Sample records for understand elder abuse

  1. Understanding of elder abuse and neglect among health care professionals in Malaysia: An exploratory survey. (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Choo, Wan-Yuen; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Hairi, Farizah Mohd; Mohd Mydin, Fadzilah Hanum; Illiani Jaafar, Siti Nur


    Elder abuse and neglect (EAN) is a hidden public health challenge for Malaysia. This cross-sectional survey studied the awareness of EAN among 148 doctors and nurses from two neighboring states in Malaysia using a self-administered questionnaire exploring their knowledge, perceptions, practices, and experience concerning EAN. Both doctors and nurses demonstrated poor understanding of signs of EAN and exhibited misperceptions on reporting requirements. Both groups perceived EAN as a national burden and reporting it as their responsibility; but most felt they had not been trained to diagnose it. Many were unsure of procedures and whether their own intervention could be effective. Only four (nurses) of 41 participants who suspected abuse during the past year reported the cases. Targeted education and uniform protocols are mandatory to ensure best practice with regards to EAN. Further research is crucial to extend this inquiry into the broader health care workforce.

  2. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen


    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  3. Disrespect and Isolation: Elder Abuse in Chinese Communities (United States)

    Tam, Sandra; Neysmith, Sheila


    Based on a qualitative study of home care workers, this paper aims to understand elder abuse of Chinese Canadians. The findings show disrespect is the key form elder abuse takes in the Chinese community. As a culturally specific form of abuse, disrespect remains invisible under categories of elder abuse derived from a Western cultural perspective.…

  4. Elder abuse in assisted living. (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas; Beach, Scott


    Assisted Living (AL) currently represents one of the most numerous institutional care settings for elders. Very little information exists on abuse in AL. Descriptive information on elder abuse reported by nurse aides working in AL is presented from a survey sent to nurse aides. The questionnaire had items addressing verbal, physical, psychological, caregiving, medication, material, and sexual abuse. The responses to the questions included in the verbal abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, caregiving abuse, medication abuse, and material exploitation abuse sections (28 questions) show that suspected abuse is not uncommon. We could not objectively verify the cases of abuse described in the survey, still, they give a first indication that staff abuse may occur in AL. This may be significant given the large number of ALs in the United States and may influence the health, quality of life, and safety of many residents.

  5. National Center on Elder Abuse (United States)

    ... Connect with Us Contact Us Newsroom FAQ Suspect Abuse? Get Help What We Do Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ...

  6. Community approaches to elder abuse. (United States)

    Dyer, Carmel B; Heisler, Candace J; Hill, Carrie A; Kim, Lucia C


    Collaboration of professionals from diverse disciplines is required to address the multiple, complex issues and needs of community-dwelling elders who are abused or neglected. Reporting suspected elder abuse or neglect cases to Adult Protective Service (APS) agencies provides access to services that address the social, medical, and legal needs of elderly persons. A geriatric interdisciplinary team can provide a comprehensive medical, functional, and social assessment. Based on the findings from the assessment and in collaboration with the APS team, the intervention plan can be formulated. Some cases of elder abuse or neglect may require intervention from the criminal justice or the civil justice system for serious legal issues such as sexual assault, financial exploitation, or guardianship. Other resources, such as Area Agencies on Aging, local women's shelters, and The National Center for Elder Abuse, are available to help manage elder abuse and neglect cases in the community.

  7. Elder Abuse: The Status of Current Knowledge. (United States)

    Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.


    Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)

  8. Hydroxychloroquine-Associated Hyperpigmentation Mimicking Elder Abuse


    Cohen, Philip R.


    Background Hydroxychloroquine may result in cutaneous dyschromia. Older individuals who are the victims of elder abuse can present with bruising and resolving ecchymoses. Purpose The features of hydroxychloroquine-associated hyperpigmentation are described, the mucosal and skin manifestations of elder abuse are reviewed, and the mucocutaneous mimickers of elder abuse are summarized. Case Report An elderly woman being treated with hydroxychloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus developed d...

  9. Elder abuse telephone screen reliability and validity. (United States)

    Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J


    (a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.

  10. National profiling of elder abuse referrals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clancy, Marguerite


    there is little consistent data on patterns of reporting of elder abuse in Europe. Between 2002 and 2007, the Irish Health Service Executive developed dedicated structures and staff to support the prevention, detection and management of elder abuse without mandatory reporting. Public awareness campaigns, staff training and management briefings heightened awareness regarding this new service. Central to this process is the development of a national database which could provide useful insights for developing coordinated responses to elder abuse in Europe.

  11. Clinical concepts. The nursing role in reporting elder abuse: specific examples and interventions. (United States)

    Ziminski, Carolyn E; Phillips, Linda R


    Elder abuse is a serious national problem with potential for significant physical, emotional, and financial harm. In some situations, elder abuse may lead to death. Nurses are mandated reporters for suspected elder abuse to help prevent and curtail these serious outcomes and thus are responsible for recognizing the types of elder abuse and ways it can manifest. However, the variety of settings, perpetrators, and types of elder abuse may make it difficult for nurses to recognize when elder abuse is present and to understand the proper course of action. In addition, it is necessary for nurses to be aware that elder abuse is not just a public problem but can occur in clinical settings and everyday practice. The purpose of this article is to provide several brief clinical scenarios that exemplify specific aspects of potential elder abuse and to identify appropriate nursing interventions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Perspectives on elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya


    This thesis explores perceptions and views of different groups involved in elder abuse. First chapter provides a general introduction to the topic and current study. In the second chapter of this thesis, definitions of elder abuse and their developments are reviewed. Chapter three explores different

  13. Domestic and institutional elder abuse legislation. (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M


    Statutes pertinent to elder abuse vary widely. This article provides examples of organizational structure, dependency and age of the victim, definitions of abuse, classification of penalties, and investigation processes. Health care providers must learn their state's elder abuse laws and review any operating manuals produced from the statutes or regulations. All health care workers must know and implement the law to protect the welfare of older persons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse. (United States)

    Simone, Lacher; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann


    Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to the victim or the perpetrator were assessed. Bi- and multivariate analysis were used to identify abuse and neglect determinants. A total of 150 cases reflected at least one form of elder abuse or neglect; 104 cases were categorised as abuse with at least one type of abuse (overall 135 mentions), 46 cases were categorised as neglect (active or passive). Psychological abuse was the most reported form (47%), followed by financial (35%), physical (30%) and anticonstitutional abuse (18%). In 81% of the 150 cases at least two risk factors existed. In 13% no associated risk factor could be identified. Compared with neglect, elders with abuse were less likely to be a nursing home resident than living at home (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.19). In addition, they were more likely to be cohabiting with their perpetrators (OR 18.01, 95% CI 4.43-73.19). For the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.

  15. A Case-Comparison Analysis of Elder Abuse and Neglect. (United States)

    Godkin, Michael A.; And Others


    Compared 59 abused and 49 non-abused elders to identify factors contributing to elder abuse and neglect by caregivers in domestic setting. Found that members of abusive families often had emotional problems. Abused elders and caregivers had become increasingly interdependent because of loss of other family members, social isolation, and financial…

  16. Abuse and maltreatment in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Martins


    Conclusion: We found that the abuse and mistreatment are present in the everyday life of many seniors and are a difficult subject to approach. The evidence, invite us to reflect on the development of intervention strategies, particularly at the levels of emotional abuse, neglect, promotion of health and family functioning in order to contribute to the reduction or extinction of abuse and ill-treatment in the elderly.

  17. [Prescription drug abuse in elderly psychiatric patients]. (United States)

    Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara


    Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Interventions for preventing abuse in the elderly. (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Hairi, Noran N; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Choo, Wan Yuen


    Maltreatment of older people (elder abuse) includes psychological, physical, sexual abuse, neglect and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 10% of older adults experience some form of abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported or referred to social services agencies. Elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous interventions have been implemented to address the issue of elder maltreatment. It is, however, unclear which interventions best serve to prevent or reduce elder abuse. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary intervention programmes used to reduce or prevent abuse of the elderly in their own home, in organisational or institutional and community settings. The secondary objective was to investigate whether intervention effects are modified by types of abuse, types of participants, setting of intervention, or the cognitive status of older people. We searched 19 databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, Psycinfo, MEDLINE, Embase, Proquest Central, Social Services Abstracts‎, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, Web of Science, LILACS, EPPI, InfoBase, CENTRAL, HMIC, Opengrey and Zetoc) on 12 platforms, including multidisciplinary disciplines covering medical, health, social sciences, social services, legal, finance and education. We also browsed related organisational websites, contacted authors of relevant articles and checked reference lists. Searches of databases were conducted between 30 August 2015 and 16 March 2016 and were not restricted by language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-RCTs, before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series. Only studies with at least 12 weeks of follow-up investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing abuse of elderly people and those who interact with the elderly were included. Two review authors

  19. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk


    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Rey U. Acob


    Full Text Available Aim: The study determined individual lived experiences of the abused elderly in the provinces of Leyte and Biliran. Methods: The study utilized qualitative phenomenology. Interviews are made and recorded, then later transcribed verbatim. Collaizi’s method is used as method of analysis to obtain themes of the lived experiences of the ten abused key informants. Results: Based from results, most of the abused entities are female, widowed aging 6o to 65 years old, earning less than 2000 pesos per month and are dependently living in a nuclear family structure for 40 years. Based on their responses to the open-ended guide questions, key informants revealed emotional mistreatment being the most extensive type of abuse. Physical and sexual maltreatment are also evident amidst their old age. Family members and employers are the main identified perpetrators of the elderly. Bruises on most covered areas in their body, rope burns, torn undergarments, being touched without consent are some of the objective indicators of abuse. Themes such as family violence and workplace mistreatment are the most common form of abuse experienced. Conclusion: Based from the findings, it is recommended that the local government and concerned stakeholders to timely review existing rules protecting vulnerable adults especially its implementation.

  1. Holding Abusers Accountable: An Elder Abuse Forensic Center Increases Criminal Prosecution of Financial Exploitation (United States)

    Navarro, Adria E.; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Wilber, Kathleen H.


    Purpose: Despite growing awareness of elder abuse, cases are rarely prosecuted. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an elder abuse forensic center compared with usual care to increase prosecution of elder financial abuse. Design and Methods: Using one-to-one propensity score matching, cases referred to the Los Angeles County…

  2. Older persons' definitions and explanations of elder abuse in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Lindenberg, Jolanda


    that older persons participating in our study define elder abuse foremost as physical violence that is performed intentionally. The study participants explain elder abuse as a result of the dependency and vulnerability of older persons, of changing norms and values, and of changes in the position of older......In this article we explore older persons' definitions of and explanations for elder abuse in the Netherlands by means of interviews with older persons. A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 35 older persons who had no experience with abuse. Our findings show...... persons in society, which result in disrespect toward older persons and a lack of social control and responsibility. The older persons' explanations for the occurrence of abuse mainly focus on societal changes; older persons seem to regard elder abuse primarily as a societal problem. This understanding of...

  3. Abusive Consumption Of Alcohol By Elderly

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    Cecília Danielle Bezerra Oliveira


    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the abusive consumption of alcohol in the elderly in the municipality of Santa Cruz - PB. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study, with quantitative approach with a sample of 170 elderly. To perform the study, three instruments were used: the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test - Geriatric Version (MAST-G. The data were analyzed in the program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS - version 21. Results: 14.7% of the elderly were classified by the MAST-G score as elderly individuals presenting problems related to alcohol abuse, the majority of whom were male, single, with education above 05 years, who reside alone, and present some pathology and make use of medications. Conclusion: the research points out the need for multiprofessional work in health in Primary Care, in order to develop health actions that include the prevention of alcohol consumption and minimize the deleterious effects of consumption, in order to reduce the number of undesirable events arising from the use of that substance. Keywords: Primary health care; Alcohol; Old man.

  4. Addressing elder abuse: the Waterloo restorative justice approach to elder abuse project. (United States)

    Groh, Arlene; Linden, Rick


    The Community Care Access Centre (CCAC) of Waterloo Region, in partnership with a number of other social service agencies, designed and implemented a restorative justice model applicable to older adults who have been abused by an individual in a position of trust. The project was very successful in building partnerships, as many community agencies came together to deal with the problem of elder abuse. The program also raised the profile of elder abuse in the community. However, despite intensive efforts, referrals to the restorative justice program were quite low. Because of this, the program moved to a new organizational model, the Elder Abuse Response Team (EART), which has retained the guiding philosophy of restorative justice but has broadened the mandate. The team has evolved into a conflict management system that has multiple points of entry for cases and multiple options for dealing with elder abuse. The team has developed a broad range of community partners who can facilitate referrals to the EART and also can help to provide an individualized response to each case. The transition to the EART has been successful, and the number of referrals has increased significantly. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  5. Clinical decision making of nurses regarding elder abuse. (United States)

    Meeks-Sjostrom, Diana J


    A descriptive correlational design was used to examine the clinical decision making of nurses regarding elder abuse. The relationship of the nurses' applied knowledge of elder abuse, years of experience as a Registered Nurse (RN), clinical level of practice status, the use of intuition, and clinical decision outcomes for patients in cases of suspected elder abuse were examined. The convenience sample of 84 RNs consisted of 68 females and 16 males. Results indicated an overall model of two predictors that significantly predicted outcomes. The t-test revealed no difference between RNs who received elder abuse education and those who did not.

  6. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

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    Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad


    Conclusion: Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types.

  7. Exploring definitions of financial abuse in elderly Korean immigrants: the contribution of traditional cultural values. (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Sang E; Eaton, Charissa K


    The purpose of this study is to explore the cultural definitions of financial abuse from the perspective of 124 elderly Korean immigrants and to examine the role of traditional cultural values in their definitions by using a mixed methods approach. The qualitative analysis generated four themes relevant to definition of financial abuse. A binary logistic regression indicated that those with stronger cultural adherence to traditional values had higher odds of providing culture-based definitions of financial abuse. Education is needed for health professionals, social service providers, and adult protective workers to increase their understanding of culture-specific experiences of financial abuse among ethnic minority elders.

  8. Information processing of sexual abuse in elders. (United States)

    Burgess, Ann W; Clements, Paul T


    Sexual abuse is considered to be a pandemic contemporary public health issue, with significant physical and psychosocial consequences for its victims. However, the incidence of elder sexual assault is difficult to estimate with any degree of confidence. A convenience sample of 284 case records were reviewed for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to present the limited data noted on record review on four PTSD symptoms of startle, physiological upset, anger, and numbness. A treatment model for information processing of intrapsychic trauma is presented to describe domain disruption within a nursing diagnosis of rape trauma syndrome and provide guidance for sensitive assessment and intervention.

  9. Drug and Solvent Abuse Among Ahwaz\\'s Elderlies

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    Abdolrahim Asadollahi


    Full Text Available Objectives: There are researches to point epidemiology of addiction to drugs, chemical and solvent abuse in elderlies. Drug and Solvent abuse is considered as one of these addictions. This study was point to chemical abuse among elderly population of Ahwaz an Iranian city during year of 2007. Methods & Materials: Research method is description-exploration with use to questionnaire, clinical interview and survey of medical and clinical reports among volunteer clients. Statistical community is all elderly population at one of citizen region in Ahwaz city (Iran. Seventy four dossiers were considered via random sampling; with 30 Elder volunteer clients been interviewed and replied to Elderly Drug Abuse Questionnaire (EDAQ. Results: Signification of hypothesis with X2 test was considered significant relation between age and addiction record variables to solvent abuse; this relation is very significant to second value of drug's derivations such as Morphine, Codeine, Tebaine and Heroine. Interview showed psychological dependent due to appeal them to solvent abuse. Kind of abuse among elderly was snuffing and abuse of medicine drugs which were been recommended to them by their physician. Conclusion: Although study of solvent and chemical abuse's epidemiology pointed less average of this addiction in samples, should be considered important and notice in studies. Finally, researchers were suggested to avoid of this new drug abuse and so to control behavior and interaction of these addicted and their behavior development; it's better to control on distribution of solvent and glue materials and recommending of medicine drug via physicians visiting exderlies.

  10. Elder Abuse: Systematic Review and Implications for Practice. (United States)

    Dong, Xin Qi


    This article is based on the lecture for the 2014 American Geriatrics Society Outstanding Scientific Achievement for Clinical Investigation Award. Elder abuse is a global public health and human rights problem. Evidence suggests that elder abuse is prevalent, predictable, costly, and sometimes fatal. This review will highlight the global epidemiology of elder abuse in terms of its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in community populations. The global literature in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, BIOSIS, Science Direct, and Cochrane Central was searched. Search terms included elder abuse, elder mistreatment, elder maltreatment, prevalence, incidence, risk factors, protective factors, outcomes, and consequences. Studies that existed only as abstracts, case series, or case reports or recruited individuals younger than 60; qualitative studies; and non-English publications were excluded. Tables and figures were created to highlight the findings: the most-detailed analyses to date of the prevalence of elder abuse according to continent, risk and protective factors, graphic presentation of odds ratios and confidence intervals for major risk factors, consequences, and practical suggestions for health professionals in addressing elder abuse. Elder abuse is common in community-dwelling older adults, especially minority older adults. This review identifies important knowledge gaps, such as a lack of consistency in definitions of elder abuse; insufficient research with regard to screening; and etiological, intervention, and prevention research. Concerted efforts from researchers, community organizations, healthcare and legal professionals, social service providers, and policy-makers should be promoted to address the global problem of elder abuse. © 2015, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. [Prevalence of elder abuse in Spanish dwelling in community]. (United States)

    Pérez-Rojo, Gema; Izal, María; Montorio, Ignacio; Regato, Pilar; Espinosa, Juan Manuel


    Although elder abuse is not a new phenomenon, it remains hidden. There have been carried out various preliminary studies about the prevalence of elder abuse in different countries. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of suspicion of elder abuse in old persons without cognitive impairment, dwelling in community, who were attended in Primary Health Care or Social Services Centres. We carried out a transverse study in which 340 elders participated. We found a 12.1% prevalence of suspicion of elder abuse. Psychological abuse suspicion was the most frequent type and it was very common the simultaneous presence of different types of abuse (psychological and physical and sexual). The suspicion of elder abuse was more frequent in women and spouses were responsible in a high great frequency. The information obtained allows advancing in the knowledge of elder abuse in Spain, where the research about this issue is poor. However, the prevalence found neither has to be considered as a social alarm nor as a social slackness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Professionals' Perceptions of Drug and Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly. (United States)

    Brown, B. Bradford


    Surveyed perceptions of the causes, severity, and treatment of elderly substance abuse as reported by 30 drug-abuse, health care, and social service practitioners. Perceptions differed as a function of both the basic type of services an agency provided and its specific response to older abusers. (Author)

  13. Elder abuse within the family environment in the Azores Islands

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    Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to dimension abuse against vulnerable adults within the family and community environment in the Azores Islands, identify risk factors for abuse and describe the profile of an abused elder. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. Random sampling. The instruments used were: clinical histories of the users, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Independence in Basic Activities of Daily Living, Family APGAR Scale, Elder Abuse Suspicion Index and Social Work Assessment Form. Descriptive statistical analysis was used for qualitative and quantitative variables and multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with elder mistreatment. Results: abuse suspicion was identified in 24.5% of elderly participants. Psychological abuse was the most common type of abuse and sons were the main abusers. Conclusion: being a woman and belonging to a dysfunctional family is associated with an increased risk of becoming a victim of abuse; the high level of domestic violence against the elderly in the Azores Islands is in line with the rest of Portugal.

  14. The elder abuse and neglect phenomenon in the ultra-Orthodox Jewish society: social workers' perspectives. (United States)

    Band-Winterstein, Tova


    In the last 30 years, elder abuse and neglect has been recognized as a social and health-related problem. The aim of this paper is to describe the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in a separatist faith-based society (ultra-Orthodox Jewish society-UOJS). A qualitative-phenomenological study with 28 social workers who underwent in-depth semi-structured interviews based on an interview guide consisting of the following items: visibility of the elder abuse and neglect phenomenon in the ultra-Orthodox society, and dilemmas and sensitive issues that arise when working with this population. Three main themes emerged: (1) Between the commandment to honor one's parents and concealment patterns: Cultural barriers to exposing the abuse and neglect phenomenon; (2) "Life is demanding:" The unique expression of abusive and neglectful behavior in the UOJS; (3) Culturally related dilemmas when intervening with cases of elder abuse and neglect. Ultra-Orthodox Jewish cultural belief is a differentiating component in the context of elder abuse and neglect. Social workers need to develop a deep understanding of the unique characteristics of the phenomenon and cultural sensitivity to cope with it to address the well-being of older ultra-Orthodox Jews.

  15. Drug Abuse Among the Elderly: Implications for Dental Practice. (United States)

    Ng, Kester F; Ouanounou, Aviv


    Current demographic data demonstrate an aging North American population, and projections suggest that the percentage of the elderly will increase. Substance abuse among seniors is a common problem, though it is often unidentified and frequently undiagnosed. The most predominant drugs abused by the geriatric individual are alcohol; analgesics, including opioids; central nervous system depressants; and illicit drugs. This article will discuss reasons for drug abuse among the elderly, warning signs associated with substance abuse, and the implications of this problem to the oral cavity and the dental practice.

  16. National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (United States)

    ... adults. With members representing aging and social services, APS, healthcare, justice, domestic violence, and other arenas, NCPEA ... enroll online ! Member benefits include: Subscription to the Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect (JEAN, a $198 value) ...

  17. Elder abuse and neglect vs. parricide: a letter from Russia. (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V


    In Russia, elder abuse is rarely discussed in the professional literature and the media. However, it is posited that parricide can be considered a form of elder abuse in Russia, as the line between elder abuse and parricide can be vague. Instances of parricide can appear trivial, hardly realized as such by victims and the social environment. Borderline cases can include involving older people in binge drinking, denying them help, and manipulating them to commit suicide. The perpetrators are often nonpsychotic, although sometimes exhibiting abnormal personality traits. Anger toward the victim can be absent on the part of the perpetrator, with their actions often driven by economic desires. A concluding point is that for better prevention of parricide and, therefore, elder abuse, it should not be considered only an unusual horrific crime committed by the mentally ill.

  18. Abuse against elderly in India – The role of education


    Skirbekk, Vegard; James, KS


    BACKGROUND: Abuse against the elderly is recognized as an important challenge to elderly health, but its determinants are not yet well understood. We present findings from a new dataset which covers a representative sample of the population aged 60 years and above from seven Indian states across India -- all of which have a higher proportion aged 60 plus compared to the national average. Earlier studies suggest that schooling levels can be relevant in determining the level of abuse against se...

  19. 78 FR 37427 - World Elder Abuse Awareness Day, 2013 (United States)


    ... and security. But too often, senior citizens are the victims of abuse, neglect, or financial exploitation. Elder abuse is a global public health problem that affects people of every background and culture... prosperity. Today, let us stand up and speak out on their behalf, and meet our responsibility to show our...

  20. Exploring gender and elder abuse from the perspective of professionals. (United States)

    Weeks, Lori; Dupuis-Blanchard, Suzanne; Arseneault, Rina; MacQuarrie, Colleen; Gagnon, Danie; LeBlanc, Ginette Marie


    We conducted an online survey of professionals working in two Canadian provinces to learn about their knowledge of elder abuse from a gender-based perspective. A total of 169 professionals (90% women) completed a survey in either French or English. Five topic areas emerged from the analysis: the influence of gender on the risk of abuse; types of abuse detected; knowledge gaps; capacity to respond to gender-based abuse; and awareness of resources. To gain further insight into these results, we conducted three focus groups with a total of 24 professionals. Professionals held relatively little recognition of, or knowledge about, gender related to elder abuse. Our results indicate the need to develop educational and awareness raising opportunities for professionals who work with abused older adults in both French and English to identify and respond to the unique needs of older women and men.

  1. Elder Abuse in the African Diaspora: A Review. (United States)

    Mouton, Charles P; Southerland, Janet H


    As with many other populations, abuse of older adults is a growing problem across the Africa Diaspora. Modernization and urbanization are eroding the traditional values of respect for older adults. Also, older adults living in environments with limited social and economic resources, and having no means of economic support create a recipe for elder abuse and neglect. This article reviews the current literature on the epidemiology, risk factors, and interventions used for elder abuse across the African Diaspora. Reports of elder abuse range from 24.9% to 81.1% across the Diaspora. Risk factors include cognitive and physical impairment, social isolation, lack of resources and widowhood. Community-based programs using the unique social networks of older populations of African descent can provide a venue to improve caregiver training and support, reinforce traditional filial and informal caregiving practices, increase the utilization of available governmental and institutional. Copyright © 2017 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. WorldView Environmental Scan on Elder Abuse. (United States)

    Podnieks, Elizabeth; Anetzberger, Georgia J; Wilson, Susannah J; Teaster, Pamela B; Wangmo, Tenzin


    In response to a growing and worldwide recognition of elder abuse, the WorldView Environmental Scan on Elder Abuse was undertaken. It represented an attempt to collect both information on the nature of the problem of elder abuse and responses to it from a global perspective. The first of its kind, the Scan gathered information about elder abuse as well as on related legislation and policy, services and programs, educational resources and needs, training, and past and ongoing research. A total of 53 countries responded to the survey questionnaire, with 362 respondents representing the six world regions designated by the World Health Organization. Findings revealed that factors contributing to elder abuse include changing social and economic structures, isolation of victims, inadequate knowledge of laws and services, intergenerational conflict, and poverty. Barriers to seeking resources to intervene and protect older adults include the culture of the country, language issues, literacy, stigma, lack of mobility, lack of funding, and insufficient familiarity with and access to the internet. The data serve as a catalyst to take action, both globally and nationally, while emphasizing the changes necessary to protect the rights and dignity of older adults.

  3. Assessment of the Associations of Depression With Elder Abuse Among the Elderly in Kashan City, Iran

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    Zahra Khalili


    Conclusion: The study results indicate the importance and necessity of providing health care services and support for the identification of depressed elderly victims of abuse and prevention to solve this problem and improve their situation.

  4. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane


    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  5. Alcohol Abuse and the Elderly: Comparison of Early & Late-Life Onset. (United States)

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; And Others

    Two types of elderly alcohol abusers are described. Early onset or long-term alcohol abusers are abusers with long-standing behavioral problems considered well known to the social service delivery system. Late-life onset elderly alcohol abusers are those whose drinking problems began in the later years, after age 50, often in response to stresses…

  6. Maltrato institucional a adultos mayores Institutional elder abuse

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    Miriam Rubio Acuña


    Full Text Available El maltrato institucional se refiere a cualquier forma de abuso que ocurre en servicios dirigidos a los ancianos. Esta revisión bibliográfica muestra que el maltrato se presenta con mayor frecuencia en residencias de larga estadía y el tipo más frecuente es la negligencia. Los factores asociados son los que tienen relación con el residente y con el ambiente. Las principales estrategias son invertir recursos sociosanitarios, sensibilizar a la población respecto al maltrato de los ancianos, considerar las necesidades de estos, fortalecer la formación de pregrado de los profesionales de salud en este ámbito y realizar educación continua. El maltrato es un problema social que debe ser abordado de manera integral.Institutional abuse refers to any form of abuse that occurs in services for the elderly. This literature review indicates that abuse occurs more frequently in nursing homes and the most frequent type of neglect. The factors that may relate to the relationship with the resident and the environment. The main strategies relate to social and health invest resources, raising awareness about the abuse of the elderly, consider their needs, strengthen undergraduate education of health professionals in this field and make continuing education. Abuse is a social problem so this must be addressed holistically.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of abuse among community dwelling elderly of Guwahati City, Assam

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    Anku Moni Saikia


    Full Text Available Background: In spite of tremendous impact on health, elder abuse is still an underreported and unrecognized issue. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of abuse among community dwelling elderly and to identify the various risk factors. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 randomly selected wards of Guwahati city. A total of 331 elderly (60 years and above were interviewed. Abuse was screened by Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S EAST. Results: The study revealed 9.31% prevalence. Neglect was the most common type of abuse reported. Age, sex, socioeconomic status, living status, and functional status were found to be significantly associated with abuse. Conclusion: Abuse is prevalent among elderly population.

  8. Vulnerability risk index profile for elder abuse in a community-dwelling. (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A


    To develop a vulnerability index for elder abuse in a community-dwelling population. Population-based. Geographically defined community in Chicago. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 8,157) who participated in the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP); 213 were reported to social services agency for suspected elder abuse. A nine-item vulnerability index for elder abuse was constructed from sociodemographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors. The outcomes of interest were reported and confirmed elder abuse. Logistic regression models were used to determine the accuracy of the index with respect to elder abuse outcomes. For every 1-point increase in the vulnerability index, there was twice the risk of reported (OR = 2.19,95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.00–2.40) and confirmed(OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.94–2.47) elder abuse. Older adults with three to four vulnerability index items had greater risk than the reference group (no elder abuse) of reported (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.98–4.49) and confirmed (OR = 3.90, 95% CI = 2.07–7.36) elder abuse, and the risk of reported (OR = 18.46, 95% CI = 12.15–28.04) and confirmed (OR = 26.79, 95% CI = 14.18–50.61) elder abuse was 18 and 27 times as great, respectively, in older adults with five or more risk index items. Statistically derived receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves ranged from 0.77 to 0.84 for predicting reported elder abuse and from 0.79 to 0.86 for predicting confirmed elder abuse. The vulnerability risk index demonstrates value for identifying individuals at risk of elder abuse. Additional studies are needed to validate this index in other community-dwelling populations.

  9. [Understanding the elderly user of auditory prostheses]. (United States)

    de Paiva, Karina Mary; Maciel, Paulete Maria Ambrósio; Cintra, Letícia Guedes


    The main goal was to identify the factors involved in the application for and use of auditory prostheses by the elderly as well as their awareness of the Policy of Care to Auditory Health. 25 elderly people of both sexes using auditory prostheses in Vitória (Espírito Santo, Brazil) were selected. They were contacted by telephone to participate in the research by answering a questionnaire. The results demonstrated that most of the elderly people interviewed (52%) use the device all day which suggests good adaptation to the process. Thirteen elderly people reported that they contacted the prosthesis company of their own accord. The advantages involved better communication and listening to TV (64%) while the difficulties were due to noisy environments; 56% were unable to understand what was being said at lectures, in church, and on the telephone, 72% reported no improvement with the prosthesis. 88% of the elderly participants are unaware of donation policies for auditory devices and 100% are unaware of this kind of service. Research and practices in health services about auditory issues still have far to go. There is a need for a change in management with the objective of putting into action policies which define the responsibilities of the State.

  10. The Prevalence of Elder Abuse in Gorgan and Aq-Qala Cities, Iran in 2013

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    Hossien Nassiri


    Conclusion: Because of the high level of elder abuse by family, providing awareness programs for seniors, caregivers and health care providers seems to be essential to prevent and reduce the neglect and abuse of older people.

  11. 75 FR 40838 - Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation (United States)


    ..., training, and coordination. Membership and Designation The Secretary is soliciting nominations for... experience and expertise in elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation prevention, detection, treatment...

  12. The Bet Tzedek legal services model: how a legal services model addresses elder abuse and neglect. (United States)

    Morris, Janet R


    Bet Tzedek, Hebrew for the "House of Justice," provides free legal assistance to older adults in Los Angeles County. Their civil attorneys work alongside prosecutors and service providers for the elderly as members of multidisciplinary teams to assist older adults with complicated elder abuse and neglect cases. Case examples demonstrate how civil attorneys collaborate with the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center to address financial abuse, real estate fraud, and self-neglect issues. Cooperation among the courts, Bet Tzedek, and other county agencies has resulted in more user-friendly processes to expedite filing of conservatorships and elder abuse restraining orders.

  13. The interaction of injury and disease in the elderly: a case report of fatal elder abuse. (United States)

    Paranitharan, P; Pollanen, Michael S


    We report a case of an elderly demented woman who died of a mitral rheumatic valvular disease in the context of multiple injuries and from elder abuse. History from police investigation indicated that the deceased was found collapsed on the floor in her bedroom for several days prior to death by her son who did not initiate medical care. Autopsy revealed a frail elderly woman with Alzheimer's disease and evidence of multiple healing sublethal blunt impact injuries of the face, mouth, neck, upper chest, and extremities. In addition, there was unwashed dirt encrusted skin, urine/fecal staining of skin and clothing, dirty overgrown toenails, and matting of the hair. This constellation of findings supports the medical diagnosis of elder abuse with neglect. However, the immediate cause of death was the left-sided congestive heart failure from mitral rheumatic valvular disease. Although the underlying cause of death was related to the chronic cardiac condition, the physical abuse and neglect was considered significant contributing factors to death, since physiologically the injuries and lack of medical treatment was thought to have hastened death by exacerbating the underlying heart disease. This case underscores the need for the forensic pathologist to consider contextual variables and sublethal injuries in cases were the causal interpretations benefit from a more holistic approach. Otherwise, cases like such as the one reported can go unnoticed and certified as a simple natural death.

  14. Comparing routes of reporting in elder sexual abuse cases. (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly; Gregorian, Sarah B


    An exploratory study of 284 cases of alleged elder sexual abuse revealed fairly equal numbers of reports to the criminal justice system (CJS) and to Adult Protective Services (APS). Comparison of these two routes of reporting indicated the following: Suspected victims reported to APS were more likely to reside in their own homes, not receive rape exams, and have cognitive disabilities. Their alleged offenders were typically spouse/partners or family members age 40 or older. Victims reported to CJS were more frequently abused in institutions, received rape exams, and were victimized by offenders under age 40 who also committed nonsexual crimes. In cases reported to the CJS, alleged offenders were less likely than those in the APS cases to be identified, but once identified, were more likely to be arrested, referred for prosecution, and convicted, or to plea bargain their case.

  15. Understanding Economic Abuse in the Lives of Survivors (United States)

    Postmus, Judy L.; Plummer, Sara-Beth; McMahon, Sarah; Murshid, N. Shaanta; Kim, Mi Sung


    Intimate partner violence (IPV) often includes economic abuse as one tactic commonly used by an abuser; unfortunately, there is a lack of empirical understanding of economic abuse. Additionally, research is limited on the predictors of economic self-sufficiency in the lives of women experiencing IPV. This paper furthers our knowledge about…

  16. Contributions of Neuroimaging to Understanding Sex Differences in Cocaine Abuse


    Andersen, ML; Sawyer, EK; Howell, LL


    A consistent observation in drug abuse research is that males and females show differences in their response to drugs of abuse. In order to understand the neurobiology underlying cocaine abuse and effective treatments, it is important to consider the role of sex differences. Sex hormones have been investigated in both behavioral and molecular studies, but further evidence addressing drug abuse and dependence in both sexes would expand our knowledge of sex-differences in response to drugs of a...

  17. Preventing Elder Abuse: Identificaton of High Risk Factors Prior to Placement Decisions. (United States)

    Kosberg, Jordan I.


    Asserts that some elder abuse can be prevented by systematic assessment of the older person and the potential caregiver, as well as of the family constellation. Uses research findings to identify high-risk factors associated with elder abuse, factors that can be used to guide placement decisions. (Author/nB)

  18. Developing a Peer Educator Program to Raise Awareness about Elder Abuse (United States)

    Weeks, Lori E.; Bryanton, Olive; McInnis-Perry, Gloria; Chaulk, Paul


    There continues to be lack of public awareness about elder abuse. To help address this issue, we developed and piloted an elder abuse peer educator training program from an educational gerontology and health empowerment perspective. We describe the process employed to train older adults as peer educators. We present evaluation results from data…

  19. Nursing aides' attitudes to elder abuse in nursing homes: the effect of work stressors and burnout. (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Cohen, Miri


    Nursing aides' attitudes condoning elder abuse are a possible risk factor for executing abusive behaviors against elder residents of long-term care facilities but have been studied infrequently. The purpose of the study was to assess nursing aides' attitudes that condone abusive behaviors toward elderly people, as well as the relationship of these attitudes to demographic variables, work stressors (role conflict, role ambiguity, and work overload), burnout, and perceived control, based on the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1988, Attitudes, personality and behavior. Milton Keynes: Open University Press) Two hundred and eight nursing aides from 18 nursing homes in Israel completed demographic, work stressors, burnout, and perceived control questionnaires and a case vignette questionnaire to test attitudes condoning elder abuse. The mean score of the attitudes condoning abusive behaviors was relatively high at 3.24 (SD = 0.59) on a 1-4 scale. Condoning abusive behaviors were closely associated with higher levels of work stressors, burnout, and low income. Multiple regression analyses revealed that demographic variables, work stressors, burnout, and perceived control explained 12% of the variance of condoning abusive behaviors among the nursing aides. Of these, role ambiguity, role conflict, and burnout were significantly associated with attitudes condoning abusive behaviors. In addition, burnout partially mediated the relationship between work stressors and attitudes condoning elder abuse. As nursing aides' attitudes condoning elder abuse may influence their actual behaviors, training and supervision programs should be developed to reduce work stressors and burnout and to modify these attitudes.

  20. Emergency Department Presentations for Injuries in Older Adults Independently Known to be Victims of Elder Abuse. (United States)

    Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; LoFaso, Veronica M; Clark, Sunday; Flomenbaum, Neal E; Lachs, Mark S


    Elder abuse is under-recognized by emergency department (ED) providers, largely due to challenges distinguishing between abuse and accidental trauma. To describe patterns and circumstances surrounding elder abuse-related and potentially abuse-related injuries in ED patients independently known to be physical elder abuse victims. ED utilization of community-dwelling victims of physical elder abuse in New Haven, CT from 1981-1994 was analyzed previously. Cases were identified using Elderly Protective Services data matched to ED records. Sixty-six ED visits were judged to have high probability of being related to elder abuse and 244 were of indeterminate probability. We re-examined these visits to assess whether they occurred due to injury. We identified and analyzed in detail 31 injury-associated ED visits from 26 patients with high probability of being related to elder abuse and 108 visits from 57 patients with intermediate probability and accidental injury. Abuse-related injuries were most common on upper extremities (45% of visits) and lower extremities (32%), with injuries on head or neck noted in 13 visits (42%). Bruising was observed in 39% of visits, most commonly on upper extremities. Forty-two percent of purportedly accidental injuries had suspicious characteristics, with the most common suspicious circumstance being injury occurring more than 1 day prior to presentation, and the most common suspicious injury pattern being maxillofacial injuries. Victims of physical elder abuse commonly have injuries on the upper extremities, head, and neck. Suspicious circumstances and injury patterns may be identified and are commonly present when victims of physical elder abuse present with purportedly accidental injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Institutional abuse toward the elderly: Perceptions of health care providers and older adult

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    M. Guadalupe Ruelas-González


    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the health care providers (HCP and elderly patients’ perceptions about abuse of the elderly by health personnel of public health services, in selected cities in Mexico. Materials and methods. A qualitative study and a strategy of data triangulation were performed during 2009 and 2012; 13 HCPs and 12 elders were interviewed, in order to obtain their experience regarding elder abuse. Grounded Theory proceedings were used for the analysis. Results. Elder abuse is a naturalized practice, from HCP and elderly people’s point of view; these perceptions are showed in different ways. Conclusion. Institutionalization, historical professionalization and lack of consciousness about needs of the elderly (sociocultural and economic, require changes in planning, organization and monitoring process in the Health System; training and educational interventions on staff and exchange attitudes and behavior are necessary in order to offer a health care that is comprehensive, decent, human and with respect for the human rights.

