WorldWideScience

Sample records for understand current trends

  1. Suicide: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Tejas C; Avenido, Jaymie; Patel, Milapkumar; Jaleel, Mohammad; Barker, Narviar C; Khan, Jahanzeb Ali; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Suicide is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. More than 1 million people commit suicide every year. It is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide, with China, India, and Japan accounting for almost half of all suicides. In less than 50 years, the rate of suicide among Sri Lankans has risen from a modest level to one of the highest in the world (118 per 100,000). Suicide is a major preventable cause of premature death. It is influenced by psychosocial, cultural, and environmental risk factors. The impact of suicide can be devastating for all concerned. It is common in people who are living with chronic mental illness. Individuals with severe clinical depression and alcohol use disorders are at highest risk if untreated. On an interpersonal level, friends and families of suicide victims require social support. On a national level, governments need to recognize the causes of suicide and protect those most vulnerable. If governments commit to defining national responses to prevent suicide, significant progress can be made. On a global scale, research and health organizations can identify global trends and encourage the sharing of information in effective prevention activities. In September 2010, World Suicide Prevention Day, with a theme of "Many faces, many places: suicide prevention across the world," encouraged public awareness worldwide to unite in commitment and action to promote understanding about suicide and removal of stigmatization'. There is compelling evidence that adequate prevention and awareness can reduce suicide rates.

  2. Current trends in ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwilliam, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    As semiconductor device dimensions continue to shrink, the drive beyond 250 nm is creating significant problems for the device processor. In particular, trends toward shallower-junctions, lower thermal budgets and simplified processing steps present severe challenges to ion implantation. In parallel with greater control of the implant process goes the need for a better understanding of the physical processes involved during implantation and subsequent activation annealing. For instance, the need for an understanding of dopant-defect interaction is paramount as defects mediate a number of technologically important phenomena such as transient enhanced diffusion and impurity gettering. This paper will outline the current trends in the ion implantation and some of the challenges it faces in the next decade, as described in the semiconductor roadmap. It will highlight some recent positron annihilation work that has made a contribution to addressing one of these challenges, namely the need for tighter control of implant uniformity and dose. Additionally, some vacancy-mediated processes are described with the implication that these may provide areas in which positron annihilation spectroscopy could make a significant contribution. (orig.)

  3. Toward Understanding the Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in the Immune System: Current Progress and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Hanieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is regulated by distinct signaling pathways that control the development and function of the immune cells. Accumulating evidence suggest that ligation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr, an environmentally responsive transcription factor, results in multiple cross talks that are capable of modulating these pathways and their downstream responsive genes. Most of the immune cells respond to such modulation, and many inflammatory response-related genes contain multiple xenobiotic-responsive elements (XREs boxes upstream. Active research efforts have investigated the physiological role of Ahr in inflammation and autoimmunity using different animal models. Recently formed paradigm has shown that activation of Ahr by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM prompts the differentiation of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs and inhibits T helper (Th-17 suggesting that Ahr is an innovative therapeutic strategy for autoimmune inflammation. These promising findings generate a basis for future clinical practices in humans. This review addresses the current knowledge on the role of Ahr in different immune cell compartments, with a particular focus on inflammation and autoimmunity.

  4. Current trends in nursing theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju

    2012-06-01

    To explore current trends in nursing theories through an integrated literature review. The literature related to nursing theories during the past 10 years was searched through multiple databases and reviewed to determine themes reflecting current trends in nursing theories. The trends can be categorized into six themes: (a) foci on specifics; (b) coexistence of various types of theories; (c) close links to research; (d) international collaborative works; (e) integration to practice; and (f) selective evolution. We need to make our continuous efforts to link research and practice to theories, to identify specifics of our theories, to develop diverse types of theories, and to conduct international collaborative works. Our paper gives implications for future theoretical development in diverse clinical areas of nursing research and practice. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Current economic trends in equine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew R

    2009-12-01

    Current economic trends in equine practice are trends of weakness. Most practices, after a decade of double-digit growth, have migrated to survival mode within a few months. Understanding that all regions and disciplines are affected differently, using the Porter five forces model, we can identify changes that must be made in our business models first to survive and then to position ourselves to prosper when the recession ends. If we are to avoid long-term damage to our practices, we must use cost control and work efficiency in addition to price concessions.

  6. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalani, B.S.; Rajanaidu, N.

    2000-01-01

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  7. Current Trends in Neonatal Tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaiah, Amal; Moyer, Kelly; Pereira, Kevin D

    2016-08-01

    The indications for neonatal tracheostomy may have changed with current noninvasive respiratory therapies compared with previous decades. To study the current trends in neonatal tracheostomy and identify the primary indication for the procedure and risk factors for failed extubation. This retrospective medical record review included 47 neonates who underwent tracheostomy from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013, at the University of Maryland Children's Hospital. Group 1 included infants undergoing tracheostomy for the primary indication of upper airway obstruction; group 2, infants with primary pulmonary disease. Data on weight, gestational age, comorbid conditions, congenital abnormalities, complications, outcomes, and indications for tracheostomy were compared statistically between groups. Differences in gestational age, birth weight, and age at tracheostomy. Among the 47 infants included in the study (30 boys; 17 girls, mean [SD] age, 113 [73] days), 31 (66%) demonstrated anatomical causes of airway obstruction, and 16 (34%) had significant pulmonary disease. Among infants with anatomical causes, subglottic stenosis represented the largest group (11 of 31 [35%]). The mean age at the time of tracheostomy was significantly lower in the group with airway obstruction (98.9 vs 146.9 days; difference, 48 [95% CI, 4.8-91.2] days; P = .04). No procedure-related morbidity or mortality was encountered. Anatomical upper airway obstruction may be returning as the most common indication for a neonatal tracheostomy, thereby supporting the belief that current respiratory therapies have lowered the burden of chronic lung disease and the need for prolonged ventilatory care.

  8. CURRENT TRENDS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hospitality industry is a complex product-service economic activity which besides accommodation, food and beverages offers a variety of complementary and ancillary services in order to meet modern needs, demands and desires of tourists consumers. Contemporary needs, demands and desires of tourists consumers (increased need for security and preservation of health; emphasis on ecology and healthy food; pure nature stay; growing demand for adventure activities and excitement; convention facilities and incentive offerings; visits to towns, big sports, cultural, religious, business events; new travel motivation have led to the emergence of new trends in hospitality offering design. Wellness and spa hotels, boutique hotels, all inclusive hotels, slow-food restaurants, and wine and lounge bars are just some of the main trends, and successful hoteliers and caterers will examine each of the trends and devise development politics in accordance with the new requirements and global market needs.

  9. CURRENT TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Ryabinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological bases of researchof international business are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on analysis of main trends in development of international. The comparison of competitiveness to of most used forms ofinternational business, as well as identified the main problems and barriers of theinternational business structures.

  10. Current Trends In Educational Technology: Implication On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the current trends in educational technology and the implication on educational managers in Nigeria. The current trends in the field of educational technology are centred on the influence of information and communication technology on the development of educational management. Various challenges ...

  11. Radiopharmaceuticals - current state and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1981-07-01

    The current state as well as the tendencies of modern radiopharmaceutical development and application is reviewed. After an evaluation of the fundamental preconditions of decay characteristics and pharmaceutical properties the problems concerning sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals, metabolizable compounds and the use of specific biological interactions are discussed. (author)

  12. Current trends in geomorphological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijmonsbergen, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphological mapping is a world currently in motion, driven by technological advances and the availability of new high resolution data. As a consequence, classic (paper) geomorphological maps which were the standard for more than 50 years are rapidly being replaced by digital geomorphological information layers. This is witnessed by the following developments: 1. the conversion of classic paper maps into digital information layers, mainly performed in a digital mapping environment such as a Geographical Information System, 2. updating the location precision and the content of the converted maps, by adding more geomorphological details, taken from high resolution elevation data and/or high resolution image data, 3. (semi) automated extraction and classification of geomorphological features from digital elevation models, broadly separated into unsupervised and supervised classification techniques and 4. New digital visualization / cartographic techniques and reading interfaces. Newly digital geomorphological information layers can be based on manual digitization of polygons using DEMs and/or aerial photographs, or prepared through (semi) automated extraction and delineation of geomorphological features. DEMs are often used as basis to derive Land Surface Parameter information which is used as input for (un) supervised classification techniques. Especially when using high-res data, object-based classification is used as an alternative to traditional pixel-based classifications, to cluster grid cells into homogeneous objects, which can be classified as geomorphological features. Classic map content can also be used as training material for the supervised classification of geomorphological features. In the classification process, rule-based protocols, including expert-knowledge input, are used to map specific geomorphological features or entire landscapes. Current (semi) automated classification techniques are increasingly able to extract morphometric, hydrological

  13. 24th Current Trends in Computational Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Corps of Engineers Army Research Office Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry 2016 NOVEMBER 11-12, 2016 JACKSON, MS... Chemistry and Biochemistry Jackson, MS 39217 U.S.A. Tel: 6019793723 E-mail: shonda@icnanotox.org Richard Alo Dean College of Science, Engineering ...Report: 24th Current Trends in Computational Chemistry The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should

  14. Digital library research : current developments and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Shiri, Ali

    2003-01-01

    This column gives an overview of current trends in digital library research under the following headings: digital library architecture, systems, tools and technologies; digital content and collections; metadata; interoperability; standards; knowledge organisation systems; users and usability; legal, organisational, economic, and social issues in digital libraries.

  15. Virtual Universities: Current Models and Future Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Describes current models of distance education (single-mode distance teaching universities, dual- and mixed-mode universities, extension services, consortia-type ventures, and new technology-based universities), including their merits and problems. Discusses future trends in potential student constituencies, faculty roles, forms of knowledge…

  16. Current Trends in Associate Degree Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Elaine Grant

    This study was designed to ascertain current trends in associate degree nursing programs and to discover innovative ideas and techniques which could be applied to the existing program at Miami-Dade Community College (Florida). Data was compiled from interviews with representatives of ten associate degree nursing programs in six states. Information…

  17. Current Trends in Higher Education Technology: Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damewood, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on how technology in use changes over time, and the current trend of simulation technology as a supported classroom technology. Simulation-based training as a learning tool is discussed within the context of adult learning theories, as is the technology used and how today's higher education technology administrators support…

  18. Current trends in Bayesian methodology with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Satyanshu K; Dey, Dipak K; Loganathan, Appaia

    2015-01-01

    Collecting Bayesian material scattered throughout the literature, Current Trends in Bayesian Methodology with Applications examines the latest methodological and applied aspects of Bayesian statistics. The book covers biostatistics, econometrics, reliability and risk analysis, spatial statistics, image analysis, shape analysis, Bayesian computation, clustering, uncertainty assessment, high-energy astrophysics, neural networking, fuzzy information, objective Bayesian methodologies, empirical Bayes methods, small area estimation, and many more topics.Each chapter is self-contained and focuses on

  19. Current trends in nuclear material transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenscroft, Norman; Oshinowo, Franchone

    1997-01-01

    The business of radioactive material transportation has evolved considerably in the past 40 years. Current practices reflect extensive international experience in handling radioactive cargo within a mature and tested regulatory framework. Nevertheless, new developments continue to have an impact on how shipments of nuclear material are planned and carried out. Entities involved in the transport of radioactive materials must keep abreast of these developments and work together to find innovative solutions to ensure that safe, smooth transport activities may continue. Several recent trends in the regulatory environment and political atmosphere require attention. There are four key trends that we'll be examining today: 1) the reduction in the pool of available commercial carriers; 2) routing restrictions; 3) package validation issues; and 4) increasing political sensitivities. Careful planning and cooperative measures are necessary to alleviate problems in each of these areas. (author)

  20. Current trends in context-aware applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Loayza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/10/07 - Accepted: 2013/12/10Context-aware applications adapt their behavior and settings according to the environment conditions and to the user preferences. This state-of-the-art survey identifies the current trends related to the technics and tools for the development of this kind of software, as well as the areas of interest of the scientific community on the subject. It stands out the research on multimodal interfaces, localization, activity detection, interruptions control, predictive and wellbeing applications.

  1. Organizational Development of Russian SMEs: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Velinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research paper sheds a light on Russian SMEs transition and specifically on their current development and evolution. The paper attempts to explain what are the main drivers and antecedents on SMEs during the period 2010-2015. Along with it, it is applied detailed analysis of Russian SMEs in terms of key performance indicators, turnover and volume of sales. Further, are given potential developments and trends within SMEs in Russia. The paper draws attention to socio-economic and political factors influencing SMEs development.

  2. Trends in the exchange current for hydrogen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Bligaard, Thomas; Logadottir, Ashildur

    2005-01-01

    A density functional theory database of hydrogen chemisorption energies on close packed surfaces of a number of transition and noble metals is presented. The bond energies are used to understand the trends in the exchange current for hydrogen evolution. A volcano curve is obtained when measured...... exchange currents are plotted as a function of the calculated hydrogen adsorption energies and a simple kinetic model is developed to understand the origin of the volcano. The volcano curve is also consistent with Pt being the most efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution. (c) 2005...

  3. Current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Zainal Abedin, Nur Hanani; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2018-02-11

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  4. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  5. Management of infantile hemangiomas: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomathy Sethuraman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infantile hemangiomas (IH are common vascular tumours. IH have a characteristic natural course. They proliferate rapidly during the early infantile period followed by a period of gradual regression over several years. Most of the uncomplicated IH undergo spontaneous involution, with a small proportion of cases requiring intervention. These are children with IH in life-threatening locations, local complications like haemorrhage, ulceration and necrosis and functional or cosmetic disfigurements. Systemic corticosteroids have been the first line of treatment for many years. Recently, non-selective beta-blockers, such as oral propranalol and topical timolol, have emerged as promising and safer therapies. Other treatment options include interferon α and vincristine which are reserved for life-threatening haemangiomas that are unresponsive to conventional therapy. This review mainly focuses on the current trends and evidence-based approach in the management of IH.

  6. Current Trends in Science | Overview | Publications | Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emerging trends at the interface of Chemistry and Biology: Applications to the design of human therapeutics ... Interplay between multiple length and time scales in complex chemical systems ... A tutorial introduction to financial engineering.

  7. Understanding the Trend in the Brazilian Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Zylberstajn, Hélio; Jensen, Søren Henning

    regression analysis is an attempt to gain insights and understand the trend in the Brazilian seafaring labor market. Moreover, this research sheds light to essential institutional interventions and nature of the free play of the market that are relevant to the behavior of the trend in the seafaring labor...

  8. Current trends in the pharmacotherapy for obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Klobučar Majanović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major global challenge from both healthcare and economic perspectives. Although lifestyle modifications aimed at reducing calorie intake and increasing energy expenditure remain the cornerstone of obesity management, pharmacotherapy can serve as a useful adjunct. Until recently, orlistat was the only medication registered for the treatment of obesity in the European Union (EU. A deeper understanding of the complexity of energy homeostasis has resulted in new pharmacological options for weight reduction. In 2015, two new antiobesity drugs were approved in the EU. These are a fixed combination of naltrexone/bupropion (Mysimba® and liraglutide at a dose of 3.0 mg (Saxenda®. In addition, lorcaserin (Belviq® and a fixed combination of phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia® were introduced into the US market in 2012. However, the European Medicines Agency did not approve their use in the EU. The burden of previous weight loss agents that have been withdrawn due to safety concerns underlines the need for caution and close follow-up of patients undergoing pharmacological interventions for obesity treatment. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and safety of currently available weight loss pharmacotherapies.

  9. Current Trends in Nuclear and Radiation Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Harold R.; Quam, William

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of radiation detector history, a summary of the present state of the art, and some speculation on future developments in this field. Trends in the development of radiation detectors over the years are analyzed. Rapid progress in detection technology was experienced between WWII and the 1970s. Since then, fewer dramatic improvements have been seen. The authors speculate about the reasons for this trend and where the technology might take us in the next 20 years. Requirements for radiation detection equipment have changed drastically since 9/11; this demand is likely to accelerate detector development in the near future

  10. Current and future trends in cloud CRM

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis is committed to mapping CRM applications available in cloud and trends within. The goal is to describe what CRM is, how it evolved into Cloud CRM, analyze main differences between the two approaches and analyze trends that can be observed in CRM market and CRM applications. This is coupled with description of the most common CRM solutions and products available both on-premises as well as on-demand. In the first part, the thesis introduces theory behind Customer Relationshi...

  11. CURRENT TRENDS OF ROMANIAN RURAL FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina IORGA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The profound changes experienced by the Romanian society had a profound social impact on the structure and functions of the rural family. The paper aims to highlight the main trends recorded using a number of indicators: ruralization rate, birth rate, infant mortality rate, percentage of children born outside marriage, fertility rate, percentage of population aged 65 and over. Statistics from censuses and statistical yearbooks were processed to identify the trends of the Romanian rural family: changes in reproductive behavior, increased aging, declining birth rates.

  12. Current trends in free software research

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Bosch, Ramon; Vila Marta, Sebastià

    2009-01-01

    This report analyzes how scientific research is studying free software. We find which research is being done on free software by looking into scientific journals and conferences publications. The data thus obtained is analized and the most salient trends related to free software discovered. We also reviewed the main works published in each free software research area.

  13. Making Current Trends in School Design Feasible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of School Support.

    This report describes new and innovative approaches to school facilities as they relate to their communities by exploring the trends towards smaller schools, presenting the pros and cons of smaller schools, and examining the solutions and strategies in smart growth planning. The report addresses the following questions: if school leaders,…

  14. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  15. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Gupta, Girish; De, Sudipta; Franco, Ana; Balu, Alina Mariana; Luque, Rafael

    2015-12-30

    Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  16. Oil development in China: Current status and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Linwei; Fu Feng; Li Zheng; Liu Pei

    2012-01-01

    The future of oil has become an important topic of the discussion of energy policy in China. This paper attempts to present a full picture of the current status and future trends of China’s oil development through system analysis. First, we map a Sankey diagram of China’s oil flow to reveal the physical pattern of China’s oil supply and consumption. Then, we present the historical and ongoing trends of China’s oil flow from key aspects such as oil demand, oil resource availability, technology improvement, and policy adjustment. Based on these understandings, we design three scenarios of China’s oil demand in 2030, and analyze policy implications for oil saving, automotive energy development, and energy security. From the analysis, we draw some conclusions for policy decisions, such as to control the total oil consumption to avoid energy security risks, to enhance oil saving in all sectors with road transportation as the emphasis, and to increase the investment on oil production and refining to secure oil supply and reduce emissions. - Highlights: ► A Sankey Diagram to reveal the physical pattern of China’s oil supply and consumption. ► Present the ongoing trends of China’s oil development. ► Discuss important policy issues such as oil saving, energy security, and emissions reduction.

  17. Current trends in Irish perinatal mortality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahony, R

    2010-06-01

    This was a retrospective review of normally formed perinatal deaths among 176,620 births at the National Maternity Hospital (1984-2007). Prelabor stillbirths were categorised by presumed cause of death including unexplained, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), placental abruption, red cell alloimmunisation (RCA) and deaths related to prematurity. Peripartum deaths included intrapartum and first week neonatal deaths. The post-mortem rate, initially almost 100%, fell to 60%. Data were analysed using the Mantel-Haenszel chi square test for trends. In the study period there was a significant reduction in the PNM, largely because of a fall in death related to prematurity, term peripartum death, death at 42 weeks or greater, placental abruption, death related to IUGR and RCA (P < 0.01). Overall the unexplained still birth rate was unchanged throughout the study period (p = 0.8) despite a highly significant (p < 0.001) increase in obstetric intervention particularly induction of labor and caesarean section.

  18. Nuclear standards: current issues and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of the important issues that currently face the nuclear standards field is presented and a discussion of how each of these issues is being resolved is given. The economic benefits that properly developed standards produce are listed

  19. Medical Management of Uveitis ? Current Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Kalpana; Mahendradas, Padmamalini

    2013-01-01

    Uveitis is a challenging disease to treat. Corticosteroids have been used in the treatment of uveitis for many years. Immunosuppressives are gaining momentum in recent years in the treatment of uveitis. In this article we present an overview of current treatment of uveitis and the major breakthroughs and advances in drugs and ocular drug delivery systems in the treatment of uveitis.

  20. Intelligent multimedia surveillance current trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Atrey, Pradeep K; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent multimedia surveillance concerns the analysis of multiple sensing inputs including video and audio streams, radio-frequency identification (RFID), and depth data. These data are processed for the automated detection and tracking of people, vehicles, and other objects. The goal is to locate moving targets, to understand their behavior, and to detect suspicious or abnormal activities for crime prevention. Despite its benefits, there is societal apprehension regarding the use of such technology, so an important challenge in this research area is to balance public safety and privacy.

  1. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Ionel HRETCANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss various aspects of the current economy known as the knowledge economy. Also we will review two indicators of this new economy, because these indicators presents a general plan on access, use and degree of diffusion of knowledge. Then, based on these indicators and taking into account other aspects, we outline the structure relations between "new economy" and "digital economy". Finally we present the main types of business existing in the digital economy.

  2. Current Trends in the Russian Financial System

    OpenAIRE

    Barisitz, Stephan; Bogetic, Zeljko; Fungacova, Zuzana; Solanko, Laura; Havlik, Peter; Invushin, Valery; Osakovsky, Vladimir V.; Revoltella, Debora; Lehmann, Alexander; Nowotny, Ewald; Pineau-Valencienne, Cyril; Sutela, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    The papers in the present SUERF Study is a selection of the papers presented at a SUERF Workshop and Special OeNB East Jour Fixe held at Oesterreichische Nationalbank in Vienna on 23 January 2009. In his opening remarks (chapter 2), Ewald Nowotny, Governor of the Oesterreichische Nationalbank referred to Austrian banks? engagement with neighbouring Central and Eastern European Countries. The current crisis should not make people forget the fact that Austrian banks? deep engagement with the ne...

  3. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials: Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Zadpoor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the development of novel biomaterials for new fields of application, along with the emergence of advanced computational techniques. The current Special Issue is a collection of studies that address various topics within the general theme of “mechanics of biomaterials”. This editorial aims to present the context within which the studies of this Special Issue could be better understood. I, therefore, try to identify some of the most important research trends in the study of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials.

  4. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  5. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  6. Current trends in scintillator detectors and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    The last decade has seen a renaissance in inorganic scintillator development for gamma ray detection. Lead tungstate (PbWO 4 ) has been developed for high-energy physics experiments, and possesses exceptionally high density and radiation hardness, albeit with low luminous efficiency. Lutetium orthosilicate or LSO (Lu 2 SiO 5 :Ce) possesses a unique combination of high luminous efficiency, high density, and reasonably short decay time, and is now incorporated in commercial positron emission tomography cameras. There have been advances in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that limit energy resolution, and several recently discovered materials (such as LaBr 3 :Ce) possess energy resolution that approaches that of direct solid state detectors. Finally, there are indications that a neglected class of scintillator materials that exhibit near band-edge fluorescence could provide scintillators with sub-nanosecond decay times and high luminescent efficiency

  7. Historical and Current Trends in Colon Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, Marlin Wayne; Rivadeneira, David E.; Steele, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the evolution of the evaluation and management of colonic trauma, as well as the debate regarding primary repair versus fecal diversion. Their evidence-based review covers diagnosis, management, surgical approaches, and perioperative care of patients with colon-related trauma. The management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 50 years; here the authors describe a practical approach to the treatment and management of traumatic injuries to the colon based on the most current research. However, management of traumatic colon injuries remains a challenge and continues to be associated with significant morbidity. Familiarity with the different methods to the approach and management of colonic injuries will allow surgeons to minimize unnecessary complications and mortality. PMID:24294119

  8. Chemical Engineering Education - Current and Future Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    topics (transport phenomena, separations, reaction engineering, etc.) must remain strong, should the applications that currently emphasize commodity chemicals also include new topics such as sustainability, and product design? In Europe, the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE) has taken...... has a product focus. With this shift of the chemical industry, what should be the curriculum of the chemical engineering degrees at the BSc- and MSc-levels, and, are the skill set of chemical engineers appropriate for this altered chemical industry? While the basic skill set, defined by the core...... a leading role to define the chemical engineering curriculum. The result has been a set of recommendations for the first (BSc), second (MSc) and third (PhD) cycle chemical engineering education aligned to the Bologna Process. They recommend that students studying towards bachelor and masters qualifications...

  9. Current Trends in Korean Adolescents’ Social Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jongho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the research presented we investigated the features of Korean adolescents’ social purpose as compared with other life goals in terms of different aspects of psychological well-being (study 1. We also examine the perceptions of high achieving Korean adolescents on social purpose and factors affecting it (study 2.The results of study 1 showed that the pursuit of social purpose significantly predicted psychological well-being compared to the other two life goals. Results of study 2 showed Korean adolescents value and pursue social purpose as a life goal. They explicitly accepted their social responsibility to serve their country in line with idyllic Confucianism values and Collectivistic roles. However, further analysis revealed that they had implicitly pursued individualistic desires of materialistic wealth and fame in parallel with their explicit social purpose. Implications of the results are discussed from the socio-cultural perspective on social purpose in regards to how to understand the features of social purpose that Korean adolescents have and how to foster its development.

  10. Sagebrush ecosystems: current status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.; Stiver, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) biome has changed since settlement by Europeans. The current distribution, composition and dynamics, and disturbance regimes of sagebrush ecosystems have been altered by interactions among disturbance, land use, and invasion of exotic plants. In this chapter, we present the dominant factors that have influenced habitats across the sagebrush biome. Using a large-scale analysis, we identified regional changes and patterns in “natural disturbance”, invasive exotic species, and influences of land use in sagebrush systems. Number of fires and total area burned has increased since 1980 across much of the sagebrush biome. Juniper (Juniperus spp.) and pinyon (Pinus spp.) woodlands have expanded into sagebrush habitats at higher elevations. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an exotic annual grass, has invaded much of lower elevation, more xeric sagebrush landscapes across the western portion of the biome. Consequently, synergistic feedbacks between habitats and disturbance (natural and human-caused) have altered disturbance regimes, plant community dynamics and contributed to loss of sagebrush habitats and change in plant communities. Habitat conversion to agriculture has occurred in the highly productive regions of the sagebrush biome and influenced up to 56% of the Conservation Assessment area. Similarly, urban areas, and road, railroad, and powerline networks fragment habitats, facilitate predator movements, and provide corridors for spread of exotic species across the entire sagebrush biome. Livestock grazing has altered sagebrush habitats; the effects of overgrazing combined with drought on plant communities in the late 1880s and early 1900s still influences current habitats. Management of livestock grazing has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by habitat treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences, roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements have further

  11. Virtual Inertia: Current Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwol Tamrakar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern power system is progressing from a synchronous machine-based system towards an inverter-dominated system, with large-scale penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs like wind and photovoltaics. RES units today represent a major share of the generation, and the traditional approach of integrating them as grid following units can lead to frequency instability. Many researchers have pointed towards using inverters with virtual inertia control algorithms so that they appear as synchronous generators to the grid, maintaining and enhancing system stability. This paper presents a literature review of the current state-of-the-art of virtual inertia implementation techniques, and explores potential research directions and challenges. The major virtual inertia topologies are compared and classified. Through literature review and simulations of some selected topologies it has been shown that similar inertial response can be achieved by relating the parameters of these topologies through time constants and inertia constants, although the exact frequency dynamics may vary slightly. The suitability of a topology depends on system control architecture and desired level of detail in replication of the dynamics of synchronous generators. A discussion on the challenges and research directions points out several research needs, especially for systems level integration of virtual inertia systems.

  12. CURRENT TRENDS IN DEVELOPING URBAN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Yıldız

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The synergy of architecture and other disciplines in studies of developing tourism is  significant in terms of continuity of past and future. Now architects and urban designers are working in collaboration with social sciences disciplines in the field of urban tourism. Some examples of cultural, artistic and social activities can be listed as: re-transformation of port districts, opening of new museums, new additions to the fabric of the historic city, theme parks, coastal regulations, re-use of historic structures, innovative approaches to accommodation services, production of the metropolitan centers, architectural competitions organized by central and local governments, prestige landscapes, innovative, technological and ecological approaches in architecture, festivals, design and fashion weeks, guided tours, city walks, local meetings, lectures, courses in art education, concerts, sport events, fairs , the cultural capitals. The paper analyses these works companion to tourism in detail and in a holistic sese, questions these studies in urban,  economic, cultural and social movement axes. This inquiry aims to discuss current  projects being carried out in Istanbul which is an important city in the world, also to offer a wide range of tips for conducting a collaborative, multi-dimensional perspective studies carried out in the field of tourism.

  13. Current Trends in the Management of Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayyam Kıratlı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor of early childhood, and 95% of all cases are diagnosed before the age of 5 years. Tumors are evaluated and classified based on laterality, genetic features, the number, location and size of foci. Currently, systemic and intaarterial chemotherapy are the most commonly used management options worldwide. Group A tumors are treated with focal techniques including transpupillary thermotherapy, cryotherapy, or laser photocoagulation. Groups B and C tumors are managed with systemic chemotherapy and focal consolidation techniques. Group D lesions are best treated with systemic chemotherapy, subtenon carboplatin injection or external beam radiotherapy. Alternatively, groups B, C and D tumors can be primarily treated with intraarterial chemotherapy. Intravitreal melphalan injection can be an alternative treatment for eyes with recurrent or persistent vitreous seeding. Group E eyes are often enucleated, however, depending on the fellow eye, systemic or intraarterial chemotherapy may be administered. Systemic chemotherapy is also mandatory if high-risk histopathological features are found after enucleation. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 22-8

  14. Current trends in methods for neutron diffusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Current work and trends in the application of neutron diffusion theory to reactor design and analysis are reviewed. Specific topics covered include finite-difference methods, synthesis methods, nodal calculations, finite-elements and perturbation theory

  15. Epistaxis management: current understanding amongst junior doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R; Nash, R; Liu, Z-W; Singh, A

    2016-03-01

    Epistaxis is a common and potentially life-threatening emergency. This survey assesses understanding and confidence in epistaxis management amongst current junior doctors. A cross-sectional study was conducted of foundation year one and two doctors based at three National Health Service trusts within a single region of the UK, assessing basic understanding and procedural confidence. A total of 111 foundation doctors completed this survey. The average duration of undergraduate exposure to otolaryngology was 8.1 days. Forty-one per cent of respondents stated that they would apply pressure to the nasal bones to control epistaxis. Seventy-five per cent lacked confidence in their ability to manage epistaxis. Those with two weeks or more of undergraduate exposure to otolaryngology were more confident than those with one week or less of exposure (p epistaxis management, with patient safety implications. Confidence is associated with the duration of undergraduate exposure to otolaryngology. A minimum emergency safe competency should be a priority during foundation training if not achieved in UK medical schools.

  16. Current Trends in Adolescent Substance Use in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Atkinson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: National secondary school-based drug surveys facilitate the identification and understanding of patterns of substance use among adolescents, associated risk and protective factors which exist and inform prevention and treatment interventions and policies which are appropriate for resource constrained settings. This paper analyses current trends as well as reviews trends from the last National School Survey conducted by the National Council on Drug Abuse in 2006. Method: The study utilized a survey design that included a representative sample of secondary school students. Data were collected from 3365 students from 38 schools across the island. The study made specific reference to the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco cigarette, marijuana and inhalant use among secondary school students. Results: The most widely used substances among the sample were alcohol, tobacco cigarettes, marijuana and solvents/inhalants. A large number of students (64% reported a lifetime prevalence of alcohol use. Alcohol use was also the highest for one-year (44% and one-month (33.6% use. While lifetime use of tobacco cigarette was higher than marijuana, one-year and one-month use of marijuana was higher than that of tobacco cigarette. There has been a slight increase in the age of initiation for alcohol, tobacco cigarette and marijuana use. There has also been a significant decrease (approximately 50% in lifetime, past year and past month prevalence of inhalant use since the 2006 secondary school survey. Conclusions: Alcohol continues to be the substance most widely used by Jamaican adolescents, followed by tobacco, marijuana and inhalants. Though the average age of first use has slightly increased for all substances, prevalence remains a concern. As such, innovative school-based interventions are required to assist in reducing substance use among Jamaican adolescents.

  17. Analytical Chemistry: A retrospective view on some current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessner, Reinhard

    2018-04-01

    In a retrospective view some current trends in Analytical Chemistry are outlined and connected to work published more than a hundred years ago in the same field. For example, gravimetric microanalysis after specific precipitation, once the sole basis for chemical analysis, has been transformed into a mass-sensitive transducer in combination with compound-specific receptors. Molecular spectroscopy, still practising the classical absorption/emission techniques for detecting elements or molecules experiences a change to Raman spectroscopy, is now allowing analysis of a multitude of additional features. Chemical sensors are now used to perform a vast number of analytical measurements. Especially paper-based devices (dipsticks, microfluidic pads) celebrate a revival as they can potentially revolutionize medicine in the developing world. Industry 4.0 will lead to a further increase of sensor applications. Preceding separation and enrichment of analytes from complicated matrices remains the backbone for a successful analysis, despite increasing attempts to avoid clean-up. Continuous separation techniques will become a key element for 24/7 production of goods with certified quality. Attempts to get instantaneous and specific chemical information by optical or electrical transduction will need highly selective receptors in large quantities. Further understanding of ligand - receptor complex structures is the key for successful generation of artificial bio-inspired receptors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Current understanding in pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess McPherson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been advances in our understanding of the complex pathogenesis of atopic eczema over the past few decades. This article examines the multiple factors which are implicated in this process.

  19. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  20. Current trends in chloroplast genome research | Khan | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comprise of DOGMA for annotation, SCAN-SE, ARAGON and PREP suit for RNA analyses and CG viewer for circular map construction/comparative analysis. Faster algorithms for gene-order based phylogenetic reconstruction and bootstrap analysis have attracted the attention of research community. Current trends in ...

  1. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  2. Current Technology Trends for School Library Media Specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Ekhaml; Joan Hubbard

    2003-01-01

    An overview of some of the current technology trends used in classroom instruction and school library media centers in provided in this article such as the use of handheld electronic organizers, CD recorders, digital video cameras, and interactive whiteboards. The article offers some suggestions or ideas on how to acquire new technologies to school library media centers that are low in budgetary funds.

  3. West Virginia Women Business Owners: Current Study and Trends Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holup, Linda L.; FitzGerald, Kathleen M.

    This report profiles current West Virginia women business owners and notes significant trends in the last eight years. It highlights a subgroup of women business owners, specifically low income, single women with children. These survey areas are discussed: industry sector, type of ownership, reasons for going/not going into business, planning…

  4. Current Trends in European Quality Assurance. ENQA Workshop Report 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozo, Dhurata; Damian, Radu; Gonzalez, Cecilia de la Rosa; Helle, Emmi; Imoda, Franco; Kohler, Alexander; Papazoglou, Vassilios J.; Dalmau, Gemma Rauret; Shopov, Todor

    2009-01-01

    The present report is a product of two ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) seminars, held in 2007, on current trends in European Quality Assurance. The first seminar, hosted by the Bulgarian National Evaluation and Accreditation Agency (NEAA), examined the situation in South-Eastern Europe. The second seminar…

  5. Current Trends in Higher Education Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Current trends in higher education learning and teaching focuses on the use of technology, integrated learning through "blended learning" and writing for academic purposes. This introductory article initiates the debate around the context of South African higher education teaching and learning. It does so by contextualizing the South…

  6. Current Trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jii

    A proposal for current trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan has been drawn from the suggestions made after a national conference of "Workshop on Aerospace Engineering Education Reform." This workshop was held in January 18-20, 1998, at the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan,…

  7. Research on Current Trends and Developments in Library Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Laurel A.

    A research project was undertaken in 1992 in order to identify, describe, and analyze current trends and developments in library automation systems and library software. The starting point is work conducted in 1988/1989 that formed the foundation of the book "Computer Software for School Libraries: A Directory." A 1992 survey of software…

  8. Five Aspects of Current Trends in German Library Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steierwald, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    The specialisation Library Science at the Hochschule Darmstadt/University of Applied Science Darmstadt is the newest academic program in Germany for the higher education of librarians. Five current trends in library science in Germany reflect the new "Darmstadt Model": (1) The delimitation of a specific professional field…

  9. Current understanding of the human microbiome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Jack A.; Blaser, Martin J.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Jansson, Janet K.; Lynch, Susan V.; Knight, Rob

    2018-04-10

    Our understanding of the link between the human microbiome and disease, including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis and autism, is rapidly expanding. Improvements in the throughput and accuracy of DNA sequencing of the genomes of microbial communities associated with human samples, complemented by analysis of transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes and immunomes, and mechanistic experiments in model systems, have vastly improved our ability to understand the structure and function of the microbiome in both diseased and healthy states. However, many challenges remain. In this Review we focus on studies in humans to describe these challenges, and propose strategies that leverage existing knowledge to move rapidly from correlation to causation, and ultimately to translation.

  10. Current understanding of multi-species biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Yang; Wu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    every year worldwide to deal with damage to equipment, contaminations of products, energy losses, and infections in human beings resulted from microbial biofilms. Microorganisms compete, cooperate, and communicate with each other in multi-species biofilms. Understanding the mechanisms of multi......Direct observation of a wide range of natural microorganisms has revealed the fact that the majority of microbes persist as surface-attached communities surrounded by matrix materials, called biofilms. Biofilms can be formed by a single bacterial strain. However, most natural biofilms are actually......-species biofilm formation will facilitate the development of methods for combating bacterial biofilms in clinical, environmental, industrial, and agricultural areas. The most recent advances in the understanding of multi-species biofilms are summarized and discussed in the review....

  11. Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, John T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together

  12. Current research and development trends in floristic geography

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Sun; Tao Deng; Yongsheng Chen; Zhuo Zhou

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research status, existing issues, and trends in floristic geography. There is now a wealth of research accumulation on floristic investigations, distribution types of genera, floristic regions, and regional floristic analysis. It is also noted that most of these studies utilize simple statistical analyses, comparative studies, traditional methods, and single subjects, to provide a basic understanding and description of the floristic phenomenon, which is lacking spati...

  13. Current understanding of SEP acceleration and propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klecker, B

    2013-01-01

    The solar energetic particle (SEP) populations of electrons and ions are highly variable in space and time, in intensity, energy, and composition. Over the last ∼20 years advanced instrumentation onboard many spacecraft (e.g. ACE, Coronas, GOES, Hinode, RHESSI, SAMPEX, SDO, SOHO, STEREO, TRACE, Ulysses, Yokoh, to name a few) extended our ability to explore the characteristics of solar energetic particles by in-situ measurements in interplanetary space and by observing their source characteristics near the Sun by remote-sensing observation of electromagnetic emission over a wide frequency range. These measurements provide crucial information for understanding the sources of the particle populations and the acceleration and propagation processes involved. We are now able to measure intensity-time profiles and anisotropies, energy spectra, elemental and isotopic abundances, and the ionic charge of particles over an extended energy range of 0.01 to several 100 MeV/nuc and for a large dynamic range of particle intensities. Furthermore, multi-spacecraft in-situ observations at different solar longitudes and latitudes provide new insight into the acceleration and propagation processes of SEPs near the Sun and in interplanetary space. In this paper we present an overview of SEP observations, their implications for SEP acceleration and propagation processes, and discuss open questions.

  14. Computers in nuclear medicine - current trends and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Previously, a decision to purchase computing equipment for nuclear medicine usually required evaluation of the 'local' needs. With the advent of Pacs and state of the art computer techniques for image acquisition and manipulation, purchase and subsequent application is to become much more complex. Some of the current trends and future possibilities which may influence the choice and operation of computers within and outside the nuclear medicine environment is discussed. (author)

  15. Current Technology Trends for School Library Media Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Ekhaml

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview of some of the current technology trends used in classroom instruction and school library media centers in provided in this article such as the use of handheld electronic organizers, CD recorders, digital video cameras, and interactive whiteboards. The article offers some suggestions or ideas on how to acquire new technologies to school library media centers that are low in budgetary funds.

  16. Evolution and Current Trends in Liquid and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Grand-Guillaume-Perrenoud, Alexandre; Guillarme, Davy

    2014-01-01

    The current trend in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tends toward the achievement of higher separation efficiency and shorter analysis time. Indeed, better performance in LC has become increasingly important in recent years mainly driven by the challenges of either analyzing more complex samples or increasing the numbers of samples per time unit. In the recent development of particle technology, the use of fully porous sub-2 m particles and sub-3 m shell particles have received ...

  17. Current trends in molecular diagnostics of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhas, Raquel; Cordeiro, Milton; Pedrosa, Pedro; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Baptista, Pedro V

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 1.5 million people worldwide suffer from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), characterized by the genetic translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), involving the fusion of the Abelson oncogene (ABL1) with the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene. Early onset diagnosis coupled to current therapeutics allow for a treatment success rate of 90, which has focused research on the development of novel diagnostics approaches. In this review, we present a critical perspective on current strategies for CML diagnostics, comparing to gold standard methodologies and with an eye on the future trends on nanotheranostics.

  18. Cardiovascular disease mortality in the Americas: current trends and disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fatima Marinho de Souza, Maria; Gawryszewski, Vilma Pinheiro; Orduñez, Pedro; Sanhueza, Antonio; Espinal, Marcos A

    2012-08-01

    To describe the current situation and trends in mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Americas and explore their association with economic indicators. This time series study analysed mortality data from 21 countries in the region of the Americas from 2000 to the latest available year. Age-adjusted death rates, annual variation in death rates. Regression analysis was used to estimate the annual variation and the association between age-adjusted rates and country income. Currently, CVD comprised 33.7% of all deaths in the Americas. Rates were higher in Guyana (292/100 000), Trinidad and Tobago (289/100 000) and Venezuela (246/100 000), and lower in Canada (108/100 000), Puerto Rico (121/100 000) and Chile (125/100 000). Male rates were higher than female rates in all countries. The trend analysis showed that CVD death rates in the Americas declined -19% overall (-20% among women and -18% among men). Most countries had a significant annual decline, except Guatemala, Guyana, Suriname, Paraguay and Panama. The largest annual declines were observed in Canada (-4.8%), the USA (-3.9%) and Puerto Rico (-3.6%). Minor declines were in Mexico (-0.8%) and Cuba (-1.1%). Compared with high-income countries the difference between the median of death rates in lower middle-income countries was 56.7% higher and between upper middle-income countries was 20.6% higher. CVD death rates have been decreasing in most countries in the Americas. Considerable disparities still remain in the current rates and trends.

  19. Food and Health Some Current Issues and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan)

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with some of the many current issues and future trends in the area of food, diet and health in Europe. A complete coverage would be impossible in a short article in view of the extent and complexity of the food system and its major interaction with health. It is also important to stress at the outset that food/diet is only one component of health and other factors such as environment, overall lifestyle and genetics also play a major role. The genetic dimension is of particula...

  20. Current Trends in High-Level Synthesis of Asynchronous Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a survey paper presenting what the author sees as two major and promising trends in the current research in CAD-tools and design-methods for asynchronous circuits. One branch of research builds on top of existing asynchronous CAD-tools that perform syntax directed translation, e...... a conventional synchronous circuit as the starting point, and then adds some form of handshake-based flow-control. One approach keeps the global clock and implements discrete-time asynchronous operation. Another approach substitutes the clocked registers by asynchronous handshake-registers, thus creating truly...

  1. Radiation sterilization of medical products- current trends and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.

    1997-01-01

    In medical practice use of sterile pharmaceuticals and single use disposable medical devices is steadily increasing. Sterile pharmaceuticals like injections and ophthalmic ointments are required for therapy. Medical devices are employed for diagnostic, drug administration or corrective purposes, and as implants for temporary, short term or long term residence in the human system. All these products are made available in sterile form by treating them to a suitable process of sterilization i.e. dry/wet heat, ethylene oxide (EtO) gas or ionizing radiation. In this paper current trends and future prospects of radiation sterilization of medical products are given in detail. 9 refs., 7 tabs

  2. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, N.; Rahmat, K.; Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed

  3. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: katt_xr2000@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T. [Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed.

  4. Trends in Mediation Analysis in Nursing Research: Improving Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Melody

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe common approaches used by nursing researchers to test mediation models and evaluate them within the context of current methodological advances. MEDLINE was used to locate studies testing a mediation model and published from 2004 to 2015 in nursing journals. Design (experimental/correlation, cross-sectional/longitudinal, model complexity) and analysis (method, inclusion of test of mediated effect, violations/discussion of assumptions, sample size/power) characteristics were coded for 456 studies. General trends were identified using descriptive statistics. Consistent with findings of reviews in other disciplines, evidence was found that nursing researchers may not be aware of the strong assumptions and serious limitations of their analyses. Suggestions for strengthening the rigor of such studies and an overview of current methods for testing more complex models, including longitudinal mediation processes, are presented.

  5. Current trends in the global tourism industry: evidence from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejdet Delener

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the largest U.S. industries, serving millions of international and domestic tourists yearly. Tourists visit the U.S. to see natural wonders, cities, historic landmarks, and entertainment venues. Americans seek similar attractions as well as recreation and vacation areas. Tourism competes in the global market, so it is important to understand current trends in the U.S. travel industry. Therefore, this article offers insight into important trends and suggests strategies for policy makers involved in the travel and tourism industry.

  6. Current Trends in Foreign Trade Theory and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław W. Puślecki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, Author focus on the current analysis trends in foreign trade theory and policy. Accordance with the foreign trade policy theory further trade liberalisation and improved framework policies would increase trade and promote growth. It must be emphasized that openness to trade is associated with higher incomes and growth and there is the need for new approaches to trade cooperation in light of the forces that are currently re-shaping international business. What indicates the importance and innovativeness of the research is the presentation of the new models of the foreign trade policy and trade interests. First of all, it must underline that in the new theoretical terms in demand for trade policy very important is factor specificity. The low specificity of factors means that factor returns are equalized throughout a region’s economy. On the other hand, some factors are stuck in their present uses; therefore, factor returns are not equalized throughout a region’s economy but are industry specific. The main objective of the research task is to give a comprehensive analysis of current trends in foreign trade theory and policy and in particular models of foreign trade policy, trade interests indicated by export orientation and import sensitivity, foreign trade policy in different types of authoritarian regimes, protectionist pressures in different political system, the level of protectionist pressures, the tendencies to bilateralism in the foreign trade policy. It should be stressed that free trade in itself is not responsible for economic growth, but more significant are the determining macroeconomic stability and increasing investment.

  7. Understanding NOx emission trends in China based on OMI observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Ga, D.; Smeltzer, C. D.; Yi, R.; Liu, Z.

    2012-12-01

    We analyze OMI observations of NO2 columns over China from 2005 to 2010. Simulations using a regional 3-D chemical transport model (REAM) are used to derive the top-down anthropogenic NOx emissions. The Kendall method is then applied to derive the emission trend. The emission trend is affected by the economic slowdown in 2009. After removing the effect of one year abnormal data, the overall emission trend is 4.35±1.42% per year, which is slower than the linear-regression trend of 5.8-10.8% per year reported for previous years. We find large regional, seasonal, and urban-rural variations in emission trend. The annual emission trends of Northeast China, Central China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta are 44.98±1.39%, 5.24±1.63%, 3.31±1.02% and -4.02±1.87%, respectively. The annual emission trends of four megacities, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen are 0.7±0.27%, -0.75±0.31%, -4.08±1.21% and -6.22±2.85%,, considerably lower than the regional averages. These results appear to suggest that a number of factors, including migration of high-emission industries, vehicle emission regulations, emission control measures of thermal power plants, increased hydro-power usage, have reduced or reversed the increasing trend of NOx emissions in more economically developed megacities and southern coastal regions.

  8. "Old News? Understanding Retro Trends in 21st Century Fashion"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the difference between retro trends and historical reflection in fashion as cultural production. An attempt at a taxonomy of retro is attempted as is a discussion of the role of innovation in within a framework of apparent repetition.......The paper explores the difference between retro trends and historical reflection in fashion as cultural production. An attempt at a taxonomy of retro is attempted as is a discussion of the role of innovation in within a framework of apparent repetition....

  9. The Effect of Current Trends in Mobile Marketing on Traditional Marketing Communications and Customer Relationship Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    As consumers increasingly prefer mobile devices as their main communication and entertainment channel, it becomes more and more important for marketers as well. Mobile marketing today does not only include sending SMS and E-mail but rather is becoming a whole new interactive, rich-media marketing channel with possibilities for direct engagement with ads and brands like never before. This research attempts to provide a greater understanding about the effects of current trends in mobile mark...

  10. Information Technology in New Zealand: Review of Emerging Social Trends, Current Issues, and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Emre; Fail, Derwyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the general state of information technology in New Zealand society, current issues, and policies. It is a qualitative study that reviews recent scholarly articles, periodicals, and surveys in order to create an understanding of some of the information technology issues and trends in New Zealand. After reviewing previous research, it assesses the potential existence and nature of a 'digital divide' in New Zealand society whilst also evaluating possible strategic responses ...

  11. Current trends in gamma radiation detection for radiological emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Maurer, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of inter-disciplinary research and development has taken place-techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation-the so-called second line of defense.

  12. Blood flow behavior in microchannels: past, current and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, R.; Ishikawa, Takuji; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, various experimental methods have been applied in an effort to understand the blood flow behavior in microcirculation. Most of our current knowledge in microcirculation is based on macroscopic flow phenomena such as Fahraeus effect and Fahraeus-Linqvist effect. The development of optical experimental techniques has contributed to obtain possible explanations on the way the blood flows through microvessels. Although the past results have been encouraging, detailed s...

  13. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials: Current Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Amir A. Zadpoor

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the development of novel biomaterials for new fields of application, along with the emergence of advanced computational techniques. The current Special Issue is a collection of studies that address variou...

  14. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials: Current Trends (editorial)

    OpenAIRE

    Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the development of novel biomaterials for new fields of application, along with the emergence of advanced computational techniques. The current Special Issue is a collection of studies that address variou...

  15. Current trends in electrochemical sensing and biosensing of DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejcova, Ludmila; Richtera, Lukas; Hynek, David; Labuda, Jan; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-11-15

    DNA methylation plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes. Several genetic diseases and most malignancies tend to be associated with aberrant DNA methylation. Among other analytical methods, electrochemical approaches have been successfully employed for characterisation of DNA methylation patterns that are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of particular diseases. This article discusses current trends in the electrochemical sensing and biosensing of DNA methylation. Particularly, it provides an overview of applied electrode materials, electrode modifications and biorecognition elements applications with an emphasis on strategies that form the core DNA methylation detection approaches. The three main strategies as (i) bisulfite treatment, (ii) cleavage by restriction endonucleases, and (iii) immuno/affinity reaction were described in greater detail. Additionally, the availability of the reviewed platforms for early cancer diagnosis and the approval of methylation inhibitors for anticancer therapy were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Current trends in radiation protection in Egypt. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomma, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The treatise presents the development of radiation protection in egypt over the past four decades. The contents will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities, the hierarchy involved, and the respective responsibilities. The recent publications of the international trends in radiation protection are also mentioned. The efforts made towards the implementation of the new recommendations on radiation protection, and updating of the radiation protection legislations are also discussed. The 1994 international safety standards, and the collective opinion of the committee on radiation protection and public health (CRPPH) of the organization for economic Co-operation and development of the Nuclear energy agency OECD/NEA are also summarized

  17. Current trends in radiation protection in Egypt. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomma, M A [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The treatise presents the development of radiation protection in egypt over the past four decades. The contents will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities, the hierarchy involved, and the respective responsibilities. The recent publications of the international trends in radiation protection are also mentioned. The efforts made towards the implementation of the new recommendations on radiation protection, and updating of the radiation protection legislations are also discussed. The 1994 international safety standards, and the collective opinion of the committee on radiation protection and public health (CRPPH) of the organization for economic Co-operation and development of the Nuclear energy agency OECD/NEA are also summarized.

