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Sample records for understand basic terminology

  1. Risk terminology primer: Basic principles and a glossary for the wildland fire management community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Tom Zimmerman; Dan Mindar; Mary Taber

    2016-01-01

    Risk management is being increasingly promoted as an appropriate method for addressing wildland fire management challenges. However, a lack of a common understanding of risk concepts and terminology is hindering effective application. In response, this General Technical Report provides a set of clear, consistent, understandable, and usable definitions for terms...

  2. Terminologías consensuadas en Terapia Ocupacional: marco para el entendimiento = Occupational Therapy consensus terminology: framwork to understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brea Rivero, Miguel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizaciones de terapia ocupacional de diversa naturaleza y origen han intentado a lo largo del pasado encontrar uniformidad al lenguaje profesional empleado por todos los terapeutas ocupacionales sobre el planeta. El éxito es altamente cuestionable, tomando en consideración que el procedimiento para alcanzar esta uniformidad se ha centrado fundamentalmente en la mera traducción lingüística de textos o términos sin atender a la gran diversidad conceptual, cultural y contextual, entre los países del universo que conforma la terapia ocupacional. El resultado final ha mostrado un uso parcial y sectorial de esa terminología uniforme. Con el mismo propósito pero mediante un enfoque muy diverso, un grupo de trabajo constituido por miembros de diferentes países europeos ha promovido, en el ámbito de la Red Europea de Terapia Ocupacional en Educación Superior (European Network of Occupational Therapy in Higher Education, ENOTHE en sus siglas en inglés y para el resto del documento una nueva metodología para alcanzar el fin perseguido. El énfasis se ha puesto en el concepto que subyace más allá del término y no en la mera traducción de la palabra.De igual modo, se ha considerado la diversidad cultural entre países y su variedad en el desarrollo disciplinar, y se ha tomado toda la literatura internacional como punto de referencia con el fin de realizar una búsqueda apropiada del término adecuado a cada caso. El resultado final se traduce en la producción de una base de datos que muestra definiciones consensuadas de términos considerados esenciales en terapia ocupacional. La conclusión más relevante que se puede extraer es que el uso uniforme de nuestro lenguaje profesional es posible, incluso más allá de nuestras fronteras, en la medida que seamos capaces de consensuar las raíces profundas de cada término empleado, esto es, su concepto, y no apliquemos la traducción fácil de la palabra y sin razonamiento previo. Este art

  3. What is in a name? Understanding the implications of participant terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibace, Roger; Clegg, Joshua W; Valsiner, Jaan

    2009-03-01

    The authors discuss the history of research terminology in American psychology with respect to the various labels given to those upon whom we conduct research ("observer"-"subject"-"participant"-"client"). This history is supplemented with an analysis of participant terminology in APA manuals from four historical eras, from the 1950s to the present. The general trend in participant terminology reflects the overall trends in American psychology, beginning with a complex lexicon that admitted both the passive and the active research participant, followed by a dominance of the passive term 'subject' and ending with the terminological ambiguity and multiplicity reflected in contemporary psychology. This selective history serves to contextualize a discussion of the meaning, functions, and implications of the transformations in, and debates over, participant terminology.

  4. Understanding digital marketing basics and actions

    OpenAIRE

    Piñeiro Otero, Teresa; Martínez Rolán, Luis Xabier

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a technical outline of the basics of online mar- keting. The outline includes an introduction to digital marketing and strategic planning and development. Our contribution offers theoretical and practical insights relative to this growing marketing area, with information on the main areas for which online marketing is particularly suited: (1) the E-commerce section explores different business models and what techniques are used for their development; (2) Web Search Marke...