  2. Drug and alcohol abuse among the elderly: is being alone the key? (United States)

    Brown, B B; Chiang, C P

    Despite the rising incidence of drug and alcohol abuse among the elderly, information concerning the social and psychological factors fostering such abuse is scanty and potentially biased toward the limited number of older abusers who obtain professional help. Using a brief interview with carefully selected samples, the present study compares characteristics of social background and social support among 21 older clients (age 55 and over) of drug treatment facilities, 30 older abusers not in treatment, and 155 elderly nonabusers. Analyses suggest that age and gender affect the likelihood of receiving treatment for substance abuse more than the likelihood of being an abuser. Controlling for age and gender effects, substance abuse appeared more prevalent among single and divorced elderly and among respondents who lived alone; presence or absence of living companions was more influential than relationships with nearby social supports. Implications for health and social service programs as well as for further research are discussed.

  3. Screening tools for identification of elder abuse: a systematic review. (United States)

    Gallione, Chiara; Dal Molin, Alberto; Cristina, Fabio V B; Ferns, Hilary; Mattioli, Mark; Suardi, Barbara


    To review the efficacy and accuracy of tools administered to older people, intended to detect and measure elder abuse. The mistreatment of older people represents a widespread problem, with exponential growth risk, especially considering the progressive ageing of the world population. It could have serious consequences for the victim's health if not recognised early, denounced and stopped. Abuse is often undetected by service providers because there is a lack of awareness surrounding the magnitude of the problem. Education and formal training in the signs of abuse are also generally poorly developed, as are reporting procedures which would lead to further investigation. Systematic review. Comprehensive database searches of MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE and Scopus were undertaken. Screening of 695 articles resulted in 11 included. Appraisal and analysis using PRISMA Statement and STROBE checklist were undertaken. Eleven screening tools have been presented: H-S/EAST, VASS, EASI, CASE, BASE, E-IOA, EAI, EPAS, CPEABS, OAPAM and OAFEM, all aimed at healthcare professional or, in some cases, expected to be specifically used by nurses. The fundamental function of any assessment instrument is to guide through a standardised screening process and to ensure that signs of abuse are not missed. Several tools have been tested; some have demonstrated a moderate to good internal consistency and some have been validated to allow an early identification. None have been evaluated against measurable violence or health outcomes. Nurses and all healthcare providers should screen patients routinely. However, we are not able to recommend a single tool as the selection and implementation has to be appropriate to the setting. Furthermore, the study population and the possibility of using multiple tools in combination should be taken into consideration, to assess all the aspects of violence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Influences on the perception of elder financial abuse among older adults in Southern California. (United States)

    Knight, Bob G; Kim, Seungyoun; Rastegar, Sarah; Jones, Scott; Jump, Victoria; Wong, Serena


    Under-reporting of elder financial abuse is partly due to failure of those around the victim to perceive the financial mistreatment as abuse. This study explored the effect of victim and perceiver factors on perception of elder financial abuse in the context of Routine Activity Theory (RAT). 488 older adults in Ventura County (CA) were surveyed about financial abuse using vignette method. In the study's Vignette 1, the amount of money taken, the type of frailty, and the relationship of perpetrator and victim were manipulated. In Vignette 2, the victim's age and relationship of perpetrator and victim were manipulated. Respondents' demographics (age, gender, education, and ethnicity) were collected. Logistic regression analyses revealed that children of the victim were least likely to be seen as committing abuse in both vignettes. In Vignette 1, there was an interaction of gender of respondent and the amount of money taken. In Vignette 2, non-Whites were less likely to perceive the signing over of the house as financial abuse. Respondents endorsed the concept of a special court with expertize in elder abuse as a way to increase the likelihood that they would report. Even though most financial abuse is perpetrated by family members, older adults are less likely to perceive a financial situation as abuse when it involves a child of the victim, thus making reporting and prevention less likely. The support for a specialty Elder Abuse Court (EAC) suggests that some reluctance to report is based on misgivings about punishing the perpetrator.

  5. Elderly Abuse in Ahwaz City and Its Relationship With Individual and Social Characteristics

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    Mahboube Karimi


    Full Text Available Objectives: Older people are a vulnerable group in the society and older people abuse is a common challenge in the domain of caring and advocating. This study aimed to investigate the elderly abuse prevalence and its relationship with individual and social characteristics. Methods & Materials: This study was a cross-sectional study. Participants were 385 older people aged more than 60 years old who were selected randomly. Elder Abuse scale (content validity and reliability=87% used. Data analysis conduced in SPSS. Results: Participant's mean age was 70 years old prevalence of physical abuse was 11.7%, emotional abuse 5.18%, neglect 27.7%, abundance 23/8% and financial abuse 18/3%. There was a significant association (P=0.001 between exiting disease and type of living and also between physical dependence to others and abuse (P=0.001. Conclusion: Despite respect to elder people in our culture, this population experience abuse specially neglect and financial ones. There fore,precise recognition of elder abuse in our society can increase the awareness and senility of responsible organizations in order to prevent and plan for an effective system, for vulnerable older people .

  6. Development of skills-based competencies for forensic nurse examiners providing elder abuse care (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Kosa, Daisy; Macdonald, Sheila; Elliot, Shannon; Yaffe, Mark


    Objective As a critical step in advancing a comprehensive response to elder abuse built on existing forensic nursing-led hospital-based programmes, we developed a list of skills-based competencies for use in an Elder Abuse Nurse Examiner curriculum. Participants and setting Programme leaders of 30 hospital-based forensic nursing-led sexual assault and domestic violence treatment centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures 149 verbatim recommendations for components of an elder abuse response were identified from a systematic scoping review. In 2 online Delphi consensus survey rounds, these components of care were evaluated by an expert panel for their overall importance to the elder abuse intervention under development and for their appropriateness to the scope of practice of an elder abuse nurse examiner. The components retained after evaluation were translated into skills-based competencies using Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning and, using the Nominal Group Technique, were subsequently reviewed and revised by a subset of members of the expert panel in a consensus meeting. Results Of the 148 recommendations evaluated, 119 were rated as important and achieved consensus or high level of agreement. Of these, 101 were determined to be within the scope of practice of an Elder Abuse Nurse Examiner and were translated into skills-based competencies. Following review and revision by meeting experts, 47 final competencies were organised by content into 5 metacompetencies: documentation, legal and legislative issues; interview with older adult, caregiver and other relevant contacts; assessment; medical and forensic examination; and case summary, discharge plan and follow-up care. Conclusions We determined the skills-based competencies of importance to training forensic nurse examiners to respond to elder abuse in the context of a hospital-based intervention. These findings may have implications for violence and abuse treatment programmes with a forensic nursing component

  7. Safety and Security of Older Persons in Tehran, Iran: A Sociological Appraisal of Elder Abuse (United States)

    Sheykhi, Mohammad Taghi


    The article explores and evaluates the quality of life, safety, and security of elderly people in Tehran City in Iran. In that, different dimensions of material and social well-being, and abuse of people of the age 65 and above, are assessed. Besides the human rights, the dignity, and the gradual decline of the elderly's social security are…

  8. Social-Relational Risk Factors for Predicting Elder Physical Abuse: An Ecological Bi-Focal Model (United States)

    von Heydrich, Levente; Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chee, Grace


    Annually in the United States, 1 to 5 million older adults, 65 and above, are physically or sexually injured or mistreated by their caregivers in family settings. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors involved in elder physical abuse by adult child caregivers, moving from the immediate elderly parent/adult child relationship context…

  9. Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect: Findings from First Macedonian Study

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    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska


    CONCLUSIONS: Defining the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in the context of our country can facilitate support of abused older people and, most importantly, may help develop policy and programmes based on evidence-based practices, targeting prevention and response.

  10. Elderly Abuse Rates Within Family Among Members of Senior Social Clubs in Tehran

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    Majideh Heravi Karimoei


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine elderly abuse rates, subtypes and related factors in the members of senior social clubs in the city of Tehran. Methods & Materials: This was a cross-sectional survey including 379 elders 65 years and older (125 men and 254 women presenting to the senior social clubs in Tehran. A face-to-face interview was carried out with every participant either at home or in clubs. Initially, individuals' cognitive states were evaluated using the Iranian version of the Abbreviated Mental Test Score and if scores of 6 and over were obtained, they were included in the study after taking informed consent. Subsequently, the Domestic Elderly Abuse Questionnaire, the Activities of Daily Living Scale for elderly people and a questionnaire designed by the authors for collecting demographic and personal data were completed. The gathered data were analyzed using the Chi square and T tests. Results: The total frequency of elderly abuse was 25.9%. The most frequent subtypes were emotional neglect (17.4% and psychological abuse (17.2% and the least were related to abandonment (3.7% and physical abuse (4.7%. Some factors including sex (P<0.0001, health insurance (P<0.04, occupation (P<0.0001, sufficient financial resources (P<0.0001, drug abuse (P<0.017, mean age (P<0.026, number of children (P<0.03, functional status (P<0.0001 and re-hospitalization (P<0.0001 were significantly different between the abused and non-abused people. Conclusion: Given the high rates of elderly abuse, serious measures must be taken to prevent its long-term consequences.

  11. Development of a comprehensive hospital-based elder abuse intervention: an initial systematic scoping review.

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    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review.Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation.The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1 addressed a response (e.g., an intervention to elder abuse, 2 contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3 were available in English.The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics.649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser;physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of recommendations.To address the lack of evidence to

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Elder Abuse in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. (United States)

    Blay, Sergio L; Laks, Jerson; Marinho, Valeska; Figueira, Ivan; Maia, Deborah; Coutinho, Evandro S F; Quintana, Ines M; Mello, Marcelo F; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mari, Jair J; Andreoli, Sergio B


    To assess the prevalence of elder abuse and to investigate potential sociodemographic, health behavior, and medical correlates. Cross-sectional data were collected in face-to-face assessments. São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Individuals aged 60 to 75. Information on elder abuse was obtained using the Brazil-adapted, nine-item Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test. Sampling design-adjusted descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in analyses. The overall prevalence of abuse was 14.4% (n = 46/259, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.82-20.61) in São Paulo and 13.3% (n = 27/197, 95% CI = 8.76-19.74) in Rio de Janeiro. Unadjusted analyses indicated that poor education, low physical activity, unemployment, heart disease, and psychiatric problems were associated with abuse, but in adjusted analyses, self-reported elder abuse was significantly associated only with psychiatric problems (São Paulo: OR = 4.48, 95% CI = 1.75-11.45; Rio de Janeiro: OR = 21.61, 95% CI = 6.39-73.14). Elder abuse is prevalent in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but whether concomitants of abuse are cause, effect, or both is unclear because this was a cross-sectional study. These findings highlight the importance of the problem, as well as the need to develop measures to increase awareness, facilitate prevention, and fight against abuse of elderly adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Evil and elder abuse: intersections of Paul Ricoeur's and Simone Weil's perspectives on evil with one abused older woman's narrative. (United States)

    Erlingsson, Christen L


    Doing violence and evil always indirectly or directly leads to making someone else suffer. Such is the dialogical structure of evil and it seems to be the dialogical structure of elder abuse as well. There is a perturbing sameness between definitions of evil and definitions of elder abuse. It is hard at times to see how or if there is any line of demarcation between the subjects. Two modern-day philosophers, Paul Ricoeur and Simone Weil have delved particularly into the concept of evil. The symbolism Ricoeur analyses in depth is that of defilement, sin, and guilt and the concept of the servile will. Integral in Weil's description of evil are the concepts of suffering and the special situation of extreme suffering, termed affliction. Grounded in the writings of Ricoeur and Weil, this paper is a series of reflections on the intersection of evil and elder abuse as exemplified in the narrative of an abused older woman. This woman provided around the clock care at home for her husband who had vascular dementia. She was also abused by her husband. This was witnessed by both family and others but no one intervened. In her narrative there were indications of defilement, sin, guilt, and true affliction as a servile will. This paper illuminates the evil of elder abuse that is harm and suffering, and the challenge of untangling issues of blame, free will, responsibility, and self-determinism. When engaging with abused, older persons it can be worthwhile for nurses to enter the encounter with non-judgemental compassion founded on the human to human connection and recognition of our mutual fallibility and potential for evil that is part of our human fragility. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Elder Physical Abuse and Failure to Report Cases: Similarities and Differences in Case Type and the Justice System's Response (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.


    Treated initially as a social problem, elder abuse has only recently been criminalized. The criminalization of elder abuse involves penalizing offenders for actively abusing offenders as well as for violating mandatory reporting laws. Mandatory reporting laws exist to encourage professionals to report suspected cases of elder abuse. In this study,…

  15. Abuse, Neglect, and Violence Against Elderly Women in Ghana: Implications for Social Justice and Human Rights. (United States)

    Sossou, Marie-Antoinette; Yogtiba, Joseph A


    This article discusses abuse and neglect of elderly women in Ghana and the traditional practices that adversely affect their human rights. Their situation is characterized by pervasive poverty, illiteracy, widowhood, predominantly rural dwelling, and subjection to insidious cultural practices and superstitious beliefs. Increase in life expectancy and population trends point to significant increases in the numbers of the elderly women. Breakdown of the extended family support system and the waning of filial obligations are factors affecting their welfare. Accurate data on these abuses is lacking due to cultural inhibitions and non-reporting. Legislations and NGO programs are addressed to combat abuses.

  16. The prevalence of elder abuse in the Porto Alegre metropolitan area

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    Camila Mello dos Santos


    Full Text Available Abuse of the elderly is a form of violence to come to the public's attention. Dental professionals are in an ideal position to identify physical abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of elderly abuse and analyze the database of injury reports that can be identified by dental teams. A documentary analysis study developed by the Elderly Protection Police Station of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, was carried out. The information used came from 2,304 complaints filed at the aforementioned institution between the years of 2004 and 2006. The records of abuse are categorized as injury, neglect, mistreatment, theft, financial abuse, threat, disturbing the peace, atypical fact, and others. The injuries that could be identified by the dental team were classified according to the injury's location in the area of the head, face, mouth and neck. Descriptive analysis was performed, and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the distributions of the types of elder abuse in relation to sex and age. The most frequent of the different types of abuse was theft, with a prevalence of 17.8%, followed by disturbing the peace at 11.8%. Disturbing the peace, threat, and bodily injury were significantly associated with women. Elder abuse among women and men declines with age. The prevalence of head injury was 25% of the total injuries, most often in females, and in those aged < 70 years. Based on these results, it is necessary that the dental team observe the elderly person's appearance for suspicious physical signs.

  17. Elder abuse and neglect: social problems revealed from 15 autopsy cases. (United States)

    Akaza, Kayoko; Bunai, Yasuo; Tsujinaka, Masatake; Nakamura, Isao; Nagai, Atsushi; Tsukata, Yukiyoshi; Ohya, Isao


    This study examined the elder abuse cases that occurred in Gifu Prefecture, Japan between 1990 and 2000. We conducted a retrospective study of all the cases in which the victim was 65 years or older and autopsied in the Department of Legal Medicine, Gifu University School of Medicine. Fifteen victims were classified as elder abuse victims: five men and ten women. The victims ranged in age from 66 to 87 years (mean age, 74.5 years). The types of abuse were as follows: physical abuse, 13 cases; emotional abuse, five cases; neglect, four cases; and financial abuse, three cases. In eight cases, the victims were subjected to two or more types of abuse. The cause of death of the victims varied with the type of abuse. In the physical abuse cases, subdural hemorrhage was the most common cause, followed by other violence-related deaths and hypothermia. In the neglect cases, the victims died of either starvation or suffocation after the aspiration of food into the airway. In the domestic abuse cases, one of the victim's sons was the most common perpetrator, and little or no income was considered to be a risk factor for perpetrators. In the neglect cases, dementia and difficulty in performing activities of daily living were considered to be risk factors for victims, in addition to living in social isolation.

  18. Abuse (United States)

    ... someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or any sexual activity when the person is unable to understand, unwilling to consent, threatened or physically forced Willful deprivation: willfully denying ...

  19. Association Between Depression and Elder Abuse and the Mediation of Social Support: A Cross-Sectional Study of Elder Females in Mexico City. (United States)

    Vilar-Compte, Mireya; Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Ochoa-Laginas, Adriana; Gaitan-Rossi, Pablo


    We assessed the association between depression and elder abuse, and the mediation effect of social support among elder women in Mexico City. A total of 526 noninstitutionalized elder women, residing in Mexico City and attending public community centers were selected. Logistic regressions and structural equation models (SEM) were estimated. One fifth of the elderly women were at risk of depression, one third suffered some type of abuse in the past 12 months, and 82% reported low social support. Logistic models confirmed that depression was statistically associated with elder abuse and vice versa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.97 and 1.96, respectively). In both models, social support significantly reduced the association between these variables leading to study these associations through SEM. This approach highlighted that social support buffers the association between depression and elder abuse. Findings underline the relevance of programs and strategies targeted at increasing social support among urban older adults.

  20. Designing and Determining Psychometric Properties of the Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire

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    Majid Heravi-Karimooi


    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this methodological study was to design and determine the psychometric properties of a new and specific questionnaire for assessing domestic elder abuse in the context of Iranian culture. Methods & Materials: This study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, phenomenology was applied to explore the meaning of domestic elder abuse phenomenon. In the second phase, a questionnaire was compiled, using the results of the qualitative research implemented in the first phase, in conjunction with the inductions from the expert panel. In the third phase, the psychometric properties including face validity, content validity, construct validity, internal consistency, and test- retest reliability were measured. 325 elderly people who were selected randomly participated in the last stage. Results: The initial 78 item questionnaire designed using the results of first and second phases of study, reduced to 49 items in the process of determining the face and content validity. The result of exploratory factor analysis showed that this questionnaire contains 8 factors including care neglect, psychological abuse, physical abuse, financial abuse, curtailment of personal autonomy, abandonment, financial neglect and emotional neglect. These 8 factors explained nearly 79.93% of the variance. The results of known groups' comparisons showed that this questionnaire could successfully discriminate between subgroups of elderly people in the indexes of re-hospitalization and functional status. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha was 0.90–0.975. Test-retest reliability (ICC of the questionnaire with interval time of two weeks was 0.98 (P<0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that the Domestic Elder Abuse questionnaire with 49 items appears to be a promising tool, providing reliable and valid data helping to detect abuse among elders in different settings such as clinical settings, homes and research environments by health care

  1. Elder Abuse in the Iberian Peninsula and Bolivia: A Multicountry Comparative Study. (United States)

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Carvalhal, Rosa; Gálvez-Rioja, Ruth Mary; Ruiz-Gandara, África; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, Mª Aurora


    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of abuse of vulnerable older persons in the family and community environment in the following regions-Spain (Andalusia-Córdoba), Portugal (Azores), and Bolivia (Santa Cruz de la Sierra)-and to identify risk factors and delineate a profile of abused older persons. For this, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of people in the age group 65 years plus living in the catchment areas of health centers. The following were used as instruments to collect data: the medical record of the patients of relevant health centers, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), daily activities autonomy test, adaptability, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve (APGAR) familiar test, The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and the Social Work Evaluation Form. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with abuse. Suspected abuse was identified in 6.9% of the elderly who participated in the study in Spain, 39% in Bolivia, and 24.5% in Azores. In all areas, studied psychological abuse was the most common type of abuse. In conclusion, although the prevalence of abuse to older people in the family and community environment differs in the areas studied, it is present in all countries and the data are comparable with other developing and European countries. The profile of the abused older persons appears to be similar in all countries.

  2. Assessing Quality of Care and Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes via Google Reviews. (United States)

    Mowery, Jared; Andrei, Amanda; Le, Elizabeth; Jian, Jing; Ward, Megan


    It is challenging to assess the quality of care and detect elder abuse in nursing homes, since patients may be incapable of reporting quality issues or abuse themselves, and resources for sending inspectors are limited. This study correlates Google reviews of nursing homes with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) inspection results in the Nursing Home Compare (NHC) data set, to quantify the extent to which the reviews reflect the quality of care and the presence of elder abuse. A total of 16,160 reviews were collected, spanning 7,170 nursing homes. Two approaches were tested: using the average rating as an overall estimate of the quality of care at a nursing home, and using the average scores from a maximum entropy classifier trained to recognize indications of elder abuse. The classifier achieved an F-measure of 0.81, with precision 0.74 and recall 0.89. The correlation for the classifier is weak but statistically significant: = 0.13, P rating correlations approach approximately 0.65 when the effective average number of reviews per provider is increased by aggregating similar providers. These results indicate that an analysis of Google reviews of nursing homes can be used to detect indications of elder abuse with high precision and to assess the quality of care, but only when a sufficient number of reviews are available.

  3. Detection of elder abuse: Exploring the potential use of the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index© by law enforcement in the field. (United States)

    Kurkurina, Elina; Lange, Brittany C L; Lama, Sonam D; Burk-Leaver, Erin; Yaffe, Mark J; Monin, Joan K; Humphries, Debbie


    There are no known instruments to aid law enforcement officers in the assessment of elder abuse (EA), despite officers' contact with older adults. This study aimed to identify: 1) officers' perceptions and knowledge of EA, 2) barriers in detecting EA in the field, 3) characteristics officers value in a detection tool, and to explore 4) the potential for officers to use the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI)©. Data was collected from 69 Connecticut officers who confirmed that barriers to effectively detecting EA included a lack of EA detection instruments, as well as a lack of training on warning signs and risk factors. Officers indicated that the important elements of a desirable tool for helping to detect EA included ease of use, clear instructions, and information on follow-up resources. Approximately 80% of respondents could see themselves using the EASI © in the field, and a modified version has been developed for this purpose.

  4. Elder Mistreatment Perpetrators with Substance Abuse and/or Mental Health Conditions: Results from the National Elder Mistreatment Study. (United States)

    Labrum, Travis; Solomon, Phyllis L


    A large portion of persons who commit elder mistreatment have long been known to have indicators of substance abuse and/or mental health conditions (SAMHC). However, few studies have specifically examined elder mistreatment by persons with SAMHC, preventing the development of specialized intervention strategies. Using results from the National Elder Mistreatment Study, the current article examines victim, perpetrator, and interaction characteristics between cases of emotional and physical elder mistreatment in which the perpetrator is reported to have vs. not have SAMHC. Chi square tests and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon non-parametric tests were performed. 210 perpetrators of emotional elder mistreatment were reported to have SAMHC with 412 perpetrators of emotional mistreatment reported to not have SAMHC. 57 perpetrators of physical elder mistreatment were reported to have SAMHC with 38 perpetrators of physical mistreatment not having SAMHC. Emotional elder mistreatment committed by persons with SAMHC was associated with the following characteristics: perpetrator-unemployment, history of involvement with police, and fewer friendships; victim-female gender, greater emotional problems, and greater occurrences of lifetime emotional mistreatment; interaction-co-residence, and reporting of mistreatment to authorities. Physical elder mistreatment committed by persons with SAMHC was associated with police involvement of the perpetrator and greater occurrences of lifetime physical mistreatment experienced by the victim. These findings indicate that victims of elder mistreatment by persons with SAMHC are in particular need of intervention services as they have greater histories of mistreatment and experience greater emotional problems. Implications for effectively intervening in cases of elder mistreatment by persons with SAMHC are discussed.

  5. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 “Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients” (United States)

    Mattoo, Khurshid A.; Garg, Rishabh; Kumar, Shalabh


    Context: This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Aims: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs). To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Settings and Design: The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. Results: About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%), signs of improper feeding (83%), changes in personal hygiene (69%), need for medical/dental treatment (78%), medication misuse (67%), changes in wills/deeds (26%), decubiti (10%), bruises (17%), skin tears (27%), and confusion (23%). Conclusions: Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups. PMID:26816460

  6. Financial abuse in elderly Korean immigrants: mixed analysis of the role of culture on perception and help-seeking intention. (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Eaton, Charissa K


    This study aims to evaluate how elderly Korean immigrants perceive and respond to a hypothetical incident of financial abuse on the basis of their cultural background. By using a quota sampling strategy, 124 elderly Korean immigrants were recruited. A mixed-method approach was employed to explore the role of culture on elderly immigrants' view of financial abuse and the construct of independent and interdependent self-construal was adopted to theoretically guide the study. Mixed-method analysis confirmed considerable influence of culture, particularly in responding to the abusive situation. Although the vast majority of the elders (92%) perceived financial abuse as elder mistreatment, only two-thirds (64%) intended to seek help. Five major themes for not seeking help were produced. These are: (a) issues related to family problems, (b) tolerance of the abuse, (c) shame, (d) victim blame, and (e) mistrust toward third party intervention. A series of binary logistic regressions revealed (a) a lower likelihood of seeking formal types of help with those who had higher level of adherence to traditional values and (b) the profile of vulnerable elderly Koreans who are at higher risk of being financially abused: male and less educated. This article also discusses implications for social work practice and elder mistreatment policy, particularly focusing on how to work with elderly Korean immigrants who are vulnerable to this problem and who tend to use collectivistic cultural values in responding to financial abuse.

  7. [The prevalence and influencing factors of abuse and negligence against elderly in rural areas of Anhui province]. (United States)

    Su, Pu-yu; Hao, Jia-hu; Xiong, Li-ming; Yu, Dan-dan; Cao, Yue-ting; Fang, Yun; Jiang, Xiu-ling; Qian, Qiao-xia; Tao, Fang-biao


    To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors related to abuse and negligence against the elderly in the rural areas. 975 elderly over 60 years from 41 counties in Anhui province were included. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire including items as: educational background, marital condition, income, child-discipline, rude action to parents, daily activities, physical functions, having chronic illness, abuse and negligence against the elderly, etc. In the last year, rates of common physical abuse, serious physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, negligence, overall abuse and negligence against the elderly were 4.5%, 1.5%, 26.9%, 4.9%, 7.2%, 29.9% respectively. Among the 281 victims, 80.4% reported that they were suffered more than 3 times of abuse and neglect episodes, and 34.9% reported that they were suffered more than 2 forms of abuse and negligence. The primary sadism was carried out by the daughter-in-law or son-in-law (43.2%) of the elderly. Low activity on daily life and having chronic illness were the risk factors causing common physical abuse while better education was the protective factor to it. Low ability in managing daily activity of living was the risk factor causing serious physical abuse. Less active on daily life and having rude action to parents were the risk factors to emotional abuse, but being strict with their children was the protective factor to emotional abuse. Less active on daily life, often beating their children and having rude action to parents were the risk factors related to financial exploitation. Less active on daily life, having rude action to parents and having bad physical functions were the risk factors causing negligence. Less active on daily life and having rude manner to parents were the risk factors of overall elderly abuse and negligence, but being strict with their children was protective factor to the abuse and negligence against the elderly. High prevalence on abuse and

  8. Adolescent and Elderly Substance Abusers and Their Similarities: Considerations for Treatment. (United States)

    Frissell, Susan


    Contends that adolescent and elderly populations both exhibit attitudes, behavior, feelings, and reasons for alcohol and drug abuse that appear to be similar. Suggests that study of pediatrics can play role in development of geriatric movement by sharing common issues of both groups. Applies Erikson's stages of development to illustrate similarity…

  9. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults (United States)

    ... person to a bed or a wheelchair Emotional/Psychological Abuse : Intimidation or yelling Making threats Humiliating or ... and health problems. July 2017. © 2018 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • ...

  10. The psychedelic 1960s, hippies in their 60s: substance abuse in the elderly. (United States)

    Hoffman, Janice


    Individuals who attended the famous Woodstock concert--known collectively as hippies--were part of the "counterculture" of the late 1960s and well known for their use of illicit, sometimes psychedelic, drugs. Did they and other former hippies, who are now in their sixties and seventies, continue their substance abuse, and how are they presenting now? This case evaluates a 77-year-old man who was referred to the geriatric assessment clinic for evaluation of worsening cognition. This case illustrates the need to conduct a complete medication history, including substance abuse and dietary supplements, in elderly patients. Consultant pharmacists with knowledge of alcohol and substance abuse and the influence of this abuse on a patient's drug regimen can make improved quality-of-life recommendations for appropriate dosage adjustments as needed.

  11. Vulnerability to Elder Abuse and Neglect in Assisted Living Facilities (United States)

    Wood, Stacey; Stephens, Mary


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the decision-making abilities of residents in assisted living regarding abuse and neglect. Design and Methods: Twenty-seven residents in assisted living facilities were recruited for this descriptive study. Participants were administered an interview to assess baseline knowledge of support…

  12. Substance Abuse by Elders and Self-Enhancement Bias (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane


    Human service professionals regularly do not recognize the symptoms of substance abuse in older populations and are unlikely to provide intervention. In this study, human service students (N = 242) were given one of three vignettes in which the main character was an 80-year-old man, an 80-year-old woman, or they were asked to imagine themselves at…

  13. Elder abuse in the community : prevalence and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H C; Pot, A M; Smit, J H; Bouter, L M; Jonker, C

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the prevalence and the consequences of chronic verbal aggression, physical aggression, financial mistreatment, and neglect in a community-based sample; (2) to investigate the circumstances that led to the abuse and the ways in which the victims handled the problem. DESIGN:

  14. Children's religious knowledge: implications for understanding satanic ritual abuse allegations. (United States)

    Goodman, G S; Quas, J A; Bottoms, B L; Qin, J; Shaver, P R; Orcutt, H; Shapiro, C


    The goals of the present study were to examine the extent of children's religious, especially satanic, knowledge and to understand the influence of children's age, religious training, family, and media exposure on that knowledge. Using a structured interview, 48 3- to 16-year-old children were questioned about their knowledge of: (a) religion and religious worship; (b) religion-related symbols and pictures; and (c) movies, music, and television shows with religious and horror themes. Although few children evinced direct knowledge of ritual abuse, many revealed general knowledge of satanism and satanic worship. With age, children's religious knowledge increased and became more sophisticated. Increased exposure to nonsatanic horror media was associated with more nonreligious knowledge that could be considered precursory to satanic knowledge, and increased exposure to satanic media was associated with more knowledge related to satanism. Our results suggest that children do not generally possess sufficient knowledge of satanic ritual abuse to make up false allegations on their own. However, many children have knowledge of satanism as well as nonreligious knowledge of violence, death, and illegal activities. It is possible that such knowledge could prompt an investigation of satanic ritual abuse or possibly serve as a starting point from which an allegation is erected.

  15. Physical Abuse of Elderly Adults: Victim Characteristics and Determinants of Revictimization. (United States)

    Friedman, Lee S; Avila, Susan; Rizvi, Tazeen; Partida, Renee; Friedman, Daniel


    To describe victim characteristics and determinants of recurrent physical abuse of elderly. Multicenter retrospective analysis of multiple data systems to study victims of elder mistreatment in the greater Chicago metropolitan area. Five teaching hospitals with Level 1 trauma centers. Individuals aged 60 and older treated for physical and sexual abuse between 2000 and 2011. History of revictimization was based on hospital admission histories, Adult Protective Services records, and self-report. Death records were also linked to participant files. Fifty-eight individuals (52.3%) out of 111 cases suffering physical abuse had documented histories of revictimization. Based on multivariable models, individuals who were female, widowed, diagnosed with dementia, and returning to the home where the perpetrator lived or visited were substantially more likely to be revictimized. Revictimized individuals were more likely to be assaulted through unarmed force by a proximal relative, in particular a husband, boyfriend, child, or child-in-law. Based on hospital records, only 57% of community-dwelling cases had their abuse reported to Adult Protective Services or the police, and only 26.6% had Adult Protective Services investigations on record. Better screening that connects victims of abuse with community services, police action, and alternative residential options is important in reducing the risk of revictimization and connecting individuals with resources that can improve their safety at home, regardless of whether it is in the community or a residential facility. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Development of short-form measures to assess four types of elder mistreatment: Findings from an evidence-based study of APS elder abuse substantiation decisions. (United States)

    Beach, Scott R; Liu, Pi-Ju; DeLiema, Marguerite; Iris, Madelyn; Howe, Melissa J K; Conrad, Kendon J


    Improving the standardization and efficiency of adult protective services (APS) investigations is a top priority in APS practice. Using data from the Elder Abuse Decision Support System (EADSS), we developed short-form measures of four types of elder abuse: financial, emotional/psychological, physical, and neglect. The EADSS data set contains 948 elder abuse cases (age 60+) with yes/no abuse substantiation decisions for each abuse type following a 30-day investigation. Item sensitivity/specificity analyses were conducted on long-form items with the substantiation decision for each abuse type as the criterion. Validity was further tested using receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, correlation with long forms and internal consistency. The four resulting short-form measures, containing 36 of the 82 original items, have validity similar to the original long forms. These short forms can be used to standardize and increase efficiency of APS investigations, and may also offer researchers new options for brief elder abuse assessments.

  17. Research Protocol for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Elder Abuse Prevalence Studies. (United States)

    Yon, Yongjie; Mikton, Christopher; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Wilber, Kathleen H


    Elder abuse is an important public health and human rights issue, yet its true extent is not well understood. To address this, we will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of elder abuse prevalence studies from around the world. This protocol describes the methodological approach to be adopted for conducting this systematic review and meta-analysis. In particular, the protocol describes the search strategies and eligibility criteria to be used to identify and select studies and how data from the selected studies will be extracted for analysis. The protocol also describes the analytical approach that will be used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates and discusses the use of meta-regression to assess how studies' characteristics influence the prevalence estimates. This protocol conforms to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis - or PRISMA - guidelines and has been registered with the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of systematic reviews.

  18. Can an active aging index (AAI) provide insight into reducing elder abuse? A case study in Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. (United States)

    Tareque, Md Ismail; Ahmed, Md Munsur; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul


    We use data from respondents aged 60 years and above, collected during April 2009 in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh, to examine whether high activeness, as captured by an AAI or in sub-domains, can help reduce the risk of elder abuse. The findings suggest that more than half of rural elderly and 14 percent of urban elderly were at some point abused. High activeness in health and security dimensions lowers the risk of being abused while those who are low active in community participation have the lowest risk of being abused in both rural and urban areas. Being literate (elderly with primary/secondary education) is revealed to be a significant factor that lowers the risk of abuse in both rural and urban areas. These results imply a need for educational programs that bolster positive and proper community interaction, in turn promoting a secure later life for elders, and reducing burden for families and society. High activeness in health and security dimensions should also be promoted to keep the elderly healthy and protect from abusive behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stressful situations in life, use and abuse of alcohol and drugs by elderly in Monterrey, Mexico


    Castillo,Bertha Alicia Alonso; Marziale,Maria Helena Palucci; Castillo,Maria Magdalena Alonso; Facundo,Francisco Rafael Guzmán; Meza,Marco Vinicio Gómez


    This is a descriptive, qualitative, and correlation study with 112 elderly aged 60 years or older. This study aimed to identify differences in alcohol consumption according to gender and marital status, and differences in the consumption of medical drugs by gender. It also aims to determine differences in stressful life events by gender, and differences in stressful life events associated to alcohol and medical drugs use and abuse, as well as to know their perceptions on the most stressful li...

  20. Lifetime abuse and perceived social support among the elderly: a study from seven European countries. (United States)

    Eslami, Bahareh; Di Rosa, Mirko; Barros, Henrique; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Lindert, Jutta; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella


    Being a victim of abuse during one's life course may affect social relations in later life. The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the association between lifetime abuse and perceived social support and (ii) identify correlates of perceived social support among older persons living in seven European countries. A sample of 4467 women and men aged 60-84 years living in Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden was collected through a cross-sectional population-based study. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed through interviews or interviews/self-response questionnaire based on the Conflict Tactics Scale-2 and the UK study on elder abuse. Perceived social support was assessed by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Victims of lifetime abuse perceived poorer social support in later life. Multivariate analyses showed that high levels of perceived social support were associated with being from Greece and Lithuania (compared to Germany), being female, not living alone, consuming alcohol and physical activity. Poorer perceived social support was associated with being from Portugal, being old, having social benefits as the main source of income, experiencing financial strain and being exposed to lifetime psychological abuse and injuries. Our findings showed that exposure to psychological abuse and injuries across the lifespan were associated with low levels of perceived social support, emphasizing the importance of detection and appropriate treatment of victims of abuse during their life course. Future research should focus on coping strategies buffering the negative effects of abuse on social relationships. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Domestic Elder Abuse in Rural Area of Dezful, Iran and Its Relation With Their Quality of Life

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    Leila Mohebbi


    Conclusion: In spite of high emphasis on respecting elders in our culture, the elders experience different types of abuse. Hence, specific consideration and inducing sensitivity in relevant organizations and individuals is required to prevent the long-term consequences and effects of this issue.

  2. A Theoretical Foundation for Understanding Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie


    Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical…

  3. Institutional Abuse: Understanding Domination from the Inside Looking Out. (United States)

    Jones, Jocelyn


    Applies a conceptual framework drawn from Max Weber's ideas of domination to examine the ways by which domination of child victims is created and maintained in cases of institutional abuse. Suggests that a solution is to regulate institutional abuse by written guidance on procedures, by frequent inspections, and through copious recommendations…

  4. Mortality among elder abuse victims in rural Malaysia: A two-year population-based descriptive study. (United States)

    Yunus, Raudah Mohd; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Choo, Wan Yuen; Hairi, Farizah Mohd; Sooryanarayana, Rajini; Ahmad, Sharifah Nor; Abdul Razak, Inayah; Peramalah, Devi; Abdul Aziz, Suriyati; Mohammad, Zaiton Lal; Mohamad, Rosmala; Mohd Ali, Zainudin; Bulgiba, Awang


    Our study aims at describing mortality among reported elder abuse experiences in rural Malaysia. This is a population-based cohort study with a multistage cluster sampling method. Older adults in Kuala Pilah (n = 1,927) were interviewed from November 2013 to May 2014. Mortality was traced after 2 years using the National Registration Department database. Overall, 139 (7.2%) respondents died. Fifteen (9.6%) abuse victims died compared to 124 (7.0%) not abused. Mortality was highest with financial abuse (13%), followed by psychological abuse (10.8%). There was a dose-response relationship between mortality and clustering of abuse: 7%, 7.7%, and 14.0% for no abuse, one type, and two types or more, respectively. Among abuse victims, 40% of deaths had ill-defined causes, 33% were respiratory-related, and 27% had cardiovascular and metabolic origin. Results suggest a link between abuse and mortality. Death proportions varied according to abuse subtypes and gender.