  18. Current technological trends in development of NPP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, Gheorghe; Panaitescu, Valeriu

    2010-01-01

    The recent nuclear research issues look for new technologies and continuous progress in finding different and efficient solutions for sustained and upraising energy demand. The trend of increasing energy consumption and occurring of new and large consumers, especially from Asian countries, imposes finding of new means for clean, large scale and sustained energy production. NPPs availability was continuously monitored and improved; at the same time the safety of the nuclear energy production was under surveillance. The present development of the new technologies, the discoveries of new materials and development of efficient technological processes offer the opportunities for their appropriate implementation and use in the NPP system configurations and functioning/operation. The new technologies and scientific discoveries, and also the international cooperation, offer the opportunities to mitigate the actual barriers in order to cumulate and use advanced energy production, to find new energy sources and to build improved, reliable and safe power plants. The monitoring systems, intelligent sensors and SSCs, nanotechnologies and new/intelligent materials constitute the main ways for improvement of the NPP systems configuration and processes. The paper presents: - The state of the art in the level of the currently applied technologies for nuclear power systems development; - The actual technological limits that need to be over passed for improving the NPP systems ; - The main systems that need improvement and reconfiguration for development of currently operating NPPs as well as raising the operation efficiency, availability and total safety; - The actual energy production issues; - The key arguments in sustaining the R and D new NPP systems development; - Future trends in NPP development; - The limitations in industrial processes knowledge and use. Appropriate R and D in the field of NPP systems have specific characteristics that were considered in paper completion

  19. Cohort Measures of Internal Migration: Understanding Long-Term Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aude

    2017-12-01

    Internal migration intensities fluctuate over time, but both migration levels and trends show great diversity. The dynamics underpinning these trends remain poorly understood because they are analyzed almost exclusively by applying period measures to cross-sectional data. This article proposes 10 cohort measures that can be applied to both prospective and retrospective data to systematically examine long-term trends. To demonstrate their benefits, the proposed measures are applied to retrospective survey data for England that provide residential histories from birth to age 50 for cohorts born between 1918 and 1957. The analysis reveals stable lifetime migration for men but increased lifetime migration for women associated with earlier ages at moving in adulthood and a compression of intervals between consecutive moves. The proposed cohort measures provide a more comprehensive picture of migration behavior and should be used to complement period measures in exploring long-term trends. Increasing availability of retrospective and longitudinal survey data means that researchers can now apply the proposed measures to a wide range of countries.

  20. Mapping the Evolution of eLearning from 1977–2005 to Inform Understandings of eLearning Historical Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Chen Sun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While there have been very limited studies of the educational computing literature to analyze the research trends since the early emergence of educational computing technologies, the authors argue that it is important for both researchers and educators to understand the major, historical educational computing trends in order to inform understandings of current and future eLearning trends. This study provides the findings of an analysis of 2,694 journal articles published between 1977 and 2005 in four major, international educational computing journals. It provides the platform for a subsequent analysis for the period 2006–2014 and beyond, as future educational computing research is published. The journal articles analyzed were categorized according to their research themes. Subsequently, clustering analysis, multi-dimension scale analysis, and research diversity analysis were performed on the categorized results to explore the research trends. The research literature analysis confirmed that there were identifiable evolutionary trends dating from 1977, and, importantly, the analysis highlighted that each key breakthrough in technology was accompanied by increased educational research about those technologies to inform educational practices. Importantly, two major driving forces of the historical trends identified were technologies and pedagogical approaches. The paper concludes with explanations of how these trends from 1977–2005 have shaped the current focus on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK needed for effective current and future eLearning.

  1. THE ROLE OF IDSTORY IN UNDERSTANDING CURRENT SOUTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Afr. J. Env. Ed. No. 10 (1989;. 3. THE ROLE OF IDSTORY IN UNDERSTANDING CURRENT SOUTH AFRICAI''r ... decision~making and socially responsive action by the ... physical and emotional estrangement of Africans by making it illegal ...

  2. LIFELONG LEARNING THROUGH SECOND LIFE: CURRENT TRENDS, POTENTIALS AND LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil GOKSEL-CANBEK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lifelong Learning (LLL has been a remarkable response to people-centered educational demand of 21st century. In order to provide effective formal, non-formal, and informal learning, immersive educational activities undertaken throughout life should be aimed to create a learning society in which people can experience individual and collective learning with no constrains of time or location. The concept of lifelong learning within the context of distance immersive education encompasses diverse 3D activities. The three dimensional, Web-based structured activities supported by distance learning technologies can be viewed as interactive tools which foster LLL. In this perspective, Second Life (SL can be regarded as one of the learning simulation milieus that allow learners to participate in various educational LLL activities in individual or group forms. The following paper examines how SL, taking advantage of its simulative nature and the possibility for creative interaction among participants, which are also common in games, allows the learners to participate in immersive constructivist learning activities. The article will also touch on the current uses of SL as a tool for LLL, as well as its potentials for further development according to the current trends in adult education. Further, the authors will discuss its limitations and will make suggestions towards a more complete pedagogical use.

  3. Between understanding and appreciation. Current science communication in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I use the concepts “understanding of science” and “appreciation of science” to analyze selected case studies of current science communication in Denmark. The Danish science communication system has many similarities with science communication in other countries: the increasing political and scientific interest in science communication, the co-existence of many different kinds of science communication, and the multiple uses of the concepts of understanding vs. appreciation of science. I stress the international aspects of science communication, the national politico-scientific context as well as more local contexts as equally important conditions for understanding current Danish science communication.

  4. Current Trends in Internet Usage and Cyber Crimes against Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Bansal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a written survey, this paper examines the current trends in internet use and cyber crime against youth for a given set of demographic conditions and presents suggestions for related safety measures and precautions. A written survey of young internet users aged between 10 and 17 years was conducted in the schools of Chandigarh, India. It showed that nearly 84 percent of the youth surveyed have internet connectivity at their homes. Seventy percent of the youth surveyed use the internet for social networking, the majority of whom share photographs, videos and personal information online. Fifteen percent of the youth reported online harassment, and approximately 30 percent reported online interaction with unknown people. According to the youth surveyed, the parents or guardians of more than 90 percent know about their browsing habits. In most cases parents or guardians had talked to their children about internet safety and possible threats. Schools and parents/guardians should ensure that the children are aware of internet dangers, including the dangers of sharing personal information and trusting unknown people online, and regulate their browsing activities.

  5. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  6. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, J Azorin

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting

  7. Current Trends in the Nuclear Power Global Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Mikhailovna Osetskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The review of the nuclear energy technologies market, namely the main processes of the initial and final stages of the nuclear fuel cycle (NTC was shown. The authors reveal key players in the markets of natural uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fabrication of nuclear fuel, direct disposal, and reprocessing as well as determine their market shares. The article shows the fundamental factors influencing the development trends of the global nuclear power market such as: units’ commissioning in China, India, the Republic of Korea and other countries, the restart of the Japanese nuclear power plants, growth of uranium supplies long-term contracting planned for the period up to 2025, volatility of world prices of the NFC initial and final stages, political, economic and environmental reasons for the nuclear power generation choice. The article presents the results of analyses of Russian and world prices on the NFC initial and final stages main processes’ allowing to draw a conclusion about the current competitiveness of Russian nuclear energy technologies

  8. Review on the current trends in tongue diagnosis systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jin Jung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is an essential process to noninvasively assess the condition of a patient's internal organs in traditional medicine. To obtain quantitative and objective diagnostic results, image acquisition and analysis devices called tongue diagnosis systems (TDSs are required. These systems consist of hardware including cameras, light sources, and a ColorChecker, and software for color correction, segmentation of tongue region, and tongue classification. To improve the performance of TDSs, various types TDSs have been developed. Hyperspectral imaging TDSs have been suggested to acquire more information than a two-dimensional (2D image with visible light waves, as it allows collection of data from multiple bands. Three-dimensional (3D imaging TDSs have been suggested to provide 3D geometry. In the near future, mobile devices like the smart phone will offer applications for assessment of health condition using tongue images. Various technologies for the TDS have respective unique advantages and specificities according to the application and diagnostic environment, but this variation may cause inconsistent diagnoses in practical clinical applications. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current trends in TDSs for the standardization of systems. In conclusion, the standardization of TDSs can supply the general public and oriental medical doctors with convenient, prompt, and accurate information with diagnostic results for assessing the health condition.

  9. Medical telerobotic systems: current status and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousti, Sotiris; Christoforou, Eftychios G; Panayides, Andreas S; Voskarides, Sotos; Novales, Cyril; Nouaille, Laurence; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Vieyres, Pierre

    2016-08-12

    Teleoperated medical robotic systems allow procedures such as surgeries, treatments, and diagnoses to be conducted across short or long distances while utilizing wired and/or wireless communication networks. This study presents a systematic review of the relevant literature between the years 2004 and 2015, focusing on medical teleoperated robotic systems which have witnessed tremendous growth over the examined period. A thorough insight of telerobotics systems discussing design concepts, enabling technologies (namely robotic manipulation, telecommunications, and vision systems), and potential applications in clinical practice is provided, while existing limitations and future trends are also highlighted. A representative paradigm of the short-distance case is the da Vinci Surgical System which is described in order to highlight relevant issues. The long-distance telerobotics concept is exemplified through a case study on diagnostic ultrasound scanning. Moreover, the present review provides a classification into short- and long-distance telerobotic systems, depending on the distance from which they are operated. Telerobotic systems are further categorized with respect to their application field. For the reviewed systems are also examined their engineering characteristics and the employed robotics technology. The current status of the field, its significance, the potential, as well as the challenges that lie ahead are thoroughly discussed.

  10. Current Trends in Sustainability of Bitcoins and Related Blockchain Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Giungato

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bitcoin is a digital currency based on a peer-to-peer payment system managed by an open source software and characterized by lower transaction costs, greater security and scalability than fiat money and no need of a central bank. Despite criticisms about illegal uses and social consequences, it is attracting the interest of the scientific community. The purpose of this work is to define and evaluate the current trends of the literature concerned with the sustainability of bitcoin, considering the environmental impacts, social issues and economic aspects. From the analysis it emerges that the transition of the whole monetary system in the new cryptocurrency will result in an unacceptable amount of energy consumed to mine new bitcoins and to maintain the entire virtual monetary system, and probably bitcoin will remain a niche currency. Blockchain, which is the base for a distributed and democratically-sustained public ledger of the transactions, could foster new and challenging opportunities. Sharing the framework of medical data, energy generation and distribution in micro-grids at the citizen level, block-stack and new state-driven cryptocurrencies, may benefit from the wide spread of blockchain-based transactions. Under the perspective of its being a driver of social change, bitcoins and related blockchain technologies may overcome the issues highlighted by numerous detractors.

  11. Review on the current trends in tongue diagnosis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Jin; Jeon, Young Ju; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Keun Ho

    2012-12-01

    Tongue diagnosis is an essential process to noninvasively assess the condition of a patient's internal organs in traditional medicine. To obtain quantitative and objective diagnostic results, image acquisition and analysis devices called tongue diagnosis systems (TDSs) are required. These systems consist of hardware including cameras, light sources, and a ColorChecker, and software for color correction, segmentation of tongue region, and tongue classification. To improve the performance of TDSs, various types TDSs have been developed. Hyperspectral imaging TDSs have been suggested to acquire more information than a two-dimensional (2D) image with visible light waves, as it allows collection of data from multiple bands. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging TDSs have been suggested to provide 3D geometry. In the near future, mobile devices like the smart phone will offer applications for assessment of health condition using tongue images. Various technologies for the TDS have respective unique advantages and specificities according to the application and diagnostic environment, but this variation may cause inconsistent diagnoses in practical clinical applications. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current trends in TDSs for the standardization of systems. In conclusion, the standardization of TDSs can supply the general public and oriental medical doctors with convenient, prompt, and accurate information with diagnostic results for assessing the health condition.

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatai B. Olokoba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder in which prevalence has been increasing steadily all over the world. As a result of this trend, it is fast becoming an epidemic in some countries of the world with the number of people affected expected to double in the next decade due to increase in ageing population, thereby adding to the already existing burden for healthcare providers, especially in poorly developed countries. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevalence, current diagnosis, and current treatment. Only articles in English were included. Screening and diagnosis is still based on World Health Organization (WHO and American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria which include both clinical and laboratory parameters. No cure has yet been found for the disease; however, treatment modalities include lifestyle modifications, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin sensitizers like metformin, a biguanide that reduces insulin resistance, is still the recommended first line medication especially for obese patients. Other effective medications include non-sulfonylurea secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and insulin. Recent research into the pathophysiology of type 2 DM has led to the introduction of new medications like glucagon-like peptide 1 analogoues: dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, insulin-releasing glucokinase activators and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled fatty-acid-receptor agonists, glucagon-receptor antagonists, metabolic inhibitors of hepatic glucose output and quick-release bromocriptine. Inhaled insulin was licensed for use in 2006 but has been withdrawn from the market because of low patronage.

  13. Understanding the Trends of Atmospheric Methane in the Past Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Logan, J. A.; McElroy, M. B.; Duncan, B. N.; Yantosca, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. After steady growth that resulted in an increase in atmospheric CH4 concentration by a factor of 2.5 over the past three centuries, the growth rate slowed in the 1980s; superimposed on the recent trend is significant interannual variability. In this study, various sources of information are utilized to quantify the contributions of individual CH4 sources and sinks to the trends of CH4 in the past decade. The GEOS-CHEM global three-dimensional chemical transport model with assimilated meteorology is used to test a number of hypotheses regarding recent trends in emissions. The model is evaluated with observations from the NOAA CMDL network. The model accounts for interannual variations in meteorology and concentrations of OH radical. In the baseline simulation, emissions are scaled to yearly country-by-country socioeconomic and other data: livestock populations and rice harvest areas are taken from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization; statistics on natural gas consumption and flaring from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center are used; data on coal production from British Petroleum are used; and precipitation rate and soil temperature from NCEP reanalyses are used to calculate natural wetland emissions, the sensitivities for which are based on the results obtained by Walter et al. [2001a,b]. The absolute strength for each of the sources in the base year of 1988 is chosen so that the budget satisfies mass balance constraints for total CH4 as well as individual isotopomers while producing good agreement with 1988 observed CH4 at various sites. Preliminary results indicate that the model simulates well the horizontal and vertical distribution, seasonal cycle, and long-term trend of CH4, capturing over 70% of the variance in the observed time series between 1988 and 1998 at many sites. However, an overestimate of the growth rate in the Northern Hemisphere as well

  14. Current and future trends in marine image annotation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Pereira, Jose Nuno; Auger, Vincent; Beisiegel, Kolja; Benjamin, Robert; Bergmann, Melanie; Bowden, David; Buhl-Mortensen, Pal; De Leo, Fabio C.; Dionísio, Gisela; Durden, Jennifer M.; Edwards, Luke; Friedman, Ariell; Greinert, Jens; Jacobsen-Stout, Nancy; Lerner, Steve; Leslie, Murray; Nattkemper, Tim W.; Sameoto, Jessica A.; Schoening, Timm; Schouten, Ronald; Seager, James; Singh, Hanumant; Soubigou, Olivier; Tojeira, Inês; van den Beld, Inge; Dias, Frederico; Tempera, Fernando; Santos, Ricardo S.

    2016-12-01

    . Integration into available MIAS is currently limited to semi-automated processes of pixel recognition through computer-vision modules that compile expert-based knowledge. Important topics aiding the choice of a specific software are outlined, the ideal software is discussed and future trends are presented.

  15. Current trends in chaperone use by plastic and reconstructive surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, Umar; Barta, Ruth J; Kim, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    There is a paucity of literature regarding the use of chaperones by surgeons when examining patients. Use of a chaperone not only makes the patient comfortable but also potentially protects the surgeon from perceived misconduct. This is especially true for plastic surgeons who examine sensitive areas commonly. The purpose of this study was to determine the current trends in chaperone use by plastic surgeons when examining patients. A 23-question online survey was sent to all members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Data collected online were analyzed using Student t test and Pearson χ test. A P use by plastic surgeons during all examinations of patients was 30%. This rate increased up to 60% while examining sensitive areas. Male surgeons reported a higher frequency of chaperone use than female surgeons (P use compared to reconstructive surgeons (P = 0.001). Similarly, surgeons who had been in practice for more than 20 years reported a higher rate of chaperone use compared to surgeons in practice for less than 20 years (P = 0.032). Sixty-one (7.6%; 56 male and 5 female) surgeons reported being accused of inappropriate behavior by patients, of whom 49 (80%) did not have a chaperone present. There was no significant difference among male and female surgeons in rates of being accused of inappropriate behavior (7.9% vs 4.2%, P = 0.19). There was a higher rate of chaperone use by male plastic surgeons, surgeons with more than 20 years experience, and cosmetic surgeons. Despite the difference in chaperone use between the sexes, both had similar rates of being accused of inappropriate behavior during examinations by patients, and although these incidents were quite low, most had no chaperone present during those examinations.

  16. Current trends in immunosuppressive therapies for renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ruth-Ann; Gabardi, Steven

    2012-11-15

    Current trends in immunosuppressive therapies for renal transplant recipients are reviewed. The common premise for immunosuppressive therapies in renal transplantation is to use multiple agents to work on different immunologic targets. The use of a multidrug regimen allows for pharmacologic activity at several key steps in the T-cell replication process and lower dosages of each individual agent, thereby producing fewer drug-related toxicities. In general, there are three stages of clinical immunosuppression: induction therapy, maintenance therapy, and treatment of an established acute rejection episode. Only immunosuppressive therapies used for maintenance therapy are discussed in detail in this review. The most common maintenance immunosuppressive agents can be divided into five classes: (1) the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) (cyclosporine and tacrolimus), (2) costimulation blockers (belatacept), (3) mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus), (4) antiproliferatives (azathioprine and mycophenolic acid derivatives), and (5) corticosteroids. Immunosuppressive regimens vary among transplantation centers but most often include a CNI and an adjuvant agent, with or without corticosteroids. Selection of appropriate immunosuppressive regimens should be patient specific, taking into account the medications' pharmacologic properties, adverse-event profile, and potential drug-drug interactions, as well as the patient's preexisting diseases, risk of rejection, and medication regimen. Advancements in transplant immunosuppression have resulted in a significant reduction in acute cellular rejection and a modest increase in long-term patient and graft survival. Because the optimal immunosuppression regimen is still unknown, immunosuppressant use should be influenced by institutional preference and tailored to the immunologic risk of the patient and adverse-effect profile of the drug.

  17. Positron Computed Tomography: Current State, Clinical Results and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelbert, H. R.; Phelps, M. E.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends. (ACR)

  18. Current market trends in hospital/physician integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Randy R

    2009-01-01

    This article explores recent trends that are dramatically changing the landscape of typical hospital/physician integration models and provides the reader with useful insights to better evaluate this dynamically changing marketplace.

  19. Positron computed tomography: current state, clinical results and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends. (ACR)

  20. Positron computed tomography: current state, clinical results and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends

  1. A Systematic Review of Current Understandings of Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stella; Dodd, Lorna J.; Steele, Catherine; Randall, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical framework is essential for the effective evaluation of employability. However, there are a wide range of definitions of employability coexisting in current literature. A review into existing ways in which employability has been conceptualised is needed to inform a better understanding of the nature of contributions made by various…

  2. Trend of environmental radiation protection and its current related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Reviewed are the international trend of environmental radiation protection (ERP), Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings from aspects of ecosystem to molecular level, and the future view. ERP is particularly closed up toward promotion after its first involvement in the general global conference, UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has conducted such actions for the environment as establishing protection essentials for non-human species (2003), organizing Committee 5 (2005), and defining Reference Animals and Plants (2008) where Derived Consideration Reference Levels of 0.1-100 mGy/d are proposed, together with cooperative actions by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and European projects. Japanese NIRS is now enrolled in the project of Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety-II (IAEA). Major Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings have utilized killifish (medaka: Oryzias latipes), springtail, earthworm, nematode, cultured plant cell (cedar), poplar, etc. Studies of the radiation effect on microcosm consisting of 3 livings have led to establishing a model for mathematical analysis and of 8 livings, have defined 50% affect dose of 5600 Gy gamma-ray. Irradiation of gamma-ray at 1 Gy/d for 5-10 days to the soil has been shown to result in alteration of the composition of natural earth bacterial population by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, which being a promising tool for evaluating the alteration of soil composition and function. At molecular levels, transcriptome analysis of various cells from yeast to man, is performed after irradiation of gamma-ray, neutron, heavy particles and others to reveal radiation-induced gene expression; and Hi-CEP (high

  3. Assessment and E-Learning: Current Issues and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Neil; Sakui, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes different ways in which digital technology can be used for language learning. It then identifies some key trends connecting assessment and technology in language learning and higher education: the use of automated systems to enhance traditional assessment practices; the use of Web 2.0 tools to facilitate new assessment…

  4. Institutional Repositories at Small Institutions in America: Some Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykanen, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this article was undertaken to determine the level of implementation of institutional repositories (IRs) at small institutions enrolling fewer than 10,000 students. The study analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from IRs at a number of small institutions with the aim of observing relevant patterns and trends that may…

  5. The current state and trends of the development of universities in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Morhulets

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is the basis of social, political, economic, spiritual, and cultural development. Therefore, the study of the current state and trends of the development of Ukrainian universities is a significant factor of social and economic progress of the country.The paper reflects the general state of universities in Ukraine, in particular, the trends in dynamics: the number of students in terms of entry/graduation, sources of financing, education fields; the number of universities in the context of accreditation, types and forms of ownership; the number of outbound Ukrainian and inbound foreign students; quantitative and qualitative characteristics of teaching staff; spending on higher education and the cost of funding per student compared with other countries. The purpose of the study is the assessment of economic activity of higher educational establishments in Ukraine, the identification of problems and tendencies of their development in the context of national transformational processes in education and formation of the society of knowledge. The methodical base used in the study is analysis and synthesis, methods of comparison and generalization, extrapolation, index and graphical methods. The practical value of the study is based on the results of a thorough analysis of university activities. Such results reveal the current state and trends of the development of universities under conditions of higher education transformation in Ukraine and its integration into the European educational area. The results of research improve understanding of the state and problems of the universities and provide the foundations for further research in the field of the national education system development and for improving of the quality of young professionals’ training. The trends of the university development indicate that the reorganization of higher education which is being currently taken place, already results in the emergence of new competencies of

  6. Current Trends and Challenges in Satellite Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Graham M.; Bianco, Giuseppe; Noll, Carey E.; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Pearlman, Michael R.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is used to measure accurately the distance from ground stations to retro-reflectors on satellites and on the Moon. SLR is one of the fundamental space-geodetic techniques that define the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), which is the basis upon which many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology are measured; with VLBI the two techniques define the scale of the ITRF; alone the SLR technique defines its origin (geocenter). The importance of the reference frame has recently been recognized at the inter-governmental level through the United Nations, which adopted in February 2015 the Resolution "Global Geodetic Reference Frame for Sustainable Development." Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration and validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice mass-balance, and terrestrial topography. It is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants and theories. With the exception of the currently in-orbit GPS constellation, all GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation; the next generation of GPS satellites due for launch from 2019 onwards will also carry retro-reflectors. The ILRS delivers weekly realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter series with a daily resolution. SLR technology continues to evolve towards the next-generation laser ranging systems and it is expected to successfully meet the challenges of the GGOS2020 program for a future Global Space Geodetic Network. Ranging precision is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers, and faster detectors are implemented within the network. Automation and pass interleaving at some stations is expanding temporal coverage and

  7. ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT TRENDS OF THE MARKET NANOCOSMETICS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Korzh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, nanotechnology has become one of the strategic directions of economic development of the leading countries. According to literary sources, it is established that more than 50 countries of the world are adopting national programs in this field of new knowledge, and various methods of nanotechnology have received the greatest development and application in microelectronics, aerospace, chemical, medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. It should be noted, that beauty is the most represented products with the use of nanotechnologies in the world. On the evaluation of the European Commission in 2009, the specific weight of cosmetics with nanoparticles amounted to 5%. The aim of the work was to assess the current trends of the market nanocosmetic photoprotectors development. In the last years in Ukraine the market of cosmetics is developing dynamically. Manufacturers of medical cosmetics invest heavily in scientific researches, patents, improvement of existing technologies. To determine the status of the security of the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine, we have analyzed the volume of sales and range of medical cosmetics, presented at the domestic market. In terms of sales volume in money terms of therapeutic cosmetics every year loses its position. Thus, the volume of sales in 2011, has decreased on 1,1 % in comparison with 2009. In Ukraine cosmetics of native production occupies 8% of the total volume of sales, cosmetics of foreign production - 92%. At the next stage of the research we have analyzed the medical cosmetic means, which are used for the prevention of photo-aging of the skin. In General, the Ukrainian market of medicinal cosmetics contains 125 trademarks of foreign and native manufacture. The largest share in the market of Ukraine belongs to the French medical cosmetics - 48,6 % of the total number of medical cosmetic means. It is represented by the various lines of medical cosmetics brands such: Vichy, Avene, RoC, Uriage

  8. Current and Future Trends in Game-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vaz de Carvalho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The first number of the second volume of the EAI Transactions on Serious Games focuses on the results presented on the European Conference on Game-Based Learning. This event, already on the 8th edition, has set standards in terms of presentation of research and practice and in the pointing out of new and future trends in the development of Game-Based Learning. As such, we are quite thrilled to be able to report them here.

  9. World petrochemical outlook: Is the current weakness a trend or an aberration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    While the focus of this conference is methanol, a review of the general petrochemical industry might be enlightening and valuable to understanding the methanol market. Methanol is certainly a commodity with similarities to hydrocarbons such as gasoline and similarities to base petrochemicals such as ethylene. Methanol stands with one foot in the fuels market via MTBE and the other in the chemicals business for acetic acid and formaldehyde, among many others. Is the world petrochemical market moving into a new trend of weak prices and profits or is the strong growth seen in 1994 and 1995 continuing and the current situation an aberration? In order to determine whether the current market is a trend or aberration, the author looks at issues that he believes caused the current situation and then considers where the world's economies and petrochemical markets are heading. The issues discussed are: unusually high price increase in a short period; inventory increase/decrease because of price changes; reduction in demand caused by high prices; increase in capacity caused by high prices; changes in growth of world economies; and political/economic issues in China

  10. Current trends in nuclear borehole logging techniques for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report is the result of a consultants' meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Ottawa, Canada, 2-6 November 1987 in order to assess the present technical status of nuclear borehole logging techniques, to find out the well established applications and the development trends. It contains a summary report giving a comprehensive overview of the techniques and applications and a collection of research papers describing work done in industrial institutes. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 9 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Current and Future Trends of the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Hermann Schramm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobility, and especially individual physical mobility, is still an essential component of nearly all societies.The combustion engine was for more than a hundred years, and is still today, the backbone of road-based mobility. However, the guarantor for the triumphant advance of the combustion engine was by far not its technical superiority over its electrical rival at the beginning of the automobile era, but the energy density and the easy worldwide availability of fossil fuels as a means of energy storage. So, e.g. to store theenergy equivalent of one kg Gasoline, a lithium ion battery with a mass of about 180 kg would be required (Schramm, 2012, even if the higher efficiency of the electric motor vs. the combustion engine is taken into account. Actually an electric motor is much better suited as a drive source for a motor vehicle as an internal combustion engine. Only the achievable energy density along with the cost of its chemical-process based storage, the battery, still prevent its immediate breakthrough in the automotive drive technology.Nevertheless, the German Government has set the target to bring at least a million electrified motor vehicles on Germany's roads by 2020, which is already impossible to reach from today’s perspective.However, strategies are needed to achieve a sustainable transition to electric mobility. This, in addition to continued research on high-efficiency batteries which also includes the development of vehicles that offer a good compromise between coverage, costs and consumption while satisfying the mobility needs of their users.Another trend that will lead to a paradigm shift in the use of individually-powered vehicles is the automation of the task of driving up to the highly automated or even autonomous vehicle. The technical prerequisites like sensors and actuators for these new systems are already available at least for application on motorways and rural regions, e.g. in Germany. More activities

  12. Current trends in the implementation of IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, A.; Bychkov, V.

    1993-01-01

    A practical goal, embodying the principle that a minimum amount of material is required in order to manufacture a nuclear explosive device, is that safeguards activities should enable the timely detection of the diversion of a significant quantity of nuclear material. It is important to note that the safeguards activities are not restricted to the International Atomic Energy Agency (the agency) but impose obligations on both state (and consequently on facility operators) and the agency. The beneficiaries are member states of the world community which have enhanced confidence in the competence and probity of states with safeguards agreements. Neither safeguards nor the nuclear industry have remained stationary. As new techniques have been developed, they have found applications, and as new challenges were encountered, the system has responded, for example, through improved measurements; through new or improved techniques for the operator, state or agency; and through new regulations. This paper details approaches, procedures and techniques developed for new complex nuclear facilities. Trends toward increase efficiency and effectiveness, and developments leading to more automated analysis and collection of data and the development of nondestructive assay methods are examined. Also important are trends in the presentation of safeguards results to the states and the general public

  13. Everyday, everywhere: alcohol marketing and social media--current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, James

    2012-01-01

    To provide a snapshot content analysis of social media marketing among leading alcohol brands in the UK, and to outline the implications for both regulatory policies and further research. Using screengrab technology, the complete Facebook walls and Twitter timelines for 12 leading UK alcohol brands in November 2011 were captured and archived. A total of 701 brand-authored posts were identified and categorized using a thematic coding frame. Key strategic trends were identified and analysed in the light of contextual research into recent developments in marketing practice within the alcohol industry. A number of dominating trends were identified. These included the use of real-world tie-ins, interactive games, competitions and time-specific suggestions to drink. These methods reflect a strategy of branded conversation-stimulus which is favoured by social media marketing agencies. A number of distinct marketing methods are deployed by alcohol brands when using social media. These may undermine policies which seek to change social norms around drinking, especially the normalization of daily consumption. Social media marketing also raises questions regarding the efficacy of reactive regulatory frameworks. Further research into both the nature and impact of alcohol marketing on social media is needed.

  14. E-LEARNING: CURRENT STATE, TRENDS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г А Краснова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the main trends of development of e-learning in formal and non-formal education in different countries. The article discusses the main quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the market of e-learning education. The authors define main reasons the development of e-learning education in higher education. The authors note that the demand for e-learning by various groups of users will push the education authorities and educational institutions to develop different forms of e-learning and implement new business models of universities. In most universities in Europe and the United States adopted or will be adopted for the institutional strategy of development of e-learning.

  15. Current trends in development of explosives in world mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobnikar, S.

    1987-01-01

    Surveys development of manufacturing industrial explosives in the 19th and 20th centuries, from first use of black powder, ammonium nitrate and TNT to the use of ANFO, slurries and water gel type explosives. Achievements of explosive producers with worldwide reputation (Ireco Chemicals, Du Pont, Atlas Powder Chemical, Nitro Nobel, Nippon Oil and Fats Co., Thermex Energy Co.) for manufacturing safe, reliable explosives used in surface and underground coal and ore mining (including gassy coal mines) and for quarrying are mentioned. Main characteristics of IREMITE, IREGEL, TOVEX, POURVEX, DRIVEX, Detagel, ANFO (both gel- and emulsion-type), Emulgite and Emulite are presented. A critical opinion about future trends in industrial explosive development is given. 10 refs., 7 tabs.

  16. Tianshuishi space breeding current situation and developing trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fuquan; Song Jianrong; Zhang Zhongping; Guo Zhenfang

    2012-01-01

    Tianshuishi is located in Xi'an to lanzhou among two big cities, the five space launch, has vegetables, food, grasses, flowers, rape, melon and fruit, Chinese traditional medicine, amount of 8 categories of crops, such as the 22 new material after carrying the ground breeding work. Only vegetables on identified 23 aerospace new varieties. After ten years of space breeding, summarizes the present situation of Tianshuishi space breeding, development experience, characteristic, trends, and puts forward the development space breeding Tianshuishi organization and breeding of talent from the matching policy and grow up incentive mechanism, strengthen the cooperation and all over the country, establishing fiscal policy support from the aspects such as advice. (authors)

  17. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials : Current Trends (editorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the

  18. Understanding current causes of women's underrepresentation in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Williams, Wendy M

    2011-02-22

    Explanations for women's underrepresentation in math-intensive fields of science often focus on sex discrimination in grant and manuscript reviewing, interviewing, and hiring. Claims that women scientists suffer discrimination in these arenas rest on a set of studies undergirding policies and programs aimed at remediation. More recent and robust empiricism, however, fails to support assertions of discrimination in these domains. To better understand women's underrepresentation in math-intensive fields and its causes, we reprise claims of discrimination and their evidentiary bases. Based on a review of the past 20 y of data, we suggest that some of these claims are no longer valid and, if uncritically accepted as current causes of women's lack of progress, can delay or prevent understanding of contemporary determinants of women's underrepresentation. We conclude that differential gendered outcomes in the real world result from differences in resources attributable to choices, whether free or constrained, and that such choices could be influenced and better informed through education if resources were so directed. Thus, the ongoing focus on sex discrimination in reviewing, interviewing, and hiring represents costly, misplaced effort: Society is engaged in the present in solving problems of the past, rather than in addressing meaningful limitations deterring women's participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers today. Addressing today's causes of underrepresentation requires focusing on education and policy changes that will make institutions responsive to differing biological realities of the sexes. Finally, we suggest potential avenues of intervention to increase gender fairness that accord with current, as opposed to historical, findings.

  19. Current understanding of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Baglan, N; Davis, P A

    2013-12-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that organically bound tritium (OBT) is the more significant tritium fraction with respect to understanding tritium behaviour in the environment. There are many different terms associated with OBT; such as total OBT, exchangeable OBT, non-exchangeable OBT, soluble OBT, insoluble OBT, tritiated organics, and buried tritium, etc. A simple classification is required to clarify understanding within the tritium research community. Unlike for tritiated water (HTO), the environmental quantification and behaviour of OBT are not well known. Tritiated water cannot bio-accumulate in the environment. However, it is not clear whether or not this is the case for OBT. Even though OBT can be detected in terrestrial biological materials, aquatic biological materials and soil samples, its behaviour is still in question. In order to evaluate the radiation dose from OBT accurately, further study will be required to understand OBT measurements and determine OBT fate in the environment. The relationship between OBT speciation and the OBT/HTO ratio in environmental samples will be useful in this regard, providing information on the previous tritium exposure conditions in the environment and the current tritium dynamics. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Humble beginnings: Current trends, state perspectives, and hallmarks of humility

    OpenAIRE

    Chancellor, J; Lyubomirsky, S

    2013-01-01

    After decades of neglect, research in humility is finally turning a corner. Within the past few years, investigators have articulated two promising strategies to overcome methodological concerns - namely, using personality judgments and designing humility "stress tests" to elicit humility-relevant behavior. We also highlight an alternative perspective of humility that has not yet gained much attention: the investigation of humility as a state, which helps to understand what humility actually ...

  1. The Informal Economy in Kosovo: Characteristics, Current Trends and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina XHELILI KRASNIQI; Rahmije MUSTAFA TOPXHIU

    2012-01-01

    The informal economy is present in all countries, but its consequences reflect in different countries with different intensity. Types and scale of informal economic activities reflect the specificities of socio-economic context and the integration of the countries into the wider local-regional economy. The informal economy represents an important potential of labor and incomes, therefore there is a need for better understanding, since on this will depend the direction of the path for safer ad...

  2. Personal trainer demographics, current practice trends and common trainee injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Waryasz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2% and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%. Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%, rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%, shin splints (8.1%, ankle sprain (7.5%, and cervical muscle strain (7.4%. There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness.

  3. Personal Trainer Demographics, Current Practice Trends and Common Trainee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waryasz, Gregory R.; Daniels, Alan H.; Gil, Joseph A.; Suric, Vladimir; Eberson, Craig P.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA) with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2%) and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%). Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%), rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%), shin splints (8.1%), ankle sprain (7.5%), and cervical muscle strain (7.4%). There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness. PMID:27761219

  4. Advanced fuel technology and performance: Current status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    During the last years the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Division of the IAEA has been giving great attention to the collection, analysis and exchange of information in the field of reactor fuel technology. Most of these activities are being conducted in the framework of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT). The purpose of this Advisory Group Meeting on Advanced Fuel Technology and Performance was to update and to continue the previous work, and to review the experience of advanced fuel technology, its performance with regard to all types of reactors and to outline the future trends on the basis of national experience and discussions during the meeting. As a result of the meeting a Summary Report was prepared which reflected the status of the advanced nuclear fuel technology up to 1990. The 10 papers presented by participants of this meeting are also published here. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. FBG-Based Monitoring of Geohazards: Current Status and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Zhu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, natural and anthropogenic geohazards have occured frequently all over the world, and field monitoring is becoming an increasingly important task to mitigate these risks. However, conventional geotechnical instrumentations for monitoring geohazards have a number of weaknesses, such as low accuracy, poor durability, and high sensitivity to environmental interferences. In this aspect, fiber Bragg grating (FBG, as a popular fiber optic sensing technology, has gained an explosive amount of attention. Based on this technology, quasi-distributed sensing systems have been established to perform real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides, debris flows, land subsidence, earth fissures and so on. In this paper, the recent research and development activities of applying FBG systems to monitor different types of geohazards, especially those triggered by human activities, are critically reviewed. The working principles of newly developed FBG sensors are briefly introduced, and their features are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of recent case studies and lessons learned, and some critical problems associated with field implementation of FBG-based monitoring systems. Finally the challenges and future trends in this research area are presented.

  6. FBG-Based Monitoring of Geohazards: Current Status and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; Zhang, Cheng-Cheng

    2017-02-24

    In recent years, natural and anthropogenic geohazards have occured frequently all over the world, and field monitoring is becoming an increasingly important task to mitigate these risks. However, conventional geotechnical instrumentations for monitoring geohazards have a number of weaknesses, such as low accuracy, poor durability, and high sensitivity to environmental interferences. In this aspect, fiber Bragg grating (FBG), as a popular fiber optic sensing technology, has gained an explosive amount of attention. Based on this technology, quasi-distributed sensing systems have been established to perform real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides, debris flows, land subsidence, earth fissures and so on. In this paper, the recent research and development activities of applying FBG systems to monitor different types of geohazards, especially those triggered by human activities, are critically reviewed. The working principles of newly developed FBG sensors are briefly introduced, and their features are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of recent case studies and lessons learned, and some critical problems associated with field implementation of FBG-based monitoring systems. Finally the challenges and future trends in this research area are presented.

  7. Obesity in Nigeria: Current trends and management | Akpa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study is to review the current knowledge on the problems associated with obesity, as well as the measures and strategies that have evolved in its management. A review of the literature on the subject of obesity, its epidemiology, risk factors, clinical complications and treatment (using Medline computer ...

  8. Current trends in endodontic practice: emergency treatments and technological armamentarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Winkler, Johnathon; Hartwell, Gary; Stewart, Jeffrey; Caine, Rufus

    2009-01-01

    The current clinical practice of endodontics includes the utilization of a variety of new technological advances and materials. The last comprehensive survey that compared treatment modalities used in endodontic practices was conducted in 1990. The purpose of the current survey was to determine the frequency with which these new endodontic technologies and materials are being used in endodontic practices today. An e-mail questionnaire was sent to the 636 active diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics with current e-mail addresses. Two hundred thirty-two diplomates responded for a response rate of 35%. Calcium hydroxide was found to be the most frequently used intracanal medicament for all cases diagnosed with necrotic pulps. Ibuprofen was the most frequently prescribed medication for pain, and penicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic when an active infection was present. Eighty-two percent of the respondents are still incorporating hand files in some fashion during the cleansing and shaping phase of treatment. Lateral condensation and continuous wave were the most common methods used for obturation. Digital radiography was reported as being used by 72.5% of the respondents, whereas 45.3% reported using the microscope greater than 75% of the patient treatment. Ultrasonics was used by 97.8% of the respondents. It appears from the results that new endodontic technology is currently being used in the endodontic offices of those who responded to the survey.

  9. Trends in Current Issues, Y2K-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Leslie; DeBlois, Peter B.

    2005-01-01

    EDUCAUSE inaugurated its annual Current Issues Survey in 2000 by asking the primary representatives, typically CIOs, of its member institutions to identify up to three critical IT issues (five starting in 2004) from among 30 to 40 in response to each of four questions. The survey response rate has typically been 35 to 40 percent, with a…

  10. Inclusive Education in Georgia: Current Trends and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchintcharauli, Tinatin; Javakhishvili, Nino

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the first comprehensive study of the Georgian inclusive education system launched nationwide in 2006. An internationally recognised tool, the "Pathway to Inclusion--Barometer of Inclusive Education", was applied within the country to highlight the current position of inclusive education in Georgia. The collected…

  11. Surgical adhesives in ophthalmology: history and current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhan, Samantha; Peng, Si-Liang; Janbatian, Hrag; Saadeh, Stephanie; Greenstein, Stephen; Al Bahrani, Faisal; Fadlallah, Ali; Yeh, Tsai-Chu; Melki, Samir A

    2018-03-26

    Tissue adhesives are gaining popularity in ophthalmology, as they could potentially reduce the complications associated with current surgical methods. An ideal tissue adhesive should have superior tensile strength, be non-toxic and anti-inflammatory, improve efficiency and be cost-effective. Both synthetic and biological glues are available. The primary synthetic glues include cyanoacrylate and the recently introduced polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives, while most biological glues are composed of fibrin. Cyanoacrylate has a high tensile strength, but rapidly polymerises upon contact with any fluid and has been associated with histotoxicity. Fibrin induces less toxic and inflammatory reactions, and its polymerisation time can be controlled. Tensile strength studies have shown that fibrin is not as strong as cyanoacrylate. While more research is needed, PEG variants currently appear to have the most promise. These glues are non-toxic, strong and time-effective. Through MEDLINE and internet searches, this paper presents a systematic review of the current applications of surgical adhesives to corneal, glaucoma, retinal, cataract and strabismus surgeries. Our review suggests that surgical adhesives have promise to reduce problems in current ophthalmic surgical procedures. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The International Curriculum: Current Trends and Emerging Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jesse Jones

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the current state of tertiary level international curricula and provides groundwork for future research aimed at ongoing needs. Recognized is the premise that existing international curricular programs require maintenance. Burn (1995) called for curriculum reform in international departments two decades ago with the rationale…

  13. Trends in Childspacing: June 1975. Current Population Reports: Population Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Maurice J.; And Others

    This report, largely statistical tables, presents data from the June 1975 Current Population Survey, on the timing and spacing of childbearing and discusses how such data is related to annual measures of fertility. By categorizing women according to their year of birth (birth cohort) or period of first marriage (marriage cohort), in addition to…

  14. Logging utilization in Idaho: Current and past trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Simmons; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Steven W. Hayes; Mike T. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    A study of commercial timber-harvesting activities in Idaho was conducted during 2008 and 2011 to characterize current tree utilization, logging operations, and changes from previous Idaho logging utilization studies. A two-stage simple random sampling design was used to select sites and felled trees for measurement within active logging sites. Thirty-three logging...

  15. Current research trends in mountain biodiversity in NW Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väisänen, Risto A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on four themes in relation to biodiversity (vegetation science, keystone grazers, long-term studies and protected areas, a synthesis of current research in the mountain areas of Fennoscandia, Iceland and Scotland is presented. Recent relevant advances in vegetation science include classifications of mountain habitats which together with species distribution maps offer new possibilities for analysis. Generalisations emerging from comparisons of the ecology and ecophysiology of plants between different mountain areas are greatly needed. Further studies on the ecological impacts of keystone grazers are urgently required because of the alarming rate of degradation of mountain habitats. The topics highlighted from northern Fennoscandia include (i the effect of overgrazing by reindeer on the cover of foliose lichens and on the regeneration of mountain birch, (ii the ecological interactions between the autumnal moth and mountain birch, and (Hi the effect of rodents on vegetation. Long-term studies of slow processes to capture rare but important events are needed to better understand the functioning of mountain ecosystems. Examples of such studies are presented for (i the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum as an indicator of airborne nitrogen pollution, (ii research based on cyclic oscillations of vole numbers, and (Hi the application of breeding birds in environmental assessment. The conservation of appropriate areas is important for mountain biodiversity. Mountain habitats have been protected extensively in northern Europe. The evaluation of how representative the existing areas are and how to use them for research need international co-ordination.

    [fr] On présente une synthèse de la recherche actuelle dans les régions de montagne de la Scandinavie, l'Islande et l'Ecosse, centrée sur quatre sujets autour de la biodiversité (science de la végétation, herbivores principaux, études à long terme et zones protégées. Les r

  16. Consciousness and working memory: Current trends and research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkovsky, Boris B

    2017-10-01

    Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory. Evidence for unconscious elements in working memory is shown to come from visual masking and attentional blink paradigms, and from the studies of implicit working memory. It is concluded that more research is needed to explicate the relationship between consciousness and working memory. Future research directions regarding the relationship between consciousness and working memory are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Current Trends in Implantable Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Garbade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of appropriate donor organs and the expanding pool of patients waiting for heart transplantation have led to growing interest in alternative strategies, particularly in mechanical circulatory support. Improved results and the increased applicability and durability with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs have enhanced this treatment option available for end-stage heart failure patients. Moreover, outcome with newer pumps have evolved to destination therapy for such patients. Currently, results using nonpulsatile continuous flow pumps document the evolution in outcomes following destination therapy achieved subsequent to the landmark Randomized Evaluation of Mechanical Assistance for the Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure Trial (REMATCH, as well as the outcome of pulsatile designed second-generation LVADs. This review describes the currently available types of LVADs, their clinical use and outcomes, and focuses on the patient selection process.

  18. Current trends and future development in pharmacologic stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacologic stress testing for myocardial perfusion imaging is a widely used noninvasive method for the evaluation of known or suspected coronary artery disease. The use of exercise for cardiac stress has been practiced for over 60 years and clinicians are familiar with its using. However, there are inevitable situations in which exercise stress is inappropriate. A large number of patients with cardiac problems are unable to exercise to their full potential due to comorbidity such as osteoarthritis, vascular disease and pulmonary disease and a standard exercise stress test for myocardial perfusion imaging is suboptimal means for assessment of coronary artery disease. This problem has led to the development of the pharmacologic stress test and to a great increase in its popularity. All of the currently used pharmacologic agents have well-documented diagnostic value. This review deals the physiological actions, clinical protocols, safety, nuclear imaging applications of currently available stress agents and future development of new vasodilating agents

  19. Survey of current trends in DNA synthesis core facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, K M; Fox, J W; Gunthorpe, M; Lilley, K S; Yeung, A

    1999-12-01

    The Nucleic Acids Research Group of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) last surveyed DNA synthesis core facilities in April 1995. Because of the introduction of new technologies and dramatic changes in the market, we sought to update survey information and to determine how academic facilities responded to the challenge presented by commercial counterparts. The online survey was opened in January 1999 by notifying members and subscribers to the ABRF electronic discussion group. The survey consisted of five parts: general facility information, oligonucleotide production profile, oligonucleotide charges, synthesis protocols, and trends in DNA synthesis (including individual comments). All submitted data were anonymously coded. Respondents from DNA synthesis facilities were primarily from the academic category and were established between 1984 and 1991. Typically, a facility provides additional services such as DNA sequencing and has upgraded to electronic ordering. There is stability in staffing profiles for these facilities in that the total number of employees is relatively unchanged, the tenure for staff averages 5.9 years, and experience is extensive. On average, academic facilities annually produce approximately 1/16 the number of oligonucleotides produced by the average commercial facilities, but all facilities report an increase in demand. Charges for standard oligonucleotides from academic facilities are relatively higher than from commercial companies; however, the opposite is true for modified phosphoramidites. Subsidized facilities charge less than nonsubsidized facilities. Synthesis protocols and reagents are standard across the categories. Most facilities offer typical modifications such as biotinylation. Despite the competition by large commercial facilities that have reduced costs dramatically, academic facilities remain a stable entity. Academic facilities enhance the quality of service by focusing on nonstandard

  20. Precarious Employment in the Vologda Oblast: Current State and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of precarious employment in Russian regions. Today, the socio-economic sciences lack a single concept of precarious employment applicable to Russian conditions. Despite the considerable amount of scientific and practical works of domestic and foreign authors on the issue of precarious employment, the criteria of its statistical evaluation as applied to Russian conditions have not been determined. At the same time, the development of precarious employment threatens the country’s socio-economic welfare, because it creates the risk of unwanted effects such as poor employment, hidden and open unemployment, lower labor productivity, degradation of human capital, etc. The paper provides a brief review of research on the problem stated, and defines precarious employment. The author makes an attempt to determine and substantiate the list of indicators available in official statistics for assessing precarious employment in the region. The study allocates three blocks of indicators: indicators of institutional regulation, conditions of employment and functioning of the labor market. Based on these indicators, the author analyzes the status and trends of precarious work in the Vologda Oblast in the period from 2001 to 2015. In some cases, the author presents a comparative analysis of the data for the Russian Federation and Northwestern Federal District. The analysis has helped identify positive and negative changes in the field of precarious employment in the Vologda Oblast. In particular, the author identifies the following problems: an increase in the share of those employed in the informal sector, a relative increase in the number of the working poor, an almost three-fold growth of overdue debts on wages in comparable prices per worker. On the basis of this analysis, the author identifies the directions of the state policy that can help reduce precarious employment: development of information

  1. Current trends in the management of Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, B.; Glinoer, D.; Lagasse, R.; Wartofsky, L. (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Members of the American Thyroid Association were invited to participate in a survey of the management of Graves' disease. One primary case and several variations were provided, which differed in respect to age, sex, goiter size, severity, etc. The questionnaire was based on the format used in a similar survey of members of the European Thyroid Association. The aim of the survey was to determine (1) how expert thyroidologist employ diagnostic procedures for this disorder, and (2) the choice of therapy of the three treatment options and its manner of implementation. Questionnaires were sent only to clinically active members. The overall response rate was 62%. Data analysis was possible on 52% of members surveyed and was performed using SPSS and a specific Fortran program. In the laboratory evaluation of the primary case a radioiodine uptake, scan, serum total T4, and basal TSH were requested by 92%, 47%, 83%, and 66%, respectively, with 84% of respondents using an ultrasensitive TSH assay. For management of the primary case, radioiodine treatment was the first choice of 69% of the respondents. Antithyroid drugs were used briefly (3-7 days) before 131I by 28%, whereas 41% said they would employ thioureas after 131I. Of those using 131I, 66% tailored the dose to achieve euthyroidism as the goal of therapy, while 34% aimed for hypothyroidism requiring T4 replacement. Only 30% of respondents chose thioureas as a first line of treatment (72% propylthiouracil; 28% tapazole). The duration of drug therapy was a predetermined fixed interval for 80% of the respondents, with 90% treating for 1-2 yr. Other specific trends in diagnostic approach and therapeutic preferences were identified for the eight variations on the primary case problem.

  2. CURRENT STATUS AND TRENDS INVESTMENT IN AGRICULTURE UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolova, A. N.; Yurko, Т. S.; Klimenko, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Globalization processes accelerate the pace of scientific and technological progress and innovation and require investment in innovation to enhance the efficiency of the national economy of our state and some of its branches, inter–industry complexes and sub–complexes at the level of developed countries.The article examines the current state of investment in agriculture of Ukraine. The main criteria to encourage capital investment taking into account regional peculiarities capital investment ...

  3. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Devi Buehler; Ranka Junge

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF). In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustai...

  4. Computational chemistry reviews of current trends v.4

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This volume presents a balanced blend of methodological and applied contributions. It supplements well the first three volumes of the series, revealing results of current research in computational chemistry. It also reviews the topographical features of several molecular scalar fields. A brief discussion of topographical concepts is followed by examples of their application to several branches of chemistry.The size of a basis set applied in a calculation determines the amount of computer resources necessary for a particular task. The details of a common strategy - the ab initio model potential

  5. Valuable metals - recovery processes, current trends, and recycling strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Peter; Lorenz, Tom; Martin, Gunther; Brett, Beate; Bertau, Martin [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Strasse 29, 09599, Freiberg (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    This Review provides an overview of valuable metals, the supply of which has been classified as critical for Europe. Starting with a description of the current state of the art, novel approaches for their recovery from primary resources are presented as well as recycling processes. The focus lies on developments since 2005. Chemistry strategies which are used in metal recovery are summarized on the basis of the individual types of deposit and mineral. In addition, the economic importance as well as utilization of the metals is outlined. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Current Trends on Lean Management – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabeena Begam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All manufacturing industry has put in continuous efforts for its survival in the current impulsive and competitive economy. In order to handle the critical situation, manufacturers are trying to implement new and innovative techniques in their manufacturing process by making it more effective and efficient. A detailed literature survey has been conducted to identify the lean practices in various manufacturing industry. The results revealed that the status of Lean Manufacturing (LM implementation in still in thriving stage. This paper will further assist the organizations to improve its process, align it to the requirements of its customers and relentless contribution to manufacturing sector to enhance productivity, quality and competitiveness is immense.