  5. The error of representation: basic understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hodyss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Representation error arises from the inability of the forecast model to accurately simulate the climatology of the truth. We present a rigorous framework for understanding this kind of error of representation. This framework shows that the lack of an inverse in the relationship between the true climatology (true attractor and the forecast climatology (forecast attractor leads to the error of representation. A new gain matrix for the data assimilation problem is derived that illustrates the proper approaches one may take to perform Bayesian data assimilation when the observations are of states on one attractor but the forecast model resides on another. This new data assimilation algorithm is the optimal scheme for the situation where the distributions on the true attractor and the forecast attractors are separately Gaussian, and there exists a linear map between them. The results of this theory are illustrated in a simple Gaussian multivariate model.

  6. Understanding what asthma plans mean: a linguistic analysis of terminology used in published texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Nicola; Pinnock, Hilary; Wilson, Caroline; Hoskins, Gaylor; Jepson, Ruth; Wyke, Sally; Sheikh, Aziz

    2011-06-01

    To identify from the literature what terms are used for 'asthma plans', with what meaning, and in what context(s). Linguistic analysis of a selected body of asthma literature from 1989-2009. A wide range of asthma plan terminology was evident, with terms such as 'action plans', 'self-management plans' and 'treatment plans' being applied inconsistently and synonymously. For individual patients the term 'asthma plan' can describe a clinically-determined list of prescribed medication, an agreed plan to guide self-management of changing symptoms, or a more holistic 'living with asthma' plan. In some contexts the term 'asthma plan' was also used to describe an organisational system of care, which causes further ambiguity. Within the literature, a plethora of terms is used inconsistently and with varied meaning. This is a potential, but previously unrecognised, barrier to asthma plan implementation. A taxonomy of asthma plans and a standardised definitions of terms is required.

  7. Beyond teaching language: Towards terminological primacy in learners’ geometric conceptualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey U. Atebe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a specific aspect of a broader geometry conceptualisation study that sought to explore and explicate learners’ knowledge of basic geometric terminology in selected Nigerian and South African high schools. It is framed by the notion that students’ acquisition of the correct terminology in school geometry is important for their success in the subject. The original study further aimed to determine the relationship that might exist between a learner’s ability in verbal geometry terminology tasks and his/her ability in visual geometry terminology tasks. A total of 144 learners (72 each from South Africa and Nigeria were selected for the study, using both the stratified and the fish‐bowl sampling techniques. A questionnaire consisting of a sixty‐item multiple‐choice objective test provided the data for the study. An overall percentage mean score of 44,17% obtained in the test indicated that learners in this study had only a limited knowledge of basic geometric terminology. The Nigerian subsample in the study had a weaker understanding of basic geometric terminology than their South African counterparts. Importantly, there were high positive correlations between participants’ ability in verbal geometry terminology tasks and their ability in visual geometry terminology tasks. These results are consistent with those of several earlier studies, and provide a reasonably firm basis for certain recommendations to be made.

  8. Secondary Students' Understanding of Basic Ideas of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Kyriaki; Halkia, Krystallia

    2012-01-01

    A major topic that has marked "modern physics" is the theory of special relativity (TSR). The present work focuses on the possibility of teaching the basic ideas of the TSR to students at the upper secondary level in such a way that they are able to understand and learn the ideas. Its aim is to investigate students' learning processes towards the…

  9. Understanding the History of Astrology Accurately: Methodological Reflections on Terminology and Anachronism

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkin, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I will use two of Roger Bacon’s distinctive phrases—astronomia iudiciaria et operativa and opera et verba sapientium—to build up a picture of his distinctive configuration of the 13thcentury map of knowledge, in which mathematics, perspectiva and astrology are all utterly central. I will then explore how astrology thus configured may be used to explore Bacon’s relation to what we call science, magic and religion, although he often understands ...

  10. Pediatric Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) works with NCI Enterprise Vocabulary Services (EVS) to provide standardized terminology for coding pediatric clinical trials and other research activities.