  5. [Validation of a prevention and detection procedure for physical and economic abuse of the elderly]. (United States)

    Goikoetxea Iturregui, Marije; Moro Inchartieta, Alvaro; Martínez Rueda, Natxo

    The study carried out for the «Physical and economic abuse sign detection procedure for the elderly in the Basque Country» Pilotage and Validation is described. There barely exist appropriate and validated tools to assist the issue, and the existing ones are hardly adequate for people with cognitive deterioration; therefore, the issue's both visibility in our society and professional intervention are strained. The proposed procedure is a composed by screening tool that determines a likelihood of abuse and an evaluation of signs for determining the abuse practice. It is intended to be used in the social area as well as the sanitary one by any professional. It is composed of two questionnaires: one of risk-factor valuation and a second one concerning indicators based on three severity levels. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used. The sample was made of 649 elders: 596 evaluated by the risk-factor questionnaire, 138 by the indicators questionnaire, and 85 evaluated by both; 94 professionals from several backgrounds (sanitary, social and economic) participated. Eight of the detected cases were checked by the team of experts that elaborated the procedure; the sessions were analysed after their transcription. The procedure has been validated as sensitive for its goal, being equally valid for the social and health areas. It can be used by any professional, although some differences have been detected. As regards the ability to differentiate items and the final evaluation of the severity of the situation, some changes and corrections have been proposed. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. (United States)

    Pons, Francisco; de Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick K; Doudin, Pierre-André; Harris, Paul L; Giménez-Dasí, Marta


    Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants' emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.

  7. Children's Religious Knowledge: Implications for Understanding Satanic Ritual Abuse Allegations. (United States)

    Goodman, Gail S.; Quas, Jodi A.; Bottoms, Bette L.; Qin, Jianjian; Shaver, Phillip R.


    Using a structured interview, 48 3- to 16-year-old children were questioned about their knowledge of religious and satanic concepts. Although few children evinced direct knowledge of ritual abuse, many revealed general knowledge of satanism and satanic worship. Results suggest that most children probably do not generally possess sufficient…

  8. Towards an Understanding of Power Relationships in Institutional Abuse. (United States)

    Jones, Jocelyn


    Uses Max Weber's ideas of domination to analyze the authority structure in an English private boy's school where physical and sexual abuse were perpetrated by the school's principal and owner. Discusses how domination was constructed and maintained, how victims were selected, and how relations outside the school were managed. Suggests current…

  9. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  10. Understanding Aboriginal Learning Ideology through Storywork with Elders (United States)

    Atleo, Marlene R.


    Five Nuu-chah-nulth Elders engaged in the examination of a Nuu-chah-nulth story for what they considered learning. A network of eight learning archetypes inhabited the story to demonstrate a range of learning strategies. The Elders identified features central to a cultural learning project, which included prenatal care and grandparent teaching,…

  11. Abuse (United States)

    ... make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...

  12. Understanding of the risk of HIV infection among the elderly in Ga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucebious Lekalakala-Mokgele


    Medunsa Campus), Pretoria, South Africa, ... South Africa to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risks of HIV infection and AIDS. ..... themselves, some partners refused to use condoms.

  13. Emergency Medical Services Perspectives on Identifying and Reporting Victims of Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Self-Neglect. (United States)

    Rosen, Tony; Lien, Cynthia; Stern, Michael E; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Mysliwiec, Regina; McCarthy, Thomas J; Clark, Sunday; Mulcare, Mary R; Ribaudo, Daniel S; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl; Flomenbaum, Neal E


    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers, who perform initial assessments of ill and injured patients, often in a patient's home, are uniquely positioned to identify potential victims of elder abuse, neglect, or self-neglect. Despite this, few organized programs exist to ensure that EMS concerns are communicated to or further investigated by other health care providers, social workers, or the authorities. To explore attitudes and self-reported practices of EMS providers surrounding identification and reporting of elder mistreatment. Five semi-structured focus groups with 27 EMS providers. Participants reported believing they frequently encountered and were able to identify potential elder mistreatment victims. Many reported infrequently discussing their concerns with other health care providers or social workers and not reporting them to the authorities due to barriers: 1) lack of EMS protocols or training specific to vulnerable elders; 2) challenges in communication with emergency department providers, including social workers, who are often unavailable or not receptive; 3) time limitations; and 4) lack of follow-up when EMS providers do report concerns. Many participants reported interest in adopting protocols to assist in elder protection. Additional strategies included photographically documenting the home environment, additional training, improved direct communication with social workers, a dedicated location on existing forms or new form to document concerns, a reporting hotline, a system to provide feedback to EMS, and community paramedicine. EMS providers frequently identify potential victims of elder abuse, neglect, and self-neglect, but significant barriers to reporting exist. Strategies to empower EMS providers and improve reporting were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Next Generation Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries: Thermodynamic Understanding and Abuse Performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    As we develop new materials to increase performance of lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, the impact of potential safety and reliability issues become increasingly important. In addition to electrochemical performance increases (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance behavior. Introduction of a next generation materials, such as silicon based anode, requires a full understanding of the abuse response and degradation mechanisms for these anodes. This work aims to understand the breakdown of these materials during abuse conditions in order to develop an inherently safe power source for our next generation electric vehicles. The effect of materials level changes (electrolytes, additives, silicon particle size, silicon loading, etc.) to cell level abuse response and runaway reactions will be determined using several techniques. Experimentation will start with base material evaluations in coin cells and overall runaway energy will be evaluated using techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). The goal is to understand the effect of materials parameters on the runaway reactions, which can then be correlated to the response seen on larger cells (18650). Experiments conducted showed that there was significant response from these electrodes. Efforts to minimize risk during testing were taken by development of a smaller capacity cylindrical design in order to quantify materials decision and how they manifest during abuse response.

  15. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention.Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey.Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important, and an interquartile range<1 in the first or second round, and/or for which 80% of ratings were 4+ in the second round were retained for the model elder abuse intervention.Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88, geriatrician (4.87, police officer (4.87, GEM (geriatric emergency management nurse (4.80, GEM social worker (4.78, community health worker (4.76, social worker/counsellor (4.74, family physician in community (4.71, paramedic (4.65, financial worker (4.59, lawyer (4.59, pharmacist (4.59, emergency physician (4.57, geriatric psychiatrist (4.33, occupational therapist (4.29, family physician in hospital (4.28, Crown prosecutor (4.24, neuropsychologist (4.24, bioethicist (4.18, caregiver advocate (4.18, victim support worker (4.18, and respite care worker (4.12.A large and

  16. Next Generation Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries: Thermodynamic Understanding and Abuse Performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The objectives of this project are to elucidate degradation mechanisms, decomposition products, and abuse response for next generation silicon based anodes; and understand the contribution of various materials properties and cell build parameters towards thermal runaway enthalpies. Quantify the contributions from various cell parameters such as particle size, composition, state of charge (SOC), electrolyte to active materials ratio, etc.

  17. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; De Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick Karl


    Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse...

  18. Next Generation Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Thermodynamic Understanding and Abuse Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The objectives of this report are as follows: elucidate degradation mechanisms, decomposition products, and abuse response for next generation silicon based anodes; and Understand the contribution of various materials properties and cell build parameters towards thermal runaway enthalpies. Quantify the contributions from particle size, composition, state of charge (SOC), electrolyte to active materials ratio, etc.

  19. A cluster randomized trial on improving nurses' detection and management of elder abuse and neglect (I-NEED): study protocol. (United States)

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Choo, Wan Yuen; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Mohd Mydin, Fadzilah Hanum; Jaafar, Siti Nur Illiani; Tan, Maw Pin; Mohd Ali, Zainudin; Abdul Aziz, Suriyati; Ramli, Rohaya; Mohamad, Rosmala; Lal Mohammad, Zaiton; Hassan, Norlela; Brownell, Patricia; Bulgiba, Awang


    The aim of this study was to describe a trial protocol of an educational intervention for nurses to improve their awareness and practice in detecting and managing elder abuse and neglect. Knowledgeable and skilful nurses are crucial amidst the growing numbers of maltreated older patients. This trial is a multi-site, three-armed, community-based cluster randomized controlled trial with 6-months follow-up. This study will involve 390 community and registered nurses from government health clinics in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia (protocol approved in October 2013). This three-phased study, premised on the Precede-Proceed Model, comprises baseline focus group discussion and survey (Phase 1), development of training module (Phase 2) and implementation and evaluation of the training (Phase 3). Eligible participants will be randomized to the control group (continuous nursing education), intervention group A (face-to-face intensive training programme) or group B (face-to-face intensive training programme and an educational video). Outcome measures include improvement in knowledge and awareness on elder abuse and neglect and the number of cases identified and managed during follow-up. Data will be collected at baseline, immediate postintervention, 3- and 6-month follow-up. Findings from this study will provide empirical support for the development of a training module for nurses on the detection and management of elder abuse and neglect, towards improving healthcare delivery and the well-being of vulnerable older adults. This study is funded by the University of Malaya Research Grant (RP001C-13HTM), (FL002-13SBS) and University of Malaya Grand Challenge (PEACE) Grant (GC001C-14HTM) awarded in May 2013, July 2013 and September 2014. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Enhancing the safety of elderly victims after the close of an APS investigation. (United States)

    Jackson, Shelly L; Hafemeister, Thomas L


    The purpose of this study was to test whether particular actions on the part of adult protective services (APS), the elderly victim, and/or society's response to abusive individuals, are associated with the continuation of abuse after the close of an APS investigation and thereby compromise victim safety. Interviews were conducted with 71 APS caseworkers, 55 of the elderly victims of substantiated abuse, and 35 third-party persons. A small proportion of elderly victims continue to experience abuse after the close of an APS investigation. Elderly victims were more likely to experience continued abuse when they chose to have ongoing contact with their abusers, vis-à-vis cohabitation or otherwise, and when their abusers experienced no consequences. Although continuation of abuse did not differ by the type of maltreatment involved, reasons for the cessation of abuse, and other safety indicators, did. To enhance victim safety, greater monitoring may be warranted in cases wherein elderly victims continue to have contact with their abuser and when abusive individuals experience no consequences. To further enhance victim safety, abusive individuals must be incorporated into an overall strategic response to elder abuse. A potential avenue for facilitating victim safety while maintaining victim autonomy is to understand their motivations for desiring continued contact with their abuser and developing interventions based upon such knowledge.

  1. Understanding of pictograms from the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI among elderly Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros IMC


    Full Text Available Izadora MC Barros, Thaciana S Alcântara, Alessandra R Mesquita, Monica L Bispo, Chiara E Rocha, Vagner Porto Moreira, Divaldo P Lyra Junior Laboratory of Teaching and Research in Social Pharmacy (LEPFS, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Brazil Objective: To assess the understanding and cultural acceptability of the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI in a group of elderly Brazilians.Methods: The study participants were individuals between 60 and 90 years old, of both sexes, with different levels of education and income. Fifteen of 81 pictograms from the USP-DI were presented to the elderly subjects, individually, without subtitles and in random order, so that the participants’ understanding of the pictograms could be evaluated.Results: The study included 116 participants. Only one of the selected pictograms reached the comprehension criterion established by the International Organization for Standardization 3864. With regard to the relationship between understanding and sociodemographic characteristics, age, wage income, and level of education were all found to be significantly associated with participants’ understanding of some of the pictograms.Conclusion: Most of the USP-DI pictograms evaluated were not well understood by the elderly Brazilians. This finding indicates that such pictograms need to be culturally adapted for the Brazilian context if they are to serve their purpose effectively in this country. Keywords: pictograms, understanding, elderly, Brazil

  2. Abused Women's Understandings of Intimate Partner Violence and the Link to Intimate Femicide


    Dekel, Bianca; Andipatin, Michelle


    In this article, we explore how women survivors of intimate partner violence understand the abuse they endured and the possible link to intimate femicide. This is a qualitative study based on a feminist poststructuralist perspective. Seven South African women, aged 23 to 50 years, with a history of different manifestations of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) participated in open-ended interviews. The data was analyzed by means of discourse analysis. In their explanations, the women constructed...

  3. Critical Criminological Understandings of Adult Pornography and Woman Abuse: New Progressive Directions in Research and Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter DeKeseredy


    Full Text Available There is a small, but growing, social scientific literature on the racist and violent nature of contemporary adult pornography. However, considerably more empirical and theoretical work needs to be done to advance a critical criminological understanding of how such hurtful sexual media contribute to various forms of woman abuse in intimate relationships. The main objective of this article is to briefly review the relevant literature and to suggest a few new progressive empirical and theoretical directions.

  4. Inner-City African-American Women's Adolescence as Stressful Life Events: Understanding Substance Abusing Behavior. (United States)

    Durr, Marlese; Small, La Fleur F; Dunlap, Eloise


    Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, "What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?" This research examines African American women's substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces.

  5. Abused Women's Understandings of Intimate Partner Violence and the Link to Intimate Femicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Dekel


    Full Text Available In this article, we explore how women survivors of intimate partner violence understand the abuse they endured and the possible link to intimate femicide. This is a qualitative study based on a feminist poststructuralist perspective. Seven South African women, aged 23 to 50 years, with a history of different manifestations of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV participated in open-ended interviews. The data was analyzed by means of discourse analysis. In their explanations, the women constructed gendered identities, which reflected contradictory and ambiguous subjective experiences. The women's understandings were filtered through the particular social context in which their abusive experiences occurred. The findings highlighted that contemplating femicide was too threatening, and consequently participants drew on discourses of femininity, romantic love, and others to justify their remaining in their violence-ridden relationships. It emphasizes the need for additional engagement in women's understandings of intimate femicide, as women who live in abusive relationships have largely been consigned to the periphery. URN:

  6. Understanding of the risk of HIV infection among the elderly in Ga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out in Ga-Rankuwa, a black township in Gauteng Province, South Africa to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risks of HIV infection and AIDS. Using a qualitative, exploratory design, three focus-group interviews were conducted with 32 women aged over 50 ...

  7. Maus-tratos contra idosos no município de Camaragibe, Pernambuco Elder abuse in Camaragibe, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Lopes de Melo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever a situação de maus-tratos contra idosos no município de Camaragibe, na região metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo de corte transversal com uma amostra representativa da população idosa do município, e submetida a questionário previamente elaborado conforme os objetivos do estudo. RESULTADOS: dos 315 idosos, 95,4% estavam na sexta e sétima década de vida, 65,2% eram mulheres e recebiam até dois salários mínimos (91,4%, 87,5% tinham casas próprias, com deficiente esgotamento sanitário (84,1% e baixo grau de escolaridade (97,1%. Sessenta e seis referiram sofrer maus-tratos. Desses, 65,2% eram do sexo feminino. O tipo de violência mais comum foi a psicológica (62,1%, seguida da física (31,8%, cometidas pelos próprios familiares dentro do próprio domicílio. As mulheres foram mais agredidas que os homens. 71,3% reagiram passivamente não sabendo a que órgão denunciar. No seu entendimento a comunidade era indiferente ao problema. CONCLUSÕES: os maus-tratos contra idosos apresentam-se como problema relevante para a saúde pública. Medidas educativas poderiam ser implementadas para esclarecê-los sobre direitos, facilitar a denúncia e a obtenção de apoio ou ajuda.OBJECTIVES: to describe the situation of abuse against the elderly in the municipality of Camaragibe, in the metropolitan region of Recife, Pernambuco. METHODS: cross sectional study with a representative sample of the elderly population in the municipality, subject to abuse and respondents to a previously designed questionnaire according to the objectives of the study. RESULTS: of the 315 elderly, 95.4% were in the sixth and seventh decade of life and 65.2% were women and received up to two minimum wages (91.4%, were house owners (87.5%, living in neighborhoods with deficient sewage systems (84.1% and low education level (97.1%. Seventy six claimed they were abused. Among these 65.2% were females. The most common type

  8. Prevalência de maus-tratos na terceira idade: revisão sistemática Prevalence of elder abuse: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cybele Ribeiro Espíndola


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar estudos sobre prevalência de abuso na terceira idade e analisar a qualidade dos estudos. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática estudos de base populacional em bases de dados eletrônicos (PubMed, LILACS, Embase, ISI, PsycInfo, referente aos anos de 1988 a 2005. Foram incluídos os estudos de base populacional e excluídos os estudos sem definição metodológica delineada e estudos realizados em clientela de serviços especializados. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 440 artigos, mas apenas 11 artigos foram selecionados. A maioria dos artigos foi de corte transversal, apenas dois apresentaram desenho longitudinal. Os estudos foram conduzidos em diversas regiões do mundo, sobretudo dos Estados Unidos e da Europa. Observou-se variação nas definições de abuso. Os estudos de prevalência encontraram coeficientes de abuso físico entre 1,2% (Holanda e 18% (Finlândia. CONCLUSÕES: Existe substancial variação de prevalência entre os países, parecendo haver uma variável cultural importante. Como o número de idosos é crescente no mundo, são necessários mais estudos de base populacional representativos dessa faixa etária para melhor compreensão do fenômeno.OBJECTIVE: To identify prevalence studies of abuse among elderly and assess their quality. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed through PubMed, LILACS, Embase, ISI, and PsycInfo, for the period between 1988 and 2005. Population-based studies were included and studies without clear methodological definition and with clinical and service samples were excluded. RESULTS: There were found 440 articles, but only 11 of them were selected. Most were cross-sectional designs and only two were longitudinal studies. These studies were conducted in various countries worldwide, mostly in US and Europe. They varied widely in terms of abuse definition. Prevalence of physical abuse ranged from 1.2% (Holland to 18% (Finland. CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable prevalence

  9. [A Case of an Elderly Diabetic Patient Developing Wernicke Encephalopathy without Alcohol Abuse or an Unbalanced Diet]. (United States)

    Kaneko, Yuji; Tsurutani, Yuya; Sagawa, Naoko; Kondo, Mai; Sata, Akira; Miyao, Mariko; Azuma, Reo; Orimo, Satoshi; Mizuno, Yuzo


    A 70-year-old man with a 28-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted due to persistent vomiting and neurological abnormalities in Nov 2012. He had developed gait disturbance and diplopia for six months during antiplatelet therapy, which was initiated following the diagnosis of a cerebellar infarction in June 2012. He had nystagmus, truncal ataxia and an ocular motility disorder, and the MRI study showed increased FLAIR and DWI signals in the peri-third ventricle and periaqueductal region, in addition to the cerebellar vermis. Wernicke encephalopathy was suspected according to his symptoms, and thiamine administration dramatically improved his condition. He did not have a history of alcohol abuse or poor eating habits; however, various coexisting factors, including diabetes mellitus, pyloric stenosis and the use of antiulcer drugs and insulin, were considered to be responsible for Wernicke encephalopathy. This case demonstrates the importance of distinguishing Wernicke encephalopathy from cerebrovascular disease in elderly patients.

  10. Adaptation, reliability, and validity study of the Hwalek-SengstockElder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST): a Turkish version (United States)

    Özçakar, Nilgün; Toprak Ergönen, Akça; Kartal, Mehtap; Baydur, Hakan


    Background/aim: The most important issues in elder abuse and neglect are lack of awareness and difficulties in determining the situation. Our aim is to determine the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST).Materials and methods: The H-S/EAST (15-itemed, three-dimensional: direct abuse, characteristics of vulnerability, and potentially abusive situation) was translated according to the guidelines and experts evaluated it for content validity and cultural adaptation. Participants' (n = 252) mean age was 73.4 ± 6.4 years and 58.3% were female. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-OLD) and the Barthel Index were used for validity. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, exploratory factor analysis for content validity, t-test for construct validity, and discriminant ability were used. SPSS 15.0 was used for analysis and statistical significance was P test-retest reliability, internal consistency coefficient values for direct abuse, characteristics of vulnerability, and potentially abusive situation were 0.88, 0.73, and 0.80, respectively. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency of the H-S/EAST was 0.741. Exploratory factor analysis obtained 5 factors, and explained variance was 61.8%. Cut-off value was 6, and sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve were 76.9%, 96.2%, and 0.938, respectively.Conclusion: The Turkish version of the H-S/EAST can be used as a reliable, valid clinical tool for the assessment of elder abuse.

  11. Alcohol Abuse in the Elderly: Implications for Educational and Human Service Programming. (United States)

    Crossman, Lenard H.


    Suggests that although the elderly have not been well identified and assisted in most alcoholism services, they are an at-risk population. Discusses current programs and problems and implications for both alcoholism service providers and the broader spectrum of human, educational and social service providers. (JAC)

  12. The Effect of Emotional Focused Intervention on Spousal Emotional Abuse and Marital Satisfaction among Elderly Married Couples: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hazrati


    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the impacts of an Emotional Focused Intervention on emotional abuse behaviors and marital satisfaction among the elderly married couples. Methods: This randomized controlled trial study was carried out in Shiraz-Iran, during September 2013-2014. The elderly couples were invited to join an emotional focused intervention, following the advertisement and announcement on bulletin boards in the elderly day clinic centers and all governmental primary health care centers. Then, 57 couples (114 participants who were eligible for study were assigned in two groups by block randomization (29 in the experimental and 28 in the control group(.The couples in the experimental group received intervention twice a week for four weeks. Each session lasted 90 minutes. The control group didn’t receive any intervention and the subjects were put in the waiting list. The outcome measures were evaluated by Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse Questionnaire (MMEAQ and Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire for Older People (MSQFOP. Repeated measurement ANOVA was used to detect any significant changes between groups in their mean scores of emotional abuse behaviors and marital satisfaction from pre- to post-test, and 3 months after the intervention. Analysis of data was performed using SPSS, version 19, and P≤0.05 was measured as significant. Results: The mean duration of marriage was 39.56±9.64 years. In the experimental group, the abusive behaviors decreased significantly (P<0.001 at times 2 and 3 compared with time 1, and marital satisfaction improved significantly only at time 3 (P<0.001. These differences were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: Emotion-focused couple-based interventions are helpful in reducing the spousal emotional abuse and improving marital satisfaction in among the elderly couples. Trial Registration Number: 2013111715426N1

  13. Identifying elder abuse & neglect among family caregiving dyads: A cross sectional study of psychometric properties of the QualCare scale. (United States)

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Ridenour, Kimberly; Salaysay, Zachary; Reyes-Gastelum, David; Pierce, Steven J


    Universal screening for elder abuse and neglect is a current controversy in geriatrics, fueled by the lack of evidence on valid and reliable instruments. Since each U.S. State and many other countries have their own legal definitions of what constitutes elder abuse and neglect, this further complicates instrument development and clinical assessment. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the sensitivity and specificity of the QualCare Scale, an instrument with utility in detecting clinically significant elder abuse and neglect among older adults receiving care at home. Data used in this analysis were collected during a training program in which trainees completed assessments (N=80) of standardized case scenarios of caregiving dyads. Trainees completed the QualCare Scale during each assessment. This training program, including the assessments of the standardized case scenarios, was completed using a custom designed virtual-reality platform. Trainees were able to interact with the environment, older adult and caregiver within the case scenario. Thirty-six nurses and social workers from two Michigan Medicaid Waiver Sites participated in the training program. Each participant assessed between one and five scenarios, yielding the sample of 80 assessments used in this analysis. The research team designed each standardized case scenario to reflect whether or not the QualCare Scale subscale score should indicate reportable elder abuse and neglect per the State statute. Accordingly, the research team's QualCare Scale scores for each scenario were used as the gold standard criterion of clinical significance for comparison against the participant's assessment scores. Sensitivity and specificity for each of the six QualCare subscales was determined. Overall, the subscales had high sensitivity (≥0.811) but a wide range for specificity (0.167-1.000). The QualCare Scale can be an effective tool in detecting clinically significant elder abuse and neglect among older

  14. Bilingual Text With or Without Pictograms Improves Elderly Singaporeans' Understanding of Prescription Medication Labels. (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Bautista, Mary Ann C; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tang, Wern Ee; Tay, Sarah; Tan, Audrey Siok Ling; Pouliot, Annie; Saffari, Seyed Ehsan; Chei, Choy-Lye; Vaillancourt, Regis


    In Singapore, primarily English-language prescription medication labels challenge elderly Singaporeans, many of whom are unable to read English. We investigated whether bilingual text and pictograms can help them understand prescription medication labels. We randomized 1,414 elderly respondents of a national survey into four prescription medication labels: English-text; English-text-and-pictograms; Bilingual-text; and Bilingual-text-and-pictograms, which were similar except for the addition of another language and/or pictograms (International Pharmaceutical Federation, FIP). Respondents answered 16 label-related questions; an expert panel rated answers for correctness. Outcomes were (1) complete understanding (16 correct); (2) any understanding (≥1 correct); and (3) number of incorrect answers among those with any understanding. We evaluated associations of each prescription medication label (vs. English-text) with outcomes (1), (2), and (3) using logistic and negative binomial regression, respectively. The elderly respondents were similar across the four prescription medication labels (English-text, English-text-and-pictograms, Bilingual-text, Bilingual-text-and-pictograms), for which the proportions with outcomes (1) and (2) were (17.9%, 25.6%, 36.9%, 40.1%) and (50.4%, 62.6%, 75.9%, 76.5%), respectively. We observed statistically significant higher odds of outcomes (1) and (2) among those assigned the three labels (vs. English-text): English-text-and-pictograms, 1.96 and 2.51; Bilingual-text, 3.54 and 6.73; and Bilingual-text-and-pictograms, 4.51 and 7.93. Those assigned the three labels also had 0.94, 1.98, and 2.12 fewer outcome (3) on average (vs. English-text). Adding bilingual text with or without pictograms on prescription medication labels considerably improved elderly Singaporeans' understanding of the labels, strongly suggesting its application in practice. Other issues in prescription medication labels design and content, including adapting FIP

  15. Understanding of the risk of HIV infection among the elderly in Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa. (United States)

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious


    The literature pertaining to the elderly shows that HIV infection among this population is on the increase, suggesting that the elderly population engages in activities risky for HIV infection. Reports on such behaviour include frequent sexual relations with much younger people and having multiple partners. A study was carried out in Ga-Rankuwa, a black township in Gauteng Province, South Africa to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risks of HIV infection and AIDS. Using a qualitative, exploratory design, three focus-group interviews were conducted with 32 women aged over 50 years. Findings revealed that older persons have knowledge about transmission of HIV infection and AIDS. However, a few had misconceptions as to how HIV infection is transmitted, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities play a role. Knowledge of mechanisms of protecting themselves against infection, such as use of a condom during coitus and wearing gloves when caring for infected family members, was also evident. The elderly indicated that they would prefer an older person, who they could identify with, to educate them more about HIV infection and AIDS. Although majority of participants had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, and issues that put them at risk of transmission, a few the older persons had misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted due to lack of knowledge, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities can transmit infection. The lack of knowledge underscores the importance of addressing sexual risk with older people. It was very clear that more needs to be done in terms of education campaigns to dispel the myths of HIV infection and to empower the elderly.

  16. [Elderly women and alcohol]. (United States)

    Moscato, Alba

    It is important to understand the reasons for alcohol abuse in elderly people and in particular women. Psychological suffering must be envisaged. This behaviour can be considered as a necessary narcissistic retreat when ageing. The mental health of these women should be taken into account when providing them with help when they want it. This involves understanding them and supporting them as they adjust to the passage of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary


    Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…

  18. Perceived Effectiveness of Elder Abuse Interventions in Psychological Distress and the Design of Culturally Adapted Interventions: A Qualitative Study in the Chinese Community in Chicago (United States)

    Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa


    This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults' views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+) participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults. PMID:24455260

  19. Perceived Effectiveness of Elder Abuse Interventions in Psychological Distress and the Design of Culturally Adapted Interventions: A Qualitative Study in the Chinese Community in Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong


    Full Text Available This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults’ views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+ participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults.

  20. Visión del maltrato al anciano desde atención primaria Primary care doctors' and nurses' opinion of elder abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coma Montserrat


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar la opinión de los profesionales sanitarios de atención primaria (AP sobre el maltrato al anciano (MA y su abordaje, mediante un estudio cualitativo de grupos focales. Sujetos y métodos: Participaron 27 sanitarios de AP. Se llevó a cabo un análisis del contenido temático de los datos, la codificación, la segmentación y la creación de categorías del corpus textual. Resultados: Consideraron más frecuentes los abusos psicológicos y económicos. La negligencia se relacionó con el estilo de vida actual. Los abusos físicos y sexuales se consideraron anecdóticos, aunque posiblemente infradiagnosticados. Entre los factores de riesgo destacan la desestructuración familiar, la sobrecarga, la escasa formación del cuidador y la hostilidad del anciano. El maltratador se asoció con determinadas variables, como enfermedad mental, drogodependencia, violencia familiar previa en abusos físicos y económicos; no había un perfil definido en situaciones de negligencia o abandono. Los recursos sociales y sanitarios son insuficientes y limitan la intervención, haciendo infructuosa la detección. La formación, la supervisión y el asesoramiento de los profesionales respecto al MA se consideraron recursos necesarios puesto que, con apoyos externos y bien coordinados, la AP podría actuar eficazmente en estas situaciones. Conclusiones: Aunque los profesionales demostraron un buen conocimiento del problema, se puso de manifiesto la necesidad de disponer de pautas consensuadas de detección e intervención. Afloraron carencias de recursos y dificultades en la delimitación de responsabilidades en el abordaje del MA, que han de tenerse en cuenta a la hora de planificar estrategias. Los profesionales se consideraron a sí mismos un recurso de actuación sin rehuir su implicación.Objective: To identify primary care health professionals' opinion of elder abuse and its management. Qualitative study through focus groups. Participants

  1. Emotional Abuse: How the Concept Sheds Light on the Understanding of Psychological Harassment (in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Harvey


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of emotional abuse in the workplace and applies relevant findings and concepts to psychological harassment as defined in the legislation enacted in Quebec beginning June 1, 2004. It is noted that the terms are highly related by definition and that a clear similarity exists. Accordingly, a prospective look is taken at the challenges involved in the understanding and application of psychological harassment based on seven dimensions commonly studied and referred to in the academic literature on emotional abuse. The conclusion is that the determination of psychological harassment involves a multidimensional consideration of factors and that this gives rise to several challenges in applying the new legislation.Cet article s’intéresse au concept d’abus émotif au travail et à son application à des problèmes de harcèlement psychologique, tel que défini par la législation promulguée au Québec en juin 2004. Les définitions des deux termes sont rapprochées ce qui suggère qu’il s’agit de problèmes similaires. À des fins de prospective, l’article étudie les implications pratiques de l’application au harcèlement psychologique des sept dimensions associées à l’abus émotif dans la littérature scientifique. L’article arrive à la conclusion qu’un diagnostic de harcèlement psychologique requiert la prise en compte de facteurs multidimensionnels, ce qui soulève des difficultés multiples en ce qui a trait à l’application de la législation récente.Este artículo se interesa al concepto de abuso emotivo en el trabajo y a su aplicación a los problemas de acoso psicológico, según la definición que figura en la legislación promulgada en Québec en junio del 2004. Las definiciones de los dos términos son próximas lo que sugiere que se trata de problemas similares. Con fines prospectivos, el artículo estudia las implicaciones prácticas de la aplicación de siete dimensiones asociadas al

  2. Exploring Therapists’ Understandings of Childhood Sexual Abuse and the Impact of this on their Practice with Adult ‘Survivors’: A Discursively Informed Thematic Analysis.


    Suter, Lynn


    Childhood sexual abuse is often seen to have long-lasting effects. Consequences of the experience identified in the clinical literature include depression, interpersonal difficulties, anxiety and self-harming among others. How professionals understand the concept of childhood sexual abuse will potentially affect how they work with adults who have had this experience. \\ud \\ud This study aims to explore the issue of how therapists construct childhood sexual abuse and how their understandings im...

  3. Understanding the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Men's Risk Behavior: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study. (United States)

    Downing, Martin J; Brown, Dominique; Steen, Jeffrey; Benoit, Ellen


    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) remains a critical public health issue among black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is associated with multiple negative outcomes including substance misuse, poor mental health, revictimization, and high-risk sexual behavior. Most CSA research with MSM relies on quantitative assessment that often precludes consideration of cultural variations in how formative sexual experiences are understood and is based on inconsistent or overly restrictive definitions of abuse, and therefore may fail to detect certain abusive experiences (eg, those involving female perpetrators), which can have harmful health consequences if they remain unrecognized. The objective of this study is to overcome existing limitations in the literature by drawing on perspectives of black and Latino MSM and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW), as well as relevant service providers to better understand the role of, and the need to include, sexual abuse histories (eg, CSA) in treatment and counseling settings, with the long-term goal of improving assessment and health outcomes. We will conduct mixed-methods interviews, framed by an intersectionality approach, with 80 black and Latino men (40 MSM and 40 MSMW) in New York City (NYC), exploring appraisals of their formative sexual experiences, including those described as consensual but meeting criteria for CSA. We will also interview 30 local service providers representing substance abuse treatment, mental health care, and HIV prevention and outreach. The study was launched in May 2017. This formative research will inform testable approaches to assessing and incorporating sexual abuse history into substance abuse treatment and other health and mental health services used by men with such histories. ©Martin J Downing Jr, Dominique Brown, Jeffrey Steen, Ellen Benoit. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (, 26.02.2018.

  4. Understanding the gastrointestinal tract of the elderly to develop dietary solutions that prevent malnutrition (United States)

    Rémond, Didier; Shahar, Danit R.; Gille, Doreen; Pinto, Paula; Kachal, Josefa; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Walther, Barbara; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier; Tomás-Cobos, Lidia; Vergères, Guy


    Although the prevalence of malnutrition in the old age is increasing worldwide a synthetic understanding of the impact of aging on the intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients is still lacking. This review article aims at filling the gap in knowledge between the functional decline of the aging gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the consequences of malnutrition on the health status of elderly. Changes in the aging GIT include the mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor function, food transit, chemical food digestion, and functionality of the intestinal wall. These alterations progressively decrease the ability of the GIT to provide the aging organism with adequate levels of nutrients, what contributes to the development of malnutrition. Malnutrition, in turn, increases the risks for the development of a range of pathologies associated with most organ systems, in particular the nervous-, muscoskeletal-, cardiovascular-, immune-, and skin systems. In addition to psychological, economics, and societal factors, dietary solutions preventing malnutrition should thus propose dietary guidelines and food products that integrate knowledge on the functionality of the aging GIT and the nutritional status of the elderly. Achieving this goal will request the identification, validation, and correlative analysis of biomarkers of food intake, nutrient bioavailability, and malnutrition. PMID:26091351

  5. [Elder]. (United States)

    Arroyo, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel


    The aim of this review is to present scientific evidence on the biological, dietary, cultural and economic advantages of cow´s milk and dairy products intake in adults, with emphasis on the elderly. The role of milk and dairy products as part of the regular diet, as well as their contribution to a healthy diet for the aged population is described. The updated scientific references on the importance of milk and dairy products on the dietary management of the most prevalent diseases of the eldery -among these energy-protein malnutrition, sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases- are presented.

  6. [Childhood sexual abuse: how important is the diagnosis to understand and manage sexual, anorectal and lower urinary tract symptoms]. (United States)

    Cour, F; Robain, G; Claudon, B; Chartier-Kästler, E


    To understand and manage the sequels of childhood sexual abuse on sexual, anorectal and lower urinary tract functions. Review of articles published in the Medline database, selected according to their scientific relevance and published guidelines on this subject together with our own experience. A history of sexual abuse is frequently found when assessing dysfunction or symptoms of the lower urinary tract. In this context, urinary stress incontinence is rarely involved but it can be linked by epidemiological factors. Dysuria with urgency is the most frequent expressed symptom. When associated with anorectal disorders and pelvic pain or a sexual disorder in particular dyspareunia, a sexual abuse should be evoked and specific questions asked to the patient. Although these symptoms are frequently encountered in 12 to 33% of women, and 8 to 16% of men, few practitioners, whatever their speciality ask about them as routine. It is important that the physician diagnose the existence of sexual abuse, in particular when the symptoms mentioned by the patient are not conclusive, in spite of thorough urological assessment. Patients finding the initial examination difficult and painful and the failure of the initial treatment should lead to questions concerning abuse, if neglected by the initial medical inquiry. Clinicians involved in perineal functional pathology are able to acquire standardized modalities of inquiry about child sexual abuse for a better time management and efficacy in the therapeutic approach. The interest of a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach is primordial, associating psychological therapy and if necessary perineal re-education. This can avoid unnecessary tests and out-patient visits. Directing patients towards a multidisciplinary approach is highly advisable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Petmanship: Understanding Elderly Filipinos' Self-Perceived Health and Self-Esteem Captured from Their Lived Experiences with Pet Companions (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Cucueco, Denise S.; Cuenco, Ian Benedict V.; Cunanan, Nigel Gerome C.; Dabandan, Robel T.; Dacanay, Edgar Joseph E.


    Understanding of the lived experiences of geriatric clients with pets, particularly in the Western cultures, has been the subject of many studies. However, little is known about how Asian cultures, particularly the Filipino elderly, view their experiences with their pets in regard to their self-esteem and self-perceived health. This…

  8. A framework for understanding outcomes of integrated care programs for the hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Hartgerink


    Full Text Available Introduction: Integrated care has emerged as a new strategy to enhance the quality of care for hospitalised elderly. Current models do not provide insight into the mechanisms underlying integrated care delivery. Therefore, we developed a framework to identify the underlying mechanisms of integrated care delivery. We should understand how they operate and interact, so that integrated care programmes can enhance the quality of care and eventually patient outcomes.Theory and methods: Interprofessional collaboration among professionals is considered to be critical in integrated care delivery due to many interdependent work requirements. A review of integrated care components brings to light a distinction between the cognitive and behavioural components of interprofessional collaboration.Results: Effective integrated care programmes combine the interacting components of care delivery. These components affect professionals’ cognitions and behaviour, which in turn affect quality of care. Insight is gained into how these components alter the way care is delivered through mechanisms such as combining individual knowledge and actively seeking new information.Conclusion: We expect that insight into the cognitive and behavioural mechanisms will contribute to the understanding of integrated care programmes. The framework can be used to identify the underlying mechanisms of integrated care responsible for producing favourable outcomes, allowing comparisons across programmes.

  9. A framework for understanding outcomes of integrated care programs for the hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Hartgerink


    Full Text Available Introduction: Integrated care has emerged as a new strategy to enhance the quality of care for hospitalised elderly. Current models do not provide insight into the mechanisms underlying integrated care delivery. Therefore, we developed a framework to identify the underlying mechanisms of integrated care delivery. We should understand how they operate and interact, so that integrated care programmes can enhance the quality of care and eventually patient outcomes. Theory and methods: Interprofessional collaboration among professionals is considered to be critical in integrated care delivery due to many interdependent work requirements. A review of integrated care components brings to light a distinction between the cognitive and behavioural components of interprofessional collaboration. Results: Effective integrated care programmes combine the interacting components of care delivery. These components affect professionals’ cognitions and behaviour, which in turn affect quality of care. Insight is gained into how these components alter the way care is delivered through mechanisms such as combining individual knowledge and actively seeking new information. Conclusion: We expect that insight into the cognitive and behavioural mechanisms will contribute to the understanding of integrated care programmes. The framework can be used to identify the underlying mechanisms of integrated care responsible for producing favourable outcomes, allowing comparisons across programmes.

