radioactive and conventional wastes associated with these activities. The expertise developed in these activities, has found application to a much broader range of environmental concerns. This paper will present an overview of ANSTO's application of nuclear science-based techniques to, inter alia: coastal and marine studies; minesite rehabilitation; transport and geochemical modelling of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic chemicals in the geosphere; the application of naturally-occurring radionuclides and radioactive tracers to corrosion and sedimentation studies in the coastal environment; dating sediments, fish corals and archaeological samples; the understanding of the kinetics and the physiological responses of aquatic organisms to radionuclides and metals in the environment: and the use of aquatic organism as archival and 'realtime' monitors of pollutants

  13. U.S. national issues on environmental hydrology and hydrogeology - Local and emerging global perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, J.M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In the US, hydrologic considerations have risen to the forefront of a number of important national issues. These issues focus on aspects of water availability and quality, but also impact other environmental, economic, and social situations. Surface-water resources in the US are essentially allocated and new socioenvironmental concerns may limit further surface-water exploitation. Ground-water use is increasing, but availability is not uniform. Some areas suffer from ground-water depletion and associated social and economic hardships. The quality of US coastal waters, rivers, lakes, and ground-water resources has seriously deteriorated in the last fifty years. Pollution is ubiquitous; vast sums of money have been spent in attempts at remediation. New methods for the disposal of sewage, industrial wastes, and nuclear wastes and for water treatment must be developed. Furthermore, the widespread agricultural contamination of ground water is just now being documented. This is leading to development of well-head protection criteria, a small but important venture into land-use planning. It is in comprehensive land-use planning that hydrology and hydrogeology should be of greatest value. The loss of prime agricultural lands and wildlife habitat as well as localized problems, such as flooding, subsidence, and pollution of water resources are problems which require vigorous emerging global issues will place great reliance on hydrologists and hydrogeologists of the future. Potential climate changes may alter our water resources base; population growth and third-world development will stress global water resources; aerosols are polluting water resources; and pollution does not stop at national boundaries. How to solve these newly emerging global problems is also an important US national issue

  14. Kindergarten Teachers' Conceptual Framework on the Ozone Layer Depletion. Exploring the Associative Meanings of a Global Environmental Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskolia, Maria; Flogaitis, Evgenia; Papageorgiou, Evgenia

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted among Greek kindergarten teachers aiming to explore their conceptual frameworks on a major environmental issue of our times: the ozone layer depletion. The choice of this particular issue was premised on its novelty, complexity and abstractness which present teachers with difficulties in its teaching. A free…

  15. Is Hunting Still Healthy? Understanding the Interrelationships between Indigenous Participation in Land-Based Practices and Human-Environmental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically.

  16. Is hunting still healthy? Understanding the interrelationships between indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

    2014-05-28

    Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically.

  17. Rediscovering nature as commons in environmental planning: new understandings through dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaela Vasstrom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A core challenge in environmental planning is the gap between a strong participatory ethos and top-down defined nature protection policies. Nature protection policies for large areas are concerned with securing ecological biodiversity and wildlife habitats against increasing societal claims. Such planning objectives also affect the socio-economic and cultural relations between the local community and the area they live in, and raise conflicts between local and national protection objectives and steering levels. Despite attempts to facilitate participatory planning approaches as a means of reducing conflict, nature protection continues to be contested in local communities. This paper explores the different understandings of nature at play between citizens and planning authorities throughout a habitat protection planning process in Norway. The paper discusses whether environmental planning of large spatial areas could develop communication arenas designed to deliberate different understandings of an area as a matter of commons between institutional planning perspectives of nature protection and (local understandings of the area as part of everyday life. The paper sheds light on how large spatial areas are understood at different government levels and from everyday life orientations, and how these could be used to develop mutual understandings of the area as a common.

  18. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-08-01

    Among other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses) and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word). A significant number of names (61.3%) failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words) and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words) contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  19. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAmong other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word. A significant number of names (61.3% failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  20. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Tight Western Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, E.F.; Cowan, C.E.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1980-02-01

    Results of a study to identify and evaluate potential public health and safety problems and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Tight Western Sands are reported. A brief discussion of economic and technical constraints to development of this resource is also presented to place the environmental and safety issues in perspective. A description of the resource base, recovery techniques, and possible environmental effects associated with tight gas sands is presented.

  1. Life Prediction Issues in Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coatings in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Brewer, David N.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2001-01-01

    Issues and design requirements for the environmental barrier coating (EBC)/thermal barrier coating (TBC) life that are general and those specific to the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) development program have been described. The current state and trend of the research, methods in vogue related to the failure analysis, and long-term behavior and life prediction of EBCITBC systems are reported. Also, the perceived failure mechanisms, variables, and related uncertainties governing the EBCITBC system life are summarized. A combined heat transfer and structural analysis approach based on the oxidation kinetics using the Arrhenius theory is proposed to develop a life prediction model for the EBC/TBC systems. Stochastic process-based reliability approach that includes the physical variables such as gas pressure, temperature, velocity, moisture content, crack density, oxygen content, etc., is suggested. Benefits of the reliability-based approach are also discussed in the report.

  2. Research and Development initiative of Satellite Technology Application for Environmental Issues in Asia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, K.; Kaneko, Y.; Sobue, S.; Oyoshi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change and human activities are directly or indirectly influence the acceleration of environmental problems and natural hazards such as forest fires, drought and floods in the Asia-Pacific countries. Satellite technology has become one of the key information sources in assessment, monitoring and mitigation of these hazards and related phenomenon. However, there are still gaps between science and application of space technology in practical usage. Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) recommended to initiate the Space Applications for Environment (SAFE) proposal providing opportunity to potential user agencies in the Asia Pacific region to develop prototype applications of space technology for number of key issues including forest resources management, coastal monitoring and management, agriculture and food security, water resource management and development user-friendly tools for application of space technology. The main activity of SAFE is SAFE prototyping. SAFE prototyping is a demonstration for end users and decision makers to apply space technology applications for solving environmental issues in Asia-Pacific region. By utilizing space technology and getting technical support by experts, prototype executers can develop the application system, which could support decision making activities. SAFE holds a workshop once a year. In the workshop, new prototypes are approved and the progress of on-going prototypes are confirmed. Every prototype is limited for two years period and all activities are operated by volunteer manner. As of 2016, 20 prototypes are completed and 6 prototypes are on-going. Some of the completed prototypes, for example drought monitoring in Indonesia were applied to operational use by a local official organization.

  3. Understanding and Mitigating Multicore Performance Issues on theAMD Opteron Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, John; Larkin, Jeff; Foster, Martyn; Glenski, Joe; Geissler, Garry; Whalen, Stephen; Waldecker, Brian; Carter, Jonathan; Skinner, David; He, Helen; Wasserman, Harvey; Shalf, John; Shan,Hongzhang; Strohmaier, Erich

    2007-03-07

    Over the past 15 years, microprocessor performance hasdoubled approximately every 18 months through increased clock rates andprocessing efficiency. In the past few years, clock frequency growth hasstalled, and microprocessor manufacturers such as AMD have moved towardsdoubling the number of cores every 18 months in order to maintainhistorical growth rates in chip performance. This document investigatesthe ramifications of multicore processor technology on the new Cray XT4?systems based on AMD processor technology. We begin by walking throughthe AMD single-core and dual-core and upcoming quad-core processorarchitectures. This is followed by a discussion of methods for collectingperformance counter data to understand code performance on the Cray XT3?and XT4? systems. We then use the performance counter data to analyze theimpact of multicore processors on the performance of microbenchmarks suchas STREAM, application kernels such as the NAS Parallel Benchmarks, andfull application codes that comprise the NERSC-5 SSP benchmark suite. Weexplore compiler options and software optimization techniques that canmitigate the memory bandwidth contention that can reduce computingefficiency on multicore processors. The last section provides a casestudy of applying the dual-core optimizations to the NAS ParallelBenchmarks to dramatically improve their performance.

  4. Preservice special education teachers' understandings, enactments, views, and plans for scientific inquiry: Issues and hopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajlakshmi

    This study examined the understandings, enactments, views, and plans for scientific inquiry held by preservice special education teachers enrolled in a K--8 general science methods course. Sixteen participants from four special education concentration areas---Mild to Moderate Educational Needs, Moderate to Intense Educational Needs, Mild to Moderate Educational Needs with Language Arts and Reading Emphasis, and Early Childhood Intervention---participated in this study. Qualitative data were collected from questionnaires, interviews, teaching videos, lesson plans, planning commentaries, and reflection papers. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) and compared against the theoretical view of inquiry as conceptualized by the National Research Council (NRC, 2000). The participants held unique interpretations of inquiry that only partially matched with the theoretical insights provided by the NRC. The participants' previous science learning experiences and experiences in special education played an important role in shaping their conceptualizations of inquiry as learned in the science methods class. The impacts of such unique interpretations are discussed with reference to both science education and special education, and implications for teacher education are provided.

  5. A socioecological framework to understand weight-related issues in Aboriginal children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Noreen D; Hanley, Anthony J G; Delormier, Treena

    2012-02-01

    Obesity prevention efforts in Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, or Inuit) communities in Canada should focus predominantly on children given their demographic significance and the accelerated time course of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Aboriginal population. A socioecological model to address childhood obesity in Aboriginal populations would focus on the numerous environments at different times in childhood that influence weight status, including prenatal, sociocultural, family, and community environments. Importantly, for Aboriginal children, obesity interventions need to also be situated within the context of a history of colonization and inequities in the social determinants of health. This review therefore advocates for the inclusion of a historical perspective and a life-course approach to obesity prevention in Aboriginal children in addition to developing interventions around the socioecological framework. We emphasize that childhood obesity prevention efforts should focus on promoting maternal health behaviours before and during pregnancy, and on breastfeeding and good infant and child nutrition in the postpartum and early childhood development periods. Ameliorating food insecurity by focusing on improving the sociodemographic risk factors for it, such as increasing income and educational attainment, are essential. More research is required to understand and measure obesogenic Aboriginal environments, to examine how altering specific environments modifies the foods that children eat and the activities that they do, and to examine how restoring and rebuilding cultural continuity in Aboriginal communities modifies the many determinants of obesity. This research needs to be done with the full participation of Aboriginal communities as partners in the research.