  7. Current and future trends for biofilm reactors for fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Duygu; Demirci, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Biofilms in the environment can both cause detrimental and beneficial effects. However, their use in bioreactors provides many advantages including lesser tendencies to develop membrane fouling and lower required capital costs, their higher biomass density and operation stability, contribution to resistance of microorganisms, etc. Biofilm formation occurs naturally by the attachment of microbial cells to the support without use of any chemicals agent in biofilm reactors. Biofilm reactors have been studied and commercially used for waste water treatment and bench and pilot-scale production of value-added products in the past decades. It is important to understand the fundamentals of biofilm formation, physical and chemical properties of a biofilm matrix to run the biofilm reactor at optimum conditions. This review includes the principles of biofilm formation; properties of a biofilm matrix and their roles in the biofilm formation; factors that improve the biofilm formation, such as support materials; advantages and disadvantages of biofilm reactors; and industrial applications of biofilm reactors.

  8. Current understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Shurin, Michael; Shvedova, Anna A

    2016-05-15

    The delivery of drugs, antigens, and imaging agents benefits from using nanotechnology-based carriers. The successful translation of nanoformulations to the clinic involves thorough assessment of their safety profiles, which, among other end-points, includes evaluation of immunotoxicity. The past decade of research focusing on nanoparticle interaction with the immune system has been fruitful in terms of understanding the basics of nanoparticle immunocompatibility, developing a bioanalytical infrastructure to screen for nanoparticle-mediated immune reactions, beginning to uncover the mechanisms of nanoparticle immunotoxicity, and utilizing current knowledge about the structure-activity relationship between nanoparticles' physicochemical properties and their effects on the immune system to guide safe drug delivery. In the present review, we focus on the most prominent pieces of the nanoparticle-immune system puzzle and discuss the achievements, disappointments, and lessons learned over the past 15years of research on the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cosmic gamma-ray background radiation. Current understandings and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The cosmic gamma-ray background radiation is one of the most fundamental observables in the gamma-ray band. Although the origin of the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation has been a mystery for a long time, the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has recently measured it at 0.1-820 GeV and revealed that the cosmic GeV gamma-ray background is composed of blazars, radio galaxies, and star-forming galaxies. However, Fermi still leaves the following questions. Those are dark matter contribution, origins of the cosmic MeV gamma-ray background, and the connection to the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino events. In this proceeding, I will review the current understandings of the cosmic gamma-ray background and discuss future prospects of cosmic gamma-ray background radiation studies. (author)

  10. Understanding the development trends of low-carbon energy technologies: A patent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, Vito; Ardito, Lorenzo; Dangelico, Rosa Maria; Messeni Petruzzelli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Governments’ strategies set important frameworks to develop and sustain low-carbon energy technologies. • Commercial activities play a key role in the low-carbon energy technologies’ development. • The number of patents that are based upon basic research is growing. - Abstract: Eco-innovations are being recognized as fundamental means to foster sustainable development, as well as to create new business opportunities. Nowadays, the eco-innovation concept is gaining ground within both academic and practitioner studies with the attempt to better understand the main dynamics underlying its nature and guide policymakers and companies in supporting its development. This paper contributes to the extant literature on eco-innovation by providing a comprehensive overview of the evolution of a specific type of eco-innovations that are playing a crucial role in the current socio-economic agenda, namely low-carbon energy technologies. Accordingly, we focus our attention on the related patenting activity of different countries and organizations over time, as well as on influencing policy initiatives and events. Hence, we collected 131,661 patents granted at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (U.S.PTO.) between 1971 and 2010, and belonging to the “Nuclear power generation”, “Alternative energy production”, and “Energy conservation” technological classes, as indicated by the International Patent Classification (IPC) Green Inventory. Our findings report the development trends of low-carbon energy technologies, as well as identify major related environmental programs, historical events, and private sector initiatives explaining those trends, hence revealing how these different circumstances have significantly influenced their development over time

  11. Current understanding of mdig/MINA in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Chitra; Chen, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Mineral dust-induced gene, mdig has recently been identified and is known to be overexpressed in a majority of human cancers and holds predictive power in the poor prognosis of the disease. Mdig is an environmentally expressed gene that is involved in cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation and immune regulation. With the advancement in deciphering the prognostic role of mdig in human cancers, our understanding on how mdig renders a normal cell to undergo malignant transformation is still very limited. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mdig gene in context to human neoplasias and its relation to the clinico-pathologic factors predicting the outcome of the disease in patients. It also emphasizes on the promising role of mdig that can serve as a potential candidate for biomarker discovery and as a therapeutic target in inflammation and cancers. Considering the recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanisms of tumor formation, more preclinical and clinical research is required to validate the potential of using mdig as a novel biological target of therapeutic and diagnostic value. Expression level of mdig influences the prognosis of several human cancers especially cancers of the breast and lung. Evaluation of mdig in cancers can offer novel biomarker with potential therapeutic interventions for the early assessment of cancer development in patients.

  12. Notochord morphogenesis in mice: Current understanding & open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Sophie; Nowotschin, Sonja; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2016-05-01

    The notochord is a structure common to all chordates, and the feature that the phylum Chordata has been named after. It is a rod-like mesodermal structure that runs the anterior-posterior length of the embryo, adjacent to the ventral neural tube. The notochord plays a critical role in embryonic tissue patterning, for example the dorsal-ventral patterning of the neural tube. The cells that will come to form the notochord are specified at gastrulation. Axial mesodermal cells arising at the anterior primitive streak migrate anteriorly as the precursors of the notochord and populate the notochordal plate. Yet, even though a lot of interest has centered on investigating the functional and structural roles of the notochord, we still have a very rudimentary understanding of notochord morphogenesis. The events driving the formation of the notochord are rapid, taking place over the period of approximately a day in mice. In this commentary, we provide an overview of our current understanding of mouse notochord morphogenesis, from the initial specification of axial mesendodermal cells at the primitive streak, the emergence of these cells at the midline on the surface of the embryo, to their submergence and organization of the stereotypically positioned notochord. We will also discuss some key open questions. Developmental Dynamics 245:547-557, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Improve processes on healthcare: current issues and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason C H; Dolan, Matt; Lin, Binshan

    2004-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) is a critical resource for improving today's business competitiveness. However, many healthcare providers do not proactively manage or improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their services with IT. Survival in a competitive business environment demands continuous improvements in quality and service, while rigorously maintaining core values. Electronic commerce continues its development, gaining ground as the preferred means of business transactions. Embracing e-healthcare and treating IT as a strategic tool to improve patient safety and the quality of care enables healthcare professionals to benefit from technology formerly used only for management purposes. Numerous improvement initiatives, introduced by both the federal government and the private sector, seek to better the status quo in IT. This paper examines the current IT climate using an enhanced "Built to Last" model, and comments on future IT strategies within the healthcare industry.

  14. Nuclear reactor fuel rod behavior modelling and current trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, Ue.

    2001-01-01

    Safety assessment of nuclear reactors is carried out by simulating the events to taking place in nuclear reactors by realistic computer codes. Such codes are developed in a way that each event is represented by differential equations derived based on physical laws. Nuclear fuel is an important barrier against radioactive fission gas release. The release of radioactivity to environment is the main concern and this can be avoided by preserving the integrity of fuel rod. Therefore, safety analyses should cover an assessment of fuel rod behavior with certain extent. In this study, common approaches for fuel behavior modeling are discussed. Methods utilized by widely accepted computer codes are reviewed. Shortcomings of these methods are explained. Current research topics to improve code reliability and problems encountered in fuel rod behavior modeling are presented

  15. Renewable energy sources in Bulgaria: Current state and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, K.

    The over-dependency of Bulgaria on imported fuel stressed the importance of developing a new energy strategy based on energy saving which includes also using renewable energy sources (RES). The target is the substitution of at least 2 percent of the real primary energy consumption with RES by 2010. The author gives a generalized analysis of the available RES in Bulgaria -solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and mini-hydraulic. The potentialities of each source for its usage as a suitable energy supply are pointed out, as well as the current status of research and implementation work, problems connected with legislation, financing and production of particular facilities. The governmental policy concerning RES is considered briefly. A description is given to the project 'Technical and Economical Assessment of Possibilities for Expansion of the RES-part in the Energy Balance of the Country' developed and started in 1994 in the framework of the PHARE program.

  16. Quantum Dots in the Therapy: Current Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Quantum dots are an emerging nanomaterial with broad use in technical disciplines; however, their application in the field of biomedicine becomes also relevant and significant possibilities have appeared since the discovery in 1980s. The current review is focused on the therapeutic applications of quantum dots which become an emerging use of the particles. They are introduced as potent carriers of drugs and as a material well suited for the diagnosis of disparate pathologies like visualization of cancer cells or pathogenic microorganisms. Quantum dots toxicity and modifications for the toxicity reduction are discussed here as well. Survey of actual papers and patents in the field of quantum dots use in the biomedicine is provided. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Preparative Purification of Recombinant Proteins: Current Status and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Saraswat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in fermentation technologies have resulted in the production of increased yields of proteins of economic, biopharmaceutical, and medicinal importance. Consequently, there is an absolute requirement for the development of rapid, cost-effective methodologies which facilitate the purification of such products in the absence of contaminants, such as superfluous proteins and endotoxins. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of a selection of key purification methodologies currently being applied in both academic and industrial settings and discuss how innovative and effective protocols such as aqueous two-phase partitioning, membrane chromatography, and high-performance tangential flow filtration may be applied independently of or in conjunction with more traditional protocols for downstream processing applications.

  18. Current state and trend of radiation regulation system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, Hidenori

    2004-01-01

    Japanese regulation system for safety against radiation essentially started from 'Atomic Energy Basic Law' enacted in 1955 and 'Law Concerning Prevention of Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotopes, etc' enacted in 1957, has been regarded as a central rule for radiation protection and safety. Related laws and regulations have been enacted together with their revision. Radiation Council, established in the Science and Technology Agency in 1962 and now belonging to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, has deliberated basically on International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) statements for legal revision and has set up working groups for current problems. Activities of the groups have concerned ICRP Publication 60 (1990) and later related publications for incorporating the principle into laws as to concepts of dose limits, effective dose, and then of exemption and exclusion. International status of the Japanese regulation, problems and tasks in the regulation are also commented. (N.I.)

  19. [New Paradigms? Current Trends within National and International Psychotherapy Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This article is devoted to the question which paradigms currently determine psychotherapy and psychotherapy research, and if there are indicators of paradigm changes in this field. The question of the efficacy and effectiveness (including the effectiveness of a transfer of psychotherapeutic knowledge to service) is specifically focussed as well as the question of the central therapeutic factors and the significance of the person of the therapist. It is argued that there are really some signals of a paradigm switch, with a turn away from controlled outcome research, representing only a minor part of patients in need of psychotherapy, towards a more specific process oriented research, also considering differential effects of the therapist. The most prominent indicator of a paradigm change is reflected by an increasing influence of patient oriented psychotherapy research which - consequently - should also be supported by the insurances as well as the funding organisations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. MALDI-TOF MS in the Microbiology Laboratory: Current Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Sören; Kostrzewa, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Within less than a decade matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become a gold standard for microbial identification in clinical microbiology laboratories. Besides identification of microorganisms the typing of single strains as well as the antibiotic and antimycotic resistance testing has come into focus in order to speed up the microbiological diagnostic. However, the full potential of MALDI-TOF MS has not been tapped yet and future technological advancements will certainly expedite this method towards novel applications and enhancement of current practice. So, the following chapter shall be rather a brainstorming and forecast of how MALDI-TOF MS will develop to influence clinical diagnostics and microbial research in the future. It shall open up the stage for further discussions and does not claim for overall validity.

  1. Current Trends in Heparin Use During Arterial Vascular Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durran, Alexandra C.; Watts, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the current use of heparinized saline and bolus doses of heparin in non-neurological interventional radiology and to determine whether consensus could be reached to produce guidance for heparin use during arterial vascular intervention. Methods: An interactive electronic questionnaire was distributed to members of the British Society of Interventional Radiology regarding their current practice in the use, dosage, and timing of heparin boluses and heparinized flushing solutions.ResultsA total of 108 completed questionnaires were received. More than 80% of respondents used heparinized saline with varying concentrations; the most prevalent was 1,000 IU/l (international units of heparin per liter) and 5,000 IU/l. Fifty-one percent of interventionalists use 3,000 IU as their standard bolus dose; however, the respondents were split regarding the timing of bolus dose with ∼60% administering it after arterial access is obtained and 40% after crossing the lesion. There was no consensus on altering dose according to body weight, and only 4% monitored clotting parameters. Conclusions: There seems to be some coherence among practicing interventionalists regarding heparin administration. We hypothesize that heparinized saline should be used at a recognized standard concentration of 1,000 IU/l as a flushing concentration in all arterial vascular interventions and that 3,000 IU bolus is considered the standard dose for straightforward therapeutic procedures and 5000 IU for complex, crural, and endovascular aneurysm repair work. The bolus should be given after arterial access is obtained to allow time for optimal anticoagulation to be achieved by the time of active intervention and stenting. Further research into clotting abnormalities following such interventional procedures would be an interesting quantifiable follow-up to this initial survey of opinions and practice.

  2. Current Trends in Malaysian Higher Education and the Effect on Education Policy and Practice: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapragasem, Selvaraj; Krishnan, Anbalagan; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has evolved from a production-based to knowledge-based economy in order to stay relevant and compete in the global marketplace. Thus, the purpose of this article is to discuss current trends in Malaysian higher education and how these affect education policies and practices. Four main trends are discussed in this study: Globalization,…

  3. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  4. Pressure ulcers: Current understanding and newer modalities of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bhattacharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the mechanism, symptoms, causes, severity, diagnosis, prevention and present recommendations for surgical as well as non-surgical management of pressure ulcers. Particular focus has been placed on the current understandings and the newer modalities for the treatment of pressure ulcers. The paper also covers the role of nutrition and pressure-release devices such as cushions and mattresses as a part of the treatment algorithm for preventing and quick healing process of these wounds. Pressure ulcers develop primarily from pressure and shear; are progressive in nature and most frequently found in bedridden, chair bound or immobile people. They often develop in people who have been hospitalised for a long time generally for a different problem and increase the overall time as well as cost of hospitalisation that have detrimental effects on patient′s quality of life. Loss of sensation compounds the problem manifold, and failure of reactive hyperaemia cycle of the pressure prone area remains the most important aetiopathology. Pressure ulcers are largely preventable in nature, and their management depends on their severity. The available literature about severity of pressure ulcers, their classification and medical care protocols have been described in this paper. The present treatment options include various approaches of cleaning the wound, debridement, optimised dressings, role of antibiotics and reconstructive surgery. The newer treatment options such as negative pressure wound therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, cell therapy have been discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of current and newer methods have also been described.

  5. Pressure ulcers: Current understanding and newer modalities of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Mishra, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanism, symptoms, causes, severity, diagnosis, prevention and present recommendations for surgical as well as non-surgical management of pressure ulcers. Particular focus has been placed on the current understandings and the newer modalities for the treatment of pressure ulcers. The paper also covers the role of nutrition and pressure-release devices such as cushions and mattresses as a part of the treatment algorithm for preventing and quick healing process of these wounds. Pressure ulcers develop primarily from pressure and shear; are progressive in nature and most frequently found in bedridden, chair bound or immobile people. They often develop in people who have been hospitalised for a long time generally for a different problem and increase the overall time as well as cost of hospitalisation that have detrimental effects on patient's quality of life. Loss of sensation compounds the problem manifold, and failure of reactive hyperaemia cycle of the pressure prone area remains the most important aetiopathology. Pressure ulcers are largely preventable in nature, and their management depends on their severity. The available literature about severity of pressure ulcers, their classification and medical care protocols have been described in this paper. The present treatment options include various approaches of cleaning the wound, debridement, optimised dressings, role of antibiotics and reconstructive surgery. The newer treatment options such as negative pressure wound therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, cell therapy have been discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of current and newer methods have also been described. PMID:25991879

  6. Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laredo, V.G. [SOCMA Americana, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1992-12-31

    The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

  7. Current trends in needle-free jet injection: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barolet D

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Barolet,1,2 Antranik Benohanian3 1RoseLab Skin Optics Research Laboratory, Laval, QC, Canada; 2MUHC Dermatology Service, Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3CHUM Service de Dermatologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada Background: Jet injection can be defined as a needle-free drug delivery method in which a high-speed stream of fluid impacts the skin and delivers a drug. Despite 75 years of existence, it never reached its full potential as a strategic tool to deliver medications through the skin. Objective: The aim of this review was to evaluate and summarize the evolution of jet injection intradermal drug delivery method including technological advancements and new indications for use. Methods: A review of the literature was performed with no limits placed on publication date. Results: Needleless injectors not only reduce pain during drug delivery but also confine the drug more evenly in the dermis. Understanding skin properties of the injection site is a key factor to obtain optimal results as well as setting the right parameters of the jet injector. Until the advent of disposable jet injectors/cartridges, autoclaving of the injector remains the only reliable method to eliminate the risk of infection. Needle-free intradermal injection using corticosteroids and/or local anesthetics is well documented with promising indications being developed. Limitations: Limitations of the review include low-quality evidence, small sample sizes, varying treatment parameters, and publication bias. Conclusion: New developments may help reconsider the use of jet injection technology. Future studies should focus on measurable optimized parameters to insure a safe and effective outcome. Keywords: needle free, injector, jet injection, xylocaine, triamcinolone, PDT

  8. Current understanding of magnetic storms: Storm-substorm relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Y.; Gonzalez, W.D.; Baumjohann, W.; Daglis, I.A.; Grande, M.; Joselyn, J.A.; Singer, H.J.; McPherron, R.L.; Phillips, J.L.; Reeves, E.G.; Rostoker, G.; Sharma, A.S.; Tsurutani, B.T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper attempts to summarize the current understanding of the storm/substorm relationship by clearing up a considerable amount of controversy and by addressing the question of how solar wind energy is deposited into and is dissipated in the constituent elements that are critical to magnetospheric and ionospheric processes during magnetic storms. (1) Four mechanisms are identified and discussed as the primary causes of enhanced electric fields in the interplanetary medium responsible for geomagnetic storms. It is pointed out that in reality, these four mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive, but interdependent, interact differently from event to event. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are found to be the primary phenomena responsible for the main phase of geomagnetic storms. The other two mechanisms, i.e., HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet activity) and the so-called Russell-McPherron effect, work to make the ICME and CIR phenomena more geoeffective. The solar cycle dependence of the various sources in creating magnetic storms has yet to be quantitatively understood. (2) A serious controversy exists as to whether the successive occurrence of intense substorms plays a direct role in the energization of ring current particles or whether the enhanced electric field associated with southward IMF enhances the effect of substorm expansions. While most of the Dst variance during magnetic storms can be solely reproduced by changes in the large-scale electric field in the solar wind and the residuals are uncorrelated with substorms, recent satellite observations of the ring current constituents during the main phase of magnetic storms show the importance of ionospheric ions. This implies that ionospheric ions, which are associated with the frequent occurrence of intense substorms, are accelerated upward along magnetic field lines, contributing to the energy density of the

  9. Current trends in small vocabulary speech recognition for equipment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, Nikolaos; Bardis, Nikolaos G.

    2017-09-01

    Speech recognition systems allow human - machine communication to acquire an intuitive nature that approaches the simplicity of inter - human communication. Small vocabulary speech recognition is a subset of the overall speech recognition problem, where only a small number of words need to be recognized. Speaker independent small vocabulary recognition can find significant applications in field equipment used by military personnel. Such equipment may typically be controlled by a small number of commands that need to be given quickly and accurately, under conditions where delicate manual operations are difficult to achieve. This type of application could hence significantly benefit by the use of robust voice operated control components, as they would facilitate the interaction with their users and render it much more reliable in times of crisis. This paper presents current challenges involved in attaining efficient and robust small vocabulary speech recognition. These challenges concern feature selection, classification techniques, speaker diversity and noise effects. A state machine approach is presented that facilitates the voice guidance of different equipment in a variety of situations.

  10. Rationing critical care medicine: recent studies and current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas S

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the rationing of critical care resources. Although much has been written about the concept of rationing, there have been few scientific studies as to its prevalence. A recent meta-analysis reviewed all previously published studies on rationing access to intensive care units but little is known about practices within the intensive care unit. Much literature in the past few years has focused on the growing use of critical care resources and projections for the future. Several authors suggest there may be a crisis in financial or personnel resources if some rationing does not take place. Other papers have argued that the methods of rationing critical care previously proposed, such as limiting the care of dying patients or using cost-effectiveness analysis to determine care, may not be effective or viewed as ethical by some. Finally, several recent papers review how critical care is practiced and allocated in India and Asian countries that already practice open rationing in their health care systems. There is currently no published evidence that overt rationing is taking place in critical care medicine. There is growing evidence that in the future, the need for critical care may outstrip financial resources unless some form of rationing takes place. It is also clear from the literature that choosing how to ration critical care will be a difficult task.

  11. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olokoba, A B; Obateru, O A; Bojuwoye, M O

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  12. Iran's petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran's oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future

  13. P300 brain computer interface: current challenges and emerging trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Allison, Brendan Z.; Guger, Christoph; Sellers, Eric W.; Kleih, Sonja C.; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables communication without movement based on brain signals measured with electroencephalography (EEG). BCIs usually rely on one of three types of signals: the P300 and other components of the event-related potential (ERP), steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), or event related desynchronization (ERD). Although P300 BCIs were introduced over twenty years ago, the past few years have seen a strong increase in P300 BCI research. This closed-loop BCI approach relies on the P300 and other components of the ERP, based on an oddball paradigm presented to the subject. In this paper, we overview the current status of P300 BCI technology, and then discuss new directions: paradigms for eliciting P300s; signal processing methods; applications; and hybrid BCIs. We conclude that P300 BCIs are quite promising, as several emerging directions have not yet been fully explored and could lead to improvements in bit rate, reliability, usability, and flexibility. PMID:22822397

  14. Participatory Sensing Marine Debris: Current Trends and Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, J.; Johnsen, K.

    2016-02-01

    The monitoring of litter and debris is challenging at the global scale because of spatial and temporal variability, disconnected local organizations and the use of paper and pen for documentation. The Marine Debris Tracker mobile app and citizen science program allows for the collection of global standardized data at a scale, speed and efficiency that was not previously possible. The app itself also serves as an outreach and education tool, creating an engaged participatory sensing instrument. This instrument is characterized by several aspects including range and frequency, accuracy and precision, accessibility, measurement dimensions, participant performance, and statistical analysis. Also, important to Marine Debris Tracker is open data and transparency. A web portal provides data that users have logged allowing immediate feedback to users and additional education opportunities. The engagement of users through a top tracker competition and social media keeps participants interested in the Marine Debris Tracker community. Over half a million items have been tracked globally, and maps provide both global and local distribution of data. The Marine Debris Tracker community and dataset continues to grow daily. We will present current usage and engagement, participatory sensing data distributions, choropleth maps of areas of active tracking, and discuss future technologies and platforms to expand data collection and conduct statistical analysis.

  15. Preemptive analgesia II: recent advances and current trends.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, D J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This two-part review summarizes the current knowledge of physiological mechanisms, pharmacological modalities and controversial issues surrounding preemptive analgesia. SOURCE: Articles from 1966 to present were obtained from the MEDLINE databases. Search terms included analgesia, preemptive; neurotransmitters; pain, postoperative; hyperalgesia; sensitization, central nervous system; pathways, nociception; anesthetic techniques; analgesics, agents. Principal findings: In Part I of this review article, techniques and agents that attenuate or prevent central and peripheral sensitization were reviewed. In Part II, the conditions required for effective preemptive techniques are evaluated. Specifically, preemptive analgesia may be defined as an antinociceptive treatment that prevents establishment of altered central processing of afferent input from sites of injury. The most important conditions for establishment of effective preemptive analgesia are the establishment of an effective level of antinociception before injury, and the continuation of this effective analgesic level well into the post-injury period to prevent central sensitization during the inflammatory phase. Although single-agent therapy may attenuate the central nociceptive processing, multi-modal therapy is more effective, and may be associated with fewer side effects compared with the high-dose, single-agent therapy. CONCLUSION: The variable patient characteristics and timing of preemptive analgesia in relation to surgical noxious input require individualization of the technique(s) chosen. Multi-modal analgesic techniques appear more effective.

  16. Special education for intellectual disability: current trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M; Hung, Li-Yu

    2009-09-01

    To inform readers of current issues in special education for individuals with intellectual disabilities and summarize recent research and opinion. Two issues dominate special education for students with intellectual disabilities in the early 21st century. First, what should be taught to such students and who should teach them? Second, where should such students be taught - in 'inclusive' settings alongside normal peers or in special settings dedicated to their special needs? Research on teaching reading, arithmetic, and functional daily living skills to students with disabilities suggests the superiority of direct, systematic instruction. Universal design is often seen as supportive of inclusion. Inclusion has been seen as the central issue in special education but is gradually giving way to concern for what students learn. Direct, systematic instruction in reading, arithmetic, and daily living skills is the most effective approach to teaching students with intellectual disabilities. Basic concepts and logic suggest that special and general education cannot be equivalent. We conclude that what students are taught should be put ahead of where they are taught. Our fundamental concern is that students with intellectual disabilities be respected and be taught all they can learn.

  17. Current trends in the diagnosis and treatment of tuboovarian abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landers, D.V.; Sweet, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Tuboovarian abscess is a well-recognized complication of acute salpingitis and has been reported in as many as one third of hospital admissions for acute salpingitis. The incidence of tuboovarian abscess is expected to increase as a result of the current epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases and their sequelae. Patients with tuboovarian abscess most commonly present with lower abdominal pain and an adnexal mass(es). Fever and leukocytosis may be absent. Ultrasound, computed tomographic scans, laparoscopy, or laparotomy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Tuboovarian abscess may be unilateral or bilateral regardless of intrauterine contraceptive device usage. Tuboovarian abscess is polymicrobial with a preponderance of anaerobic organisms. An initial conservative antimicrobial approach to the management of the unruptured tuboovarian abscess is appropriate if the antimicrobial agents used can penetrate abscesses, remain active within the abscess environment, and are active against the major pathogens in tuboovarian abscess, including the resistant gram-negative anaerobes such as Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides bivius. However, if the patient does not begin to show a response within a reasonable amount of time, about 48 to 72 hours, surgical intervention should be undertaken. Suspicion of rupture should remain an indication for immediate operation. Once operation is undertaken, a conservative approach with unilateral adnexectomy for one-side tuboovarian abscess is appropriate if future fertility or hormone production is desired

  18. Pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease and current trends in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, J K; Goyal, R K; Parmar, N S

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally drugs used in peptic ulcer have been directed mainly against a single luminal damaging agent i.e. hydrochloric acid and a plethora of drugs like antacids, anticholinergics, histamine H2-antagonists etc. have flooded the market. An increase in 'aggressive' factors like acid and pepsin is found only in a minority of peptic ulcer patients. These factors do not alter during or after spontaneous healing. It is well-known that the gastric mucosa can resist auto-digestion though it is exposed to numerous 'insults' like high concentration of hydrochloric acid, pepsin, reflux of bile, spicy food, microorganisms and at times alcohol and irritant drugs. It is thus evident that the integrity of the gastric mucosa is maintained by defense mechanisms against these 'aggressive' damaging factors. Recently, attention has been focused more on gastroduodenal defense mechanisms leading to the concept of 'Cytoprotection'. The old dictum "no acid--no ulcer" now extends to "if acid--why ulcer"? as a fundamental question. During last decade more information has poured in about the prevalence and changing pattern of the disease, the influence of environmental factors and speculation on the role of a recently characterized bacterial organism, Helicobacter pylori which colonizes in the gastric mucosa, particularly the antral region. This review briefly describes current knowledge about the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease and discusses strategies for its treatment.

  19. Current trends to comprehend lipid metabolism in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Nodumo Nokulunga; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Vollheyde, Katharina; Feussner, Ivo

    2018-04-01

    Diatoms are the most dominant phytoplankton species in oceans and they continue to receive a great deal of attention because of their significant contributions in ecosystems and the environment. Due to triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles that are abundant in medium-chain fatty acids, diatoms have emerged to be better feed stocks for biofuel production, in comparison to the commonly studied green microalgal species (chlorophytes). Importantly, diatoms are also known for their high levels of the essential ω3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and are considered to be a promising alternative source of these components. The two most commonly exploited diatoms include Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Although obvious similarities between diatoms and chlorophytes exist, there are some substantial differences in their lipid metabolism. This review provides an overview on lipid metabolism in diatoms, with P. tricornutum as the most explored model. Special emphasis is placed on the synthesis and incorporation of very long chain ω3 fatty acids into lipids. Furthermore, current approaches including genetic engineering and biotechnological methods aimed at improving and maximizing lipid production in P. tricornutum are also discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Buehler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF. In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustainable food production systems in cities. The commercial operation of urban rooftop farms, should they become profitable, is likely to attract notable private investment, allowing a significant level of high quality urban food production to be achieved. There is a reasonable amount of literature available on urban farming that deals with its potential, and its limitations. However, it does not focus on commercial operations. In contrast to other surveys and theoretical papers, this study of URF focuses on large and commercial operations. The analysis showed that commercial URFs can be grouped into two main types: Firstly, hydroponic systems in greenhouses where mostly leafy greens, tomatoes, and herbs are grown; secondly, soil-based open-air farms that grow a large variety of vegetables. Hydroponics is frequently seen as the key technology for commercial urban food production. While the technology is not in and of itself sustainable, hydroponic farms often make an effort to implement environmentally friendly technologies and methods. However, there is still untapped potential to systemically integrate farms into buildings. The findings of this study identified where future research is needed in order to make URF a widespread sustainable solution.

  1. Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC. Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens. This represents a significant milestone in this disease after a void of over 30 years. In addition to atezolizumab, a variety of checkpoint inhibitors have shown a significant activity in advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are expected to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval in the near future. The introduction of novel immunotherapy agents has led to rapid changes in the field of urothelial carcinoma. Numerous checkpoint inhibitors are being tested alone or in combination in the first and subsequent-line therapies of metastatic disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. They are also being studied in combination with radiation therapy and for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer refractory to BCG. Furthermore, immunotherapy is being utilized for those ineligible for firstline platinum-based chemotherapy. This review outlines the novel immunotherapy agents which have either been approved, or are currently being investigated in clinical trials in UC.

  2. Novel trends in affinity biosensors: current challenges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arugula, Mary A; Simonian, Aleksandr

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biorecognition processes facilitate physical and biochemical interactions between molecules in all crucial metabolic pathways. Perhaps the target analyte and the biorecognition element interactions have the most impactful use in biosensing applications. Traditional analytical sensing systems offer excellent biorecognition elements with the ability to detect and determine the presence of analytes. High affinity antibodies and DNA play an important role in the development of affinity biosensors based on electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive approaches. Advancements in this area routinely employ labels, label free, nanoparticles, multifunctional matrices, carbon nanotubes and other methods to meet the requirements of its own application. However, despite increasing affinity ceilings for conventional biosensors, the field draws back in meeting specifically important demands, such as long-term stability, ultrasensitivity, rapid detection, extreme selectivity, strong biological base, calibration, in vivo measurements, regeneration, satisfactory performance and ease of production. Nevertheless, recent efforts through this line have produced novel high-tech nanosensing systems such as ‘aptamers’ and ‘phages’ which exhibit high-throughput sensing. Aptamers and phages are powerful tools that excel over antibodies in sensibility, stability, multi-detection, in vivo measurements and regeneration. Phages are superior in stability, screening for affinity-based target molecules ranging from small to proteins and even cells, and easy production. In this review, we focus mainly on recent developments in affinity-based biosensors such as immunosensors, DNA sensors, emphasizing aptasensors and phage-based biosensors basing on novel electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive detection techniques. We also address enzyme inhibition-based biosensors and the current problems associated with the above sensors and their future perspectives. (topical review)

  3. Recent advances in addictive disorders. Prevention. Current research and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpfer, K L; Hopkins, R

    1993-03-01

    The AOD prevention programs of the 1990s should be resiliency-focused and include interventions of sufficient dosage and strength. Although some child behavioral technology exists to tackle successfully changes in resiliency, additional prevention strategies need to be developed and studied. In some way, the prevention field is hampered by the lack of sufficient research in the child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology fields, that includes transactional research in parenting and child rearing for high-risk youth. We simply do not know enough to determine how parents and other adults can best foster resilience in children. Questions that arise include how much to protect children from environmental stressors and how much to push them to confront new life stressors in the form of challenges to develop new skills or talents. There are no simple answers to these questions, but a number of useful guidelines could help parents and teachers to increase resilience in youth. Some of the guidelines currently being stressed include developing in youth an increased sense of responsibility for their own success, helping them to identify their talents, motivating them to dedicate their lives to helping society rather than feeling their only purpose in life is to be consumers, providing realistic appraisals and feedback for youth rather than graciously building up their self-esteem, stressing multicultural competence in an ever-shrinking world, encouraging and valuing education and skills training, increasing cooperative solutions to problems rather than competitive or aggressive solutions, and increasing a sense of responsibility for others and caring for others. Clearly, these are important objectives for creating the type of citizens that can make American strong in the twentieth century.

  4. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Ragkos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the transhumant system is much more flexible, by taking advantage of excessive family labor and by reducing feeding costs through grazing. The total number of transhumant farms in Greece has diminished during the last decades this farming system remains an essential activity in less favored areas of the country; the bovine cattle transhumant system, in particular, provides an efficient alternative to the capital-intensive dairy farming system. The purpose of this study is to provide a presentation of the current condition of the transhumant bovine cattle farming system in Greece. Through a survey of all relevant public services, data concerning the number of transhumant farms and animals as well as their movements in 2011 are presented. The survey reveals that the larger amount of transhumant farms is present in the lowlands of Thessaly and of East Macedonia-Thrace and move towards the mountainous rangelands of less favored areas, particularly those of West Macedonia. The mean transhumant bovine farm size does not exceed 100 animals, as nearly 76.1%, of the total rear less than 100 cattle. Thessaly is the region which accommodates the major part of transhumant farming in Greece; this is also the case for transhumant cattle, as 51.4% of all transhumant farms in the country have their winter domiciles in Thessaly.

  5. Oxytocin and Socioemotional Aging─Current Knowledge and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ebner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The oxytocin (OT system is involved in various aspects of social cognition and prosocial behavior. Specifically, OT has been examined in the context of social memory, emotion recognition, cooperation, trust, empathy, and bonding, and─though evidence is somewhat mixed─intranasal OT appears to benefit aspects of socioemotional functioning. However, most of the extant data on aging and OT is from animal research and human OT research has focused largely on young adults. As such, though we know that various socioemotional capacities change with age, we know little about whether age-related changes in the OT system may underlie age-related differences in socioemotional functioning. In this review, we take a genetic-neuro-behavioral approach and evaluate current evidence on age-related changes in the OT system as well as the putative effects of these alterations on age-related socioemotional functioning. Looking forward, we identify informational gaps and propose an Age-Related Genetic, Neurobiological, Sociobehavioral Model of Oxytocin (AGeNeS-OT model which may structure and inform investigations into aging-related genetic, neural, and sociocognitive processes related to OT. As an exemplar of the use of the model, we report exploratory data suggesting differences in socioemotional processing associated with genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR in samples of young and older adults. Information gained from this arena has translational potential in depression, social stress, and anxiety─all of which have high relevance in aging─and may contribute to reducing social isolation and improving well-being of individuals across the lifespan.

  6. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position

  7. Current trends in the pharmacotherapy of diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is one of the most debilitating disorders of microvasculature of the retina and one of the leading causes of vision loss among the working class worldwide. At present, intravitreal anti-inflammatory (corticosteroids and anti-angiogenesis (anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor agents are being used as wide options for the pharmacotherapy of DR and diabetic macular edema (DME. Anti-inflammatory agents (Triamcinolone acetonide and other agents have shown evidence-based clinical benefits in various randomized clinical trials for the treatment of DR and DME, and also shown improvement in best corrected visual acuity. However, direct intravitreal injections are associated with serious side-effects like cataract and elevation of Intra Ocular Pressure. Despite this, corticosteroid therapy has been effective for DR and DME, therefore current focus is on the development of novel intravitreal steroid delivery devices that release a small quantity over a prolonged period of time. In addition to corticosteroids, anti-angiogenic agents are found to be effective for the treatment of DR and DME. The most popular target of these agents is the subfamily of proteins known as VEGF, whose over-expression is believed to play a role in numerous diseases including DR and Age-related Macular Degeneration. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin® and Ranibizumab (Lucentis® are gaining popularity as a clinical adjunct to panretinal photocoagulation in patients with proliferative DR. Moreover, Lucentis has been recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for macular edema following retinal vein occlusion. Further, systemic agents (specially, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and anti-hypertensive agents have shown beneficial results in reducing the progression of DR. In conclusion, it can be stated that for the present scenario systematic use of available pharmacotherapy as an adjunct to laser photocoagulation, which is gold

  8. Corporate Social responsibility in the petrochemical industry: Exploring current trends in social and environmental disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Current trends indicate that we are entering a new phase of corporate responsibility reporting that more emphasis is paid on social responsibility, but significant variation still remains in the maturity of reporting content and styles in industries, and even in the same industry. This study explores the current trend of corporate social and environmental reporting in petrochemical industry. It offers a detailed review of the development of corporate social responsibility reporting, and of th...

  9. Current Understanding and Future Directions for Vocal Fold Mechanobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nicole Y.K.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The vocal folds, which are located in the larynx, are the main organ of voice production for human communication. The vocal folds are under continuous biomechanical stress similar to other mechanically active organs, such as the heart, lungs, tendons and muscles. During speech and singing, the vocal folds oscillate at frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 3 kHz with amplitudes of a few millimeters. The biomechanical stress associated with accumulated phonation is believed to alter vocal fold cell activity and tissue structure in many ways. Excessive phonatory stress can damage tissue structure and induce a cell-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in a pathological vocal fold lesion. On the other hand, phonatory stress is one major factor in the maturation of the vocal folds into a specialized tri-layer structure. One specific form of vocal fold oscillation, which involves low impact and large amplitude excursion, is prescribed therapeutically for patients with mild vocal fold injuries. Although biomechanical forces affect vocal fold physiology and pathology, there is little understanding of how mechanical forces regulate these processes at the cellular and molecular level. Research into vocal fold mechanobiology has burgeoned over the past several years. Vocal fold bioreactors are being developed in several laboratories to provide a biomimic environment that allows the systematic manipulation of physical and biological factors on the cells of interest in vitro. Computer models have been used to simulate the integrated response of cells and proteins as a function of phonation stress. The purpose of this paper is to review current research on the mechanobiology of the vocal folds as it relates to growth, pathogenesis and treatment as well as to propose specific research directions that will advance our understanding of this subject. PMID:24812638

  10. Government policy, research and stakeholder confidence - Current Trends in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, Carmel

    2006-01-01

    uncertainties; - Assure adequate human capacity to manage the program throughout its existence to maintain competence and credibility; - Enhance scientific understanding to improve confidence in predictions and to evaluate potential program improvements; - Confirm performance or identify anomalies during and after program operations and thereby increase confidence; - Clearly demonstrate to citizens an ongoing capability to manage the enterprise and to respond to their concerns and desires; - Be able to enact mid-course corrections in response to new information or societal decisions by adapting to new designs, new regional, national or international institutional changes, or new international standards; - Be able to adapt to new capabilities developed externally to the program that show promise of improving program success. Ms. Letourneau addressed the role of the public and private sector in conducting research on RWM in Canada. The Government of Canada has clearly indicated that the responsibility for providing sound scientific data for proposed practices rests with the proponent who is taking action associated with the risk of potential serious harm. Where it is less clear that the proponent should shoulder the entire responsibility for research programs, the Government step in and assist the proponent or the general industry in question. The relationship between research and Government policy focuses on the public good and always aspires to public confidence. It cannot focus only on ideas and technologies with commercial potential. Its top priority must retain the public interest of present and future generations of Canadians. The Government is interested in supporting research which responds to public priorities of the day. The presentation reviewed the functional objectives of government research, and noted that increasingly, the setting of research priorities now involves more intensive and extensive public consultations. It was noted that allocation of responsibility

  11. Current understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A.; Shurin, Michael; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of drugs, antigens, and imaging agents benefits from using nanotechnology-based carriers. The successful translation of nanoformulations to the clinic involves thorough assessment of their safety profiles, which, among other end-points, includes evaluation of immunotoxicity. The past decade of research focusing on nanoparticle interaction with the immune system has been fruitful in terms of understanding the basics of nanoparticle immunocompatibility, developing a bioanalytical infrastructure to screen for nanoparticle-mediated immune reactions, beginning to uncover the mechanisms of nanoparticle immunotoxicity, and utilizing current knowledge about the structure–activity relationship between nanoparticles' physicochemical properties and their effects on the immune system to guide safe drug delivery. In the present review, we focus on the most prominent pieces of the nanoparticle–immune system puzzle and discuss the achievements, disappointments, and lessons learned over the past 15 years of research on the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials. - Graphical abstract: API — active pharmaceutical ingredient; NP — nanoparticles; PCP — physicochemical properties, CARPA — complement activation-related pseudoallergy, ICH — International Conference on Harmonization. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Achievements, disappointments and lessons learned over past decade are reviewed. • Areas in focus include characterization, immunotoxicity and utility in drug delivery. • Future direction focusing on mechanistic immunotoxicity studies is proposed.

  12. Gulf War Syndrome: a review of current knowledge and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, D

    2014-01-01

    The 1991 Persian Gulf War was a resounding military success for coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait following the Iraqi invasion. The medical legacy we have from the conflict is the poorly understood, yet remarkable, phenomenon of Gulf War Syndrome, which surfaced soon after. Epidemiological research has proven beyond doubt that Gulf War veterans report a wide variety of symptoms, in excess of appropriately matched control subjects, and experience worse general health. Numerous toxic environmental hazards have been suggested as causes of Gulf War Syndrome, yet exhaustive scientific study has failed to provide conclusive proof of any link. No novel or recognised disease has been found to account for the symptomatic burden of veterans, and the optimal treatment remains uncertain. This understanding can be added to from an anthropological perspective, where the narratives of those afflicted provide further insight. The nature of military life was changing at the time of the Gulf War, challenging the identity and beliefs of some veterans and causing socio-cultural distress. The symptomatic presentation of Gulf War Syndrome can be considered an articulation of this disharmony. Gulf War Syndrome can also be considered within the group of post-combat disorders such as shellshock, the like of which have occurred after major wars in the last century. With the current withdrawal from Afghanistan, the Defence Medical Services (DMS) should heed the lessons of history.

  13. Current understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A., E-mail: marina@mail.nih.gov [Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, Cancer Research Technology Program, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, NCI at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Shurin, Michael [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The delivery of drugs, antigens, and imaging agents benefits from using nanotechnology-based carriers. The successful translation of nanoformulations to the clinic involves thorough assessment of their safety profiles, which, among other end-points, includes evaluation of immunotoxicity. The past decade of research focusing on nanoparticle interaction with the immune system has been fruitful in terms of understanding the basics of nanoparticle immunocompatibility, developing a bioanalytical infrastructure to screen for nanoparticle-mediated immune reactions, beginning to uncover the mechanisms of nanoparticle immunotoxicity, and utilizing current knowledge about the structure–activity relationship between nanoparticles' physicochemical properties and their effects on the immune system to guide safe drug delivery. In the present review, we focus on the most prominent pieces of the nanoparticle–immune system puzzle and discuss the achievements, disappointments, and lessons learned over the past 15 years of research on the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials. - Graphical abstract: API — active pharmaceutical ingredient; NP — nanoparticles; PCP — physicochemical properties, CARPA — complement activation-related pseudoallergy, ICH — International Conference on Harmonization. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Achievements, disappointments and lessons learned over past decade are reviewed. • Areas in focus include characterization, immunotoxicity and utility in drug delivery. • Future direction focusing on mechanistic immunotoxicity studies is proposed.

  14. Understanding Evapotranspiration Trends and their Driving Mechanisms: An investigation across CONUS based on numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, D.; Wang, G.; Fu, C.

    2015-12-01

    As shown by climate models, increasing global temperatures and enhanced greenhouse gas concentration such as CO2 have had major effects on the dynamics of the hydrologic cycle and the surface energy budget, in particular, on evapotranspiration (ET). ET has significant decadal variations whether it be regionally or globally and variations of ET have major environmental and socioeconomic impacts. A number of recent studies have found a global increase in annual mean ET around 7mm per year per decade from about 1982 to the late 1990s. These results correspond with what is expected from an intensification of the hydrological cycle. However, the increasing ET trend did not continue after 1998 and from 1998-2008 this global trend was replaced with a decreasing trend of similar magnitude. This study uses numerical modeling to investigate if similar changing ET trends emerge in the continental U.S and part of northern Mexico. After validating model simulated evaporative fluxes and comparing spatial patterns to the aforementioned studies, various changing trends of different signs are identified across the U.S., and specific regions with strong signals of change are chosen for further examination with the purpose of identifying the root causes of these changing trends and which variables are most influential towards change. Experimental simulations conducted to isolate the most influential factors towards ET reveal that precipitation amount as well as its characteristics have the greatest impact on the ET trends discovered, with other factors like wind and air temperatures displaying less influence over inter-annual trends. This study helps better understand terrestrial ET and it's interactions which will help facilitate better predictions of change in surface climate such as heatwaves and droughts as well as impacts on water resources.

  15. Modelling Monsoons: Understanding and Predicting Current and Future Behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, A; Sperber, K R; Slingo, J M; Meehl, G A; Mechoso, C R; Kimoto, M; Giannini, A

    2008-09-16

    including, but not limited to, the Mei-Yu/Baiu sudden onset and withdrawal, low-level jet orientation and variability, and orographic forced rainfall. Under anthropogenic climate change many competing factors complicate making robust projections of monsoon changes. Without aerosol effects, increased land-sea temperature contrast suggests strengthened monsoon circulation due to climate change. However, increased aerosol emissions will reflect more solar radiation back to space, which may temper or even reduce the strength of monsoon circulations compared to the present day. A more comprehensive assessment is needed of the impact of black carbon aerosols, which may modulate that of other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Precipitation may behave independently from the circulation under warming conditions in which an increased atmospheric moisture loading, based purely on thermodynamic considerations, could result in increased monsoon rainfall under climate change. The challenge to improve model parameterizations and include more complex processes and feedbacks pushes computing resources to their limit, thus requiring continuous upgrades of computational infrastructure to ensure progress in understanding and predicting the current and future behavior of monsoons.

  16. Current state and development trends of inspections of steam generator tubes by eddy currents method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, S.; Herman, M.

    1988-01-01

    The requirements are presented for steam generator tube testing and the factors are discussed affecting the accuracy of measurement by the eddy currents method. The individual types of the eddy currents method are described, such as the single-frequency method, the multi-frequency method and the pulse eddy currents method. The demands are summed up on manipulator systems whose design is adapted to the steam generator configuration conditions. (E.S.). 5 figs., 16 possu

  17. AMS-11 in Rome, 2008: Past achievements, current and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, David

    2010-01-01

    The volume of scientific work and achievements of the international Accelerator Mass Spectrometry community over the past 30 years is presented by quantifying the annual increases in past AMS conference participation, trends in technical developments and applications, the rate of growth of new AMS facilities, sample throughput, publications and general scientific impact. Also a brief summary with some highlights of the International AMS-11 Rome Conference is presented with some flavour of current trends and future directions in AMS.

  18. Current understanding of the sequence of events. Overview of current understanding of accident progression at Fukushima Dai-ichi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliford, Jim

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the main sequence of events, particularly the evolution of the cores in Units 1-3 was given. The presentation is based on information provided by Dr Okajima of JAEA to the June 2012 Nuclear Science Committee meeting. During the accident, conditions at the plant were such that operators were initially unable to obtain instruments readouts from the control panel and hence could not know what condition the reactors were in. (Reactor Power, Pressure, Temperature, Water height and flow rate, etc.). Subsequently, as electrical power supplies were gradually restored more data became available. In addition to the reactor data, other information from off-site measurements and from measuring stations inside the site boundary is now available, particularly for radiation dose rates in air. These types of information, combined with detailed knowledge of the plant design and operations history up to the time of the accident are being used to construct detailed computer models which simulate the behaviour of the reactor core, pressure vessel and containment during the accident sequence. This combination of detailed design/operating data, limited measured data during the accident and computer modelling allows us to construct a fairly clear picture of the accident progression. The main sequence of events (common to Units 1, 2 and 3) is summarised. The OECD/NEA is currently coordinating an international benchmark study of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi known as the BSAF Project. The objectives of this activity are to analyse and evaluate the accident progression and improve severe accident (SA) analysis methods and models. The project provides valuable additional (and corrected) data from plant measurements as well as an improved understanding of the role played by the fuel and cladding design. Based on (limited) plant data and extensive modelling analysis, we have a detailed qualitative description of the Fukushima-Daiichi accident. Further analyses of the type

  19. The current state of public understanding of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, Anna M; Spencer, Douglas; Batt, Carl A

    2006-01-01

    The growing importance of nanotechnology in industry and society has not been accompanied by a widespread understanding of the subject among the general public. Simple questions to initially probe the smallest thing that people can see and can think of reveals a divide in the understanding of the general public. A survey of 1500 individuals ranging in age from 6 to 74 has revealed a lack of knowledge of nanotechnology and especially a lack of understanding of the context of nanotechnology in the world that is too small to see. Survey findings are corroborated by in-depth interviews with 400 adults in studies of nanoscience literacy commisioned by University of California, Berkeley and Cornell in 2002 and 2004, respectively. In general, with the exception of 14-28 year olds, over 60% of respondents say they have never heard of nano or nanotechnology. The results suggest that the general public, especially middle-school children, has no firm foundation to understand nanotechnology and likely will continue to be equally impressed by credible scientific information as well as pure fictional accounts of nanotechnology

  20. The current state of public understanding of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, Anna M [Cornell University, Nanobiotechnology Center (United States)], E-mail: amw37@cornell.edu; Spencer, Douglas [Edu, Inc. (United States); Batt, Carl A [Cornell University (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The growing importance of nanotechnology in industry and society has not been accompanied by a widespread understanding of the subject among the general public. Simple questions to initially probe the smallest thing that people can see and can think of reveals a divide in the understanding of the general public. A survey of 1500 individuals ranging in age from 6 to 74 has revealed a lack of knowledge of nanotechnology and especially a lack of understanding of the context of nanotechnology in the world that is too small to see. Survey findings are corroborated by in-depth interviews with 400 adults in studies of nanoscience literacy commisioned by University of California, Berkeley and Cornell in 2002 and 2004, respectively. In general, with the exception of 14-28 year olds, over 60% of respondents say they have never heard of nano or nanotechnology. The results suggest that the general public, especially middle-school children, has no firm foundation to understand nanotechnology and likely will continue to be equally impressed by credible scientific information as well as pure fictional accounts of nanotechnology.

  1. Current trend of annotating single nucleotide variation in humans--A case study on SNVrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mulin Jun; Wang, Junwen

    2015-06-01

    As high throughput methods, such as whole genome genotyping arrays, whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS), have detected huge amounts of genetic variants associated with human diseases, function annotation of these variants is an indispensable step in understanding disease etiology. Large-scale functional genomics projects, such as The ENCODE Project and Roadmap Epigenomics Project, provide genome-wide profiling of functional elements across different human cell types and tissues. With the urgent demands for identification of disease-causal variants, comprehensive and easy-to-use annotation tool is highly in demand. Here we review and discuss current progress and trend of the variant annotation field. Furthermore, we introduce a comprehensive web portal for annotating human genetic variants. We use gene-based features and the latest functional genomics datasets to annotate single nucleotide variation (SNVs) in human, at whole genome scale. We further apply several function prediction algorithms to annotate SNVs that might affect different biological processes, including transcriptional gene regulation, alternative splicing, post-transcriptional regulation, translation and post-translational modifications. The SNVrap web portal is freely available at http://jjwanglab.org/snvrap. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding the Great Depression: Lessons for Current Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen G. Cecchetti

    1997-01-01

    Over the four years beginning in the summer of 1929, financial markets, labor markets and goods markets all virtually ceased to function. Throughout this, the government policymaking apparatus seemed helpless. Since the end of the Great Depression, macroeconomists have labored diligently in an effort to understand the circumstances that led to the wholesale collapse of the economy. What lessons can we draw from our study of these events? In this essay, I argue that the Federal Reserve played ...

  3. Understanding teachers’ professional learning goals from their current professional concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    In the day-to-day workplace teachers direct their own learning, but little is known about what drives their decisions about what they would like to learn. These decisions are assumed to be influenced by teachers’ current professional concerns. Also, teachers in different professional life phases

  4. Current stage of understanding and description of hadronic elastic diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godizov, A. A. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281 Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15

    Current situation with phenomenological description of high-energy nucleon-nucleon diffractive elastic scattering is reviewed. Comparison of various model predictions with the recent D0 and TOTEM data on the nucleon-nucleon differential cross-sections is presented.