  10. A Social Identity Approach to Understanding Responses to Child Sexual Abuse Allegations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiara Minto

    Full Text Available Two studies investigated the role of group allegiances in contributing to the failure of institutions to appropriately respond to allegations of child sexual abuse. In Study 1, 601 participants read a news article detailing an allegation of child sexual abuse against a Catholic Priest. Catholics were more protective of the accused-and more skeptical of the accuser-than other participants, an effect that was particularly pronounced among strongly identified Catholics. In Study 2 (N = 404, the tendency for Catholics to be more protective of the accused and more skeptical of the accuser than non-Catholics was replicated. Moreover, these effects held independently of the objective likelihood that the accused was guilty. Overall, the data show that group loyalties provide a psychological motivation to disbelieve child abuse allegations. Furthermore, the people for whom this motivation is strongest are also the people who are most likely to be responsible for receiving and investigating allegations: highly identified ingroup members. The findings highlight the psychological mechanisms that may limit the ability of senior Church figures to conduct impartial investigations into allegations of child abuse within the Church.

  11. The integrated modeled theory on understanding and preventing the incidence of child abuse in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbecke, ZP


    Full Text Available This paper is based on an in-progress PhD thesis themed: “Modeling the Differential Incidence of Child Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation in Poor Households in South Africa”. The thesis argues that the gaps and shortcomings in the prevention of child...

  12. Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market. (United States)

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M


    It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper.

  13. Understanding the Need of Mobile ICT Learning as an Elderly Learning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanches Lam


    Full Text Available With a rapid deployment of mobile devices, mobile learning gives rise to new possibilities for extending learning opportunities. Nevertheless, current research on mobile learning has mostly been aimed at enhancing learning of school or college students. In this light, the paper seeks to throw light on the potential of mobile learning for elderly. We describe in this paper a research study for examining needs that determine the adoption and usage of mobile devices by elderly population. The elderly are an often neglected group in product development and marketing, but they are the only growing age group in most developed societies. By using semi-structured interviews with a number of different stakeholders interested in elderly people, we identify a set of issues that need to be taken into account when designing strategy for the elderly learners. The results of our study indicate that elderly people are interested in using mobile devices and services, but these services need to deliver real value for them.

  14. Animal abuse and family violence: survey on the recognition of animal abuse by veterinarians in New Zealand and their understanding of the correlation between animal abuse and human violence. (United States)

    Williams, V M; Dale, A R; Clarke, N; Garrett, N K G


    To establish the incidence, frequency and type of deliberate animal abuse seen in veterinary practice in New Zealand, and ascertain veterinarians' knowledge of human abuse within the families where animal abuse was occurring. To explore attitudes of veterinarians to and knowledge about the correlation between animal abuse and human violence, and their perceived role in dealing with such issues. A postal questionnaire was sent to practising veterinarians in New Zealand. It covered demographics, frequency and type of animal abuse cases seen, awareness of violence towards humans, within families where animal abuse was seen, the methods used for managing animal and human abuse, the incidence of psychological abuse of animals, and the attitudes of veterinarians towards and their beliefs about the link between animal abuse and human violence. A total of 383/1,412 (27% response rate) questionnaires with useable data were returned. Within the group of respondents, the sexes were evenly represented; 40% of respondents worked in small-animal practice, 50% in mixed practice and 10% in large-animal practice. Deliberate animal abuse had been seen by 63% of respondents in the last 5 years; 37% of these had seen such cases once a year or less, while 9% had seen abuse cases at least four times a year. Dogs were the species most commonly reported as abused, followed, in numerical order, by cats, cattle and horses. Among respondents who had seen deliberate animal abuse, 16% either knew of (4%) or suspected (12%) human abuse within the families of the abused animals. A clear majority of responding veterinarians agreed with the statement that people who abuse their animals are more likely to abuse their children (77%) or spouse (70%). The survey indicated that the majority of respondents had seen cases of animal abuse within the previous 5 years, and dogs were the species most often reported abused. Responding veterinarians felt a strong ethical duty to deal with cases of animal abuse

  15. How older persons explain why they became victims of abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Lindenberg, Jolanda


    understand the perceptions of older victims as they are among the most important groups to handle and report abuse. DESIGN: a qualitative study on the perceptions and experiences of victims of elder abuse was conducted using in-depth semi-structured interviews. SETTING: abused individuals living...... independently, in residential care facilities and nursing homes. SUBJECTS: six males and 11 females aged 63-90 years. RESULTS: the main causes of abuse identified by older victims themselves were mutual dependency between victim and perpetrator, power and control imbalances, loneliness and a marginalised social...... position of older persons. Effects of abuse included negative feelings, physical and psychological distress, a change of personal norms and values, changed perspectives on money and low self-efficacy. These differential effects depended upon the types of abuse experienced and the relationship...

  16. How older persons explain why they became victims of abuse. (United States)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Lindenberg, Jolanda


    elder abuse greatly impacts the quality of life of older individuals. Prevalence rates range from 3 to 30% depending on the definition used. Only about a dozen studies have explored how older victims themselves experience and explain abuse. It is essential that healthcare professionals understand the perceptions of older victims as they are among the most important groups to handle and report abuse. a qualitative study on the perceptions and experiences of victims of elder abuse was conducted using in-depth semi-structured interviews. abused individuals living independently, in residential care facilities and nursing homes. six males and 11 females aged 63-90 years. the main causes of abuse identified by older victims themselves were mutual dependency between victim and perpetrator, power and control imbalances, loneliness and a marginalised social position of older persons. Effects of abuse included negative feelings, physical and psychological distress, a change of personal norms and values, changed perspectives on money and low self-efficacy. These differential effects depended upon the types of abuse experienced and the relationship with the perpetrator. Coping strategies mentioned by victims were seeking informal or professional help and using self-help strategies. older victims perceive abuse differently depending on the expected acceptability of the type(s) of abuse experienced and the anticipated stigma associated with the perpetrator involved. The effects and chosen coping strategies are influenced by these considerations and therewith also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Healthcare professionals are encouraged to use these findings in practice to prevent, detect and intervene in elder abuse. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  17. Understanding adolescent peer sexual harassment and abuse: using the theory of planned behavior. (United States)

    Li, Man Yu; Frieze, Irene; Tang, Catherine So-kum


    This study examines intentions to take protective action against peer sexual harassment and abuse (PSHA). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) proposes that attitudes about protective action, perceptions of what others would think about doing this (subjective norms), and behavioral control would be important predictors. A total of 1,531 Chinese secondary school students (769 boys and 762 girls) from Hong Kong were surveyed to test this model. Results showed that the TPB model was predictive for girls, but only subjective norms and behavioral control significantly predicted boys' intentions to protect themselves. Results supported the influence of subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on youths' intentions to reject PSHA. These factors may be useful in guiding the development of an educational program for prevention of PSHA.

  18. Understanding heterogeneity in decision-making among elderly consumers: the case of functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, van der Lotte D.T.


    The population of elderly has grown considerably over the past few decades, due to reduced birth rates and increased life expectancy. Old age is, however, still associated with a higher incidence of various health conditions that pose a threat to quality of life and result in high healthcare

  19. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann


    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  20. A conceptual framework for understanding the process of family caregiving to frail elders in Taiwan. (United States)

    Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus


    This descriptive, correlational study of family caregivers (N=125) tested a conceptual framework for family caregiving to frail elders in Taiwan, using the concept of "finding a balance point" derived from a previous qualitative study. It was hypothesized that caregivers who were better able to find a balance point among competing needs would provide better-quality care to frail elders, which would lead to more positive caregiver and family outcomes. After controlling for the influence of caregiving characteristics and caregiving factors, finding a balance point significantly explained 7% of the variance in overall caregiving consequences. The findings of this study add a new perspective to the caregiving process in Taiwan. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Understanding factors influencing the adoption of mHealth by the elderly: An extension of the UTAUT model. (United States)

    Hoque, Rakibul; Sorwar, Golam


    mHealth (mobile health) services are becoming an increasingly important form of information and communication technology (ICT) enabled delivery for healthcare, especially in low-resource environments such as developing countries like Bangladesh. Despite widespread adoption of mobile phones and the acknowledged potential of using them to improve healthcare services, the adoption and acceptance of this technology among the elderly is significantly low. However, little research has been done to draw any systematic study of the elderly's intention to adopt mHealth services. The aim of this study was to develop a theoretical model based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and then empirically test it for determining the key factors influencing elderly users' intention to adopt and use the mHealth services. A face-to-face structured questionnaire survey method was used to collect data from nearly 300 participants of age 60 years and above from the capital city of Bangladesh. The data were analyzed using the Partial Least Squares (PLS) method, a statistical analysis technique based upon Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The study determined that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, technology anxiety, and resistance to change (p0.05). This study confirms the applicability of UTAUT model in the context of mHealth services among the elderly in developing countries like Bangladesh. It provides valuable information for mHealth service providers and policy makers in understanding the adoption challenges and the issues and also provides practical guidance for the successful implementation of mHealth services. Additionally the empirical findings identify implications related to the design and development of mHealth services that influence potential users. Furthermore, due to a generic approach, the findings of this study could be easily modified to assist other developing countries in the planning and up-take of m

  2. [On the relationship between emotional dependency and abuse]. (United States)

    Leemans, C; Loas, S


    Abuse is a complex psychosocial issue with multiple implications. This paper takes a look at the physical and psychological manifestations of domestic violence, i.e. between adult (romantic) partners as well as abuse of the elderly. Past studies have looked at the relationship between emotional dependency, the occurence and sustainability of abuse and the likehood that a victimized person will terminate a relationship. Indeed, individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) or with dependent characteristics present a higher risk of becoming abusive (both physically and mentally) as well as becoming a victim of abuse. Regarding the elderly, the concept of "reverse violence"--where the current abuser was the victim of the senior who is being abused-, also entails dependent relationships. We identified three concepts that are necessary in the understanding of how dependent relationships underpin abuse: Rusbult's model of commitment in intimate relationships, the notion of dependency-possessiveness and Murphy et al's notion of escalating affective dependency. Thus, it is imperative that future studies in the field of domestic violence look at the dynamics of dyads rather than the individuals alone.

  3. Maltrato en los ancianos: un reto a la atención primaria de salud geriátrica Elderly abuse: a challenge to primary geriatric health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Martínez Querol


    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en la población de adultos mayores de un consultorio del Médico de Familia del Policínico "Ana Betancourt" del municipio Playa, clasificándose la muestra (93 pacientes por grupos de edades, sexo, nivel escolar, ocupacional, estado civil etc., y se les aplicó una encuesta formulario, en la que, además de sus datos generales, se investigó la estructura y funcionamiento de la familia, sus ingresos económicos y la ayuda recibida, su procedencia, así como también el trato recibido de familiares, amigos, allegados, etc. En la investigación se encontró que 41 (44 % eran objeto de abuso o maltrato en algunas de sus modalidades, siendo el perfil más frecuente el económico financiero con 19 casos (35 %, seguido del maltrato psicológico con 18 (33 %, la desatención en 15 (27 % y el maltrato físico en 3 (5 %. Se relacionó además el funcionamiento familiar de los hogares de donde proceden los ancianos maltratados.A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken in the population of older adults from a family physician's office of "Ana Betancourt" Polyclinic, in Playa municipality. The sample (93 patients was classified by groups according to age, sex, educational level, occupation, marital status, etc. In addition to their general data, the family structure and functioning, its incomes, the assistance received, its origin, the treatment given by close relatives and friends, etc., were also investigated by applying a questionnaire-survey. It was found that 41 (44 % were abused or mistreated in some way . The economic financial profile was the most frequent with 19 cases (35 %, followed by psychiological abuse with 18 (33 %, lack of attention in 15 (27 % and physical abuse in 3 (5 %. The family functioning of the houses where the elderly abused lived was also exposed.

  4. Aging in the Shadow of Violence: A Phenomenological Conceptual Framework for Understanding Elderly Women Who Experienced Lifelong IPV. (United States)

    Band-Winterstein, Tova


    This article suggests a heuristic framework for understanding elderly women's "lived experience" of lifelong intimate partner violence (IPV). This framework is based on the phenomenological qualitative studies of 31 women, aged 60-83, using a semistructured interview guide. From the results, a matrix emerged built on two axes. The first axis consists of three phenomenological dimensions: suffering, a "ticking clock," and life wisdom. The second axis consists of four themes that emerged from the content analysis: loneliness, regret, being in a state of waiting, and being a living monument to perpetual victimhood. The practical implications of these phenomenological findings are then discussed.

  5. Measuring abusive behaviors: is economic abuse a unique form of abuse? (United States)

    Stylianou, Amanda Mathisen; Postmus, Judy L; McMahon, Sarah


    Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse--12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse.

  6. The Abuses of Argument: Understanding Fallacies on Toulmin’s Layout of Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pineau


    Full Text Available This paper provides a preliminary account of fallacies on Toulmin’s model of argument, one that improves upon previous attempts to understand fallacies on this argument scheme. To do this Johnson and Blair’s (1983 taxonomy of three basic fallacies (irrelevant reason, hasty conclusion and problematic premise is examined using Toulmin’s layout.

  7. A Study of Understandings in Care Work with Elderly People: Experiences using the Sophos Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Krogh; Hansen, Helle Krogh


    At study about understandings in Care Work. Using Second Order Phenomenological Observation Scheme......At study about understandings in Care Work. Using Second Order Phenomenological Observation Scheme...

  8. Ferenczi's concept of identification with the aggressor: understanding dissociative structure with interacting victim and abuser self-states. (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth F


    No one has described more passionately than Ferenczi the traumatic induction of dissociative trance with its resulting fragmentation of the personality. Ferenczi introduced the concept and term, identification with the aggressor in his seminal "Confusion of Tongues" paper, in which he described how the abused child becomes transfixed and robbed of his senses. Having been traumatically overwhelmed, the child becomes hypnotically transfixed by the aggressor's wishes and behavior, automatically identifying by mimicry rather than by a purposeful identification with the aggressor's role. To expand upon Ferenczi's observations, identification with the aggressor can be understood as a two-stage process. The first stage is automatic and initiated by trauma, but the second stage is defensive and purposeful. While identification with the aggressor begins as an automatic organismic process, with repeated activation and use, gradually it becomes a defensive process. Broadly, as a dissociative defense, it has two enacted relational parts, the part of the victim and the part of the aggressor. This paper describes the intrapersonal aspects (how aggressor and victim self-states interrelate in the internal world), as well as the interpersonal aspects (how these become enacted in the external). This formulation has relevance to understanding the broad spectrum of the dissociative structure of mind, borderline personality disorder, and dissociative identity disorder.

  9. The need of a multi-actor perspective to understand expectations from virtual presence: managing elderly homecare informatics. (United States)

    Mettler, Tobias; Vimarlund, Vivian


    Different studies have analysed a wide range of use cases and scenarios for using IT-based services in homecare settings for elderly people. In most instances, the impact of such services has been studied using a one-dimensional approach, either focusing on the benefits for the patient or health service provider. The objective of this contribution is to explore a model for identifying and understanding outcomes of IT-based homecare services from a multi-actor perspective. In order to better understand the state of the art in homecare informatics, we conducted a literature review. We use experiences from previous research in the area of informatics to develop the proposed model. The proposed model consists of four core activities 'identify involved actors', 'understand consequences', 'clarify contingencies', 'take corrective actions', and one additional activity 'brainstorming IT use'. The primary goal of innovating organisations, processes and services in homecare informatics today, is to offer continued care, better decision support both to practitioners and patients, as well as effective distribution of resources. A multi-actor analysis perspective is needed to understand utility determination for the involved stakeholders.

  10. The anococcygeal ligaments: Cadaveric study with application to our understanding of incontinence in the elderly. (United States)

    Jin, Zhe Wu; Hata, Fumitake; Jin, Yu; Murakami, Gen; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Abe, Shin-Ichi


    The term "anococcygeal ligament (ACL)" has been used to refer to two distinct structures: a superficial fibrous band originating from the myosepta of the external anal sphincter (EAS) and running upwards to the coccyx (the superficial ACL); and a deep fibrous band originating from the periosteum of the coccyx, merging with the thick presacral fascia and attaching to the superior end of the EAS (the deep ACL). In the present work, elastic fiber histology and muscle immunohistochemistry of sagittal sections obtained from 15 donated elderly male cadavers showed that superficial ACL, corresponding to a superficial fascia or skin ligament, was composed of very tortuous elastic fibers, with a fine elastic fiber mesh at their coccygeal attachment; whereas the deep ACL was composed of almost straight collagen and elastic fibers, intermingled with the coccygeal periosteum. Due to the weak insertion into the coccyx and the wavy course, the superficial ACL is unlikely to provide, even in association with contraction of the longitudinal anal muscle, a stable mechanical support to maintain the configuration of the EAS. Being similar to the suspensory ligament of breast, tissue repair of the skin ligament would not have a mechanical role. In contrast, the deep ACL, in association with the thick presacral fascia, likely plays a role in maintaining a suitable positioning of the anorectum to the coccyx. However, their relative lack of smooth muscles compared with rich elastic fibers indicates that both ACLs may become permanently overextended under conditions of long-term mechanical stress. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Understanding management and support for domestic violence and abuse within emergency departments: A systematic literature review from 2000-2015. (United States)

    Hinsliff-Smith, Kathryn; McGarry, Julie


    To identify, review and critically evaluate published empirical studies concerned with the prevalence, management and support for survivors of domestic violence and abuse who present at emergency department. Domestic violence and abuse is a global phenomenon with a wealth of studies that explore the different aspects of the issue including the economic, social and health effects on survivors and on society as a whole. Emergency department is widely recognised as one healthcare facility where domestic violence and abuse survivors will often disclose domestic violence and abuse. In the UK, National Institute of Clinical Excellence produced guidelines in 2014 requiring all sectors of health care and those they work alongside to recognise support and manage survivors of domestic violence and abuse. Whilst there is an increasing body of research on domestic violence and abuse, limited synthesised work has been conducted in the context of domestic violence and abuse within emergency department. This review encompasses empirical studies conducted in emergency department for screening interventions, management and support for domestic violence and abuse patients including prevalence. This review included studies that included emergency department staff, emergency department service users and domestic violence and abuse survivors. A systematic approach across five electronic bibliographic databases found 35 studies meeting the inclusion criteria published between 2000-2015. From the 35 studies, four descriptive overarching themes were identified (i) prevalence of domestic violence and abuse in emergency department, (ii) use of domestic violence and abuse screening tools and emergency department interventions, (iii) current obstacles for staff working in emergency department and (iv) emergency department users and survivor perspectives. Having knowledgeable and supportive emergency department staff can have a positive benefit for the longer-term health of the domestic

  12. Compreendendo o idoso usuário de próteses auditivas Understanding the elderly user of auditory prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mary de Paiva


    advantages involved better communication and listening to TV (64% while the difficulties were due to noisy environments; 56% were unable to understand what was being said at lectures, in church, and on the telephone, 72% reported no improvement with the prosthesis. 88% of the elderly participants are unaware of donation policies for auditory devices and 100% are unaware of this kind of service. Research and practices in health services about auditory issues still have far to go. There is a need for a change in management with the objective of putting into action policies which define the responsibilities of the State.

  13. Understanding the impact of supervision on reducing medication risks: an interview study in long-term elderly care. (United States)

    Vermeulen, J A; Kleefstra, S M; Zijp, E M; Kool, R B


    In 2009, the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate (IGZ) observed several serious risks to safety involving medication within elderly care facilities. However, by 2011, high risks had been reduced in almost all the organisations we visited. And yet the IGZ analysed too the alarming increase in the number of incidents arising in the self-reported national indicator of medication safety between 2009 and 2010. The aim of this study was to understand the factors that can explain this contradiction between the increase in self-reported medication incidents and the observation of the IGZ in reducing the risks to medication safety through supervision. We interviewed health care professionals of ten care facilities, visited by the IGZ, who were involved in, or responsible for, the improvement of medication safety in their institutions. As outcome measures we used the rate of medication safety risk per facility; the perceptions of the participant with regard to the reports of medication incidents; the level of medication safety of the facility; the measures used to improve medication safety; and the supervision of medication safety. This was a mixed methods study, qualitative in that we used semi-structured interviews, and quantitative, by calculating risks for the different organisations we visited. The findings from both study methods resulted in a comprehensive view and an in-depth understanding of this contradiction. The contradiction between the increase in self-reported medication incidents and the observation of reduced risks was explained by three themes: activities designed to improve medication safety, the reporting of medication incidents, and, lastly, the impact of supervision. The focus of the IGZ on issues of medication safety stimulated most elderly care facilities to reduce medication risks. Also, a change in the culture of reporting incidents caused an increase in the number of reported incidents. Supervision contributed to an improvement in actions geared towards

  14. One Welfare State, Two Care Regimes: Understanding Developments in Child and Elderly Care Policies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooren, F.; Becker, U.


    The different development of child and elderly care in the Netherlands reflects the hybrid character of its welfare system, which, until the 1980s, featured both social democratic and conservative elements. While public involvement in the provision of elderly care services rapidly increased after

  15. Importance of fatalism in understanding mammography screening in rural elderly women. (United States)

    Mayo, R M; Ureda, J R; Parker, V G


    This study examined the relationship between demographic factors and other correlates of fatalism, and assessed the impact of fatalistic beliefs on the participation in breast cancer screening in rural women. The subjects were 220 women aged 50 and over recruited from 6 large rural counties in South Carolina. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the revised Powe Fatalism Inventory. Results show significant associations between fatalism and increased age (p = 0.005), race (p = 0.0001), doctor recommendation (p = .0034) and decreased educational level (p = 0.001). Fatalism was associated with noncompliance with mammography screening in univariate analysis among African-American women (OR = .362; 95% CI: 1.11, 11.8). After adjusting for possible confounders (age, education, and doctor recommendation), fatalism was not significantly associated with noncompliance with screening. These results illustrate age, race, and education may be important predictors of fatalism and that fatalism may be one barrier that has previously gone unmeasured and unchallenged in understanding screening behavior in older women.

  16. "I Didn't Understand the Damage It Did": Narrative Factors Influencing the Selection of Sexual Abuse as Epiphany. (United States)

    Gasker, Janice A.


    Argues that the classification of life experiences as epiphanies is a task critical to personal growth. Uses narrative analysis to illuminate the factors that seem to influence the choice of events as epiphanies for survivors of sexual abuse. Examines such narratives from the life and work of D.H. Lawrence, as well as modern narratives from…

  17. Further Understanding the Systemic Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Comparison of Two Groups of Clinical Couples. (United States)

    Nelson, Briana S.; Wampler, Karen S.


    Study compared female childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors and their male partners with a group of couples reporting no CSA. Both female CSA survivors and their partners reported higher symptoms of stress, suggesting support for the theory of secondary traumatic stress. Relationship impairment results did not support the hypothesis that CSA…

  18. Understanding Older Adult's Technology Adoption and Withdrawal for Elderly Care and Education: Mixed Method Analysis from National Survey


    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Liu, Chia-Wen


    Background Elderly adults have comprised the fastest growing population adopting the Internet and computer technology over the past decade. However, how their experiences can shed light on elderly learning theory has not been examined much in the literature. Objective This study investigated the factors and reasons associated with Internet adoption and withdrawal among older adults in Taiwan, and if any gender differences exist in this context. Methods Data on participants aged 50 years and o...

  19. [Alcoholism in the elderly.]. (United States)

    Vermette, G


    The author discusses the problem of alcoholism in the elderly. In the first part he describes the general situation of old people and the problems they most frequently encounter. He puts forward the hypothesis that the specific problems related to old age are a determining factor in the on-set or aggravation of an alcool abuse problem. In the second part he presents a brief survey of the literature on the subject and mentions the difficulties relative to a request for help by an elderly person grappling with an alcool abuse problem. Finally, he examines the nature of the treatment to be provide to such a person.

  20. Understanding Older Adult's Technology Adoption and Withdrawal for Elderly Care and Education: Mixed Method Analysis from National Survey. (United States)

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Liu, Chia-Wen


    Elderly adults have comprised the fastest growing population adopting the Internet and computer technology over the past decade. However, how their experiences can shed light on elderly learning theory has not been examined much in the literature. This study investigated the factors and reasons associated with Internet adoption and withdrawal among older adults in Taiwan, and if any gender differences exist in this context. Data on participants aged 50 years and older from the nationally representative "Digital Opportunity Survey on Individuals and Households in Taiwan," who did not use the Internet in 2005 but adopted it in 2007 (n=1548), and those who reported using Internet in 2011 but then withdrew (n=1575), were analyzed. Factors and reasons associated with Internet adoption and withdrawal were examined using both quantitative and qualitative data. Education level independently predicted Internet adoption behavior. With regard to the reasons for adoption, 66% (62/94) of participants indicated they started using the Internet to meet certain "needs"; for example, "keeping up with the world" (40.4%, 38/94) was listed as the most critical reason, followed by "job needs" (25.5%, 24/94). Older adults with a positive attitude toward the Internet with regard to increasing employment opportunities (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.9, P=.04) and the amount of information obtained (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9, P=.01), as well as enriching recreation and entertainment (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, P=.02), were less likely to withdraw from the Internet. The most common reason for Internet withdrawal was "psychological barriers" (eg, no available time, no meaningful use, or nothing worth reading/watching; 66.3%, 193/291), followed by "health barriers" (eg, eyes or body deteriorate with Internet use; 21.0%, 61/291). Although psychological barriers were the most important factor for Internet withdrawal for both men (72.5%, 100/138) and women (62%, 93/150), women were more likely than men to be

  1. Revisiting Chaos Theorem to Understand the Nature of miRNAs in Response to Drugs of Abuse. (United States)

    Taki, Faten A; Pan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Baohong


    Just like Matryoshka dolls, biological systems follow a hierarchical order that is based on dynamic bidirectional communication among its components. In addition to the convoluted inter-relationships, the complexity of each component spans several folds. Therefore, it becomes rather challenging to investigate phenotypes resulting from these networks as it requires the integration of reductionistic and holistic approaches. One dynamic system is the transcriptome which comprises a variety of RNA species. Some, like microRNAs, have recently received a lot of attention. miRNAs are very pleiotropic and have been considered as therapeutic and diagnostic candidates in the biomedical fields. In this review, we survey miRNA profiles in response to drugs of abuse (DA) using 118 studies. After providing a summary of miRNAs related to substance use disorders (SUD), general patterns of miRNA signatures are compared among studies for single or multiple drugs of abuse. Then, current challenges and drawbacks in the field are discussed. Finally, we provide support for considering miRNAs as a chaotic system in normal versus disrupted states particularly in SUD and propose an integrative approach for studying and analyzing miRNA data. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Vulnerability of Elderly Consumers. (United States)

    McGhee, Jerrie L.


    Reviews research on the vulnerability of the elderly to consumer fraud. Patterns of consumption, situational characteristics, education and product knowledge, psychological losses, social isolation, and psychosocial transitions influence the elderly's vulnerability and ability to cope with consumer abuse. Higher educational attainment and greater…

  3. Understanding the impact of supervision on reducing medication risks: an interview study in long-term elderly care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.A.; Kleefstra, S.M.; Zijp, E.M.; Kool, R.B.


    BACKGROUND: In 2009, the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate (IGZ) observed several serious risks to safety involving medication within elderly care facilities. However, by 2011, high risks had been reduced in almost all the organisations we visited. And yet the IGZ analysed too the alarming increase in

  4. Understanding factors associated with early therapeutic alliance in PTSD treatment: adherence, childhood sexual abuse history, and social support. (United States)

    Keller, Stephanie M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C


    Therapeutic alliance has been associated with better treatment engagement, better adherence, and less dropout across various treatments and disorders. In treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it may be particularly important to establish a strong early alliance to facilitate treatment adherence. However, factors such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history and poor social support may impede the development of early alliance in those receiving PTSD treatment. We sought to examine treatment adherence, CSA history, and social support as factors associated with early alliance in individuals with chronic PTSD who were receiving either prolonged exposure therapy (PE) or sertraline. At pretreatment, participants (76.6% female; 64.9% Caucasian; mean age = 37.1 years, SD = 11.3) completed measures of trauma history, general support (Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors), and trauma-related social support (Social Reactions Questionnaire). Over the course of 10 weeks of PE or sertraline, they completed early therapeutic alliance (Working Alliance Inventory) and treatment adherence measures. Early alliance was associated with PE adherence (r = .32, p history was not predictive of a lower early alliance. Given the associations with adherence, clinicians may find it useful to routinely assess alliance early in treatment. Positive trauma support, not CSA history, may be particularly important in the development of a strong early therapeutic alliance. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Child Abuse (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become depressed. He or she may withdraw, ...

  6. Substance abuse and child maltreatment. (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn


    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  7. Co-Occurrence of Parental Substance Abuse and Child Serious Emotional Disturbance: Understanding Multiple Pathways to Improve Child and Family Outcomes. (United States)

    Becci, A Akin; Brook, Jody; Lloyd, Margaret H


    This study is a mixed-methods examination of the prevalence and impact of parental substance abuse among families involved in foster care who have a child with a serious emotional disturbance. Data utilized for this study were both administrative and assessment data collected by case managers and parents as part of a federally funded demonstration project in a Midwestern state. At baseline, parent self-report and case manager ratings of family functioning found that parents affected by substance abuse fared worse in domains related to socioeconomics, parental trauma, parental mental health, and social supports when compared to families without parental substance abuse. Case managers and independent raters scored parents affected by substance abuse higher on effective parenting than parents not affected by substance abuse. While all children in the sample have a serious emotional disturbance, parents and case managers rated children's functioning higher among children whose families were characterized by parental substance abuse. These results suggest that, among families who have children with a serious emotional disturbance and are in foster care, those with and without substance abuse may represent two distinct service groups, each with a unique set of needs and contextual factors. For families with parental substance abuse, findings suggest that an appropriate child welfare response should attend to both children's and parent's behavioral health needs and include strategies that are well matched to the families' socioeconomic and social support needs.

  8. Abusive Relationships (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  9. Drug Abuse (United States)

    ... and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug ...

  10. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.


    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  11. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD


    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  12. Addressing workplace violence among nurses who care for the elderly. (United States)

    Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne


    The objective of this study was to examine the social-situational (ie, Job Demands-Resource model) and individual (ie, negative affectivity) factors that might be associated with violence among nurses caring for the elderly (aged care nurses). Workplace violence is recognized as a serious issue among nurses. Effective intervention and prevention require an understanding of antecedent factors. Nurses working in elderly care facilities across an Australian healthcare organization participated in a cross-sectional survey. Job demands were associated with all of the externally sourced types of violence. Low job control was linked with external emotional abuse and physical assault. Outside work support was related to external physical assault and verbal sexual harassment. Finally, high negative affectivity was linked to internal and external emotional abuse and threat of assault. Both the Job Demands-Resource model and negative affectivity were useful in identifying relationships with violence, supporting suggestions that situational and individual factors are associated with violence among nurses who care for the elderly.

  13. Alcohol Abuse (United States)

    ... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...

  14. Fetal Abuse. (United States)

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others


    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  15. Relationship between Abuse Experience and General Health among Older Adults in Yazd City- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rezaeipandari


    Full Text Available Introduction: Elder abuse may increase the vulnerability of ageing people to disease and decrease their general health status, so addressing the issue is essential for promoting elderly quality of life. The study aimed to examine the relation between abuse experience and general health among elderly people in Yazd city- Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study carried out on 250 community-dwelling seniors in the city of Yazd who were selected with cluster random sampling. Data collection tools included, Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire and Persian version of the General Health Questionnaire 28. Data were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: Mean scores of abuse experience and general health among the elders were 11.84±12.70 (range 0-100 and 21.82±10.84 (range 0-84 respectively. General health status was more undesirable among elders who had experienced abuse than those who had not. Elder abuse subscales accounted for 17.2 % changes in general health, which had only care neglect and physical abuse subscales with significant prediction effect. Conclusion: Abuse experience has negative effects on older adults' general health. care neglect and physical abuse play a more important role.

  16. Inflammasome in drug abuse. (United States)

    Xu, Enquan; Liu, Jianuo; Wang, Xiaobei; Xiong, Huangui


    Drug abuse disorders refer to a set of related negative health implications associated with compulsive drug seeking and use. Because almost all addictive drugs act on the brain, many of them cause neurological impairments after long-term abuse. Neuropathological studies have revealed a widespread impairment of the cellular elements. As the key components to limit the damage of neural cells, CNS immune system is also found affected by these drugs, directly or indirectly. It has been shown that drugs of abuse alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling. Growing studies on neuroimmune factors further demonstrate their indispensable role in drugs-induced neurotoxicity. As an important proinflammatory intracellular receptor, inflammasome is activated in many neurodegenerative diseases in response to a broad range of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) signals. In the cases of drug abuse, especially in those with comorbid of HIV infection and sustained pain, inflammasome activation significantly promotes the neuroinflammation-associated toxicities. To understand inflammasome in drug-associated neurotoxic activity, we reviewed the role played by inflammasome in drug abuse-induced microglial neurotoxicity and evaluated the potential of imflammasone as a therapeutic target for drug abuse disorders based on recent development of various selective small-molecular inflammasome inhibitors.

  17. Screening Spouse Abusers for Child Abuse Potential. (United States)

    Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.


    Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)

  18. Other Drugs of Abuse (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  19. Relationship between drug discrimination and ratings of subjective effects: implications for assessing and understanding the abuse potential of D-amphetamine in humans. (United States)

    Reynolds, Anna R; Bolin, B Levi; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R


    The discriminative and subjective effects of drugs in humans are related, but the full extent of this relationship remains to be determined. To further explore this relationship, a retrospective analysis was conducted on data from six studies completed in our laboratory that used identical procedures. The relationship between the discriminative and subjective effects of a range of doses of D-amphetamine (i.e. 2.5-15 mg) was examined using correlational analyses. Significant correlations with discrimination performance were observed on 15 of 20 items from the Drug-Effect Questionnaire across a range of qualities [e.g. Pay For (a positive effect indicative of abuse potential) and Active (a stimulant-like effect)], but the magnitude of these relationships was modest (reffects contribute to the discriminative effects of D-amphetamine and indicate that the former are a more practical means to assess the abuse potential of drugs. Although these procedures are fundamentally related in that they rely on the presence of an interoceptive drug state, they differ in the dimension(s) of the interoceptive effects that participants must quantify. The simultaneous use of drug discrimination and subjective effects may, therefore, reveal complimentary aspects of drug effects that underlie their potential for abuse.

  20. Inhalant Abuse (United States)

    ... Paper) paint thinner cleaning fluids nail polish remover rubber cement gasoline. Teenagers are the most common abusers ... severe cases, it can cause sudden death. Inhalants block oxygen flow to your brain and other organs. ...

  1. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.


    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  2. Abusive Relationships (United States)

    ... a big part of moving from childhood into adolescence and adulthood. Unfortunately, some people may find themselves in a relationship that involves abuse or violence. It can be especially hard for guys to ...

  3. Elderly Suicide (United States)

    Elderly Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • The elderly (ages 65 and older) made up 13. ... population; they accounted for 16.37% of all suicides in the US. • The rate of suicides for ...

  4. Justification for Punishing Crimes against the Elderly: Perceptions of Police Chiefs, Nursing Home Professionals, and Students (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.


    In the eighties, elder abuse cases became of paramount concern to policy makers and those working in fields serving older adults. Very little research, however, has examined how the justice system handles cases of elder abuse. In this paper, the results of a study assessing how various professionals recommended punishing those who harm elderly…

  5. Behaviour of domestic violence in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry


    Full Text Available The elder abuse is a destructive behaviour to an older person, which according to its intensity or frequency can produce damaging of physical, psychological, financial, sexual carelessness, neglect of duty and its dimension. A descriptive investigation was made, with the objective to describe the behaviour of domestic violence in older persons of Community Mental Health Center in Jatibonico Municipality during the period: January first until December 31, 2011. The sample was formed by 32 abused elderly. The predominant groups were: ages between 70 – 79 years. (75.0%, the female sex (59.3%, those with marital links (65.6% dissatisfaction with their lives like a psychological symptom (53,2% psychological abused (50,0% and children as principles aggressors. The adult persons studied were a victim of any kind of domestic abused and as a consequence was presented second psychological manifestations.

  6. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be family friends, neighbors or babysitters. ...

  7. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances]. (United States)

    Wada, Kiyoshi


    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  8. The Sharing Circle of Wisdom: A Group for Elderly Aboriginals. (United States)

    Carlson-Hoggan, Donovan; And Others

    Personal interviews with clients of the Calgary Indian Friendship Center and two other similar centers established a need for a program to enhance the social functioning of elderly aboriginals in Calgary. The needs focused on lack of transportation, inaccessible or inadequate medical care, isolation, elder abuse, and inadequate housing. The…

  9. [Substance abuse in older adults]. (United States)

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen


    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  10. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence. (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G


    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Meth abuse and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deviprasad Makonahally


    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse is spreading its roots in India due to its widespread appeal, ease of manufacture and low cost compared with other stimulant drugs. Methamphetamine-induced caries is a characteristic finding among methamphetamine abusers. Thus, it is important to understand the typical clinical manifestations inclusive of cervical and proximal caries, elicit proper case history and develop a comprehensive treatment plan to help patients in a complete rehabilitation. We present a series of cases of "meth" abuser for dental professionals to help ensure successful treatment and prevention of disease progression.

  12. Drugs of abuse--opiates.


    Ling, W; Wesson, D R


    Treating opiate-dependent patients can be difficult for many physicians because the patients' life-styles, values, and beliefs differ from those of the physicians. Primary care physicians, however, are often involved in the treatment of the medical complications of opiate abuse, and physicians must often manage a patient's opiate dependence until appropriate referral to a drug abuse treatment program can be arranged. Treatment is guided by an understanding of the patient's addictive disease, ...

  13. [Addictive behavior among the elderly]. (United States)

    Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia


    Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Abuse in hospital-based birth settings? (United States)

    Hodges, Susan


    Are laboring and birthing women treated abusively in the hospital? Although seldom recognized as abuse or violence against women, bullying and medical treatments under false pretenses, even in a hospital, constitute abuse and a basic human rights issue that needs attention. Naming the problem is a first step. The power of medical authority, the lack of accountability in the hospital hierarchical system, policies and protocols, and expectations of compliancy all make an environment ripe for abuse and present obstacles for both women and staff to recognize or stop abuse. Learning to recognize abuse and take effective action, and understanding the legal requirements for "informed consent" can help, but ending abuse will require systemic change.