  6. Environmental Decision Making on Acid Mine Drainage Issues in South Africa: An Argument for the Precautionary Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morodi, T J; Mpofu, Charles

    2017-06-28

    This paper examines the issue of acid mine drainage in South Africa and environmental decision making processes that could be taken to mitigate the problem in the context of both conventional risk assessment and the precautionary principle. It is argued that conventional risk assessment protects the status quo and hence cannot be entirely relied upon as an effective tool to resolve environmental problems in the context of South Africa, a developing country with complex environmental health concerns. The complexity of the environmental issues is discussed from historical and political perspectives. An argument is subsequently made that the precautionary principle is an alternative tool, and its adoption can be used to empower local communities. This work, therefore, adds to new knowledge by problematising conventional risk assessment and proposing the framing of the acid mine drainage issues in a complex and contextual scenario of a developing country-South Africa.

  7. Integrating Social Science, Environmental Science, and Engineering to Understand Vulnerability and Resilience to Environmental Hazards in the Bengal Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Goodbred, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    In populated delta environments, it is impossible to separate human and natural systems. Human activities change the landscape by altering the dynamics of water and sediment and in return, humans themselves are affected by the natural and anthropogenic changes to the landscape. Such interactions can also have significant impacts on the ecology and natural resources of a delta system, affecting local and regional food supply, livelihoods, and economies, particularly in developing nations. Successful adaptation to environmental change in a strongly coupled human-natural system, such as the Bengal delta, requires understanding how the physical environment and the changing social, political, and economic conditions of people's lives interact. Research on human-delta interactions has largely focused on macro-scale effects from major dams, water diversions, and catchment-scale land use; but at the smaller scale of households and communities, decisions, actions, and outcomes may occur abruptly and have significant local impacts (positive or negative). Southwest Bangladesh experiences profound environmental problems at the local human-landscape interface, including groundwater salinity, soil fertility, conflicting land-use practices, management of engineering structures, and declining land-surface elevations. The impacts of climate-induced sea-level rise, especially with respect to population migration, receive great attention and concern, but neither sea level rise nor migration occurs against a background of static physical or human environments. For example, changing land use (e.g., building embankments, which affect drainage, sediment transport, and the evolution of tidal channels; and the transformation of rice fields to shrimp aquaculture, which affects soil chemistry, labor markets, river ecology, and possibly the integrity of embankments) can significantly change the impact that sea level rise will have on flood hazards and the resulting effect on people living on

  8. Pathways of understanding: The interactions of humanity and global environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, H.K.; Katzenberger, J.; Lousma, J.; Mooney, H.A.; Moss, R.H.; Kuhn, W.; Luterbacher, U.; Wiegandt, E.

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram

  9. A critical review of gender issues in understanding prolonged disability related to musculoskeletal pain: how are they relevant to rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Daniel; Coutu, Marie-France

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this critical review is to describe the available theoretical models for understanding the gender issues in prolonged work disability related to persistent musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. A critical literature review was conducted in medicine, health sciences, and social sciences databases (MEDLINE, CINHAL, PsychINFO and SOCINDEX) using specific keywords. After screening titles and abstracts, followed by methodological quality assessment, a total of 55 references were retained for content analysis. Gender issues in disability related to persistent MSK pain show that men and women may experience pain and rehabilitation process in different ways. Three main themes were exftracted and further described: (1) the experience of distrust; (2) the self-identity process; and (3) the domestic strain. Each of these themes has a specific and potentially different impact on men and women, and we report that experiential differences may strongly impact the rehabilitation process and outcomes such as return to work. This critical review provides insight into gender issues in the process of rehabilitation and outcomes such as return to work. We suggest that work and family considerations are the two most important issues in the rehabilitation process and that differences between men and women are likely to occur.

  10. Implementation of Socioscientific Issues Instruction to Fostering Students’ Decision Making Based Gender on Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, H. P.; Siahaan, P.; Yuliani, G.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation socioscientific issues (SSI) instruction to examine students’ decision making based gender. Selection of environmental problem based on the consideration this issue has potential to evaluate from various scientific disciplines and may initiate to make decision. The participant was students grade VII in South Sulawesi. Pre experiment method was utilized in study with one group pre-test and post-test design. The instrument used in this study comprised of open-ended question, observation sheets for group discussion, sheet for interview and observation sheet of implementation instruction in class. The result indicated that instruction has been implemented successfully. It was found that pre-test and post-test was fostered with N-gain for male and female in medium category. Based on independent t test was found there was no difference improvement of decision making between male and female students. The group showed there was no difference between male group and female group, but a significant difference was noted in mix group. Students and teacher give positive response to the implementation of instruction. It is concluded that science instruction based SSI can be implemented to foster male and female decision making by forming group discussion.

  11. Environmental impact assessment and socio political issues of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmaajaervi, I.; Tolsa, H.

    1997-09-01

    The study is a part of the Publicly Administrated Nuclear Waste Management Research Programme (JYT2) which was carried out in 1994-1996. The principal goal of the research programme has been to provide the authorities with information and research results relevant for the safety of nuclear waste management in order to support the various activities of the authorities. The main emphasis of the research programme focuses on the disposal of spent fuel. In addition to nuclear waste research in the field of natural sciences and technology, the research program- me has focused mostly on societal issues associated with nuclear waste disposal facilities and on the non-radiological environmental effects in the environs of the disposal site. Some of the local effects are already revealed in the research phase, before any final decisions are made as to the selection of the disposal site. The study has focused primarily on local and regional issues. The statutory requirement to conduct environ- mental impact assessment (EIA) chiefly concerns those who are responsible for waste management, but the authorities also need to acquire systematic information in the field to support developing requirements for the content and scope of EIA procedure and preparedness to check the assessments made. This is a report of the first parts of the study in 1994-1995. The report deals with the subject matter generally based on earlier studies in Finland and other countries. The results of the study will be reported later

  12. Understanding consumer participation in mental health: Issues of power and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Wanda; Cross, Wendy; Bloomer, Melissa

    2011-06-01

    Consumer participation occurs in all Victorian public mental health services. Area mental health services employ consumer consultants to enhance consumer participation across the network. Ongoing support of management is essential to the success of consumer participation. This project aimed to explore understandings of consumer participation from a manager's perspective. Semistructured interviews were conducted with seven participants in this qualitative, interpretive study. The thematic analysis revealed the complexities around defining consumer participation and demonstrated the difficulties and possible reasons as to why there is no real clarity between managers, service providers, and consumers as to what consumer participation should look like. Power and change were the primary themes. Power and the overwhelming consensus that the medical model and those working within it hold the most power was strongly represented in this study. Legislation and workplace settings were seen as considerable factors adding to the disempowerment of consumers within an already disempowering mental health system. Change was the other main theme that emerged, with culture and attitudes of the old 'institutionalized' thinking that still pervades some pockets of mental health services being seen as the major barriers to change. The role of the consumer consultant was a prominent subtheme, with their role in training and the education of workers seen as an essential and positive way to progress consumer participation. These findings demonstrate that managers consider there to be hope for consumers, brought about by collective action and lobbying, and through consumer participation in less-restrictive parts of the service (community settings). © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  13. Environmental risks of HBCDD from construction and demolition waste: a contemporary and future issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Ziliang; Fang, Yanyan; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Xingrun; Die, Qingqi; Gao, Xingbao; Zhang, Fengsong; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2015-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), as one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is of great concern globally because of its persistence in the environment and negative impacts on humans and animals. HBCDD has been mainly used in flame-retarded expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for insulation in the construction industry. Most of these products will become a part of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste at the end of their life cycle (30-50 years) which is typically disposed of into landfills or incineration. However, the recycling of this material takes quite a low share compared with landfill and incineration. Consequently, high environmental risks will exist in these disposal approaches due to the HBCDD in C&D waste. Currently, XPS or EPS products containing HBCDD in the construction industry have not reached the end of their life cycle in most countries. Relatively little attention has been paid to this emergency issue by either the government or public. Furthermore, C&D waste is most likely disposed of by direct dumping, simple stacking, or open burning in developing countries. Therefore, this paper highlights the global environmental risks of HBCDD from C&D waste. Areas of research for key problems of HBCDD contained in C&D waste are suggested to help control and finally eliminate the impact.

  14. Regional Studies Program. Extraction of North Dakota lignite: environmental and reclamation issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Dvorak, A.J.

    1976-12-01

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, addresses the environmental implications of extraction of coal in North Dakota. These implications are supported by details of the geologic and historical background of the area of focus, the lignite resources in the Fort Union coalfield portion. The particular concentration is on the four-county area of Mercer, Dunn, McLean, and Oliver where substantial coal reserves exist and a potential gasification plant site has been identified. The purposes of this extensive study are to identify the land use and environmental problems and issues associated with extraction; to provide a base of information for assessing the impacts of various levels of extraction; to examine the economics and feasibility of reclamation; and to identify research that needs to be undertaken to evaluate and to improve reclamation practices. The study also includes a description of the physical and chemical soil characteristics and hydrological and climatic factors entailed in extraction, revegetation, and reclamation procedures.