  5. A Review of Player Monitoring Approaches in Basketball: Current Trends and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jordan L; Scanlan, Aaron T; Stanton, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Fox, JL, Scanlan, AT, and Stanton, R. A review of player monitoring approaches in basketball: current trends and future directions. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 2021-2029, 2017-Effective monitoring of players in team sports such as basketball requires an understanding of the external demands and internal responses, as they relate to training phases and competition. Monitoring of external demands and internal responses allows coaching staff to determine the dose-response associated with the imposed training load (TL), and subsequently, if players are adequately prepared for competition. This review discusses measures reported in the literature for monitoring the external demands and internal responses of basketball players during training and competition. The external demands of training and competition were primarily monitored using time-motion analysis, with limited use of microtechnology being reported. Internal responses during training were typically measured using hematological markers, heart rate, various TL models, and perceptual responses such as rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Heart rate was the most commonly reported indicator of internal responses during competition with limited reporting of hematological markers or RPE. These findings show a large discrepancy between the reporting of external and internal measures and training and competition demands. Microsensors, however, may be a practical and convenient method of player monitoring in basketball to overcome the limitations associated with current approaches while allowing for external demands and internal responses to be recorded simultaneously. The triaxial accelerometers of microsensors seem well suited for basketball and warrant validation to definitively determine their place in the monitoring of basketball players. Coaching staff should make use of this technology by tracking individual player responses across the annual plan and using real-time monitoring to minimize factors such as fatigue

  6. The current waste generation and management trends in South Africa: A Review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, N

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, a continuation and expansion of the work of Muzenda et al, 2012 [1] looks at the current waste generation and management trends in South Africa. The waste tyre problem in South Africa is also briefly discussed. Solid waste management...

  7. Perspectives on...Special Collections at ARL Libraries and K-12 Outreach: Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the results of a survey sent to Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Special Collections requesting information on outreach to K-12 students. Over half of the respondents work with K-12 and many of those who currently do not are planning to. New pressures and changing philosophies contribute to this trend.

  8. Current research topics and trends in the software architecture community : ICSA 2017 Workshops summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malavolta, Ivano; Capilla, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This summary reports the workshops accepted in the 1st International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA 2017), held by Chalmers University at Gothenburg (Sweden). We gather the description of current and new research trends in different software architecture topics to provide a wide view to

  9. Current Trends in Communication Graduate Degrees: Survey of Communications, Advertising, PR, and IMC Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Keith A.; Coolsen, Michael K.; Wilkerson, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    A survey of 61 master's degree advertising programs reveals significant trends in program titles, curriculum design, course delivery, and students served. The results provide insight for current and planned master's degree programs as research predicts a continued increase in demand for master's education over the next decade. Survey results are…

  10. Disability in the Classroom: Current Trends and Impacts on Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramo, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This article covers current trends in disability rights and raises questions about how society's views of disability influence the music education of students in need of special education services. Brief overviews of the disability-rights movement in the United States and of federal laws pertaining to disabilities and education are included. Next,…

  11. Current research trends and perspectives on materials-based hydrogen storage solutions: A critical review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BrunauereEmmetteTeller (BET) surface areas and larger pore volumes . . . . 00 Tailoring reaction enthalpies... consumption. Re-produced ] with permission. this article in press as: Ren J, et al., Current research trends view, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2016), htcountries to think about energy security. Fossil fuels will one day be inevitably used up...

  12. Survey Exploring Views of Scientists on Current Trends in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvakeros, Xenofon; Pavlatou, Evangelia A.; Spyrellis, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    A survey exploring the views of scientists, chemists and chemical engineers, on current trends in Chemistry Education was conducted in Greece. Their opinions were investigated using a questionnaire focusing on curricula (the content and process of chemistry teaching and learning), as well as on the respondents' general educational beliefs and…

  13. COAGULOPATHY IN BETA-THALASSEMIA: CURRENT UNDERSTANDING AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Domenica Cappellini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As the life expectancy of β-thalassemia patients has markedly improved over the last decade, several new complications are being recognized. The presence of a high incidence of thromboembolic events, mainly in thalassemia intermedia patients, has led to the identification of a hypercoagulable state in thalassemia. In this review, the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to hypercoagulability in thalassemia are highlighted, and the current clinical experience is summarized. Recommendations for thrombosis prophylaxis are also discussed.

  14. Current Understanding of Acute Bovine Liver Disease in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Read

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute bovine liver disease (ABLD is a hepatotoxicity principally of cattle which occurs in southern regions of Australia. Severely affected animals undergo rapid clinical progression with mortalities often occurring prior to the recognition of clinical signs. Less severely affected animals develop photosensitization and a proportion can develop liver failure. The characteristic histopathological lesion in acute fatal cases is severe, with acute necrosis of periportal hepatocytes with hemorrhage into the necrotic areas. Currently there are a small number of toxins that are known to cause periportal necrosis in cattle, although none of these have so far been linked to ABLD. Furthermore, ABLD has frequently been associated with the presence of rough dog’s tail grass (Cynosurus echinatus and Drechslera spp. fungi in the pasture system, but it is currently unknown if these are etiological factors. Much of the knowledge about ABLD is contained within case reports, with very little experimental research investigating the specific cause(s. This review provides an overview of the current and most recently published knowledge of ABLD. It also draws on wider research and unpublished reports to suggest possible fungi and mycotoxins that may give rise to ABLD.

  15. International migration flows. Framework for understanding and current features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colectivo IOÉ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to outline a framework for the understanding of the present international migratory flows as well as to outline their main traits. In order to do this, we first group together the different migratory flows produced since the sixteenth century up to the mid seventies in the twentieth  century, stopping then for a closer look at the present situation which register the impact of economic globalization, translating it into an increase of said flows and, above all, to their enormous diversification. To end, we make a brief balance of the present period and a critical evaluation on the meaning of one of the flows which attracts most attention, economic migrations south-north, because these are the ones which have the most impact on developed countries.

  16. Understanding how to maintain compliance in the current regulatory climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignell, D.T.; Burns, R.

    1995-01-01

    High level radioactive waste facilities must maintain compliance with all regulatory requirements, even those requirements that have been promulgated after the facility was placed into operation. Facilities must aggressively pursue compliance because environmental laws often impose strict liability for violations; therefore, an honest mistake is no defense. Radioactive waste management is constantly under the public microscope, particularly those facilities that handle high-level radioactive waste. The Savannah River Site has effectively met the challenges of regulatory compliance in its HLRW facilities and plans are being formulated to meet future regulatory requirements as well. Understanding, aggressively achieving, and clearly demonstrating compliance is essential for the continued operations of radioactive waste management facilities. This paper examines how HLRW facilities are impacted by regulatory requirements and how compliance in this difficult area is achieved and maintained

  17. Primary Pediatric Hypertension: Current Understanding and Emerging Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiu, Andrew C; Bishop, Michael D; Asico, Laureano D; Jose, Pedro A; Villar, Van Anthony M

    2017-09-01

    The rising prevalence of primary pediatric hypertension and its tracking into adult hypertension point to the importance of determining its pathogenesis to gain insights into its current and emerging management. Considering that the intricate control of BP is governed by a myriad of anatomical, molecular biological, biochemical, and physiological systems, multiple genes are likely to influence an individual's BP and susceptibility to develop hypertension. The long-term regulation of BP rests on renal and non-renal mechanisms. One renal mechanism relates to sodium transport. The impaired renal sodium handling in primary hypertension and salt sensitivity may be caused by aberrant counter-regulatory natriuretic and anti-natriuretic pathways. The sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems are examples of antinatriuretic pathways. An important counter-regulatory natriuretic pathway is afforded by the renal autocrine/paracrine dopamine system, aberrations of which are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, including that associated with obesity. We present updates on the complex interactions of these two systems with dietary salt intake in relation to obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress. We review how insults during pregnancy such as maternal and paternal malnutrition, glucocorticoid exposure, infection, placental insufficiency, and treatments during the neonatal period have long-lasting effects in the regulation of renal function and BP. Moreover, these effects have sex differences. There is a need for early diagnosis, frequent monitoring, and timely management due to increasing evidence of premature target organ damage. Large controlled studies are needed to evaluate the long-term consequences of the treatment of elevated BP during childhood, especially to establish the validity of the current definition and treatment of pediatric hypertension.

  18. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.

  19. The autophagosome: current understanding of formation and maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannack LVJC

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lilith VJC Mannack, Jon D Lane Cell Biology Laboratories, School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Abstract: Autophagy is an important and highly conserved catabolic process with roles in development, homeostasis, and cellular stress responses. It describes various distinct pathways for the delivery of cytoplasmic materials (including misfolded protein aggregates and some organelles to the lysosome for degradation and component recycling. The best understood form of autophagy (macroautophagy describes the de novo assembly, maturation, and trafficking of a unique double membrane-bound organelle – the autophagosomes – that sequesters cytoplasmic materials and ultimately merges with the lysosomal compartment to form a degradative autolysosome. To rapidly assemble such a structure in response to stimuli, cells express a family of dedicated autophagy-related (ATG gene products that act sequentially to control membrane events leading first to the nucleation of an isolation membrane or phagophore, followed by phagophore expansion, and sealing to form an autophagosome that traffics to – and ultimately fuses with – the lysosome. These molecules are activated in response to upstream signaling pathways (notably, the mechanistic target of rapamycin [mTOR] pathway, and comprise protein and lipid kinases, putative membrane coats, and unique ubiquitin-like conjugation systems. In concert, a barrage of accessory proteins involved in various membrane trafficking pathways focused on the endosomal compartment are co-opted at the assembly site to facilitate autophagosome biogenesis. Understanding the integrated pathways that coordinate autophagosome assembly at the molecular level will be crucial if we are to realize the potential for autophagy manipulation in future disease therapies. Keywords: autophagy, ATG proteins, lysosome, phagophore, omegasome, autolysosome, membrane trafficking, ULK1, mTOR, PI(3 kinase, PI3P, LIR motif

  20. Current Understanding of the Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Tayaba; Kamat, Deepak

    2017-04-01

    There has been an exponential increase in the use of electronic devices over the past few decades. This has led to increased exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Electric fields result from differences in voltage, whereas magnetic fields result from the flow of electric current. Higher-frequency waves of EMF have more energy than lower-frequency waves, and thus generally tend to be more harmful. An EMF activates cellular stress response and also causes breaks in DNA strands. There are many methodological barriers to effectively measuring the associations of EMF and childhood cancers. The consensus from multiple studies is that there is no causal role of extremely low-frequency EMFs in childhood cancers, including brain cancer. A recent study showed a link between EMF radiation and the development of malignant tumors in rats. In light of that study, the American Academy of Pediatrics set out new recommendations to decrease the adverse effects of cellphone exposure on children. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(4):e172-e174.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Managing peri-implant bone loss: current understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljateeli, Manar; Fu, Jia-Hui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-05-01

    With the improved macro- and micro-designs, dental implants enjoy a high survival rate. However, peri-implant bone loss has recently emerged to be the focus of implant therapy. As such, researchers and clinicians are in need of finding predictable techniques to treat peri-implant bone loss and stop its progression. Literature search on the currently available treatment modalities was performed and a brief description of each modality was provided. Numerous techniques have been proposed and none has been shown to be superior and effective in managing peri-implant bone loss. This may be because of the complex of etiological factors acting on the implant-supported prosthesis hence the treatment approach has to be individually tailored. Due to the lack of high-level clinical evidence on the management of peri-implant bone loss, the authors, through a literature review, attempt to suggest a decision tree or guideline, based on sound periodontal surgical principles, to aid clinicians in managing peri-implantitis associated bone loss. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Understanding the Correlations between Social Attention and Topic Trends of Scientific Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlei Dong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We propose and apply a simplified nowcasting model to understand the correlations between social attention and topic trends of scientific publications. Design/methodology/approach: First, topics are generated from the obesity corpus by using the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA algorithm and time series of keyword search trends in Google Trends are obtained. We then establish the structural time series model using data from January 2004 to December 2012, and evaluate the model using data from January 2013. We employ a state-space model to separate different non-regression components in an observational time series (i.e. the tendency and the seasonality and apply the “spike and slab prior” and stepwise regression to analyze the correlations between the regression component and the social media attention. The two parts are combined using Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques to obtain our results. Findings: The results of our study show that (1 the number of publications on child obesity increases at a lower rate than that of diabetes publications; (2 the number of publication on a given topic may exhibit a relationship with the season or time of year; and (3 there exists a correlation between the number of publications on a given topic and its social media attention, i.e. the search frequency related to that topic as identified by Google Trends. We found that our model is also able to predict the number of publications related to a given topic. Research limitations: First, we study a correlation rather than causality between topics' trends and social media. As a result, the relationships might not be robust, so we cannot predict the future in the long run. Second, we cannot identify the reasons or conditions that are driving obesity topics to present such tendencies and seasonal patterns, so we might need to do “field” study in the future. Third, we need to improve the efficiency of our model by finding more efficient

  3. Etiology and pathogenesis of the Marfan syndrome: current understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyeritz, Reed E

    2017-11-01

    Much has changed regarding Marfan syndrome (MFS) over the past few decades. Once described solely as a heritable disorder of connective tissue, MFS is now one of a number of conditions recognized to be a disorder of abnormal signalling in the TGF-β pathway. The cardinal features of MFS, once encompassed by the ocular, skeletal and cardiovascular systems, are now known to encompass many more organ systems, especially as people with MFS grow older. They are growing older by several decades compared to the 1970's because of profound improvements in diagnosis and management of the cardiovascular features, especially dilatation of the aortic root. This dilatation can be detected first in infancy and followed up by echocardiography. Progressive enlargement increases the risk of type A dissection and aortic regurgitation, the major causes of early mortality, in untreated patients today. Medical therapy with β-adrenergic blockade, first shown to be effective in the 1980's, can retard this dilatation. In the past decade, angiotensin receptor blockade, which reduces aberrant signalling through one of the TGF-β pathways, also can be effective. However, when dilatation of the root becomes such that the risk of dissection increases to an unacceptable degree, surgical therapy becomes necessary. In the mid-1970's, the composite graft, introduced by Hugh Bentall, markedly reduced mortality. In the past decade, a valve-spring aortic root replacement, advanced by Tirone David, has become widely adopted. Mid-term results are quite encouraging. Other cardiovascular involvement, such as mitral valve prolapse, type B dissection, and dilatation and dissection of aortic branches, also require close monitoring. Currently, life-expectancy in people with MFS who are diagnosed early and treated prophylactically is approaching that of the general population.

  4. Current Challenge in Consumer Health Informatics: Bridging the Gap between Access to Information and Information Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Alpay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of health-related websites has proliferated over the past few years. Health information consumers confront a myriad of health related resources on the internet that have varying levels of quality and are not always easy to comprehend. There is thus a need to help health information consumers to bridge the gap between access to information and information understanding—i.e. to help consumers understand health related web-based resources so that they can act upon it. At the same time health information consumers are becoming not only more involved in their own health care but also more information technology minded. One way to address this issue is to provide consumers with tailored information that is contextualized and personalized e.g. directly relevant and easily comprehensible to the person’s own health situation. This paper presents a current trend in Consumer Health Informatics which focuses on theory-based design and development of contextualized and personalized tools to allow the evolving consumer with varying backgrounds and interests to use online health information efficiently. The proposed approach uses a theoretical framework of communication in order to support the consumer’s capacity to understand health-related web-based resources.

  5. Trends in Health Information Technology Safety: From Technology-Induced Errors to Current Approaches for Ensuring Technology Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Health information technology (HIT) research findings suggested that new healthcare technologies could reduce some types of medical errors while at the same time introducing classes of medical errors (i.e., technology-induced errors). Technology-induced errors have their origins in HIT, and/or HIT contribute to their occurrence. The objective of this paper is to review current trends in the published literature on HIT safety. Methods A review and synthesis of the medical and life sciences literature focusing on the area of technology-induced error was conducted. Results There were four main trends in the literature on technology-induced error. The following areas were addressed in the literature: definitions of technology-induced errors; models, frameworks and evidence for understanding how technology-induced errors occur; a discussion of monitoring; and methods for preventing and learning about technology-induced errors. Conclusions The literature focusing on technology-induced errors continues to grow. Research has focused on the defining what an error is, models and frameworks used to understand these new types of errors, monitoring of such errors and methods that can be used to prevent these errors. More research will be needed to better understand and mitigate these types of errors. PMID:23882411

  6. Audiovisual quality assessment in communications applications: Current status, trends and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari

    2010-01-01

    Audiovisual quality assessment is one of the major challenges in multimedia communications. Traditionally, algorithm-based (objective) assessment methods have focused primarily on the compression artifacts. However, compression is only one of the numerous factors influencing the perception...... addressed in practical quality metrics is the co-impact of audio and video qualities. This paper provides an overview of the current trends and challenges in objective audiovisual quality assessment, with emphasis on communication applications...

  7. The trend of the research and development for the upgrade of the high current energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The high current energy technology ranges from a basic technology of the electric power field to a state-of-the-art technology and has been used extremely variously. In addition, as the energy technology advances, the expansion of applied field, such as the nuclear fusion and the exhaust thing processing, etc., requires a further upgrade of the large current technology. In this report, the trend of the research and development for the upgrade of the high current energy technology are summarized. In the following, the elemental technology including arc/plasma phenomena and the pulse power system is described in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the trend of the research and development for the upgrade of various equipments and devices such as the nuclear fusion development, the superconducting applications of SMES and the maglev transportation system, and the arc application of the exhaust processing for a medical waste, the radio active waste and a detrimental gas and the next generation lithography system. In Chapter 4, the analysis and the measurement technology of the arc phenomenon and the standardization of current shunt, etc are described. We hope this research report can contribute to the promotion of technical exchanges in different fields, and offer guidelines for future development in this high current energy technology. (author)

  8. What the Current System Development Trends tell us about Systems Development Methodologies: Toward explaining SSDAM, Agile and IDEF0 Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla F. Ally

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Systems integration, customization and component based development approach are of increasing attention. This trend facilitates the research attention to also focus on systems development methodologies. The availability of systems development tools, rapid change in technologies, evolution of mobile computing and the growth of cloud computing have necessitated a move toward systems integration and customization rather than developing systems from scratch. This tendency encourages component based development and discourages traditional systems development approach. The paper presents and evaluates SSADM, IDEF0 and Agile systems development methodologies. More specifically, it examines how they fit or not fit into the current competitive market of systems development. In the view of this perspective, it is anticipated that despite of its popularity, SSADM methodology is becoming obsolete while Agile and IDEF0 methodologies are still gaining acceptance in the current competitive market of systems development. The present study more likely enrich our understanding of the systems development methodologies concepts and draw attention regarding where the current trends in system development are heading.

  9. Electronic commerce in China:current status, development strategies, and new trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Junyong; Jing Linbo

    2014-01-01

    After years of development in China's electronic commerce sector,there has been a drastic increase not only in the number of electronic commerce enterprises and online shoppers,but also in electronic commerce market turnover in China.During this process,the Chinese government has played a key role in establishing legislation and market disciplines for the electronic commerce market.This paper explores policy regarding electronic commerce development in China and analyzes new trends in China's electronic commerce,including the rise of mobile commerce,social commerce,and cross-border electronic commerce,and the booming industries of internet financing and Big Data.This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the development,uniqueness,and trends of electronic commerce in China.In addition,this paper also provides policymakers in China and other developing countries with policy suggestions regarding electronic commerce.

  10. CURRENT TRENDS FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES IN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Doraliyski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the key components of the management system is the organizational structure of management. This report presents the current trends of development and improvement of organizational structures of management. The semantics of the term "organizational structure" used in the report is clarified. Key aspects of structural policy of organizations are discussed, as well as the introduction of flexible organizational forms. The main directions for analysis of organizational policy of organizations are also mentioned. It is stressed that the analysis of current trends for the future development of organizational structures of management should be an integral component of the management policy of every organization. The trends are flexibility and adaptability of the organizational structure, rational proportion between centralization and decentralization, an appropriate balance between the rights, duties and responsibilities, reducing regulations, rules and other normative documents. A recommendetaion is made that organizational governance structures must be adapted constantly in accordance with changes in the overall management system, as they are one of its main components.

  11. Health Information System Role-Based Access Control Current Security Trends and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Junior, Marcelo Antonio; Bandiera-Paiva, Paulo

    2018-01-01

    This article objective is to highlight implementation characteristics, concerns, or limitations over role-based access control (RBAC) use on health information system (HIS) using industry-focused literature review of current publishing for that purpose. Based on the findings, assessment for indication of RBAC is obsolete considering HIS authorization control needs. We have selected articles related to our investigation theme "RBAC trends and limitations" in 4 different sources related to health informatics or to the engineering technical field. To do so, we have applied the following search query string: "Role-Based Access Control" OR "RBAC" AND "Health information System" OR "EHR" AND "Trends" OR "Challenges" OR "Security" OR "Authorization" OR "Attacks" OR "Permission Assignment" OR "Permission Relation" OR "Permission Mapping" OR "Constraint". We followed PRISMA applicable flow and general methodology used on software engineering for systematic review. 20 articles were selected after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria resulting contributions from 10 different countries. 17 articles advocate RBAC adaptations. The main security trends and limitations mapped were related to emergency access, grant delegation, and interdomain access control. Several publishing proposed RBAC adaptations and enhancements in order to cope current HIS use characteristics. Most of the existent RBAC studies are not related to health informatics industry though. There is no clear indication of RBAC obsolescence for HIS use.

  12. Current trends in medical English education and the Japan College of Rheumatology International School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jego, Eric Hajime; Amengual, Olga

    2017-11-01

    In light of the present revolution happening in medical education in Japan as medical schools implement new curricula to conform to global standards, there is a growing demand for more internationalization and higher quality practical medical English education. In response, many institutions including governmental organizations, universities and academic associations are moving ahead with new initiatives to adapt to these changing demands. This paper reviews the current trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan. This paper also describes one initiative by the Japan College of Rheumatology (JCR) known as the JCR International School held yearly in Karuizawa. By examining recent trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan, the most relevant and applicable can be elucidated to illuminate a path forward for improved medical English education within the JCR.

  13. EWOLUCJA W SPOSOBIE ROZUMIENIA PRZECIWPRZENIESIENIA I JEGO OSADZENIE W NURTACH PSYCHOTERAPEUTYCZNYCH [THE EVOLUTION IN THE WAY OF UNDERSTANDING COUNTERTRANSFERENCE AND ITS EMBEDDING IN THE TRENDS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Morawska-Józwiak, Beata I; Sobów, Tomasz; Britmann, Jonathan W

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews the ways of understanding the countertransference in currents trends of psychotherapy, including the changes and differences in its definition. Conscious of his own psychic phenomena psychotherapist can analyze countertransference during the session, the descriptive stage of material of the session and on the supervision meeting, and material transference - countertransference is one of a kind to obtain changes in the process of psychotherapy. The authors this paper ass...

  14. From Oil Crisis to Climate Change. Understanding CO2 Emission Trends in IEA Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unander, F.

    2003-11-01

    OECD CO2 emissions from fuel combustion increased 13% between 1990 and 2001. This signals an important shift since, over the 1973 to 1990 period, emissions only increased by 3.4%. As a result, CO2 emissions from energy use (fuel combustion) contributed 81.1% of total OECD greenhouse gas emissions in 2001 compared to 77.7% in 1990. As these figures make clear, reducing CO2 emissions from fuel combustion constitutes a key challenge to combat climate change. Developing and successfully implementing the most efficient policies for reducing CO2 emissions requires a good understanding of how factors such as income, prices, demography, economic structure, lifestyle, climate, energy efficiency and fuel mix affect energy use and resulting CO2 emissions. This paper presents selected results from the analysis of CO2 developments included in the IEA publication 'From Oil Crisis to Climate Challenge: 30 Years of Energy Use in IEA Countries'. The paper gives a brief overview of aggregate CO2 emission trends and of how recent developments in selected IEA countries compare to emissions levels implied by the Kyoto targets. A deeper understanding of the aggregate trends is provided by showing results from a decomposition analysis and by discussing developments in key end-use sectors. The full publication presents a more detailed analysis of how various factors have shaped energy use patterns and CO2 emissions since 1973. The analysis draws on a newly developed database with detailed information on energy use in the manufacturing, household, service and transport sectors. The database represents the most disaggregated information available on a consistent basis across countries and sectors. The study uses quantitative measures to illustrate the forces that drive or restrain energy use. These measures - or indicators - include: activities such as manufacturing output or heated-floor-area of homes; structural developments such as changes in manufacturing output mix or changes in the

  15. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, David; Stelcer, Ed.; Atanacio, Armand; Crawford, Jagoda

    2013-01-01

    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m 3 of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m 3 of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both a local

  16. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, David; Stelcer, Ed.; Atanacio, Armand; Crawford, Jagoda [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m{sup 3} of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m{sup 3} of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both

  17. Understanding Mott's law from scaling of variable-range-hopping currents and intrinsic current fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasveer, W.F.; Michels, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We have used the master equation to simulate variable-range hopping (VRH) of charges in a strongly disordered d-dimensional energy landscape (d=1,2,3). The current distribution over hopping distances and hopping energies gives a clear insight into the difference between hops that occur most

  18. Current nondestructive evaluation research and development trends in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    An underlying theme present in much of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) research and development occurring in the United States as well as worldwide is the application of physics and engineering principles toward understanding and optimizing NDE processes. Expanding this trend of using mathematical models for NDE processes is critical to the entire spectrum of NDE technology. In NDE research, modeling anchors the investigation in scientific, proven principles and establishes a firm technical basis to guide the design and development of inspection equipment and approaches. It also provides for understanding the capabilities and the limitations of whatever designs are selected and ultimately applied in the field. This paper reviews the status of these efforts, presents several examples where mathematical modeling is being profitably used for practical inspection work, and shows the path being taken in ongoing research.

  19. Arctic hydroclimate variability during the last 2000 years: current understanding and research challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Hans W.; Nicolle, Marie; Francus, Pierre; Gajewski, Konrad; Helama, Samuli; Korhola, Atte; Solomina, Olga; Yu, Zicheng; Zhang, Peng; D'Andrea, William J.; Debret, Maxime; Divine, Dmitry V.; Gunnarson, Björn E.; Loader, Neil J.; Massei, Nicolas; Seftigen, Kristina; Thomas, Elizabeth K.; Werner, Johannes; Andersson, Sofia; Berntsson, Annika; Luoto, Tomi P.; Nevalainen, Liisa; Saarni, Saija; Väliranta, Minna

    2018-04-01

    Reanalysis data show an increasing trend in Arctic precipitation over the 20th century, but changes are not homogenous across seasons or space. The observed hydroclimate changes are expected to continue and possibly accelerate in the coming century, not only affecting pan-Arctic natural ecosystems and human activities, but also lower latitudes through the atmospheric and ocean circulations. However, a lack of spatiotemporal observational data makes reliable quantification of Arctic hydroclimate change difficult, especially in a long-term context. To understand Arctic hydroclimate and its variability prior to the instrumental record, climate proxy records are needed. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current understanding of Arctic hydroclimate during the past 2000 years. First, the paper reviews the main natural archives and proxies used to infer past hydroclimate variations in this remote region and outlines the difficulty of disentangling the moisture from the temperature signal in these records. Second, a comparison of two sets of hydroclimate records covering the Common Era from two data-rich regions, North America and Fennoscandia, reveals inter- and intra-regional differences. Third, building on earlier work, this paper shows the potential for providing a high-resolution hydroclimate reconstruction for the Arctic and a comparison with last-millennium simulations from fully coupled climate models. In general, hydroclimate proxies and simulations indicate that the Medieval Climate Anomaly tends to have been wetter than the Little Ice Age (LIA), but there are large regional differences. However, the regional coverage of the proxy data is inadequate, with distinct data gaps in most of Eurasia and parts of North America, making robust assessments for the whole Arctic impossible at present. To fully assess pan-Arctic hydroclimate variability for the last 2 millennia, additional proxy records are required.

  20. Rehabilitation strategies for partially edentulous-prosthodontic principles and current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Dsj; Dua, Parag

    2011-07-01

    The prosthetic considerations for treatment of partially edentulous patients involve evaluation of important aspects such as presence of certain functional or skeletal deficits, orientation of the occlusal plane, free-way space, size and location of edentulous areas, number, strategic location and quality of the likely abutment teeth, vertical dimension, and the type of occlusion. A comprehensive evaluation, multidisciplinary approach and a sequential treatment plan, worked out in harmony with the patient's perceptions are important factors to ensure a successful outcome. This article discusses the principles, current trends and importance of clinical decisions in designing a treatment strategy when confronted with complex situations of partial edentulism.

  1. Patient centric approach for clinical trials: Current trend and new opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha Shankar

    2015-01-01

    The clinical research industry today is undergoing a major facelift. Companies are continuously looking to adopt and implement effective and innovative ways to accelerate drug launches in the market. Companies today are more open and do not view patients as mere "subjects" who generate data, - but as informed collaborators whose participation is "core" to the overall success of trials leading to the emergence of the concept of "patient-centric trials." This paper is intended to highlight the current trends and new opportunities that can be seen in industry -indicative of crucial role patients today play in their own health care using technology, social media and self education.

  2. Patient centric approach for clinical trials: Current trend and new opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Shankar Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical research industry today is undergoing a major facelift. Companies are continuously looking to adopt and implement effective and innovative ways to accelerate drug launches in the market. Companies today are more open and do not view patients as mere "subjects" who generate data, - but as informed collaborators whose participation is "core" to the overall success of trials leading to the emergence of the concept of "patient-centric trials." This paper is intended to highlight the current trends and new opportunities that can be seen in industry -indicative of crucial role patients today play in their own health care using technology, social media and self education.

  3. Special Issue: Current Trends in Research in Accounting Finance and Management Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lassala, Carlos; Ripoll Feliu, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    On January 27, 2016, an agreement was signed with OmniaScience to select articles to be published in the journal Intangible Capital, in a special issue titled "Current Trends in Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Control." The agreement was reached within the framework of three events at the University of Valencia, from June 27 to 30, 2016: XXI Workshop on Accounting and Management Control. “Memorial Raymond Konopka”, X Iberoamerican Congress of Management Accounting, III  Int...

  4. Current Technologies and its Trends of Machine Vision in the Field of Security and Disaster Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Fujino, Yozo

    Image sensing technologies are expected as useful and effective way to suppress damages by criminals and disasters in highly safe and relieved society. In this paper, we describe current important subjects, required functions, technical trends, and a couple of real examples of developed system. As for the video surveillance, recognition of human trajectory and human behavior using image processing techniques are introduced with real examples about the violence detection for elevators. In the field of facility monitoring technologies as civil engineering, useful machine vision applications such as automatic detection of concrete cracks on walls of a building or recognition of crowded people on bridge for effective guidance in emergency are shown.

  5. Research on the Current Telecommuting Trends in United States and European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Georgiana PICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and due to the accelerated progress made in information and communication technology, more and more companies offer their employees the option of telecommuting. For the past twenty years, telecommuting has been on an asceding trend, an incresing number of people embracing the ability to work from home, using a computer and internet connection to communicate for their jobs. The goal of the paper is to explain the overall notion of telecommuting and to analyze the current trends in the United States and European Union markets. Another objective is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting and the important role played by this concept within the striving purpose of corporations to achieve their strategic targets. The study is based upon specialized literature reviews regarding the emergence of telecommuting and the role it plays in organizations. A comparative analysis was conducted by the authors on two regional markets, United States and the European Union, in order to assess the trend in telecommuting and the factors that influence it. The outcome of the research shows that although the benefits of telecommuting are numerous, it does not come without challenges, both being applicable for both the employer, as well as for the employee. The research results of this study can be used by organizations when considering to offer their employees flexible work opportunities which can positively influence the long term business performance.

  6. Trends in measurement models and methods in understanding occupational health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrick, Lois E

    2017-07-01

    Measurement of occupational health psychology constructs is the cornerstone to developing our understanding of occupational health and safety. It also is critical in the design, evaluation, and implementation of interventions to improve employees and organizations well-being. The purpose of this article is a brief review of the current state of measurement theory and practice in occupational health psychology. Also included are a discussion of development of newer measurement models and methods, which are in use in other disciplines of psychology, but have not been incorporated into the occupational health psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ullate, D.; Lombardo, S.; Mañas, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Nijhoff, F.; Sommacal, M.

    2009-12-01

    may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. Contributions to the special issue should if possible be submitted electronically by web upload at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa, or by email to jphysa@iop.org, quoting 'JPhysA Special Issue: Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena' Submissions should ideally be in standard LaTeX form. Please see the website for further information on electronic submissions. Authors unable to submit electronically may send hard-copy contributions to: Publishing Administrators, Journal of Physics A, IOP Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Please quote 'JPhysA Special Issue—Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena'. All contributions should be accompanied by a read-me file or covering letter giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. The Publishing Office should be notified of any subsequent change of address. This special issue will be published in the paper and online version of the journal.

  8. A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE TOURISM SECTOR - CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN THE BULGARIAN TOURIST BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadin Valkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thе analysis presented in current article deepens and summarizes the results of an economic study focused on the management of human resources in the sector "Tourism". The expected changes in organizational and technological terms are taken into account. The law on tourism in the Republic of Bulgaria and the types of taxes that directly and indirectly affect those employed in tourism are considered. Leading accents are the current trends and issues that arise from the lack of skilled workers in this sector and their deficit caused by the seasonal nature of employment. Growing gray economy is concerned as a major obstacle to development of the tourism industry and its future.

  9. eHealth in Saudi Arabia: Current Trends, Challenges and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulame, Khaled; Khalifa, Mohamed; Househ, Mowafa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the current status of eHealth in Saudi Arabia from the perspective of health informatics professionals. We used a case study approach and analyzed participant data using thematic analysis. The study took place between July and August 2013. Data collection included interviews with nine senior health information professionals in Saudi Arabia. The findings describe participant views on current eHealth trends in Saudi Arabia and show differences among Saudi healthcare organizations in terms of eHealth adoption. Participants also describe the challenges relating to organizational and cultural issues, end user attitudes towards eHealth projects, and the lack of specialized human resources to implement eHealth systems. Two main recommendations made by the participants were to form a new national body for eHealth and to develop a unified plan for the implementation of Saudi eHealth initiatives.

  10. Research trend in thermally stimulated current method for development of materials and devices in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Taguchi, Dai

    2018-03-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurement is widely used in a variety of research fields, i.e., physics, electronics, electrical engineering, chemistry, ceramics, and biology. TSC is short-circuit current that flows owing to the displacement of charges in samples during heating. TSC measurement is very simple, but TSC curves give very important information on charge behaviors. In the 1970s, TSC measurement contributed greatly to the development of electrical insulation engineering, semiconductor device technology, and so forth. Accordingly, the TSC experimental technique and its analytical method advanced. Over the past decades, many new molecules and advanced functional materials have been discovered and developed. Along with this, TSC measurement has attracted much attention in industries and academic laboratories as a way of characterizing newly discovered materials and devices. In this review, we report the latest research trend in the TSC method for the development of materials and devices in Japan.

  11. Current trends in degradation assesment on metallic materials of industrial components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Palma, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    To needs to assess objectively a structural integrity analysis in nuclear and termal power-, oil- and chemical- industry system, represents a large challenge for engineer and researches related to Materials Science, equipment manufactures or users. These systems share many of their problems with regards to aging mechanism of components metallic materials, high replacement costs and increasing requirements on efficiency and safety. This paper makes an attempt to give an overview of the current trends on material damage and residual life assessment for installation of power-, oil- and chemical industry. Some of the currently existing ideas on components inspection, as an activity for damage detection are shown. A summary on mechanism of material damage and experimental techniques for their characterization is also presented. Finally, some analytical methods with wide appliance in materials damage evaluation and residual life assesment of components are described

  12. Black Truffle Harvesting in Spanish Forests: Trends, Current Policies and Practices, and Implications on its Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Forcadell, Ricardo; Sánchez, Sergio; Martín-Santafé, María; Marco, Pedro; Camarero, J. Julio; Reyna, Santiago

    2018-04-01

    The European black truffle is a mycorrhizal fungus native to Spanish Mediterranean forests. In most Spanish regions it was originally commercially harvested in the second half of the 20th century. Experts agree that wild truffle yields suffered a sharp decline during the 1970s and 1980s. However, official statistics for Spanish harvest are scarce and seemingly conflicting, and little attention has been paid to the regime for the exploitation of truffle-producing forests and its implications on the sustainability of this resource. Trends in harvest from 1969 to 2013 and current harvesting practices were analyzed as a case study, taking into account that Spain is a major truffle producer worldwide, but at the same time truffles have only recently been exploited. The available statistical sources, which include an increasing proportion of cultivated truffles since the mid-1990s, were explored, with estimates from Truffle Harvesters Federation showing higher consistency. Statistical sources were then compared with proxies for wild harvest (rents from truffle leases in public forests) to corroborate time trends in wild harvesting. Results suggest that black truffle production is recovering in recent years thanks to plantations, whereas wild harvest is still declining. The implications of Spanish legal and institutional framework on sustainability of wild truffle use are reviewed. In the current scenario, the decline of wild harvest is likely to continue and eventually make commercial harvesting economically unattractive, thus aggravating sustainability issues. Strengthening of property rights, rationalization of harvesting pressure, forest planning and involvement of public stakeholders are proposed as corrective measures.

  13. Investigation of students’ intermediate conceptual understanding levels: the case of direct current electricity concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktan, D Cobanoglu

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual understanding is one of the main topics in science and physics education research. In the majority of conceptual understanding studies, students’ understanding levels were categorized dichotomously, either as alternative or scientific understanding. Although they are invaluable in many ways, namely developing new instructional materials and assessment instruments, students’ alternative understandings alone are not sufficient to describe students’ conceptual understanding in detail. This paper introduces an example of a study in which a method was developed to assess and describe students’ conceptual understanding beyond alternative and scientific understanding levels. In this study, six undergraduate students’ conceptual understanding levels of direct current electricity concepts were assessed and described in detail by using their answers to qualitative problems. In order to do this, conceptual understanding indicators are described based on science and mathematics education literature. The students’ understanding levels were analysed by assertion analysis based on the conceptual understanding indicators. The results indicated that the participants demonstrated three intermediate understanding levels in addition to alternative and scientific understanding. This paper presents the method and its application to direct current electricity concepts. (paper)

  14. Achilles tenotomy as an office procedure and current practising trends among New Zealand orthopaedic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Lewis; Wickham, Angus; Walker, Cameron; Knudsen, Joshua

    2018-05-18

    Percutaneous Achilles tenotomy (PAT) is performed during the final phase of casting with Ponseti method. Several settings have been proposed as venues for this procedure, however it is increasingly being performed in theatre under a general anaesthetic (GA). General anaesthesia, however, is expensive and not without risks. The purpose of the present study was to compare results of outpatient releases to theatre releases, and assess current practising trends among orthopaedic surgeons. Retrospective comparison of patients with idiopathic clubfoot managed by Ponseti method who had Achilles tenotomy performed in outpatient clinic and in theatre. Surveys were sent to all POSNZ members to determine current practising trends in New Zealand. Parental satisfaction surveys were performed. Comparative cost analysis was performed using hospital billing information. The current study includes 64 idiopathic congenital clubfeet (19 bilateral cases). PAT was performed on 26 clubfeet under local anaesthetic in an outpatient setting, and 33 clubfeet under GA in a theatre setting. There was no significant difference for post-operative complications, or recurrence (p=0.67). Those in theatre group were exposed to a greater number of general anaesthetics before the age of four. Among practising New Zealand paediatric orthopaedic surgeons, 77.78% perform this in theatre under general anaesthesia, while only 22.22% perform PAT in outpatient clinic. The main barriers included concerns regarding pain control, concerns regarding incomplete release, concerns regarding distress to family and concerns regarding sterility. Parental satisfaction surveys found pain management to be excellent. Financial data was analysed and indicative costs were $6,061 NZD per procedure in theatre, compared to $378 NZD per procedure in clinic. PAT performed in a clinic setting is both safe and efficacious with results comparative to that performed in theatre. There was no difference in post

  15. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savych, Bogdan; Klerman, Jacob A; Loughran, David S

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explores recent trends in the unemployment of recent veterans as estimated from two nationally representative surveys, the Current Population Survey "CPS" and the American Community Survey "ACS...

  16. Primary energy use for heating in the Swedish building sector-Current trends and proposed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, P.; Nylander, A.; Johnsson, F.

    2007-01-01

    One goal of the Swedish energy policy is to reduce the amount of electricity used for heating in the building sector. This means to reduce the primary energy used for heating which in this paper is analyzed in the context of various heating technologies and CO 2 emissions. The analysis is applied to a region in Sweden (southern Sweden) for which detailed information on the energy infrastructure (the capital stock of the buildings and heating systems together with geographical variations in heat intensity) is available from a previous work [Johansson, P., Nylander, A., Johnsson, F., 2005. Electricity dependency and CO 2 emissions from heating in the Swedish building sector-current trends in conflict with governmental policy? Energy policy] and which is large enough to be assumed representative for Sweden as a whole. The detailed mapping of the energy infrastructure allows a good estimate on the rate at which the energy system can be expected to be replaced with respect to economical lifetime of the capital stock (the year 2025 in this case). Two scenarios are investigated; a target scenario for which energy savings are employed (e.g. improving climate shell in buildings) and oil and most of the electricity used for heating purposes are phased out and a second for which the current trend in the heating market continues. In the target scenario it is shown that although only applying commercially competitive heating technologies, it is possible to achieve a 47% reduction in primary energy use for heating with a 34% decrease in heat demand together with significant reduction in CO 2 emissions. However, the scenario which continues the current trends on the heating market instead yields an increase (of about 10%) in primary energy use (reduction in conversion efficiency) of the heating system of the region over the period studied, in spite of a slight decrease in heat demand (9%, mainly due to energy efficiency measures) as well as in CO 2 emissions. In light of the

  17. Current trends in treatment of obesity in Karachi and possibilities of cost minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mirza Izhar; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum

    2015-03-01

    Our study finds out drug usage trends in over weight and obese patients without any compelling indications in Karachi, looks for deviations of current practices from evidence based antihypertensive therapeutic guidelines and identifies not only cost minimization opportunities but also communication strategies to improve patients' awareness and compliance to achieve therapeutic goal. In present study two sets were used. Randomized stratified independent surveys were conducted in hospital doctors and family physicians (general practitioners), using pretested questionnaires. Sample size was 100. Statistical analysis was conducted on Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Opportunities of cost minimization were also analyzed. One the basis of doctors' feedback, preference is given to non-pharmacologic management of obesity. Mass media campaign and media usage were recommended to increase patients awareness and patients' education along with strengthening family support systems was recommended for better compliance of the patients to doctor's advice. Local therapeutic guidelines for weight reduction were not found. Feedbacks showed that global therapeutic guidelines were followed by the doctors practicing in the community and hospitals in Karachi. However, high price branded drugs were used instead of low priced generic therapeutic equivalents. Patient's education is required for better awareness and improving patients' compliance. The doctors found preferring brand leaders instead of low cost options. This trend increases cost of therapy by 0.59 to 4.17 times. Therefore, there are great opportunities for cost minimization by using evidence-based clinically effective and safe medicines.

  18. International Medical Graduates in the US Physician Workforce and Graduate Medical Education: Current and Historical Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad A; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Thomas, Charles R; Deville, Curtiland

    2018-04-01

    Data show that international medical graduates (IMGs), both US and foreign born, are more likely to enter primary care specialties and practice in underserved areas. Comprehensive assessments of representation trends for IMGs in the US physician workforce are limited. We reported current and historical representation trends for IMGs in the graduate medical education (GME) training pool and US practicing physician workforce. We compared representation for the total GME and active practicing physician pools with the 20 largest residency specialties. A 2-sided test was used for comparison, with P  < .001 considered significant. To assess significant increases in IMG GME trainee representation for the total pool and each of the specialties from 1990-2015, the slope was estimated using simple linear regression. IMGs showed significantly greater representation among active practicing physicians in 4 specialties: internal medicine (39%), neurology (31%), psychiatry (30%), and pediatrics (25%). IMGs in GME showed significantly greater representation in 5 specialties: pathology (39%), internal medicine (39%), neurology (36%), family medicine (32%), and psychiatry (31%; all P  < .001). Over the past quarter century, IMG representation in GME has increased by 0.2% per year in the total GME pool, and 1.1% per year for family medicine, 0.5% for obstetrics and gynecology and general surgery, and 0.3% for internal medicine. IMGs make up nearly a quarter of the total GME pool and practicing physician workforce, with a disproportionate share, and larger increases over our study period in certain specialties.

  19. Mercury Content of Sediments in East Fork Poplar Creek: Current Assessment and Past Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eller, Virginia A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dickson, Johnbull O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Earles, Jennifer E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lowe, Kenneth Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehlhorn, Tonia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, Todd A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watson, David J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phillips, Debra H. [Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study provided new information on sediment mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) content and chemistry. The current inventory of Hg in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) bed sediments was estimated to be 334 kg, which represents a ~67% decrease relative to the initial investigations in 1984. MMHg sediment inventory was estimated to be 44.1 g, lower but roughly similar to past estimates. The results support the relevance and potential impacts of other active and planned investigations within the Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek project (e.g., assessment and control of bank soil inputs, sorbents for Hg and MMHg removal, re-introduction of freshwater clams to EFPC), and identify gaps in current understanding that represent opportunities to understand controlling variables that may inform future technology development studies.

  20. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, S. K.; Adjeroud, M.; Bellwood, D. R.; Berumen, Michael L.; Booth, D.; Bozec, Y.-M.; Chabanet, P.; Cheal, A.; Cinner, J.; Depczynski, M.; Feary, D. A.; Gagliano, M.; Graham, N. A. J.; Halford, A. R.; Halpern, B. S.; Harborne, A. R.; Hoey, A. S.; Holbrook, S. J.; Jones, G. P.; Kulbiki, M.; Letourneur, Y.; De Loma, T. L.; McClanahan, T.; McCormick, M. I.; Meekan, M. G.; Mumby, P. J.; Munday, P. L.; Ohman, M. C.; Pratchett, M. S.; Riegl, B.; Sano, M.; Schmitt, R. J.; Syms, C.

    2010-01-01

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef

  1. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However...

  2. Comprehensive management of pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury: Current concepts and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Erwin A.; Pires, Marilyn; Ngann, Yvette; Sterling, Michelle; Rubayi, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury represent a challenging problem for patients, their caregivers, and their physicians. They often lead to recurrent hospitalizations, multiple surgeries, and potentially devastating complications. They present a significant cost to the healthcare system, they require a multidisciplinary team approach to manage well, and outcomes directly depend on patients' education, prevention, and compliance with conservative and surgical protocols. With so many factors involved in the successful treatment of pressure ulcers, an update on their comprehensive management in spinal cord injury is warranted. Current concepts of local wound care, surgical options, as well as future trends from the latest wound healing research are reviewed to aid medical professionals in treating patients with this difficult problem. PMID:24090179

  3. Strategies to enhance biologically active-secondary metabolites in cell cultures of Artemisia - current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Khan, Haji; Ali, Gul Shad

    2017-11-01

    The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin. However, due to the limited quantities of these metabolites in wild plants, in vitro cultures were established and strategies have been adopted to enhance medicinally important secondary metabolites in these cultures. This review elaborates on the traditional medicinal uses of Artemisia species and explains current trends to establish cell cultures of A. annua and A. absinthium for enhanced production of medicinally important secondary metabolites.

  4. Metacognition fundaments, applications, and trends a profile of the current state-of-the-art

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the Metacognition arena. It highlights works that show relevant analysis, reviews, theoretical, and methodological proposals, as well as studies, approaches, applications, and tools that shape current state, define trends and inspire future research. As a result of the revision process fourteen manuscripts were accepted and organized into five parts as follows: ·     Conceptual: contains conceptual works oriented to: (1) review models of strategy instruction and tailor a hybrid strategy; (2) unveil second-order judgments and define a method to assess metacognitive judgments; (3) introduces a conceptual model to describe the metacognitive activity as an autopoietic system. ·     Framework: offers three works concerned with: (4) stimulate metacognitive skills and self-regulatory functions; (5) evaluate metacognitive skills and self-regulated learning at problem solving; (6) deal with executive management metacognition and strategic knowledge metacognition. ·     Studies: r...

  5. Current Trends in Discharge Disposition and Post-discharge Care After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarity, T David; Swall, Marion M

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to review published literature over the last 5 years to assess recent trends and influencing factors regarding discharge disposition and post-discharge care following total joint arthroplasty. We evaluated instruments proposed to predict a patient's discharge disposition and summarize reports investigating the safety in sending more patients home by reviewing complications and readmission rates. Current literature supports decreased length of hospital stay and increased discharge to home with cost savings and stable readmission rates. Surgeons with defined clinical pathways and those who shape patient expectations may more effectively control costs than those without defined pathways. Further research is needed analyzing best practices in care coordination, managing patient expectations, and cost-effective analysis of home discharge while at the same time ensuring patient outcomes are optimized following total joint arthroplasty.

  6. Racial disparities in smoking knowledge among current smokers: data from the health information national trends surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Rachel Ann; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-10-01

    Although African-Americans (Blacks) smoke fewer cigarettes per day than European-Americans (Whites), there is ample evidence that Blacks are more susceptible to smoking-related health consequences. A variety of behavioural, social and biological factors have been linked to this increased risk. There has been little research, however, on racial differences in smoking-related knowledge and perceived risk of lung cancer. The primary goal of the current study was to evaluate beliefs and knowledge that contribute to race disparities in lung cancer risk among current smokers. Data from two separate nationally representative surveys (the Health Information National Trends surveys 2003 and 2005) were analysed. Logistic and hierarchical regressions were conducted; gender, age, education level, annual household income and amount of smoking were included as covariates. In both studies, Black smokers were significantly more likely to endorse inaccurate statements than were White smokers, and did not estimate their lung cancer risk to be significantly higher than Whites. Results highlight an important racial disparity in public health knowledge among current smokers.

  7. Review: Current trends in coral transplantation – an approach to preserve biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELNABY ORABI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ammar MSA,El-Gammal F, Nassar M, Belal A, Farag W, El-Mesiry G, El-Haddad K, Orabi A, Abdelreheem A, Shaaban A. 2013. Review: Current trends in coral transplantation – an approach to preserve biodiversity. Biodiversitas 14: 43-53. The increasing rates of coral mortality associated with the rise in stress factors and the lack of adequate recovery worldwide have urged recent calls for actions by the scientific, conservation, and reef management communities. This work reviews the current trends in coral transplantation. Transplantation of coral colonies or fragments, whether from aqua-, mariculture or harvesting from a healthy colony, has been the most frequently recommended action for increasing coral abundance on damaged or degraded reefs and for conserving listed or “at-risk” species. Phytoplanktons are important for providing transplanted corals with complex organic compounds through photosynthesis. Artificial surfaces like concrete blocks, wrecks or other purpose-designed structures can be introduced for larval settlement. New surfaces can also be created through electrolysis. Molecular biological tools can be used to select sites for rehabilitation by asexual recruits. Surface chemistry and possible inputs of toxic leachate from artificial substrates are considered as important factors affecting natural recruitment. Transplants should be carefully maintained , revisited and reattached at least weekly in the first month and at least fortnightly in the next three months. Studies on survivorship and the reproductive ability of transplanted coral fragments are important for coral reef restoration. A coral nursery may be considered as a pool for local species that supplies reef-managers with unlimited coral colonies for sustainable management. Transplanting corals for making artificial reefs can be useful for increasing biodiversity, providing tourist diving, fishing and surfing; creating new artisanal and commercial fishing opportunities

  8. Ten years after "Worrying trends in econophysics": developments and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Econophysics has made a number of important additions to scientific knowledge. Yet it continues to lack influence with both economists and policy makers. Ten years ago, I and three other economists sympathetic to econophysics wrote a paper on worrying trends within the discipline. For example, its lack of awareness of the economics literature, and shortfalls in the use of statistical analysis. These continue to be obstacles to wider acceptance by economists. Like all agents, policy makers respond to incentives, and economists understand this very well. Much of the econophysics community appears to think that simply doing good science is sufficient to have the work recognised, rather than relating to the motivations and incentives of policy makers. Nevertheless, econophysics now has three major opportunities to advance knowledge in areas where policy makers perceive weaknesses in what they are presented with by economists. All can benefit from the analysis of Big Data. The first is a core model of agent behaviour which is more relevant to cyber society than the rational agent model of economics. Second, extending our understanding of the business cycle, primarily by incorporating the importance of networks into models. Third, devising proper measures of output in cyber society.