  15. Forensic odontology, part 5. Child abuse issues. (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J


    Child abuse, child maltreatment, non-accidental injury and child homicide: all terms that are hard to believe exist in the 21st civilised century, but non-accidental injury of children is a major problem, crossing all socioeconomic, ethnic and educational groups, and is happening all over the world. Available statistics on child abuse and deaths related to abuse are frightening, and as many cases are not reported, actual numbers are likely to be much higher. This paper aims to increase understanding of child abuse issues and encourage the dental team to be alert to the possibility of abuse, recognise the physical injuries and make referrals to the appropriate agency if necessary. In child abuse cases physical injuries to the head and facial area are common while other types of abuse are less visible but are damaging to a vulnerable child in other ways. Keeping children safe is a shared responsibility and a top priority for all of us.

  16. Application of the social action theory to understand factors associated with risky sexual behavior among individuals in residential substance abuse treatment. (United States)

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Magidson, Jessica F; Bornovalova, Marina A; Gwadz, Marya; Ewart, Craig K; Daughters, Stacey B; Lejuez, C W


    Risky sexual behavior (RSB) is a leading cause of HIV/AIDS, particularly among urban substance users. Using the social action theory, an integrative systems model of sociocognitive, motivational, and environmental influences, as a guiding framework, the current study examined (1) environmental influences, (2) psychopathology and affect, (3) HIV-related attitudes and knowledge, and (4) self-regulatory skills/deficits as factors associated with event-level condom use (CU) among a sample of 156 substance users residing at a residential substance abuse treatment center (M age = 41.85; SD = 8.59; 75% male). RSB was assessed using event-level measurement of CU given its advantages for improved accuracy of recall and ability for an examination of situational variables. A logistic regression predicting event-level CU indicated the significant contribution of partner type (environmental influences), less favorable attitudes towards condoms (HIV-related attitudes and knowledge), and higher levels of risk-taking propensity (self-regulatory skills/deficits) in predicting greater likelihood of not having used a condom at one's most recent sexual encounter. This study contributes to the literature examining HIV risk behaviors among substance users within a theory-driven model of risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Elder mistreatment in a rural area in Egypt. (United States)

    Abdel Rahman, Tomader T; El Gaafary, Maha M


    Mistreatment of the elderly is a hidden problem frequently cloaked under the shroud of family secrecy. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent of mistreatment of older people living at their homes in the rural area of Mansoura city, Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 1106 respondents, 518 men (mean age 67.6 ± 6.3 years) and 588 women (mean age 68.5 ± 8.4 years), who answered face-to-face survey questionnaires. The questionnaires used were; Questionnaire to elicit elder abuse, Actual abuse tool, Elder Assessment Instrument, Risk of abuse tool, Katz index and Geriatric depression scale 15 items. Of the respondents, 43.7% reported mistreatment by family members. The predominant type of reported mistreatment was neglect (42.4%) followed by physical abuse (5.7%), psychological abuse (5.1%) and financial abuse (3.8%). The independent risk factors for overall mistreatment of the elderly were older age, insufficient pension and caregiver other than spouse. Although being dependent, the number of children being three or less and caregiver other than spouse were significant independent attributes for "neglect" as a form of elder mistreatment. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. [Factors associated with non-institutional abuse in nursing homes]. (United States)

    Gómez Martínez, Carmelo; Hernández Morante, Juan José; Carrasco Martínez, Elena; García Belzunce, Agustín; Nicolás Alarcón, Virginia

    Abuse in elderly has dimensions not yet sufficiently explored. Particularly, little is known about the abuse or mistreatment suffered by old people in nursing homes, but where the origin is not, at least initially, institutional, since is perpetrated by external social agents not related to the nursing home. The lack of data in this area has led us to conduct this exploratory study, with the aim of assessing the prevalence of this non-institutional abuse. The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index was administered to a total of 286 subjects belonging to the nursing homes from the «Mensajeros de la Paz» Association of Murcia. Cases of suspected abuse were referred to the social workers to confirm the diagnosis. Initially, 53 subjects (18.5%) suffered any kind of abuse, which was reduced to only 26 cases after one year. On the other hand, abuse appeared after admission in 20 subjects (7%). Precisely, this 7% might present what we called non-institutional abuse. Economic abuse was the most prevalent, followed by psychological, neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. The data showed a significant interaction between the different types of abuse. Our data provides evidence of a new scenario that must be addressed in a professional and social context, considering the environment where this mistreatment takes place. Health and social professionals must be sensitive to this reality, and should be informed and trained about the different ways to dignify the care of the elderly. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Struggles in (Elderly) Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene

    This book provides a critical engagement with the intensified struggles to be found within elderly care provision. Various social and political processes, including the forces of globalisation and the de-gendering of care, have changed how we might understand this national and global political...... of contestation. Dahl approaches these issues from a post-structuralist and radical feminist position, while drawing from feminist sociology, feminist political science, nursing philosophy and feminist history. In particular, Struggles In (Elderly) Care highlights how the predominantly feminist theorization...

  20. Elder inmates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira


    Full Text Available The criminological literature underscores that criminal offences committed by senior citizens are directly related to their age and entering a new stage of life. In elder offenders, we may observe a distinctive pattern in the development of their criminal activities, the structure of crime, gender-specific criminal offences, their previous criminal records and their social status. The former criminological studies on the elderly population have most frequently focused on examining the senior citizens' fear of crime and their victimization within the family; the studies on criminal offences committed by the elderly seem to be rather scarce. The prior research into the criminal activity of elder offenders has largely addressed the needs and difficulties encountered by elderly inmates, particularly in case they were sentenced to long-term imprisonment and subject to strict parole rules. Some researchers have also extended criticism on the lack of special correctional facilities specifically designed for elder inmates. In general, crime rate drops with aging. In developed countries, there is a constant increase of elder population as opposed to the marked decrease of younger population. Yet, the percentage of convicted offenders among the persons over the age of 55 is still significantly lesser as compared to the percentage of younger convicts. Namely, different issues pertaining to 'elder people behind bars' have eventually become the subject matter of interest of criminologists and penologists, public administration authorities and international organizations advocating the observance of human rights. The incarcerated men and women face many physical and psychological problems which are generally encountered by all people at large but usually at a later age, when they are at least 10 years older than the inmates. Violence, anxiety and distress caused by the immediate prison environment, separation from their friends and families, and the awareness

  1. Toward an Understanding of the Mental Health and Substance Abuse Issues of Rural and Migrant Ethnic Minorities: A Search for Common Experiences. (United States)

    Ryan, Robert A.; Trimble, Joseph E.

    The current reversal of the rural to urban migration trend among Blacks, American Indians, and Hispanics will create a myriad of coping and adaptation problems for the urban to rural migrant and the rural nonmigrant as well. It is possible to gain a partial understanding of the likely problems by reviewing studies of the ethnic minorities' rural…

  2. Talking matters: abused women's views on disclosure of partner abuse to the family doctor and its role in handling the abuse situation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Wester, F.; Mol, S.; Romkens, R.; Hezemans, D.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.


    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore what women valued most in disclosing partner abuse to their doctor and whether disclosure played a role in handling their abuse situation. METHODS: A qualitative method was used to understand abused women's views and experiences with disclosure to their family doctor.

  3. Talking matters: Abused women's views on disclosure of partner abuse to the family doctor and its role in handling the abuse situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Wester, F.P.J.; Mol, S.S.L.; Römkens, R.R.; Hezemans, D.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.


    Objective: We aimed to explore what women valued most in disclosing partner abuse to their doctor and whether disclosure played a role in handling their abuse situation. Methods: A qualitative method was used to understand abused women's views and experiences with disclosure to their family doctor.

  4. Prevent Child Abuse America (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  5. Interpersonal violence against people with disabilities: understanding the problem from a rural context. (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Nancy M; Hagemeister, Annelies K; Braun, Elizabeth J


    Interpersonal violence against people with disabilities is a significant social problem. Little attention has focused on the rural context and the relevance for understanding violence. Given the dearth of literature exploring interpersonal violence, disability, and rurality, a review of rural-focused literature on domestic violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse was conducted to identify themes that could provide insight into this problem for people with disabilities. Themes include geographic isolation, traditional cultural values and norms, lack of anonymity, lack of resources, and poor response of systems. Implications for understanding interpersonal violence against rural people with disabilities and for social work practice are discussed.

  6. Prediction and Explanation of Child Abuse. (United States)

    Milner, Joel S.; Wimberley, Ronald C.


    The Child Abuse Potential Inventory significantly discriminated between abusers and nonabusers. The factors were distress, rigidity, child with problems, problems from family and others, unhappiness, loneliness, and negative concept of child and of self. Rigidity, unhappiness, and distress factors were most meaningful in understanding why some…

  7. Patterns of alcohol use and abuse among aging Civil War veterans, 1865-1920.


    Achenbaum, W. A.; Howell, J. D.; Parker, M.


    Given the extent of alcoholism among elderly people, it is remarkable how little is known about the biomedical and social dimensions of alcohol use and abuse in late life. In the absence of compelling longitudinal data drawn from contemporary sources, a historical perspective may help to illuminate the incidence and consequences of alcohol abuse among the elderly. Based on a study of 370 case histories drawn from the National Military Home in Dayton, Ohio, which around the turn of the century...

  8. Psychological Correlates of Substance Abuse in Non-psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Personality and other psychological variables have been suggested to be closely related to drug abuse. An understanding of such relationship could be beneficial in the management of patients with substance abuse. Aim: The study investigated psychological correlates of substance abuse psychiatric patients.

  9. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences (United States)

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.


    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  10. Domestic abuse : even the judges are getting it wrong


    Dubrow-Marshall, LJ; Dubrow-Marshall, R


    A judge in a recent court case involving domestic abuse stated that the victim of abuse had not been vulnerable because of her university education and circle of supportive friends. The authors comment on the nature of coercive control, and the lack of understanding about the universal vulnerability to domestic abuse, which is not mitigated by education or social support.

  11. Abusing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...

  12. Unlocking opportunities in food design for infants, children, and the elderly: Understanding milestones in chewing and swallowing across the lifespan for new innovations. (United States)

    Cichero, Julie A Y


    Intake of a variety of foods increases the likelihood of good general health. From as early as life in utero, humans are exposed to flavor. Further flavor imprinting occurs via breast milk, increasing the likelihood of acceptance of a variety flavors when solids are introduced. While first foods need to be smooth and runny, experience managing soft lumps is required for rudimentary development of chewing skills. Texture experiences are critical to providing building blocks for food acceptance and gradual increase in the range of food textures eaten. Persistence in offering flavors and textures on multiple occasions increases the likelihood of acceptance of new foods. Opportunities exist in novel food texture use and flavor bridging to improve food variety in children. During adulthood lifestyle changes impact on chewing and gastrointestinal efficiency affecting the variety of food consumed. Foods that are moist, and encourage the consumer to slow down and savor food may reduce diseases affecting the esophagus. The aging process sees an increase in medication use with an impact on reduction in saliva flow. Further, physiologic changes in taste and olfaction that occur with aging may see elders benefit from novel food design that utilizes the intact trigeminal system. New food design opportunities exist in the areas of carbonation, dissolvable solids, microencapsulation of flavor volatiles or pressurized carbon dioxide granules. The use of standardized nomenclature for food labeling, description, and measurement methods such as that used by the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative is advocated to accelerate food oral processing research. The human feeding, chewing, and swallowing mechanism adapts and changes over the life span. There are opportunities to influence flavor development from as early as life in utero, and through milk feeds. Infants also need exposure to soft lumps to develop rudimentary chewing skills that lay the foundation for

  13. Counseling Abused Children. (United States)

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    This guide on counseling abused children was written to help counselors meet the needs of children and adolescents and to provide ways of working with the child's family. Chapter 1 presents an overview of child maltreatment by identifying types of maltreatment (neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, and emotional abuse or neglect)…

  14. Preventing Internal Computer Abuse (United States)


    Substance Abuse . The use -)i illegal drugs or the abuse of prescribed drugs and/or alcohol must be proscribed from the workplace . Also, substance abuse ...resolving their own personal problems. Their problems include money, family, drug or alcohol addiction , gambling, or work-related difficulties perhaps...Moonlighting * Organizational Property * Nonuse/nondisclosure * Substance Abuse * Gambling Employee Assistance Program "Whistle

  15. Association between childhood abuse and psychiatric morbidities among hospitalized patients


    Kshirod Kumar Mishra; Ramdas Ransing; Praveen Khairkar; Sakekar Gajanan


    Background: Childhood abuse has been linked with increased risk of adult psychiatric disorders including major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. However, only a few from India attempted to study long-term consequences of childhood abuse. Our study aimed to understand the role of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse along with psychiatric co-morbidities in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to...

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse: From Epidemiology to Public Policy


    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D.


    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a spe...

  17. Vaccines for the elderly. (United States)

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix


    The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Isolated Elderly. (United States)

    Fischer, Lucy Rose; And Others

    The Minnesota Senior Study, the first statewide survey of the elderly in nearly 20 years, was based on a telephone survey with a statewide sample of 1,500 non-institutionalized Minnesotans age 60 and older. Substantial numbers of Minnesotans age 60-plus were found to have low social contacts. Five percent, or about 33,000 older Minnesotans, fell…

  19. [Elderly women dealing with institutionalization]. (United States)

    Pavan, Fábio José; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Junges, José Roque


    This study focused on institutionalization of the elderly from the perspective of gender studies. The aim was to understand the effects of institutionalization on the lives of elderly women and their strategies to deal with this situation. The study used a qualitative methodology and was conducted in a long-term care facility for the elderly, with 110 individuals from Alto Uruguai, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Data collection used discussion groups with ten elderly women participating. Content analysis was used and identified three main categories: the nursing home as a total institution, gender, and strategies to deal with institutionalization. Half of the women had chosen to live in the nursing home, while the others complained about their confinement to what they considered "a dump for old people". The gender category permeated the women's lives, which included domestic activities in the "home" in order to pass the time. Strategies to deal with institutionalization included religious rituals, handicrafts, and walks.

  20. Alcohol Use among Abused and Non-Abused Older Persons Aged 60-84 Years: An European Study (United States)

    Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique


    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe


    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  2. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin


    The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...

  3. Challenges in anaesthesia for elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Camilla; Rasmussen, L S


    The segment of elderly individuals comprises a growing proportion of the global population. Health care systems and health care providers worldwide need to understand the specific challenges related to treatment of this heterogeneous patient population. The process of ageing is complex and under...... constant influence by numerous factors, for which reason the way human age is extremely individual. It is important to understand and acknowledge how elderly differ from younger adults, and how management needs to be modified and tailored to the individual patient in order to improve outcomes. The goal...... of the challenges, when dealing with the aged surgical population with emphasis on postoperative cognitive changes....

  4. Elderly\\'s Leisure Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei


    Full Text Available Objectives: Daily hours" by the word means times. Leisure is the concept of comfort, rest, relation and free of any working situations. And technically; it consists of times and opportunity that have reminded after daily job and performance of any types of activity. Sociologists leisure has anew conceptuality in compare to do believe society in which such phenomenon can't be considered as classical unemployment, as was in the past. Methods & Materials: This research is about needs in elderlies' leisure times. This research shows that all leisure programs are sum of nearly all complete practical programs in domination of adult's leisure times. A performed with careful planning and programming and multifactorial rather than expansion of accomplishment's are beneficial is our country. We distributed special research questionnaires as accidental mode among adults, in general parks of qzvin province. We assessed archive information by use of unparametric statistics of expansion. In addition, we used piraloon coefficient of correlation too. Results: According to achieve result of research among elderlies' leisure programs which consist of" film showing", sport and art programs which have allocated extended portion for their own. Elderlies' views about sport were very positive. Exercise of sport has been considered as effective to their heath and their soul and society cultural promotions. Conclusion: All keeping centers of elderlies have t.v, radio and other facilities for showing video-films which consist of sports, also complete installation of sports, arts used as human drives, were very useful in optimizing elderlies' leisure times objectives.

  5. Elder mistreatment, ageism, and human rights. (United States)

    Biggs, Simon; Haapala, Irja


    Elder mistreatment, social ageism, and human rights are increasingly powerful discourses in positioning older people in society, yet the relationship between them has rarely been subjected to critical investigation. This perceived relationship will have implications for how mistreatment is understood and responded to. Critical gerontological approach based on narrative and textual analysis. Reports of public attitudes toward mistreatment suggest that it is thought to be more common than scientific evidence would suggest; however, reporting is much lower than prevalence. While the discourse over mistreatment has tended to focus on interpersonal relationships, ageism has emphasized social attitudes, and human rights have concentrated on relations between the state and the individual. In this paper, a series of models have been examined which mark a tendency to restrict and then attempt to reintegrate individual, interpersonal, and social levels of analysis. It is concluded that a focus on the processes of transaction across boundaries rather than contents would facilitate both integrative modeling and deeper understanding of the qualities of abusive situations.

  6. Struggles in (Elderly) Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene

    of contestation. Dahl approaches these issues from a post-structuralist and radical feminist position, while drawing from feminist sociology, feminist political science, nursing philosophy and feminist history. In particular, Struggles In (Elderly) Care highlights how the predominantly feminist theorization......This book provides a critical engagement with the intensified struggles to be found within elderly care provision. Various social and political processes, including the forces of globalisation and the de-gendering of care, have changed how we might understand this national and global political...... of care has been dominated by a sociological bias that could be improved using insights from political science concerning concepts of power and struggle, and the importance of the state and governance....

  7. Violence against Elderly Migrants and Its Consequences on Their Health: Experience from Monterrey, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Arun Kumar


    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyse how the violence and abuse against elderly migrants in Monterrey, Mexico affects their health. For this research, 257 elderly Mexican migrants were surveyed in the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey during 2012 through 2013. The study found that the majority of elderly people migrate to urban areas in search of a better economic opportunity. Once in the city, they are absorbed into the informal economic sectors. Results indicate that most of these elderly people suffer physical, sexual and psychological violence, as well as neglect and financial abuse from their employer, relatives, clients and pedestrians, which has an adverse effect on their health. Elderly migrants reported numerous health problems, where many of them were suffering from different types of injuries, stress and depression, among others. This paper concluded that violence suffered by elderly migrants has a significant impact on their health.

  8. Preventing Abuse and Neglect (United States)

    ... respect, and even their freedom. Guarding Against Child Sexual Abuse March 15, 2018 @ 9:58 AM | 9 Min ... Views You can help protect your children from sexual abuse by providing careful supervision, establishing open communication and ...

  9. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  10. Prescription Drug Abuse (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  12. Drug abuse first aid (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  13. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  14. Physical evidence of child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Hobbs, Christopher J


    Child sexual abuse is increasingly recognised in all societies, affecting boys and girls alike in all age groups and often involving oral, anal and vaginal penetration. The presence of physical evidence following suspected child sexual abuse is important in confirming the diagnosis and providing legal corroboration that abuse has occurred. Whilst many children have no physical evidence, its presence should be carefully sought and documented by skilled examination, regardless of the time interval between any suspected abuse and the examination. When examination is close to the time of the abuse, forensic sampling may be required. Although many children have no physical findings, understanding the significance of physical findings has increased with both experience and research, although certainty and agreement is lacking in some areas. There are few case control studies of abused and non-abused children where standard terminology, examination method and description allow for meaningful comparison. Physical findings rarely provide conclusive evidence of sexual abuse in isolation but may offer important pieces of the diagnostic "jigsaw picture".

  15. Skin manifestations of child abuse


    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin


    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  16. Abuse of prescription drugs.


    Wilford, B B


    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  17. The duration of stage transition during pharyngeal swallowing among young-elderly, and mid-elderly individuals


    Byeon, Haewon; Koh, Hyeung Woo


    [Purpose] Understanding the normal movements of the pharyngeal stage is important in the assessment of dysphagia. This study classified an elderly population into young-elderly and mid-elderly individuals and investigated the difference in stage transition duration between the two groups to provide basic material for assessment of dysphagia in old age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 12 middle-aged individuals (40?49 years), young-elderly individuals (65?74 years), and 9...

  18. Identifying Potential Child Abuse through Oral Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian N. Printz


    Full Text Available Limited reports of oropharyngeal trauma exist in the literature even though this type of injury is extremely common in pediatric populations. There are no widely agreed upon diagnostic and management tools for such injuries in abuse cases, emphasizing the importance of reporting rare cases of orofacial trauma. This case report of a soft palate laceration demonstrates an instance of initially unrecognized potential child abuse. We aim to clarify understanding of such injuries. Furthermore, the report highlights the need for recognition of oral signs of child abuse in order to promote early detection, reporting, and appropriate management.

  19. Sexual Abuse of Older Nursing Home Residents: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Malmedal


    Full Text Available Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons.

  20. Three models of child abuse consultations: A qualitative study of inpatient child abuse consultation notes. (United States)

    Keenan, Heather T; Campbell, Kristine A


    Child abuse pediatricians have multiple roles in caring for abused children, including prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and, when needed, expert legal opinion. The child physical abuse consultation differs from the traditional medical consultation in that it has medical, investigative and legal audiences, all of whom have different information needs. How child abuse pediatricians approach their cases and how they document their initial inpatient consultations that will be used by such a diverse audience is currently unexplored. We used content analysis to examine 37 child physical abuse consultation notes from a national sample of child abuse pediatricians in order to understand physicians' approaches to these consultations. Three commonly used models of child physical abuse consultation were identified in the data that we named the base model, the investigative model, and the family-dynamic model. While model types overlap, each is distinguished by key features including the approach used to gather information, the information recorded, and the language used in documentation. The base model most closely mirrors the traditional medical approach; the investigative model concentrates on triangulation of sources of information; and, the family-dynamic model concentrates on physician perceptions of family relationships. The three models of consultations for child physical abuse mirror the areas of child abuse pediatrics: diagnostic, forensic and therapeutic. These models are considered in relationship to best practice from other medical specialties with forensic components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of elder mistreatment in two American Indian samples: psychometric characteristics of the HS-EAST and the Native Elder Life-Financial Exploitation and -Neglect measures. (United States)

    Jervis, Lori L; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Janette


    Although elder mistreatment among ethnic minorities is increasingly gaining attention, our empirical knowledge of this phenomenon among American Indians remains quite limited, especially with respect to measurement. The Shielding American Indian Elders (SAIE) Project used a collaborative approach to explore culturally informed measurement of elder mistreatment in two American Indian elder samples (a Northern Plains reservation and a South Central metropolitan area). The project sought to investigate the performance characteristics of the commonly used Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (HS-EAST), as well as to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure developed to capture culturally salient aspects of mistreatment in American Indian contexts--the Native Elder Life Scale (NELS). Using methods and samples comparable to those in the literature, the HS-EAST performed adequately in these Native samples. The NELS also shows promise for use with this population and assesses different aspects of elder mistreatment than does the HS-EAST.

  2. Etiology of Drug Abuse: A Narrative Analysis


    Jadidi, Nadjme; Nakhaee, Nouzar


    Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centre...

  3. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg


    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  4. Testing the assumption of measurement invariance in the SAMHSA mental health and alcohol abuse stigma assessment in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King-Kallimanis, B.L.; Oort, F.J.; Lynn, N.; Schonfeld, L.


    This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a

  5. Testing the Assumption of Measurement Invariance in the SAMHSA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L.; Oort, Frans J.; Lynn, Nancy; Schonfeld, Lawrence


    This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a

  6. Combating elder and dependent adult mistreatment: the role of the clinical psychologist. (United States)

    Wiglesworth, Aileen; Kemp, Bryan; Mosqueda, Laura


    Among the many different professionals who work to address elder and dependent adult mistreatment, the clinical psychologist performs a function that is not well documented. The experiences of a clinical psychologist attached to a medical response team and an elder abuse forensic center provide insight into this complex and multifaceted role. Case examples from an elder abuse forensic center illustrate the breadth of referral questions that a clinical psychologist addresses. This information may be of use to those who would argue that these services be made widely available to elder abuse professionals such as social workers, public guardians, and those in the criminal justice system. The case studies also may be useful for training purposes.

  7. Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies for Suicide among the Elderly (United States)

    Franks, Rebecca; Burnett, Donna O.; Evans, Retta R.


    Suicide is a preventable public health concern affecting the nation as the 10th leading cause of death. The prevalence of suicide among the elderly is higher than any other group. Risk factors attributed to this phenomenon are depression, social isolation, substance abuse, poor physical health or function, financial stress, and access to lethal…

  8. What can we expect from treatment of adolescent drug and alcohol abuse? (United States)

    Peele, S


    Our fears about youthful substance abuse and our faith in popular treatments are misdirected. Most illicit substance use by the young is not pathologic or compulsive. Excessive substance use among the young most often involves alcohol. Youthful substance abusers tend to abuse many substances--therefore an understanding of substance abuse requires an awareness of individual motivation and of the person's social circumstances. Therapy lacking this understanding has proven fruitless. Our best hope for the young--whether or not they have significant histories of substance abuse--lies in engaging the natural processes of maturation, real-world rewards, and the creation of a world worth living in.

  9. Abuse in Mexican Older Adults with Long-Term Disability: National Prevalence and Associated Factors. (United States)

    Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar; Mino-León, Dolores


    To determine the prevalence of self-reported abuse in elderly Mexican adults with long-term disabilities and to identify associated risk factors. Secondary analysis of the Perception of Disability in Mexican Population 2010 survey. Mexico. Individuals aged 60 and older with long-term disabilities without cognitive decline (N = 1,089). The elder abuse variable was constructed from the 21 questions included in the survey that assessed the presence of physical, psychological, sexual, and financial exploitation. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, self-rated health, disability (number of functional domains or basic activities), multimorbidity, emotional symptoms, health resources used, and informal help. The prevalence of elder abuse was 32.1%. The most frequent type of abuse was psychological (28.1%). Nearly 58% of respondents reported one type of abuse, 34% reported two types, and 8% reported more than three types. The most common combination of two types of abuse was psychological with financial exploitation. Variables associated with the presence of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse (conflict abuse) were age 80 and older, 9 or more years of education, unemployment, negative self-rated health, three or more disabilities, emotional symptoms, and history of hospitalization. Financial exploitation was associated with age 80 and older, being married or living with a partner, 9 or more years of education, unemployment, living in an urban area, negative self-rated health, three or more disabilities, emotional symptoms, and history of hospitalization. The prevalence of abuse in elderly Mexican adults with long-term disabilities is high. Associated factors were level of education, number of disabilities, and health status. Further studies should explore the applicability of these results to other populations. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Elder self-neglect: research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong XQ


    Full Text Available XinQi Dong Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Elder self-neglect is a global public health and human rights issue that threatens older people’s health and safety. It commonly refers to refusal or failure to provide oneself with care and protection in areas of food, water, clothing, hygiene, medication, living environments, and safety precautions. While prevalent, the status of self-neglecting individuals remains largely unclear, in particular within community-dwelling populations. By reviewing the epidemiology of elder self-neglect (definition, prevalence, risk factors, and consequences to date, the present paper identifies key research gaps such as methodological inconsistency in case identification and measurement, and study designs that are inadequate to determine risk factors of self-neglect. More importantly, in light of the rapidly growing older population, relevant stakeholders (researchers, healthcare providers, social service providers, legal professionals, community organizations, and policymakers must be prepared for an expected increasing number of self-neglect cases and enlarging scope of the problem. Hence, in this article, I present an overview regarding the management issues of elderly self-neglect related to the detection, assessment, reporting and referral, and decision-making capacity. Based on the current literature, the paper is aimed to explore the present knowledge and challenges, and how they can pave the way for solutions to self-neglect research, practice, and policy. Keywords: elderly self-neglect, elder abuse, self-neglect future directions 

  11. Update on abusive head trauma. (United States)

    Shaahinfar, Ashkon; Whitelaw, Kevin D; Mansour, Karim M


    This article provides an update on abusive head trauma (AHT), focusing on new developments most salient to the emergency medicine clinician, including epidemiology, clinical recognition, diagnostic work-up, management of neurologic injury, and public health implications. The recent literature has focused on honing the clinician's ability to recognize AHT and its immediate sequelae, to more accurately distinguish between abusive and accidental head injuries by patterns of neuroimaging and retinal hemorrhages, and to appreciate the long-term impacts. Specifically, both a clinical prediction rule and biomarker show promise, and new research advocates for the early identification of subclinical seizures as well as cervical spine injuries. The emergency medicine provider must be able to recognize and manage children who may have AHT and to appreciate when the diagnostic findings warrant consultation with a child protection team. These authors summarize the recent and notable advances in our understanding of AHT.

  12. Sexual abuse of boys. (United States)

    Valente, Sharon M


    Sexual abuse in childhood can disable self-esteem, self-concept, relationships, and ability to trust. It can also leave psychological trauma that compromises a boy's confidence in adults. While some boys who willingly participate may adjust to sexual abuse, many others face complications, such as reduced quality of life, impaired social relationships, less than optimal daily functioning, and self-destructive behavior. These problems can respond to treatment if detected. In this paper, we examine the prevalence, characteristics, psychological consequences, treatment, and coping patterns of boys who have been sexually abused and their failure to disclose abuse unless asked during a therapeutic encounter. Nurses have a responsibility to detect the clues to sexual abuse, diagnose the psychological consequences, and advocate for protection and treatment. Computerized literature search of the Medline and PsychInfo literature and books on sexual abuse of boys. Psychological responses to abuse such as anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation are common. Coping strategies may include being the angry avenger, the passive victim, rescuer, daredevil, or conformist. Sexual abuse may precipitate runaway behavior, chronic use of sick days, poor school or job performance, costly medical, emergency and or mental health visits. In worst cases, the boy may decide that life is not worth living and plan suicide. The nurse has a key role to play in screening, assessing, and treating sexual abuse children.

  13. Alternative drugs of abuse. (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E


    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  14. Sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the body. ... Abstract. This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. ... It discusses how the perception of the body has an impact on dealing with the body and potential sexual abuse.

  15. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises (United States)

    ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

  16. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse (United States)

    ... Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ... the following language: Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse; National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health ...

  17. Online Community Response to YouTube Abuse


    Herling, Jessica Lauren


    This study draws on social problems literature about rhetoric in claims-making and social movement literature about credibility in framing to understand the construction of YouTube abuse and relationships between member role in the community and their frames/the reception of those frames. I also draw on feminist, non-feminist, and postfeminist literature to understand how YouTubers incorporate feminism into their claims about why YouTube abuse is wrong. Here feminism refers to understandings ...

  18. [Sleep health education for elderly people]. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Soichiro; Nishiyama, Akiko


    Successful aging is characterized by minimal age-associated loss of the physiological functions of sleep and circadian clock. Sleep health education is necessary to have normal, quality nighttime sleep and full daytime alertness. Elderly people show changes of sleep parameters, accompanied by increased napping. Many studies have reported that daytime sleepiness or napping in elderly people could have potentially serious effects such as dementia and life-style related diseases. The main topics of sleep health education for elderly people are as follows: Right knowledge of sleep mechanism, understanding the bad influence of excessive napping, the effects of light on the circadian rhythm and negative effects of caffeine, alcohol and television.

  19. Relational agency in elderly care work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, Tiina; Fuglsang, Lars; Hasu, Mervi

    In this paper, we aim to understand how elderly care work is changing alongside the introduction of new co-creative frameworks and practices. The ideas of value co-creation and service co-production are expanding rapidly to new service areas also in the public sector. The elderly care context may...... pose specific challenges for co-creative frameworks due to the physical and mental conditions of the elderly users. We argue that to understand how cocreation fits to these contexts, researchers need to develop a relational view on the co-creation of value between care workers and elderly users. We use...... the concept of ‘relational agency’ to discuss how the interests and capabilities of the workers and users to co-create value are relationally constructed, and how these agentic properties contribute to the manner in which value is co-created. We demonstrate the usefulness of this approach by analysing...

  20. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. Such treatment can help reduce the risk that the child will develop serious problems ... you find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make ...

  1. Opioid Abuse and Addiction (United States)

    ... means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse ...

  2. Battling Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan


    From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…

  3. SNL Abuse Testing Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).

  4. Antitussives and substance abuse. (United States)

    Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W


    Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations.

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Revictimization in Adolescence and Adulthood. (United States)

    Krahe, Barbara


    Examines what researchers are beginning to understand about pathways from the experience of abuse in childhood to revictimization in adolescence and adulthood. Considers the issues of sexual development, sexual relationships, and risk factors associated with sexual abuse. Addresses the risk of revictimization in adulthood in terms of the…

  6. Secondary school teachers and the emotional abuse of children: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers and other human service professionals have crucial roles to play in the provision of social programmes to support and protect children from violence and abuse. The objective of this study, therefore, was to find out the extent of the knowledge and understanding of emotional abuse held by teachers; their ability to ...

  7. Aggression in Sexually Abused Trafficked Girls and Efficacy of Intervention (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben


    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls…

  8. The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon W.


    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

  9. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among Inpatient Substance Abusers (United States)

    Diaz, Naelys; Green, Diane; Horton, Eloise G.


    The existing literature indicates high comorbidity rates between depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Despite these elevated rates, there is limited empirical work devoted to understanding predictors of depressive symptoms among substance abusers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spirituality, believing in God's…

  10. Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries


    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F. J.


    BACKGROUND: Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. METHODS: The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during Janua...

  11. Recreational drugs of abuse. (United States)

    Albertson, Timothy E


    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  12. Abuse of prescription drugs. (United States)

    Wilford, B B


    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  13. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton


    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  14. Child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Johnson, Charles Felzen

    Child sexual abuse is a worldwide concern. It is an insidious, persistent, and serious problem that, depending on the population studied and definition used, affects 2-62% of women and 3-16% of men as victims. Pain and tissue injury from child sexual abuse can completely heal in time, but psychological and medical consequences can persist through adulthood. Associated sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV) and suicide attempts can be fatal. All physicians who treat children should be aware of the manifestations and consequences of child sexual abuse, and should be familiar with normal and abnormal genital and anal anatomy of children. This aim is best accomplished through training and routine examination of the anus and genitalia of children. Because as many as 96% of children assessed for suspected sexual abuse will have normal genital and anal examinations, a forensic interview by a trained professional must be relied on to document suspicion of abuse.

  15. Exploring elderly people’s relationships with new media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie; Christensen, Christa Lykke

    focuses on how the new digital media environment influences the daily lives of elderly people and the meaning they attribute to ageing. The first specific focus of ours is on how elderly people relate to new media and how media for interpersonal communication influence and shape elderly people’s social...... and mediatization to get closer to an understanding of how media on one hand are naturalized elements of elderly people’s everyday life serving a variety of purposes and on the other hand influence and set the agenda of what seems important to elderly people to be interested in and concerned about. We propose......The background of this proposal is a newly established Danish research project on the representation of ageing in the media and elderly people ́s media use. It investigates ways in which elderly people’s media practices and interpretations shape the experience of ageing. Part of this project...

  16. Toxic Knowledge: Self-Alteration Through Child Abuse Work. (United States)

    Sigad, Laura I; Davidov, Jonathan; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Eisikovits, Zvi


    The purpose of the present article is to examine the multiple ways in which the private lives of professionals are affected by involvement with child abuse intervention and prevention. Using a descriptive-phenomenological perspective and 40 in-depth interviews with professionals to present a model based on qualitative data, we studied the ways in which child abuse professionals conceptualize, understand, and integrate their experiences into their personal and family lives. We find that the process of internalizing child abuse knowledge occurs in two domains: One affirms or denies the existence of the phenomenon; the other concerns the strategies used to contend with the effects of working in abuse. Knowledge of child abuse is toxic, in the sense that it serves as a catalyst leading to the alteration of one's self-perception and parental identity. We present a typology of self-alteration resulting from child abuse knowledge and describe the mechanism of this change. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Child Abuse and Neglect in India. (United States)

    Seth, Rajeev


    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.

  18. Elder mistreatment, culture, and help-seeking: a cross-cultural comparison of older Chinese and Korean immigrants. (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Moon, Ailee; Gomez, Cynthia


    This study explored and compared the salient sociocultural characteristics that influenced elder mistreatment and help-seeking behaviors among older Chinese and Korean immigrants. Results from qualitative, in-depth focus groups with 30 participants revealed that elder mistreatment is a culturally laden construct, and core values of traditional culture and acculturation are significant contextual factors that profoundly affect the perceptions of elder abuse and receptivity of interventions. Older Korean participants, compared to their Chinese counterparts, demonstrated stronger influence of hierarchy and cultural beliefs in exclusive family ties and gender norms, and were less likely to disclose abuse. Implications for culturally based interventions are also discussed.

  19. Screening for abuse and neglect of people with dementia. (United States)

    Wiglesworth, Aileen; Mosqueda, Laura; Mulnard, Ruth; Liao, Solomon; Gibbs, Lisa; Fitzgerald, William


    To investigate characteristics of people with dementia and their caregivers (CGs) that are associated with mistreatment in order to inform clinicians about screening for mistreatment. A convenience sample of CG-care recipient (CR) dyads were assessed for literature-supported factors associated with mistreatment, and evidence of mistreatment for the prior year was collected. An expert panel considered the evidence and decided on occurrences of psychological abuse, physical abuse, and neglect based on criteria adopted before data collection. Participants' homes. One hundred twenty-nine persons with dementia and their CGs. CG and CR characteristics (demographic, health, and psychosocial variables), relationship characteristics, and three elder abuse and neglect detection instruments. Mistreatment was detected in 47.3%. Variables associated with different kinds and combinations of mistreatment types included the CG's anxiety, depressive symptoms, social contacts, perceived burden, emotional status, and role limitations due to emotional problems and the CR's psychological aggression and physical assault behaviors. The combination of CR's physical assault and psychological aggression provided the best sensitivity (75.4%) and specificity (70.6%) for elder mistreatment as defined by the expert panel. This finding has potential to be useful as a clinical screen for detecting mistreatment. The findings suggest important characteristics of older adults with dementia and their CGs that have potential for use in a clinical screening tool for elder mistreatment. Potential screening questions to be asked of CGs of people with dementia are suggested.

  20. Child Sexual Abuse, Links to Later Sexual Exploitation/High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Prevention/Treatment Programs


    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen


    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide numbe...

  1. The Role of the Medical Provider in the Evaluation of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents (United States)

    Newton, Alice Whittier; Vandeven, Andrea Marie


    It was only 30 years ago that the medical community began to develop an increased awareness of child sexual abuse, and the role of the medical provider in the evaluation of sexually abused children has evolved significantly. As clinicians worldwide develop a greater understanding of the impact of the sexual abuse evaluation on the child, the roles…

  2. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009 (United States)

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori


    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  3. Dimensions of child abuse: Implications for the family in the face of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an understanding of the dimensions underlying the endemic problem of child abuse and the implications of its continued perpetuations, particularly in Nigeria. This review tested the various forms of abuse against the postulations of the different theories of abuse and declaration of the Child's Right Bill ...