  15. Environmental issues and process risks for operation of carbon capture plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajnert Radosław

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this publication is a presentation of environmental issues and process risks connected with operation an installation for carbon capture from waste gas. General technological assumptions, typical for demonstration plant for carbon capture from waste gas (DCCP with application of two different solutions – 30% water solution of monoethanoloamine (MEA and water solution with 30% AMP (2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and 10% piperazine have been described. The concept of DCCP installation was made for Łaziska Power Plant in Łaziska Górne owned by TAURON Wytwarzanie S.A. Main hazardous substances, typical for such installation, which can be dangerous for human life and health or for the environment have been presented. Pollution emission to the air, noise emission, waste water and solid waste management have been described. The environmental impact of the released substances has been stated. Reference to emission standards specified in regulations for considered substances has been done. Principles of risk analysis have been presented and main hazards in carbon dioxide absorption node and regeneration node have been evaluated.

  16. Environmental issues and process risks for operation of carbon capture plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajnert, Radosław; Nowak, Martyna; Telenga-Kopyczyńska, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this publication is a presentation of environmental issues and process risks connected with operation an installation for carbon capture from waste gas. General technological assumptions, typical for demonstration plant for carbon capture from waste gas (DCCP) with application of two different solutions - 30% water solution of monoethanoloamine (MEA) and water solution with 30% AMP (2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol) and 10% piperazine have been described. The concept of DCCP installation was made for Łaziska Power Plant in Łaziska Górne owned by TAURON Wytwarzanie S.A. Main hazardous substances, typical for such installation, which can be dangerous for human life and health or for the environment have been presented. Pollution emission to the air, noise emission, waste water and solid waste management have been described. The environmental impact of the released substances has been stated. Reference to emission standards specified in regulations for considered substances has been done. Principles of risk analysis have been presented and main hazards in carbon dioxide absorption node and regeneration node have been evaluated.

  17. PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN HUMANS AND WILDLIFE: EMERGING ISSUES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants persevere in the environment for a long time, are toxic to humans and/or wildlife, and have a resilient propensity to bioaccumulate in the food chain. Due to its chemical stability, their lipid solubility, and its ubiquitous prevalence in environmental, these pollutants are disposed to long-range transport. The success of modern societies is in part based on extensive achievements of chemistry with a systematic development of products in medicine, agriculture, and in almost all manufacturing industry sectors and materials for daily use. Although, these chemicals unequivocally contribute to the quality of life for billions of human beings, however, the negative impacts to environment and health are an important issue for ostensible monitoring. Social and environmental benefits should not be ignored, in spite of economic forces.The recognition that prevention is the best method to mitigate the risk of diseases to public health related to the environment, mainly driven by technological development, becomes essential the individuation and quantification of toxicological endpoints for systematic monitoring of these emerging pollutants.

  18. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  19. Application of Environmental Conflict Resolution to Public Interest Issues in Water Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jeffrey QC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of environmental conflict resolution (ECR in the public interest issues of water disputes. The article endeavours to  illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of a range of alternative dispute resolution (ADR and negotiation approaches in the context of decision-making. Although many embrace ECR as the cheaper and more effective alternative to more formalistic and entrenched judicial processes before courts of law and quasi-judicial tribunals, the authors argue that there is an urgent need for a more critical, contextual and issue-oriented approach. In particular, the article highlights the significant difficulties associated with representing the full range of stakeholders who should be involved in an ADR process, and the lack of transparency and procedural safeguards associated with ADR in complex public interest disputes. The strength of ADR in smaller project-specific disputes involving a very limited number of stakeholders is well understood. The authors argue that ADR may have a significant role in scoping the issues and associated research as well as facilitating agreement on procedural aspects of large, complex public interest water disputes. However, ADR has severe limitations as a decision-making process. For example, water conflicts necessarily involve the concept of sustainability that in turn touches on a complex maze of social, political, economic and ecological values. The probability of reaching a mediated settlement in such a context is severely curtailed. A preferable approach may be one that is entirely transparent, capable of being both monitored and enforced, and is binding on all stakeholders whether or not they are parties to the mediation.

  20. New perspectives in ecosystem services science as instruments to understand environmental securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Ferdinando; Voigt, Brian; Erickson, Jon D.

    2014-01-01

    As societal demand for food, water and other life-sustaining resources grows, the science of ecosystem services (ES) is seen as a promising tool to improve our understanding, and ultimately the management, of increasingly uncertain supplies of critical goods provided or supported by natural ecosystems. This promise, however, is tempered by a relatively primitive understanding of the complex systems supporting ES, which as a result are often quantified as static resources rather than as the dynamic expression of human–natural systems. This article attempts to pinpoint the minimum level of detail that ES science needs to achieve in order to usefully inform the debate on environmental securities, and discusses both the state of the art and recent methodological developments in ES in this light. We briefly review the field of ES accounting methods and list some desiderata that we deem necessary, reachable and relevant to address environmental securities through an improved science of ES. We then discuss a methodological innovation that, while only addressing these needs partially, can improve our understanding of ES dynamics in data-scarce situations. The methodology is illustrated and discussed through an application related to water security in the semi-arid landscape of the Great Ruaha river of Tanzania. PMID:24535393

  1. The Exposome Research Paradigm: an Opportunity to Understand the Environmental Basis for Human Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck Louis, Germaine M; Smarr, Melissa M; Patel, Chirag J

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the exposome research paradigm with particular application to understanding human reproduction and development and its implications for health across a lifespan. The exposome research paradigm has generated considerable discussion about its feasibility and utility for delineating the impact of environmental exposures on human health. Early initiatives are underway, including smaller proof-of-principle studies and larger concerted efforts. Despite the notable challenges underlying the exposome paradigm, analytic techniques are being developed to handle its untargeted approach and correlated and multi-level or hierarchical data structures such initiatives generate, while considering multiple comparisons. The relatively short intervals for critical and sensitive windows of human reproduction and development seem well suited for exposome research and may revolutionize our understanding of later onset diseases. Early initiatives suggest that the exposome paradigm is feasible, but its utility remains to be established with applications to population human health research.

  2. 3D Geological Mapping - uncovering the subsurface to increase environmental understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Mathers, S.; Peach, D.

    2012-12-01

    Geological understanding is required for many disciplines studying natural processes from hydrology to landscape evolution. The subsurface structure of rocks and soils and their properties occupies three-dimensional (3D) space and geological processes operate in time. Traditionally geologists have captured their spatial and temporal knowledge in 2 dimensional maps and cross-sections and through narrative, because paper maps and later two dimensional geographical information systems (GIS) were the only tools available to them. Another major constraint on using more explicit and numerical systems to express geological knowledge is the fact that a geologist only ever observes and measures a fraction of the system they study. Only on rare occasions does the geologist have access to enough real data to generate meaningful predictions of the subsurface without the input of conceptual understanding developed from and knowledge of the geological processes responsible for the deposition, emplacement and diagenesis of the rocks. This in turn has led to geology becoming an increasingly marginalised science as other disciplines have embraced the digital world and have increasingly turned to implicit numerical modelling to understand environmental processes and interactions. Recent developments in geoscience methodology and technology have gone some way to overcoming these barriers and geologists across the world are beginning to routinely capture their knowledge and combine it with all available subsurface data (of often highly varying spatial distribution and quality) to create regional and national geological three dimensional geological maps. This is re-defining the way geologists interact with other science disciplines, as their concepts and knowledge are now expressed in an explicit form that can be used downstream to design process models structure. For example, groundwater modellers can refine their understanding of groundwater flow in three dimensions or even directly

  3. Using Interactive Case Studies to Support Students Understandings of Local Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kostova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents designed and refined an interactive-enhanced curriculum module for 9th grade secondary school students in Bulgaria, based on environmental case studies. In the module activities students from two schools studied the local environments, performed observations and experiments, collected and analyzed data, prepared and presented posters and role plays, made connections between scientific processes and socio-scientific issues and drew conclusions about the global effects of locally created environmental problems. The students’ critical observations of the quality of their surroundings helped them to make a list of local environmental problems, to apply interactive strategies in studying them and to propose rational scientifically based solutions. In the study the attention was directed to the advantages and disadvantages of poster presentations and role playing and to the specific learning difficulties that students had to overcome. Students’ achievements from the two experimental schools were assessed independently in order to give us insights into the details of learning using different interactive strategies and into the acquired performance skills, dependant on students’ interests and personal abilities. The three versions of the module (traditional, dominated by teacher presentation; poster preparation and presentation in which students imitate scientific team research; and role playing in which students not only study the local environmental problems but assume social roles to cope with them demonstrate three levels of students learning independence. Specific assessment tests and check lists were developed for analyzing, evaluating and comparing students’ achievements in each version of the module and in each school. Ecological knowledge assessment tests were based on Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Poster and role playing preparations and presentations were assessed by specific criteria, shown in the

  4. A systematic approach to analyzing environmental issues involving complex systems (a web-based course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marston Johnston

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The course “Conceptual Modeling for Decision Support” (Univ. Gothenburg, Sweden is a web-based course, given the first time in October 2015. This introduction and other supporting documents on the website intend to provide a background for independent work with the five tutorials that comprise the core of this course. The openly accessible website will allow study at any time, but can ideally be combined with the blended-learning course in “Environmental Geology” or with project work at various institutes in the relevant cooperation networks. The introduction below develops both the philosophical and the practical framework for modeling environmental systems. Differences in scale, time and the complexity are necessary to consider when evaluating the parameters within the system, but modeling is also an attempt to simplify in order to understand the net effects of the combined components. Multi-criteria evaluation allows predictive modelling by combining the typically qualitative and quantitative information from multidisciplinary sources.  The course structure and tutorials are briefly presented.