  11. ''Hazardous'' terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

  12. Basic understanding of the lanthanide related upconversion emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2013-06-01

    With abundant energy levels of 4f electron configurations, trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+) are endowed with unique and fascinating luminescent properties. Inheriting the native transition behaviour of the lanthanide ions, Ln3+ based nanomaterials have aroused great interest for a wide range of applications, including lighting and displays, optical fibers and amplifiers, responsive luminescent stains for biomedical analysis, in vivo and in vitro imaging, and enhancement for silicon solar cell devices. It should be noted that the application depends completely on the corresponding luminescent behaviour. To deepen the understanding of the luminescent mechanism is important for the developing of the field and the design of new Ln3+ based luminescent materials toward applications. In this review, we focused mainly on the recent developments on upconversion (UC) emission studies. Firstly, the emphasis was put on the introduction of basic luminescent properties of Ln3+ with f-f transitions, and then the corresponding mechanisms and properties of UC emission were discussed in detail, the potential researches with respect to UC mechanisms and properties were finally outlined.

  13. Assessing fundamental 2-dimensional understanding of basic soft tissue techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Noel; Dobratz, Eric J; Dresner, Harley S; Hilger, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    To develop a written practical examination and scoring system for assessing trainee skills in basic soft-tissue techniques. A brief written practical examination was developed to assess the ability of trainees to sketch preoperative plans and postoperative results for common soft-tissue techniques: simple-excision, M-plasty, geometric broken line closure, Z-plasty, V-to-Y flap, and rhombic flap. A scoring system was developed to assign 0 to 5 points to each of 10 items on the examination for a total score of 0-50. The 15-minute examination was administered as a pretest, posttest, and 3-month posttest assessment as part of a soft-tissue course at our institution. University of Minnesota, Otolaryngology Department. Three raters reviewed all examination answer sheets independently. The pretest scores of examinees correlated strongly with their level of training; the average pretest for junior residents (PGY 1-2) compared with senior residents (PGY 4-5) was 17.3 (of 50) versus 26.0 (p skills of trainees accurately in basic soft tissue techniques and to expose areas of deficiency that can be addressed in future training sessions. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sport supporting act: terminology issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The text deals with terminology issues from an interdisciplinary point of view. It is based on two different disciplines, law and kinanthropology, in an area of their overlap. AIM: The aim of the author is to point out some possible legislative problems, which could arise due to the current reading of the sport supporting act (Act no. 115/2001. The second aim of the author is to contribute to the discussion of kinantropologists (possibly also the educational researchers and lawyers and to stress the importance of the systematic approach to terminology formulation. METHODS: The author uses the method of language interpretation. We also use the basic analytical methods, induction and deduction, while we stress the systematic approach to the term formulation. RESULTS: The analysis of the sport supporting act terminology shows some specific legislative problems, which could arise due to the definition of sport in the sport supporting act. The author discusses a possible alternative solution. CONCLUSION: According to the opinion of the author, clear, obvious and unified terminology of kinantropologists as specialists in their discipline should represent a source, from which other sciences could derive their terminology. Defined and inexpert terminology used in other disciplines should not be used as an argument for its adopting in kinanthropology.

  15. Understanding the basic biology underlying the flavor world of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. MENNELLA, Alison K. VENTURA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health organizations worldwide recommend that adults and children minimize intakes of excess energy and salty, sweet, and fatty foods (all of which are highly preferred tastes and eat diets richer in whole grains, low- and non- fat dairy products, legumes, fish, lean meat, fruits, and vegetables (many of which taste bitter. Despite such recommendations and the well-established benefits of these foods to human health, adults are not complying, nor are their children. A primary reason for this difficulty is the remarkably potent rewarding properties of the tastes and flavors of foods high in sweetness, saltiness, and fatness. While we cannot easily change children’s basic ingrained biology of liking sweets and avoiding bitterness, we can modulate their flavor preferences by providing early exposure, starting in utero, to a wide variety of flavors within healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Because the flavors of foods mothers eat during pregnancy and lactation also flavor amniotic fluid and breast milk and become preferred by infants, pregnant and lactating women should widen their food choices to include as many flavorful and healthy foods as possible. These experiences, combined with repeated exposure to nutritious foods and flavor variety during the weaning period and beyond, should maximize the chances that children will select and enjoy a healthier diet [Current Zoology 56 (6: 834–841, 2010].