  9. Between understanding and appreciation. Current science communication in Denmark (Danish original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I use the concepts “understanding of science” and “appreciation of science” to analyze selected case studies of current science communication in Denmark. The Danish science communication system has many similarities with science communication in other countries: the increasing political and scientific interest in science communication, the co-existence of many different kinds of science communication, and the multiple uses of the concepts of understanding vs. appreciation of science. I stress the international aspects of science communication, the national politico-scientific context as well as more local contexts as equally important conditions for understanding current Danish science communication.

  10. Investments of Banks in Securities: the Essence and Development Trends under Current Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Vladimirovna Mazikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of modern banking activities involves the realization of investments. Investment is a complex discussion economic category, characterized by a number of features. The types and forms of investment are manifold and can be transformed with account of the state of the economy and the level of development of industrial relations. The faster growth of the financial sector in the economy has stipulated the development of financial investment. Banks as financial and lending institutions actively make financial investments in securities. Banks’ investment in securities pursues a number of purposes which determine the selection of securities for investment and their quality. The article identified the targets of bank investments in securities and their development trends under current conditions on the basis of the analysis of the actual data for 2010–2014. Negative revaluation and the actual decrease in the value of corporate securities of Russian issuers reduce their commercial appeal. Banks refuse to speculate on the stock market in favor of the securities that ensure liquidity. Banks’ investments aim to purchasing securities from the Lombard List of the Bank of Russia in order to obtain loans and participate in the repo transactions. Thus, during the analyzed period, banks’ investments in securities transformed from systemically important assets that generate substantial profit into the mechanism that provides liquidity. It should be noted that a significant part of investment resources of Russian banks services the debt obligations of Russia’s Government. The article also identified a trend of banks’ increasing investment in the participation portfolios of subsidiaries and associated joint stock companies. The official data of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia [15], and the Federal State Statistics Service [14] were used as the information base for the study

  11. Laparoscopic major hepatectomies: current trends and indications. A comparison with the open technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Francesca; Cipriani, Federica; Ariotti, Riccardo; Giannone, Fabio; Paganelli, Michele; Aldrighetti, Luca

    2015-06-01

    Diffusion of laparoscopic major hepatectomies is experiencing a steady increasing trend, although slower compared to minor resections. The aim of this single-center study is to discuss current trends and indications in the application of minimally invasive techniques to major hepatic resections. Preoperative patients and disease characteristics of 49 laparoscopic major hepatectomies (LPS group), performed between 2005 and 2015, were compared with 585 open hepatectomies (Open group) to analyze differences in patients recruitment. Factors which were found to be differently distributed between groups were used as covariates in a propensity score-based case-matched analysis with a 1:3 ratio between LPS group and 147 patients from the Open group (constituting Open-mat group). Short-term outcome was analyzed in matched groups. ASA score, previous abdominal surgery, previous interventional procedures, indication, lesion size and associated procedures were significantly different between the LPS and the Open group. Short-term outcome analysis revealed that blood loss (200 vs 350 mL, p = 0.044) and time for functional recovery (3 vs 4 days, p = 0.05) were reduced in the LPS compared to the Open-mat group, in spite of longer length of surgery (260 vs 170 min, p = 0.041) and comparable oncological adequacy. Even though data on technical feasibility of laparoscopic major resections and their benefits in terms of blood loss and functional recovery support the diffusion of minimally invasive approach, the limit of the technique is still represented by the reduced pool of suitable candidates.

  12. Nutrition situation in Latin America and the Caribbean: current scenario, past trends, and data gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Galicia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To determine the current nutritional status in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC and identify data gaps and trends in nutrition surveillance. Methods A systematic Internet search was conducted to identify official sources that allowed for monitoring of LAC countries’ nutritional status, including progress toward World Health Organization Global Nutrition Targets 2025. Reports from national nutrition surveillance systems and reports on nationally representative surveys were collected and collated to 1 analyze nutritional status, based on life-course anthropometric indicators and biomarkers, and 2 identify gaps in data availability and trends in nutritional deficiencies. Information on iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiency was also collected and collated. Results Twenty-two of the 46 LAC countries/territories (48% had information on undernutrition (stunting, underweight, and wasting in children under 5 years old and women of reproductive age (WRA. Seventeen countries (38% had information on anemia in children under 5 years old and WRA, and 12 (27% had information on anemia in pregnant women. Although overall nutritional status has improved in the past few decades in all countries in the region, some LAC countries still had a high prevalence of stunting and anemia in children and WRA. Overweight affected at least 50% of WRA in nine countries with available data, and was increasing in children. Data for school-age children, adolescents, adult males, and older adults were scarce in the region. Conclusions Overall nutritional status has improved in the LAC countries with available information, but more efforts are needed to scale up nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific interventions to tackle malnutrition in all its forms, as stunting, anemia, and vitamin A deficiency are still a public health problem in many countries, and overweight is an epidemic. Nutrition information systems are weak in the

  13. Trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawyer, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the oil industry has been through major changes in the past 10 years. We have seen an activity high in the early 1980s, which was stimulated by oil price predictions that went as high as $70/bbl. By 1985 we saw oil prices plunge to $8/bbl, causing numerous reorganizations and mergers. Today we find ourselves in a business environment in which large oil companies are reducing their explorative budgets in the mature basins of the U.S. and Canada in favor of more-attractive opportunities in frontier plays, usually overseas. These same companies are taking a hard look at their existing fields with the objective of increasing operating efficiency by sales, trades, and purchases. Nonperforming properties are sold or exchanged for properties that are within the supported infrastructure. Before a property can be considered for divestment, it must be evaluated on the basis of current reserves and potential for additional reserves. This process of restructuring producing properties is often referred to as property enhancement. The result of property enhancement is the identification of core producing properties. Resources and efforts are then focused on the core properties to maximize production and reserves. This is today's business environment. Our challenge is to provide value-added technology that will support exploration and production business objectives. Expenditures for technology should be treated like any other expenditures, with calculations of expected payouts and anticipated rates of return. An evaluation of risk should also be made. In other words, solid economic justification is required. This justification is particularly true in production, where expenditures and results are more closely coupled

  14. CURRENT TRENDS AND PROSPECTS OF THE RUSSIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY AND THE FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Mamedyarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of this article is to study the current state of the pharmaceutical industry in Russia, to identify trends in Russian pharmaceutical market, and to provide preliminary analysis of the state support policy for pharmaceuticals in Russia, focusing on the federal target program "Pharma-2020".Methods: the study is based on a quantitative study of the characteristics and trends of the Russian pharmaceutical market. The emphasis was put on the period 2008–2017. The volume of the market, the structure of imports and exports are considered, and expenditures under the federal program "Pharma-2020" are studied. A qualitative comparative comparison with the tendencies of the global development of the industry is conducted and recommendations are made on further stimulating the growth of the pharma industry in Russia.Results: in the past 5 years, the pharmaceutical industry in Russia did receive special attention from the government, significant funds have been allocated for to support domestic producers, and import substitution policies have been launched. Financial results of the industry show slight improvement in a number of indicators: the market share of domestic medicines is growing, the generics production increased, production standards became tighter controlled. Nevertheless, Russia remains on the periphery of the world pharmaceutical science, import retains two thirds of the market share by value, while innovative novel drugs are now launched primarily by MNEs from the US and the EU.Conclusions and relevance: the challenges and development factors of Russia's pharmaceutical industry identified in this research require effective regulatory tools. First of all, it is necessary to reduce the gap between Russia and the developed countries in the R&D standards and their market implementation. Statistical data has showed the progress in the production of drugs from the VED list (Vital and Essential Drugs, but it is necessary to

  15. Analysis of current trends on the Czech food market with a focus on a healthy lifestyle.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartůňková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The thesis of this work is to map current trends on the Czech food market with focus on a healthy lifestyle. In particular, it focuses on foodstuff labelling and GDA labels. The paper begins by surveying the development of the healthy lifestyle trend, as well as the activities of the Federation of the Food and Drink Industries of the Czech Republic involved in a healthy lifestyle; furthermore, the work elaborates on segmentation of the consumer and evaluation of a healthy lifestyle, obesity a...

  16. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the current understanding of floodplain processes and landforms for the Willamette River and its major tributaries. The area of focus encompasses the main stem Willamette River above Newberg and the portions of the Coast Fork Willamette, Middle Fork Willamette, McKenzie, and North, South and main stem Santiam Rivers downstream of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dams. These reaches constitute a large portion of the alluvial, salmon-bearing rivers in the Willamette Basin. The geomorphic, or historical, floodplain of these rivers has two zones - the active channel where coarse sediment is mobilized and transported during annual flooding and overbank areas where fine sediment is deposited during higher magnitude floods. Historically, characteristics of the rivers and geomorphic floodplain (including longitudinal patterns in channel complexity and the abundance of side channels, islands and gravel bars) were controlled by the interactions between floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood. Local channel responses to these interactions were then shaped by geologic features like bedrock outcrops and variations in channel slope. Over the last 150 years, floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood have been substantially reduced in the basin. With dam regulation, nearly all peak flows are now confined to the main channels. Large floods (greater than 10-year recurrence interval prior to basinwide flow regulation) have been largely eliminated. Also, the magnitude and frequency of small floods (events that formerly recurred every 2–10 years) have decreased substantially. The large dams trap an estimated 50–60 percent of bed-material sediment—the building block of active channel habitats—that historically entered the Willamette River. They also trap more than 80 percent of the estimated bed material in the lower South Santiam River and Middle and Coast Forks of the Willamette River. Downstream, revetments further

  17. Understanding the Seasonal Greenness Trends and Controls in South Asia Using Satellite Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, S.; Jia, G.; Zhang, A.; Singha, M.

    2017-12-01

    South Asia (SA) is one of the most remarkable regions in changing vegetation greenness along with its major expansion of agricultural activity, especially irrigated farming. However, SA is predicted to be a vulnerable agricultural regions to future climate changes. The influence of monsoon climate on the seasonal trends and anomalies of vegetation greenness are not well understood in the region which can provide valuable information about climate-ecosystem interaction. This study analyzed the spatio-temporal patterns of seasonal vegetation trends and variability using satellite vegetation indices (VI) including AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (1982-2013) and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) (2000-2013) in summer monsoon (SM) (June-Sept) and winter monsoon (WM) (Dec-Apr) seasons among irrigated cropland (IC), rainfed cropland (RC) and natural vegetation (NV). Seasonal VI variations with climatic factors (precipitation and temperature) and LULC changes have been investigated to identify the forcings behind the vegetation trends and variability. We found that major greening occurred in the last three decades due to the increase in IC productivity noticeably in WM, however, recent (2000-2013) greening trends were lower than the previous decades (1982-1999) in both the IC and RC indicating the stresses on them. The browning trends, mainly concentrated in NV areas were prominent during WM and rigorous since 2000, confirmed from the moderate resolution EVI and LULC datasets. Winter time maximal temperature had been increasing tremendously whereas precipitation trend was not significant over SA. Both the climate variability and LULC changes had integrated effects on the vegetation changes in NV areas specifically in hilly regions. However, LULC impact was intensified since 2000, mostly in north east India. This study also revealed a distinct seasonal variation in spatial distribution of correlation between VI's and climate anomalies over SA

  18. Current trends in pedicle screw stimulation techniques: lumbosacral, thoracic, and cervical levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isley, Michael R; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Balzer, Jeffrey R; Leppanen, Ronald E

    2012-06-01

    justification" of intraoperative neuromonitoring"... is the perception that the safety and efficacy of pedicle screw fixation are enhanced..." (Resnick et al. 2005b). However in summarizing a massive (over 1000 papers taken from the National Library of Medicine), contemporary, literature review spanning nearly a decade (1996 to 2003), this invited panel (Resnick et al. 2005b) recognized that the evidence-based documents contributing to the parts related to pedicle screw fixation and neuromonitoring were "... full of potential sources of error ..." and lacked appropriate, randomized, prospective studies for formulating rigid standards and guidelines. Nevertheless, current trends support the routine use and clinical utility of these neuromonitoring techniques. In particular free-run and triggered EMG have been well recognized in numerous publications for improving both the accuracy and safety of pedicle screw implantation. Currently, treatment with pedicle screw instrumentation routinely involves all levels of the spine - lumbosacral, thoracic, and cervical. Significant historical events, various neuromonitoring modalities, intraoperative alarm criteria, clinical efficacy, current trends, and caveats related to pedicle screw stimulation along the entire vertebral column will be reviewed.

  19. Current Status and Trend of Internet and E-Commerce Market in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Hongjoo; KIM Jongwoo; PARK Sungjoo

    2004-01-01

    After the remarkable increase of Internet users and broadband Internet subscribers at the end of the 20th century, the size of Korean Internet and e-commerce market steadily increased but the growth rate has been either stagnant or decreased. Trends of Korean Internet and e-commerce market are summarized in this paper the trends on Internet usage are introduced. Trends of online games, blogs and wireless Internet are introduced. The trends of Korean Internet market may have implications for China and Japan.

  20. Fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) phenomena in reactor safety. Current understanding and future research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speis, T.P. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States); Basu, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the current understanding of fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) phenomena in the context of reactor safety. With increased emphasis on accident management and with emerging in-vessel core melt retention strategies for advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, recent interest in FCI has broadened to include an evaluation of potential threats to the integrity of reactor vessel lower head and ex-vessel structural support, as well as the role of FCI in debris quenching and coolability. The current understanding of FCI with regard to these issues is discussed, and future research needs to address the issues from a risk perspective are identified. (author)

  1. Current status and new trends in the methodology of safety assessment for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, Petre; Didita, Liana; Danchiv, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present the status of the safety assessment methodology at the end of IAEA CRP 'Application of Safety Assessment Methodology for Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities (ASAM)', and the new trends outlined at the launch of the follow-up project 'Practical Implementation of Safety Assessment Methodologies in a Context of Safety Case of Near-Surface Facilities (PRISM)'. Over the duration of the ASAM project, the ISAM methodology was confirmed as providing a good framework for conducting safety assessment calculations. In contrast, ASAM project identified the limitations of the ISAM methodology as currently formulated. The major limitations are situated in the area of the use of safety assessment for informing practical decisions about alternative waste and risk management strategies for real disposal sites. As a result of the limitation of the ISAM methodology, the PRISM project is established as an extension of the ISAM and ASAM projects. Based on the outcomes of the ASAM project, the main objective of the PRISM project are: 1 - to develop an overview of what constitutes an adequate safety case and safety assessment with a view to supporting decision making processes; 2 - to provide practical illustrations of how the safety assessment methodology could be used for addressing some specific issues arising from the ASAM project and national cases; 3 - to support harmonization with the IAEA's international safety standards. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of current trends and recent development in insulin therapy for management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad Sarfraz; Shah, Kifayat Ullah; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Rehman, Asim Ur; Rashid, Haroon Ur; Mahmood, Sajid; Khan, Shahzeb; Farrukh, Muhammad Junaid

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem in developing countries. There are various insulin therapies to manage diabetes mellitus. This systematic review evaluates various insulin therapies for management of diabetes mellitus worldwide. This review also focuses on recent developments being explored for better management of diabetes mellitus. We reviewed a number of published articles from 2002 to 2016 to find out the appropriate management of diabetes mellitus. The paramount parameters of the selected studies include the insulin type & its dose, type of diabetes, duration and comparison of different insulin protocols. In addition, various newly developed approaches for insulin delivery with potential output have also been evaluated. A great variability was observed in managing diabetes mellitus through insulin therapy and the important controlling factors found for this therapy include; dose titration, duration of insulin use, type of insulin used and combination therapy of different insulin. A range of research articles on current trends and recent advances in insulin has been summarized, which led us to the conclusion that multiple daily insulin injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump) is the best method to manage diabetes mellitus. In future perspectives, development of the oral and inhalant insulin would be a tremendous breakthrough in Insulin therapy. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metal-enhanced luminescence: Current trend and future perspectives- A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Esimbekova, Elena N.; Kirillova, Maria A.; Kratasyuk, Valentina A.

    2017-01-01

    Optically enhanced biosensing strategies are prerequisites for developing miniature and highly sensitive multiplexed analytical platforms. Such smart biosensing systems are highly promising for use in the fields of biomedicine and environmental monitoring. Optical signal enhancement during bioassays is attributed to the complex opto-electronic interactions of incoming photonic signals at the nanomaterial interface. Research on the use of metals other than gold and silver for such purposes tends to extend the spectral window to observe luminescence enhancement effects. Such manifold increase in luminescence may be explained by the principles of plasmon coupling, directional emission led high collection efficiency, Rayleigh scattering and related opto-electronic events. The present review begins with a mechanistic description of important phenomena associated with metal-induced luminescence enhancement, particularly focusing on the origin of metal-enhanced luminescence. This review further analyses the hybrid nanostructure capabilities responsible for maintaining unique opto-electronic properties during bio-functionalisation. Current research trends in this area, future scope of this field for designing useful bioassays and concluding remarks are then discussed. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials significantly differ from their bulk counterparts. • Strong and pronounced photophysical effects at the metal surface provide opportunities for designing novel biosensors. • Metal-enhanced luminescence increases the quantum yield of luminescent reactions. • Under optimal conditions, plasmon coupling enhances the optical effects at the nanometal surface.

  4. Metal-enhanced luminescence: Current trend and future perspectives- A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, Rajeev [Laboratory of Bioluminescent Biotechnologies, Department of Biophysics, Institute of Fundamental Biology and Biotechnology, Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Esimbekova, Elena N., E-mail: esimbekova@yandex.ru [Laboratory of Bioluminescent Biotechnologies, Department of Biophysics, Institute of Fundamental Biology and Biotechnology, Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center SB RAS”, Akademgorodok 50/50, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Kirillova, Maria A. [Laboratory of Bioluminescent Biotechnologies, Department of Biophysics, Institute of Fundamental Biology and Biotechnology, Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Kratasyuk, Valentina A. [Laboratory of Bioluminescent Biotechnologies, Department of Biophysics, Institute of Fundamental Biology and Biotechnology, Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center SB RAS”, Akademgorodok 50/50, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-08

    Optically enhanced biosensing strategies are prerequisites for developing miniature and highly sensitive multiplexed analytical platforms. Such smart biosensing systems are highly promising for use in the fields of biomedicine and environmental monitoring. Optical signal enhancement during bioassays is attributed to the complex opto-electronic interactions of incoming photonic signals at the nanomaterial interface. Research on the use of metals other than gold and silver for such purposes tends to extend the spectral window to observe luminescence enhancement effects. Such manifold increase in luminescence may be explained by the principles of plasmon coupling, directional emission led high collection efficiency, Rayleigh scattering and related opto-electronic events. The present review begins with a mechanistic description of important phenomena associated with metal-induced luminescence enhancement, particularly focusing on the origin of metal-enhanced luminescence. This review further analyses the hybrid nanostructure capabilities responsible for maintaining unique opto-electronic properties during bio-functionalisation. Current research trends in this area, future scope of this field for designing useful bioassays and concluding remarks are then discussed. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials significantly differ from their bulk counterparts. • Strong and pronounced photophysical effects at the metal surface provide opportunities for designing novel biosensors. • Metal-enhanced luminescence increases the quantum yield of luminescent reactions. • Under optimal conditions, plasmon coupling enhances the optical effects at the nanometal surface.

  5. Current trends of antimicrobial susceptibility of typhoidal salmonellae isolated at tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehra, N.M.; Irfan, F.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the current trend of antimicrobial susceptibility of typhoidal Salmonellae. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from January 2014 to December 2015. Methodology: Blood culture samples received from the wards and outpatient departments were included. Isolates of Salmonella were dealt with standard microbiological procedures. The antimicrobial sensitivity against the typhoidal Salmonellae was determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2013). Results: A total of 460 typhoidal Salmonellae were isolated; out of which 270 were Salmonella typhi and 190 were Salmonella paratyphiA. The percentage of MDR isolates of S. typhi was 57% and that of S. paratyphiA was 42%. None of the isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, while sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (07% and 0% for S. typhiand S. paratyphiA, respectively) was very low. Conclusion: There is high percentage of MDR isolates of typhoidal Salmonellae in our region. The antimicrobial sensitivity of typhoidal Salmonellae to conventional agent has not improved enough to recommend their empirical use. There is almost complete resistance to fluoroquinolones as well, leaving very limited available treatment options. (author)

  6. Quality management in European screening laboratories in blood establishments: A view of current approaches and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard; de Sousa, Gracinda

    2015-04-01

    The screening laboratory has a critical role in the post-transfusion safety. The success of its targets and efficiency depends on the management system used. Even though the European Union directive 2002/98/EC requires a quality management system in blood establishments, its requirements for screening laboratories are generic. Complementary approaches are needed to implement a quality management system focused on screening laboratories. This article briefly discusses the current good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices, as well as the trends in quality management system standards. ISO 9001 is widely accepted in some European Union blood establishments as the quality management standard, however this is not synonymous of its successful application. The ISO "risk-based thinking" is interrelated with the quality risk-management process of the EuBIS "Standards and criteria for the inspection of blood establishments". ISO 15189 should be the next step on the quality assurance of a screening laboratory, since it is focused on medical laboratory. To standardize the quality management systems in blood establishments' screening laboratories, new national and European claims focused on technical requirements following ISO 15189 is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lifelong education for older adults in Malta: Current trends and future visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa, Marvin

    2012-04-01

    With European demographic developments causing a decline of the available workforce in the foreseeable future and the unsustainability of dominant pay-as-you-go pension systems (where contributions from the current workforce sustain pensioners), governments need to come up with strategies to deal with this upcoming challenge and to adjust their policies. Based on a study carried out between September 2009 and May 2010, this article evaluates the policies guiding late-life education in Malta, as well as the local plethora of learning opportunities for older adult education, and participation rates. The Maltese government is committed to supporting the inclusion of older persons (aged 60+) in lifelong education policies and programmes, to the extent that local studies have uncovered a recent rise in the overall participation of older adults in formal, non-formal and informal areas of learning. While the present and future prospects for late-life education in Malta seem promising, a critical scrutiny of present ideologies and trends finds the field to be no more than seductive rhetoric. Though the coordination of late-life education in Malta does result in various social benefits to older learners and Maltese society in general, it also occurs within five intersecting lines of inequality - namely an economic rationale, elitism, gender bias, the urban-rural divide and third ageism. This article ends by proposing policy recommendations for the future of late-life education.

  8. Gender trends in dental practice patterns. A review of current U.S. literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, T A

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews three recent reports of national gender trends in dental practice patterns. Although the three independent cross-sectional studies were conducted at different points in time, used different sampling strategies, and used similar but independent survey instruments, findings were consistent across studies. In summary: Women dentists are less likely to be married and have fewer children. Women are more likely to assume child rearing and household responsibilities. Women are less likely to be practice owners. Women worked slightly fewer hours per week and weeks per year, and were more likely to take a leave of absence for illness or child rearing. However, women dentists demonstrate a far greater professional work commitment than was previously reported in the literature. Women earn significantly less income from the practice of dentistry, even after controlling for age, practice ownership, hours worked per week, and other personal characteristics. The most current "Gender Wage Gap" estimates range from 57.7% for specialists to 75.4% for general practitioners (8). delta.

  9. Current status of food irradiation in the world. Trend in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2002-01-01

    This review describes the current status of food irradiation in the world and particularly, its trends in Asia, based on the report of the economic scale investigation on the irradiation in United States and Japan (2001) and on the information of 12th International Meeting on Radiation Processing in France in 2001 and on personal communications. International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation promotes its activities of irradiation globally and 46 countries are affiliated. Food irradiation is allowed in 52 countries. In 1999, 257,000 t of food is irradiated in the world, of which 1/3 is due to spice. The facilities for the irradiation have such sources as 60 Co and 137 Cs γ-rays, electron beam of <10 MeV and X-ray with <5 MeV. Detection methods of irradiated foods are summarized by the project of Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Foods. The US is the most advanced country in the irradiation and, in Japan, only irradiation of potato is permitted. The detailed present status is also described of Bangladesh, China (the irradiation is most widely conducted in the world), India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. Recently Australia and New Zealand have started the irradiation. (K.H.)

  10. ANALYSIS OF CURRENT STATE AND FUTURE TRENDS OF AUTO PARTS MANUFACTURING SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA MIHAI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the economy of any country, the auto parts manufacturing sector holds an important percentage in the national automotive industry. The dynamics of sales within it can vary significantly on short term, depending on the automotive market trend. This is also the case of the current situation in Romania, where the effect of the regressive automotive sales evolution will propagate, most probably, with a significant delay for the companies involved in production and trade of auto parts (for both first-assembly manufacture and car maintenance and repair. The statistical data indicate that even though the total volume of vehicles delivered decreased with 7.4% in 2011 as compared to 2010, the total turnover of the companies in the automotive industry increased with 7.8%. The apparent paradox is explained in the present article through the particularities of the demand for spare parts intended for the rolling stock in operation and through the effective organization of the distribution system.

  11. Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshayeb, Ayman A; Ahmed, Abdelazim A; El Siddig, Marmar A; El Hussien, Adil A

    2017-11-14

    Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks. Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. The antibiotics susceptibilities were tested using the recommendations of the Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute. Predictions of emerging resistant bacteria patterns and outbreaks in Sudan were done using logistic regression, forecasting linear equations and in silico simulations models. A total of 124 antibiotics resistant Salmonella Typhi strains categorized in 12 average groups were isolated, different patterns of resistance statistically calculated by (y = ax - b). Minimum bactericidal concentration's predication of resistance was given the exponential trend (y = n e x ) and the predictive coefficient R 2  > 0 current antimicrobial drug resistance patterns of community-acquired agents causing outbreaks.

  12. Google it! Using the Google Trends tool to understand the Algarve Tourist destination public interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dinis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In a sector strongly dependent on information as is the case of tourism, the timely knowledge of consumer behaviour enables making well-considered decisions and less uncertainty. Nowadays, the act of searching on the Internet about a particular subject before decision-making is part of the individuals’ daily lives. The Google Trends tool provides real time aggregated data on the online individuals’ interest based on the carried out search queries on Google. The objective of this paper is to show that Google Trends can provide comparative information about the individuals’ interest in relation to Portugal tourism regional areas and in particular, on the tourist destination "Algarve", and also between its competing tourist destinations. The results show that the tool can contribute to the knowledge of the individuals’ interests in relation to regional tourist destinations, information considered of great interest for Destination Management Organizations.

  13. Current Trends in Retirement: Implications for Career Counseling and Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Megan C.; Clancy, Megan E.; Foley, Pamela F.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of emerging trends in retirement, examines demographic trends in the labor force, and provides practical recommendations for working with older workers across cultures (e.g., women and racial/ethnic minorities, and among others). Increasingly, older workers in the United States remain in the workforce for reasons…

  14. Current Practice in Research Ethics: Global Trends and New Opportunities for African Universities. Research and Innovation Policy Series. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Liam

    2007-01-01

    Research Ethics has emerged as one of the most well-developed policy areas within the sphere of Research and Innovation Management. As such, for African institutions looking to strengthen their policy frameworks, develop increased collaborations, and increase research outputs, a thorough understanding of global trends in Ethics will be vital.…

  15. Historical Overview, Current Status, and Future Trends in Human-Computer Interfaces for Process Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owre, Fridtjov

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 25 yr ago, the first computer-based process control systems, including computer-generated displays, appeared. It is remarkable how slowly the human-computer interfaces (HCI's) of such systems have developed over the years. The display design approach in those early days had its roots in the topology of the process. Usually, the information came from the piping and instrumentation diagrams. Later, some important additional functions were added to the basic system, such as alarm and trend displays. Today, these functions are still the basic ones, and the end-user displays have not changed much except for improved display quality in terms of colors, font types and sizes, resolution, and object shapes, resulting from improved display hardware.Today, there are two schools of display design competing for supremacy in the process control segment of the HCI community. One can be characterized by extension and integration of current practice, while the other is more revolutionary.The extension of the current practice approach can be described in terms of added system functionality and integration. This means that important functions for the plant operator - such as signal validation, plant overview information, safety parameter displays, procedures, prediction of future states, and plant performance optimization - are added to the basic functions and integrated in a total unified HCI for the plant operator.The revolutionary approach, however, takes as its starting point the design process itself. The functioning of the plant is described in terms of the plant goals and subgoals, as well as the means available to reach these goals. Then, displays are designed representing this functional structure - in clear contrast to the earlier plant topology representation. Depending on the design approach used, the corresponding displays have various designations, e.g., function-oriented, task-oriented, or ecological displays.This paper gives a historical overview of past

  16. Current Trends in the Detection of Sociocultural Signatures: Data-Driven Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Bell, Eric B.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2014-09-15

    available that are shaping social computing as a strongly data-driven experimental discipline with an increasingly stronger impact on the decision-making process of groups and individuals alike. In this chapter, we review current advances and trends in the detection of sociocultural signatures. Specific embodiments of the issues discussed are provided with respect to the assessment of violent intent and sociopolitical contention. We begin by reviewing current approaches to the detection of sociocultural signatures in these domains. Next, we turn to the review of novel data harvesting methods for social media content. Finally, we discuss the application of sociocultural models to social media content, and conclude by commenting on current challenges and future developments.

  17. VAGINAL BIRTH AFTER A PREVIOUS CAESAREAN SECTION: CURRENT TRENDS AND OUTLOOK IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffah, J D; Adu-Bonsaffoh, K

    2014-01-01

    The optimal mode of subsequent delivery of women with prior caesarean birth remains a subject of intense research and debate in contemporary obstetric practice especially in low resource settings like West Africa where there are obvious systemic and management-related challenges associated with trial of scar. However, there is evidence that vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) is safe in appropriately selected women in addition to adequate intrapartum monitoring and ready access to theatre when emergency CS is indicated. The primary objective of the study was to determine the current trends and performance of VBAC in Ghana after decades of practice of trial of labour after caesarean section (TOLAC) in the mist of inherent challenges in deciding the optimal mode of childbirth for women with a previous caesarean birth. The secondary objective was to relate evidence based practice of TOLAC to obstetric practice in low resource settings like Ghana and provide recommendations for improving maternal and newborn health among women with prior caesarean birth. This was a retrospective study of the records of patients who had had a prior caesarean delivery and who then proceeded to deliver the next babies at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) between Jan 2010 and Dec 2014. The data on demography, antenatal care, labour and delivery and outcomes were collected from the Labour and Recovery wards and the Biostatistics unit of the Maternity unit of the Hospital. Excluded were women with a previous CS who had multiple pregnancies and those with incomplete notes as well as those whose delivery plans were not predetermined antenatally.. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. There were 53,581 deliveries during the study period. Vaginal delivery was obtained in 31,870 (59.5%) pregnancies and 21,711(40.5%) had CS. Also, 6261 (11.7%) had had a prior CS and 2472 (39.5%) of these were selected for TOLAC while 2119 (33.8) were scheduled for planned repeat CS. There was

  18. Improving Control System Security through the Evaluation of Current Trends in Computer Security Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolston

    2005-03-01

    At present, control system security efforts are primarily technical and reactive in nature. What has been overlooked is the need for proactive efforts, focused on the IT security research community from which new threats might emerge. Evaluating cutting edge IT security research and how it is evolving can provide defenders with valuable information regarding what new threats and tools they can anticipate in the future. Only known attack methodologies can be blocked, and there is a gap between what is known to the general security community and what is being done by cutting edge researchers --both those trying to protect systems and those trying to compromise them. The best security researchers communicate with others in their field; they know what cutting edge research is being done; what software can be penetrated via this research; and what new attack techniques and methodologies are being circulated in the black hat community. Standardization of control system applications, operating systems, and networking protocols is occurring at a rapid rate, following a path similar to the standardization of modern IT networks. Many attack methodologies used on IT systems can be ported over to the control system environment with little difficulty. It is extremely important to take advantage of the lag time between new research, its use on traditional IT networks, and the time it takes to port the research over for use on a control system network. Analyzing nascent trends in IT security and determining their applicability to control system networks provides significant information regarding defense mechanisms needed to secure critical infrastructure more effectively. This work provides the critical infrastructure community with a better understanding of how new attacks might be launched, what layers of defense will be needed to deter them, how the attacks could be detected, and how their impact could be limited.

  19. Public perception of hazardousness caused by current trends of municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Kontogianni, Stamatia; Abu Nabaa, Hendya; Alshami, Ni'meh; Al-Sari', Majed I

    2015-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) piling up is becoming a serious problem in all developing countries (DC) as a result of inequitable waste collection and treatment. Citizens' collaboration is partly based on understanding their views and their active involvement in MSW planning; on the other hand the assessment of the perception of hazardousness related with MSW is considered rather important as well since the identification of the weak points of the applied MWM strategy is eased and the level of required training is determined. Researchers implemented a case study in the West Bank (WB) and Gaza Strip (GS) regions of Palestine, taking into consideration previous researches in other developing countries. They reached to safe and useful conclusions regarding the parameters which mean the greatest in the waste management field as far as DC are concerned. Lack of skilled manpower, irregular collection services, inadequate equipment used for waste collection, inadequate legal provisions, and resource constraints are additional factors that are confirmed to be challenging the waste management scenarios in all DCs today. The research takes those factors under consideration but focuses on the educational gap and the results revealed interesting trends a significant relationship between respondent's educational attainment and their awareness of hazardous waste (hazard perception); the results will indicate the measure taking required to avoid accidents occurred in those regions (burns from toxics, cuts from sharps, etc). National policy and legislation development based on the research outcomes will ensure equitable and accessible services are in place in order to move towards a healthier environment. Specialized health education and training programs on national scale are also needed to enhance awareness on hazardous waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Organizational charts in a selection of LIBER libraries : analysis of current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Jouguelet

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey of organization structures analyzed in this paper was launched at the end of 2005 by the LIBER Division Library Management and Administration (LMA. It was conducted electronically in a representative group of LIBER libraries located across Europe: 78 libraries from 33 countries. It has been analyzed by the LMA Division’s committee and a member of the staff of the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF, allocating groups of countries between them, with the very important help of the French school of librarianship. I want to give warm thanks to all the colleagues who have responded and to those who have helped in the analysis of this very rich material. The selection of libraries was made by the members of the committee, according to their geographical contacts. The answers give an uneven geographic representation (see Appendix 2 and the libraries are of different types and sizes, but all are research libraries affiliated to LIBER. The main purpose of the survey was to gain an insight into what organization charts can tell us about the evolution of research libraries in different European countries. The key goals were to compare organization and service arrangements in a range of libraries, to gain an understanding of changes in recent years, as evidenced by the organization charts, and to analyse trends in the evolution of organizations, rather than arriving at firm quantifiable findings concerning change. Our intention was not to investigate change in general, but merely to look at the way it has been expressed through organization charts (and their evolution over time. The work is indicative rather than scientifically significant.

  1. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  2. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  3. The European mountain cryosphere: a review of its current state, trends, and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, Martin; Farinotti, Daniel; Stoffel, Markus; Andreassen, Liss M.; Coppola, Erika; Eckert, Nicolas; Fantini, Adriano; Giacona, Florie; Hauck, Christian; Huss, Matthias; Huwald, Hendrik; Lehning, Michael; López-Moreno, Juan-Ignacio; Magnusson, Jan; Marty, Christoph; Morán-Tejéda, Enrique; Morin, Samuel; Naaim, Mohamed; Provenzale, Antonello; Rabatel, Antoine; Six, Delphine; Stötter, Johann; Strasser, Ulrich; Terzago, Silvia; Vincent, Christian

    2018-03-01

    The mountain cryosphere of mainland Europe is recognized to have important impacts on a range of environmental processes. In this paper, we provide an overview on the current knowledge on snow, glacier, and permafrost processes, as well as their past, current, and future evolution. We additionally provide an assessment of current cryosphere research in Europe and point to the different domains requiring further research. Emphasis is given to our understanding of climate-cryosphere interactions, cryosphere controls on physical and biological mountain systems, and related impacts. By the end of the century, Europe's mountain cryosphere will have changed to an extent that will impact the landscape, the hydrological regimes, the water resources, and the infrastructure. The impacts will not remain confined to the mountain area but also affect the downstream lowlands, entailing a wide range of socioeconomical consequences. European mountains will have a completely different visual appearance, in which low- and mid-range-altitude glaciers will have disappeared and even large valley glaciers will have experienced significant retreat and mass loss. Due to increased air temperatures and related shifts from solid to liquid precipitation, seasonal snow lines will be found at much higher altitudes, and the snow season will be much shorter than today. These changes in snow and ice melt will cause a shift in the timing of discharge maxima, as well as a transition of runoff regimes from glacial to nival and from nival to pluvial. This will entail significant impacts on the seasonality of high-altitude water availability, with consequences for water storage and management in reservoirs for drinking water, irrigation, and hydropower production. Whereas an upward shift of the tree line and expansion of vegetation can be expected into current periglacial areas, the disappearance of permafrost at lower altitudes and its warming at higher elevations will likely result in mass movements

  4. A European regulatory perspective on cystic fibrosis: current treatments, trends in drug development and translational challenges for CFTR modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzano, Stefano; Nigrelli, Giulia; Fregonese, Laura; Eichler, Irmgard; Bertozzi, Fabio; Bandiera, Tiziano; Galietta, Luis J V; Papaluca, Marisa

    2018-06-30

    In this article we analyse the current authorised treatments and trends in early drug development for cystic fibrosis (CF) in the European Union for the time period 2000-2016. The analysis indicates a significant improvement in the innovation and development of new potential medicines for CF, shifting from products that act on the symptoms of the disease towards new therapies targeting the cause of CF. However, within these new innovative medicines, results for CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators indicate that one major challenge for turning a CF concept product into an actual medicine for the benefit of patients resides in the fact that, although pre-clinical models have shown good predictability for certain mutations, a good correlation to clinical end-points or biomarkers ( e.g. forced expiratory volume in 1 s and sweat chloride) for all mutations has not yet been achieved. In this respect, the use of alternative end-points and innovative nonclinical models could be helpful for the understanding of those translational discrepancies. Collaborative endeavours to promote further research and development in these areas as well as early dialogue with the regulatory bodies available at the European competent authorities are recommended. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  5. Understanding Trends in Kidney Function 1 Year after Kidney Transplant in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yihung; Tilea, Anca; Gillespie, Brenda; Shahinian, Vahakn; Banerjee, Tanushree; Grubbs, Vanessa; Powe, Neil; Rios-Burrows, Nilka; Pavkov, Meda; Saran, Rajiv

    2017-08-01

    Lower eGFR 1 year after kidney transplant is associated with shorter allograft and patient survival. We examined how practice changes in the past decade correlated with time trends in average eGFR at 1 year after kidney transplant in the United States in a cohort of 189,944 patients who received a kidney transplant between 2001 and 2013. We calculated the average eGFR at 1 year after transplant for the recipient cohort of each year using the appropriate Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation depending on the prevailing methodology of creatinine measurement, and used linear regression to model the effects of practice changes on the national post-transplant eGFR trend. Between the 2001-2005 period and the 2011-2013 period, average 1-year post-transplant eGFR remained essentially unchanged, with differences of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.65) ml/min per 1.73 m 2 and 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.01) ml/min per 1.73 m 2 among deceased and living donor kidney transplant recipients, respectively. Over time, the mean age of recipients increased and more marginal organs were used; adjusting for these trends unmasked a larger temporal improvement in post-transplant eGFR. However, changes in immunosuppression practice had a positive effect on average post-transplant eGFR and balanced out the negative effect of recipient/donor characteristics. In conclusion, average 1-year post-transplant eGFR remained stable, despite increasingly unfavorable attributes in recipients and donors. With an aging ESRD population and continued organ shortage, preservation of average post-transplant eGFR will require sustained improvement in immunosuppression and other aspects of post-transplant care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Using scaling relations to understand trends in the catalytic activity of transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G; Bligaard, T; Abild-Pedersen, F; Noerskov, J K

    2008-01-01

    A method is developed to estimate the potential energy diagram for a full catalytic reaction for a range of late transition metals on the basis of a calculation (or an experimental determination) for a single metal. The method, which employs scaling relations between adsorption energies, is illustrated by calculating the potential energy diagram for the methanation reaction and ammonia synthesis for 11 different metals on the basis of results calculated for Ru. It is also shown that considering the free energy diagram for the reactions, under typical industrial conditions, provides additional insight into reactivity trends

  7. Ischaemic heart disease deaths in Brazil: current trends, regional disparities and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Cristina P; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Sabbag, Ary Elias; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Olandoski, Marcia; Franco, Oscar H; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2013-09-01

    To quantify the trend of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) deaths in Brazil during the last decade (2000-2010) for various population characteristics and to forecast the upcoming mortality trends across regions in Brazil until the year 2015. Nationwide comparative observational study. The population studied encompassed all adult residents (≥ 20 years) living in five Brazilian regions between 2000 and 2010. Demographic, economic and mortality data were obtained from Brazilian National Mortality Data System and National Applied Economics Research Institute. Subnotified deaths were redistributed proportionally to IHD deaths. Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100 000 inhabitants, by sex and region, were calculated employing a standard Brazilian population and constructing multivariate regression models to quantify and to project temporal trends. Absolute numbers of death due to IHD and region-specific death rates in Brazil by age and sex. During the study period, 627 786 men and 452 690 women died due to IHD in Brazil. ASMR trends across all regions for men and women converged, driven by a declining trend in the South and Southeast and an opposite incline in the North and Northeast (p < 0.05). Future projections demonstrated potential widening of the observed North-South gap in coming years. The IHD death trend in Brazil has changed from a decline to a stagnant state. However, a significant discrepancy in mortality trends exists between the northern and southern regions, which is likely to widen further. Reappraisal of the public health policies tailored to populations with diverse socioeconomic structures is urgently required.

  8. The Molecular Biology of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas and Current Trends in Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Quesada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic research in sarcoma models has been fundamental in the discovery of scientific milestones leading to a better understanding of the molecular biology of cancer. Yet, clinical research in sarcoma has lagged behind other cancers because of the multiple clinical and pathological entities that characterize sarcomas and their rarity. Sarcomas encompass a very heterogeneous group of tumors with diverse pathological and clinical overlapping characteristics. Molecular testing has been fundamental in the identification and better definition of more specific entities among this vast array of malignancies. A group of sarcomas are distinguished by specific molecular aberrations such as somatic mutations, intergene deletions, gene amplifications, reciprocal translocations, and complex karyotypes. These and other discoveries have led to a better understanding of the growth signals and the molecular pathways involved in the development of these tumors. These findings are leading to treatment strategies currently under intense investigation. Disruption of the growth signals is being targeted with antagonistic antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and inhibitors of several downstream molecules in diverse molecular pathways. Preliminary clinical trials, supported by solid basic research and strong preclinical evidence, promises a new era in the clinical management of these broad spectrum of malignant tumors.

  9. The Future of e-Learning in Medical Education: Current Trend and Future Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of e-learning modalities are widely integrated in medical education. However, some of the key questions related to the role of e-learning remain unanswered, such as (1 what is an effective approach to integrating technology into pre-clinical vs. clinical training?; (2 what evidence exists regarding the type and format of e-learning technology suitable for medical specialties and clinical settings?; (3 which design features are known to be effective in designing on-line patient simulation cases, tutorials, or clinical exams?; and (4 what guidelines exist for determining an appropriate blend of instructional strategies, including online learning, face-to-face instruction, and performance-based skill practices? Based on the existing literature and a variety of e-learning examples of synchronous learning tools and simulation technology, this paper addresses the following three questions: (1 what is the current trend of e-learning in medical education?; (2 what do we know about the effective use of e-learning?; and (3 what is the role of e-learning in facilitating newly emerging competency-based training? As e-learning continues to be widely integrated in training future physicians, it is critical that our efforts in conducting evaluative studies should target specific e-learning features that can best mediate intended learning goals and objectives. Without an evolving knowledge base on how best to design e-learning applications, the gap between what we know about technology use and how we deploy e-learning in training settings will continue to widen.

  10. Current trends in satellite based emergency mapping - the need for harmonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    During the past years, the availability and use of satellite image data to support disaster management and humanitarian relief organisations has largely increased. The automation and data processing techniques are greatly improving as well as the capacity in accessing and processing satellite imagery in getting better globally. More and more global activities via the internet and through global organisations like the United Nations or the International Charter Space and Major Disaster engage in the topic, while at the same time, more and more national or local centres engage rapid mapping operations and activities. In order to make even more effective use of this very positive increase of capacity, for the sake of operational provision of analysis results, for fast validation of satellite derived damage assessments, for better cooperation in the joint inter agency generation of rapid mapping products and for general scientific use, rapid mapping results in general need to be better harmonized, if not even standardized. In this presentation, experiences from various years of rapid mapping gained by the DLR Center for satellite based Crisis Information (ZKI) within the context of the national activities, the International Charter Space and Major Disasters, GMES/Copernicus etc. are reported. Furthermore, an overview on how automation, quality assurance and optimization can be achieved through standard operation procedures within a rapid mapping workflow is given. Building on this long term rapid mapping experience, and building on the DLR initiative to set in pace an "International Working Group on Satellite Based Emergency Mapping" current trends in rapid mapping are discussed and thoughts on how the sharing of rapid mapping information can be optimized by harmonizing analysis results and data structures are presented. Such an harmonization of analysis procedures, nomenclatures and representations of data as well as meta data are the basis to better cooperate within

  11. Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Elshayeb

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. Objectives The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks. Methods Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. The antibiotics susceptibilities were tested using the recommendations of the Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute. Predictions of emerging resistant bacteria patterns and outbreaks in Sudan were done using logistic regression, forecasting linear equations and in silico simulations models. Results A total of 124 antibiotics resistant Salmonella Typhi strains categorized in 12 average groups were isolated, different patterns of resistance statistically calculated by (y = ax − b. Minimum bactericidal concentration’s predication of resistance was given the exponential trend (y = n ex and the predictive coefficient R2 > 0 < 1 are approximately alike. It was assumed that resistant bacteria occurred with a constant rate of antibiotic doses during the whole experimental period. Thus, the number of sensitive bacteria decreases at the same rate as resistant occur following term to the modified predictive model which solved computationally. Conclusion This study assesses the prediction of multi-drug resistance among S. Typhi isolates by applying low cost materials and simple statistical methods suitable for the most frequently used antibiotics as typhoid empirical therapy. Therefore, bacterial surveillance systems should be implemented to present data on the aetiology and current

  12. Current trends in stroke rehabilitation. A review with focus on brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B B

    2011-03-01

    Current understanding of brain plasticity has lead to new approaches in ischemic stroke rehabilitation. Stroke units that combine good medical and nursing care with task-oriented intense training in an environment that provides confidence, stimulation and motivation significantly improve outcome. Repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are applied in rehabilitation of motor function. The long-term effect, optimal way of stimulation and possibly efficacy in cognitive rehabilitation need evaluation. Methods based on multisensory integration of motor, cognitive, and perceptual processes including action observation, mental training, and virtual reality are being tested. Different approaches of intensive aphasia training are described. Recent data on intensive melodic intonation therapy indicate that even patients with very severe non-fluent aphasia can regain speech through homotopic white matter tract plasticity. Music therapy is applied in motor and cognitive rehabilitation. To avoid the confounding effect of spontaneous improvement, most trials are preformed ≥3 months post stroke. Randomized controlled trials starting earlier after strokes are needed. More attention should be given to stroke heterogeneity, cognitive rehabilitation, and social adjustment and to genetic differences, including the role of BDNF polymorphism in brain plasticity. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Modeling and managing urban water demand through smart meters: Benefits and challenges from current research and emerging trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Piga, D.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Urban population growth, climate and land use change are expected to boost residential water demand in urban contexts in the next decades. In such a context, developing suitable demand-side management strategies is essential to meet future water demands, pursue water savings, and reduce the costs for water utilities. Yet, the effectiveness of water demand management strategies (WDMS) relies on our understanding of water consumers' behavior, their consumption habits, and the water use drivers. While low spatial and temporal resolution water consumption data, as traditionally gathered for billing purposes, hardly support this understanding, the advent of high-resolution, smart metering technologies allowed for quasi real-time monitoring water consumption at the single household level. This, in turn, is advancing our ability in characterizing consumers' behavior, modeling, and designing user-oriented residential water demand management strategies. Several water smart metering programs have been rolled-out in the last two decades worldwide, addressing one or more of the following water demand management phases: (i) data gathering, (ii) water end-uses characterization, (iii) user modeling, (iv) design and implementation of personalized WDMS. Moreover, the number of research studies in this domain is quickly increasing and big economic investments are currently being devoted worldwide to smart metering programs. With this work, we contribute the first comprehensive review of more than 100 experiences in the field of residential water demand modeling and management, and we propose a general framework for their classification. We revise consolidated practices, identify emerging trends and highlight the challenges and opportunities for future developments given by the use of smart meters advancing residential water demand management. Our analysis of the status quo of smart urban water demand management research and market constitutes a structured collection of information

  14. Proceedings of the BRNS-AEACI first symposium on current trends in analytical chemistry: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    The symposium was very useful for the scientists on various aspects of current trends in analytical chemistry like separation science, speciation, nuclear analytical techniques, thermo analytical techniques, electro analytical techniques, spectrochemical and microscopic techniques, environmental studies, geochemical studies, chemical metrology, analytical instrumentation. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Understanding trends in Australian alcohol consumption-an age-period-cohort model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael; Raninen, Jonas; Slade, Tim; Swift, Wendy; Lloyd, Belinda; Dietze, Paul

    2016-09-01

    To decompose Australian trends in alcohol consumption into their age, period (survey year) and cohort (birth year/generation) components. In particular, we aimed to test whether recent declines in overall consumption have been influenced by reductions in drinking among recently born cohorts. Seven cross-sectional waves of the Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey (1995-2013). Age, period and cohort effects were estimated using a linear and logistic cross-classified random-effects models (CCREMs). Australia A total of 124 440 Australians (69 193 females and 55 257 males), aged 14-79 years. Whether or not respondents consumed alcohol in the 12 months prior to the survey and, for those who did, the estimated volume of pure alcohol consumed, derived using standard quantity-frequency survey questions. Controlling for age and period effects, there was significant variation in drinking participation and drinking volume by birth cohort. In particular, male cohorts born between the 1965 and 1974 and female cohorts born between 1955 and 1974 reported higher rates of drinking participation (P women (P < 0.01). Recent birth cohorts (born between 1995 and 1999) in Australia report significantly lower rates of both drinking participation and drinking volume than previous cohorts, controlling for their age distribution and overall changes in population drinking. These findings suggest that the recent decline in alcohol consumption in Australia has been driven by declines in drinking among these recently born cohorts. These trends are consistent with international shifts in youth drinking. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. The treatment process of understanding scientific texts: A necessity in the current Cuban university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet María Guerra Santana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work has as main purpose to emphasize the need for treatment of the process of understanding scientific texts in the university today, for the development of science and technology has placed at the forefront in every race the problem of processing scientific information. The ability to produce scientific texts has been somewhat spontaneity in the curriculum of professional training in Cuban university, which has resulted in some professionals do not yet have linguistic, discursive and strategic " tools " best to communicate the style of science, hence the study of the process of understanding of scientific texts in undergraduate currently constitute a need in our universities.