  5. Understanding Unintended Consequences and Health Information Technology:. Contribution from the IMIA Organizational and Social Issues Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemsky, C E; Randell, R; Borycki, E M

    2016-11-10

    No framework exists to identify and study unintended consequences (UICs) with a focus on organizational and social issues (OSIs). To address this shortcoming, we conducted a literature review to develop a framework for considering UICs and health information technology (HIT) from the perspective of OSIs. A literature review was conducted for the period 2000- 2015 using the search terms "unintended consequences" and "health information technology". 67 papers were screened, of which 18 met inclusion criteria. Data extraction was focused on the types of technologies studied, types of UICs identified, and methods of data collection and analysis used. A thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to UICs. We identified two overarching themes. One was the definition and terminology of how people classify and discuss UICs. Second was OSIs and UICs. For the OSI theme, we also identified four sub-themes: process change and evolution, individual-collaborative interchange, context of use, and approaches to model, study, and understand UICs. While there is a wide body of research on UICs, there is a lack of overall consensus on how they should be classified and reported, limiting our ability to understand the implications of UICs and how to manage them. More mixed-methods research and better proactive identification of UICs remain priorities. Our findings and framework of OSI considerations for studying UICs and HIT extend existing work on HIT and UICs by focusing on organizational and social issues.

  6. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  7. Landscape ecological assessment: a tool for integrating biodiversity issues in strategic environmental assessment and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtberg, U M; Balfors, B; Knol, W C

    2007-03-01

    To achieve a sustainable development, impacts on biodiversity of urbanisation, new infrastructure projects and other land use changes must be considered on landscape and regional scales. This requires that important decisions are made after a systematic evaluation of environmental impacts. Landscape ecology can provide a conceptual framework for the assessment of consequences of long-term development processes like urbanisation on biodiversity components, and for evaluating and visualising the impacts of alternative planning scenarios. The aim of this paper was to develop methods for integrating biodiversity issues in planning and strategic environmental assessment in an urbanising environment, on landscape and regional levels. In order to test developed methods, a case study was conducted in the region of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, and the study area embraced the city centre, suburbs and peri-urban areas. Focal species were tested as indicators of habitat quality, quantity and connectivity in the landscape. Predictive modelling of habitat distribution in geographic information systems involved the modelling of focal species occurrences based on empirical data, incorporated in a landscape ecological decision support system. When habitat models were retrieved, they were applied on future planning scenarios in order to predict and assess the impacts on focal species. The scenario involving a diffuse exploitation pattern had the greatest negative impacts on the habitat networks of focal species. The scenarios with concentrated exploitation also had negative impacts, although they were possible to mitigate quite easily. The predictions of the impacts on habitats networks of focal species made it possible to quantify, integrate and visualise the effects of urbanisation scenarios on aspects of biodiversity on a landscape level.

  8. Secondary salinisation in the Indus basin of Pakistan: an environmental issue of irrigated agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Kahlown, M.A.; Prathapar, S.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    The increasing awareness of environmental issues has created a serious concern about the adverse social and environmental impacts of irrigation and water resources development projects in many developing countries. In Pakistan, development of the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS), which serves 16 million ha, and distributes 172 billion cubic meters of high quality river water per annum, has caused the secondary salinization. An area of about 2 Mha is estimated to be severely salinized. In most of the cases, secondary salinity is caused by shallow saline groundwater and inadequate amounts of irrigation water for leaching salts from root zone. However, intensive use of poor quality groundwater without improving its quality also converts good agricultural lands into salt-affected lands. About 70 to 80 percent of tube wells of the Indus Plain pump sodic water, as a result of which large tracts of irrigated land have become sodic. The secondary salinity has devoured the potential of agricultural lands causing poor yield of crops. The affected lands are either lying barren or give poor yield of crops. As a result of salinization about 28,000 to 40,000 ha of irrigated land are going out of production per year. In response, researchers, policy makers, agency personnel and farmers in Pakistan have continuously devised strategies to mitigate secondary salinization. In this paper, nature and causes of secondary salinization, and review of strategies developed and tested in the IBIS to mitigate salinization are presented. Appropriate combination of strategies for various canal commands, and areas requiring further investigations are identified. (author)

  9. Understanding the Impact of Anthropogenic and Environmental Changes on Dengue Fever Cases in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Serman, E. A.; Couret, J.; Puggioni, G.; Ginsberg, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Worldwide, there are an estimated 50-100 million cases of dengue fever each year, roughly 30 times the number of cases as 50 years ago. Dengue was introduced to Puerto Rico (PR) in 1963 and it has experienced epidemic activity ever since. There have been 4 large epidemics since 1990, the most recent in 2010 where almost 27,000 cases were reported. Vaccine development remains in the testing stages, and years away from mass distribution. Effective control thus depends on our understanding of the complex relationships between environmental and anthropogenic factors, mosquito vector ecology, and disease epidemiology. Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which also carry the Zika virus, and humans in urban environments are their preferred hosts. The purpose of our analysis is to identify trends between anthropogenic and environmental changes and dengue fever cases in PR over the past 15 years. Data on housing and population density, percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy at the municipality level were procured from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MLRC) project, respectively. Land cover data from the National Land Cover Database, created by USGS and NOAA, as well as environmental data from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), were also used. Smaller land cover and green space analysis studies have been performed for PR, but this is the first study to consider the island as a whole, and in six distinct regions, with regards to increases in dengue fever cases. The results from this study can be used to understand the effects of urbanization and climate change on vector-borne disease transmission in PR and to project the impact of growing sub-urban and urban areas on dengue cases in coming years. Our results could also be used to assess Dengue and Zika transmission in growing megacites of the world, where urban slums provide a favorable habitat for Ae. aegypti and foster

  10. Improving our understanding of environmental controls on the distribution of C3 and C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Stephanie; Edwards, Erika J; Still, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the ecological sorting of C3 and C4 grasses along temperature and moisture gradients. However, previous studies of C3 and C4 grass biogeography have often inadvertently compared species in different and relatively unrelated lineages, which are associated with different environmental settings and distinct adaptive traits. Such confounded comparisons of C3 and C4 grasses may bias our understanding of ecological sorting imposed strictly by photosynthetic pathway. Here, we used MaxEnt species distribution modeling in combination with satellite data to understand the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses by comparing both large clades and closely related sister taxa. Similar to previous work, we found that C4 grasses showed a preference for regions with higher temperatures and lower precipitation compared with grasses using the C3 pathway. However, air temperature differences were smaller (2 °C vs. 4 °C) and precipitation and % tree cover differences were larger (1783 mm vs. 755 mm, 21.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively) when comparing C3 and C4 grasses within the same clade vs. comparing all C4 and all C3 grasses (i.e., ignoring phylogenetic structure). These results were due to important differences in the environmental preferences of C3 BEP and PACMAD clades (the two main grass clades). Winter precipitation was found to be more important for understanding the distribution and environmental niche of C3 PACMADs in comparison with both C3 BEPs and C4 taxa, for which temperature was much more important. Results comparing closely related C3 -C4 sister taxa supported the patterns derived from our modeling of the larger clade groupings. Our findings, which are novel in comparing the distribution and niches of clades, demonstrate that the evolutionary history of taxa is important for understanding the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses, and should have implications for how grasslands will respond to global change. © 2012

  11. Understanding the nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooradian, A.J.

    1976-06-01

    Nuclear power is presented as a necessary power source for the transition from fossil fuels to a no-growth society of the future. It is already economic and on-stream all over the world. Radiation is a very tractable hazard. New fuel cycles would provide extraordinary increases in our nuclear fuel reserves. (E.C.B.)

  12. Environmental Sampling FY03 Annual Report - Understanding the Movement of Mercury on the INEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael L. Abbott

    2003-01-01

    Environmental mercury measurements were started in Fy-01 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) to monitor downwind impacts from on-going waste treatment operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury fate and transport in this region. This document provides a summary of the sampling done in FY04. Continuous total gaseous mercury (TGM) measurements were made using a Tekran Model 2537A mercury vapor analyzer during October 2002 and from February through July 2003. The equipment was deployed in a self-contained field trailer at the Experimental Field Station (EFS) four kilometers downwind (northeast) of INTEC. Mercury surface-to-air flux measurements were made in October 2002 and from February through May 2003 to better understand the fate of the estimated 1500 kg of mercury emitted from 36 years of calciner operations at INTEC and to improve our scientific understanding of mercury environmental cycling in this region. Flux was measured using an INEEL-designed dynamic flux chamber system with a Tekran automated dual sampling (TADS) unit. Diel flux was positively correlated with solar radiation (r = 0.65), air temperature (r = 0.64), and wind speed (r = 0.38), and a general linear model for flux prediction at the INEEL was developed. Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) was measured at EFS in July using a Tekran Model 1130 mercury speciation unit. Based on comparisons with other published data around the U.S., mercury air concentrations and surface flux rates directly downwind from INTEC were not distinguishable from remote area (non-industrial) background levels during the monitoring period

  13. Understanding immune function as a pace of life trait requires environmental context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieleman, B Irene

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a brief historical perspective on the integration of physiology into the concept of the pace of life of birds, evaluates the fit of immune function into this framework, and asks what it will take to fruitfully understand immune functioning of birds in pace of life studies in the future. In the late 1970s, physiology started to seriously enter avian life history ecology, with energy as the main currency of interest, inspired by David Lack's work in the preceding decades emphasizing how food availability explained life history variation. In an effort to understand the trade-off between survival and reproduction, and specifically the mortality costs associated with hard work, in the 1980s and 1990s, other physiological phenomena entered the realm of animal ecologists, including endocrinology, oxidative stress, and immunology. Reviewing studies thus far to evaluate the role of immune function in a life history context and particularly to address the questions whether immune function (1) consistently varies with life history variation among free-living bird species and (2) mediates life history trade-offs in experiments with free-living bird species; I conclude that, unlike energy metabolism, the immune system does not closely covary with life history among species nor mediates the classical trade-offs within individuals. Instead, I propose that understanding the tremendous immunological variation uncovered among free-living birds over the past 25 years requires a paradigm shift. The paradigm should shift from viewing immune function as a costly trait involved in life history trade-offs to explicitly including the benefits of the immune system and placing it firmly in an environmental and ecological context. A first step forward will be to quantify the immunobiotic pressures presented by diverse environmental circumstances that both shape and challenge the immune system of free-living animals. Current developments in the fields of infectious