  4. Childhood Abuse and Current Health Problems among Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy. (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Medley, Amanda N; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Taylor, John


    OBJECTIVES: Child abuse has negative consequences on health functioning and the self-concept. Prior studies have garnered support for these relationships in younger adults; yet few studies have looked at the effects of abuse on health in older adults and the psychosocial variables, specifically self-efficacy, that may influence the abuse-health relationship. METHODS: Data obtained from the Physical Health and Disability Study were used to explore the impact of child abuse on current medical problems among older adults who were screened on physical disability status (N=1396, Mean age = 67, SD = 10.2). The study was conducted in South Florida and employed a multiethnic sample that is representative of the general population in this area. RESULTS: Child abuse was associated with the number of current medical problems and disability. Child abuse was also related to lower self-efficacy, and self-efficacy explained the relationship between abuse and the number of health problems. CONCLUSIONS: There are far reaching effects of child abuse on older adults' health and self-concept. Health care providers and gerontologists need to be aware that child abuse is a life-long risk factor for increased disability and specific health problems, especially among the elderly. Future research should examine treatments designed to increase self-efficacy, especially among those who experienced child abuse, and observe any positive effects on health functioning.

  5. Lifetime Alcohol Abuse in Institutionalized World War II Veterans. (United States)

    Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran


    The authors document the lifetime prevalence and etiological correlates of alcohol abuse in a sample of elderly World War II veterans. Subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residing in a veterans' long-term care facility were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. A second investigator gave the Modified Combat Exposure Scale and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol abuse was 53%. There was no correlation between alcohol abuse and any other psychiatric diagnosis. There was a significant correlation between the severity of combat stress and subsequent alcohol abuse. Veterans with alcohol abuse also had significantly more wartime head injuries. There was also a trend for the alcoholic group to have experienced more pre-war stressors. Examination of pre-war variables and the severity of the combat stress might help to identify veterans at risk for development of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 1996 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Social representations of elderly people care and social network maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Mehes Maldonado Brito


    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the social representations of elderly people self-care, care to other elders and their social network, by relating them to care practices used by social networks. The study included a survey distributed to 102 elderly subjects who were asked about their gender and dependency level, in order to identify the elderly social network and the structural part of the social representation of elderly people care. The results shown by the configuration and network map indicate a difference between gender in the elderly social network configuration, where men and independent elderly felt less loneliness, which may reflect a slight deterioration of dependent elderly’s social network. In social practice, elderly people care is assigned to informal caregivers, family members and women. The social representation of elderly people care mainly included the pragmatic aspects of care, functionality and passivity. There is a need for educational policies related to health and aging that favor not only the elderly, but also people who are close to experience old age, especially those who have become, in social practice, elderly caregivers.

  7. Workplace abuse: finding solutions. (United States)

    Christmas, Kate


    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  8. Opioid Abuse after TBI (United States)


    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0373 TITLE: “Opioid Abuse after TBI” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Candace L. Floyd, Ph.D., and Katherine L. Nicholson...30Jun2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Opioid Abuse after TBI” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0373 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...secondly tested the hypothesis that moderate TBI increases the susceptibility for opioid abuse as measured by an alteration in the rewarding properties of

  9. Stressful situations in life, use and abuse of alcohol and drugs by elderly in Monterrey, Mexico Situaciones de la vida estresantes, uso y abuso de alcohol y drogas en adultos mayores de Monterrey, México Situações estressantes de vida, uso e abuso de álcool e drogas em idosos de Monterrey, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Alicia Alonso Castillo


    Full Text Available This is a descriptive, qualitative, and correlation study with 112 elderly aged 60 years or older. This study aimed to identify differences in alcohol consumption according to gender and marital status, and differences in the consumption of medical drugs by gender. It also aims to determine differences in stressful life events by gender, and differences in stressful life events associated to alcohol and medical drugs use and abuse, as well as to know their perceptions on the most stressful life events they have experienced. The results showed significant differences in alcohol consumption by gender (U=154.0, p Estudio descriptivo correlacional con aproximación cualitativa de los datos en 112 adultos mayores de 60 años, con objeto de identificar las diferencias en el consumo de alcohol por sexo y estado marital y las diferencias en el consumo de drogas médicas por sexo, determinar los eventos de la vida estresantes que se asocian con el uso y abuso de alcohol y drogas médicas, y conocer las percepciones sobre los eventos de la vida que han experimentado como más estresantes. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas del consumo de alcohol de acuerdo al sexo (U=154.0, pEstudo descritivo correlacional e abordagem qualitativa dos dados, realizado com 112 adultos maiores de 60 anos com o objetivo de identificar as diferenças no consumo de álcool por sexo e estado civil, identificar as diferenças do consumo de drogas médicas por sexo, determinar os eventos estressantes da vida que se associam com o uso e abuso de álcool e drogas médicas, e conhecer as percepções dos idosos sobre o que consideram eventos estressantes na vida. Os resultados mostraram diferenças significativas do consumo de álcool de acordo com sexo (U=154.0, p< 0,001, consumo foi muito maior para os homens. Reportou-se que o consumo de drogas médicas (Ç2=5.95, p<0,015 e os índices de estresse (U=1038.5, p =.010 são maiores nas mulheres. Os eventos na vida

  10. Anticipating and managing opioid side effects in the elderly. (United States)

    Martin, Caren McHenry; Forrester, Charles Samuel


    Pain is a common complaint in the elderly, and opioids are useful agents for management of both acute and chronic pain. Opioids are known to cause a variety of adverse effects, and these adverse effects can be particularly problematic for the frail elderly patient and may limit their use. As a result, this can lead to undertreatment of pain and poor patient outcome. Understanding, anticipating, and managing opioid side effects is an important component of care for the elderly patient.

  11. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa


    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  12. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention


    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey


    Background: Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly ...

  13. Drug Abuse - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Substance Abuse or Dependence - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Substance ...

  14. Sexual Abuse of Children. (United States)

    Csapo, Marg


    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  15. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... version, located in the "Professional" section of our website: Child Sexual Abuse . Date this content was last updated is at the bottom of the page. ... PILOTS *, the largest citation database on PTSD. What is PILOTS? Subscribe Sign ...

  16. Leaving an Abusive Relationship (United States)

    ... agree on a secret location where they can pick you up. Keep an alternate cellphone nearby. Try ... 2017 by: Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN) Staff Kathleen C. Basile, Ph.D., Lead Behavioral Scientist, ...

  17. Improving Quality of Care in Hospitals for Victims of Elder Mistreatment: Development of the Vulnerable Elder Protection Team. (United States)

    Rosen, Tony; Mehta-Naik, Nisha; Elman, Alyssa; Mulcare, Mary R; Stern, Michael E; Clark, Sunday; Sharma, Rahul; LoFaso, Veronica M; Breckman, Risa; Lachs, Mark; Needell, Nancy


    Hospitals have an opportunity to improve the quality of care provided to a particularly vulnerable population: victims of elder mistreatment. Despite this, no programs to prevent or stop elder abuse in the acute care hospital have been reported. An innovative, multidisciplinary emergency department (ED)-based intervention for elder abuse victims, the Vulnerable Elder Protection Team (VEPT), was developed at NewYork-Presbyterian / Weill Cornell Medical Center (New York City). The VEPT is a consultation service available 24 hours a day/7 days a week to improve identification, comprehensive assessment, and treatment for potential victims of elder abuse or neglect. All ED providers have been trained on how to recognize signs of elder mistreatment. Any provider can activate the VEPT via a single page/telephone call, which triggers the VEPT's often time-consuming, complex assessment of the potential mistreatment victim. First, the ED social worker on duty performs the initial bedside assessment and separately interviews the potential perpetrator and/or caregiver. He or she then contacts the on-call VEPT medical provider to discuss next steps and other team members' potential involvement. For patients admitted to the hospital, the VEPT connects with the inpatient social workers and medical team to ensure appropriate follow-up and care planning. The VEPT program was launched in April 2017 after comprehensive training. Its impact will be measured by tracking the short-term and long-term mistreatment-related outcomes, as well as medical, mental health, functional, psychosocial, and legal outcomes of the vulnerable ED patients for whom the team provides care. Copyright © 2018 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Hypertension in the elderly]. (United States)

    Handschin, Anja; Henny-Fullin, Katja; Buess, Daniel; Leuppi, Jörg; Dieterle, Thomas


    Arterial hypertension remains the most important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal diseases. In view of an increasing prevalence with older age and an increasingly aging population, the treatment of elderly patients with arterial hypertension will become increasingly important in daily practice. Arterial hypertension in the elderly differs in many aspects from arterial hypertension in younger patients. For example, isolated systolic hypertension is the predominant form of arterial hypertension in the elderly. In comparison to younger patients, treatment of hypertension in the elderly is less well investigated. However, available data suggest that lowering of blood pressure in the elderly and very elderly reduces the risk of heart failure, stroke, and even mortality. The best evidence for the treatment of hypertension in the elderly exists for diuretics and calcium antagonists. However, the primary choice of antihypertensive therapy should be guided by the presence of existing cardiovascular and/or renal comorbidities.

  19. Child abuse: underlying mechanisms


    Martínez, Gladys S.


    Exposure to traumatic stress during childhood, in the form of abuse or neglect, is related to an increased vulnerability resulting in the development of several pathologies, this relation has been confi rmed by epidemiological studies; however, the neural mechanisms underlying such abnormalities are still unknown. Most of the research done has focused on the effects in the infant, and only recently it has begun to focus on the neurobiological changes in the abusive parents. In this article, I...

  20. The Child Abuse


    Hossein abbasnezhadriyabi; Mozhganjalali


    While a large number of children are losing their lives due to poverty, malnutrition, contagious diseases and war, we are witnessing hundreds of children death by reason of misbehaving. Today, "child abuse" as a social-cultural phenomenon which shows crisis in a society, has a growing process in our country. The goal of this research was to investigate the base factors of child abuse that according to the results are consist as follows, poverty, unemployment, addiction, large families, single...

  1. Antitussives and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns JM


    Full Text Available Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. Keywords: dextromethorphan, purple drank, sizzurp, codeine/promethazine

  2. Vaccines for Drug Abuse


    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.


    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future...

  3. Reinforcer Pathology: The Behavioral Economics of Abuse Liability Testing. (United States)

    Bickel, W K; Snider, S E; Quisenberry, A J; Stein, J S


    Understanding the abuse liability of novel drugs is critical to understanding the risk these new compounds pose to society. Behavioral economics, the integration of psychology and economics, can be used to predict abuse liability of novel substances. Here, we describe the behavioral economic concept of reinforcer pathology and how it may predict the use of novel drugs in existing drug-users and initiation of use in the drug-naive. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  4. Validation of the Italian Version of the Caregiver Abuse Screen among Family Caregivers of Older People with Alzheimer's Disease. (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Di Rosa, Mirko; Barbabella, Francesco; Barbini, Norma; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Chiatti, Carlos


    Introduction . Elder abuse is often a hidden phenomenon and, in many cases, screening practices are difficult to implement among older people with dementia. The Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE) is a useful tool which is administered to family caregivers for detecting their potential abusive behavior. Objectives . To validate the Italian version of the CASE tool in the context of family caregiving of older people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to identify risk factors for elder abuse in Italy. Methods . The CASE test was administered to 438 caregivers, recruited in the Up-Tech study. Validity and reliability were evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficients, principal-component analysis, and Cronbach's alphas. The association between the CASE and other variables potentially associated with elder abuse was also analyzed. Results . The factor analysis suggested the presence of a single factor, with a strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86). CASE score was strongly correlated with well-known risk factors of abuse. At multivariate level, main factors associated with CASE total score were caregiver burden and AD-related behavioral disturbances. Conclusions . The Italian version of the CASE is a reliable and consistent screening tool for tackling the risk of being or becoming perpetrators of abuse by family caregivers of people with AD.

  5. The home care team approach to self-neglecting elders. (United States)

    Leff, Ellen W; Sonstegard-Gamm, Janel


    Elderly patients who neglect their own health present special challenges. This article describes techniques for establishing rapport, understanding the patient's world, using a team approach to care, and achieving closure. At each step the clinician must find a balance between respecting the elder's rights and meeting his or her healthcare needs.

  6. 77 FR 36901 - World Elder Abuse Awareness Day, 2012 (United States)


    ... of America A Proclamation Every American deserves the chance to live out the full measure of their... authorities to ensure seniors can live their lives with dignity and independence. With the Consumer Financial... justice for victims, and building a Nation that preserves and protects the well-being of all who call it...

  7. Financial abuse of the elderly. Recognizing and acting on it. (United States)

    Weiler, K


    1. Within a trust situation, one party (the trustee) holds the title and control of property, but has a responsibility to use the property for the benefit of another (the beneficiary). 2. A durable power of attorney is a written document in which one person (the principal) has granted another person (the agent or attorney-in-fact) the authority to act for him and the delegation of authority continues even if the principal becomes incapacitated. 3. A representative payee is a person or organization who receives payment as a substitute for the beneficiary. 4. A joint tenancy is a form of co-ownership in which two or more persons hold a single interest in property and each co-owner has the right of survivorship.

  8. Pattern of buprenorphine abuse among opioid abusers in Nepal. (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar; Dhungana, Manoj; Khanal, Roshija


    Although buprenorphine abusers are a common clinical entity, literature on them is rare in Nepal. To assess whether injectable opioid abusers are any different a subgroup vis-a-vis brown sugar abusers in relation to their demographic and clinical profiles. Seventy-six opioid abusers, who were admitted over a period of one year, in our de-addiction center, were included in the present study. They were divided into two groups based on the history of the presence or absence of buprenorphine injection abuse in them. The demographic and clinical profiles of these two groups were studied and compared. The most characteristic opioid abuse pattern was the abuse of brown sugar through inhalation (chasing). A total of 32 (42.1%) among them had a history of injectable drug abuse (IDU). Most characteristic buprenorphine abuse pattern seen was an evolution from injectable buprenorphine to triple injection to brown sugar abuse (Reverse Transition). Injection buprenorphine abusers, who attended our clinic, were older in age and had a history of a longer duration of abuse than their counterparts who abused opioid drugs through the inhalational route only. Their lifetime diagnosis revealed a polysubstance abuse pattern. They were more unstable, impulsive, and disorganized in their behavior pattern, suggestive of the presence of inadequate personality traits. There were high instances of injection-related side effects in the form of the presence of thrombophlebitis, HIV positivity, and clinical AIDS in them. Findings of the current research indicate the presence of a subgroup of patient population among opioid abusers with a history of injectable buprenorphine abuse, with characteristic personality traits, pattern of drug abuse, and associated physical complications resulting from it.

  9. Emerging drugs of abuse. (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E


    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maltreatment and sexual abuse at home concerning schooling adolscents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuranis Ibeth Henríquez Santoya


    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio consistió en determinar la presencia del maltrato infantil y abuso sexual en el hogar en adolescentes escolarizados con edades comprendidas entre 14 y 16 años, matriculados a 2010 en colegios públicos de la de la ciudad de Santa Marta. Los participantes fueron 229 jóvenes. Las variables medidas fueron la edad, el tipo de maltrato y el género. Los resultados indican que la tendencia al maltrato psicológico fue de 29.3%, de maltrato físico 13.3% y de abuso sexual de 32.3%. Con relación al género se halló que las mujeres han sido objeto en mayor porcentaje de maltrato físico y abuso sexual que los hombres y éstos han sido objeto de mayor maltrato psicológico que las mujeres; respecto a la edad los jóvenes de 14 años presentaron mayor porcentaje de maltrato y abuso que en los otros rangos etarios. Se concluye que tres (3 de cada 10 estudiantes ha sido objeto de abuso sexual, tres ha sido objeto de maltrato psicológico y uno de maltrato físico. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 262 - 269AbstractThe present study was to determine the presence of child maltreatment and sexual abuse at home, concerning schooling adolescents, aged between 14 and 16 years enrolled in public schools belonging to the city of Santa Marta. Participants were 229 young persons. The variables were age, abuse and gender. The results point out: 29.3% for psychological abuse, 32.3% for sexual abuse, and 13.3% for physical abuse. Concerning the gender it was detected that women have been at a higher rate aim of physical mistreatment and sexual abuse than men, but on the other hand men are aim of psychological abuse. With regard to age, young people of 14 years, revealed a higher percentage of maltreatment than the elder ones. We conclude that three of each schooling boy has been object of sexual abuse; three of them have been injured of psychological mistreatment and one of physical abuse.Keywords: abuse; sexual abuse; maltreatment; gender; adolescents

  11. Understanding the investigation-stage overrepresentation of First Nations children in the child welfare system: an analysis of the First Nations component of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008. (United States)

    Sinha, Vandna; Trocmé, Nico; Fallon, Barbara; MacLaurin, Bruce


    The overrepresentation of Aboriginal children in child welfare systems in the U.S., Canada, and Australia is well documented, but limited attention has been paid to investigation-stage disproportionality. This paper examines the overrepresentation of First Nations (the largest of three federally recognized Aboriginal groups in Canada) children, focusing on three questions: (1) What is the level/nature of First Nations overrepresentation at the investigation stage? (2) What is known about the source of referrals in child welfare investigations involving First Nations children? (3) What risk factors and child functioning concerns are identified for investigated First Nations children and families? The First Nations Component of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (FNCIS-2008) was designed to address limitations in existing Aboriginal child welfare data: it sampled one quarter of the Aboriginally governed child welfare agencies that conduct investigations in Canada, gathered data on over 3,000 investigations involving First Nations children, and incorporated weights designed for analysis of First Nations data. Bivariate analyses are used to compare investigations involving First Nations and non-Aboriginal children. The rate of investigations for First Nations children living in the areas served by sampled agencies was 4.2 times that for non-Aboriginal children; investigation-stage overrepresentation was compounded by each short term case disposition examined. A higher proportion of First Nations than non-Aboriginal investigations involved non-professional referrals, a pattern consistent with disparities in access to alternative services. Workers expressed concerns about multiple caregiver risk factor concerns for more than ½ of investigated First Nations families and, with the exception of "health issues", identified every caregiver/household risk factor examined in a greater percentage of First Nations than non-Aboriginal households. It

  12. Care Support Activities for Elderly Koreans in Japan:The Historical Development and Present Challenges(2)


    趙, 文基


    This paper explores the historical development of elderly care focusing on the activities of the Federation of Korean Residents in Japan (CHONGRYON).How has the ethnic Korean elderly care system developed in Japan? CHONGRYON's data of social welfare facilities for the elderly enable us to understand care support activities and the circumstances for this minority elderly group in Japan. I also surveyed this organization and qualitatively analyzed the publications (1998-2010) of their social mo...

  13. Dysphagia in the elderly.


    Paterson, W. G.


    OBJECTIVE: To review the problem of dysphagia in the elderly so that primary care physicians are better able to recognize and manage it. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Dysphagia, a prevalent problem in the elderly, causes significant morbidity and even mortality. Age-related deterioration of the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing is well documented. Diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia in the elderly is based mainly on clinical experience with large groups of patients. Few controlled clinical trials hav...

  14. Effectiveness of Inhalant Abuse Legislation. (United States)

    Batis, Jeffery C


    Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.

  15. Imbalances in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Valeryevich Zamergrad


    Full Text Available The paper considers the main causes of imbalance in elderly patients. It gives data on the specific features of the course of the most common vestibular diseases in the elderly, such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Meniere’s disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. At the same time the vestibular system-aging mechanisms that are able to induce disequilibrium are considered. Multisensory disequilibrium is discussed as the most common cause of instability in the elderly. Basic treatments for vestibular diseases in the elderly, including drug therapy and vestibular rehabilitation, are analyzed.

  16. Workplace abuse narratives from dentistry, nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy students: a multi-school qualitative study. (United States)

    Rees, C E; Monrouxe, L V; Ternan, E; Endacott, R


    Previous healthcare student abuse research typically employs quantitative surveys that fail to explore contributory factors for abuse and students' action in the face of abuse. Following a recent qualitative study of medical students' abuse narratives, the current study explores dental, nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy students' abuse narratives to better understand healthcare workplace abuse. We conducted three individual and 11 group interviews with 69 healthcare students in three Universities to elicit professionalism dilemma narratives. Of 226 professionalism dilemmas elicited, 79 were coded as student abuse. Secondary-level thematic analysis of the abuse narratives addressed the following questions: What types of abuse experiences do healthcare students narrate? What factors do they cite as contributing to abuse and their responses to abuse? Healthcare students reported mostly covert abuse in their narratives. Although narrators described individual, relational, work and organisational factors contributing to abuse, they mostly cited factors relating to perpetrators. Most participants stated that they acted in the face of their abuse, and they mostly cited factors relating to themselves for acting. Students who did nothing in the face of abuse typically cited the perpetrator-recipient relationship as the main contributory factor. There are many similarities across the narratives of the five healthcare student groups, suggesting that complex interactional/organisational factors are all-important when considering how abuse is perpetuated within the healthcare workplace. Although some organisational factors may be difficult to change, we recommend that educational initiatives are a key starting point to tackle healthcare workplace abuse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Chronic time abuse. (United States)

    Berglas, Steven


    Anyone who has ever managed people who abuse time--whether they are chronic procrastinators or individuals who work obsessively to meet deadlines weeks in advance--knows how disruptive they can be to a business's morale and operating efficiency. But lessons in time management will have no impact on these employees. That's because real time abuse results from psychological conflict that neither a workshop nor a manager's cajoling can cure. Indeed, the time abuser's quarrel isn't even with time but rather with a brittle self-esteem and an unconscious fear of being evaluated and found wanting. This article describes four types of time abusers typically encountered in the workplace: Perfectionists are almost physically afraid of receiving feedback. Their work has to be "perfect," so they can increase their likelihood of earning a positive evaluation or at least avoid getting a negative one. Preemptives try to be in control by handing in work far earlier than they need to, making themselves unpopular and unavailable in the process. People pleasers commit to far too much work because they find it impossible to say no. Procrastinators make constant (and often reasonable-sounding) excuses to mask a fear of being found inadequate in their jobs. Managing these four types of people can be challenging, since time abusers respond differently from most other employees to criticism and approval. Praising a procrastinator when he is on time, for instance, will only exacerbate the problem, because he will fear that your expectations are even higher than before. In fact, some time abusers, like the perfectionist, may need professional treatment. This article will give you insight into why they are the way they are--and what can be done to help them manage their problems.

  18. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  19. The Pattern of Drug Abuse in Anonymous Adidcts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Maryam Vahdat-Shariat-Panahi


    Full Text Available Objective: Having the information about pattern of substance abuse in the community and its epidemiological features is one of the most important protocols for evaluation, follow–up and control of the use of these substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns of substances abuse among narcotic anonymous (N. A. addicted patients. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, three hundred patients from narcotic abusers anonymous (N. A. association who were referred to a treatment center in Tehran were participated consecutively. The information about demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, type of drug and the patterns of substance abuse of all cases were collected by researcher made questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Chi–Square test. Results: 80% of the patients were male. Almost 65. 2% of cases aged less than 40 years. More than two–third of cases had free jobs and 21. 2% of them were unemployed. Also, 32% of patients had college degrees. The most common types of abused substance were opium (88%, cigarette (76.7%, and alcohol (63% and 34% of them used substances intravenously. The use of alcohol (P=0.033, cannabis (P<0.001, cocaine (P=0.009 and ecstasy (P<0.001 was more prevalent significantly in the cases less than 40 years old than the elderly. Conclusion: It seems that the trend of substance abuse has been changed to younger population. The pattern of drug abuse in young adults is more toward psychosis drugs such as cocaine and ecstasy.

  20. Vaccines against drug abuse. (United States)

    Shen, X Y; Orson, F M; Kosten, T R


    The currently available medications for the treatment of drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, aimed at eliciting antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs, have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status of two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (for cocaine and nicotine addiction) and two that are still in preclinical development (for methamphetamine and heroin addiction). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns associated with the development of anti-addiction vaccines and their use as future therapeutics.

  1. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? A child is brought into the emergency room with a fractured leg. The ... welfare services to report a suspected case of child abuse. The child is taken away from the parents ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A K Aucamp, Ciba (Pty) Ltd - person:aI communication, 1997). (See Table I.) .... literature documenting abuse and its inherent dangers. In other words, patients are not going to acknowledge willingly that they are abusing methylphenidate.

  3. Consumer fraud and the elderly: a review of Canadian challenges and initiatives. (United States)

    Cohen, Carole A


    Financial abuse is the most common type of elder abuse. Consumer fraud, a form of financial abuse perpetrated by criminals who do not know the victim, is not well studied. Seniors represent a disproportionate percentage of the victims of consumer fraud. This article reviews the data on the prevalence of consumer fraud (primarily telemarketing scams) in Canada. It examines the reasons why Canadian seniors are targets of fraud. It also describes many unique initiatives developed at the local, provincial and national level in Canada to educate seniors and those who care for them about the types of scams and the risks of fraud.

  4. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter


    Full Text Available One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have been excluded from the terms of reference of the Royal Commission but nonetheless continue to surface in media reports. In 2013, twelve children were permanently removed from an extended family living in rural NSW in what has been described as one of the worst cases of child abuse in Australia, involving intergenerational incest going back at least three generations (Auebach 2014. Another recent high-profile case involved the use of the Internet to facilitate the sexual exploitation of an adopted child by his parents in Queensland (Ralston 2013. These cases challenge the received wisdom that child sexual abuse is characterised by the victimisation of one child by one opportunistic offender. Such incidents suggest instead that child sexual abuse takes varied and systemic forms, and can operate to perpetuate and entrench toxic cultures and power structures.   This special issue on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation is a timely contribution to ongoing efforts to understand the multiplicity of child sexual abuse. It is an interdisciplinary collection of insights drawn from criminology, sociology, psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis, and includes papers from academic researchers alongside academic practitioners whose writing is grounded in their work with affected individuals and communities. A key aim of the special issue is to contextualise the diversity of child sexual abuse socially, politically and historically, recognising the dynamic and iterative

  5. Workplace Abuse: Problems And Consequences


    Fred Ebeid; Tej Kaul; Kathleen Neumann; Hugh Shane


    Workplace abuse is a relatively recent phenomenon that affects millions of employee in all types of organizations and occupations. Most of the literature on workplace management deals with employment discrimination and due process. Workplace issues of emotional abuse inflicted on employees by supervisors or managers are seldom addressed. An organization becomes abusive when it permits or tolerates abusive employee treatment by supervisors or managers. In the news each day, the media regularly...

  6. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse


    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming


    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  7. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy. (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.


    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide (United States)

    ... incidence of both forcible and non-forcible sexual abuse. 3 “Sexual abuse is associated with changes in the metabolism of ... Molnar, B., Berkman, L., & Buka, S. (2001). Psychopathology, childhood sexual abuse, and other childhood adversities: Relative links to subsequent ...

  9. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  10. Child Abuse Potential: How Persistent? (United States)

    Haapasalo, Jaana; Aaltonen, Terhi


    Compares mothers whose children had been under supervision of Child Protective Services (CPS) with comparison mothers for child abuse potential using Millner's Child Abuse Potential Inventory. CPS mothers scored significantly higher than the comparison mothers, indicating their persistent elevated child abuse potential; there was no significant…

  11. Training Mental Health Professionals in Child Sexual Abuse: Curricular Guidelines. (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L


    Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources).

  12. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Wal, M.F.V.D.; Brugman, E.; Sing, R.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.


    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5·6% (95% CI 4·2-7·0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  13. New drugs of abuse. (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth


    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  14. Drug and Substance Abuse (United States)

    ... Basic Facts & Information What does “Drug and Substance Abuse” mean? Most drugs and other chemical substances are helpful when used ... medications, and pain medications. Some older adults also abuse illegal drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, and injected narcotics. Some ...

  15. sexually abused children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexually abused children are anxiety disorders, depression, increased aggression and disturbance in sexual behaviour and gender roles. An American study found significantly higher rates .... counterparts with post-admission disclosure, this difference was not ... sense of psychic loneliness and internal crisis which follows.

  16. Mania following ketamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu YY


    Full Text Available Yuan-Yuan Lu,1 Chieh-Hsin Lin,2,3 Hsien-Yuan Lane1,2,4 1Department of Psychiatry, China Medical University Hospital, 2Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, 4Center for Drug Abuse and Addiction, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan Abstract: Ketamine, a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor, has multiple clinical uses. On the other hand, ketamine abuse or recreational use has been gaining increasing attention. Induction of mania and psychotic symptoms has been reported in a patient receiving IV ketamine therapy for reflex sympathetic dystrophy. We here report a 26 year-old man who abused ketamine by inhalation for 12 months and developed manic-like symptoms after ketamine use. This case suggests a possible relationship between manic symptoms and ketamine abuse. To the best of our knowledge, this may be the first report regarding mania after recreational use of ketamine. Keywords: ketamine, mania, antidepressant, bipolar

  17. Drug abuse in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana dos Reis Nunes


    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a pregnant woman admitted to cocaine overdose and discuss maternal and fetal complications of cocaine abuse in pregnancy. Considering the increased frequency of users in the female population, the obstetric team should be able to make the patient's care and your baby.

  18. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL


    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  19. [Anemia in the elderly]. (United States)

    Maerevoet, M; Sattar, L; Bron, D; Gulbis, B; Pepersack, T


    Anaemia is a problem that affects almost 10% over 65 years and 20% over 85 years. There is no physiological anaemia in the elderly. Any anaemia expresses the existence of a pathological process, regardless of its severity. Anaemia in the elderly is always associated with a poor prognosis that is in terms of mortality, morbidity and risk of fragility. The diagnostic approach to anemia in the elderly is the same as in younger individual. There are many causes of anaemia; anaemia balance is a complex diagnostic process. Most anaemias are due to a deficiency, chronic inflammation or comorbidity. However, in the elderly, the etiology of anaemia is often multifactorial. In a number of cases remain unexplained anaemia. In a number of cases, anemia remain unexplained. Treatment of anaemia is the treatment of the cause, but specific therapeutic aspects to the elderly should be considered, as among other martial substitution or use of erythropoietin (EPO).

  20. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.


    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  1. The Revictimization of Adult Women With Histories of Childhood Abuse




    Both clinical experience and recent research statistics support the observation that childhood abuse survivors are vulnerable to revictimization as adults. The responsibility for revictimization, such as physical or sexual assault, belongs to the perpetrators. However, the factors that make abuse survivors more vulnerable to exploitation need to be examined and understood in order to provide adequate treatment and protection. This discussion integrates an understanding of three...

  2. Designing and Determining Psychometric Properties of the Elder Neglect Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majideh Heravi-Karimooi


    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to design and determine the psychometric properties of a checklist for assessing domestic elder neglect. Methods & Materials: This study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, the meaning of domestic elder neglect explored using the qualitative method of phenomenology. In the second phase, a checklist was created, based on the results obtained in the first phase, in conjunction with the inductions from the expert panel. In the third and fourth phases, the psychometric properties including face validity, content validity, construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and Inter- rater reliability were measured. 110 elderly people participated in the this study. Results: The initial 26 item checklist designed using the results of first and second phases of study, reduced to 11 items and 2 factors including the health and care needs neglect, and neglect in providing healthy environment in the process of determining the face and content validity. Acceptable convergent validity was identified in the elder neglect checklist and care neglect scale of the domestic elder abuse questionnaire (r=0.862. The results of known groups' comparisons showed that this checklist could successfully discriminate between subgroups of elderly people in the index of re-hospitalization. The internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 was 0.824. Inter- rater reliability of the checklist was 0.850. Conclusion: The elder neglect checklist with 11 items appears to be a promising tool, providing reliable and valid data helping to detect neglect among elders in different settings such as clinical settings, homes and research environments by health care providers and researchers.

  3. The Elder Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Elder


    Full Text Available This paper presents an autobiographical and biographical historical account of the genesis, evolution and resolution of the Elder Problem. It begins with John W. Elder and his autobiographical story leading to his groundbreaking work on natural convection at Cambridge in the 1960’s. His seminal work published in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics in 1967 became the basis for the modern benchmark of variable density flow simulators that we know today as “The Elder Problem”. There have been well known and major challenges with the Elder Problem model benchmark—notably the multiple solutions that were ultimately uncovered using different numerical models. Most recently, it has been shown that the multiple solutions are indeed physically realistic bifurcation solutions to the Elder Problem and not numerically spurious artefacts. The quandary of the Elder Problem has now been solved—a major scientific breakthrough for fluid mechanics and for numerical modelling. This paper—records, reflections, reminiscences, stories and anecdotes—is an historical autobiographical and biographical memoir. It is the personal story of the Elder Problem told by some of the key scientists who established and solved the Elder Problem. 2017 marks the 50 year anniversary of the classical work by John W. Elder published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics in 1967. This set the stage for this scientific story over some five decades. This paper is a celebration and commemoration of the life and times of John W. Elder, the problem named in his honour, and some of the key scientists who worked on, and ultimately solved, it.

  4. Sex differences in drug abuse. (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming


    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.

  5. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena


    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  6. Employment services and substance abuse treatment. (United States)

    Sherba, R Thomas; Coxe, Kathryn A; Gersper, Beth E; Linley, Jessica V


    This qualitative study of over 800 participants focused on the employment experiences of consumers of substance abuse treatment programs to provide a better understanding of what employment services are offered and what needs treatment agencies have in the area of employment services, examining barriers and facilitators from both the consumer and provider perspectives. Data were collected via a mixed research methodology of focus groups and surveys from July 2015 through June 2016 in a large Midwestern U.S. state. Employment is a challenge for persons with substance use disorders. Only a quarter of this study's large sample of substance abuse treatment consumers reported being cur-rently employed; and of those consumers who reported no current employment, greater than half reported that their current unemployment was due to their substance use. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment face many challenges in obtaining and maintaining employment. Treatment providers identified several barriers to implementation of employment services. They named an array of resources as needed, including increased funding for supportive employment programs and staff appropriate to the delivery of employment services. Some providers believed employment services to fall outside of their scope of practice. Data generated through this study may inform policy to invest resources in employment services within substance abuse treatment settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, T.


    Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.) [de

  8. Etiology of Drug Abuse: A Narrative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjme Jadidi


    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18–40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe, individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals’ views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies.

  9. Cumulative abuse: do things add up? An evaluation of the conceptualization, operationalization, and methodological approaches in the study of the phenomenon of cumulative abuse. (United States)

    Scott-Storey, Kelly


    For women, any one type of abuse rarely occurs in isolation of other types, and a single abusive experience is often the exception rather than the norm. The importance of this concept of the cumulative nature of abuse and its negative impact on health has been well recognized within the empirical literature, however there has been little consensus on what to call this phenomenon or how to study it. For the most part researchers have operated on the premise that it is the sheer number of different types of cumulating abuse experiences that is primarily responsible for worse health outcomes among women. And although this simplistic 'more is worse' approach to conceptualizing and operationalizing cumulative abuse has proven to be a powerful predictor of poorer health, it contradicts growing empirical evidence that suggests not all victimizations are created equal and that some victimizations may have a more deleterious effect on health than others. Embedded in abuse histories are individual and abuse characteristics as well as other life adversities that need to be considered in order to fully understand the spectrum and magnitude of cumulative abuse and its impact on women's health. Furthermore, given the long-term and persistent effects of abuse on health it becomes imperative to not only evaluate recent abusive experiences, but rather all abuse experiences occurring across the lifespan. This review highlights and evaluates the conceptual, operational, and methodological challenges posed by our current methods of studying and understanding the phenomenon of cumulative abuse and suggests that this phenomenon and its relationship to health is much more complex than research is currently portraying. This paper calls for the urgent need for interdisciplinary collaboration in order to more effectively and innovatively study the phenomenon of cumulative abuse.

  10. [Psychiatry in elderly prisoners]. (United States)

    Fovet, T; Geoffroy, P A; Vaiva, G; Adins, C; Thomas, P; Amad, A


    The high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in prison and the aging of inmates should lead to the consideration of gerontopsychiatry in the prison environment. This review aims to emphasize the clinical characteristics and associated comorbidities of elderly prisoners with psychiatric disorders. We examined the international literature in September 2013 and performed the literature search with PubMed electronic database using the following Mesh headings: "prisons", "prisoners", "geriatric psychiatry", "geriatric assessment", "geriatric nursing". Fourteen studies were retained by the literature search strategy and were included in the qualitative analysis. More than one out of two elderly prisoners (>60 year-old) suffer from a psychiatric disorder. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the first psychiatric disorder diagnosed among elderly prisoners, affecting 30 to 50% of them. Personality disorders are also very common demonstrating a prevalence of about 30%. Psychotic disorders concern 5% of the elderly prisoners and thus largely exceed the prevalence in the general population. Furthermore, stress events are frequent in prison and might precipitate or worsen psychiatric disorders. This review highlights the difficulties and complexities of care plans and management for the elderly in prison. The situation of elderly prisoners with psychiatric disorders is extremely worrying. In addition, both the aging of the population and the lengthening of incarcerations increase the number of elderly prisoners, widely exposed to psychiatric disorders, and thus will probably worsen these issues in the future. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypertension in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Pinna


    Full Text Available IntroductionThere is a high prevalence of hypertension in the elderly, as evidenced by clinical and health behavioral policies. Still, there are uncertainties on the treatment of hypertension, especially treatment of the very elderly. These considerations have largely been ignored in clinical trials due to concern regarding contamination by other pathologies that are difficult to frame and manage.Methods We performed an effective and ample literature review and provided reflections on the Consensus Conference ACCF/AHA 2011 on the principle types of hypertension found in the elderly. We also considered the associated principle pathologies for various treatments and related organs.Discussion Even if the goal of treatment of elevated blood pressure in the elderly is same as in younger population, it is no longer certain that a target systolic blood pressure (SBP <140 mmHg should be persistently reached in the very elderly. It is important to note that for all studies these values have never been reached. In the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH the preferred target is a SBP >160 mmHg. Treating hypertension in the elderly and very elderly reduces the risk of stroke and heart failure, though the evidence is inconclusive for all-cause mortality.Conclusion Hypertension in the elderly is very common and needs to be treated with criteria that consider the patient's age, comorbidities, lifestyle and adherence. Above all, in the very elderly, therapeutic treatment should be personalized according to the above criteria. Where possible pharmaceutical therapy should be limited at the preference of healthy lifestyle changes (physical activity, diet, etc..

  12. Paradoxical constructions in Danish elderly care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne


    . This article explores these questions drawing on care ethics and theory of recognition. It presents the new conception of the elderly and illustrates, through analysis of empirical data from activity centres, how the transformations pose challenges to care workers and are reflected as different logics which......Transformations take place in Danish elderly care due to neo-liberal modernization processes which imply a conception of human beings as rational and autonomous while simultaneously increasing the level of governance and control. Inspired by trends in gerontology these transformations form...... a radical change in the understanding of the relationships between those in need of support and the professionals. The critical questions raise concern as to where this leaves the elderly in need of care, the care workers, and the ideas of a welfare state responsible for those who cannot care for themselves...

  13. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  14. The elderly patients' dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C.; Wagner, L.


    This study shows how care providers in hospital practice perceive the elderly patient's dignity as a core value in health promoting care towards the elderly. Fifteen focus group interviews were conducted with care providers who told about their nursing practice experience. The interviews were...... analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. The results disclose that when caring for the elderly patient's health potential, care providers saw dignity as the core value of health. Dignity was found to capture three themes: autonomy, identity, and worthiness. These themes reflect...