  17. Public perception of hazardousness caused by current trends of municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A., E-mail: ikhatib@birzeit.edu [Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine (Country Unknown); Kontogianni, Stamatia [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dpt. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Abu Nabaa, Hendya; Alshami, Ni’meh [Faculty of Graduate Studies, Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine (Country Unknown); Al-Sari’, Majed I. [The Joint Services Council for Solid Waste Management for Hebron and Bethlehem Governorates JSC-H& B, West Bank (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Contribution to the scientific literature by examining the relationship between concern for the environment and waste disposal in the frame of household waste treatment mechanism specifically in developing countries. • The awareness of the citizens satisfaction level and the local existing capacities in developing countries significantly contribute to decision making on MSW management sustainability in Palestine and other developing countries when applied. • Identification of the differences and similarities among DC resulting to failures or success in WM field. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) piling up is becoming a serious problem in all developing countries (DC) as a result of inequitable waste collection and treatment. Citizens’ collaboration is partly based on understanding their views and their active involvement in MSW planning; on the other hand the assessment of the perception of hazardousness related with MSW is considered rather important as well since the identification of the weak points of the applied MWM strategy is eased and the level of required training is determined. Researchers implemented a case study in the West Bank (WB) and Gaza Strip (GS) regions of Palestine, taking into consideration previous researches in other developing countries. They reached to safe and useful conclusions regarding the parameters which mean the greatest in the waste management field as far as DC are concerned. Lack of skilled manpower, irregular collection services, inadequate equipment used for waste collection, inadequate legal provisions, and resource constraints are additional factors that are confirmed to be challenging the waste management scenarios in all DCs today. The research takes those factors under consideration but focuses on the educational gap and the results revealed interesting trends a significant relationship between respondent’s educational attainment and their awareness of hazardous waste (hazard perception); the

  18. Vehicle-use intensity in China: Current status and future trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; Zhang Qiang; He Kebin; Yao Zhiliang; Wang, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle-use intensity (kilometers traveled per vehicle per year or VKT) is important because it directly affects simulation results for vehicle fuel use and emissions, but the poor understanding of VKT in China could significantly affect the accuracy of estimation of total fuel use and CO 2 emissions, and thus impair precise evaluation of the effects of associated energy and environmental policies. As an important component of our work on the Fuel Economy and Environmental Impacts (FEEI) model, we collected VKT survey data in China from available sources and conducted additional surveys during 2004 and 2010, from which we derived VKT values and VKT-age functions by vehicle type for China. We also projected the future VKT for China by examining the relationship of vehicle use to per-capita GDP in 20 other countries worldwide. The purpose of this work is to achieve a better understanding of vehicle-use intensity in China and to generate reliable VKT input (current and future VKT levels) for the FEEI model. The VKT results obtained from this work could also benefit other work in the field associated with vehicle energy use and emissions. - Highlights: ► VKT is key in estimating fuel use and emissions, but its knowledge is poor in China. ► We determined VKT in China from available survey data and the surveys we conducted. ► VKT-age functions by vehicle type were derived from the surveys we conducted. ► Future VKT was projected based on vehicle use to per-capita GDP in 20 countries.

  19. Long-term Measurements of Summer-time Ozone at the Walnut Grove Tower - Understanding Trends in the Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A.; Di, P.; Mims, D.; Avise, J.; DaMassa, J.; Kaduwela, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has been monitoring boundary layer ozone at the Walnut Grove Tower (WGT) since 1996 for investigating regional transport and vertical profile. Walnut Grove is located between Sacramento and Stockton, CA in the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta. Sampling inlets are positioned at 30-ft, 400-ft, 800-ft, 1200-ft and 1600-ft levels of the 2000-ft tower, which is one of the tallest monitoring towers in the Western US. Ozone, ambient temperature, wind speed, and wind direction are simultaneously measured at each level, and reported as hourly averages. The current study included analyses of available ozone and corresponding meteorological data for the months of June - September from 1996 - 2014 with objectives to: 1) explore trends and inter-annual variability of ozone, 2) examine any correlations between ozone and meteorological parameters, 3) understand interactions of ozone measured at various levels, and 4) assess how well a regulatory state-of-the-science air quality model such as the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) captures observation. Daily 1-hr maximum ozone has been consistently decreasing during the 1996 - 2014 period at a rate of ~1 ppb per year. This indicates that CARB's measures to control ambient ozone have been effective over the past years. Evolution of the vertical profile throughout the day shows that ozone is fairly homogeneously mixed between 1 - 5 pm, when mixing height typically reaches the maximum. Ozone at 30-ft shows the greatest variability because of its proximity to the ground and emissions sources - rises faster during morning hours (7 - 10 am) and declines more rapidly during evening hours (7 - 10 pm) compared to other levels. Air masses reaching the tower are predominantly southwesterly (247 - 257 deg.) at the bottom, and southwesterly to slightly northwesterly (254 - 302 deg.) at top levels. Daily 1-hr maximum ozone was negatively correlated with wind speed (i.e. ozone was high under

  20. Manifesto for the current understanding and management of traumatic brain injury-induced hypopituitarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanriverdi, F; Agha, A; Aimaretti, G

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced hypopituitarism remains a relevant medical problem, because it may affect a significant proportion of the population. In the last decade important studies have been published investigating pituitary dysfunction after TBI. Recently, a group of experts gathered...... and revisited the topic of TBI-induced hypopituitarism. During the 2-day meeting, the main issues of this topic were presented and discussed, and current understanding and management of TBI-induced hypopituitarism are summarized here....

  1. Manifesto for the current understanding and management of traumatic brain injury-induced hypopituitarism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tanriverdi, F

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced hypopituitarism remains a relevant medical problem, because it may affect a significant proportion of the population. In the last decade important studies have been published investigating pituitary dysfunction after TBI. Recently, a group of experts gathered and revisited the topic of TBI-induced hypopituitarism. During the 2-day meeting, the main issues of this topic were presented and discussed, and current understanding and management of TBI-induced hypopituitarism are summarized here.

  2. Understanding the recent trend of haze pollution in eastern China: roles of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the variation and trend of haze pollution in eastern China for winter of 1960–2012 were analyzed. With the overall increasing number of winter haze days in this period, the 5 decades were divided into three sub-periods based on the changes of winter haze days (WHD in central North China (30–40° N and eastern South China (south of 30° N for east of 109° E mainland China. Results show that WHD kept gradually increasing during 1960–1979, remained stable overall during 1980–1999, and increased fast during 2000–2012. The author identified the major climate forcing factors besides total energy consumption. Among all the possible climate factors, variability of the autumn Arctic sea ice extent, local precipitation and surface wind during winter is most influential to the haze pollution change. The joint effect of fast increase of total energy consumption, rapid decline of Arctic sea ice extent and reduced precipitation and surface winds intensified the haze pollution in central North China after 2000. There is a similar conclusion for haze pollution in eastern South China after 2000, with the precipitation effect being smaller and spatially inconsistent.

  3. Current research trends on plastic pollution and ecological impacts on the soil ecosystem: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2018-05-09

    Plastic pollution in the environment is currently receiving worldwide attention. Improper dumping of disused or abandoned plastic wastes leads to contamination of the environment. In particular, the disposal of municipal wastewater effluent, sewage sludge landfill, and plastic mulch from agricultural activities is a serious issue and of major concern regarding soil pollution. Compared to plastic pollution in the marine and freshwater ecosystems, that in the soil ecosystem has been relatively neglected. In this study, we discussed plastic pollution in the soil environment and investigated research on the effects of plastic wastes, especially microplastics, on the soil ecosystem. We found that earthworms have been predominantly used as the test species in investigating the effects of soil plastic pollution on organisms. Therefore, further research investigating the effects of plastic on other species models (invertebrates, plants, microorganisms, and insects) are required to understand the effects of plastic pollution on the overall soil ecosystem. In addition, we suggest other perspectives for future studies on plastic pollution and soil ecotoxicity of plastics wastes, providing a direction for such research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: historical perspectives, current trends, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Sullivan, Mark D; ZumBrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis (marijuana) has been used for medicinal purposes for millennia, said to be first noted by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE. Medicinal cannabis arrived in the United States much later, burdened with a remarkably checkered, yet colorful, history. Despite early robust use, after the advent of opioids and aspirin, medicinal cannabis use faded. Cannabis was criminalized in the United States in 1937, against the advice of the American Medical Association submitted on record to Congress. The past few decades have seen renewed interest in medicinal cannabis, with the National Institutes of Health, the Institute of Medicine, and the American College of Physicians, all issuing statements of support for further research and development. The recently discovered endocannabinoid system has greatly increased our understanding of the actions of exogenous cannabis. Endocannabinoids appear to control pain, muscle tone, mood state, appetite, and inflammation, among other effects. Cannabis contains more than 100 different cannabinoids and has the capacity for analgesia through neuromodulation in ascending and descending pain pathways, neuroprotection, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This article reviews the current and emerging research on the physiological mechanisms of cannabinoids and their applications in managing chronic pain, muscle spasticity, cachexia, and other debilitating problems.

  5. PREFACE: National Seminar on Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, R.; Vijayakumar, K. P.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2013-05-01

    India is going through an era of many changes in its higher education system. Emphasis is being given to research and development initiatives at Universities and colleges. The teaching community is faced with the challenge of coping with both regular academic activities and research initiatives. The teaching faculties need to keep in step with the momentous research output being generated globally. To mold young talent that will be sought after, teachers need to undertake challenging initiatives. Research in emerging areas like nanotechnology, meta materials, functional materials and structures is being pursued vigorously in Universities and colleges in the state of Kerala. Awareness of the impact of integrating teaching and research in basic science has inspired the teaching faculty. The number of seminars and conferences is not commensurate with the amount of research being conducted in this state. The state lags behind in the number of institutes with state of the art facilities and human resource with cutting edge knowledge. The national seminar on Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2011) is organized by the Department of Physics, Christian College, Chengannur. It is a continuation of the initiatives of the Department to bridge the haitus between teaching and research. Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2007) was successfully conducted with over 80 research paper presentations and participation of delegates from the states of Karnataka, Andhrapradesh, Tamilnadu and Kerala. CTMS-2011 is a sequel envisaged to serve as an effective platform for teachers to interact with eminent scientists and share their knowledge and experience. Papers were invited from the subject area comprising glasses and ceramics, crystal growth, nanotechnology, semiconductors thin films and polymers. We are delighted that after a peer review process of the papers we have selected ten of the best papers presented at the seminar for publication in IOP Conference Series

  6. Cost Estimating in DoD: Current Status, Trends, and What the Future Holds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nussbaum, Daniel A

    2005-01-01

    (1) Current Status: Baseline analysis of current cost estimating community, including which organizations are responsible for developing and reviewing cost estimates, how many personnel there are, what...

  7. Understanding wind turbine price trends in the U.S. over the past decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    On a $/kW basis, wind turbine prices in the U.S. have declined by nearly one-third on average since 2008, after having previously doubled over the period from 2002 through 2008. These two substantial and opposing trends over the past decade – and particularly the earlier price doubling – run counter to the smooth, gradually declining cost trajectories predicted by standard learning curve theory. Taking a bottom-up approach, we examine seven possible drivers of wind turbine prices in the U.S., with the goal of estimating the degree to which each contributed to the doubling in turbine prices from 2002 through 2008, as well as the subsequent decline in prices through 2010. In aggregate, these seven drivers – which include changes in labor costs, warranty provisions, manufacturer profitability, turbine scaling, raw materials prices, energy prices, and foreign exchange rates – explain from 70% to 90% (depending on the year) of empirically observed wind turbine price movements in the U.S. through 2010. Turbine scaling is found to have been the largest single contributor to the price doubling through 2008, although the incremental cost of scaling has been justified by greater energy capture, resulting in a lower cost of wind generation. - Highlights: ► Having doubled from 2002 to 2008, wind turbine prices have since fallen by one-third. ► We analyze seven potential drivers of wind turbine prices over the past decade. ► Turbine scaling has had the largest influence, followed by weakness in the dollar. ► Changes in the price of energy inputs had the smallest impact.

  8. The private health sector in South Africa - current trends and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The private health sector is experiencing a crisis of spiralling costs, with average annual cost increases of between 13% and 32% over the decade 1978 - 1988. This trend is partly explained by the high utilisation rates that result from the combination of the 'fee-for-service' system and the 'third-party' payment structure of the ...

  9. Teaching Creativity: Current Findings, Trends, and Controversies in the Psychology of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, the psychological study of creativity has accelerated greatly. To facilitate the teaching of creativity, I provide an overview of the recent literature. The overview begins by discussing recent empirical results and research trends. This discussion specifically treats creativity's cognitive, differential, developmental, and…

  10. Faculty Development for Advancing Community Engagement in Higher Education: Current Trends and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Marshall; Plaxton-Moore, Star

    2017-01-01

    This research involved the conduct of a conceptual review of 28 refereed journal articles and a survey of campus centers for community engagement staff to identify salient features and trends of existing faculty development programming designed to advance service-learning and community engagement in higher education. Results of this investigation…

  11. Teaching the Evolution of the Mind: Current Findings, Trends, and Controversies in Evolutionary Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, James R.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2011-01-01

    As the burgeoning field of evolutionary psychology continues to gain exposure and acceptance throughout the psychological community, it is important to explain this field clearly and accurately to students. This article discusses some recent findings and trends in evolutionary psychological research to aid instructors in their efforts to provide…

  12. Online Methods of Managing Auditory Hallucinations: A New Trend to Understand Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2017-01-01

    Treatment seekers use various coping methods to reduce the distress associated with auditory hallucinations. With the increase use of technology, the technology means are also in use to manage the auditory hallucination. The current report documents the implications of technology means for the management of auditory hallucinations. The user was assessed using clinical interview, internet addiction test, problematic online gaming questionnaire, and screening questions for technology addiction. It showed the use of technology to manage the auditory hallucinations. Psychotherapy work revealed a reduction in their use of technology means at follow-up. It implies to evolve the therapeutic use of technology means and development of alternative therapeutic means to manage the auditory hallucinations.

  13. A study on the current situation and trend of college students’ love in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the incorrect love mentality of contemporary college students in China, the author not only elaborates measures of guiding students to form a healthy view of love in different aspects, such as strengthening college students’ sexual health education, carrying out campus cultural activities, enriching campus life, reinforcing the construction of school rules and disciplines, restraining and managing students’ behaviors, etc., but also analyzes the development trend of college students’ view of love in China.

  14. Current Trends in Cloud Computing A Survey of Cloud Computing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Harjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing that has become an increasingly important trend, is a virtualization technology that uses the internet and central remote servers to offer the sharing of resources that include infrastructures, software, applications and business processes to the market environment to fulfill the elastic demand. In today’s competitive environment, the service vitality, elasticity, choices and flexibility offered by this scalable technology are too attractive that makes the cloud computing to i...

  15. Current and Future Decadal Trends in the Oceanic Carbon Uptake Are Dominated by Internal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the internal decadal variability of the ocean carbon uptake using 100 ensemble simulations based on the Max Planck Institute Earth system model (MPI-ESM). We find that on decadal time scales, internal variability (ensemble spread) is as large as the forced temporal variability (ensemble mean), and the largest internal variability is found in major carbon sink regions, that is, the 50-65°S band of the Southern Ocean, the North Pacific, and the North Atlantic. The MPI-ESM ensemble produces both positive and negative 10 year trends in the ocean carbon uptake in agreement with observational estimates. Negative decadal trends are projected to occur in the future under RCP4.5 scenario. Due to the large internal variability, the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific require the most ensemble members (more than 53 and 46, respectively) to reproduce the forced decadal trends. This number increases up to 79 in future decades as CO2 emission trajectory changes.

  16. Current trends in Canadian health care: myths and misconceptions in health economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyte, P C

    1990-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the economic aspects of the trends in Canadian health care. Various myths and misconceptions abound regarding the applicability of economics to behaviour in the health care industry as well as to the interpretation of recent trends. Both issues are examined in this paper. While most discussions regarding health care trends begin with the share of health expenditures in Gross National Product, I propose an alternative share that adjusts for cyclical variations in both unemployment and labour force participation. Using this measure, I show that the "real" growth of resources devoted to the health care industry is much larger than that obtained with conventional measures, and that the difference in growth rates between Canada and the U.S. is narrowed considerably. The paper outlines and disputes the validity of three public health policy propositions. First, it is not empirically valid to say that the introduction of universal medical insurance in Canada successfully contained the growth in the share of society's resources devoted to the health care industry. Second, it is not correct to argue that the change in the federal funding for hospital and medical care in 1977 was a "fiscal non-event". And finally, the proposed "equity" funding formula for Ontario hospitals is unlikely to contain costs and will potentially skew hospitals towards the provision of complex forms of care instead of cost-effective community-based alternatives.

  17. An Overview of Science Challenges Pertaining to our Understanding of Extreme Geomagnetically Induced Currents. Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti A.

    2018-01-01

    Vulnerability of man-made infrastructure to Earth-directed space weather events is a serious concern for today's technology-dependent society. Space weather-driven geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) can disrupt operation of extended electrically conducting technological systems. The threat of adverse impacts on critical technological infrastructure, like power grids, oil and gas pipelines, and communication networks, has sparked renewed interest in extreme space weather. Because extreme space weather events have low occurrence rate but potentially high impact, this presents a major challenge for our understanding of extreme GIC activity. In this chapter, we discuss some of the key science challenges pertaining to our understanding of extreme events. In addition, we present an overview of GICs including highlights of severe impacts over the last 80 years and recent U.S. Federal actions relevant to this community.

  18. Pediatric Rotavirus Gastroenteritis: A 2 year Analysis to Understand Current Prevalence in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Nerurkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have established the high prevalence of paediatric Rotavirus gastroenteritis in India. The importance of rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection has also been stressed upon, to initiate prompt rehydration therapy and prevent unnecessary use of antibiotics .We undertook a retrospective analysis of 327 paediatric stool specimens to understand the current prevalence and seasonal distribution of cases in Mumbai and its surrounding areas. Overall Rotavirus positivity rate was 37.9 %, with peak positivity in winter seasons. Infections were more common upto 2 years of age. Incidence of bacterial and parasitic coinfections was low.

  19. Dhat syndrome: Evolution of concept, current understanding, and need of an integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujita Kumar Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dhat syndrome has often been construed as a culture-bound sexual neurosis of the Indian subcontinent. Symptoms similar to that of Dhat syndrome has been described in other cultures across different time periods. The present paper looks at the evolution of the concept of Dhat syndrome in India. The review also takes an overview of the current understanding of this syndrome in terms of nosological status as a distinct entity and its "culture-bound" status. The narrative finally attempts to discuss the integrated approach for the treatment of this disorder.

  20. Experimental droughts: Are precipitation variability and methodological trends hindering our understanding of ecological sensitivities to drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, D. L.; Wilcox, K.; Young, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Droughts are projected to increase in frequency and intensity with climate change, which may have dramatic and prolonged effects on ecosystem structure and function. There are currently hundreds of published, ongoing, and new drought experiments worldwide aimed to assess ecosystem sensitivities to drought and identify the mechanisms governing ecological resistance and resilience. However, to date, the results from these experiments have varied widely, and thus patterns of drought sensitivities have been difficult to discern. This lack of consensus at the field scale, limits the abilities of experiments to help improve land surface models, which often fail to realistically simulate ecological responses to extreme events. This is unfortunate because models offer an alternative, yet complementary approach to increase the spatial and temporal assessment of ecological sensitivities to drought that are not possible in the field due to logistical and financial constraints. Here we examined 89 published drought experiments, along with their associated historical precipitation records to (1) identify where and how drought experiments have been imposed, (2) determine the extremity of drought treatments in the context of historical climate, and (3) assess the influence of precipitation variability on drought experiments. We found an overall bias in drought experiments towards short-term, extreme experiments in water-limited ecosystems. When placed in the context of local historical precipitation, most experimental droughts were extreme, with 61% below the 5th, and 43% below the 1st percentile. Furthermore, we found that interannual precipitation variability had a large and potentially underappreciated effect on drought experiments due to the co-varying nature of control and drought treatments. Thus detecting ecological effects in experimental droughts is strongly influenced by the interaction between drought treatment magnitude, precipitation variability, and key

  1. THE CURRENT TRENDS AND FUTUREPERSPE C TIVES OF ARABINOXYLANS PREBIOTICS RESEARCH: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. ZHURLOVA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of new physiologically functional ingredients allows us to expand the range of these additives and to attract additional non-traditional sources of raw materials. Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth of probiotic microorganisms in the gastro-intestinal tract. The chemical nature of the most prebiotics are carbohydrates nature polymers: dietary fibers and nondigestible oligosaccharides. Among non-starch polysaccharides, arabinoxylan (AX, arabinogalactan (AG, and β-glucan are of paramount importance. Arabinoxylans are mainly found in cereals grains, for example, wheat, rye, barley, oat, rice, and sorghum. The current study is a review of literature and authors' own research on biosynthesis, chemical structure, production, physicochemical and physiological properties of arabinoxylans. The structure and molecular weight of AX are vital determinants of their physicochemical, technological and physiological properties. In the article is illustrated in detail the biosynthesis of arabinoxylan in a plant tissue, which makes it possible to understand the formation mechanism of complex structure of these polysaccharides. The main part of cereal grains arabinoxylans are contained mainly in the cell walls of starchy endosperm and the aleurone layer, in the bran tissues, and in the husk of some cereals. The amount of arabinoxylans in a particular tissue depends on the genus and species. However, the degree of branching was found to be lower in arabinoxylans from aleurone than in that from original bran. The molecular structure of arabinoxylans from wheat, rye, and barley is less complex than that from rice, sorghum, finger millet, and maize bran, since their side branches contain, besides the arabinose residues, small amounts of xylopyranose, galactopyranose, and α-Dglucuronic acid or 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic residues.  In the review analyzed methods of obtaining water-soluble and water-unsoluble AX

  2. Computer Assisted Surgery and Current Trends in Orthopaedics Research and Total Joint Replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirouche, Farid

    2008-06-01

    Musculoskeletal research has brought about revolutionary changes in our ability to perform high precision surgery in joint replacement procedures. Recent advances in computer assisted surgery as well better materials have lead to reduced wear and greatly enhanced the quality of life of patients. The new surgical techniques to reduce the size of the incision and damage to underlying structures have been the primary advance toward this goal. These new techniques are known as MIS or Minimally Invasive Surgery. Total hip and knee Arthoplasties are at all time high reaching 1.2 million surgeries per year in the USA. Primary joint failures are usually due to osteoarthristis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteocronis and other inflammatory arthritis conditions. The methods for THR and TKA are critical to initial stability and longevity of the prostheses. This research aims at understanding the fundamental mechanics of the joint Arthoplasty and providing an insight into current challenges in patient specific fitting, fixing, and stability. Both experimental and analytical work will be presented. We will examine Cementless total hip arthroplasty success in the last 10 years and how computer assisted navigation is playing in the follow up studies. Cementless total hip arthroplasty attains permanent fixation by the ingrowth of bone into a porous coated surface. Loosening of an ingrown total hip arthroplasty occurs as a result of osteolysis of the periprosthetic bone and degradation of the bone prosthetic interface. The osteolytic process occurs as a result of polyethylene wear particles produced by the metal polyethylene articulation of the prosthesis. The total hip arthroplasty is a congruent joint and the submicron wear particles produced are phagocytized by macrophages initiating an inflammatory cascade. This cascade produces cytokines ultimately implicated in osteolysis. Resulting bone loss both on the acetabular and femoral sides eventually leads to component instability. As

  3. Enhancing atmospheric mercury research in China to improve the current understanding of the global mercury cycle: the need for urgent and closely coordinated efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei

    2012-06-05

    The current understanding of the global mercury (Hg) cycle remains uncertain because Hg behavior in the environment is very complicated. The special property of Hg causes the atmosphere to be the most important medium for worldwide dispersion and transformation. The source and fate of atmospheric Hg and its interaction with the surface environment are the essential topics in the global Hg cycle. Recent declining measurement trends of Hg in the atmosphere are in apparent conflict with the increasing trends in global anthropogenic Hg emissions. As the single largest country contributor of anthropogenic Hg emission, China's role in the global Hg cycle will become more and more important in the context of the decreasing man-made Hg emission from developed regions. However, much less Hg information in China is available. As a global pollutant which undergoes long-range transport and is persistence in the environment, increasing Hg knowledge in China could not only promote the Hg regulation in this country but also improve the understanding of the fundamental of the global Hg cycle and further push the abatement of this toxin on a global scale. Then the atmospheric Hg research in China may be a breakthrough for improving the current understanding of the global Hg cycle. However, due to the complex behavior of Hg in the atmosphere, a deeper understanding of the atmospheric Hg cycle in China needs greater cooperation across fields.

  4. Understanding the Occurrence and Transport of Current-use Pesticides in the San Francisco Estuary Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Kuivila

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and potential effects of current-use pesticides are of concern in the San Francisco Estuary watershed but our understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of contamination is limited. This paper summarizes almost two decades of historical data and uses it to describe our current knowledge of the processes controlling the occurrence of current-use pesticides in the watershed. Monitoring studies analyze fewer than half of the pesticides applied in the watershed and most of our knowledge is about inputs of dissolved pesticides in the upper watershed. The four major seasonal patterns of riverine inputs of pesticides to the estuary can be identified by usage and transport mechanism. Dormant spray insecticides applied to orchards and herbicides applied to a variety of crops are transported by rainfall during the winter. Alfalfa pesticides are detected following rainfall and irrigation return flow in the spring, and rice pesticides are detected following release of rice field water in the summer. Irrigation return flows transport a variety of herbicides during the summer. In addition, pesticides applied on Delta islands can cause elevated pesticide concentrations in localized areas. Although not as well characterized, urban creeks appear to have their own patterns of insecticide concentrations causing toxicity throughout most of the year. Current-use pesticides have also been detected on suspended and bed sediments throughout the watershed but limited data make it difficult to determine occurrence patterns. Data gaps include the lack of analysis of many pesticides (or degradates, changing pesticide use, limited information on pesticide transport within the Delta, and an incomplete understanding of the transport and persistence of sediment-associated pesticides. Future monitoring programs should be designed to address these data gaps.

  5. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g−1). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposition (lithium dendrites) during the charging stage of the battery cycling process. We report that stable lithium-metal batteries can be achieved by simply charging cells with square-wave pulse current. We investigated the effects of charging period and frequency as well as the mechanisms that govern this process at the molecular level. Molecular simulations were performed to study the diffusion and the solvation structure of lithium cations (Li+) in bulk electrolyte. The model predicts that loose association between cations and anions can enhance the transport of Li+ and eventually stabilize the lithium electrodeposition. We also performed galvanostatic measurements to evaluate the cycling behavior and cell lifetime under pulsed electric field and found that the cell lifetime can be more than doubled using certain pulse current waveforms. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the effectiveness of pulse current charging on dendrite suppression can be optimized by choosing proper time- and frequency-dependent pulses. This work provides a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms of pulse current charging to mitigating lithium dendrites and designing pulse current waveforms for stable lithium-metal batteries. PMID:28776039

  6. Understanding Catalytic Activity Trends for NO Decomposition and CO Oxidation using Density Functional Theory and Microkinetic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Hanne

    -metal surfaces by combining a database of adsorption energies on stepped metal surfaces with known Brønsted–Evans–Polanyi (BEP) relations for the activation barriers of dissociation of diatomic molecules over stepped transition- and noble-metal surfaces. The potential energy diagram directly points to why Pd......The main aim of this thesis is to understand the catalytic activity of transition metals and noble metals for the direct decomposition of NO and the oxidation of CO. The formation of NOx from combustion of fossil and renewable fuels continues to be a dominant environmental issue. We take one step...... towards rationalizing trends in catalytic activity of transition metal catalysts for NO decomposition by combining microkinetic modelling with density functional theory calculations. We establish the full potential energy diagram for the direct NO decomposition reaction over stepped transition...

  7. Can data from disparate long-term fish monitoring programs be used to increase our understanding of regional and continental trends in large river assemblages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Ian R.; Casper, Andrew F.; Ward, David L.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Irwin, Elise R.; Chapman, Colin G.; Ickes, Brian S.; Paukert, Craig P.; Kosovich, John J.; Bayer, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding trends in the diverse resources provided by large rivers will help balance tradeoffs among stakeholders and inform strategies to mitigate the effects of landscape scale stressors such as climate change and invasive species. Absent a cohesive coordinated effort to assess trends in important large river resources, a logical starting point is to assess our ability to draw inferences from existing efforts. In this paper, we use a common analytical framework to analyze data from five disparate fish monitoring programs to better understand the nature of spatial and temporal trends in large river fish assemblages. We evaluated data from programs that monitor fishes in the Colorado, Columbia, Illinois, Mississippi, and Tallapoosa rivers using non-metric dimensional scaling ordinations and associated tests to evaluate trends in fish assemblage structure and native fish biodiversity. Our results indicate that fish assemblages exhibited significant spatial and temporal trends in all five of the rivers. We also document native species diversity trends that were variable within and between rivers and generally more evident in rivers with higher species richness and programs of longer duration. We discuss shared and basin-specific landscape level stressors. Having a basic understanding of the nature and extent of trends in fish assemblages is a necessary first step towards understanding factors affecting biodiversity and fisheries in large rivers. PMID:29364953

  8. Can data from disparate long-term fish monitoring programs be used to increase our understanding of regional and continental trends in large river assemblages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Waite, Ian R.; Casper, Andrew F.; Ward, David L.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Irwin, Elise R.; Chapman, Colin G.; Ickes, Brian; Paukert, Craig P.; Kosovich, John J.; Bayer, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding trends in the diverse resources provided by large rivers will help balance tradeoffs among stakeholders and inform strategies to mitigate the effects of landscape scale stressors such as climate change and invasive species. Absent a cohesive coordinated effort to assess trends in important large river resources, a logical starting point is to assess our ability to draw inferences from existing efforts. In this paper, we use a common analytical framework to analyze data from five disparate fish monitoring programs to better understand the nature of spatial and temporal trends in large river fish assemblages. We evaluated data from programs that monitor fishes in the Colorado, Columbia, Illinois, Mississippi, and Tallapoosa rivers using non-metric dimensional scaling ordinations and associated tests to evaluate trends in fish assemblage structure and native fish biodiversity. Our results indicate that fish assemblages exhibited significant spatial and temporal trends in all five of the rivers. We also document native species diversity trends that were variable within and between rivers and generally more evident in rivers with higher species richness and programs of longer duration. We discuss shared and basin-specific landscape level stressors. Having a basic understanding of the nature and extent of trends in fish assemblages is a necessary first step towards understanding factors affecting biodiversity and fisheries in large rivers.

  9. Language Play and Linguistic Hybridity as Current Trends in Hungarian Word-Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka Benczes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungarian literature on word-formation typically focuses on rule-governed descriptions of regular and typologically relevant patterns. However, there are plenty of other word-formation trends that usually go unnoticed in mainstream morphological research. The present paper will focus on two such trends: 1 rhyming and alliterating compounds such as pannon puma ‘Pannonian puma’ (a euphemism for Hungary’s economic performance, on the analogy of Asian tiger; and 2 creative prefixations such as meggugliz (‘to google’ and felhájpol (‘to hype’. Although these are seemingly two quite different patterns, in fact they share two significant traits. On the one hand, they are demonstrations of the fact that language users make full use of the creative possibilities in language and routinely play with sounds and meanings. On the other hand, they are also indications of the influential role of English in present-day Hungarian word-formation. It seems that language users are not only aware of the possibilities that this interference can result in but are also able to exploit these consciously. This crossing of language boundaries is becoming increasingly inevitable with the global spread of English.

  10. Current trends in the health of children and young people in learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Garkusha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Determined by the dynamics in the health of students and medical teams consisting of physical training in secondary schools. Analyzed the records in-depth inspection of magazines and leaflets health of 32484 schoolchildren of Chernigov for the period 2008-2012. Established a steady trend to a significant deterioration in the health of schoolchildren. A decline in the number of healthy children with the increase in the period of study from 1 to 11. Revealed negative trend decline in the health of children in the main medical group. Shows a tendency to increase the number of children belonging to the preparatory and special medical groups. It is recommended to use a recreational form of physical education and health educational use of technology. It is recommended to include in the training sessions: gymnastics, gymnastic minutes during lessons, exercise, and outdoor games on the elongated recess and daily physical education classes in the extended day, independent study after school, sports and mass work in the community.

  11. Public Debts Trends in the Current Economic Context, from Both National and International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Dascalu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available . The article presents an analysis of the way public debt operates in Romania, in the context of states economies trends, of complex and topical financial environments. In the context of a functional market economy, the issues faced by certain states involving high public debt levels or potential budgetary pressure risks converge towards the idea that public finances sustainability needs to be a major challenge at the level of public policies. Considering this situation, the adequate policies to tackle public finances sustainability need to have, as a launching base, the overall strategy of the European Union, focused on the three component parts, namely abatement of public debt, increasing productivity and employment and last but not least, reforming the pension and healthcare systems. To ensure reasonably sustainable public debt levels, EU member states need to attain medium term strategic budgetary objectives, that would ensure a downward trend of public debt, a condition which can be fulfilled by compliance with budget policies rules, which ground development in the macroeconomic framework.

  12. Staffing Patterns in Public School Systems: Current Status and Trends, Update 2001. Research Snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alicia D.; Protheroe, Nancy; Parks, Michael C.

    Staffing patterns in American public-school systems are presented in this report of the 2000-01 school year. The report addresses the following: why information about staffing ratios is important; how many people currently work in public schools; what proportion of these are teachers, administrators, and support staff; current staffing patterns in…

  13. Relationship between Added Sugars Consumption and Chronic Disease Risk Factors: Current Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2016-11-04

    Added sugars are a controversial and hotly debated topic. Consumption of added sugars has been implicated in increased risk of a variety of chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as cognitive decline and even some cancers. Support for these putative associations has been challenged, however, on a variety of fronts. The purpose of the current review is to summarize high impact evidence including systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in an attempt to provide an overview of current evidence related to added sugars and health considerations. This paper is an extension of a symposium held at the Experimental Biology 2015 conference entitled "Sweeteners and Health: Current Understandings, Controversies, Recent Research Findings and Directions for Future Research". We conclude based on high quality evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT), systematic reviews and meta-analyses of cohort studies that singling out added sugars as unique culprits for metabolically based diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease appears inconsistent with modern, high quality evidence and is very unlikely to yield health benefits. While it is prudent to consume added sugars in moderation, the reduction of these components of the diet without other reductions of caloric sources seems unlikely to achieve any meaningful benefit.

  14. Energy sector assistance in developing countries: Current trends and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharakan, Pradeep J.; Castro, Julio de; Kroeger, Timm

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 2.5 billion people remain without access to modern energy supplies. This shortfall is expected to grow as the population in developing countries continues to grow rapidly and the existing infrastructure ages. The United Nations' goal of lowering poverty by half by 2015 will not be attained unless the poor in developing countries gain greater access to basic infrastructure and services, including energy services. The key objective of this paper is to analyze trends in overseas development assistance (ODA) to the energy sector in developing countries during the period 1990-2003, relative to realized private sector investments. This analysis then forms the basis for policy recommendations for consideration by decision makers within countries that are major contributors to ODA

  15. Current state and development trends of the agroindustrial complex and rural territories of Perm Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Vladimirovich Klimenkov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regional agricultural sector status and rural areas of Perm in 1990-2011 years indicates a systemic crisis of agriculture in Perm region, which is largely determined by the fact that Perm region has no strategy or strategic plan and program for sustainable agricultural sector and rural areas of Perm region development, there is no scheme of territorial development and master plans of territorial development with the development of agro-industrial complex of Perm region. In these circumstances, there is a steady downward trend in production, weakening and bankruptcy of enterprises, social impoverishment of rural areas, appearance of many of irreversible processes (sale and neglect of agricultural land, demographic problems associated with low living standards, population migration, policy optimization in the areas of education and health, union of territories, policy of depopulation of territories etc.. This paper presents main recommendations for improving the situation in agriculture of Perm region.

  16. Return of the "intimate outsider": current trends and issues in family nursing research revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews family nursing research published from 1996 to 2011. This is a follow-up to a review published in the Journal of Family Nursing in 1995. Findings from the first review are compared with this one, trends in family nursing scholarship are identified, and predictions and suggestions for future directions are offered. The latest generation of family nursing scholarship is conceptually and methodologically sound, and there is evidence of more multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research conducted by family nursing researchers. Scholars are paying more attention to issues of diversity and family context at present than in the past, although there are still aspects of diversity that need more attention. Strong research programs in family nursing exist worldwide; an international synergism has helped promote rapid expansion of family nursing research and theory development. A vigorous movement to promote research to practice initiatives and greater attention to family interventions are exciting developments.

  17. Psychologists conducting Psychotherapy in 2012: current practices and historical trends among Division 29 members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, John C; Rogan, Jessica D

    2013-12-01

    This study updates three similar investigations conducted in 1981, 1991, and 2001 on APA Division of Psychotherapy members in order to paint a contemporary portrait of psychologists conducting psychotherapy and to chronicle historical trends among Division 29 members. Four hundred twenty-eight psychologists (43% response) completed a questionnaire in 2012 regarding their demographic characteristics, professional activities, theoretical orientations, employment settings, and career experiences. The results point to an increasingly female and aging membership, which continues to be employed primarily in private practices and universities. Psychodynamic (27%), integrative (25%), and cognitive (17%) orientations continue to prevail. Professional activities have remained quite similar across the past 30 years with the exception of declines in projective testing and growth in neuropsychological and health testing. Training and career satisfactions remain high as well.

  18. TianShuiShi space breeding current situation and developing trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fuquan; Song Jianrong; Zhang Zhongping; Guo Zhenfang

    2011-01-01

    TianShuiShi is located in xian to lanzhou among two big cities, the five space launch, has vegetables, food, grasses, flowers, rape, melon and fruit, Chinese traditional medicine, amount of 8 categories of crops, such as the 22 new material after carrying the ground breeding work. Only vegetables on identified 23 aerospace new varieties. After ten years of space breeding, summarizes the present situation of TianShuiShi space breeding, development experience, characteristic, trends, and puts forward the development space breeding TianShuiShi organization and breeding of talent from the matching policy and grow up incentive mechanism, strengthen the cooperation and all over the country, establishing fiscal policy support from the aspects such as advice. (authors)

  19. Historical trends and current state of heating and cooling degree days in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rosa, Mattia; Bianco, Vincenzo; Scarpa, Federico; Tagliafico, Luca A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A comparison among methods for calculating heating degree-days (HDD) is provided. • ASHRAE method is used for analyze the historical trends of HDD and CDD in Italy. • The HDD historical profile for Rome is decomposed in its characterizing components. - Abstract: Degree days (DD) represent a versatile climatic indicator which is commonly used in the analysis of building energy performance, as e.g. (i) to perform energetic assessment of existent and new buildings, (ii) to analyze the territory energy consumption, (iii) to develop scenario analyses in terms of energy consumption forecasting, and so on. Different methods can be used for determining the DD values, depending on the available climatic data of each location. In the present paper, the simplified methods based on reduced climatic data set have been compared assuming the mean daily degree-hours method (MDDH) as reference. Hourly temperature profiles recorded by the meteorological station located at the University of Genoa have been used for these analyses. In the second part of the present work, the ASHRAE method has been selected to calculate heating (HDD) and cooling (CDD) degree days for several Italian cities. In particular, daily meteorological data of several Italian cities (covering the whole climatic conditions which occur in Italy) have been used to calculate heating and cooling degree days in the period 1978–2013, in order to analyze their trends in the last years. Finally, the historical profiles of Rome and Milan have been treated as time-series and analyzed in the frequency domain, performing a decomposition of the original data set into different characterizing components. This simplified approach permits to deeply analyze the historical profile of DD and represents a simple starting point method for future analyses with forecasting perspectives

  20. Identification and evaluation of culture current trend consumption of goods and services to final consumers in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmolovich Anna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the relations of property and economic crisis intensified the problem of employment and decline of standard of life of population, transformed (strengthened participation of the state in providing of social security of personality, increased differentiation of population on profits. Understanding of necessities and interests of consumer is needed both for realization of effective public social policy and for forming perspective both from the point of view of economic effectiveness and socially-responsible marketing trends. The article is sanctified to research of volumes, structure and tendencies of the personal consumption of citizens of Ukraine in 2015.

  1. Infective endocarditis prophylaxis: current practice trend among paediatric cardiologists: are we following the 2007 guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ronak J; Patel, Neil R; Wang, Ming; Shah, Nishant C

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the American Heart Association modified the infective endocarditis prophylaxis guidelines by limiting the use of antibiotics in patients with cardiac conditions associated with the highest risk of adverse outcomes after infective endocarditis. Our objective was to evaluate current practice for infective endocarditis prophylaxis among paediatric cardiologists. A web-based survey focussing on current practice, describing the use of antibiotics for infective endocarditis prophylaxis in various congenital and acquired heart diseases, was distributed via e-mail to paediatric cardiologists. The survey was kept anonymous and was distributed twice. Data from 253 participants were analysed. Most paediatric cardiologists discontinued infective endocarditis prophylaxis in patients with simple lesions such as small ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and bicuspid aortic valve without stenosis or regurgitation; however, significant disagreement persists in prescribing infective endocarditis prophylaxis in certain conditions such as rheumatic heart disease, Fontan palliation without fenestration, and the Ross procedure. Use of antibiotic prophylaxis in certain selected conditions for which infective endocarditis prophylaxis has been indicated as per the current guidelines varies from 44 to 83%. Only 44% follow the current guidelines exclusively, and 34% regularly discuss the importance of oral hygiene with their patients at risk for infective endocarditis. Significant heterogeneity still persists in recommending infective endocarditis prophylaxis for several cardiac lesions among paediatric cardiologists. More than half of the participants (56%) do not follow the current guidelines exclusively in their practice. Counselling for optimal oral health in patients at risk for infective endocarditis needs to be optimised in the current practice.

  2. Manual control cybernetics : State-of-the-art and current trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Pool, D.M.; Abbink, D.A.; Boer, E.R.; Zaal, P.M.T.; Drop, F.M.; van der El, K.; van Paassen, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Manual control cybernetics aims to understand and describe how humans control vehicles and devices using mathematical models of human control dynamics. This “cybernetic approach” enables objective and quantitative comparisons of human behavior, and allows a systematic

  3. Current understanding of the driving mechanisms for spatiotemporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mercury (Hg is a global pollutant and thought to be the main source of mercury in oceanic and remote terrestrial systems, where it becomes methylated and bioavailable; hence, atmospheric mercury pollution has global consequences for both human and ecosystem health. Understanding of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury can advance our knowledge of mercury cycling in various environments. This review summarized spatiotemporal variations of total gaseous mercury or gaseous elemental mercury (TGM/GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM, and particulate-bound mercury (PBM in various environments including oceans, continents, high elevation, the free troposphere, and low to high latitudes. In the marine boundary layer (MBL, the oxidation of GEM was generally thought to drive the diurnal and seasonal variations of TGM/GEM and GOM in most oceanic regions, leading to lower GEM and higher GOM from noon to afternoon and higher GEM during winter and higher GOM during spring–summer. At continental sites, the driving mechanisms of TGM/GEM diurnal patterns included surface and local emissions, boundary layer dynamics, GEM oxidation, and for high-elevation sites mountain–valley winds, while oxidation of GEM and entrainment of free tropospheric air appeared to control the diurnal patterns of GOM. No pronounced diurnal variation was found for Tekran measured PBM at MBL and continental sites. Seasonal variations in TGM/GEM at continental sites were attributed to increased winter combustion and summertime surface emissions, and monsoons in Asia, while those in GOM were controlled by GEM oxidation, free tropospheric transport, anthropogenic emissions, and wet deposition. Increased PBM at continental sites during winter was primarily due to local/regional coal and wood combustion emissions. Long-term TGM measurements from the MBL and continental sites indicated an overall declining trend. Limited measurements suggested TGM

  4. Current understanding of the driving mechanisms for spatiotemporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huiting; Cheng, Irene; Zhang, Leiming

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant and thought to be the main source of mercury in oceanic and remote terrestrial systems, where it becomes methylated and bioavailable; hence, atmospheric mercury pollution has global consequences for both human and ecosystem health. Understanding of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury can advance our knowledge of mercury cycling in various environments. This review summarized spatiotemporal variations of total gaseous mercury or gaseous elemental mercury (TGM/GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate-bound mercury (PBM) in various environments including oceans, continents, high elevation, the free troposphere, and low to high latitudes. In the marine boundary layer (MBL), the oxidation of GEM was generally thought to drive the diurnal and seasonal variations of TGM/GEM and GOM in most oceanic regions, leading to lower GEM and higher GOM from noon to afternoon and higher GEM during winter and higher GOM during spring-summer. At continental sites, the driving mechanisms of TGM/GEM diurnal patterns included surface and local emissions, boundary layer dynamics, GEM oxidation, and for high-elevation sites mountain-valley winds, while oxidation of GEM and entrainment of free tropospheric air appeared to control the diurnal patterns of GOM. No pronounced diurnal variation was found for Tekran measured PBM at MBL and continental sites. Seasonal variations in TGM/GEM at continental sites were attributed to increased winter combustion and summertime surface emissions, and monsoons in Asia, while those in GOM were controlled by GEM oxidation, free tropospheric transport, anthropogenic emissions, and wet deposition. Increased PBM at continental sites during winter was primarily due to local/regional coal and wood combustion emissions. Long-term TGM measurements from the MBL and continental sites indicated an overall declining trend. Limited measurements suggested TGM/GEM increasing from the

  5. An Overview of the Current Understanding of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Fermi Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, P. N.; Guiriec, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, and their origin as well as mechanism are the focus of intense research and debate. More than three decades since their serendipitous discovery, followed by several breakthroughs from space-borne and ground-based observations, they remain one of the most interesting astrophysical phenomena yet to be completely understood. Since the launch of Fermi with its unprecedented energy band width spanning seven decades, the study of gamma-ray burst research has entered a new phase. Here we review the current theoretical understanding and observational highlights of gamma-ray burst astronomy and point out some of the potential promises of multi-wavelength observations in view of the upcoming ground based observational facilities .

  6. A mother cell-to-forespore channel: current understanding and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Adam D; Serrano, Mónica; Stanley, Will A; Henriques, Adriano O; Salgado, Paula S

    2014-09-01

    Formation of endospores allows some bacteria to survive extreme nutrient limitation. The resulting dormant cell, the spore, persists in the environment and is highly resistant to physical and chemical stresses. During spore formation, cells divide asymmetrically and the mother cell engulfs the developing spore, encasing it within a double membrane and isolating it from the medium. Communication between mother cell and isolated forespore involves a specialised connection system that allows nurturing of the forespore and continued macromolecular synthesis, required to finalise spore maturation. Here, we review current understanding of this feeding channel formed by a forespore protein, SpoIIQ, and a mother cell protein, SpoIIIAH, in the model organism Bacillus subtilis and the important human pathogen Clostridium difficile. We also analyse the presence of this channel across endospore-forming bacteria and highlight the main questions still remaining. © 2014 The Authors FEMS Microbiology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  7. Marine phospholipids: The current understanding of their oxidation mechanisms and potential uses for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    2017-01-01

    reactions, namely, Strecker aldehydes, pyrroles, oxypolymers, and other impurities that may positively or negatively affect the oxidative stability and quality of marine PL. This review was undertaken to provide the industry and academia with an overview of the current understanding of the quality changes......There is a growing interest in using marine phospholipids (PL) as ingredient for food fortification due to their numerous health benefits. However, the use of marine PL for food fortification is a challenge due to the complex nature of the degradation products that are formed during the handling...... and storage of marine PL. For example, nonenzymatic browning reactions may occur between lipid oxidation products and primary amine group from phosphatidylethanolamine or amino acid residues that are present inmarine PL. Therefore, marine PL contain products from nonenzymatic browning and lipid oxidation...

  8. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, S. K.

    2010-02-26

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  9. Emergency nurses' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Eilis

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To examine emergency nurses\\' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR in the emergency department, Cork University Hospital, Republic of Ireland. METHOD: A quantitative descriptive design was used in the study. A questionnaire developed by ENA was distributed to emergency nurses working in a level I trauma emergency department at Cork University Hospital. The total sample number was 90, including all emergency nurses with at least 6 months\\' emergency nursing experience. RESULTS: Emergency nurses often took families to the bedside during resuscitation efforts (58.9%) or would do so if the opportunity arose (17.8%). A high percentage (74.4%) of respondents would prefer a written policy allowing the option of family presence during CPR. The most significant barrier to family witnessed resuscitation (FWR) was conflicts occurring within the emergency team. The most significant facilitator to FWR was a greater understanding of health care professionals on the benefits of FWR to patients and families, indicating the need for educational development. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study and previously published studies indicate the need for development of written polices and guidelines on the practice to meet the needs of patients, families, and staff by providing consistent, safe, and caring practices for all involved in the resuscitation process. Recommendations of the study include the development of a written policy and an educational programme on the safe implementation and practices of FWR.

  10. Current trends in dog-human communication:do dogs inform?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Juliane; Piotti, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs are especially skillful at understanding human forms of communication. Evidence suggests that dogs’ skills in this domain might be an adaptation to life with humans and the result of selection processes during domestication. One question that has sparked a lot of research in recent years is to what extent dogs’ communication is in any way comparable to that of human infants. Here, we discuss recent research that has examined the extent to which dogs communicate to inform others....

  11. Purification of natural gas using membrane - the current status and research trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq Ahmad; Mukhtar, H.; Man, Z.; Dutta, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    Separation of acid gases and lower hydrocarbon from raw natural gas has been a challenging problem in a gas processing unit. Despite the availability of chemical and cryogenic routes, search for a better alternative has been on for the last several decades. Considerable success has been achieved in the recent years by use of polymeric membrane and many units are operating using hollow fiber and spirally wound modules. The initial success notwithstanding the quest for better membrane and strategically designed modules has gained more momentum in the recent years. While research inputs to modify rubbery membranes or to develop new glassy membranes are continuing, inorganic membrane have attracted a lot of attention because of a number of reasons such as thermal and chemical stability, mechanical strength and the advantage of engineered pores. In the above perspective it appears necessary to make a review of the present status of research as well as applications in relation to both polymeric and inorganic membranes for raw natural gas processing. The present paper is an attempt in this direction. Experimental findings reported in the literature together with novel theories that will eventually help in tailoring membranes both chemically and physically have been critically analyzed and the trends in the future direction of research have been identified. A survey of application of membrane technology for acid gas separation in industries world wide has been made

  12. Current Trend of Antimicrobial Prescription for Oral Implant Surgery Among Dentists in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rahul; Grewal, Yasmin; Batth, J S; Singh, Amandeep

    2014-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate antimicrobial prescription behaviour amongst dentists performing oral implant surgery in India. Dentists performing oral implant surgery from different parts of India were personally approached during various national events such as conferences and academic meetings and information regarding their prescription habits for antimicrobial agents in routine oral implant surgery was collected using a structured questionnaire. Out of a total sample of 332 dentists, 85.5 % prescribed 17 different groups or combinations of antibiotics routinely for oral implant surgery in the normal healthy patient. Majority preferred the peri-operative protocol of drug therapy (72.2 %) with variable and prolonged duration of therapy after surgery, ranging from 3 to 10 days. An antimicrobial mouthwash was routinely prescribed by all the doctors (14.5 %) not in favour of prescribing antimicrobials in a normal healthy patient. Our findings suggest that there is a trend of antimicrobial agent misuse by dentists performing oral implant surgery in India, both in terms of drugs used and the protocols prescribed. The majority of these dentists prescribed a variety of antimicrobial agents for prolonged durations routinely even in the normal, healthy patients.

  13. Otolaryngology in the medical school curriculum: Current trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscoe, Elizabeth F; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    To identify trends in medical school otolaryngology curriculum requirements. Survey of United States allopathic medical schools. A survey was sent to deans of curriculum at allopathic medical schools. We identified opportunities for medical students to learn basic concepts in otolaryngology during their undergraduate medical training. The opportunities were classified into preclinical and clinical as well as elective and mandatory rotations. Of the schools surveyed, 60% responded. Mean class size was 149 students. Sixty-eight percent of surveyed schools noted that 75% to 100% of their students participated in preclinical otolaryngology experiences, with 59% reporting a mandatory preclinical otolaryngology module for all students. Eighty-nine percent of schools offered otolaryngology as a clinical elective rotation, with a mean of 12 students participating yearly. Only 7% of schools required a mandatory otolaryngology clinical rotation. Our data suggest that medical students do not receive sufficient exposure to otolaryngology during medical school. Increased requirements for otolaryngology curriculum may be beneficial to all medical students, regardless of their specialty choice. NA. Laryngoscope, 00:000-000, 2016 127:346-348, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Acromioclavicular dislocation: treatment and rehabilitation. Current perspectives and trends among Brazilian orthopedists☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Utino, Artur Yudi; Nishimura, Eduardo Misao; Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Astur, Diego Costa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the approaches and procedures used by Brazilian orthopedic surgeons in treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation of the shoulder. Methods A questionnaire comprising eight closed questions that addressed topics relating to treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation was applied to Brazilian orthopedic surgeons over the three days of the 45th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in 2013. Results A total of 122 surgeons completely filled out the questionnaire and formed part of the sample analyzed. Most of them came from the southeastern region of the country. In this sample, 67% of the participants would choose surgical treatment for patients with grade 3 acromioclavicular dislocation. Regarding the preferred technique for surgical treatment of acute acromioclavicular dislocation, a majority of the surgeons used subcoracoid ligature with acromioclavicular fixation and transfer of the coracoacromial ligament (25.4%). Regarding complications found after surgery had been performed, 43.4% and 32.8% of the participants, respectively, stated that residual deformity of the operated joint and pain were the complications most seen during the postoperative period. Conclusions Although there was no consensus regarding the treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation, evolution had occurred in some of the topics analyzed in this questionnaire applied to Brazilian orthopedists. However, further controlled prospective studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefit of these trends. PMID:26535196

  15. Acromioclavicular dislocation: treatment and rehabilitation. Current perspectives and trends among Brazilian orthopedists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Utino, Artur Yudi; Nishimura, Eduardo Misao; Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Astur, Diego Costa

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the approaches and procedures used by Brazilian orthopedic surgeons in treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation of the shoulder. A questionnaire comprising eight closed questions that addressed topics relating to treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation was applied to Brazilian orthopedic surgeons over the three days of the 45th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in 2013. A total of 122 surgeons completely filled out the questionnaire and formed part of the sample analyzed. Most of them came from the southeastern region of the country. In this sample, 67% of the participants would choose surgical treatment for patients with grade 3 acromioclavicular dislocation. Regarding the preferred technique for surgical treatment of acute acromioclavicular dislocation, a majority of the surgeons used subcoracoid ligature with acromioclavicular fixation and transfer of the coracoacromial ligament (25.4%). Regarding complications found after surgery had been performed, 43.4% and 32.8% of the participants, respectively, stated that residual deformity of the operated joint and pain were the complications most seen during the postoperative period. Although there was no consensus regarding the treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation, evolution had occurred in some of the topics analyzed in this questionnaire applied to Brazilian orthopedists. However, further controlled prospective studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefit of these trends.