  14. Understanding organization and institutional changes for management of environmental affairs in the Brazilian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.A.P. de

    2003-01-01

    This article analyzes how governments and an oil company adapted their institutional and organization frameworks to manage actual and potential environmental impacts of oil-related activities in Brazil. Two major factors are important for understanding these changes. First, the monopoly of the state to explore and produce oil is over. Foreign companies have entered Brazil and increased the competitiveness of the oil sector. Second, major oil spills into waterways in recent years resulted in severe fines and an increasing outcry from government and civil society representatives for greater control over oil activities. These two factors raised a debate about what are, or should be, the roles of various stakeholders involved in controlling oil activities and their impacts on the environment. Legislative changes assigned different roles to the state oil company, to a newly created regulatory agency, to the Navy and to federal and state environmental agencies. Because many of the legal changes were not well defined, accountability among institutional actors remained unclear and institutional conflicts about who is accountable for what were likely to occur. As well, government organizations, public prosecutors, media and civil society increasingly influenced the regulation of both government agencies and companies. As a result, these responded to regulatory change and market forces by changing their relations with external stakeholders and their organizational arrangements for environmental management. This article identifies some of the institutional conflicts in selected case studies from the oil industry, the difficulties in clarifying regulatory roles within the industry, and responses in terms of the environmental strategies of regulatory bodies and oil companies, specifically the Brazilian state company, Petrobas. (author)

  15. Understanding students visions about environmental global problems. Experience and lessons learned of teaching in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Siarova, Hanna; Misiūnė, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, environment is accepted to be an important element of our welfare. Our activities and societal status are strongly related with the quality of the environment where we live. On the other hand historical and cultural backgrounds shape importantly our views about the environment and how we act towards it in our daily life. In a context of globalization and increase of competition at international level, knowledge appears to be one of the key components for the advance of the word. Most of the knowledge produced comes from high level education institutions and research centres, which have responsibility to create and encourage critical thinking. Individuals aware of the problems can be more active and can push things forward. We think that environmental knowledge and awareness are fundamental for the future of the society. In order to develop better methodologies are developed if we have a better perception of students understanding of environmental problems. The objective of this work is to study the Lithuanian university level student's perception about some environmental challenges of our society. We selected several questions for the students rate according the relevance of the question, as "Air Pollution", "Waste Management", "Resources overexplotation", "Biodiversity reduction", "Human Overpopulation" "Poverty", "Global Warming/Climate change", Natural disasters", "Terrorism", "Economical crisis", "War and armed conflicts" and the "Spread of infectious diseases". We ask to the respondents to rate the importance using a likert scale (1=Not Important, 2= not so important, 3=important, 4=very important, 5=the most important). Among all the questions, the most rated where the Water pollution, the Spread of infectious diseases and Air Pollution and the less important where Biodiversity Reduction, Human overpopulation and climate change. These results helped us to identify where some efforts should be taken to raise student's awareness about global

  16. Key Durability Issues with Mullite-Based Environmental Barrier Coatings for Si-Based Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2) and mullite/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) dual layer coatings have been developed to protect silicon -based ceramics from environmental attack. Mullite-based coating systems show excellent durability in air. However, in combustion environments, corrosive species such as molten salt or water vapor penetrate through cracks in the coating and attack the Si-based ceramics along the interface. Thus the modification of the coating system for enhanced crack-resistance is necessary for long-term durability in combustion environments. Other key durability issues include interfacial contamination and coating/substrate bonding. Interfacial contamination leads to enhanced oxidation and interfacial pore formation, while a weak coating/substrate bonding leads to rapid attack of the interface by corrosive species, both of which can cause a premature failure of the coating. Interfacial contamination can be minimized by limiting impurities in coating and substrate materials. The interface may be modified to improve the coating/substrate bond.

  17. Enhancing the Australian healthcare sector's responsiveness to environmental sustainability issues: suggestions from Australian healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Jillian L

    2013-05-01

    Identify strategies to implement change across the Australian healthcare sector to better support social and natural environments. Methods. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with Australian healthcare professionals. Interviewees described multiple barriers to implementing change and numerous strategies to overcome these barriers. They argued that action must be taken at the individual and systemic levels to produce substantial and effective change. The strategies recommended fall into four main categories: altering workplace cultures and professional identities, community engagement, political activity, and change from within. The overarching goals of these strategies are to reduce negative impacts on the natural environment, and increase social equity within and across generations. By implementing the strategies described, a more cohesive effort to address sustainability issues across the sector can be made. This may improve local and global health, within current and future generations. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Healthcare has a significant impact on the natural and social environments, which in turn have a significant impact upon health and healthcare. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper describes strategies to alter healthcare to better support environmental sustainability. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Collective implementation of the described strategies may allow a more cohesive and effective response across the Australian healthcare sector, to enhance local and global health for current and future generations.

  18. Current Issues with Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramics and Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental barrier coating (EBC) for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites and Si3N4 ceramics is an emerging field as the application of silicon-based ceramics in the gas turbine engine hot section is on the horizon, both for aero and industrial gas turbines. EBC is an enabling technology for silicon-based ceramics because these materials without an EBC cannot be used in combustion environments due to rapid surface recession. Significant progress in EBC development has been made during the last decade through various government-sponsored programs. Current EBCs are based on silicon, mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and BSAS (barium strontium aluminum silicate with celsian structure). Volatility of BSAS, BSAS-silica chemical reaction, and low melting point of silicon limit temperature capability of current EBCs to about 1350 C for long-term applications. There is a need for higher temperature EBCs as the temperature capability of silicon-based ceramics continue to increase. Therefore, research is underway to develop EBCs with improved temperature capability compared to current EBCs. The current status and issues with the advanced EBC development efforts will be discussed.

  19. Environmental issues and management strategies for waste electronic and electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Timothy G

    2011-06-01

    Issues surrounding the impact and management of discarded or waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) have received increasing attention in recent years. This attention stems from the growing quantity and diversity of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE) used by modern society, the increasingly rapid turnover of EEE with the accompanying burden on the waste stream, and the occurrence of toxic chemicals in many EEE components that can pose a risk to human and environmental health if improperly managed. In addition, public awareness of the WEEE or "e-waste" dilemma has grown in light of popular press features on events such as the transition to digital television and the exportation of WEEE from the United States and other developed countries to Africa, China, and India, where WEEE has often not been managed in a safe manner (e.g., processed with proper safety precautions, disposed of in a sanitary landfill, combusted with proper air quality procedures). This paper critically reviews current published information on the subject of WEEE. The definition, magnitude, and characteristics of this waste stream are summarized, including a detailed review of the chemicals of concern associated with different components and how this has changed and continues to evolve over time. Current and evolving management practices are described (e.g., reuse, recycling, incineration, landfilling). This review discusses the role of regulation and policies developed by governments, institutions, and product manufacturers and how these initiatives are shaping current and future management practices.

  20. Addressing public concerns about ethical and environmental issues in the discussion on nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthi, A.

    1996-01-01

    According to Swiss Federal Law, the producers of radioactive waste are responsible for its safe disposal. The government, therefore, plays a relatively modest role in the public debate on nuclear waste management. Whenever asked to express an opinion, it tries to inform openly. Active public relations campaigns are led by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). The operators of nuclear power plants are ready to compensate the siting community and its Canton for services rendered in the public interest. An important way to deal with ethical and environmental issues is the inclusion of opponents in every step of the time-consuming licensing procedure. This paper discusses the upcoming vote on a concession for a low and intermediate-level waste repository for which NAGRA is actively preparing. NAGRA's public relations work is based on recognition of the fact that the only way to diminish fear and gain credibility is to inform openly and regularly over many years, and to show that results achieved are based on serious, careful and transparent scientific work. Another aspect of radioactive waste management communication lies in the explanation of the ethics of 'inter-generational' and 'intra-generational' equity. Compensation will never make up for lack of safety. The ways in which the public voices its views are discussed, as well as the concept of seeking the co-operation of opponents in working groups. (author)

  1. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Results of a modeling workshop concerning economic and environmental trends and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Staley, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade, the southern regions of the U.S. have experienced rapid change which is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Growth in population, industry, and resource development has been attributed to a variety of advantages such as an abundant and inexpensive labor force, a mild climate, and the availability of energy, water, land, and other natural resources. While this growth has many benefits for the region, it also creates the potential for increased air, water, and solid waste pollution, and modification of natural habitats. A workshop was convened to consider the Mobile Bay area as a site-specific case of growth and its environmental consequences in the southern region. The objectives of the modeling workshop were to: (1) identify major factors of economic development as they relate to growth in the area over the immediate and longer term; (2) identify major environmental and resource management issues associated with this expected growth; and (3) identify and characterize the complex interrelationships among economic and environmental factors. This report summarizes the activities and results of a modeling workshop concerning economic growth and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area. The workshop was organized around construction of a simulation model representing the relationships between a series of actions and indicators identified by participants. The workshop model had five major components. An Industry Submodel generated scenarios of growth in several industrial and transportation sectors. A Human Population/Economy Submodel calculated human population and economic variables in response to employment opportunities. A Land Use/Air Quality Submodel tabulated changes in land use, shoreline use, and air quality. A Water Submodel calculated indicators of water quality and quantity for fresh surface water, ground water, and Mobile Bay based on discharge information provided by the Industry and Human

  3. Music, Myths and Rituals: Traditional Societies of African Lobi Peoples and Environmental Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hien Sié

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of music in societies with oral tradition, in general, and particularly in black Africa, was rooted in the mythological beliefs, concerning the body of myth stories retold among people in those societies and interdictions/taboos and totems, which do not have grounds in logic and reason, that attempt to explain the nature of the human beings and their surrounding. Being the crucial elements that structure and regulate all sphres of life, as well as the manifestations and consequences of religious beliefs, those were the attempts to describe and explain the origins and fundamenatal values of a given culture and /or religious considerations of the people in the given society. If those extra-musical features were influential and inspiring enough, then that made it possible to establish the relations, i. e. the allusions to mythology and rituals which could be expressed in the music. When thinking about this particular fact, then it must be allowed that the music is likely to provide a primary document for understanding the sysems of thoughts and for teaching us lessons on certain facets of the life of those societies/ cultures. In particular, it can be used as a means to learn about their relationship to the environmental, natural occurances and the humanity, the fact the researchers have not been sufficiently focused on when research about the music. This researh aims to reflect on how well musical art has contributed to addressing that goal, namely, based on the concrete examples drawn from the music of Lobi peoples/tribes, the author is trying to shine a light on how these peoples, consciously or instictively, convey an often complex set of problems, and communicate with an immediacy and universality that often sit outside of common language, particularly the environmental problems they encounter in their existence.