  15. Antitussives and substance abuse


    Boyer, Edward; Burns,Jarrett


    Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly ...

  16. Effects of past abuse experiences on children's eyewitness memory. (United States)

    Goodman, G S; Bottoms, B L; Rudy, L; Davis, S L; Schwartz-Kenney, B M


    Relations between child maltreatment and children's eyewitness memory were examined. A matched sample of abused and nonabused 3- to 10-year-old children (n = 70) participated in a play session with an unfamiliar adult and were interviewed about the interaction 2 weeks later. Consistent with results from previous research, older compared to younger children's reports were more complete and accurate. Abused and nonabused children performed similarly with several exceptions: Nonabused children were more accurate in answering specific questions, made fewer errors in identifying the unfamiliar adult in a photo identification task, and (at least for younger boys) freely recalled more information. Most effects remained when group differences in IQ and behavioral symptomology were statistically controlled. Importantly, abused and nonabused children did not differ in their accuracy or suggestibility in response to questions that were relevant to abusive actions. Among abused children, however, those who suffered more severe sexual abuse made more omission errors to specific abuse-relevant questions. Contributions to psychological theory and legal implications for understanding children's eyewitness memory and testimony are discussed.

  17. Self-care as a health resource of elders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Wagner, Lis; Hall, Elisabeth O.C.


    into self-care as a significant health resource of elders with different health status. It suggests that an elder's self-care ability is determined by the interaction of various sub-resources and conditions and emphasizes the constantly evolving nature of self-care. The framework may be of use in clinical......AIM: To review the literature related to self-care and health promotion for elders and to develop an understanding of self-care as a health resource. BACKGROUND: Self-care may improve health and prevent illness and disabilities in elders. Although studies of self-care are numerous, the significance...... of the concept as a health resource for elders lacks clarity. Before 1989, research focused principally on medical self-care at the expense of health care, and self-care was seen more as supplementary to professional health care rather than as a health-promoting approach in health care. METHOD...

  18. Child abuse in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam


    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to unacceptable health, nutrition, education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are exposed to severe forms of sexual, physical and mental abuses at home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. These include physical torture, rape, homicide and sometimes heinous attacks with acid. Children are also victims of child labor and trafficking, both of which are treated as the most severe form of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of various forms of child abuses in our country. Data collection is based on secondary sources of information from Dhaka Medical College Hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC,UNICEF, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, several Dhaka based organizations and news paper clipping. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1: 18-21

  19. Arousal and drug abuse. (United States)

    Urbano, Francisco J; Bisagno, Verónica; Garcia-Rill, Edgar


    The reticular activating system (RAS) is not an amorphous region but distinct nuclei with specific membrane properties that dictate their firing during waking and sleep. The locus coeruleus and raphe nucleus fire during waking and slow wave sleep, with the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) firing during both waking and REM sleep, the states manifesting arousal-related EEG activity. Two important discoveries in the PPN in the last 10 years are, 1) that some PPN cells are electrically coupled, and 2) every PPN cell manifests high threshold calcium channels that allow them to oscillate at beta/gamma band frequencies. The role of arousal in drug abuse is considered here in terms of the effects of drugs of abuse on these two mechanisms. Drug abuse and the perception of withdrawal/relapse are mediated by neurobiological processes that occur only when we are awake, not when we are asleep. These relationships focus on the potential role of arousal, more specifically of RAS electrical coupling and gamma band activity, in the addictive process as well as the relapse to drug use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Abuse as a gendered risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a conceptual model. (United States)

    Scott-Storey, Kelly A


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most serious health challenges facing women today. Investigations into CVD risk factors specific to women have focused primarily on sex-based differences, with little attention paid to gender-based influences. Abuse, such as child abuse, intimate partner violence, and sexual assault, is a serious gendered issue affecting one quarter to one-half of all women within their lifetime. Despite beginning evidence that abuse may increase CVD risk in women, the biological, behavioral, and psychological pathways linking abuse to CVD have received little attention from researchers and clinicians. The aim of this study was to propose a conceptual model that delineates the pathways by which abuse may increase CVD risk among women. Within the model, lifetime abuse is positioned as a chronic stressor affecting CVD risk through direct and indirect pathways. Directly, abuse experiences can cause long-term biophysical changes within the body, which increase the risk of CVD. Indirectly, smoking and overeating, known CVD risk behaviors, are common coping strategies in response to abuse. In addition, women with abuse histories frequently report depressive symptoms, which can persist for years after the abusive experience. Depressive symptoms are a known predictor of CVD and can potentiate CVD risk behaviors. Therefore, depressive symptoms are proposed as a mediator between lifetime abuse and CVD as well as between lifetime abuse and CVD risk behaviors. To better promote cardiovascular health among women and direct appropriate interventions, nurses need to understand the complex web by which abuse may increase the risk for CVD. In addition, nurses need to not only pay attention to an abuse history and symptoms of depression for women presenting with CVD symptoms but also address CVD risk among women with abusive histories.

  1. Multicultural voices: Attitudes of older adults in the United States about elder mistreatment (United States)

    Enguidanos, Susan; DeLiema, Marguerite; Aguilar, Iris; Lambrinos, Jorge; Wilber, Kathleen


    Despite international growth in policies to increase the identification and response to elder abuse and neglect, there remain considerable barriers to treating the problem. Some of these barriers may be attributed to how older adults from different racial/ethnic backgrounds define, experience, and seek to remedy elder mistreatment. Using focus group discussions based on case vignettes, this paper examines how older adults from different racial and ethnic backgrounds in the United States perceive elder mistreatment. Five focus groups were conducted with African Americans, English-speaking Latinos, Spanish-speaking Latinos, non-Latino Whites and African American caregivers for older adults. While similar definitions and meanings of elder abuse were expressed across the different racial/ethnic groups, Latino participants introduced additional themes of machismo, respect, love, and early intervention to stop abuse, suggesting that perceptions/beliefs about elder mistreatment are determined by culture and degree of acculturation in addition to race/ethnicity. Most differences in attitudes occurred within groups, demonstrating that perceptions vary by individual as well as by culture. In identifying scenarios that constitute elder mistreatment, some participants felt that certain cases of abuse are actually the persistence of intimate partner violence into old age. Participants also indicated that victims may prefer to tolerate mistreatment in exchange for other perceived benefits (e.g., companionship, security); and out of fear that they could be placed in an institution if mistreatment is reported. Findings suggest the need for person–centred intervention and prevention models that integrate the cultural background, care needs, and individual preferences of older adults. PMID:25364064

  2. Multicultural voices: Attitudes of older adults in the United States about elder mistreatment. (United States)

    Enguidanos, Susan; DeLiema, Marguerite; Aguilar, Iris; Lambrinos, Jorge; Wilber, Kathleen


    Despite international growth in policies to increase the identification and response to elder abuse and neglect, there remain considerable barriers to treating the problem. Some of these barriers may be attributed to how older adults from different racial/ethnic backgrounds define, experience, and seek to remedy elder mistreatment. Using focus group discussions based on case vignettes, this paper examines how older adults from different racial and ethnic backgrounds in the United States perceive elder mistreatment. Five focus groups were conducted with African Americans, English-speaking Latinos, Spanish-speaking Latinos, non-Latino Whites and African American caregivers for older adults. While similar definitions and meanings of elder abuse were expressed across the different racial/ethnic groups, Latino participants introduced additional themes of machismo, respect, love , and e arly intervention to stop abuse, suggesting that perceptions/beliefs about elder mistreatment are determined by culture and degree of acculturation in addition to race/ethnicity. Most differences in attitudes occurred within groups, demonstrating that perceptions vary by individual as well as by culture. In identifying scenarios that constitute elder mistreatment, some participants felt that certain cases of abuse are actually the persistence of intimate partner violence into old age. Participants also indicated that victims may prefer to tolerate mistreatment in exchange for other perceived benefits (e.g., companionship, security); and out of fear that they could be placed in an institution if mistreatment is reported. Findings suggest the need for person-centred intervention and prevention models that integrate the cultural background, care needs, and individual preferences of older adults.

  3. Child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin


    Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Contacts were made with academics, government departments, NGOs, and UN agencies. This was followed by a field trip in the summer of 2001 where all available reports were examined and a wide range of interviews conducted. Little empirical data exist on child sexual abuse in Tanzania. It is widely perceived that it may be increasing as a result of AIDS sufferers' attempts to "cleanse" themselves. The breakdown of traditional childcare systems, foreign influences, poverty, and the lowly position of girls in society are also implicated. More research has been conducted in Kenya. It is clear that first coitus occurs at a young age for many Kenyan children and adolescents. Also, a degree of force, trickery, or material exchange is not uncommon in adolescent sexual relations. Child sexual abuse is under-researched in Tanzania and Kenya. Studies by UN agencies such as United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) have focused on the commercial sexual exploitation of children, to the neglect of more pervasive abuse in children's own communities by family, relatives, and neighbors. Nationwide surveys of the general population are required for an empirical understanding of this topic. Given the high incidence of AIDS/HIV in both countries, it is important to know if the epidemic is increasing the risk of rape or incest for children.

  4. Pattern of buprenorphine abuse among opioid abusers in Nepal


    Aich, Tapas Kumar; Dhungana, Manoj; Khanal, Roshija


    Background: Although buprenorphine abusers are a common clinical entity, literature on them is rare in Nepal. Aim: To assess whether injectable opioid abusers are any different a subgroup vis-a-vis brown sugar abusers in relation to their demographic and clinical profiles. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six opioid abusers, who were admitted over a period of one year, in our de-addiction center, were included in the present study. They were divided into two groups based on the history of the p...

  5. [Spondylodiscitis in the elderly]. (United States)

    Kerkenaar, Marlies E; van Marum, Rob J; Sprong, Tom; Bootsma, J E M Janet


    The incidence of spondylodiscitis is highest among the elderly. Because of the ageing population the incidence of spondylodiscitis is rising. In this article, we illustrate dilemmas which may occur when treating older patients with spondylodiscitis by presenting two cases. The first patient is a 74-year-old man in whom there was uncertainty about the diagnosis on the basis of imaging results. The second patient is an 82-year-old man with dementia in whom longstanding intravenous treatment was too burdensome and treatment with oral antibiotics was started. The diagnosis of spondylodiscitis in elderly can be challenging because of frequent atypical presentation and comorbidity. So far, there is not much known about the prognosis of spondylodiscitis in the elderly, which make decisions about treatment difficult. The prognosis seems worse in elderly with multimorbidity. A comprehensive geriatric assessment can help to guide treatment decisions by estimating the chance of good functional recovery.

  6. Elderly Labor and Unemployment


    Watanabe, Minoru; Yasuoka, Masaya


    Economically developed countries are confronting the aging of society. Especially, their respective shares of elderly people among the total population in Japan are highest in the world. Moreover, the labor participation rates of older people in Japan are higher than in other OECD countries. Several reasons underlie the increased labor participation of older people in Japan. One reason is the subsidy for the labor supply of elderly people. This paper presents an examination of how this subsid...

  7. [Solitude in the elderly]. (United States)

    Delisle, I


    Elderly people who are deprived of the warmth of human contact are at the risk of turning inward. For the very old, an atmosphere such as this can become psychologically catastrophic and lead to depressive syndromes such as extreme sadness, a desire to do nothing, sleep problems and even dementia. An in-depth analysis of the environment of the elderly inspires readers to address care objectives and interventions that will minimize and prevent these negative consequences.

  8. Vaccines for the elderly. (United States)

    Weinberger, B; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B


    Vaccination is the most efficient strategy to prevent infectious disease. The increased vulnerability to infection of the elderly makes them a particularly important target population for vaccination. However, most vaccines are less immunogenic and efficient in the elderly because of age-related changes in the immune system. Vaccination against influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae and varicella zoster virus is recommended for the elderly in many countries. Various strategies such as the use of adjuvants and novel administration routes are pursued to improve influenza vaccination for the elderly and recent developments in the field of pneumococcal vaccination led to the licensure of protein-conjugated polysaccharide vaccines containing up to 13 serotypes. As antibody titres are generally lower in the elderly and-particularly for inactivated vaccines-decline fast in the elderly, regular booster immunizations, for example against tetanus, diphtheria and, in endemic areas, tick-borne encephalitis, are essential during adulthood to ensure protection of the elderly. With increasing health and travel opportunities in old age the importance of travel vaccines for persons over the age of 60 is growing. However, little is known about immunogenicity and efficacy of travel vaccines in this age group. Despite major advances in the field of vaccinology over the last decades, there are still possibilities for improvement concerning vaccines for the elderly. Novel approaches, such as viral vectors for antigen delivery, DNA-based vaccines and innovative adjuvants, particularly toll-like receptor agonists, will help to achieve optimal protection against infectious diseases in old age. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  9. Sadistic ritual abuse. An overview in detection and management. (United States)

    Young, W C


    Sadistic ritual abuse, including satanic cult abuse, is emerging as a syndrome among people with severe dissociative disorders, including multiple personality disorder. This article discusses the essential features that compose the clinical picture of sadistic ritual abuse in adults, adolescents, and children. Particular attention is paid to the differences between adolescents who may have been victimized by adults in sadistic and ritualized ways and disenfranchised "teenage dabblers" who may temporarily adopt a ritualized lifestyle as a way of expressing or acting out. The article also covers guidelines for appropriate medical, pharmacologic, and referral interventions. The controversy surrounding sadistic ritual abuse is discussed thoroughly, and primary care physicians are advised of the current status of understanding and validation in this area.

  10. The Association Between Past Sexual Abuse and Depression in Older Adults From Colombia. (United States)

    Flores, Renee J; Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Stimpson, Jim P; Chalela, Claudia M; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A


    To explore the association between past sexual abuse and depression in elders living in Bogotá, Colombia, we used data from the SABE (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento [Health, Well-being, and Aging]) Bogotá Study. Participants were 2000 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older in 2012. Sexual abuse was assessed by self-report. Depression was measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale. The weighted prevalence estimate was 2.6% for past sexual abuse and 23.4% for depression. Multivariate data analyses showed significantly higher odds of depression for past sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] = 3.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.13-7.16). Other characteristics associated with depression were history of being displaced by violence (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.30-2.40), low socioeconomic status, low education, poor self-rated health status, and poor self-rated memory. Thus, past sexual abuse and history of being displaced by violence were strongly associated with depression among Colombian elderly individuals.

  11. Over-the-counter medicine abuse ? a review of the literature


    Cooper, Richard J.


    Background: The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from pharmacies can help individuals self-manage symptoms. However, some OTC medicines may be abused, with addiction and harms being increasingly recognised. This review describes the current knowledge and understanding of OTC medicine abuse. Approach: Comprehensive search of international empirical and review literature between 1990 and 2011. Findings: OTC medicine abuse was identified in many countries and although implicated products...

  12. Over-the-counter medicine abuse: a review of the\\ud literature


    Cooper, R. J.


    Background: The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from pharmacies can help individuals self-manage symptoms. However, some OTC medicines may be abused, with addiction and harms being increasingly recognised. This review describes the current knowledge and understanding of\\ud OTC medicine abuse.\\ud \\ud Approach: Comprehensive search of international empirical and review literature between 1990 and 2011.\\ud \\ud Findings: OTC medicine abuse was identified in many countries and although im...

  13. Sagittal plane momentum control during walking in elderly fallers. (United States)

    Fujimoto, Masahiro; Chou, Li-Shan


    The purpose of this study was to examine sagittal plane momentum control during walking with the use of center of mass (COM) velocity and acceleration. COM control in the antero-posterior direction during walking of healthy young and elderly adults, and elderly fallers (n=15/group) was examined. Using a single-link-plus-foot inverted pendulum model, boundaries for the region of stability were determined based on the COM position at toe-off and its instantaneous velocity or the peak acceleration prior to toe-off (ROSv or ROSa, respectively). Although no significant difference in forward COM velocity was detected between healthy young and elderly subjects, the peak forward COM acceleration differed significantly, suggesting age-related differences in momentum control during walking. Elderly fallers demonstrated significantly slower forward COM velocities and accelerations and placed their COM significantly more anterior than healthy young and elderly subjects at toe-off, which resulted in their COM position-velocity combination located within the ROSv. Similar results were obtained in the ROSa, where elderly fallers demonstrated a larger stability margin than healthy young and elderly subjects. Significantly slower peak COM accelerations could be indicative of a poor momentum control ability, which was more pronounced in elderly fallers. Examining COM acceleration, in addition to its velocity, would provide a greater understanding of person's momentum control, which would allow us to better reveal underlying mechanisms of gait imbalance or falls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological Consequences of Wife Abuse | Chovwen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results also showed that old abused women scored significantly lower on depression than young abused women, F(1,337)=P<.01. Likewise, high education abused women self-reported significantly higher on depression than low education abused women, t(2,337)= 5.44. On self-esteem, old abused women were ...

  15. Neurobiology of Elderly Suicide. (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, S; Turecki, G; Jollant, F


    Suicide in the elderly is an underestimated and complex issue that has mainly been explored in sociological, clinical and psychological perspectives. Suicide in non-elderly adults has been associated with diverse neurobiological alterations that may shed light on future predictive markers and more efficient preventative interventions. The aim of this paper was to review studies specifically investigating the neurobiology of elderly suicidal behaviour. We performed a systematic English and French Medline and EMBASE search until 2013. Contrary to literature about the non-elderly, we found a paucity of studies investigating the biomarkers of suicidal risk in elderly adults. Main findings were found in the neurocognitive domain. Studies generally supported the existence of cognitive deficits, notably decision-making impairment and reduced cognitive inhibition, in patients with a history of suicidal act compared to patients without such history. However, replications are needed to confirm findings. Due to several limitations including the small number of available studies, frequent lack of replication and small sample size, no firm conclusions can be drawn. The authors encourage further investigations in this field as insight in the neurobiology of these complex behaviors may limit clichés about end of life and aging, as well as improve future prevention of suicide in the elderly.

  16. Suicidal Behavior in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Aslan


    Full Text Available The size of the elderly population is expected to increase dramatically in the next decades worldwide, also in Turkey. In accordance with these demographic changes, psychiatric disorders in late life, including suicide becomes much important. Elderly suicide is a very serious public health problem. Suicide rates in both males and females generally increase with age. However, the pattern is different in every nation. Suicidal behaviour in old age exists as a spectrum ranging from death wishes to completed suicide. Risk factors for suicide in old age are male sex, lower socioeconomic status, social isolation, having personality traits like hopelessness and dependency on others etc., the presence of psychiatric and physical disorders and previous suicidal behaviour. The most common cause for elderly suicide, as for all suicides, is untreated depression. Thus, elderly depression needs to be recognized and treated. The treatment of depressive disorder and other psychiatric diorders in late life, counselling in crisis situations and prevention of social isolation in elderly people are the major points for the prevention of suicide in old age. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between elderly and suicidal behavior. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 294-309

  17. Epilepsy in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-An Chen


    Full Text Available Elderly people are the largest and continuously fastest growing population among patients with epilepsy. Elderly patients with epilepsy are very different from other age groups in many respects and clinicians shouldn’t treat them in the same way as younger adults. Accurate diagnosis of epilepsy in the elderly is much more difficult and atypical manifestations and misdiagnoses are certainly not the exception. Syncope is probably the most important differential diagnosis. High clinical suspicion and proper investigation are the best tools for prompt diagnosis. Etiologies of late-onset epilepsy are mainly symptomatic and cerebrovascular diseases are the most common causes in this age group, followed by degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. It is appropriate to consider starting antiepileptic drug (AED treatment at the first-ever seizure in elderly patients who have remote symptomatic causes such as stroke and dementia. According to the high recurrence rate of seizure and the good response to AEDs in elderly patients, the proper choice from various AEDs for seizure control is very important. Decision-making for AED choice depends on many different factors, including pharmacological properties, efficacy, tolerability from side effects, drug interactions, and medical comorbidities. The newer AEDs with lesser adverse effects and fewer drug interactions appear to be reasonable treatment options for elderly patients. However, more evidence from clinical trials in this specific age group is warranted.

  18. Transcriptional changes common to human cocaine, cannabis and phencyclidine abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Lehrmann


    Full Text Available A major goal of drug abuse research is to identify and understand drug-induced changes in brain function that are common to many or all drugs of abuse. As these may underlie drug dependence and addiction, the purpose of the present study was to examine if different drugs of abuse effect changes in gene expression that converge in common molecular pathways. Microarray analysis was employed to assay brain gene expression in postmortem anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC from 42 human cocaine, cannabis and/or phencyclidine abuse cases and 30 control cases, which were characterized by toxicology and drug abuse history. Common transcriptional changes were demonstrated for a majority of drug abuse cases (N = 34, representing a number of consistently changed functional classes: Calmodulin-related transcripts (CALM1, CALM2, CAMK2B were decreased, while transcripts related to cholesterol biosynthesis and trafficking (FDFT1, APOL2, SCARB1, and Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum (ER functions (SEMA3B, GCC1 were all increased. Quantitative PCR validated decreases in calmodulin 2 (CALM2 mRNA and increases in apolipoprotein L, 2 (APOL2 and semaphorin 3B (SEMA3B mRNA for individual cases. A comparison between control cases with and without cardiovascular disease and elevated body mass index indicated that these changes were not due to general cellular and metabolic stress, but appeared specific to the use of drugs. Therefore, humans who abused cocaine, cannabis and/or phencyclidine share a decrease in transcription of calmodulin-related genes and increased transcription related to lipid/cholesterol and Golgi/ER function. These changes represent common molecular features of drug abuse, which may underlie changes in synaptic function and plasticity that could have important ramifications for decision-making capabilities in drug abusers.

  19. Nurses' perceptions about child abuse


    Ahmad Saifan; Intima A Alrimawi; Ibrahim Bashaireh


    Background: Despite the efforts to protect children around the world, child abuse and neglect remain serious and global problems. In Palestine, child abuse is hidden under the community culture, does not appear in the Ministry of Health official reports, and little is known about nurses’ perceptions towards this phenomenon. Objectives: To identify nurses’ perceptions about child abuse definition, whether they faced such cases during their work, and how they managed them. Methods: Data...

  20. Forensic aspects of animal abusing


    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub


    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  1. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)


    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  2. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, P.K.


    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

  3. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe


    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  4. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori


    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  5. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, P.K.


    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  6. Spouse Abuse, Child Abuse, and Substance Abuse Among Army Facilities: Co-Occurrence, Correlations and Service Delivery Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibbs, Deborah A


    ...: spouse abuse child abuse and substance abuse. By supporting the development of improved responses to troubled families findings from this study can potentially reduce mortality and morbidity among military personal and their family members...

  7. Technical Manuals for the Elderly - Can Controlled Language Principles Help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe H.

    manuals specifi cally aimed at the elderly. The purpose of the present contribution is to discuss, on the basis of general recommendations in the literature on user manuals for the elderly, to what extent controlled language rules can improve such manuals. The general purpose of a controlled language...... is to make technical texts, including user manuals, easier to understand by reducing ambiguity and complexity through restrictions on lexicon, grammar and style. This investigation is part of a research project titled: Development of methods for the design of technical manuals for elderly people. In a later...

  8. Being next of kin to an elderly person with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel


    the experience of life as next of kin to an elderly person with cancer. Method: A qualitative study was used to illuminate the experience of next of kin of elderly people with cancer. In total, 16 (mean age 61, range 42-80) persons were interviewed. Open-ended interviews were used to get closer......Background: Being next of kin to an elderly person with cancer and its impact on everyday life has been sparsely researched. Such understanding is needed to support both the sufferers and their relatives in dealing with issues arising after a cancer diagnosis in old age. Aim: To illuminate...

  9. Sobriety and alcohol use among rural Alaska Native elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes


    Full Text Available Background: Although notable health disparities related to alcohol use persist among Alaska Native people living in rural communities, there is a paucity of research examining drinking behaviour in particular segments of this population, including elders. One explanation for this is the distrust of behavioural health research in general and alcohol research in particular following the legacy of the Barrow Alcohol Study, still regarded as a notable example of ethics violations in cross-cultural research. Objective: The present study reports findings from one of the first research studies asking directly about alcohol abuse among rural Alaska Natives (AN since the study in Barrow took place in 1979. Design: We report findings regarding self-reported alcohol use included in an elder needs assessment conducted with 134 Alaska Native elders from 5 rural villages off the road system in Alaska. Data were collected in partnership between academic researchers and community members in accordance with the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research. Results: Findings showed very high rates of sobriety and low rates of alcohol use, contradicting stereotypes of widespread alcohol abuse among AN. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed. Conclusions: This research represents one step forward in mending academic–community relationships in rural Alaska to further research on alcohol use and related health disparities.

  10. Sibling sexual abuse: why don't we talk about it? (United States)

    Yates, Peter


    To explore two hypotheses for explaining why there is little written about sibling sexual abuse and to raise awareness of the subject in order better to protect children and to facilitate sensitive patient care. While there is no universal agreement over its definition, sibling sexual abuse is acknowledged internationally as a prevalent form of child sexual abuse but tends not to be recognised by health professionals. It is also under-represented within the literature in comparison with other forms of intrafamilial sexual abuse. Understanding why this is may help to illuminate the potential barriers to effective professional responses. Two explanations which emerge strongly are the existence of a sibling incest taboo and a prevailing belief that sibling sexual behaviour is largely harmless. Discursive position paper. The paper examines the two hypotheses through exploration of the extant literature on sibling incest and sibling sexual abuse. Sibling sexual abuse accounts for a significant minority of child sexual abuse and has the potential to be as harmful as sexual abuse by a parent. An abhorrence at the thought of sibling sexual activity and a prevailing view of its harmlessness may hinder nurses' detection of and appropriate responses to sibling sexual abuse, but do not provide convincing explanations for the dearth of literature. Instead, a deeply held perspective of sibling relationships as non-abusive offers a more profound explanation. A knowledge of sibling sexual abuse and its consequences are important both for the effective protection of children and the sensitive and appropriate treatment of patients who present with a variety of physical and mental health concerns. A perspective that sibling relationships are non-abusive provides a deeper level of understanding of the powerful obstacles to raising awareness of and responding appropriately to this form of abuse. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Accumulating experience in a child abuse clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    type uncertain' and no abuse. Training of other health personnel in child abuse ... abused children, registered nurses, social workers and psychologists. The patients and accompanying adults, usually parents, are interviewed by the sQQial ...

  12. Social representation of healthy aging for elder men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludgleydson Fernandes de Araújo


    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the social representations of aging in healthy older men Parnaíba (PI. The sample was random, accidental and intentional, consisting of 50 elderly (M=72 years. Was used as an instrument of data collection structured interview. Data analysis was performed by a software Alceste. The representations of elderly extended beyond making an organismic conception affective aspects, interactional and politicians.

  13. Legal Understanding of Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu


    Full Text Available Paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of victimisation and abuse. However, there seems to be an abuse of power by all those who are supposedly to protect learners in schools. Paper used an abuse of organisational power theory and conceptualisation framework as a lens used in analysing various forms of victimisation and abuse with an effort to provide a better understanding of behaviour that amounts to abuse. Paper concludes with guidelines for handling harassment and bullying in the school contexts.

  14. Diagnosis and Treatment of Epilepsy in Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Azimian


    Full Text Available Objectives: Diagnosis & treatment of diseases in elderly people needs especial capabilities. There is no exception for epilepsy in this regard. According to different researches, high incidence of convulsion in elderly people is growing. On the other hand, growing of age in (human societies results in increasing the number of elderly persons. Methods & Materials: In recent years, our country have encountered with this problem, that is , growing of old age population. Overlooking of this problem makes many difficulties in the future. Incidence of epilepsy in elderly (>80 years old is 140/100000. Diagnosis of this disease is so important in elderly people because different problems like Transient Ischemic Attack (T.I.A, cardiovascular problem, transient confusion in patients with dementia, neurogenic syncope, Transient Global Amnesia (TGA can be mimic or feign by it. Sometimes the picture of symptoms is different between young and old persons, even may be appeared as Non-Convulsive Status Epileptics (NCSE. On the other hand, senile changes that cause epilepsy in the elderly must be further studied. Results: Treatment and selection of drug in the elderly need special considerations. Different changes such as metabolic one, change in brain tolerance to drugs and side effects, change in function of organs of body associated diseases and consumption of various drugs at the same time, make many challenges during the treatment process. Conclusion: Fortunately, knowledge about the importance of epilepsy in the elderly recently has increased. Nowadays, senile affairs and the problem of elderly people is looked as an important event and consequently there is hope that in near future the knowledge and understanding about effective factors regarding epilepsy in elderly persons; such as senile changes of brain and its effect on epilepsy will expand and increase.

  15. Working on Memories of Abuse.... (United States)

    Horsman, Jenny


    Through working with a woman abused as a child, a teacher concluded that the violence of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse is common among many adults who read and write poorly. Their experiences should be acknowledged in literacy programs that encourage people to develop skills with which to tell their stories. (SK)

  16. Signs of Childhood Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... with a child (by an adult or another child) is sexual abuse. It causes physical and emotional pain. It has long-term effects ... a watchful eye on any form of childhood abuse. These physical and behavioral signs should raise concern: When your child tells you he or she has been touched ...

  17. Observations on Substance Abuse Theory. (United States)

    Shaffer, Howard J.


    Applies a philosophy of science perspective to substance abuse theory to clarify these theories in general and peer cluster theory in particular. Examines the natural history of an illicit drug from a macroscopic level of analysis to illuminate some of the social-psychological factors that influence drug use and abuse patterns. (Author/KS)

  18. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect (United States)

    ... Federal and national organizations and State contacts that work to prevent child abuse. Promoting child & family well-being Information on ... awareness & creating supportive communities Tools for sharing a child abuse ... research on what works, information on the role of related professionals, and ...

  19. Drug Abuse in the Army. (United States)

    The essay discusses the growth of drug abuse in the Army, actions that have been taken to control the problem, and planned or proposed actions to...and supervisory personnel of the Drug Abuse Control Division in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, Headquarters, Department of

  20. Australian Undergraduate Primary School Student-Teachers' Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.


    This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…

  1. Narratives of resilience after a period of substance abuse and crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse and criminality are critical problems in South Africa, yet little is understood about youth resilience. Through narrative analysis, this study sought to gain an understanding of resilience in eight men who have disengaged from criminality and substance abuse. Childhood difficulties, ineffective parenting, ...

  2. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions about and Experience with Child Abuse and Neglect (United States)

    Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine


    This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…

  3. The Social Ecology of Adolescent-Initiated Parent Abuse: A Review of the Literature (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Allen-Meares, Paula


    This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's [1] ecological systems theory is…

  4. Attributions and Discipline History as Predictors of Child Abuse Potential and Future Discipline Practices (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina, M.; Price, Brittany, L.


    Objectives: We attempted to identify factors that can be applied in primary and secondary prevention programs and expand the understanding of why those who were not abused may engage in abusive behavior. The purpose of this research was to explore how young adults' attributions of whether they deserved their childhood discipline, as well as their…

  5. Anemia in the elderly. (United States)

    Pang, Wendy W; Schrier, Stanley L


    There have been several large-scale epidemiologic studies, including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III), which have described the prevalence and impact of anemia in the elderly. The information derived has been critically important. However, given the large number of patients surveyed, these reports necessarily relied substantially on the laboratory-based screening evaluations. There are now two recent reports describing the cause of anemia in elderly outpatients, and although the numbers are smaller than the large scale surveys, they constitute comprehensive hematologic evaluations with therapeutic interventions and clinical follow-up. The purpose of this review is to compare these different analyses. There are distinct differences and similarities in the two types of studies, which are derived from patients seen in hematology clinics. Despite comprehensive hematologic evaluation, the puzzling entity of unexplained anemia of the elderly is confirmed and found to account for 30-46% of patients. NHANES III classified iron-deficiency anemia with other nutritional anemias, a classification that might be correct in the developing third world, but in North America and Western Europe, iron deficiency is more often caused by blood loss and the cause must be sought and dealt with. The myelodysplastic syndromes are an important cause of anemia in the elderly, with a prevalence of at least 4%. Large-scale screening studies of anemia in the elderly are of great importance, and when complemented by comprehensive hematologic evaluations, provide a more accurate picture of the clinical situation.

  6. Elder homelessness. A community perspective. (United States)

    Bissonnette, A; Hijjazi, K H


    Elder homelessness is an increasing problem in our society. After presenting demographics of elder homelessness, this article discusses successful Boston-based program models. Nurse-directed community solutions are emphasized.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari


    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  8. The elderly and general anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S


    Due to the aging population, the number of elderly patients taking advantage of healthcare services is increasing. A general physical decline of all organ systems and a high frequency of chronic disease accompanying aging.Comorbidity and polypharmacy are therefore common in the elderly. Hence, th......, the administration of general anesthesia to the elderly can be a very challenging task. This paper aims to highlight some of the important issues presented to the elderly undergoing surgery and to suggest some strategies for management....

  9. Psychosocial characteristics of nonoffending mothers of sexually abused girls: findings from a prospective, multigenerational study. (United States)

    Kim, Kihyun; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K


    This study examined psychosocial characteristics of nonoffending mothers of sexually abused girls. The sample consisted of 72 ethnically diverse mothers of sexually abused girls aged 6 to 16 years, and 55 mothers of girls who were demographically similar with the abused girls on age, socioeconomic status, and family constellation. The variables examined included measures of the mothers' childhood developmental histories and current functioning (e.g., depression, parenting), as well as their current family environment. The specific questions addressed were (a) whether mothers of sexually abused girls could be distinguished from mothers of comparison girls on various psychosocial characteristics and (b) whether three subgroups of mothers (i.e., mother and daughter sexually abused, daughter-only abused, neither mother nor daughter abused) would exhibit different patterns of psychosocial characteristics. Results show that nonoffending mothers of sexually abused girls may confront considerable psychosocial challenges following the disclosure of their daughters' sexual abuse and that mother's own childhood abuse experiences may be an important factor to understand these challenges.

  10. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  11. [Vaccination in the elderly]. (United States)

    Kwetkat, A; Pletz, M W


    The aging immune system, so-called immunosenescence, is well documented as the cause of increased infection rates and severe, often complicated course of infections in the elderly with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Furthermore, it can lead to decreased efficacy of vaccination. The administration of more immunogenic vaccines can be beneficial in the elderly. Implementing vaccination recommendations for the elderly by STIKO can reduce burden of infectious diseases by prevention of infection or reduction of severity of infection. The following vaccinations are recommended by STIKO for all persons aged 60 and above: annual influenza vaccination (additionally all nursing home residents independently of age), once only pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination, completion of tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccination as well as regular revaccination. All adults should be vaccinated against pertussis with Tdap vaccine once. Meanwhile, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is allowed for administration in adults but is not recommended by STIKO yet. A lifelong course of vaccination may help to attenuate the effect of immunosenescence.

  12. Physiologic changes associated with violence and abuse exposure: an examination of related medical conditions. (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R; Cronholm, Peter F; Strawn, Jeffrey R


    Although the extant evidence is replete with data supporting linkages between exposure to violence or abuse and the subsequent development of medical illnesses, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are poorly defined and understood. Physiologic changes occurring in violence- or abuse-exposed individuals point to potentially common biological pathways connecting traumatic exposures with medical outcomes. Herein, the evidence describing the long-term physiologic changes in abuse- and violence-exposed populations and associated medical illnesses are reviewed. Current data support that (a) specific neurobiochemical changes are associated with exposure to violence and abuse; (b) several biological pathways have the potential to lead to the development of future illness; and (c) common physiologic mechanisms may moderate the severity, phenomenology, or clinical course of medical illnesses in individuals with histories of exposure to violence or abuse. Importantly, additional work is needed to advance our emerging understanding of the biological mechanisms connecting exposure to violence and abuse and negative health outcomes.

  13. Poverty among Elderly in India (United States)

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.


    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  14. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  15. Uses and abuses of macropinocytosis. (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gareth; Kay, Robert R


    Macropinocytosis is a means by which eukaryotic cells ingest extracellular liquid and dissolved molecules. It is widely conserved amongst cells that can take on amoeboid form and, therefore, appears to be an ancient feature that can be traced back to an early stage of evolution. Recent advances have highlighted how this endocytic process can be subverted during pathology - certain cancer cells use macropinocytosis to feed on extracellular protein, and many viruses and bacteria use it to enter host cells. Prion and prion-like proteins can also spread and propagate from cell to cell through macropinocytosis. Progress is being made towards using macropinocytosis therapeutically, either to deliver drugs to or cause cell death by inducing catastrophically rapid fluid uptake. Mechanistically, the Ras signalling pathway plays a prominent and conserved activating role in amoebae and in mammals; mutant amoebae with abnormally high Ras activity resemble tumour cells in their increased capacity for growth using nutrients ingested through macropinocytosis. This Commentary takes a functional and evolutionary perspective to highlight progress in understanding and use of macropinocytosis, which is an ancient feeding process used by single-celled phagotrophs that has now been put to varied uses by metazoan cells and is abused in disease states, including infection and cancer. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Abuse notation of improper integrals (United States)

    Arfi, E.; Wiryanto, L. H.


    In the definition of \\int_ab {f(x)dx} , it was assumed that the interval [a, b] was finite. However, in many application in physics, engineering, economics, and probability we wish to allow a or b (or both) to be infinite or for the other case when f has an infinite discontinuity in [a, b]. In either case the integral is called improper integral. Definition of improper integral is the limit of a definite integral as an endpoint of the interval of integration approaches either a specified real number or ∞ or -∞ or, in some cases, as both endpoints approach limits. Many of the first-year students in ITERA learning about improper integrals make an abuse notation like written improper integral just like standard definite integral. Based on this situation, we tried to change the habits of the students in the writing of improper integrals by providing sufficient understanding and considerable exercises. It turns out this way gives good result, based on the percentage of the value of the midterms to the problem of improper integrals give a fairly good percentage value.

  17. Cholecystectomy for the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liv Bjerre Juul; Harboe, Kirstine Moll; Bardram, Linda


    The number of Danish inhabitants older than 65 years is increasing, and cholecystectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed for this age group. This study aimed to analyze the role of age as an independent predictor of outcome for elderly cholecystectomy patients.......The number of Danish inhabitants older than 65 years is increasing, and cholecystectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed for this age group. This study aimed to analyze the role of age as an independent predictor of outcome for elderly cholecystectomy patients....

  18. Physical activity in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cvecka


    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  19. Obesity in the elderly


    Penny Montenegro, Eduardo


    Older people are not exempt of being overweight or obese; in Peru this occurs respectively in 21.4% and 11.9% of the elderly, less than in people of younger age. Overweight and obesity are associated to noncommunicable chronic diseases, and to increase in morbidity and mortality. There is no trustworthy data on the optimum body-mass index in the elderly, but we use both the body-mass index and measurement of the abdominal circumference. Best efforts should be done to prevent this problem befo...