  16. Understanding posterior meniscal roots lesions: from basic science to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Serra Cruz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The variability of symptoms and the fact that they are not easily recognized in imaging studies make the diagnosis and treatment of posterior meniscal roots lesions a challenging task to the orthopedist. In recent years, a more precise understanding of the anatomy and biomechanical impair of the knee joint in these cases has enabled great advances in therapeutic approaches. Well-documented studies have shown that the repair of these lesions presents superior functional and clinical improvement when compared with meniscectomy. However, the progression of degenerative joint changes in the long-term still exhibits conflicting results.

  17. Conceptual metaphors in computer networking terminology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) is used as a basic framework for analysing and explaining the occurrence of metaphor in the terminology used by computer networking professionals in the information technology (IT) industry. An analysis of linguistic ...

  18. FCI experiments and analysis. Contributions to basic understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Cho, D.; Magallon, D.; Basu, S.

    1998-01-01

    Past safety analyses considered the hazard from vapor explosions in a conservative manner where engineering judgement and conservative analyses were used to estimate the likelihood of nuclear reactor containment failure from explosion-induced missile generation (alpha-mode failure). However, recent safety analyses may require less conservative methods to determine the hazard from vapor explosions; thus, one may need to consider more detailed scaling of vapor explosion energetics, considering fuel-coolant mixing and explosion propagation. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission is supporting a coordinated set of experiments to address this issue, given a lack of appropriate benchmark data and associated analyses. These experiments, KROTOS, WFCI and ZrEX are mutually complimentary and provide the first consistent set of data for FCI phenomena under controlled conditions for a wide range of simulant materials that approximate the fuel melt. The scaling logic for these tests is that essentially one-dimensional geometry with rigid constraints would maximize the explosion energetics for a given set of mixing conditions. Thus, only variations in the axial boundary conditions and fuel-coolant initial conditions (mass, composition and temperatures) can affect the mixing and energetics. Our hypothesis is that clear limits to energetics below thermodynamic values can be identified for these high temperature fuel melts along with fundamental understanding, which can aid in issue resolution. (author)

  19. A structural equation modeling analysis of students' understanding in basic mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktavia, Rini; Arif, Salmawaty; Ferdhiana, Ridha; Yuni, Syarifah Meurah; Ihsan, Mahyus

    2017-11-01

    This research, in general, aims to identify incoming students' understanding and misconceptions of several basic concepts in mathematics. The participants of this study are the 2015 incoming students of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science of Syiah Kuala University, Indonesia. Using an instrument that were developed based on some anecdotal and empirical evidences on students' misconceptions, a survey involving 325 participants was administered and several quantitative and qualitative analysis of the survey data were conducted. In this article, we discuss the confirmatory factor analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) on factors that determine the new students' overall understanding of basic mathematics. The results showed that students' understanding on algebra, arithmetic, and geometry were significant predictors for their overall understanding of basic mathematics. This result supported that arithmetic and algebra are not the only predictors of students' understanding of basic mathematics.

  20. Understanding of biofuels. An overview on a labyrinth of terminology; Biokraftstoffe verstehen. Ein Ueberblick ueber einen Begriffsdschungel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Georg [ForschungsNetzwerk Biogene Kraftstoffe (ForNeBiK), Straubing (Germany); Maierhofer, Hubert [Centrales Agrar- Rohstoff- Marketing- und Entwicklungs-Netwerk - C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V., Straubing (Germany). Abt. Biogas/Biokraftstoffe