  4. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to

  5. Market-Driven Solutions to Economic, Environmental, and Social Issues Related to Water Management in the Western USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A. Clayton

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Water management issues continue to plague the western United States, including rapid population growth, degraded aquatic ecosystems, unfulfilled claims to American Indian users, the threat of global warming, an economic recession, and many other issues. This essay outlines some advantages of market-driven reforms to the management of water resources in the western USA. Historical and contemporary western water resource issues are examined from economic, environmental, and social viewpoints. In all such contexts, it is argued that regulated water markets provide flexible and just solutions to western water dilemmas, and reallocations may provide much-needed additional water supply.

  6. International symposium on uranium raw material for the nuclear fuel cycle: Exploration, mining, production, supply and demand, economics and environmental issues (URAM-2009). Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009) addressed all aspects of the uranium fuel cycle, from the availability of raw materials to the long-term sustainability of nuclear power. The revival of the uranium industry in recent years has caused a dramatic increase in uranium exploration and mining activities in several countries. URAM-2009 was intended to bring together scientists, exploration and mining geologists, engineers, operators, regulators and fuel cycle specialists to exchange information and discuss updated research and current issues in uranium geology and deposits, exploration, mining and processing, production economics, and environmental and legal issues. Contributed papers covered uranium markets and economics (including supply and demand); social licensing in the uranium production cycle; uranium exploration (including uranium geology and deposits); uranium mining and processing; environmental and regulatory issues; human resources development. There was a poster session throughout the symposium, as well as an exhibition of topical photographs. A workshop on recent developments in Technical Cooperation Projects relevant to the Uranium Production Cycle area was also organized. On the last day of the symposium, there was an experts' Panel Discussion. The presentations and discussions at URAM-2009 (a) led to a better understanding of the adequacy of uranium sources (both primary and secondary) to meet future demand, (b) provided information on new exploration concepts, knowledge and technologies that will potentially lead to the discovery and development of new uranium resources, (c) described new production technology having the potential to more efficiently and economically exploit new uranium resources; (d) documented the environmental compatibility of uranium production and the overall effectiveness of the final

  7. Understanding the continuous renal replacement therapy circuit for acute renal failure support: a quality issue in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Martin; Baldwin, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Delivery of renal replacement therapy is now a core competency of intensive care nursing. The safe and effective delivery of this form of therapy is a quality issue for intensive care, requiring an understanding of the principles underlying therapy and the functioning of machines used. Continuous hemofiltration, first described in 1977, used a system where blood flowed from arterial to venous cannulas through a small-volume, low-resistance, and high-flux filter. Monitoring of these early systems was limited, and without a machine interface, less nursing expertise was required. Current continuous renal replacement therapy machines offer user-friendly interfaces, cassette-style circuits, and comprehensive circuit diagnostics and monitoring. Although these machines conceal complexity behind a user-friendly interface, it remains important that nurses have sufficient knowledge for their use and the ability to compare and contrast circuit setups and functions for optimal and efficient treatment.

  8. Understanding Technology and People Issues in Hospital Information System (HIS) Adoption: Case study of a tertiary hospital in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nasriah; Mohd Yusof, Shafiz Affendi

    Hospital Information Systems (HIS) can improve healthcare outcome quality, increase efficiency, and reduce errors. The government of Malaysia implemented HIS across the country to maximize the use of technology to improve healthcare delivery, however, little is known about the benefits and challenges of HIS adoption in each institution. This paper looks at the technology and people issues in adopting such systems. The study used a case study approach, using an in-depth interview with multidisciplinary medical team members who were using the system on a daily basis. A thematic analysis using Atlas.ti was employed to understand the complex relations among themes and sub-themes to discover the patterns in the data. . Users found the new system increased the efficiency of workflows and saved time. They reported less redundancy of work and improved communication among medical team members. Data retrieval and storage were also mentioned as positive results of the new HIS system. Healthcare workers showed positive attitudes during training and throughout the learning process. From a technological perspective, it was found that medical workers using HIS has better access and data management compared to the previously used manual system. The human issues analysis reveals positive attitudes toward using HIS among the users especially from the physicians' side. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. 'Understanding' as a practical issue in sexual health education for people with intellectual disabilities: a study using two qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, W M L; Rohleder, Poul; Taylor, Natalie; Culfear, Hollie

    2015-04-01

    Sexual health education is important in addressing the health and social inequalities faced by people with intellectual disabilities. However, provision of health-related advice and education to people with various types and degrees of linguistic and learning difficulties involves addressing complex issues of language and comprehension. This article reports an exploratory study using 2 qualitative methods to examine the delivery of sexual health education to people with intellectual disabilities. Four video-recordings of sexual health education sessions were collected. Conversation analysis was used to examine in detail how such education occurs as a series of interactions between educators and learners. Interviews with 4 educators were carried out and analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis shows how educators anticipate problems of comprehension and how they respond when there is evidence that a person does not understand the activity or the educational message. This occurs particularly when verbal prompts involve long sentences and abstract concepts. We show a characteristic pattern that arises in these situations, in which both educator and learner jointly produce a superficially correct response. Although interviews allows us some insight into contextual issues, strategy, and aspects of sexual health education that occur outside of the actual teaching sessions, analysis of actual interactions can show us patterns that occur in interactions between educators and learners when comprehension is in question. Addressing how sexual health education is delivered in practice and in detail provides valuable lessons about how such education can be improved. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Next Steps Toward Understanding Human Habitation of Space: Environmental Impacts and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    factor alone implying at least some shared underlying mechanisms. Thus, both ground based and spaceflight research utilizing model organisms provide the opportunity to better understand environmental factors and biological mechanisms that contribute to human health and survival in space.

  11. Spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and social and environmental management issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    This paper hopes to fill this gap by working with the notion of environmental justice and by introducing hydrographical systems as an important level of analysis, together with the municipal and metropolitan scales. In that sense, the environment figures as the basis to correlate social, economic...... of the natural landscape. This paper argues that this GIS based analytical methodology has the potential of supporting planning and policy-making in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan area. Paper published on a CD....... and infrastructural data. Through these three levels of spatial analysis it is possible to develop and to support a more comprehensible study of urban development of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. The aim of this study is (a) to develop an alternative spatial analysis leading to a more comprehensive...... in the period between 1990 and 2000, based on the application of the above-mentioned data to the three spatial levels in question. This paper highlights the role of the hydrographical systems of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area as an important spatial unit of analysis to understand the metropolitan urban...

  12. A preliminary examination of audience-related communications issues for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, C.W.

    1991-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project will estimate radiation doses people may have received from exposure to radioactive materials released during past operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project was initiated in response to public concerns about possible health impacts from past releases of radioactive materials from Hanford. The TSP recognized early in the project that special mechanisms would be required to effectively communicate to the many different concerned audiences. Accordingly, the TSP directed PNL to examine methods for communicating causes and effects of uncertainties in the dose estimates. After considering the directive and discussing it with the Communications Subcommittee of the TSP, PNL undertook a broad investigation of communications methods to consider for inclusion in the TSP's current communications program. As part of this investigation, a literature review was conducted regarding risk communications. A key finding was that, in order to successfully communicate risk-related information, a thorough understanding of the knowledge level, concerns and information needs of the intended recipients (i.e., the audience) is necessary. Hence, a preliminary audience analysis was conducted as part of the present research. This report summarizes the results of this analysis. 1 ref., 9 tabs.

  13. Issues of Security and Informational Privacy in relation to an Environmental Scanning System for Fighting Organized Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Anne; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Rouces, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    . The environmental scanning is carried out on public online data streams, focusing on modus operandi and crime trends, not on individuals. Hence, ethical and technical issues - related to societal security and potential privacy infringements in public online contexts - are being discussed in order to safeguard...

  14. Identification of environmental issues: Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California: First phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-14

    The development of a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California, has been proposed. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize goethermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power. This report identifies environmental issues and constraints which may impact the proposed hybrid wood-geothermal power plant. (ACR)

  15. An evaluation of environmental justice and environmental equity : laws and issues that affect minority and low-income populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Environmental justice and transportation equity concerns pertain to discriminatory outcomes in : planning, operation and maintenance, and infrastructure development by state and metropolitan : systems. On February 11, 1994, President Bill Clinton sig...

  16. Foreword to the special issue from the Interfaces Against Pollution 2016 Conference: Environmental Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Waite, T. David; Duval, Jérôme F.L.; Sander, Michael; Puy Llorens, Jaume; Galceran i Nogués, Josep; Rey Castro, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Número especial de la revista "Environmental Chemistry" que recull contribucions presentades a la conferència internacional que es va celebrar a Lleida: "Interfaces Againts Pollution 2016 : Environmental Challenges and Opportunities"

  17. Environmental Issues in the South African Media: A case study of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    (17%), ecological disasters (16%), resource use (5%), environmental ethics (6%) and other themes (8%). Sources and actors ..... journalists and environmentalists was also obtained at an environmental journalism conference held in ..... for the International Institute of Communications (ICC) Conference, Johannesburg, 28.