  20. Tremor in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deuschl, Günther; Petersen, Inge; Lorenz, Delia


    Isolated tremor in the elderly is commonly diagnosed as essential tremor (ET). The prevalence of tremor increases steeply with increasing age, whereas hereditary tremor is becoming less common. Moreover, late-manifesting tremor seems to be associated with dementia and earlier mortality. We...... hypothesize that different entities underlie tremor in the elderly. Two thousand four hundred forty-eight subjects from the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins older than 70 y answered screening questions for ET in 2001. Two thousan fifty-six (84%) participants drew Archimedes spirals to measure...... and Movement Disorder Society....

  1. Mucocutaneous manifestations of cocaine abuse: a review. (United States)

    Moreno-Artero, Ester; Querol-Cisneros, Elena; Rodríguez-Garijo, Nuria; Tomás-Velázquez, Alejandra; Antoñanzas, Javier; Fernández, Secundino; Gil-Sánchez, María Pilar; España, Agustín


    Cocaine is an alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the Erythroxylum coca plant that emerged in the 1970s as a fashionable drug among members of certain social backgrounds. Cocaine abuse is a problem of current interest, which is mostly hidden and under-diagnosed, but dramatically widespread among all socioeconomic strata, and with an incidence which is increasing at an alarming rate. There are 1.5 million cocaine consumers in the USA. In Spain, the prevalence of consumption among the population between 15 and 65 years-old is higher, reaching 3.1%. Because of this, it seems important to understand and recognize all the mucocutaneous manifestations of cocaine abuse which have been reported in the literature in order to clarify and help dermatologists in their daily practice. In this article, we describe the principal mucocutaneous manifestations of cocaine abuse and we review isolated case reports which have been published in the literature. Because the dermatologist may deal with an unknown problem as well as with an already well-known history of cocaine abuse, it seems logical to separate the mucocutaneous manifestations into those which are frequent and highly suggestive, such as those caused by vascular injury, damage to mucosal membranes, infectious diseases or neutrophilic dermatosis, especially when suffered by young people and in consonance with other systemic manifestations and, those which have been reported in the literature as isolated case reports. We also summarize the main aspects of its pathogeny, principal pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics, and diagnostic tools. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving the Clinical Pharmacologic Assessment of Abuse Potential: Part 2: Optimizing the Design of Human Abuse Potential Studies. (United States)

    Sellers, Edward M


    This article discusses the conduct of a human abuse potential study as outlined in the Food and Drug Administration Final Guidance to Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential. In addition, areas where alternative approaches should be considered are proposed. The design, end points, conduct, and interpretation of the human abuse potential study were reviewed, analyzed, and placed in the context of current scientific knowledge and best practices to mitigate regulatory risk and expedite drug development. The guidance is based on regulatory needs and current scientific practices. However, the reliability and utility of such studies can be improved with better subject selection, data collection, standardization of data collection and staff training, and a better understanding of the measurement properties of the dependent measures. The guidance provides a useful framework for conduct of human abuse potential studies. However, design assumptions, poor choice of end points, failure to consider alternate approaches, and limited experience with interpretation can result in an inadequate study or one that does not fairly represent the abuse potential of a new chemical entity. Methodologic development is needed to strengthen the regulatory framework. The Food and Drug Administration or the National Institutes on Drug Abuse could take a targeted initiative to encourage this work.

  3. Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Melchiorre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. METHODS: The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  4. Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries. (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F J


    Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  5. Associative study between anthropometrics, physical activity, daily life activities independency and malnutrition risk in institutionalized elderly


    Forte, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Bartolomeu, Raúl Filipe; Morais, J.E.; Reis, A.; Barbosa, Tiago M.; Monteiro, A.M.


    Apart of physiologic aging, other alterations occur in the human body over time. Sometimes elderly people live alone, but with a meaningful dependency level which may lead to frequent falls and other incidents. The risk of falls is one of the factors that influence elderly's institutionalization. To better understand the elderly institutionalized profile and how risk of falls might be predicted, a set of anthropometric, physical activity, daily life activities independency, malnutrit...

  6. Kinesiophobia and associated factors in elderly females with chronic musculoskeletal pain: pilot study


    Silva, Natalia Santos da; Abreu, Sandra Souza Ehms de; Suassuna, Patricia Diógenes


    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fear of movement and re/injury (kinesiophobia) is factor associated to chronic pain and incapacity. Since elderly population is highly affected by chronic health problems followed by pain, especially musculoskeletal problems, it is important to understand the impact of pain-related fear on elderly females' health. This study aimed at determining the incidence of kinesiophobia in elderly females assisted in a geriatrics and gerontology ambulatory, as well a...

  7. Prevalence of childhood physical and sexual abuse in veterans with psychiatric diagnoses. (United States)

    Koola, Maju Mathew; Qualls, Clifford; Kelly, Deanna L; Skelton, Kelly; Bradley, Bekh; Amar, Richard; Duncan, Erica J


    We examined the prevalence of childhood (≤ 18 years) physical and sexual abuse reported among patients admitted to the psychiatric inpatient service and the differential rates of this abuse associated with psychiatric diagnoses. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 603 patients admitted to a psychiatric ward during a period of 1 year at Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center who had data on childhood physical and sexual abuse. The prevalence of reported childhood physical or sexual abuse in this inpatient clinical population was 19.4% (117/603). The prevalence of reported physical abuse was 22.6% (19/84) in the women and 12.0% (62/519) in the men (p = 0.008); the prevalence of sexual abuse was 33.3% (28/84) in the women and 7.7% (40/519) in the men (p abuse than did those without these disorders. More patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported physical and sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. Stratifying by race, sex, and diagnoses, multivariate analyses showed that the women with PTSD had a greater likelihood to report physical abuse (p = 0.03) and sexual abuse histories (p = 0.008) than did the women without PTSD. The men with substance-induced mood disorder (p = 0.01) were more likely to report physical abuse compared with the men without substance-induced mood disorder. Screening for abuse in patients with depressive disorders and PTSD is warranted to tailor individualized treatments for these patients. More research is needed to better understand the potential implications of childhood abuse on psychiatric diagnoses.

  8. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chitsaz


    Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can

  9. Management practices in substance abuse treatment programs. (United States)

    McConnell, K John; Hoffman, Kim A; Quanbeck, Andrew; McCarty, Dennis


    Efforts to understand how to improve the delivery of substance abuse treatment have led to a recent call for studies on the "business of addiction treatment." This study adapts an innovative survey tool to collect baseline management practice data from 147 addiction treatment programs enrolled in the Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment 200 project. Measures of "good" management practice were strongly associated with days to treatment admission. Management practice scores were weakly associated with revenues per employee but were not correlated with operating margins. Better management practices were more prevalent among programs with a higher number of competitors in their catchment area.

  10. Abused women's vulnerability in daily life and in contact with psychiatric care: In the light of a caring science perspective. (United States)

    Örmon, Karin; Hörberg, Ulrica


    The aim of the study is to deepen the understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with health care professionals affect life. A further aim is to highlight abused women's vulnerability with a caring science perspective. Experience of abuse has consequences for the mental health of women and girls. Abused women may experience health care as unsupportive, and as a result, often chose not to disclose their experiences of abuse. The results of two qualitative empirical studies were analysed along with a phenomenological meaning analysis in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. Living one's life with experiences of abuse implies vulnerability, which can prevent abused women from achieving good health. This vulnerability results from insecurity regarding identity, along with the sense that one could have been a different individual if it were not for the abuse and thereby have a more fair chance in life. Being cared for within general psychiatric care could further increase this vulnerability. The healthcare professional's ability to care for the women who have experienced abuse leads to either an encounter of trust or else further suffering for the women. A lifeworld-oriented caring science perspective as a foundation for care can contribute to care for abused women which reaches the existential dimensions of their vulnerability and vulnerable life situation. It is evident that healthcare professionals should deepen their understanding of how abused women live, within a general psychiatric context. This study enables a deeper understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with healthcare professionals affect life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis


    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  12. Abuse-deterrent Opioid Formulations. (United States)

    Litman, Ronald S; Pagán, Olivia H; Cicero, Theodore J


    Abuse-deterrent opioid formulations have been suggested as one way to decrease the abuse, addiction, and overdose of orally prescribed opioids. Ten oral opioid formulations have received abuse-deterrent labeling by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Their properties consist of physical and/or chemical means by which the pills resist manipulation and create a barrier to unintended administration, such as chewing, nasal snorting, smoking, and intravenous injection. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of abuse-deterrent technology, the types of premarketing studies required for FDA approval, the pharmacology of the currently approved abuse-deterrent opioid formulations, and the evidence for and against their influence on opioid abuse. We conclude that there is currently insufficient evidence to indicate that the availability of abuse-deterrent opioid formulations has altered the trajectory of opioid overdose and addiction; however, postmarketing studies are in their infancy, and novel deterrent formulations are continually being developed and submitted for marketing approval.

  13. A Study of Families’ Experiences of Putting Their Elders in Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Chireh Hafshjani


    Full Text Available One of the major challenges facing society today is increasing proportion of its elderly population. Nowadays, elderliness along with its all psychological, socio-cultural, ideological and economic aspects have become a serious and challenging issue affecting families in developing and developed countries. Thus, the current study aimed to examine families’ experiences of putting their elders in nursing homes. A phenomenological research method was employed to pursue this qualitative study. The samples of the study were selected through purposive sampling method; and data collection proceeded until it reached to the data saturation within 10 participants. The instruments adopted by the researcher include note-taking and in-depth and unstructured interviews with the families of the elderly who put their elders in nursing homes. The obtained data were analyzed using Colaizzi’s seven-step process of analysis. The four general themes derived include isolation, peace, abusiveness, children’s inability to look after their elders and guilty conscience; each of which contained some sub-themes. According to the results, it is essential to take the social, economic and health support of the elderly into consideration and to provide the necessary context for improving the life quality of the elderly residing in nursing homes through formulating, planning and making appropriate policies.

  14. [Dignified social support for elderly institutionalised adults in Medellín, 2008]. (United States)

    Cardona-Arango, Doris; Estrada-Restrepo, Alejandro; Chavarriaga-Maya, Lina M; Segura-Cardona, Angela M; Ordoñez-Molina, Jaime; Osorio-Gómez, Jorge J


    Analysing the social support provided for elderly institutionalised adults being cared for in Elderly Welfare Centres (Centros de Bienestar del Anciano de Medellín) in Medellin during 2008. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study (primary information source) which addressed some characteristics related to the social support being received by 273 elderly people institutionalised in 37 social welfare centres. Univariate and bivariate analysis was applied to the data. The institutionalised people were mostly single or widowed women aged between 65 and 84 who had received primary and secondary education; most were affiliated to the contributory health regimen. Loneliness, health problems and family decision were the main causes for them having become institutionalised. They were visited by their children and other relatives and such support was rated as being satisfactory; however, more than half of them had feelings of loneliness and one sixth claimed to be humiliated and insulted by their loved ones. It should be noted that a few of them reported being mistreated by their caregivers. Institutionalised elderly adults performed recreational activities, were satisfied with the support received from friends, with cohabitation and the pertinent institution. Social support networks were strong within the institution (i.e. Elderly Welfare Centres); the elderly seemed to receive greater abuse from family members and cohabitants than institutional caregivers. Loneliness generally leads elderly adults to become institutionalised; however, once having entered an institution (being partly motivated by little family contact and average satisfaction with friends and the institution itself) their neglect and social vulnerability becomes evident.

  15. Trauma complexity and child abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin


    a “Trauma Coding Manual” developed for this study, trauma types were identified in interview transcripts. In both men and women with Iraqi and Palestinian-Lebanese backgrounds, high levels of trauma complexity and high rates of childhood maltreatment were found (63%, n = 27). A number of concepts...... and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...

  16. Drug abuse among the students


    Muhammad Zaman; Sobia Razzaq; Rabia Hassan; Junaid Qureshi; Hira Ijaz; Muhammad Hanif; Fazal Rahman Chughtai


    ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine...

  17. Dentistry and Child Abuse Diagnosis


    Doria Martínez, Ana Milena; Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses, Regional Noroccidente. Medellín, Colombia; Navarro Chong, Melissa Ivette; Instituto de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses, Panamá.


    Abstract. Background: Child abuse was first described in 1868 by pathologist Ambrosio Tardieu, but it was until the last century when the role of the dentist became relevant to early diagnose this syndrome. Several studies have shown that close to 50 % of head and face trauma is caused by physical abuse of which lips are the most commonly injured site (54 %), followed by oral mucosa, teeth, gums, and tongue. Complications of certain oral pathologies may be related to abuse for negligence. Bit...

  18. Patterns of Workplace Supervisor Support Desired by Abused Women (United States)

    Perrin, Nancy A.; Yragui, Nanette L.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Glass, Nancy


    The purpose of this study was to understand differences in patterns of supervisor support desired by female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to examine whether the pattern of support desired at work is reflective of a woman's stage of change in the abusive relationship, IPV-related work interference, and IPV-related job reprimands or…

  19. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    the victims. Such victim-blaming approach discourages survivors of sexual abuse from reporting the incidence or seeking treatment. The researcher, however, understands that it is always difficult to convict perpetrators beyond reasonable doubt as sexual offence takes place in the absence of witnesses. This creates ...

  20. How Childcare Providers Interpret "Reasonable Suspicion" of Child Abuse (United States)

    Levi, Benjamin H.; Crowell, Kathryn; Walsh, Kerryann; Dellasega, Cheryl


    Background: Childcare providers are often "first responders" for suspected child abuse, and how they understand the concept of "reasonable suspicion" will influence their decisions regarding which warning signs warrant reporting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how childcare providers interpret the…

  1. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women (United States)

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.


    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

  2. Effectiveness of Parents' Anonymous in Reducing Child Abuse. (United States)

    Post-Kammer, Phyllis


    Studied Parents Anonymous (PA), organization created to provide support group services for families and to develop community awareness of child abuse and neglect, in order to describe function of PA to school counselors for their use as referral source and to determine program's impact on parents' self-concept, understanding of children, and…

  3. Undergraduates' History of Sexual Abuse, Parenting Style and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also investigated the association between perceived parenting styles of undergraduate students and risky sexual behaviour as well as their sexual abuse history with the aim of understanding how to resolve the problem associated with it. The study adopted descriptive survey with a sample of 2,300 undergraduate students ...

  4. Hardiness among Elderly Women. (United States)

    Wagnild, Gail; Young, Heather

    Hardiness has been defined as a mediator in life stress and, within the health/illness context, has been conceptualized as a personality characteristic. This study used a descriptive exploratory design to examine the concept of hardiness among elderly women. The Stress, Appraisal, and Coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1986) was the…

  5. Honoring the Elders. (United States)

    Yazzie, Evangeline Parsons; St. Clair, Robert N.

    The co-directors of the 1998 Annual Symposium for Language Renewal and Revitalization describe how they came up with a focus and presenters for the symposium. They began by discussing their concern over the loss of indigenous languages and cultures, then decided to honor tribal elders by choosing one to represent them all as the symposium's…

  6. [Dignity of the elderly]. (United States)

    Ribera Casado, José Manuel


    A discussion is presented on what is understood by «dignity» when applied to the elderly, highlighting it universal character and contrasting it with the greater risks of suffering «indignities» to which the elderly are exposed. The discussion is divided into 3 sections. In the first, the risk factors in this sense could lead to physiological losses and illnessess, which in in the physical, mental and social sense are associated with ageing. In the second, the question of discrimination of the elderly as a form of aggression due to age, and is so widespread and infrequently studied. Lastly, it is discussed how to interpret the advice of the United Nations on how to promote active ageing as a defence system against indignities. It concludes with the message that neither the limitations that accompany the ageing process, nor the different forms of aggression that the elderly may be subjected to, provide sufficient argument neither for a loss of individual nor collective dignity. This is something which we all must endeavour to achieve and which must be maintained and be respected by individuals and by society at all times. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Lucas Cranach the Elder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, Gunnar


    This study provides the first exhaustive description of the materials, techniques and studio practices of Lucas Cranach the Elder. The author describes the characteristic elements of the painter's production, drawing on results of technical examination, as well as an evaluation of documentary

  8. Nutrition in the elderly. (United States)

    Pirlich, M; Lochs, H


    Malnutrition is more common in elderly persons than in younger adults. Ageing itself, however, neither leads to malabsorption nor to malnutrition with the exception of a higher frequency of atrophic gastritis in older persons. Malnutrition in elderly people is therefore a consequence of somatic, psychic or social problems. Typical causes are chewing or swallowing disorders, cardiac insufficiency, depression, social deprivation and loneliness. Undernutrition is associated with a worse prognosis and is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Awareness of this problem is therefore important. For the evaluation of nutritional status, it must be remembered that most normal values are derived from younger adults and may not necessarily be suitable for elderly persons. Suitable tools for evaluating the nutritional status of elderly persons are e.g. the body mass index, weight loss within the last 6 months, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) or the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). An improvement in the nutritional status can be achieved by simple methods such as the preparation of an adequate diet, hand feeding, additional sip feeding or enteral nutrition. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  9. Robots in Elderly Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Vercelli


    Full Text Available Low birth rate and the long life expectancy represent an explosive mixture, resulting in the rapid aging of population. The costs of healthcare in the grey society are increasing dramatically, and soon there will be not enough resources and people for care. This context requires conceptually new elderly care solutions progressively reducing the percentages of the human-based care. Research on robot-based solutions for elderly care and active ageing aims to answer these needs. From a general perspective, robotics has the power to completely reshape the landscape of healthcare both in its structure and its operation. In fact, the long-term sustainability of healthcare systems could be addressed by automation powered by digital health technologies, such as artificial intelligence, 3D-printing or robotics. The latter could take over monotonous work from healthcare workers, which would allow them to focus more on patients and to have lesser workload. Robots might be used in elder care with several different aims. (i Robots may act as caregivers, i.e. assist the elderly, (ii they can provide remainders and instructions for activities of daily life and safety, and/or assist their carers in daily tasks; (iii they can help monitor their behaviour and health; and (iv provide companionship, including entertainment and hobbies, reminiscence and social contact. The use of Robots with human subjects/patients raise several sensitive questions. First of all, robots may represent information hubs, and can collect an incredible amount of data about the subjects and their environment. In fact, they record habits such as sleeping, exercising, third persons entering in the house, appointments. Communications may be continuously recorded. Moreover, by connecting with medical devices, they can store medical data. On one hand, this represents a very powerful tool to collect information about the single subject (precision medicine, about disease (thus eventually finding

  10. Preventive practices in the elderly and vulnerability to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Peixoto Bezerra

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the vulnerability of the elderly to the HIV infection in the context of preventive practices. Method: Exploratory qualitative study, lead from December 2012 to May 2013, with 37 nursing Coexistence Groups in João Pessoa - Paraiba. The Focus Group was elected as the research technique, and the empirical material obtained was subjected to a Content Analysis Technique, thematic modality. Results: The elderly recognize the importance of preventive practices, but they face difficulties in its use when their emotional relationships with their partners do not favor preventive behavior, resulting in vulnerability. The elderly showed the population groups most vulnerable to HIV and do not recognize themselves as such. Conclusion: The complexity of the various contexts experienced by the elderlies of this study indicate the need for more research that allows advances in the understanding of subjectivity imposed in relations that underlie the aging process and the experience of sexuality in this age group.

  11. Self-care as a health resource of elders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C.; Wagner, L.


    : In this integrative review from 2006, we selected theoretical and empirical articles published between 1990 and 2006, where self-care was related to elders' health promotion. Data were extracted from primary sources and included definitions of self-care, critical attributes, antecedents, goals and outcomes. We......AIM: To review the literature related to self-care and health promotion for elders and to develop an understanding of self-care as a health resource. BACKGROUND: Self-care may improve health and prevent illness and disabilities in elders. Although studies of self-care are numerous, the significance...... interactively compared data and display matrices to describe self-care as a health resource. RESULTS: Fifty-seven articles addressed health self-care and were integrated into a framework of self-care as a health resource of elders. Self-care was identified as a two-dimensional construct including action...

  12. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women. (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  13. The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis. (United States)

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari


    This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser…

  14. Sexual Harassment of Newcomers in Elder Care. An Institutional Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Krøjer


    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is illegal and may have very damaging effects on the people exposed to it. One would expect organizations, employers, and institutions to take very good care to prevent employees from exposure to sexual harassment from anyone in their workplace. And yet, many people, mostly women, are exposed to sexual harassment at work. In care work, such behaviour is often directed toward their female caregiver by elderly citizens in need of care. Contemporary Nordic studies of working life and work environment have primarily investigated the interpersonal dimensions of sexual harassment, thus focusing on the relation between elderly citizens in need of care and their professional caregivers. In this article, we argue that sexual harassment from the elderly toward newcomers in elder care should also be seen as an effect of institutional practices. Based upon a Foucauldianinspired notion of practice-making, the article carries out a secondary analysis of three different empirical studies in order to explore how sexual harassment is produced and maintained through institutional practices in elder care. The term institution in this perspective includes three dimensions; a political, an educational (educational institutions in health and elder care, and a work organizational dimension. By examining elder care in these different dimensions, we identify how sexual harassment of professional caregivers is produced and maintained through institutional practice-making in elder care. The article thus contributes to our knowledge on working life by expanding and qualifying the understanding of the problematic working environment in care work, and by offering an alternative theoretical and analytical approach to the study of sexual harassment. Together, these insights suggest how elder care institutions might act to prevent sexual harassment toward caregivers.

  15. Sexual Anxiety and Eroticism Predict the Development of Sexual Problems in Youth With a History of Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Feiring, Candice


    Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, including more sexual risk behavior and views of sexual intimacy focused on partners’ needs. Sexual anxiety was associated with indicators of diminished sexuality, including few sexual partners and avoidant views of sexual intimacy. Age at abuse discovery moderated some associations, suggesting that the timing of abuse-specific reactions affects trajectories of sexual development. Findings point to the need for a developmental approach to understanding how abuse-specific sexual reactions disrupt sexual development and the need for early interventions promoting healthy sexual development. PMID:18408212

  16. "Stay Tuned": The Role of ICTs in Elderly Life. (United States)

    Colombo, Fausto; Aroldi, Piermarco; Carlo, Simone


    Ageing in western society has become a key issue in political and academic debate: politicians, sociologists, doctors, demographers, psychologists, economists are trying to understand how ageing will impact our future society. In this frame, media and communication technologies seem to be more and more relevant for the elderly, thanks to those services and devices helping people to grow old actively. Technologies, the Internet and ICTs could help the elderly to improve their quality of life, to be healthy and independent and to get better assistance. Our ongoing research investigates the relationship between the elderly and use of technologies, and explores the role played by media and ICTs in building a friendly and positive environment for the elderly, and in constructing and maintaining social relations and promoting healthy ageing. Specifically, the research will investigate the use of ICTs by the elderly by taking into account two different perspectives: a) Exchanges between generations: lengthening of life corresponds to a longer period of cohabitation between at least three generations (grandparents, children, grandchildren), and also of co-use of digital media. The research wants to investigate relations between two age groups (grandparents and grandchildren; young people and older people) to understand the dynamics of intergenerational mutuality in the use of technologies and ICTs. b) Media, ICTs, Health: the Western world is increasingly populated by elderly population. Technologies and ICTs can help elderly people to improve their quality of life, to be healthy and independent and to get better assistance. ICTs should encourage active ageing and, in the case of health technologies, new models of care. The project, lasting 1 year, is based on (1) a survey on young elderly (65-74 yrs) population in Italy, and (2) a field-work which consists of family interviews and ethnographical sections in natural contexts.

  17. Child neglect and emotional abuse (United States)

    ... that may be emotionally abused. They may have: Problems in school Eating disorders, leading to weight loss or poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ...

  18. The Revictimization of Adult Women With Histories of Childhood Abuse (United States)



    Both clinical experience and recent research statistics support the observation that childhood abuse survivors are vulnerable to revictimization as adults. The responsibility for revictimization, such as physical or sexual assault, belongs to the perpetrators. However, the factors that make abuse survivors more vulnerable to exploitation need to be examined and understood in order to provide adequate treatment and protection. This discussion integrates an understanding of three powerful forces—the repetition compulsion, post-traumatic syndromes, and profound relational disturbances—that permit the process of revictimization to occur. PMID:22700102



    Kumar, Suresh; Malhotra, Anil


    Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence fo...

  20. Trauma Symptoms in Abused Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani


    Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.

  1. Impulse control disorders in elderly patients. (United States)

    Tamam, Lut; Bican, Mehtap; Keskin, Necla


    was significantly higher in the group with ICD. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of suicide attempts, history of physical illness and family history of psychiatric disorders between the groups with or without ICDs. Comorbidity of alcohol/substance abuse was found to be 17.6% in patients with ICD whereas no cases were found in the group without ICD. The result of this study has shown that approximately one fifth of patients over 60years had at least one lifetime ICD comorbidity. The prevalence rates of ICDs seem to decrease with aging. The male gender and childhood conduct disorder are related with higher prevalence rates of ICDs in elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Recognizing and responding to cases of suspected animal cruelty, abuse, and neglect: what the veterinarian needs to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkow P


    Full Text Available Phil Arkow National Link Coalition – The National Resource Center on The Link Between Animal Abuse and Human Violence, Stratford, NJ, USA Abstract: The identification of a “battered pets” syndrome, which put the veterinary profession on a parallel footing with its counterparts in human medicine who respond to battered children, women, and elders, expanded the veterinarian’s role as an advocate for animals’ welfare to include the recognition of, response to, and prevention of animal abuse. Professional policies and legislation in several nations have been amended to define these responsibilities and delineate appropriate responses when animal maltreatment or other forms of family violence are suspected. This article reviews these changes, discusses abuse as a matter of animal welfare and public health, and summarizes research describing animal abuse as a possible indicator and predictor of interpersonal violence. Five steps that helped build human health care’s response to child abuse, domestic violence, and elder abuse, and that are analogous to forces in contemporary veterinary practice, are described. It familiarizes practitioners with terminology used in animal cruelty investigations. It describes clinical presentations, client profiles and behaviors, and environmental conditions that may raise a practitioner’s index of suspicion of possible animal maltreatment. It reviews protocols that practitioners may employ to respond compassionately and effectively to suspected animal abuse and enhance successful law enforcement investigations and prosecutions. Such responses can unite human and veterinary medicine in a common concern for vulnerable, victimized, and at-risk populations and position veterinarians as an essential part of public health approaches to break the cycles of violence affecting animals and human members of the family and community. Keywords: animal cruelty, animal abuse, neglect, reporting, animal welfare, domestic

  3. Problems of elderly patients on inhalation therapy: Difference in problem recognition between patients and medical professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Hira


    Conclusions: Elderly patients are apt to assume that they “understand well”, therefore, in order to recognize and close the perception gap between elderly patients and medical professionals, it is necessary to provide them with more aggressive (frequent instructions on inhalation therapy.

  4. Relationship Between Basic Psychological Needs and Mental Vitality in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Arabzadeh


    Conclusion The basic psychological needs are considered as an important factor for maintaining subjective vitality in the elderly. Therefore, understanding the basic psychological needs and strengthening these factors can be an effective method for enhancing the subjective vitality of elderly people.

  5. Behavioural consequences of child abuse (United States)

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay


    Abstract Objective To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. Sources of information A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. Main message A child’s behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children—physically, emotionally, and psychologically—and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. Conclusion Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children. PMID:23946022

  6. Alexithymia in Egyptian Substance Abusers. (United States)

    El Rasheed, Amany Haroun


    Alexithymia is thought of as a trait that predisposes to drug abuse. Moreover, it is suggested to be related to type of the substance abused, with the worst-case scenario including a worse prognosis as well as tendency to relapse or even not to seek treatment at all. To address this important subject in Egyptian patients, a sample of 200 Egyptian substance abusers was randomly selected from inpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Egypt. The study also included 200 group-matched controls. DSM-IV criteria were used for assessment of substance use disorders, and toxicologic urine analysis was used to confirm the substances of abuse. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-Arabic version was used for assessment of alexithymia. It was found that alexithymia was significantly more prevalent in the substance use disorders group as compared to healthy controls. It was also found that among the substance use disorders group, alexithymics reported more polysubstance abuse, more opiate use (other than heroin IV), lower numbers of hospitalizations, lower numbers of reported relapses, and a lower tendency to relapse as a result of internal cues compared to patients without alexithymia. Statistically significant associations were also found between alexithymia and more benzodiazepine abuse and nonpersistence in treatment. The results suggest that alexithymia should be targeted in a treatment setting for substance use disorders.

  7. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per; Nielsen, Jimmi


    Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. We included preclinical (n = 17), clinical (n = 19) and epidemiological (n = 13) studies addressing the abuse potential of pregabalin. We also reviewed case reports (n = 9) concerning abuse of pregabalin. The preclinical studies indicated that pregabalin possesses modulatory effects on the GABA and glutamate systems, leaving room for an abuse potential. Further, clinical studies reported euphoria as a frequent side effect in patients treated with pregabalin. The majority of case reports concerning abuse of pregabalin involved patients with a history of substance abuse and, similarly, epidemiological studies found evidence of abuse, especially among opiate abusers. Overall, the available literature suggests an important clinical abuse potential of pregabalin and prescribers should pay attention to signs of abuse, especially in patients with a history of substance abuse.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    Gateway, 2008). Forms of Child Abuse. Child abuse can be broadly categorized into five perspectives namely physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and child exploitation (child labour). Physical Abuse: Physical abuse may be seen as the inflicting of a non-accidental bodily injury on a child. The injury may ...

  9. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi


    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  10. [Depression in the elderly]. (United States)

    Hattori, Hideyuki


    The incidence of depression is higher than that of dementia in the elderly. Unlike depression in other age groups, that in the elderly is characterized by frequent physical complaints, irritation, and delusional tendencies. The treatment of depression in the elderly requires the complex incorporation of psychiatric and gerontological viewpoints. Psychiatrically, difficulty in accepting decreases in psychological and physical functions and solitude is important, as a psychological characteristic, inducing the development of depression. Biochemically, there is an underlying decrease in the function of brain monoaminergic nerve activated, such as by serotonin and noradrenalin. Radiologically, damage to the cerebral white matter and a decrease in the frontal lobe function have been frequently reported. Depression is difficult to differentiate from dementia and is also often complicated by dementia. Since a depressive state often precede Alzheimer's disease, evaluation of cognitive function is also necessary in patients with a depressive state. Although apathy is often observed as a symptom of dementia and tends to be confused with a depressive symptom, caution is necessary because of differences in the treatment method. Gerontologically, depression is one of geriatric syndrome and isa frequently observed in the elderly in the later stage and closely associated with a decrease in activities of daily life. Depression is also closely associated with lifestyle-related diseases, and its incidence is high in the presence of cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, and conversely, depression is often complicated by lifestyle-related disease. Anxiety and depression are frequently observed in the frail elderly, but few studies on the assessment and appropriate approach for psychological matters. Further studies are necessary. The treatment of depression in the elderly could be classified into 3 stages. In the acute stage, the

  11. Exploring the Etiologic Factors and Dynamics of Prescription Drug Abuse in Southwest Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry J Redican


    Full Text Available Background: Prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia is a serious problem affecting indi-viduals, families, and communities. The aim of this study was to characterize and understand the extent of the prescription drug abuse problem in Southwest, Virginia as well as the dynamics that surround that abuse. More specifically, the study focused on learning the extent of the problem along with which prescription drugs are typically used prior to entering treatment, reasons for prescription drug and methadone abuse, and the sources for prescription drug use, misuse and abuse.Methods: Mixed methodology was employed which included surveying methadone clinic con-sumers at two treatment clinics in Southwest, Virginia and seven focus field interviews of key community stakeholders.Results: The extent of prescription drug abuse is high and that the demographics of prescription drug users are getting younger and now involve more males than females. Oxycodone, hydroco-done, methadone, and morphine were the most commonly used drugs prior to enrollment in the clinics with over one-half of methadone-maintained consumers reporting that they had abused benzodiazepines along with opioids. Focus groups and clinic consumer data highlighted the key etiological factors in prescription drug abuse: use (due to workforce related injuries turning to abuse, wanting to get high, overprescribing and physician issues, lack of information, and cultural acceptance of drug taking as problem solving behavior. The two most common sources for the abused prescription drugs were physicians and street dealers.Conclusions: A constellation of conditions have led to the epidemic of prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia, including poverty, unemployment and work-related injuries, besides, public health education programs on the dangers of prescription opiate misuse and abuse are urgently needed.

  12. Elderly and Health Problems: A Cross Sectional Study in the Shahroud Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Sadeghiyan


    Full Text Available Objectives: The elderly is raised as an important issue of nations. In our country due to pyramid of the population program ,planning for any service, needs to understanding the real demands of the elderly the study of health problems of elderly was conducted in2009. Methods & Materials: This study was applied the method of cross-sectional study on 1046 people aged 60-69 years rural and urban in Shahroud. Data gathering tool was a questionnaire, 33 questions from the interview, examination and weighing were completed in the elderly. Data analyze using descriptive and analytical tests were performed using the software spss. Results: 61% of elderly were women. 59.8% lived in urban areas. 60% were illiterate and 13% of those were alone. Elderly problems were 44.7% sleep, 23% hearing, 62% vision, 45.2% of foot, 21.7% constipation, 45.3% impairment of memory, 14.8% of urinary tract, 90.8% stress and 43% reported dental problems. In this study significant relations were found between Sex with joint pain and sleep disorders, living area with visual impairment, visual impairment with education, sleep disorders and dental problems. Conclusion: findings showed that dental, vision, foot and memory were the main problems in the elderly. Development of care and services for the elderly in health and primary health care networks, Health awareness and life skills training to elderly and their families can have an effective role in improving the status of the elderly.

  13. Verbal learning and memory in alcohol abusers and polysubstance abusers with concurrent alcohol abuse. (United States)

    Bondi, M W; Drake, A I; Grant, I


    To define the combined effects of drug and alcohol abuse on verbal learning and memory, 70 alcoholic and 80 polysubstance abuse (PSA) individuals with concurrent alcohol abuse were compared on a list learning task, the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Despite demonstrating similar learning strategies, response styles, and error patterns, the PSA group nontheless exhibited significantly greater recall deficits than the alcoholic group on the CVLT. These deficits were particularly evident in those who were heaviest abusers of cocaine. PSA participants did not, however, evidence greater recognition memory deficits. This pattern of greater deficits on recall than on recognition memory, as well as poor consolidation, is consistent with the initiation-retrieval difficulties of patient groups with subcortical dysfunction. It is concluded that the combined use of alcohol and drugs, cocaine in particular, may compound memory difficulties beyond what is typically observed in alcoholic individuals.

  14. The medical analysis of child sexual abuse images. (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon W


    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses, methods used in working with this form of contraband, and recommendations that analysts document their findings in a format that allows for verbal descriptions of the images so that the content will be reflected in legal proceedings should there exist an aversion to visual review. Child sexual abuse images are a digital crime scene, and analysis requires a careful approach to assure that all victims may be identified.

  15. Abuse of Older Men in Seven European Countries: A Multilevel Approach in the Framework of an Ecological Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Melchiorre

    Full Text Available Several studies on elder abuse indicate that a large number of victims are women, but others report that men in later life are also significantly abused, especially when they show symptoms of disability and poor health, and require help for their daily activities as a result. This study focused on the prevalence of different types of abuse experienced by men and on a comparison of male victims and non-victims concerning demographic/socio-economic characteristics, lifestyle/health variables, social support and quality of life. Additionally, the study identified factors associated with different types of abuse experienced by men and characteristics associated with the victims.The cross-sectional data concerning abuse in the past 12 months were collected by means of interviews and self-response during January-July 2009, from a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged between 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. We used a multilevel approach, within the framework of an Ecological Model, to explore the phenomenon of abuse against males as the complex result of factors from multiple levels: individual, relational, community and societal.Multivariate analyses showed that older men educated to higher levels, blue-collar workers and men living in a rented accommodation were more often victims than those educated to lower levels, low-rank white-collar workers and home owners, respectively. In addition, high scores for factors such as somatic and anxiety symptoms seemed linked with an increased probability of being abused. Conversely, factors such as increased age, worries about daily expenses (financial strain and greater social support seemed linked with a decreased probability of being abused.Male elder abuse is under-recognized, under-detected and under-reported, mainly due to the vulnerability of older men and to social/cultural norms supporting traditional male

  16. [Suicide in the Elderly]. (United States)

    Velásquez Suarez, Juliana María


    Suicide is a public health problem worldwide, with multiple features and risk factors. It has some common and unique trends in each phase across the lifespan. To review the medical literature related to suicide in the elderly, in order to determine the current status of this problem in the world, and especially in Colombia. Literature review. There is a high volume of articles about suicide in general, even in Colombia, with many papers describing the problem in a comprehensive manner, but there is a need for more studies and publications on the scope of this problem in the elderly. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. [Catatonia in the elderly]. (United States)

    Chiba, Yuhei; Odawara, Toshinari


    Catatonia is a syndrome characterized by mutism, stupor, immobility, negativism, posturing, stereotypy, and echophenomena. Not only patients with schizophrenia, but also patients with general medical disease, mood disorder, and substance-related disorder exhibit catatonia. In the patients with catatonia, it is recommended to examine whether they have a general medical disease. We present two catatonic elder patients. Case 1 exhibited catatonia with vascular dementia, and was revealed to have anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome. Case 2 exhibited catatonia with dementia with Lewy bodies, and was revealed to have Hashimoto's encephalopathy. The first recommended treatment for catatonia is benzodiazepines. In case of benzodiazepine resistance or malignant catatonia, it should be considered electroconvulsive therapy, but it needs to be carefully implemented for elder patients.

  18. Struggles in (Elderly) Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene

    concern. Emerging discourses such as neoliberalism have also reframed elderly care to increase existing tensions at the individual, national, and transnational level. Dahl argues that in order to grasp these new realities of care we need a new analytical framework that redirects us to new sites...... of care has been dominated by a sociological bias that could be improved using insights from political science concerning concepts of power and struggle, and the importance of the state and governance....

  19. Psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in adolescence. (United States)

    Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K


    This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.

  20. Osteoporosis in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ilkin Naharci


    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disorder that affects commonly the people above 65 years, impairs the functional status, decreases the life quality, and increases mortality and cost. Lateral screening of vertebra or displaying of proximal femur with DEXA is gold standard method for the evaluation of diagnosis and fracture risk in elderly subjects. Physical examination for the analysis of risk factors of falling and laboratory methods for the diagnosis of secondary osteporosis were used. While increasing muscle strength and balance, exercise programs, calcium and vitamin D supplement are helpful in the prevention of falling. As anti-osteoporotic drugs, aleandronat, risedronat, and strontium ranelat have anti-fracture efficiencies for both hip and vertebra fracture. It is considered that the making of periodically routine health examination is important for early diagnosis and treatment in elderly people. In routine examination of elderly subject, it would be helpful that declaring of actions to be done for the prevention of osteoporosis development, if occured, the stopping of progression, and the prevention of falling as part of health training. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 471-482