    2012-07-01

    Biomethane, Bio-Natural Gas, Biogas or Power-to-Gas? For several types of bio- and renewable fuels do a variety of terms exist. Therefore, it is not only preserved for experts but also increasingly difficult for the general public to keep track of different types of terms. This fact leads to an additional uncertainty in a topic that is contro-versial from the beginning (Food-fuel discussion, E10-Chaos). At least since the so-called ''renewable substitutes for gasoline'' the clutter of terms is obvious. Above all, the customer is not taken this long and left in uncertainty. But without taking along the customers, it will almost be impossible to place new types of fuels in the market in future. The times where gasoline and diesel were solid ''alone'' at fuel stations are passed long ago and the offer of new fuels is almost growing day by day. The aim therefore already has to be, to take along the customers with terms, which are unmistakable and easily to understand including related public relations for the changing situations for the terms of fuels. (orig.)

  1. E-terminology*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: This article addresses computer applications in terminology and terminography. Terminologists aim at creating ... engineering, machine translation, multilingual markets in education, business, science and technology. At present ..... management paved the way for mobile terminology. It is already possible for.

  2. Can an Understanding of Basic Research Facilitate the Effectiveness of Practitioners? Reflections and Personal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    I have written before about the importance of applied behavior analysis to basic researchers. That relationship is, however, reciprocal; it is also critical for practitioners to understand and even to participate in basic research. Although applied problems are rarely the same as those investigated in the laboratory, practitioners who understand…

  3. The Changes in Architecture Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Tran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this research is to inspire a discussion about the changes in architecture terminologywith the revolution in communication and representation forms as a result of digitalisation.The blurred boundary between the virtual and the analogue worlds, the misunderstandings andthe confusion that appear with the interaction of these two worlds nowadays form the major problems facing architectural design, education and research. The researchers in this field arefocused on the interface, the meeting and the transformation point between the digital and analogue worlds in order to prevent those problems and confusions. One of the main reasonsof this ambiguity is the architectural terminology that changes according to the changing status of architectural representation i.e. new forms of representation; new forms of communicationi.e. the new role of the architect and the researcher.Whenever and wherever information and knowledge specialised is created, communicated ortransformed terminology is involved in a way or another. An absence of terminology is combined with an absence of an understanding of concepts. Therefore with the new information and communication technologies; new and developing subject areas the existence of terminology and its update is indispensable. Thus the changing status of the terminology must be analysed. As architecture terminology is essential to improve today’s challenging, multidisciplinary communication in order to clarify the problems of ambiguity and unawareness (as a result of shift of specific architectural vocabulary it is necessary to analyse the changes in the architectural terminology which will form the discussion point of the following paper.As this paper is the beginning step of a research project which started on the occasion of the conference proposed by EAAE/ARCC we will here present only the objectives of this research,its general problematics, the methods that we wish to develop and some provisional

  4. The basics of information security understanding the fundamentals of InfoSec in theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Andress, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Syngress Basics series, The Basics of Information Security provides you with fundamental knowledge of information security in both theoretical and practical aspects. Author Jason Andress gives you the basic knowledge needed to understand the key concepts of confidentiality, integrity, and availability, and then dives into practical applications of these ideas in the areas of operational, physical, network, application, and operating system security. The Basics of Information Security gives you clear-non-technical explanations of how infosec works and how to apply these princi

  5. Embarrassment as a key to understanding cultural differences. Basic principles of cultural analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    1995-01-01

    I introduce here the principles I use in my investigation of intercultural marketing and management. I explain how I discovered them, and show how they spring from a theoretical understanding of the dynamic of cultural differences. One of the basic methodological principles for my analysis...

  6. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration – or mer...

  7. BASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    BPP. Tilgangen består dels af den overordnede proces-model BASIC og dels af et iboende framework, ABCD, der er en model for systematisk adfærdsanalyse, udvikling, test og implementering af adfærdsrettede løsningskoncepter. Den samlede model gør det muligt for forskere såvel som offentligt ansatte...