  16. Current Technology Trends and Issues among Health and Physical Education Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jennifer M.; Franks, Hillary; Lynch, Brandy

    2017-01-01

    Health and physical education professionals who implement technology appropriately can contribute to helping students become physically educated individuals (NASPE, 2009). It is imperative that professionals be knowledgeable and resourceful in how to integrate technology effectively, but it is unclear what current challenges professionals face in…

  17. The Development of Professional Counseling in Uganda: Current Status and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyonyi, Ruth M.; Ochieng, Lois A.; Sells, James

    2012-01-01

    Professional counseling in Uganda has foundations in traditional cultures of its peoples, guidance offered in schools, and counseling to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, a definitive professional counselor profile in Uganda is being established. The Uganda Counselling Association continues the process of seeking legal authority to regulate…

  18. Increasing Inter-Parliamentary Cooperation in the European Union : Current Trends and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fromage, D.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370195086

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the blossoming of the initiatives for inter-parliamentary cooperation currently observable in the European Union from a democratic legitimacy perspective. It shows that there exists numerous forms and settings for the cooperation among national parliaments (NPs) and with the

  19. ORGAN-SPARING SURGERY FOR RECTAL CANCER: EVOLUTION, CURRENT TRENDS, AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tamrazov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main stages of the development of sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. An historical look at this issue from the standpoint of research of past years in our country and abroad, as well as analysis of current sphincter-preserving surgery and future directions in this area.

  20. Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS life sciences symposium on current trends in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This year's Life Sciences Symposium is focused on Health Sciences. It will provide an interactive platform for deliberations on current developments in basic research on cancer, diabetes, infectious diseases, reproduction, stem cells and degenerative diseases. Several aspects like metabolism, use of biophysical techniques, detection methods, micro RNA based regulation, assisted reproductive technologies etc. are covered. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. Atrial Fibrillation in Singapore and Malaysia: Current Trends and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Omar, MD FHRS FACC

    2011-01-01

    There is an unmet need for better anti-arrhythmic drugs that are well tolerated, efficacious, cost-effective and have a more favourable safety profile than current options. Although the perfect agent remains to be discovered, some promising new anti-arrhythmic drugs have the potential to overcome certain limitations of established approaches to AF management.

  2. Using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) to understand cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Robert M G; Cosman, Josh D; Fukuda, Keisuke; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation methods are becoming increasingly common tools in the kit of the cognitive scientist. In particular, transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is showing great promise as a tool to causally manipulate the brain and understand how information is processed. The popularity of this method of brain stimulation is based on the fact that it is safe, inexpensive, its effects are long lasting, and you can increase the likelihood that neurons will fire near one electrode and decrease the likelihood that neurons will fire near another. However, this method of manipulating the brain to draw causal inferences is not without complication. Because tDCS methods continue to be refined and are not yet standardized, there are reports in the literature that show some striking inconsistencies. Primary among the complications of the technique is that the tDCS method uses two or more electrodes to pass current and all of these electrodes will have effects on the tissue underneath them. In this tutorial, we will share what we have learned about using tDCS to manipulate how the brain perceives, attends, remembers, and responds to information from our environment. Our goal is to provide a starting point for new users of tDCS and spur discussion of the standardization of methods to enhance replicability.

  3. Motor unit recruitment for dynamic tasks: current understanding and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Wakeling, James M

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contains many muscle fibres that are functionally grouped into motor units. For any motor task there are many possible combinations of motor units that could be recruited and it has been proposed that a simple rule, the 'size principle', governs the selection of motor units recruited for different contractions. Motor units can be characterised by their different contractile, energetic and fatigue properties and it is important that the selection of motor units recruited for given movements allows units with the appropriate properties to be activated. Here we review what is currently understood about motor unit recruitment patterns, and assess how different recruitment patterns are more or less appropriate for different movement tasks. During natural movements the motor unit recruitment patterns vary (not always holding to the size principle) and it is proposed that motor unit recruitment is likely related to the mechanical function of the muscles. Many factors such as mechanics, sensory feedback, and central control influence recruitment patterns and consequently an integrative approach (rather than reductionist) is required to understand how recruitment is controlled during different movement tasks. Currently, the best way to achieve this is through in vivo studies that relate recruitment to mechanics and behaviour. Various methods for determining motor unit recruitment patterns are discussed, in particular the recent wavelet-analysis approaches that have allowed motor unit recruitment to be assessed during natural movements. Directions for future studies into motor recruitment within and between functional task groups and muscle compartments are suggested.

  4. Two-phase unsaturated flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Report on Current Understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. civilian nuclear waste program is unique in its focus on disposal of high-level wastes in the unsaturated zone (UZ), above the water table. The potential repository site currently under investigation is located in a semi-arid region of the southwestern U.S. at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The geology of the site consists of layered sequences of faulted, fractured, and bedded tuffs. The groundwater table is approximately 600 m beneath the land surface, while the proposed repository horizon is at a nominal depth of approximately 375 m. In this kind of environment, two-phase flow is not just a localized perturbation to natural conditions, as in the saturated zone, but is the predominant mode of water and gas flow. The purpose of this report is to review the current understanding of gas and water flow, and mass transport, in the unique hydrogeologic environment of Yucca Mountain. Characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site are examined, and concepts and mathematical modeling approaches are described for variably saturated flow in thick unsaturated zones of fractured rock. The paper includes a brief summary of the disposal concept and repository design, as developed by a team of engineering contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with strong participation from the DOE National Laboratories

  5. Transcription factors and plant response to drought stress: Current understanding and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Joshi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing vulnerability of plants to a variety of stresses such as drought, salt and extreme temperatures poses a global threat to sustained growth and productivity of major crops. Of these stresses, drought represents a considerable threat to plant growth and development. In view of this, developing staple food cultivars with improved drought tolerance emerges as the most sustainable solution towards improving crop productivity in a scenario of climate change. In parallel, unraveling the genetic architecture and the targeted identification of molecular networks using modern OMICS analyses, that can underpin drought tolerance mechanisms, is urgently required. Importantly, integrated studies intending to elucidate complex mechanisms can bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge about drought stress tolerance in plants. It is now well established that drought tolerance is regulated by several genes, including transcription factors (TFs that enable plants to withstand unfavorable conditions, and these remain potential genomic candidates for their wide application in crop breeding. These TFs represent the key molecular switches orchestrating the regulation of plant developmental processes in response to a variety of stresses. The current review aims to offer a deeper understanding of TFs engaged in regulating plant’s response under drought stress and to devise potential strategies to improve plant tolerance against drought.

  6. Current multiple sclerosis treatments have improved our understanding of MS autoimmune pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roland; Sospedra, Mireia; Rosito, Maria; Engelhardt, Britta

    2016-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in young adults. When MS is not treated, it leads to irreversible and severe disability. The etiology of MS and its pathogenesis are not fully understood. The recent discovery that MS-associated genetic variants code for molecules related to the function of specific immune cell subsets is consistent with the concept of MS as a prototypic, T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease targeting the CNS. While the therapeutic efficacy of the currently available immunomodulatory therapies further strengthen this concept, differences observed in responses to MS treatment as well as additional clinical and imaging observations have also shown that the autoimmune pathogenesis underlying MS is much more complex than previously thought. There is therefore an unmet need for continued detailed phenotypic and functional analysis of disease-relevant adaptive immune cells and tissues directly derived from MS patients to unravel the immune etiology of MS in its entire complexity. In this review, we will discuss the currently available MS treatment options and approved drugs, including how they have contributed to the understanding of the immune pathology of this autoimmune disease. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Regulatory assessment of safety culture in nuclear organisations - current trends and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronea, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the current practices in the area of regulatory assessment of safety culture in nuclear organisations and of the associated challenges. While the assessment and inspection procedures currently in use by regulatory authorities worldwide are directed primarily at verifying compliance with the licensing basis, there is a recognised need for a more systematic approach to the identification, collection and review of data relevant to the safety culture in licensees' organisations. The paper presents a proposal for using the existing regulatory inspection practices for gathering information relevant to safety culture and for assessing it in an integrated manner. The proposal is based on the latest requirements and guidance issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on management systems for nuclear facilities and activities, particularly as regards the attributes needed for a strong nuclear safety culture. (author)

  8. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    lecture (Simonsen), a young researchers' symposium (Hopwood, Sharp, and Kaess), and special lectures on the Danish philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Hans Christian Andersen. In this article we will survey the presentations and highlight the important issues in order to underline the current......The International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD) celebrated its 25th anniversary in September 2013 in Copenhagen and commemorated the First International Congress at the same site. The overall theme of the congress was "Bridging Personality and Psychopathology: The Person...... Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee...

  9. Chemical warfare agent detection: a review of current trends and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsial-Ong, Eden Joy; Aguilar, Zoraida P

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends countries to create a public health system that can respond to the deliberate release of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Procedures for preparedness, response, decontamination protocols and medical countermeasures against CWA attacks are described. Known CWAs, including their properties and pharmacological consequences upon exposure, are tabulated and discussed. Requirements imposed on detection systems by various applications and environmental needs are presented in order to assess the devices for detection and identification of specific CWAs. The review surveys current and near-term detection technologies and equipments, as well as devices that are currently available to the military and civilian first responders. Brief technical discussions of several detection technologies are presented, with emphasis placed in the principles of detection. Finally, enabling technologies that form the basis for advanced sensing systems and devices are described.

  10. Recent trends for practical rehabilitation robotics, current challenges and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakub, Fitri; Md Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran; Mori, Yasuchika

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents and studies various selected literature primarily from conference proceedings, journals and clinical tests of the robotic, mechatronics, neurology and biomedical engineering of rehabilitation robotic systems. The present paper focuses of three main categories: types of rehabilitation robots, key technologies with current issues and future challenges. Literature on fundamental research with some examples from commercialized robots and new robot development projects related to rehabilitation are introduced. Most of the commercialized robots presented in this paper are well known especially to robotics engineers and scholars in the robotic field, but are less known to humanities scholars. The field of rehabilitation robot research is expanding; in light of this, some of the current issues and future challenges in rehabilitation robot engineering are recalled, examined and clarified with future directions. This paper is concluded with some recommendations with respect to rehabilitation robots.

  11. 3-D bioprinting technologies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: Current and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot S. Bishop

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in three-dimensional (3D printing have increased feasibility towards the synthesis of living tissues. Known as 3D bioprinting, this technology involves the precise layering of cells, biologic scaffolds, and growth factors with the goal of creating bioidentical tissue for a variety of uses. Early successes have demonstrated distinct advantages over conventional tissue engineering strategies. Not surprisingly, there are current challenges to address before 3D bioprinting becomes clinically relevant. Here we provide an overview of 3D bioprinting technology and discuss key advances, clinical applications, and current limitations. While 3D bioprinting is a relatively novel tissue engineering strategy, it holds great potential to play a key role in personalized medicine.

  12. Current Trends in the Management of Lateral Ankle Sprain in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feger, Mark A; Glaviano, Neal R; Donovan, Luke; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan A; Park, Joseph S; Hertel, Jay

    2017-03-01

    To characterize trends in the acute management (within 30 days) after lateral ankle sprain (LAS) in the United States. Descriptive epidemiology study. Of note, 825 718 ankle sprain patients were identified; 96.2% were patients with LAS. Seven percent had an associated fracture and were excluded from the remaining analysis. Primary and tertiary care settings. We queried a database of national health insurance records for 2007 to 2011 by ICD-9 codes for patients with LAS while excluding medial and syndesmotic sprains and any LAS with an associated foot or ankle fracture. The percentage of patients to receive specific diagnostic imaging, orthopedic devices, or physical therapy treatments within 30 days of the LAS diagnosis and the associated costs. Over two-thirds of patients with LAS without an associated fracture received radiographs, 9% received an ankle brace, 8.1% received a walking boot, 6.5% were splinted, and 4.8% were prescribed crutches. Only 6.8% received physical therapy within 30 days of their LAS diagnosis, 94.1% of which performed therapeutic exercise, 52.3% received manual therapy, and 50.2% received modalities. The annual cost associated with physician visits, diagnostic imaging, orthopedic devices, and physical therapy was 152 million USD, 81.5% was from physician evaluations, 7.9% from physical therapy, 7.2% from diagnostic imaging, and 3.4% from orthopedic devices. Most patients with LAS do not receive supervised rehabilitation. The small proportion of patients with LAS to receive physical therapy get rehabilitation prescribed in accordance with clinical practice guidelines. The majority (>80%) of the LAS financial burden is associated with physician evaluations.

  13. Current trends for improving the design of membrane devices for photoautotrophic biosynthesis is light dependent microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern trends in improving the design of membrane devices for photoautotrophic biosynthesis dependent lighting microorganisms aimed at a significant increase in the productivity of valuable products from biomass of microalgae and obtaining on the basis of their individual useful substances (drugs used in various industries and medicine. In film devices effectively the processes of heat - and mass-exchange with the gas comes into contact with the culture fluid flowing as a film on a transparent film-forming surface is STI in its light intensity and autotrophic biosynthesis occurs only in the presence of a mixture of air with carbon dioxide. Thus, completely eliminated the accumulation of metabolic products due to their continuous removal from film culture liquid with the process gas, which is not typical for devices of other types. Small size membrane bioreactors may increase the degree of saturation of the liquid carbon dioxide with the possibility of changing the concentration of gas in the culture fluid and to ensure the cultivation of microorganisms with a specified biomass yield. At present up to date-developed a significant number of ways to ensure contact of the gas with the liquid (bubbling, gas-lift, mechanical stirring, jet, membrane, etc. on the basis of which an industrial bioreactor, with various "stress" effect. It is believed that for the cultivation of the most optimal are bioreactors with mechanical stirring of the liquid, which allow the greatest productivity of biomass. However, the applied model of a mechanical mixing device to create a work whose cavity of the bioreactor chaotic, disorganized mixing, which contributes to the emergence, insufficient for the sustenance of the cell cultures and microorganisms. Analysis of the interactions of the gas with the liquid film devices showed the need to create a new generation of bioreactor with intensive mass transfer without the possibility of limiting the productivity of

  14. Surface soil moisture retrievals from remote sensing: Current status, products & future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Ireland, Gareth; Barrett, Brian

    Advances in Earth Observation (EO) technology, particularly over the last two decades, have shown that soil moisture content (SMC) can be measured to some degree or other by all regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a variety of techniques have been proposed to facilitate this purpose. In this review we provide a synthesis of the efforts made during the last 20 years or so towards the estimation of surface SMC exploiting EO imagery, with a particular emphasis on retrievals from microwave sensors. Rather than replicating previous overview works, we provide a comprehensive and critical exploration of all the major approaches employed for retrieving SMC in a range of different global ecosystems. In this framework, we consider the newest techniques developed within optical and thermal infrared remote sensing, active and passive microwave domains, as well as assimilation or synergistic approaches. Future trends and prospects of EO for the accurate determination of SMC from space are subject to key challenges, some of which are identified and discussed within. It is evident from this review that there is potential for more accurate estimation of SMC exploiting EO technology, particularly so, by exploring the use of synergistic approaches between a variety of EO instruments. Given the importance of SMC in Earth's land surface interactions and to a large range of applications, one can appreciate that its accurate estimation is critical in addressing key scientific and practical challenges in today's world such as food security, sustainable planning and management of water resources. The launch of new, more sophisticated satellites strengthens the development of innovative research approaches and scientific inventions that will result in a range of pioneering and ground-breaking advancements in the retrievals of soil moisture from space.

  15. Current trends in dextranomer hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) injection technique for endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Andrew J; Arlen, Angela M; Lackgren, Goran

    2014-08-01

    To determine the current preferred injection technique(s) for endoscopic management of pediatric vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Since the approval of dextranomer hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA) in 2001, injection methods have evolved and now include the hydrodistention implantation technique (HIT) and double HIT as well as subureteral transurethral injection (STING) method. In July 2012, 278 pediatric urologists in the United States were contacted to complete a 15-question survey regarding Dx/HA injection technique(s) currently used in their practice. Fifty board-certified pediatric urologists completed the survey for a response rate of 18%. Most respondents (60%) were in a single-specialty group practice, and 12% were affiliated with an academic- or university-based practice. Respondents reported seeing a mean of 159 pediatric patients (range, 40-400 patients) with VUR annually, and 94% used Dx/HA ≥4 times in the past year. Forty-seven respondents (94%) reported using double HIT over the course of their career compared with 36 (72%) for STING and 30 (60%) for HIT (P injection techniques. A significantly higher percentage currently perform double HIT (92%) compared with either STING (24%) or HIT (34%; P <.001). Respondents reported the use of double HIT 15 times more often than STING technique and 5 times more often than HIT during the past 12 months (P <.001). The double HIT method is currently the most commonly performed technique for endoscopic correction of VUR by pediatric urologists in the United States. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Field of Psychiatry: Current Trends and Future Directions: An Indian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dave, Kishore P.

    2016-01-01

    Attempting to predict future is dangerous. This is particularly true in medical science where change is a result of chance discoveries. Currently, practicing psychiatrists are aware of deficiencies in psychiatric practice. However, we have a number of genuine reasons for optimism and excitement. Genetics, novel treatment approaches, new investigative techniques, large-scale treatment trials, and research in general medicine and neurology will give better insights in psychiatric disorders and ...

  17. Current trends and future requirements for the mass spectrometric investigation of microbial, mammalian and plant metabolomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Warwick B

    2008-01-01

    The functional levels of biological cells or organisms can be separated into the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome. Of these the metabolome offers specific advantages to the investigation of the phenotype of biological systems. The investigation of the metabolome (metabolomics) has only recently appeared as a mainstream scientific discipline and is currently developing rapidly for the study of microbial, plant and mammalian metabolomes. The metabolome pipeline or workflow encompasses the processes of sample collection and preparation, collection of analytical data, raw data pre-processing, data analysis and data storage. Of these processes the collection of analytical data will be discussed in this review with specific interest shown in the application of mass spectrometry in the metabolomics pipeline. The current developments in mass spectrometry platforms (GC–MS, LC–MS, DIMS and imaging MS) and applications of specific interest will be highlighted. The current limitations of these platforms and applications will be discussed with areas requiring further development also highlighted. These include the detectable coverage of the metabolome, the identification of metabolites and the process of converting raw data to biological knowledge. (review article)

  18. Current computational modelling trends in craniomandibular biomechanics and their clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, A G

    2011-03-01

    Computational models of interactions in the craniomandibular apparatus are used with increasing frequency to study biomechanics in normal and abnormal masticatory systems. Methods and assumptions in these models can be difficult to assess by those unfamiliar with current practices in this field; health professionals are often faced with evaluating the appropriateness, validity and significance of models which are perhaps more familiar to the engineering community. This selective review offers a foundation for assessing the strength and implications of a craniomandibular modelling study. It explores different models used in general science and engineering and focuses on current best practices in biomechanics. The problem of validation is considered at some length, because this is not always fully realisable in living subjects. Rigid-body, finite element and combined approaches are discussed, with examples of their application to basic and clinically relevant problems. Some advanced software platforms currently available for modelling craniomandibular systems are mentioned. Recent studies of the face, masticatory muscles, tongue, craniomandibular skeleton, temporomandibular joint, dentition and dental implants are reviewed, and the significance of non-linear and non-isotropic material properties is emphasised. The unique challenges in clinical application are discussed, and the review concludes by posing some questions which one might reasonably expect to find answered in plausible modelling studies of the masticatory apparatus. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Current Trends in Numerical Simulation for Parallel Engineering Environments New Directions and Work-in-Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinitis, C; Schulz, M

    2006-01-01

    In today's world, the use of parallel programming and architectures is essential for simulating practical problems in engineering and related disciplines. Remarkable progress in CPU architecture, system scalability, and interconnect technology continues to provide new opportunities, as well as new challenges for both system architects and software developers. These trends are paralleled by progress in parallel algorithms, simulation techniques, and software integration from multiple disciplines. ParSim brings together researchers from both application disciplines and computer science and aims at fostering closer cooperation between these fields. Since its successful introduction in 2002, ParSim has established itself as an integral part of the EuroPVM/MPI conference series. In contrast to traditional conferences, emphasis is put on the presentation of up-to-date results with a short turn-around time. This offers a unique opportunity to present new aspects in this dynamic field and discuss them with a wide, interdisciplinary audience. The EuroPVM/MPI conference series, as one of the prime events in parallel computation, serves as an ideal surrounding for ParSim. This combination enables the participants to present and discuss their work within the scope of both the session and the host conference. This year, eleven papers from authors in nine countries were submitted to ParSim, and we selected five of them. They cover a wide range of different application fields including gas flow simulations, thermo-mechanical processes in nuclear waste storage, and cosmological simulations. At the same time, the selected contributions also address the computer science side of their codes and discuss different parallelization strategies, programming models and languages, as well as the use nonblocking collective operations in MPI. We are confident that this provides an attractive program and that ParSim will be an informal setting for lively discussions and for fostering new

  20. Current trends and new challenges of databases and web applications for systems driven biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar eSreenivasaiah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and rapidly evolving nature of systems driven research imposes special requirements on the technology, approach, design and architecture of computational infrastructure including database and web application. Several solutions have been proposed to meet the expectations and novel methods have been developed to address the persisting problems of data integration. It is important for researchers to understand different technologies and approaches. Having familiarized with the pros and cons of the existing technologies, researchers can exploit its capabilities to the maximum potential for integrating data. In this review we discuss the architecture, design and key technologies underlying some of the prominent databases (DBs and web applications. We will mention their roles in integration of biological data and investigate some of the emerging design concepts and computational technologies that are likely to have a key role in the future of systems driven biomedical research.

  1. No Fault Found events in maintenance engineering Part 1: Current trends, implications and organizational practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Samir; Phillips, Paul; Jennions, Ian; Hockley, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first part of a state of the art review on the No Fault Found (NFF) phenomenon. The aim has been to compile a systematic reference point for burgeoning NFF literature, and to provide a comprehensive overview for gaining an understanding of NFF knowledge and concepts. Increasing systems complexities have seen a rise in the number of unknown failures that are being reported during operational service. Units tagged as ‘NFF’ are evidence that a serviceable component was removed, and attempts to troubleshoot the root cause have been unsuccessful. There are many reasons on how these failures manifest themselves and these papers describe the prominent issues that have persisted across a variety of industrial applications and processes for decades. This article, in particular, deals with the impact of NFF from an organizational culture and human factors point of view. It also highlights recent developments in NFF standards, its financial implications and safety concerns

  2. Current trends in the design of scaffolds for computer-aided tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitelli, S M; Accoto, D; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A

    2014-02-01

    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing have significantly improved the ability to tailor scaffold architecture, enhancing the control over microstructural features. This has led to a growing interest in the development of innovative scaffold designs, as testified by the increasing amount of research activities devoted to the understanding of the correlation between topological features of scaffolds and their resulting properties, in order to find architectures capable of optimal trade-off between often conflicting requirements (such as biological and mechanical ones). The main aim of this paper is to provide a review and propose a classification of existing methodologies for scaffold design and optimization in order to address key issues and help in deciphering the complex link between design criteria and resulting scaffold properties. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding the cancer cell phenotype beyond the limitations of current omics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Rumjanek, Franklin D; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to understand the mechanistic principles driving cancer metabolism and proliferation have been lately governed by genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies. This paper analyzes the caveats of these approaches. As molecular biology's central dogma proposes a unidirectional flux of information from genes to mRNA to proteins, it has frequently been assumed that monitoring the changes in the gene sequences and in mRNA and protein contents is sufficient to explain complex cellular processes. Such a stance commonly disregards that post-translational modifications can alter the protein function/activity and also that regulatory mechanisms enter into action, to coordinate the protein activities of pathways/cellular processes, in order to keep the cellular homeostasis. Hence, the actual protein activities (as enzymes/transporters/receptors) and their regulatory mechanisms ultimately dictate the final outcomes of a pathway/cellular process. In this regard, it is here documented that the mRNA levels of many metabolic enzymes and transcriptional factors have no correlation with the respective protein contents and activities. The validity of current clinical mRNA-based tests and proposed metabolite biomarkers for cancer detection/prognosis is also discussed. Therefore, it is proposed that, to achieve a thorough understanding of the modifications undergone by proliferating cancer cells, it is mandatory to experimentally analyze the cellular processes at the functional level. This could be achieved (a) locally, by examining the actual protein activities in the cell and their kinetic properties (or at least kinetically characterize the most controlling steps of the pathway/cellular process); (b) systemically, by analyzing the main fluxes of the pathway/cellular process, and how they are modulated by metabolites, all which should contribute to comprehending the regulatory mechanisms that have been altered in cancer cells. By adopting a more holistic approach it may

  4. NIDDK international conference report on diabetes and depression: current understanding and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Richard I G; de Groot, Mary; Lucki, Irwin; Hunter, Christine M; Sartorius, Norman; Golden, Sherita H

    2014-08-01

    Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of each condition are worsened by the other. This article is based on the presentations and discussions during an international meeting on diabetes and depression convened by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) in collaboration with the National Institute of Mental Health and the Dialogue on Diabetes and Depression. While the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression in some cases, this explanation does not sufficiently explain the relationship between these two conditions. Shared biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, autonomic dysfunction, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors, are important to consider in understanding the link between depression and diabetes. Both individual psychological and pharmacological depression treatments are effective in people with diabetes, but the current range of treatment options is limited and has shown mixed effects on glycemic outcomes. More research is needed to understand what factors contribute to individual differences in vulnerability, treatment response, and resilience to depression and metabolic disorders across the life course and how best to provide care for people with comorbid diabetes and depression in different health care settings. Training programs are needed to create a cross-disciplinary workforce that can work in different models of care for comorbid conditions. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Learning analytics fundaments, applications, and trends : a view of the current state of the art to enhance e-learning

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a conceptual and empirical perspective on learning analytics, its goal being to disseminate the core concepts, research, and outcomes of this emergent field. Divided into nine chapters, it offers reviews oriented on selected topics, recent advances, and innovative applications. It presents the broad learning analytics landscape and in-depth studies on higher education, adaptive assessment, teaching and learning. In addition, it discusses valuable approaches to coping with personalization and huge data, as well as conceptual topics and specialized applications that have shaped the current state of the art. By identifying fundamentals, highlighting applications, and pointing out current trends, the book offers an essential overview of learning analytics to enhance learning achievement in diverse educational settings. As such, it represents a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners, and students interested in updating their knowledge and finding inspirations for their future work.

  6. More green infrastructure is required to maintain ecosystem services under current trends in land-use change in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Joachim; Barbosa, Ana; Baranzelli, Claudia; Zulian, Grazia; Batista E Silva, Filipe; Vandecasteele, Ine; Hiederer, Roland; Liquete, Camino; Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Mubareka, Sarah; Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris; Castillo, Carolina Perpiña; Lavalle, Carlo

    Green infrastructure (GI), a network of nature, semi-natural areas and green space, delivers essential ecosystem services which underpin human well-being and quality of life. Maintaining ecosystem services through the development of GI is therefore increasingly recognized by policies as a strategy to cope with potentially changing conditions in the future. This paper assessed how current trends of land-use change have an impact on the aggregated provision of eight ecosystem services at the regional scale of the European Union, measured by the Total Ecosystem Services Index (TESI8). Moreover, the paper reports how further implementation of GI across Europe can help maintain ecosystem services at baseline levels. Current demographic, economic and agricultural trends, which affect land use, were derived from the so called Reference Scenario. This scenario is established by the European Commission to assess the impact of energy and climate policy up to 2050. Under the Reference Scenario, economic growth, coupled with the total population, stimulates increasing urban and industrial expansion. TESI8 is expected to decrease across Europe between 0 and 5 % by 2020 and between 10 and 15 % by 2050 relative to the base year 2010. Based on regression analysis, we estimated that every additional percent increase of the proportion of artificial land needs to be compensated with an increase of 2.2 % of land that qualifies as green infrastructure in order to maintain ecosystem services at 2010 levels.

  7. Current trends in the design of metallic coatings for harsh turbine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, Brian [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science

    2010-07-01

    The reliable and long-term operation of gas turbine engines at varying high temperatures and under the highly corrosive conditions found in technical applications requires further developments in materials science and technology. Quite often, the current engineering design solution to this problem is to coat the high-temperature turbine component materials, typically {gamma}-Ni+{gamma}'-Ni{sub 3}Al nickel-base superalloys, with a metallic alloy composition that is highly resistant to oxidation or corrosion. Ideally, such resistance is provided by the formation of a thermally grown oxide (TGO) scale of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Indeed, the commonly used {beta}-NiAl-based coatings are excellent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-scale formers; however, their resistance to accelerated attack by molten-salt induced hot corrosion can rather poor. The hot-corrosion resistance of {beta}-based coatings can be improved by chromium or silicon addition, but potentially at the expense of oxidation resistance. This presentation will primarily focus on hot corrosion attack and the current approaches that are used to try to mitigate this form of attack. It will be shown that many factors affect hot corrosion resistance, particularly the composition and structure of the coating. The results from recent work on the effects of relative phase fractions, morphologies and chemistries will be drawn upon to provide guidance for optimized coating design. (orig.)

  8. Current and future trends in global landfill gas generation and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, M.; Franklin, C.; Campbell, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper assesses the magnitude and distribution of current and future methane generation and emissions from landfill on a world-wide basis. It also estimates the current and future global potential for energy recovery from landfill methane. The mass of methane emitted from land disposal of wastes in any country depends on the waste management strategy of that country. In turn, the waste management strategy of a country depends on its population size, relative proportion living in rural or urban regions and the economic development of the country. We estimate by 2010 there will be a large increase in global methane emissions from solid wastes disposed on land. This increase will be largely from developing regions of the world. The main factor driving this increase is a population shift from rural to urban areas, particularly in regions of highest population, i.e. China and India. This will lead to a greater concentration of waste generation, in turn leading to increased disposal of wastes in deeper sites. In addition increased industrialisation and improved standard of living in regions of high population, will increase the mass of waste disposed of per person and the degradable carbon content of the waste, i.e. the waste will become more like waste from developed countries. In contrast, methane emissions from waste disposed on land in developed countries is likely to decrease by 2010, mainly as result of increased collection and combustion of landfill methane. (Author)

  9. UNUSUAL TRENDS IN SOLAR P-MODE FREQUENCIES DURING THE CURRENT EXTENDED MINIMUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S. C.; Jain, K.; Hill, F.; Leibacher, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of the intermediate-degree mode frequencies of the Sun during the current extended minimum phase to explore the time-varying conditions in the solar interior. Using contemporaneous helioseismic data from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), we find that the changes in resonant mode frequencies during the activity minimum period are significantly greater than the changes in solar activity as measured by different proxies. We detect a seismic minimum in MDI p-mode frequency shifts during 2008 July-August but no such signature is seen in mean shifts computed from GONG frequencies. We also analyze the frequencies of individual oscillation modes from GONG data as a function of latitude and observe a signature of the onset of the solar cycle 24 in early 2009. Thus, the intermediate-degree modes do not confirm the onset of the cycle 24 during late 2007 as reported from the analysis of the low-degree Global Oscillations at Low Frequency frequencies. Further, both the GONG and MDI frequencies show a surprising anti-correlation between frequencies and activity proxies during the current minimum, in contrast to the behavior during the minimum between cycles 22 and 23.

  10. Support vector machine based estimation of remaining useful life: current research status and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hong Zhong; Wang, Hai Kun; Li, Yan Feng; Zhang, Longlong; Liu, Zhiliang

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) is helpful to manage life cycles of machines and to reduce maintenance cost. Support vector machine (SVM) is a promising algorithm for estimation of RUL because it can easily process small training sets and multi-dimensional data. Many SVM based methods have been proposed to predict RUL of some key components. We did a literature review related to SVM based RUL estimation within a decade. The references reviewed are classified into two categories: improved SVM algorithms and their applications to RUL estimation. The latter category can be further divided into two types: one, to predict the condition state in the future and then build a relationship between state and RUL; two, to establish a direct relationship between current state and RUL. However, SVM is seldom used to track the degradation process and build an accurate relationship between the current health condition state and RUL. Based on the above review and summary, this paper points out that the ability to continually improve SVM, and obtain a novel idea for RUL prediction using SVM will be future works.

  11. Current trends and challenges in the postoperative medical management of Crohn's disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlussel, Andrew T; Cherng, Nicole B; Alavi, Karim

    2017-11-01

    Crohn's disease is an aggressive chronic inflammatory disorder, and despite medical advances no cure exists. There is a great risk of requiring an operative intervention, with evidence of recurrence developing in up to 80-90% of cases. Therefore, we sought to systematically review the current status in the postoperative medical management of Crohn's disease. A systematic literature review of medications administered following respective therapy for Crohn's disease was performed from 1979 through 2016. Twenty-six prospective articles provided directed guidelines for recommendations and these were graded based on the level of evidence. The postoperative management of Crohn's disease faces multiple challenges. Current indicated medications in this setting include: antibiotics, aminosalicylates, immunomodulators, and biologics. Each drug has inherent risks and benefits, and the optimal regimen is still unknown. Initiating therapy in a prophylactic fashion compared to endoscopic findings, or escalating therapy versus treating with the most potent drug first is debated. Although a definitive consensus on postoperative treatment is necessary, aggressive and early endoluminal surveillance is paramount in the treatment of these complicated patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Remote Employment: Current Trends in the Organization and Remuneration of Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herasymenko Oksana O.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at distinguishing between the concepts of «freelance», «remote employment», «work from home» with highlighting of differences affecting the organizational-legal format and the economic aspects of social and labor relations between the parties to the agreements on work in remote mode. The prerequisites for the emergence of the non-standard forms of employment in the conditions of establishing the post economy and the electronic-network society have been determined. The data of sociological researches on the current condition and prospects of prevalence of remote employment in Ukraine have been provided. The types and forms of remote employment have been generalized according to different classifications. Using a number of criteria, the article discloses characteristic features of such atypical forms of employment as freelance, distance employment, and work from home. The disadvantages of the atypical forms of employment have been allocated and their advantages have been generalized. An analysis of the current normative-legal regulation has been carried out and the substantiation of organizational and economic foundations of freelancing, remote employment, work from home in Ukraine has been provided.

  13. Current knowledge and trends in age-related macular degeneration: today's and future treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Oliver, Scott C N; Olson, Jeffrey L; Fine, Stuart L; Mandava, Naresh; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2013-09-01

    To address the most dynamic and current issues concerning today's treatment options and promising research efforts regarding treatment for age-related macular degeneration. This review is aimed to serve as a practical reference for more in-depth reviews on the subject. An online review of the database PubMed and Ovid were performed, searching for the key words age-related macular degeneration, AMD, VEGF, treatment, PDT, steroids, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, VEGF-trap, radiation, combined therapy, as well as their compound phrases. The search was limited to articles published since 1985. All returned articles were carefully screened, and their references were manually reviewed for additional relevant data. The web page www.clinicaltrials.gov was also accessed in search of relevant research trials. A total of 363 articles were reviewed, including 64 additional articles extracted from the references. At the end, only 160 references were included in this review. Treatment for age-related macular degeneration is a very dynamic research field. While current treatments are mainly aimed at blocking vascular endothelial growth factor, future treatments seek to prevent vision loss because of scarring. Promising efforts have been made to address the dry form of the disease, which has lacked effective treatment.

  14. Political anticipation: observing and understanding global socio-economic trends with a view to guide the decision-making processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillol, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Political anticipation (PA), as practiced by Laboratoire Européen d'Anticipation Politique, is a method for improving the capacity to understand trends and forecast events with the aim of influencing events on a large or small scale. Our operational definition of anticipation is 'To foresee in order to act.' Intended to be efficient and of immediate use, PA is conceived as a decision-making tool for all types of decision-makers: politicians, economists, administrators, business leaders, private investors, educators, as well as heads of households. Everyone, in a professional or private role, makes important decisions (for employees, for business operations and commerce, for family, for investments, for jurisdictions, and for the country and economic zone, among other areas in which the polis is involved). Given the dynamics of reality in our times, every decision appears as a wager on the future. It is also related to the wish or desire to obtain the best outcome for risk assumed (which a wager entails) and the effort expended.

  15. Innate immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus: current understanding and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Artur; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Harwood, Lisa; McCullough, Kenneth C

    2009-03-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) represents one of the most economically important diseases of farm animals. The basis for the threat caused by this virus is the high speed of replication, short incubation time, high contagiousness, and high mutation rate resulting in constant antigenic changes. Thus, although protective immune responses against FMD virus (FMDV) can be efficacious, the rapidity of virus replication and spread can outpace immune defence development and overrun the immune system. FMDV can also evade innate immune responses through its ability to shut down cellular protein synthesis, including IFN type I, in susceptible epithelial cells. This is important for virus evolution, as FMDV is quite sensitive to the action of IFN. Despite this, innate immune responses are probably induced in vivo, although detailed studies on this subject are lacking. Accordingly, this interaction of FMDV with cells of the innate immune system is of particular interest. Dendritic cells (DC) can be infected by FMDV and support viral RNA replication, and viral protein synthesis but the latter is inefficient or abortive, leading most often to incomplete replication and progeny virus release. As a result DC can be activated, and particularly in the case of plasmacytoid DC (pDC), this is manifest in terms of IFN-alpha release. Our current state of knowledge on innate immune responses induced by FMDV is still only at a relatively early stage of understanding. As we progress, the investigations in this area will help to improve the design of current vaccines and the development of novel control strategies against FMD.

  16. Landscape of current and emerging cell therapy clinical trials in the UK: current status, comparison to global trends and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Isabelle; Green, Emma; Sharpe, Michaela; Herbert, Chris; Hyllner, Johan; Mount, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Cell Therapy Clinical Trial and Preclinical Research databases have been established by the Cell Therapy Catapult to document current and future cell therapy clinical trials in the UK. We identified 41 ongoing trials in April 2014, an increase of seven trials from April 2013. In addition, we identified 45 late-stage preclinical research projects. The majority of the clinical trials are early phase, primarily led by academic groups. The leading therapeutic areas are cancer, cardiology and neurology. The trends in the UK are also seen globally. As the field matures, more later phase and commercial studies will emerge and the challenges will likely evolve into how to manufacture sufficient cell quantities, manage complex logistics for multi-center trials and control cost.

  17. Introduction to the Issue on Current Trends in Terahertz Photonics and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Since the last special issue on terahertz science and technology, nearly three years have been passed. During this period, while there have been further developments in terahertz (THz) sources, detectors, materials, and applications, there have been new discoveries. The purpose of this issue of t...... reviews on recent THz research, the contributed papers cover a wide range of the cutting-edge research in the topics described earlier....... of the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (JSTQE) is to highlight the advances in materials, devices, and applications and new directions in the THz domain within the last three years. Broad technical areas include: 1) materials; 2) matamaterials, plasmonics, and plasmons; 3) techniques...... and effects; 4) generation and power scaling; 5) detectors; 6) devices; 7) applications. These key THz topics are discussed in both invited and contributed papers published in this issue, providing comprehensive overviews of the current status and future directions as well as publishing original results...

  18. [Materials/Biomaterials in Clinical Practice - a Short Review and Current Trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, T; Meyer, F; Walcher, F; Lohmann, C; Jockenhövel, S; Gries, T; Hoffmann, W

    2017-04-01

    Biomaterials play a major role in interventional medicine and surgery. However, the development of biomaterials is still in its early phases in spite of the huge progress made within the last decades. On the one hand, this is because our knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes associated with biomaterials is still increasing exponentially. On the other hand, a wide variety of advanced materials with highly interesting properties is being developed currently. This review provides a short introduction into the variety of materials in use as well as their application in interventional medicine and surgery. Also the importance of biomaterials for tissue engineering in the field of regenerative medicine and the functionalisation of biomaterials, including sterilisation methods are discussed. For the future, an even broader interdisciplinary scientific collaboration is necessary in order to develop novel biomaterials and facilitate their translation into clinical practice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Field of Psychiatry: Current Trends and Future Directions: An Indian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Kishore P

    2016-01-01

    Attempting to predict future is dangerous. This is particularly true in medical science where change is a result of chance discoveries. Currently, practicing psychiatrists are aware of deficiencies in psychiatric practice. However, we have a number of genuine reasons for optimism and excitement. Genetics, novel treatment approaches, new investigative techniques, large-scale treatment trials, and research in general medicine and neurology will give better insights in psychiatric disorders and its management. Psychiatric services in rural India can be reached by telemedicine. There are some threat perceptions which require solving and remedying. Subspecialties in psychiatry are the need of the hour. There is also a requirement for common practice guidelines. Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, requires suitable amendments before it is passed in the Indian Parliament. Research in psychiatry is yet to be developed as adequate resources are not available.

  20. Resident Involvement in Professional Otolaryngology Organizations: Current Trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Jang, Minyoung; Gilad, Amir; Levi, Jessica R

    2017-08-01

    Involvement by residents in professional medical organizations can enrich their training, but little data exist regarding the number and types of involvement opportunities available to otolaryngology residents. We sought to fill this gap in knowledge by quantifying the extent to which major otolaryngology-related organizations in the United States provide involvement opportunities to otolaryngology residents. Our analysis included 23 organizations and subspecialty societies. Results showed that many opportunities exist for residents to attend conferences and present research; however, fewer involvement and funding opportunities existed in any other leadership, health policy, or service-learning experiences. These findings were consistent across general and subspecialty societies. Given the many purported benefits of resident involvement in otolaryngology outside of the standard training environment, future efforts may be warranted to increase the number and type of involvement opportunities currently available in professional societies.

  1. A Commentary on Telerehabilitation Services in Pakistan: Current Trends and Future Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeshan Zahid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2014 World Health Organization (WHO study reported that almost 27 million people with disability live in Pakistan with fewer than one allied rehabilitation professional per 10,000 people. The current study sought to determine the attitudes toward telerehabilitation via a survey administered to 329 Pakistani rehabilitation professionals. Study results indicate that rehabilitation professionals in Pakistan are knowledgeable about telerehabilitation and Information and Communication Technology (ICT, and are receptive to employing telerehabilitation programs and applications. Therefore, we can infer that the future of telerehabilitation can be bright in Pakistan but requires the attention of policy makers and non-government organizations to launch an appropriate program nationwide. The authors suggest that a range of telerehabilitation services (e.g., consultation, assessment, and therapy could alleviate the shortage of rehabilitation personnel in Pakistan.

  2. Trends in Dental Practice Sales and Associateships in the Current Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steven Wolff

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiences would suggest that there is a significant discrepancy in the number of doctors retiring and transitioning their practices and the number of younger practitioners wishing to assume ownership and build a career. Peaks and valleys in dental school enrollment over the last forty years should have produced an abundance of retirement aged doctors wishing to place their practices on the market to a smaller pool of buyers. Such is currently not the case. Doctors in their sixties have experienced recent stock market downturns in 2000 and 2008, the “9-11” tragedy and a drop in both the value and liquidity of the housing market. The ready access to refinance or second mortgage funds may even find some doctors upside down on personal, vacation and investment real estate. All of this combined has had considerable negative impact on their net worth. Health care costs continue to increase and most dentists are personally responsible for their premiums. Combine all of this with the current low level of secure returns on invested capital along with a significant increase in life expectancy over the last two generations and many decide they are simply unable to retire as planned. The fear of running out of money is stronger than their will to pursue retirement. This article examines in some detail the reasons for this imbalance and the effects they are having on practice transitions, practice values and the market for associate employment. We will also explore what the future may hold for both retiring and new career doctors.

  3. Medicare Part D-a roundtable discussion of current issues and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Donald C; Evans, Steven; Januska, Jeff; Lee, Helen Y; Lewis, Sonya J; Nolan, Steve R; Noga, Mark; Stemple, Charles; Thapar, Kishan

    2009-01-01

    Medicare Part D was introduced with a goal of providing access to prescription drug coverage for all Medicare beneficiaries. Regulatory mandates and the changing landscape of health care require continued evaluation of the state of the Part D benefit. To review the current state of plan offerings and highlight key issues regarding the administration of the Part D benefit. The Part D drug benefit continues to evolve. The benefit value appears to be diluted compared to the benefit value of large employer plans. Regulatory restrictions mandated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) are reported to inhibit the ability of plans to create an effective, competitive drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries. Management in this restrictive environment impedes competitive price negotiations and formulary coverage issues continue to create confusion especially for patients with chronic diseases. The doughnut hole coverage gap represents a significant cost-shifting issue for beneficiaries that may impact medication adherence and persistence. To address these and other challenges, CMS is working to improve the quality of care for Part D beneficiaries by designing and supporting demonstration projects. Although these projects are in different stages, all stakeholders are hopeful that they will lead to the development of best practices by plans to help manage their beneficiaries more efficiently. A significant number of Medicare beneficiaries are currently receiving prescription drug benefits through Part D. The true value of this benefit has been called into question as a result of plan design parameters that lead to cost-shifting, an increasing burden for enrollees. Concerns regarding the ability to provide a competitive plan given the stringent rules and regulations have been voiced by plan administrators. In an effort to drive toward evidence-based solutions, CMS is working to improve the overall quality of care through numerous demonstration projects.

  4. Current usage and future trends in gross digital photography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher L; DeKoning, Lawrence; Klonowski, Paul; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current usage, utilization and future direction of digital photography of gross surgical specimens in pathology laboratories across Canada. An online survey consisting of 23 multiple choice and free-text questions regarding gross digital photography was sent out to via email to laboratory staff across Canada involved in gross dissection of surgical specimens. Sixty surveys were returned with representation from most of the provinces. Results showed that gross digital photography is utilized at most institutions (90.0%) and the primary users of the technology are Pathologists (88.0%), Pathologists' Assistants (54.0%) and Pathology residents (50.0%). Most respondents felt that there is a definite need for routine digital imaging of gross surgical specimens in their practice (80.0%). The top two applications for gross digital photography are for documentation of interesting/ complex cases (98.0%) and for teaching purposes (84.0%). The main limitations identified by the survey group are storage space (42.5%) and security issues (40.0%). Respondents indicated that future applications of gross digital photography mostly include teaching (96.6%), presentation at tumour boards/ clinical rounds (89.8%), medico-legal documentation (72.9%) and usage for consultation purposes (69.5%). The results of this survey indicate that pathology staff across Canada currently utilizes gross digital images for regular documentation and educational reasons. They also show that the technology will be needed for future applications in teaching, consultation and medico-legal purposes.

  5. Nitrogen-Use Efficiency, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, and Cereal Production in Brazil: Current Trends and Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Marcel Viana; da Cunha, Dênis Antônio; de Matos Carlos, Sabrina; Costa, Marcos Heil

    2015-01-01

    The agriculture sector has historically been a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere. Although the use of synthetic fertilizers is one of the most common widespread agricultural practices, over-fertilization can lead to negative economic and environmental consequences, such as high production costs, depletion of energy resources, and increased GHG emissions. Here, we provide an analysis to understand the evolution of cereal production and consumption of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in Brazil and to correlate N use efficiency (NUE) with economic and environmental losses as N2O emissions. Our results show that the increased consumption of N fertilizers is associated with a large decrease in NUE in recent years. The CO2 eq. of N2O emissions originating from N fertilization for cereal production were approximately 12 times higher in 2011 than in 1970, indicating that the inefficient use of N fertilizers is directly related to environmental losses. The projected N fertilizer forecasts are 2.09 and 2.37 million ton for 2015 and 2023, respectively. An increase of 0.02% per year in the projected NUE was predicted for the same time period. However, decreases in the projected CO2 eq. emissions for future years were not predicted. In a hypothetical scenario, a 2.39% increase in cereal NUE would lead to $ 21 million savings in N fertilizer costs. Thus, increases in NUE rates would lead not only to agronomic and environmental benefits but also to economic improvement.

  6. Current trends in follow-up of trophoblastic function in ruminant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, N M; Beckers, J F; Gajewski, Z

    2008-12-01

    During the pregnancy of ruminants, different hormones and proteins are secreted by placenta or corpus luteum allowing the follow up of gestation. Among them, progesterone (P4) and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) were proposed as laboratory tools to establish or to confirm pregnancy diagnosis. In last years, PAG assay also provided useful information for researchers working in programs focused on the follow up of trophoblastic function. Concentrations of PAG appeared as altered after the use of embryo biotechnology (in vitro fertilization, cloning by nuclear transfer, inter-specific pregnancies), according to nutritional status of pregnant females (overnourished or undernourished), or consecutive to infectious diseases leading to pathologies affecting the pregnancy in cows (Actynomyces pyogenes and Neospora caninum) and goats (Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes and Trypanosoma congolense). As well, in numerous studies, the association of repeated ultrasound examinations with P4 and PAG determinations allowed a better understanding of mechanisms related to embryonic and fetal mortalities: failure after artificial insemination or embryo transfer techniques, large offspring syndrome after in vitro fecundation and cloning.

  7. Stem Cells of Dental Origin: Current Research Trends and Key Milestones towards Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Bakopoulou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs, including Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs, Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED, and Stem Cells From Apical Papilla (SCAP, have been extensively studied using highly sophisticated in vitro and in vivo systems, yielding substantially improved understanding of their intriguing biological properties. Their capacity to reconstitute various dental and nondental tissues and the inherent angiogenic, neurogenic, and immunomodulatory properties of their secretome have been a subject of meticulous and costly research by various groups over the past decade. Key milestone achievements have exemplified their clinical utility in Regenerative Dentistry, as surrogate therapeutic modules for conventional biomaterial-based approaches, offering regeneration of damaged oral tissues instead of simply “filling the gaps.” Thus, the essential next step to validate these immense advances is the implementation of well-designed clinical trials paving the way for exploiting these fascinating research achievements for patient well-being: the ultimate aim of this ground breaking technology. This review paper presents a concise overview of the major biological properties of the human dental MSCs, critical for the translational pathway “from bench to clinic.”

  8. Current ecological understanding of fungal-like pathogens of fish: what lies beneath?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Elie Gozlan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasingly sophisticated microbiological techniques, and long after the first discovery of microbes, basic knowledge is still lacking to fully appreciate the ecological importance of microbial parasites in fish. This is likely due to the nature of their habitats as many species of fish suffer from living beneath turbid water away from easy recording. However, fishes represent key ecosystem services for millions of people around the world and the absence of a functional ecological understanding of viruses, prokaryotes, and small eukaryotes in the maintenance of fish populations and of their diversity represents an inherent barrier to aquatic conservation and food security. Among recent emerging infectious diseases responsible for severe population declines in plant and animal taxa, fungal and fungal-like microbes have emerged as significant contributors. Here, we review the current knowledge gaps of fungal and fungal-like parasites and pathogens in fish and put them into an ecological perspective with direct implications for the monitoring of fungal fish pathogens in the wild, their phylogeography as well as their associated ecological impact on fish populations. With increasing fish movement around the world for farming, releases into the wild for sport fishing and human-driven habitat changes, it is expected, along with improved environmental monitoring of fungal and fungal-like infections, that the full extent of the impact of these pathogens on wild fish populations will soon emerge as a major threat to freshwater biodiversity.