  18. Understanding the Environmental and Climate Impacts of Biomass Burning in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Gatebe, Charles; Bolten, John; Policelli, Fritz; Habib, Shahid; Lee, Jejung; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric; Adegoke, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding'of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

  19. Advances in Understanding Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.

    2012-04-01

    The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive transport problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the transport in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms affecting the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and transport models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the transport and fate of

  20. Understanding the Structure-Function Relationships of Dendrimers in Environmental and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    We are living an era wherein nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied in our lives. Dendrimers are special polymeric NPs with unique physiochemical properties, which have been intensely explored for a variety of applications. Current studies on dendrimers are bottlenecked by insufficient understandings of their structure and dynamic behaviors from a molecular level. With primarily computational approaches supplemented by many other experimental technics, this dissertation aims to establish structure-function relationships of dendrimers in environmental and biomedical applications. More specifically, it thoroughly investigates the interactions between dendrimers and different biomolecules including carbon-based NPs, metal-based NPs, and proteins/peptides. Those results not only provide profound knowledge for evaluating the impacts of dendrimers on environmental and biological systems but also facilitate designing next-generation functional polymeric nanomaterials. The dissertation is organized as following. Chapter 1 provides an overview of current progresses on dendrimer studies, where methodology of Discrete Molecular Dynamics (DMD), my major research tool, is also introduced. Two directions of utilizing dendrimers will be discussed in following chapters. Chapter 2 will focus on environmental applications of dendrimers, where two back-to-back studies are presented. I will start from describing some interesting observations from experiments i.e. dendrimers dispersed model oil molecules. Then, I will reveal why surface chemistries of dendrimers lead to different remediation efficiencies by computational modelings. Finally, I will demonstrate different scenarios of dendrimer-small molecules association. Chapter 3 is centered on dendrimers in the biomedical applications including two subtopics. In the first topic, we will discuss dendrimers as surfactants that modulating the interactions between proteins and NPs. Some fundamental concepts regarding to NPs

  1. Towards a Stochastic Predictive Understanding of Ecosystem Functioning and Resilience to Environmental Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem processes respond differently to hydrometeorological variability across timescales, and so does our scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Process-based modeling of ecosystem functioning is therefore challenging, especially when long-term predictions are envisioned. Here we analyze the statistical properties of hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability, i.e., the variability of ecosystem process related to vegetation carbon dynamics, from hourly to decadal timescales. 23 extra-tropical forest sites, covering different climatic zones and vegetation characteristics, are examined. Micrometeorological and reanalysis data of precipitation, air temperature, shortwave radiation and vapor pressure deficit are used to describe hydrometeorological variability. Ecosystem variability is quantified using long-term eddy covariance flux data of hourly net ecosystem exchange of CO2 between land surface and atmosphere, monthly remote sensing vegetation indices, annual tree-ring widths and above-ground biomass increment estimates. We find that across sites and timescales ecosystem variability is confined within a hydrometeorological envelope that describes the range of variability of the available resources, i.e., water and energy. Furthermore, ecosystem variability demonstrates long-term persistence, highlighting ecological memory and slow ecosystem recovery rates after disturbances. We derive an analytical model, combining deterministic harmonics and stochastic processes, that represents major mechanisms and uncertainties and mimics the observed pattern of hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability. This stochastic framework offers a parsimonious and mathematically tractable approach for modelling ecosystem functioning and for understanding its response and resilience to environmental changes. Furthermore, this framework reflects well the observed ecological memory, an inherent property of ecosystem functioning that is currently not

  2. Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

  3. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. Summarizing Environmental Security Monthly Scanning January 2008 - June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    global assessment of environmental change and its implications; inviting ECOSOC to declare 2010-2020 the International Decade for Addressing Climate...situation ( ECOSOC and FAO) do not have security-related mandates. [May 2008. Military Implication, Source] Continually Rising Food Prices

  4. Environmental and Public Health Issues of Animal Food Products Delivery System in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opara Maxwell Nwachukwu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on livestock movement, animal food products processing facilities, meat inspection methods, official meat inspection records and distribution and marketing systems for processed products in Imo state, Nigeria needed for policy development interventions in the sector are not fully understood. The primary data generated with the aid of personal interviews, field observations and secondary data obtained from records accumulated by the department of veterinary services Imo state from 2001 to 2004 were used to investigate the environmental and public health issues of animal food products delivery system in state. Majority of trade animals supplied to the state originated from the northern states of the country and were brought in with trucks by road. Only two veterinary control posts served the whole state thus resulting in non-inspection and taxing of a large proportion of trade animals. Official record of trade animals supplied to the state from 2001 to 2004 ranged from 45000 – 144000 for cattle, 23000 – 96000 for goats and 11000 – 72000 for sheep per annum, with supplies increasing steadily across the years. Official slaughter points in the state were principally low-grade quality slaughter premises consisting of a thin concrete slab. Meat handling was very unhygienic with carcasses dressed beside refuse heaps of over 2 years standing. Carcasses were dragged on the ground and transported in taxi boots and open trucks. Meat inspection at these points was not thorough because of stiff resistance of butchers to carcass condemnation. Official meat inspection records for the state from 2001 to 2004 revealed that overall totals of 159,000 cattle, 101,000 goats and 67,000 sheep were slaughtered. This accounted for about 56, 57 and 57% shortfall of cattle, goat and sheep respectively supplied to the state and represents the volume of un-inspected animals during the study period. Fascioliasis and tuberculosis were the most common

  5. Openness in participation, assessment, and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health: a review of literature and recent project results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, Mikko V; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2011-06-16

    Issues of environment and environmental health involve multiple interests regarding e.g. political, societal, economical, and public concerns represented by different kinds of organizations and individuals. Not surprisingly, stakeholder and public participation has become a major issue in environmental and environmental health policy and assessment. The need for participation has been discussed and reasoned by many, including environmental legislators around the world. In principle, participation is generally considered as desirable and the focus of most scholars and practitioners is on carrying out participation, and making participation more effective. In practice also doubts regarding the effectiveness and importance of participation exist among policy makers, assessors, and public, leading even to undermining participatory practices in policy making and assessment.There are many possible purposes for participation, and different possible models of interaction between assessment and policy. A solid conceptual understanding of the interrelations between participation, assessment, and policy making is necessary in order to design and implement effective participatory practices. In this paper we ask, do current common conceptions of assessment, policy making and participation provide a sufficient framework for achieving effective participation? This question is addresses by reviewing the range of approaches to participation in assessment and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health and some related insights from recent research projects, INTARESE and BENERIS.Openness, considered e.g. in terms of a) scope of participation, b) access to information, c) scope of contribution, d) timing of openness, and e) impact of contribution, provides a new perspective to the relationships between participation, assessment and policy making. Participation, assessment, and policy making form an inherently intertwined complex with interrelated objectives and

  6. Understanding environmental contributions to autism: Causal concepts and the state of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Krakowiak, Paula

    2018-04-01

    The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science. Causal concepts are introduced, including root causes; pitfalls in interpreting time trends as clues to etiologic factors; susceptible time windows for exposure; and implications of a multi-factorial model of ASD. An historical background presents early research into the origins of ASD. The epidemiologic literature from the last fifteen years is briefly but critically reviewed for potential roles of, for example, air pollution, pesticides, plastics, prenatal vitamins, lifestyle and family factors, and maternal obstetric and metabolic conditions during her pregnancy. Three examples from the case-control CHildhood Autism Risks from Genes and the Environment Study are probed to illustrate methodological approaches to central challenges in observational studies: capturing environmental exposure; causal inference when a randomized controlled clinical trial is either unethical or infeasible; and the integration of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences on development. We conclude with reflections on future directions, including exposomics, new technologies, the microbiome, gene-by-environment interaction in the era of -omics, and epigenetics as the interface of those two. As the environment is malleable, this research advances the goal of a productive and fulfilling life for all children, teen-agers and adults. Autism Res 2018, 11: 554-586. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  7. Understanding Ethical Issues of Research Participation from the Perspective of Participating Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion E.

    2017-01-01

    Background The past twenty years have seen distinct shifts in the way the participation of children and adolescents in research is viewed. This has been emphasized by the growing pediatric research enterprise. Additional information on children’s and adolescents’ experiences during research participation is needed to better inform researchers on the ethical conduct of research with this vulnerable population. Aims The objective of this analysis was to examine ethical issues in research with children and adolescents from their perspective as participants, including: assent, parental consent, risk perception, impact of research participation, and incentives. Methods This systematic review was conducted per the Long et al. framework by means of an iterative searching process. Using the key words ‘research ethics’ and ‘child or pediatric or adolescent’, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases were searched to identify articles. Limitations placed on the original searches were: English language, year of publication between 2003–2014, humans, abstract available, and age birth–18 years. Findings Twenty-three empiric studies were identified and formed the sample. Included studies represented a diverse range of areas of research, methods, settings, sample demographics, authors, and journals. Discussion Even young children demonstrated the ability to understand essential elements of research, although there is variability in children’s level of understanding. Trust was a significant contributing factor to children’s and adolescents’ participation in research, and also shaped their assessments of risk. Research participation was mainly beneficial for children and adolescents. Incentives were mainly viewed positively, although concerns of possible undue influence were expressed. Linking Evidence to Action This systematic review highlights the importance of including the perspectives of children and adolescents and provides researchers and nurse clinicians

  8. How innovative ICT tools can enhance understanding of interactions between societal, hydrological and environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Borsi, I.; Cannata, M.; De Filippis, G.; Criollo, R.; Mehl, S.; Rossetto, R.