  8. The basics of cloud computing understanding the fundamentals of cloud computing in theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rountree, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Syngress Basics series, The Basics of Cloud Computing provides readers with an overview of the cloud and how to implement cloud computing in their organizations. Cloud computing continues to grow in popularity, and while many people hear the term and use it in conversation, many are confused by it or unaware of what it really means. This book helps readers understand what the cloud is and how to work with it, even if it isn't a part of their day-to-day responsibility. Authors Derrick Rountree and Ileana Castrillo explains the concepts of cloud computing in prac

  9. Understanding Basic Temporal Relations in Primary School Pupils with Hearing Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulcić, Adinda; Bakota, Koraljka; Saler, Zrinka

    2015-09-01

    Time can be observed as a subjective, as well as an objective phenomenon which is a component of our life, and due to its communicational needs, it is standardized by temporal signs and symbols. The aim of this study was to determine the understanding of basic temporal relations of pupils with hearing impairments. We assumed that the knowledge of basic time relations is a precondition for the acquisition of knowledge that is connected with the understanding of the syllabus in regular school programs. Three groups of pupils have been examined: pupils with hearing impairments who attend the primary school of SUVAG Polyclinic under special condition, integrated hearing impaired pupils with minor additional difficulties who attend regular primary schools in Zagreb with a prolonged expert procedure and pupils of the control group. The subjects have been examined with a measuring instrument constructed by the expert team of the Polyclinic Suvag. Twenty nine subjects have been questioned, chronologically aged between 10 and 12.

  10. A bridge too far: from basic exposure to understanding in artistic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    In the context of a broad welcome to Bullot & Reber's (B&R's) proposals concerning the incorporation of contextual awareness into the study of the psychology of art appreciation, I raise two concerns. First, the proposal makes no allowance for degrees of relevance of contextual awareness to appreciation. Second, the authors assume that "basic exposure" and "artistic understanding" can be maintained as separate phases or modes, but this may be more problematic than anticipated.

  11. Phenomenographic study of basic science understanding-senior medical students' conceptions of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Håkan; Wirell, Staffan; Ledin, Torbjörn; Josephson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Helping students learn to apply their newly learned basic science knowledge to clinical situations is a long-standing challenge for medical educators. This study aims to describe how medical students' knowledge of the basic sciences is construed toward the end of their medical curriculum, focusing on how senior medical students explain the physiology of a given scenario. Methods A group of final-year medical students from two universities was investigated. Interviews were performed and phenomenographic analysis was used to interpret students' understanding of the physiology underlying the onset of fatigue in an individual on an exercise bicycle. Three categories of description depict the qualitatively different ways the students conceptualized fatigue. A first category depicts well integrated physiological and bio-chemical knowledge characterized by equilibrium and causality. The second category contains conceptions of finite amount of substrate and juxtaposition of physiological concepts that are not fully integrated. The third category exhibits a fragmented understanding of disparate sections of knowledge without integration of basic science and clinical knowledge. Distinctive conceptions of fatigue based with varying completeness of students' understanding characterized the three identified categories. The students' conceptions of fatigue were based on varying understanding of how organ systems relate and of the thresholds that determine physiological processes. Medical instruction should focus on making governing steps in biological processes clear and providing opportunity for causal explanations of clinical scenarios containing bio-chemical as well as clinical knowledge. This augments earlier findings by adding descriptions in terms of the subject matter studied about how basic science is applied by students in clinical settings.

  12. Federal Medication Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Medication (FedMed) collaboration of 8 partner agencies agreed on a set of standard, comprehensive, freely and easily accessible FMT terminologies to improve the exchange and public availability of medication information.

  13. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  14. terminology development at tertiary institutions: a south african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the language(s) of choice, the principle of having a shared language of learning ... and for the subject and language in question. When terminology is developed, one should adhere to basic terminologi- cal principles: — A concept is denoted by means ..... macy, law, journalism and media studies, education and psychology.