  9. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, John D.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Gin, Stephane; Inagaki, Yaohiro

    2013-01-01

    Chemical durability is not a single material property that can be uniquely measured. Instead it is the response to a host of coupled material and environmental processes whose rates are estimated by a combination of theory, experiment, and modeling. High-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is perhaps the most studied of any material yet there remain significant technical gaps regarding their chemical durability. The phenomena affecting the long-term performance of HLW glasses in their disposal environment include surface reactions, transport properties to and from the reacting glass surface, and ion exchange between the solid glass and the surrounding solution and alteration products. The rates of these processes are strongly influenced and are coupled through the solution chemistry, which is in turn influenced by the reacting glass and also by reaction with the near-field materials and precipitation of alteration products. Therefore, those processes must be understood sufficiently well to estimate or bound the performance of HLW glass in its disposal environment over geologic time-scales. This article summarizes the current state of understanding of surface reactions, transport properties, and ion exchange along with the near-field materials and alteration products influences on solution chemistry and glass reaction rates. Also summarized are the remaining technical gaps along with recommended approaches to fill those technical gaps

  10. Understanding the current state of infection preventionists through competency, role, and activity self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalp, Ericka L; Marx, James F; Davis, James

    2017-06-01

    The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) MegaSurvey, administered in 2015, was completed by approximately 4,079 APIC members. The survey sought to gain a better understanding the current state of 4 components of infection prevention practice: demographic characteristics, compensation, organizational structure, and practice and competency. The data for this analysis come from the APIC MegaSurvey Practice and Competency domain. Descriptive statistics and χ 2 analyses were conducted to examine differences in infection preventionist (IP) competency, roles, and activity self-assessments. The majority of IPs self-assessed their competency as Proficient compared with Novice or Expert for each of the 8 IP core competency activities. Forty percent of IPs self-rated their competency as Expert in the Preventing/Controlling the Transmission of Infectious Agents/HAIs component. IPs reported Novice competency in Employee/Occupational Health (29%); Cleaning, Sterilization, Disinfection, and Asepsis (23%); and Education and Research categories (22%). Differences in self-rated competency among IPs by discipline type (public health, nurse, and laboratory) were identified. Differences in self-rated competency were identified for each of the 8 IP core competency activities. IPs report using various resource types to gain competency. Future research is needed to identify opportunities to increase competency levels in the weakest-rated competency activities. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Review: Animal model and the current understanding of molecule dynamics of adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, C F; Duarte, M S; Guimarães, S E F; Verardo, L L; Wei, S; Du, M; Jiang, Z; Bergen, W G; Hausman, G J; Fernyhough-Culver, M; Albrecht, E; Dodson, M V

    2016-06-01

    Among several potential animal models that can be used for adipogenic studies, Wagyu cattle is the one that presents unique molecular mechanisms underlying the deposit of substantial amounts of intramuscular fat. As such, this review is focused on current knowledge of such mechanisms related to adipose tissue deposition using Wagyu cattle as model. So abundant is the lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscles of these animals that in many cases, the muscle cross-sectional area appears more white (adipose tissue) than red (muscle fibers). This enhanced marbling accumulation is morphologically similar to that seen in numerous skeletal muscle dysfunctions, disease states and myopathies; this might indicate cross-similar mechanisms between such dysfunctions and fat deposition in Wagyu breed. Animal models can be used not only for a better understanding of fat deposition in livestock, but also as models to an increased comprehension on molecular mechanisms behind human conditions. This revision underlies some of the complex molecular processes of fat deposition in animals.

  12. Knowledge-driven computational modeling in Alzheimer's disease research: Current state and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Hugo; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Anastasio, Thomas J

    2017-11-01

    be required for further progress in understanding and treating AD. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Current status and future trends in Cryptosporidium and Giardia epidemiology in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Ahmad, R A; Smith, H V

    2008-06-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of diarrhoeal diseases of humans worldwide, and are included in the World Health Organisation's 'Neglected Diseases Initiative'. Cryptosporidium and Giardia occur commonly in Malaysian human and non-human populations, but their impact on disease, morbidity and cost of illness is not known. The commonness of contributions from human (STW effluents, indiscriminate defaecation) and non-human (calving, lambing, muck spreading, slurry spraying, pasturing/grazing of domestic animals, infected wild animals) hosts indicate that many Malaysian environments, particularly water and soil, are sufficiently contaminated to act as potential vehicles for the transmission of disease. To gain insight into the morbidity and mortality caused by human cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, they should be included into differential diagnoses, and routine laboratory testing should be performed and (as for many infectious diseases) reported to a centralised public health agency. To understand transmission routes and the significance of environmental contamination better will require further multidisciplinary approaches and shared resources, including raising national perceptions of the parasitological quality of drinking water. Here, the detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia should be an integral part of the water quality requirement. A multidisciplinary approach among public health professionals in the water industry and other relevant health- and environment-associated agencies is also required in order to determine the significance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination of Malaysian drinking water. Lastly, adoption of validated methods to determine the species, genotype and subgenotype of Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in Malaysia will assist in developing effective risk assessment, management and communication models.

  14. Current trends in local antibacterial therapy of periprosthetic infection and osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bozhkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rational use of antibiotics in the treatment of orthopedic infection still presents a significant problem. Local antibiotic delivery systems enable to achieve effective concentrations of drugs in the focus of bone infection without the development of toxicity. It is the important accompaniment to systemic antibiotics in the treatment of periprosthetic infection and osteomyelitis. The data collected through the PubMed and eLIBRARY databases (http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pubmed, 1995-2015; http://elibrary.ru, 2005-2015 years present the information about bone substitutes used for local antibiotic therapy in scientific investigations and in clinical practice. The information is submitted in accordance with the groups of materials: cements based on polymethylmethacrylate, bone grafts, demineralized bone matrix, bioceramics, natural and synthetic polymers, combined antibiotic delivery systems. The majority of these materials have only been studied experimentally and only a limited range of them is registered for use in clinical practice. Informing orthopedic surgeons about current methods of local antibiotic use is the key to the development of a modern integrated approach to the therapy of infectious complications after orthopedic surgery.

  15. Non-Financial Reporting in Croatia: Current Trends Analysis and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Galant

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-financial reporting forms part of corporate reporting. Among other, it includes disclosure of information regarding corporate social responsibility (CSR/sustainability issues and as such represent the supplement to the information provided by financial statements. Compared to the financial reporting, non-financial reporting is voluntary in majority of countries, including Croatia. Thus, companies decide on their own whether to disclose on this issue or not. Considering its voluntariness, the aim of this paper is to determine the current state of non-financial reporting in Croatia by identifying the financial characteristics of companies disclosing non-financial reports. In data analysis, the logistic regression was used. The research was conducted on a sample of Croatian publicly listed companies. Obtained results indicate that larger, more profitable and efficient companies are more probable to disclose non-financial reports, while indebtedness is not significant for it. In addition, further development of corporate social accounting is required, as well as promotion of non-financial reporting benefits.

  16. Current trends of human infections and antibiotic resistance of the genus Shewanella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, K; Bekal, S; Usongo, V; Touati, A

    2017-08-01

    Shewanella spp. are commonly known as environmental bacteria and are most frequently isolated from aquatic areas. Currently, diseases syndromes and multidrug resistance have increasingly been reported in the genus Shewanella. Some species are associated with various infections, such as skin and soft tissue infections, as well as bacteremia. Generally, these bacteria are opportunistic and mostly affect people with an impaired immune system. This genus is also a probable vehicle and progenitor of antibiotic resistance genes. In fact, several resistance genes and mobile genetic elements have been identified in some resistant species isolated from environmental or clinical settings. These genes confer resistance to different antibiotic classes, including those used in therapies such as β-lactams and quinolones, and are generally located on the chromosome. Recently, a multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmid harboring several drug resistance genes associated with transposons and integrons has been identified in Shewanella xiamenensis. These antibiotic resistance genes can circulate in the environment and contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review describes different aspects of Shewanella, focusing on the infections caused by this genus, as well as their role in the propagation of antibiotic resistance via mobile genetic elements.

  17. Iran`s petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran`s oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future.

  18. Ab initio molecular dynamics: basic concepts, current trends and novel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckerman, Mark E

    2002-01-01

    The field of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), in which finite temperature molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories are generated with forces obtained from accurate 'on the fly' electronic structure calculations, is a rapidly evolving and growing technology that allows chemical processes in condensed phases to be studied in an accurate and unbiased way. This article is intended to present the basics of the AIMD method as well as to provide a broad survey of the state of the art of the field and showcase some of its capabilities. Beginning with a derivation of the method from the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, issues including the density functional representation of electronic structure, basis sets, calculation of observables and the Car-Parrinello extended Lagrangian algorithm are discussed. A number of example applications, including liquid structure and dynamics and aqueous proton transport, are presented in order to highlight some of the current capabilities of the approach. Finally, advanced topics such as inclusion of nuclear quantum effects, excited states and scaling issues are addressed. (topical review)

  19. Current trends in the use of vitamin E-based micellar nanocarriers for anticancer drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddineti, Omkara Swami; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the complexity of cancer pathogenesis, conventional chemotherapy can be an inadequate method of killing cancer cells effectively. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems have been widely exploited pre-clinically in recent years. Areas covered: Incorporation of vitamin-E in nanocarriers have the advantage of (1) improving the hydrophobicity of the drug delivery system, thereby improving the solubility of the loaded poorly soluble anticancer drugs, (2) enhancing the biocompatibility of the polymeric drug carriers, and (3) improving the anticancer potential of the chemotherapeutic agents by reversing the cellular drug resistance via simultaneous administration. In addition to being a powerful antioxidant, vitamin E demonstrated its anticancer potential by inducing apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Various vitamin E analogs have proven their ability to cause marked inhibition of drug efflux transporters. Expert opinion: The review discusses the potential of incorporating vitamin E in the polymeric micelles which are designed to carry poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs. Current applications of various vitamin E-based polymeric micelles with emphasis on the use of α-tocopherol, D-α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) and its conjugates such as D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol-succinate (TPGS) in micellar system is delineated. Advantages of utilizing polymeric micelles for drug delivery and the challenges to treat cancer, including multiple drug resistance have been discussed.

  20. Microalgae as multi-functional options in modern agriculture: current trends, prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, Nirmal; Guldhe, Abhishek; Prasanna, Radha; Singh, Poonam; Bux, Faizal

    Algae are a group of ubiquitous photosynthetic organisms comprising eukaryotic green algae and Gram-negative prokaryotic cyanobacteria, which have immense potential as a bioresource for various industries related to biofuels, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and feed. This fascinating group of organisms also has applications in modern agriculture through facilitating increased nutrient availability, maintaining the organic carbon and fertility of soil, and enhancing plant growth and crop yields, as a result of stimulation of soil microbial activity. Several cyanobacteria provide nitrogen fertilization through biological nitrogen fixation and through enzymatic activities related to interconversions and mobilization of different forms of nitrogen. Both green algae and cyanobacteria are involved in the production of metabolites such as growth hormones, polysaccharides, antimicrobial compounds, etc., which play an important role in the colonization of plants and proliferation of microbial and eukaryotic communities in soil. Currently, the development of consortia of cyanobacteria with bacteria or fungi or microalgae or their biofilms has widened their scope of utilization. Development of integrated wastewater treatment and biomass production systems is an emerging technology, which exploits the nutrient sequestering potential of microalgae and its valorisation. This review focuses on prospects and challenges of application of microalgae in various areas of agriculture, including crop production, protection and natural resource management. An overview of the recent advances, novel technologies developed, their commercialization status and future directions are also included. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Integration of Community Pharmacists in Transition of Care (TOC) Services: Current Trends and Pharmacist Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznikar, Elizabeth A; Kroehl, Miranda E; Perica, Katharine M; Thompson, Angela M; Trinkley, Katy E

    2017-01-01

    Barriers exist for patients transitioning from one health-care setting to another, or to home, and health-care systems are falling short of meeting patient needs during this time. Community pharmacist incorporation poses a solution to the current communication breakdown and high rates of medication errors during transitions of care (TOC). The purpose of this study was to determine community pharmacists' involvement in and perceptions of TOC services. Cross-sectional study using electronic surveys nationwide to pharmacists employed by a community pharmacy chain. Of 7236 pharmacists surveyed, 546 (7.5%) responded. Only 33 (6%) pharmacists reported their pharmacy participates in TOC services. Most pharmacists (81.5%) reported receiving discharge medication lists. The most common reported barrier to TOC participation is lack of electronic integration with surrounding hospitals (51.1%). Most pharmacists agreed that (1) it is valuable to receive discharge medication lists (83.3%), (2) receiving discharge medication lists is beneficial for patients' health (89.1%), (3) discharge medication list receipt improves medication safety (88.8%). Most pharmacists reported receiving discharge medication lists and reported discharge medication lists are beneficial, but less than half purposefully used medication lists. To close TOC gaps, health-care providers must collaborate to overcome barriers for successful TOC services.

  2. An overview of currently available methods and future trends for physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kiško

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methodological limitations make comparison of various instruments difficult, although the number of publications on physical activity assessment has extensively increased. Therefore, systematization of techniques and definitions is essential for the improvement of knowledge in the area. Objective: This paper systematically describes and compares up-to-date methods that assess habitual physical activity and discusses main issues regarding the use and interpretation of data collected with these techniques. Methods: A general outline of the measures and techniques described above is presented in review form, along with their respective definition, usual applications, positive aspects and shortcomings. Results and conclusions: The various factors to be considered in the selection of physical activity assessment methods include goals, sample size, budget, cultural and social/environmental factors, physical burden for the subject, and statistical factors, such as accuracy and precision. It is concluded that no single current technique is able to quantify all aspects of physical activity under free-living conditions, requiring the use of complementary methods. In not too distant future, devices will take advantage of consumer technologies, such as mobile phones, GPS devices. It is important to perform other activities, such as detecting and responding to physical activity in a real time, creating new opportunities in measurement, remote compliance monitoring, data-driven discovery and intervention.

  3. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysia: current trends and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, E-S; Yap, R W K

    2017-07-01

    This review discussed the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Malaysia and the associated major risk factors, namely overweight/obesity, dietary practices and physical activity in both adults and school children. Detailed analyses of such information will provide crucial information for the formulation and implementation of programmes for the control and prevention of T2DM in the country. National studies from 1996-2015, and other recent nation-wide studies were referred to. The current prevalence of DM in 2015 is 17.5%, over double since 1996. Females, older age group, Indians, and urban residents had the highest risk of DM. The combined prevalence of overweight/obesity in 2015 is 47.7% for adults. Adults did not achieve the recommended intakes for majority of the foods groups in the Malaysian Food Pyramid especially fruits and vegetables. Adults also had moderate physical activity level. Three nation-wide studies showed a prevalence ranging from 27 to 31% for combined overweight/obesity in school children. The prevalence was higher among boys, primary school age, Indian ethnicity, and even rural children are not spared. Physical activity level was also low among school children. There must be serious systematic implementation of action plans to combat the high prevalence of diabetes and associated risk factors.

  4. Current Trends in Neuromuscular Blockade, Management, and Monitoring amongst Singaporean Anaesthetists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy H. Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This survey aimed to investigate the attitudes/practice pertaining the use, management, and monitoring of neuromuscular blockade amongst Singaporean anaesthetists. Methods. All specialist accredited anaesthetists registered with the Singapore Medical Council were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. Results. The response rate was 39.5%. Neuromuscular monitoring (NM was used routinely by only 13.1% despite the widespread availability of monitors. 82% stated residual NMB (RNMB was a significant risk factor for patient outcome, but only 24% believed NMB monitoring should be compulsory in all paralyzed patients. 63.6% of anaesthetists estimated the risk of RNMB in their own institutions to be 50% said such benefits may be able to offset the associated costs. Conclusions. There is a significant need for reeducation about RNMB, studies on local RNMB incidences, and strengthening of current monitoring practices and guidelines. Strategies are discussed. As NM monitors appear widely available and reversal of NMB standard practice, it is hopeful that Singaporean anaesthetists will change and strive for evidence-based best clinical practice to enhance patient safety.

  5. Towards the design of 3D multiscale instructive tissue engineering constructs: Current approaches and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sara M; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2015-11-01

    The design of 3D constructs with adequate properties to instruct and guide cells both in vitro and in vivo is one of the major focuses of tissue engineering. Successful tissue regeneration depends on the favorable crosstalk between the supporting structure, the cells and the host tissue so that a balanced matrix production and degradation are achieved. Herein, the major occurring events and players in normal and regenerative tissue are overviewed. These have been inspiring the selection or synthesis of instructive cues to include into the 3D constructs. We further highlight the importance of a multiscale perception of the range of features that can be included on the biomimetic structures. Lastly, we focus on the current and developing tissue-engineering approaches for the preparation of such 3D constructs: top-down, bottom-up and integrative. Bottom-up and integrative approaches present a higher potential for the design of tissue engineering devices with multiscale features and higher biochemical control than top-down strategies, and are the main focus of this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Renewable energy sector development in the Caribbean: Current trends and lessons from history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, Rebekah; Kammen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Island regions and isolated communities represent an understudied area of not only clean energy development but also of innovation. Caribbean states have for some time shown interest in developing a regional sustainable energy policy and in implementing measures which could help to protect its member states from volatile oil markets while promoting reliance on local resources. Here we examine four case studies of renewable energy advancements being made by public utility companies and independent energy companies in the Caribbean. We attempt to locate renewable energy advances in a broader historical framework of energy sector development, indicating a few policy lessons. We find that different degrees of regulatory and legislative sophistication have evolved in different islands. Islands should have specialized policy focus, contrasting the ad-hoc nature of current regional energy policy discussion. We also conduct a cost benefit analysis which shows that these early, innovative alternative energy projects show themselves to be both profitable and significant sources of emissions reduction and job creation. This lends support to the potential benefits of regional energy policy. - Highlights: ► We examine relationships between energy sector players in the Caribbean. ► We conduct a cost benefit analysis of four Caribbean renewable energy projects. ► Results show early, innovative alternative energy projects provide numerous benefits. ► Islands differ greatly in energy industry scale, utility ownership and government involvement. ► We provide subsequent considerations for an enabling regional energy policy framework

  7. Current trends and controversies in the management of patients with splenic flexure tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan DS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There exists a variation in practice in the management of tumours around the splenic flexure. We aim to determine the current opinion regarding the management of these tumours. Methods: An anonymised 10-part online questionnaire was sent to all members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI. Results: The response rate was 24% (111/464 with approximately half of respondents performing laparoscopic surgery. Electively, an extended right hemicolectomy is the preferred option by 63% of respondents followed by left hemicolectomy (23% and segmental resection (14%. The upper sigmoid and rectosigmoid is the preferred site of anastomosis by 90% and 10% of respondents respectively. There were no significant differences in the type of operations performed by surgeons who practice laparoscopic or open surgery (p=0.10. A hand-sewn end-to-end anastomosis is most commonly performed (51% followed by a stapled side-to-side (36% and a stapled end-to-end (13% technique. Extended right hemicolectomy is also the preferred option in obstructing tumours. Of surgeons who perform segmental resections, 27% perform an on-table lavage and 9% perform a defunctioning stoma. Internal herniation following laparoscopic resection was only reported by a handful of surgeons. Conclusion: Opinion and practice in the management of patients with tumours around the splenic flexure are divided. Further trials are indicated to determine the best practice.

  8. [School shootings in Germany: current trends in the prevention of severe, targeted violence in German schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    In March and September 2009 the school shootings in Winnenden and Ansbach once again demonstrated the need for preventive approaches in order to prevent further offences in Germany. Due to the low frequency of such offences and the low specificity of relevant risk factors known so far, prediction and prevention seems difficult though. None the less, several preventive approaches are currently discussed. The present article highlights these approaches and their specific advantages and disadvantages. As school shootings are multicausally determined, approaches focussing only on single aspects (i.e. prohibiting violent computer games or further strengthening gun laws) do not meet requirements. Other measures such as installing technical safety devices or optimizing actions of police and school attendants are supposed to reduce harm in case of emergency. Instead, scientifically founded and promising preventive approaches focus on secondary prevention and for this purpose employ the threat assessment approach, which is widespread within the USA. In this framework, responsible occupational groups such as teachers, school psychologists and police officers are to be trained in identifying students' warning signs, judging danger of these students for self and others in a systematic process and initiating suitable interventions.

  9. Current activities and future trends in reliability analysis and probabilistic safety assessment in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, E.; Toth, J.

    1986-01-01

    In Hungary reliability analysis (RA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants was initiated 3 years ago. First, computer codes for automatic fault tree analysis (CAT, PREP) and numerical evaluation (REMO, KITT1,2) were adapted. Two main case studies - detailed availability/reliability calculation of diesel sets and analysis of safety systems influencing event sequences induced by large LOCA - were performed. Input failure data were taken from publications, a need for failure and reliability data bank was revealed. Current and future activities involves: setup of national data bank for WWER-440 units; full-scope level-I PSA of PAKS NPP in Hungary; operational safety assessment of particular problems at PAKS NPP. In the present article the state of RA and PSA activities in Hungary, as well as the main objectives of ongoing work are described. A need for international cooperation (for unified data collection of WWER-440 units) and for IAEA support (within Interregional Program INT/9/063) is emphasized. (author)

  10. Climate Change Vulnerability and Resilience: Current Status and Trends for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarraran , Maria E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2008-12-30

    Climate change alters different localities on the planet in different ways. The impact on each region depends mainly on the degree of vulnerability that natural ecosystems and human-made infrastructure have to changes in climate and extreme meteorological events, as well as on the coping and adaptation capacity towards new environmental conditions. This study assesses the current resilience of Mexico and Mexican states to such changes, as well as how this resilience will look in the future. In recent studies (Moss et al. 2000, Brenkert and Malone 2005, Malone and Brenket 2008, Ibarrarán et al. 2007), the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicators Model (VRIM) is used to integrate a set of proxy variables that determine the resilience of a region to climate change. Resilience, or the ability of a region to respond to climate variations and natural events that result from climate change, is given by its adaptation and coping capacity and its sensitivity. On the one hand, the sensitivity of a region to climate change is assessed, emphasizing its infrastructure, food security, water resources, and the health of the population and regional ecosystems. On the other hand, coping and adaptation capacity is based on the availability of human resources, economic capacity and environmental capacity.

  11. Current Trends in the Studies of Allelochemicals for Their Application in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsen V.Viter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The allelochemicals have been largely used in agriculture, forestry, landscape design and ornamental plant growing for many decades. However, there is a lack of the comprehensive studies, where existing publications are analyzed and synthesized with regards to the theoretic aspects for such usage. The objective of this paper was to systemize the advances in the research on allelochemicals’ application in practice. Numerous novel methodological propositions have risen recently. We classified them into the physical, chemical, biological, biotechnological and cropgrowing approaches. The allelochemicals consist of the wide diversity of the substances according to their chemical nature. Among these substances we outlined, firstly, the unidentified plant exudates and the products of green manuring, secondly, the chemically characterized or purified substances, which include alcohols, organic acids, aliphatic compounds, aromatic, alicyclic and nitrogen-contain organic compounds. Several groups of the biotic sources of allelochemicals were described: dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, particularly under their colonization by non-pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum, marine flora and fungi, which exhibit the herbicidal activity. Different targets of the allelochemical application were listed in the paper and they were categorized into several groups: higher flora, animals, unicellular and multi-cellular fungi. We concluded that there is lack of the modern multifaceted knowledge bases for the information about the allelochemical application. Those knowledge bases must be useful in order to choose the appropriate biological method for solving each particular problem of plant cultivation. To that end we systemized the results of current investigation about the usage of allelochemicals in practice.

  12. South Asians and risk of cardiovascular disease: current insights and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalmurti, Sandeep S; Paley, Ari; Gany, Francesca; Fisher, Edward A; Hochman, Judith S

    2010-01-01

    Patients from the Indian subcontinent have a distinct cardiovascular risk profile with profound health consequences. South Asians tend to develop more severe coronary artery disease at a younger age, and may also suffer from earlier myocardial infarction and heart failure. The genesis of this risk is multi-factorial. One important culprit is increased insulin resistance, possibly due to recently identified genetic polymorphisms. Another possible explanation is subclinical inflammation and a prothrombotic environment, as evidenced by increased levels of homocysteine, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and fibrinogen. The lipid profile of South Asians may play a role, as this population is known to have elevated levels of lipoprotein (a), as well as lower levels of HDL. In addition, this HDL may be dysfunctional, as this population may have a higher prevalence of low levels of HDL2b, as well as an increased preponderance of smaller HDL. Current guidelines for primary and secondary prevention have not reflected our growing insight into the unique characteristics of the South Asian population, and may need to evolve to reflect our knowledge.

  13. Current advances and trends in electro-Fenton process using heterogeneous catalysts - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza-Nogueiras, Verónica; Rosales, Emilio; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2018-06-01

    Over the last decades, advanced oxidation processes have often been used alone, or combined with other techniques, for remediation of ground and surface water pollutants. The application of heterogeneous catalysis to electrochemical advanced oxidation processes is especially useful due to its efficiency and environmental safety. Among those processes, electro-Fenton stands out as the one in which heterogeneous catalysis has been broadly applied. Thus, this review has introduced an up-to-date collation of the current knowledge of the heterogeneous electro-Fenton process, highlighting recent advances in the use of different catalysts such as iron minerals (pyrite, magnetite or goethite), prepared catalysts by the load of metals in inorganic and organic materials, nanoparticles, and the inclusion of catalysts on the cathode. The effects of physical-chemical parameters as well as the mechanisms involved are critically assessed. Finally, although the utilization of this process to remediation of wastewater overwhelmingly outnumber other utilities, several applications have been described in the context of regeneration of adsorbent or the remediation of soils as clear examples of the feasibility of the electro-Fenton process to solve different environmental problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Current trends and intricacies in the management of HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Narendran; Chandrasekaran, Padmapriyadarsini; Swaminathan, Soumya; Tripathy, Srikanth

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy. Liquid culture methods and nucleic acid amplification tests for TB confirmation have replaced conventional solid media, enabling quicker and simultaneous detection of mycobacterium and its drug sensitivity profile Unique problems posed by the syndemic include Acquired rifampicin resistance, drug-drug interactions, malabsorption of drugs and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome or paradoxical reaction that complicate dual and concomitant therapy. While the antiretroviral therapy armamentarium is constantly reinforced by discovery of newer and safer drugs every year, only a few drugs for anti tuberculosis treatment have successfully emerged. These include bedaquiline, delamanid and pretomanid which have entered phase III B trials and are also available through conditional access national programmes. The current guidelines by WHO to start Antiretroviral therapy irrespective of CD4+ cell count based on benefits cited by recent trials could go a long way in preventing various complications caused by the deadly duo. This review provides a consolidated gist of the advancements, concepts and updates that have emerged in the management of HIV-associated pulmonary TB for maximizing efficacy, offering latest solutions for tackling drug-drug interactions and remedial measures for immune reconstitution inflammatory

  15. Some current trends in nanotechnology, and the significance of apfim in this field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The worldwide interest that is currently being generated by nanotechnology is due to its potentially disruptive nature. In principle, it offers a host of completely new products, for example in the fields of information technology, communication, composite materials, sensors, medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Together with these exciting opportunities, there are also risks, associated in the short term mainly with the possible toxicity of nanoparticles and nanofilaments. In the longer term, a range of other societal and environmental factors need to be taken into account in the development of this technology. These include the potential invasion of privacy that could arise from the widespread introduction of ultra-small sensing and monitoring devices, and the biohazards that could arise if atomic manipulation techniques are used to re-engineer the basic molecules of life. How does the field emission area fit into this overall scene? The answer is that, for the successful commercial development of any technology, there are numerous generic issues that must be addressed. These include measurement, test and inspection of components; product specification and quality control; the development of machine tools for the manufacturing process; and the drawing up of a whole range of design protocols for the development of new devices. Viewed in this context, field emission techniques have a very important role to play in nanotechnology. Because the size of the products is so small, the range of methods available for their production, inspection and testing is limited. Both field electron and field ion emission techniques already play vital roles in nanofabrication. The atom probe technique has a unique contribution to make in the characterization of nanostructures of all kinds. An unexpected, but hugely important, area has arisen as a result of the convergence of three-dimensional atomic scale chemical analysis and three-dimensional atomistic computer

  16. T Helper Cells in the Immunopathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis – Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimirova E.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease characterized by skin and multiorgan involvement with alterations in both the innate and adaptive immunities. The hallmark of the disease is widespread fibrosis engaging the skin and multiple internal organs, as well as the musculoskeletal system. There is mounting evidence that T cells are key players in the pathogenesis of scleroderma. The current review discusses the role of the different T helper (Th lymphocyte subsets in the processes of inflammation and fibrosis, characteristics for the pathogenesis of the disease. Cytokines produced by Th cell populations have a major effect on endothelial cells and fibroblasts in the context of favoring/inhibiting the vasculopathy and the fibrosis spread. The Th2 pro-fibrotic cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 have been shown to induce collagen synthesis by fibroblasts, whereas IFN-γ demonstrates an inhibitory effect. Increased Th17 cells are present in the scleroderma skin infiltrates. The combination of IL-17, IFN-γ and TGF-β levels in CD45RO and CD45RA cells from patients with SSc is useful to distinguish between the limited and the diffuse phenotype of the disease. There are accumulating data for functional and numerical alterations in the Tregs in SSc. High levels of TNF-α which might reduce the suppressive ability of Tregs have been described. According to some studies, the number of Tregs in scleroderma skin biopsies has been decreased against the normal absolute number of Tregs in peripheral blood of the same patients, which suggests suppressed immunomodulatory response. Other studies reported increased frequency of Tregs in peripheral blood of patients with systemic sclerosis and established a correlation with disease activity. The main immunological challenge remains the identification of the trigger of the autoimmune response in SSc, the causes for preferential Th2-type cell responses and the immunological differences between the

  17. Role of biologics and biosimilars in inflammatory bowel disease: current trends and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawla P

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Prashanth Rawla,1 Tagore Sunkara,2 Jeffrey Pradeep Raj3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Memorial Hospital of Martinsville and Henry County, Martinsville, VA, 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Clinical Affiliate of The Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Pharmacology, St John’s Medical College, Bangalore, India Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal system. The spectrum is of predominantly two types, namely, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. The incidence of IBD has been increasing steadily since 1990, and so the number of agents used in their treatment. Biologics that are derived partly or completely from living biological sources such as animals and humans have become widely available, which provide therapeutic benefits to the IBD patients. Currently, monoclonal antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab, and golimumab, integrins (vedolizumab and natalizumab, and interleukin (IL-12 and IL-23 antagonists (ustekinumab are approved for use in IBD. Biosimilars of infliximab and adalimumab are also available for the treatment of IBD. This review summarizes the clinical pharmacology, studies leading to their approval, overall indications and their use in IBD, usage in pregnancy and lactation, and the adverse effects of these agents. This review also summarizes the recent advances and future perspectives specific to biologics and biosimilars in IBD. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, biologics, biosimilars, tumor necrosis factor, integrin, interleukin, adalimumab, Humira®, certolizumab, Cimzia®, golimumab, Simponi®, infliximab, Remicade®, vedolizumab, Entyvio, natalizumab, Tysabri®, ustekinumab, Stelara® 

  18. Shifting perspectives - Planning for the future of the pharmacy profession taking current labor market trends into consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Druedahl, Louise C

    2018-02-17

    The future of the pharmacy profession and concerns about professional identity have been popular and recurring themes in professional journals and at international pharmacy conferences for more than 30 years. The aim of this paper is to contribute to realistic and viable visions for the future of the pharmacy profession via insights through labor market and work organization theories. These insights provide an understanding of contemporary work patterns and what they mean for the future role of community pharmacists. It appears that an important and influential contemporary trend in work organization today is precarious work, i.e. non-standard employment that promotes and relies on a flexible and fluid work force. Contrary to permanent employment, precarious work is often poorly paid, insecure, unprotected, and in many cases cannot support a household. The growth of precarious work among professionals, including pharmacists has been documented in many countries. In the early 21st century a major concern in the UK was the growth in the number of pharmacists who choose to be self-employed "locums" as opposed to seeking permanent employment. With the spread of precarious work a new, involuntary form of employment appeared a decade later with the spread of "zero-hour contracts" and "exclusivity agreements". Particularly affected by these flexible, precarious work conditions are the highly-educated young health professionals such as pharmacists. The profession needs to be proactive in order to stay abreast of economic/workforce and organizational trends. The way forward is a commitment to a dynamic, knowledge-based vision that includes an ongoing analysis of the outside world. The core role of pharmacists in the future includes: 1. engagement in interprofessional education with other healthcare professionals; 2. an acceptance of the contribution that lay knowledge provides to the understanding of health and medicines, and 3.keeping ajour with new and revolutionary

  19. Current Trend of Robotic Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeries in Korea: Analysis of Seven-Year National Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hyun Kang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Robotic surgery is an alternative to minimally invasive surgery. The aim of this study was to report on current trends in robotic thoracic and cardiovascular surgical techniques in Korea. Methods: Data from the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA between January 2006 and June 2012 were used in this study, including a total of 932 cases of robotic surgeries reported to NECA. The annual trends in the case volume, indications for robotic surgery, and distribution by hospitals and surgeons were analyzed in this study. Results: Of the 932 cases, 591 (63% were thoracic operations and 340 (37% were cardiac operations. The case number increased explosively in 2007 and 2008. However, the rate of increase regained a steady state after 2011. The main indications for robotic thoracic surgery were pulmonary disease (n=271, 46%, esophageal disease (n=199, 34%, and mediastinal disease (n=117, 20%. The main indications for robotic cardiac surgery were valvular heart disease (n=228, 67%, atrial septal defect (n=79, 23%, and cardiac myxoma (n=27, 8%. Robotic thoracic and cardiovascular surgeries were performed in 19 hospitals. Three large volume hospitals performed 94% of the case volume of robotic cardiac surgery and 74% of robotic thoracic surgery. Centralization of robotic operation was significantly (p<0.0001 more common in cardiac surgery than in thoracic surgery. A total of 39 surgeons performed robotic surgeries. However, only 27% of cardiac surgeons and 23% of thoracic surgeons performed more than 10 cases of robotic surgery. Conclusion: Trend analysis of robotic and cardiovascular operations demonstrated a gradual increase in the surgical volume in Korea. Meanwhile, centralization of surgical cases toward specific surgeons in specific hospitals was observed.

  20. Spatiotemporal variability and long-term trends of ocean acidification in the California Current System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hauri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to seasonal upwelling, the upper ocean waters of the California Current System (CCS have a naturally low pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag, making this region particularly prone to the effects of ocean acidification. Here, we use the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS to conduct preindustrial and transient (1995–2050 simulations of ocean biogeochemistry in the CCS. The transient simulations were forced with increasing atmospheric pCO2 and increasing oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations at the lateral boundaries, as projected by the NCAR CSM 1.4 model for the IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Our results show a large seasonal variability in pH (range of ~ 0.14 and Ωarag (~ 0.2 for the nearshore areas (50 km from shore. This variability is created by the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. Despite this large variability, we find that present-day pH and Ωarag have already moved outside of their simulated preindustrial variability envelopes (defined by ±1 temporal standard deviation due to the rapidly increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The nearshore surface pH of the northern and central CCS are simulated to move outside of their present-day variability envelopes by the mid-2040s and late 2030s, respectively. This transition may occur even earlier for nearshore surface Ωarag, which is projected to depart from its present-day variability envelope by the early- to mid-2030s. The aragonite saturation horizon of the central CCS is projected to shoal into the upper 75 m within the next 25 yr, causing near-permanent undersaturation in subsurface waters. Due to the model's overestimation of Ωarag, this transition may occur even earlier than simulated by the model. Overall, our study shows that the CCS joins the Arctic and Southern oceans as one of only a few known ocean regions presently approaching the dual threshold of

  1. A cohort cost analysis of lumbar laminectomy--current trends in surgeon and hospital fees distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Camilo A; Zadnik, Patricia L; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Witham, Timothy F; Bydon, Ali; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2013-11-01

    suggest that the current focus on decreasing physician reimbursement as the principal cost saving strategy will lead to minimal reimbursement for surgeons without a substantial drop in the overall cost of procedures performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ovarian preservation in children for adenexal pathology, current trends in laparoscopic management and our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preet Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    follow-up ultrasound, who were found to have normal shape, size and blood flow compared to the contra lateral side. Conclusion: We outline our experience from the management of 46 cases of various ovarian pathologies with and without ischemia and found that ovarian torsion with a benign pathology and ischemia is not a contraindication for ovarian preservation, as pointed out in the current literature.

  3. Current levels and trends of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem components in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Ganzha, Kristina D.; Klenus, Vasiliy G. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Kireev, Sergey I.; Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The current radiation level and its composition in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) are conditioned, above all things, by the amount of radioactive matters released as aerosols on a water surface and adjacent territories during the period of the active phase of the accident from destroyed of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, and also by intensity and duration of the second processes of radionuclides washout from the catchment areas and hydrodynamic processes of their transport outside of water bodies. During last 10-15 years in the soils of the ChEZ the tendency of increase of yield of the mobile bioavailable forms of radionuclides, which released into hydrological systems with surface and ground waters or localized in the closed water systems, where quickly involving in the biotic cycle is marked. On the example of lakes of the Krasnensky flood plain of the Pripyat River, which is one of the most contaminated by radionuclides territory of the ChEZ, was determined that the basic amount of radionuclides in lake ecosystem is deposited in the bottom sediments: {sup 90}Sr - 89-95%, {sup 137}Cs - 99%, transuranium elements (TUE) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am - almost 100% of the total radionuclide amount in ecosystem. The increased migration activity of {sup 90}Sr determines its more high quantity in water (4-10%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.5-0.6%) and TUE (0.03-0.04%) and, opposite, less - in seston (0.15-0.16%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.25-0.30%). The value of {sup 90}Sr in biotic component amounts 0.25-0.61%, {sup 137}Cs - 0.14-0.47% and TUE - 0.07-0.16% of the total quantity in ecosystem. The gradual decline of radionuclide specific activity is a dominant tendency in the dynamics of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in water and aquatic biota of the majority of reservoirs and water flow in the ChEZ. The exception is water bodies, located on the dammed territories of the Krasnensky flood plain, where at the proceeding

  4. On the mechanisms of late 20th century sea-surface temperature trends over the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Kamenkovich, Igor; Hogg, Andrew M.; Peters, John M.

    2011-11-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), with its associated three-dimensional circulation, plays an important role in global climate. This study concentrates on surface signatures of recent climate change in the ACC region and on mechanisms that control this change. Examination of climate model simulations shows that they match the observed late 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) trends averaged over this region quite well, despite underestimating the observed surface-wind increases. Such wind increases, however, are expected to lead to significant cooling of the region, contradicting the observed SST trends. Motivated by recent theories of the ACC response to variable wind and radiative forcing, the authors used two idealized models to assess contributions of various dynamical processes to the SST evolution in the region. In particular, a high-resolution channel model of the ACC responds to increasing winds by net surface ACC warming due to enhanced mesoscale turbulence and associated heat transports in the mixed layer. These fluxes, modeled, in a highly idealized fashion, via increased lateral surface mixing in a coarse-resolution hybrid climate model, substantially offset zonally non-uniform surface cooling due to air-sea flux and Ekman-transport anomalies. These results suggest that the combination of these opposing effects must be accounted for when estimating climate response to any external forcing in the ACC region.

  5. Understanding evapotranspiration trends and their driving mechanisms over the NLDAS domain based on numerical experiments using CLM4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Dana; Wang, Guiling; Fu, Congsheng

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies documented a recent decline of the global terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) trend, of which the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Based on experiments using the Community Land Model version 4.5 driven with the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase-2 (NLDAS-2) forcing data, this study investigates the variation and changes of ET trends at the continental scale and the mechanisms underlying these changes. Simulations are conducted over the NLDAS domain including the contiguous U.S. and part of Mexico for the period of 1980-2014. Changes of ET trend are derived based on the two subperiods 1982-1997 and 1998-2008. The strongest signals of trend change, of either sign, are primarily located in dry regimes, where ET is limited by water rather than energy. Sensitivity experiments were performed to isolate the impact of some of the most influential factors on the changing ET trends. Results indicate that trends in wind speed and surface air temperature had negligible impact on the ET trend and its changes within the study domain, and the ET trend and its changes are dominated by changes in precipitation amount. Changes in precipitation characteristics including the frequency and intensity are suggested to have a secondary effect on the ET trend changes through modifying the partitioning of water between infiltration and runoff. These findings are further supported by correlation coefficients between ET and various driving factors. Results from this study may be region specific and therefore may not hold for ET trend changes over the rest of the globe.

  6. Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between 1982 and 2012 on Rota, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    abundance, including collared kingfisher, island collared-dove, white-throated ground-dove, Mariana fruit-dove, white tern, yellow bittern, black drongo, and Micronesian myzomela; and 3) widespread distribution, high abundance, including rufous fantail and Micronesian starling. The Mariana crow was dispersed around the periphery of the island in steep forested land-cover types. In contrast, the Rota white-eye was restricted to the high-elevation mesa. Only for the white-throated ground-dove was there a significant difference among cover types, with lower occupancy in open field than in forested areas. Vegetation was included in the best-fit occupancy models for yellow bittern, black drongo, Micronesian myzomela, and Micronesian starling, but vegetation type was not a significant variable nor included in the top models for the remaining five species: white tern, island collared-dove, Mariana fruit-dove, collared kingfisher, and rufous fantail. Given declining population trends, the Rota bird-monitoring program could benefit from establishing threshold and alert limits and identifying alternative research and management actions. Continued monitoring and demographic sampling, in conjunction with ecological studies, are needed to understand why most bird species on Rota are declining, identify the causative agents, and assess effectiveness of conservation actions, especially for the Mariana crow.

  7. The outcomes of complementary and alternative medicine use among pregnant and birthing women: current trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Amie; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David; Broom, Alex

    2015-06-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is used by a substantial number of pregnant women and maternity care providers are often faced with the task of ensuring women are using safe and effective treatments while respecting a woman's right to autonomous decision-making. In the era of evidence-based medicine maternity health professionals are expected to draw upon the best available evidence when making clinical decisions and providing health advice. This review will outline the current trends in research evidence associated with the outcomes of complementary and alternative medicine use amongst pregnant and birthing women as well as highlight some potential directions for future development in this important yet largely unknown topic in contemporary maternity care.

  8. Recent trends and current practices for secondary processing of zinc and lead. Part II: zinc recovery from secondary sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kamala Kanta; Agrawal, Archana; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2004-08-01

    Almost all metallurgical processes are associated with the generation of wastes and residues that may be hazardous or non-hazardous in nature depending upon the criteria specified by institutions such as the US Environment Protection Agency, etc. Wastes containing heavy and toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, copper, mercury, zinc, etc., that are present beyond permissible limits deemed to be treated or disposed of, and non-hazardous wastes can be utilized for metal recovery or safe disposal. Zinc is in growing demand all over the world. In India, a major amount of zinc is imported and therefore processing of zinc secondaries will assist in satisfying the gap between demand and supply to some extent. This report mainly focuses on the current practices and recent trends on the secondary processing of zinc. Attempts made by various laboratories to develop ecofriendly processes for the recovery of zinc from secondary raw materials are also described and discussed.

  9. The neurologist’s dilemma: A comprehensive clinical review of Bell’s palsy, with emphasis on current management trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandian, Anthony; Osiro, Stephen; Hudson, Ryan; Ali, Irfan M.; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, Shane R.; Loukas, Marios

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in Bell’s palsy (BP) were reviewed to assess the current trends in its management and prognosis. Material/Methods We retrieved the literature on BP using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Key words and phrases used during the search included ‘Bell’s palsy’, ‘Bell’s phenomenon’, ‘facial palsy’, and ‘idiopathic facial paralysis’. Emphasis was placed on articles and randomized controlled trails (RCTs) published within the last 5 years. Results BP is currently considered the leading disorder affecting the facial nerve. The literature is replete with theories of its etiology, but the reactivation of herpes simplex virus isoform 1 (HSV-1) and/or herpes zoster virus (HZV) from the geniculate ganglia is now the most strongly suspected cause. Despite the advancements in neuroimaging techniques, the diagnosis of BP remains one of exclusion. In addition, most patients with BP recover spontaneously within 3 weeks. Conclusions Corticosteroids are currently the drug of choice when medical therapy is needed. Antivirals, in contrast, are not superior to placebo according to most reliable studies. At the time of publication, there is no consensus as to the benefit of acupuncture or surgical decompression of the facial nerve. Long-term therapeutic agents and adjuvant medications for BP are necessary due to recurrence and intractable cases. In the future, large RCTs will be required to determine whether BP is associated with an increased risk of stroke. PMID:24441932

  10. Declining groundwater level caused by irrigation to row crops in the Lower Mississippi River Basin, Current Situation and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Gao, F.; Ouyang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Mississippi River is North America's largest river and the second largest watershed in the world. It flows over 3,700 km through America's heartland to the Gulf of Mexico. Over 3 million hectares in the Lower Mississippi River Basin represent irrigated cropland and 90 percent of those lands currently rely on the groundwater supply. The primary crops grown in this region are soybean, corn, cotton, and rice. Increased water withdrawals for irrigating those crops and stagnant recharging jeopardize the long-term availability of the aquifer and place irrigation agriculture in the region on an unsustainable path. The objectives of this study were to: 1) analyze the current groundwater level in the Lower Mississippi River Basin based on the water table depth observed by Yazoo Mississippi Delta Joint Water Management District from 2000 and 2016; 2) determine trends of change in groundwater level under conventional and groundwater saving irrigation management practices (ET or soil moisture based full irrigation scheduling using all groundwater or different percentages of ground and surface water). The coupled SWAT and MODFLOW model was applied to investigate the trends. Observed results showed that the groundwater level has declined from 33 to 26 m at an annual decrease rate of 0.4 m in the past 17 years. Simulated results revealed that the groundwater storage was decreased by 26 cm/month due to irrigation in crop season. It is promising that the groundwater storage was increased by 23 cm/month, sometimes even 60 cm/month in crop off-growing season because of recharge from rainfall. Our results suggest that alternative ET or soil moisture based groundwater saving irrigation scheduling with conjunctive use of surface water is a sustainable practice for irrigated agriculture in in the Lower Mississippi River Basin.

  11. Chrono-nutrition: a review of current evidence from observational studies on global trends in time-of-day of energy intake and its association with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoosawi, S; Vingeliene, S; Karagounis, L G; Pot, G K

    2016-11-01

    The importance of the circadian rhythm in regulating human food intake behaviour and metabolism has long been recognised. However, little is known as to how energy intake is distributed over the day in existing populations, and its potential association with obesity. The present review describes global trends in time-of-day of energy intake in the general population based on data from cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal cohorts. Evidence of the association between time-of-day of energy intake and obesity is also summarised. Overall, there were a limited number of cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal cohorts that provided data on time-of-day of energy intake. In the identified studies, a wide variation in time-of-day of energy intake was observed, with patterns of energy distribution varying greatly by country and geographical area. In relation to obesity, eight cross-sectional surveys and two longitudinal cohorts were identified. The association between time-of-day of energy intake and obesity varied widely, with several studies reporting a positive link between evening energy intake and obesity. In conclusion, the current review summarises global trends in time-of-day of energy intake. The large variations across countries and global regions could have important implications to health, emphasising the need to understand the socio-environmental factors guiding such differences in eating patterns. Evidence of the association between time-of-day of energy intake and BMI also varied. Further larger scale collaborations between various countries and regions are needed to sum data from existing surveys and cohorts, and guide our understanding of the role of chrono-nutrition in health.

  12. CURRENT TRENDS IN HRM

    OpenAIRE

    Otilia ALBU; Lucia MOROŞAN-DĂNILĂ

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this article is to establish the importance of human resource management (HRM) and how it emerged, to provide some evidence of its context, to discuss its potential and future development. Many specialists underlined the fact that human resource requires more attention and careful management then any other resource of an organization. The role of the HR manager must parallel the needs of the changing organization. Successful organizations are becoming more adaptable, resilient, qu...

  13. Social behavior in the "Age of Empathy"?-A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the "social brain" that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what "social" means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what "social" means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the "social." The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.

  14. Invasive alien plants and water resources in South Africa: current understanding, predictive ability and research challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gorgens, AHM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available were made by combining the results of hydrological experiments, conducted to assess the effects of afforestation with alien trees on water resources, with an ecological understanding of the spread and establishment of invasive trees. The forecasts were...

  15. Plastic surgery: quo vadis? Current trends and future projections of aesthetic plastic surgical procedures in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, P Niclas; Levine, Steven M; Juran, Sabrina

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this article was to evaluate past and current trends regarding aesthetic operations in the United States and to project future changes regarding such procedures. Cosmetic surgery statistics from the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery from 1997 to 2012 were analyzed by sex, age, and ethnic group. Then, using population projections from the U.S. Census Bureau based on the 2010 census, two projection scenarios of the expected number of aesthetic plastic surgery procedures were generated. The scenarios included the presumed occurrence and nonoccurrence of a recession like that which occurred in 2007. Aesthetic procedures are expected to grow from 1,688,694 in 2012 to 3,847,929 by 2030, representing an average annual growth rate of 7.1 percent. Should another recession of similar degree to the one in 2007 occur, procedures would increase to only 2,086,994, displaying an average annual growth percentage rate of 1.3 percent. Because the age distribution of the patient population will change, preferences for specific procedures according to age influence-and thus are reflected in-future demand for those procedures. Furthermore, the ethnic profile of patients will change significantly, with 32 percent of all procedures being performed on patients other than Caucasians by 2030. Demand for aesthetic plastic surgical procedures is expected to continue to grow, while depending on the economic performance at the macro level and changing demographic dynamics of the U.S. population. Considering all investigated factors and trends among all patients, the most commonly requested procedures by 2030 are likely to be (1) breast augmentations, (2) lipoplasties, and (3) blepharoplasties.

  16. Unit mechanisms of fission gas release: Current understanding and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, Michael; Andersson, David; Devanathan, Ram; Dubourg, Roland; El-Azab, Anter; Freyss, Michel; Iglesias, Fernando; Kulacsy, Katalin; Pastore, Giovanni; Phillpot, Simon R.; Welland, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Gaseous fission product transport and release has a large impact on fuel performance, degrading fuel and gap properties. While gaseous fission product behavior has been investigated with bulk reactor experiments and simplified analytical models, recent improvements in experimental and modeling approaches at the atomistic and mesoscales are beginning to reveal new understanding of the unit mechanisms that define fission product behavior. Here, existing research on the basic mechanisms of fission gas release during normal reactor operation are summarized and critical areas where work is needed are identified. This basic understanding of the fission gas behavior mechanisms has the potential to revolutionize our ability to predict fission product behavior and to design fuels with improved performance. In addition, this work can serve as a model on how a coupled experimental and modeling approach can be applied to understand the unit mechanisms behind other critical behaviors in reactor materials.

  17. The role of history in understanding current South African attitudes to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Current understanding of microplastics in the environment: Occurrence, fate, risks, and what we should do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinping; Wang, Jundong; Cai, Liqi

    2017-05-01

    Microplastics pollution has been documented in the global environment, including at sea, in freshwater and in atmospheric fallout. Ingestion of microplastics by multiple kinds of organisms has been reported and has received increasing attention, because microplastics not only act as a source of toxic chemicals but also a sink for toxic chemicals. To better understand the great concerns about microplastics and associated toxic chemicals potential exposed to the organisms ingesting the debris, we should know more about the occurrence, fate, and risks of microplastics in the environment. What we should do depends on this better understanding. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:476-482. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Current Understanding of the Pathophysiology of Myocardial Fibrosis and Its Quantitative Assessment in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial fibrosis is an important part of cardiac remodeling that leads to heart failure and death. Myocardial fibrosis results from increased myofibroblast activity and excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Various cells and molecules are involved in this process, providing targets for potential drug therapies. Currently, the main detection methods of myocardial fibrosis rely on serum markers, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and endomyocardial biopsy. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, quantitative assessment, and novel therapeutic strategies of myocardial fibrosis.

  20. Understanding Trends in Catalytic Activity: The Effect of Adsorbate-Adsorbate Interactions for CO Oxidation Over Transition Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabow, Lars; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2010-01-01

    Using high temperature CO oxidation as the example, trends in the reactivity of transition metals are discussed on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Volcano type relations between the catalytic rate and adsorption energies of important intermediates are introduced...... and the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on the trends is discussed. We find that adsorbate-adsorbate interactions significantly increase the activity of strong binding metals (left side of the volcano) but the interactions do not change the relative activity of different metals and have a very small...... influence on the position of the top of the volcano, that is, on which metal is the best catalyst....