    2017-12-01

    The interaction of environmental, physical, and socioeconomic processes alter and are altered by water and by how human can affect water use. For example, a warming climate increases the chance of warm temperatures and lack of precipitation, and when combined with growing population requires understanding of impact on water resources and on all the processes related to the water budget including evapotranspiration. On this foundation, humans add engineered and social systems to control, manage, utilize, and alter our water environment for a variety of uses and through a variety of organizational and individual decisions. Some engineered systems have mixed consequences, for example groundwater helped sustain agriculture during drought periods, but then groundwater levels critically decrease with no chances to recover in some parts of the world. Innovative ICT tools have been demonstrated as a helpful tool for enhancing human understanding of the effect that societal, economical, and policy-based decisions have on the water resources and on the environment in general. Here we apply the new FREEWAT platform to demonstrate the importance of developing ad-hoc database and hydrological models to simulate different scenarios using a participatory approach. Stakeholders have been involved in data collection, database design and model development during the entire project period and discussion between researcher and stakeholders have been fostered during Focus Groups and workshops organized in many countries in Europe and beyond (including case studies in Ukraine and Africa). FREEWAT is an open source and public domain GIS integrated modelling environment for simulation of water quantity and quality in surface water and groundwater with an integrated water management and planning module. FREEWAT aims at promoting water resource management by simplifying the application of the Water Framework Directive and related Directives. Fourteen case studies have been considered and

  9. Teacher College Students' Views of Controversial Environmental Issues: Ambivalence and Readiness to Adopt a Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Yehudith; Dreyfus, Amos

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important goals of discussing controversial issues in the classroom is to educate students to possess an inclination towards reason, open mindedness and fairness. However, research tends to show that teachers are not adequately trained to lead fruitful discussions about controversial issues and do not possess the necessary skills…

  10. The politics of anti-environmentalism: positional issue framing by the European radical right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemenis, Konstantinos; Katsanidou, Alexia; Vasilopoulou, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    The environment is traditionally considered as a valence issue where all political parties endorse the same position and differ only on the degree to which they emphasize it. Our paper challenges this view by arguing that the environment is increasingly perceived as a positional issue. We examine

  11. Analysis of Causes of Major Environmental Issues Occurring on Sea Coastlines of the Peter the Great Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golikov, S. Yu; Dulepov, V. I.; Maiorov, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    The geoecological assessment of any territory or aquatic area is based on the evaluation of the natural resource potential, conditions and factors influencing its development as well as the analysis of major environmental issues that characterize the current regional state. The monitoring of water ecosystems under the conditions of anthropogenic impact on coastal areas is of significant importance within the study of the conservation and restoration of biodiversity, in the assessment of the dynamics of various environmental factors and their effects on ecosystems and on the bioresources management planning.

  12. The roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research – an introduction to a virtual special issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Van Poeck, Katrien; Reid, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the themes of a virtual special issue (VSI) of Environmental Education Research (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focused on policy research in environmental and sustainability education (ESE). The broad purpose behind preparing the VSI was to consider...... the challenges involved in linking particular concepts of environment and sustainability with key themes in educational policy, and how this remains a heavily contested practice. Examples drawn from two decades of studies published in the journal show how these might be illustrated, addressed, problematized...

  13. Battling Ecophobia: Instilling Activism in Nonscience Majors when Teaching Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Mark A.; Holden, Molly

    2011-01-01

    When learning about large-scale environmental problems such as climate change, species extinctions, overpopulation, and habitat destruction, students can become hopelessly dismayed and experience ecophobia--a state of mind in which the student is fearful of the looming environmental problems but senses that there is nothing that can be done to…

  14. A Survey of Environmental Issues Treated in Science Education Curricula, Before and After 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    Surveys environmental science education projects (N=42) before and after 1974 to determine if they use methods typical for science education and to what extent the topics treated in the curricula represent the thinking of the environmental education community. One finding indicates adherence to typical science education instructional methods…

  15. Literacy and Arts-Integrated Science Lessons Engage Urban Elementary Students in Exploring Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P.; Elser, C. F.; Klein, J. L.; Rule, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined student attitudes, writing skills and content knowledge of urban fourth and fifth graders (6 males, 9 female) during a six-week literacy, thinking skill, and art-integrated environmental science unit. Pre- and post-test questions were used to address knowledge of environmental problems and student environmental…

  16. Heads in the clouds, feet in the sand: Multilateral policy coordination in global environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    This is a study of how issues that can only be solved through cooperation (such as commons issues) reach the international agenda and how states then form policy on those issues. Extensive primary data are used in analyzing (1) accession of stratospheric ozone depletion and global climate change to the international agenda and (2) the policy formation of ten states on these issues. This study shows that commons issues reach the international agenda through the actions of intergovernmental organizations in defining the problem, and the political activities of a leader state (such as the US on ozone) or a state acting as a policy entrepreneur. In the extensive literature on international cooperation most studies emphasize the importance of system level variables. Adapting the two-level games approach to multilateral issues, this study argues that, as commons issues do not directly threaten the security of most states, state policy on such issues primarily reflects domestic political necessities. In effect, foreign and domestic policy on such issues become unified. Through analysis of secondary and primary data, including more than 30 interviews with representatives of both developed states (the US, Canada, the UK, and Japan) and developing states (Brazil, India, Algeria, Mexico, and Thailand), and the Soviet Union, this study shows how domestic factors influenced foreign policy decisions and actions. The study shows that states seem to be less interested in absolute or relative gains in international negotiations that in maximizing domestic political rewards from its choice of foreign policy. Finally, through study of the accession of the global climate change issue it is appears that knowledge may be politically derived. States required a open-quotes consensusclose quotes among the technical experts before initiating the international negotiations. Politics seems to have played a large part in forming the technical consensus and in communicating it to states

  17. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chervoni Julia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. Methods The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Results Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p Conclusion Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  18. Recent developments in uranium exploration, production and environmental issues. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    resources occur mainly in small, low-grade deposits with high production costs. Accord ingly, China has implemented research on ways to better develop its hard rock resource base. This research has concentrated on improving technology for heap leaching of low-grade uranium ore as a way to improve recovery and lower production costs. As uranium production in Europe has declined, emphasis has turned to rehabilitation of former production facilities. Examples of rehabilitation projects in Germany and Hungary describe the range of problems that must be addressed and the state of the art technology that is being employed to solve serious environmental impacts of uranium production. Site visits to WISMUT rehabilitation sites in Germany and the Rozna mine in the Czech Republic gave meeting participants an opportunity to see first hand how rehabilitation technology is being successfully applied in areas with serious environmental impact. Uranium supply and demand are affected by a diversity of factors including market price, availability of secondary supply, production capacity, uranium resources and opposition to uranium mining. In the concluding paper of the meeting, the interrelationships among these various issues are discussed as they relate to the future balance between uranium supply and demand. The 11 papers are entered and indexed individually

  19. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A

    2013-01-01

    development and application of nanoproducts, inspite of fact, that these relationships have a significant financial segment. Thus, according to the Federal Act from December 13, 2010 'About federal budget for 2011 year and the period of 2012 and 2013 years' the expenses for realisation of program 'The infrastructure development of nano industry in Russian Federation for 2008-2011' were 250 milliard of Russian rubbles. The profound analyses of the current legal systems has demonstrated that nowadays the main legal regulation in nano sphere consist of some range of frame documents (accentuated by the author). Thereby, one of the most dynamic and developed field of innovative activities in Russian Federation – nanotechnology – is left out of environmental and legal area of protection and that is might lead to the raising level of ecological risks at the stage of creation and application nano products to the environment and humans' health. During the analyses of annual norms of the Report OECD 'Nano technologies: the Environment, health and safety' the conclusion is following – 2010 Russia has an extremely low degree of conceptual realization of the program in the sphere of forming the policy connected with nanotechnology and its impact on the environment and also a lack of implementations of norms into the national legal systems in terms of the assessment criteria of nano safety EHS (Environmental, Health and Safety) and ELSI (Ethical, Legal and Social Issues). To the great regret, there is no independent and precise legal act about the ways to creat and apply nano products with the certain definitions and principles and, more importantly, with the level of legal obligations and responsibility. This gap is not possible to fill by just altering and editing the existed legal acts due to the lack of the state Russian regulation. Thus, one of the most dynamic fields of innovative activities – nano technologies – is practically out of the regulation. It might lead to an

  20. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    development and application of nanoproducts, inspite of fact, that these relationships have a significant financial segment. Thus, according to the Federal Act from December 13, 2010 "About federal budget for 2011 year and the period of 2012 and 2013 years" the expenses for realisation of program "The infrastructure development of nano industry in Russian Federation for 2008-2011" were 250 milliard of Russian rubbles. The profound analyses of the current legal systems has demonstrated that nowadays the main legal regulation in nano sphere consist of some range of frame documents (accentuated by the author). Thereby, one of the most dynamic and developed field of innovative activities in Russian Federation - nanotechnology - is left out of environmental and legal area of protection and that is might lead to the raising level of ecological risks at the stage of creation and application nano products to the environment and humans' health. During the analyses of annual norms of the Report OECD "Nano technologies: the Environment, health and safety" the conclusion is following - 2010 Russia has an extremely low degree of conceptual realization of the program in the sphere of forming the policy connected with nanotechnology and its impact on the environment and also a lack of implementations of norms into the national legal systems in terms of the assessment criteria of nano safety EHS (Environmental, Health and Safety) and ELSI (Ethical, Legal and Social Issues). To the great regret, there is no independent and precise legal act about the ways to creat and apply nano products with the certain definitions and principles and, more importantly, with the level of legal obligations and responsibility. This gap is not possible to fill by just altering and editing the existed legal acts due to the lack of the state Russian regulation. Thus, one of the most dynamic fields of innovative activities - nano technologies - is practically out of the regulation. It might lead to an increase of