  15. Molecular biology - Part I: Techniques, terminology, and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J. Martin

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: One of the barriers to understanding modern molecular biology is the lack of a clear understanding of the relevant terminology, techniques, and concepts. This refresher course is intended to address these deficiencies starting from a basic level. The lecture will cover many of the common uses of recombinant DNA, including gene cloning and manipulation. The goal is to enable the nonspecialist to increase his or her understanding of molecular biology in order to more fully enjoy reading current publications and/or listening seminars. Radiation biologists trying to understand a little more molecular biology should also benefit. The following concepts will be among those explained and illustrated: restriction endonucleases, gel electrophoresis, gene cloning, use of vectors such as plasmids, bacteriophage, cosmids and viruses, cDNA and genomic libraries, Southern, Northern, and Western blotting, fluorescent in situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), gel retardation, and reporter gene assays

  16. Microscopic dynamics in simple liquids: a clue to understanding the basic thermodynamics of the liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillo, C; Bermejo, F J; Maira-Vidal, A; Fernandez-Perea, R; Bennington, S M; Martin, D

    2004-01-01

    The advent of inelastic x-ray scattering techniques has prompted a reawakened interest in the dynamics of simple liquids. Such studies are often carried out using simplified models to account for the stochastic dynamics that give rise to quasielastic scattering. The vibrational and diffusive dynamics of molten potassium are studied here by an experiment using neutron scattering and are shown to provide some clues to understand the basic thermodynamics of the liquid state. The findings reported here suggest ways in which the true complementarity of neutron and x-ray scattering may be profitably exploited

  17. Anatomical terminology in Ophthalmology

    OpenAIRE

    Abib, Fernando César; Oréfice, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é informar à classe oftalmológica a existência da edição em língua portuguesa da Terminologia Anatômica Internacional, editada pela Federation Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT). No Brasil a Terminologia Anatômica Internacional é traduzida pela Comissão de Terminologia Anatômica (CTA) da Sociedade Brasileira de Anatomia (SBA).The purpose of this article is inform ophthalmologists of the International Anatomical Terminology in the Portuguese language edited by t...

  18. Morphing Terminology Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Hart, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Calapristi, Augustin J.

    2010-06-28

    This study investigates methods of automatically identifying and characterizing significant transitions in term usage over time. Within scientific literature, the occurrence of terms reflects the use of technologies and techniques as well as the study of specific species and materials. Transitions in terminology usage may be a result of vocabulary standardization or specialization in which terms are replaced with their shorter form. They may also be a result of new applications, combinations, alternatives, or interests that result in the appearance of new or existing terminology in unexpected contexts.

  19. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  20. Approximating terminological queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Current proposals for languages to encode terminological knowledge in intelligent systems support logical reasoning for answering user queries about objects and classes. An application of these languages on the World Wide Web, however, is hampered by the limitations of logical reasoning in terms

  1. Terminology in the Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Pop art seems to be a more prevalent term in Sweden, whereas in Denmark the dominant term was minimalism. However, some of the problems of developing a terminology and agreeing on a description of the new art movements in the 1960s seem to exist in the American context as well....

  2. Terminology in South Africa*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tenninology of any subject field (physics, mathematics, biology .... tree umthi umuthi isihlahla setlhare mohlare sefate muri murhi. Dimensions of terminology: Relation between object, concept, definition and term. R eprod u ced by Sa bin ..... only) organisation in South Africa which devotes its time entirely to terminol-.

  3. Reconciliation of ontology and terminology to cope with linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Robert H; Ceusters, Werner; Ruch, Patrick; Rassinoux, Anne-Marie; Lovis, Christian; Geissbühler, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    To discuss the relationships between ontologies, terminologies and language in the context of Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications in order to show the negative consequences of confusing them. The viewpoints of the terminologist and (computational) linguist are developed separately, and then compared, leading to the presentation of reconciliation among these points of view, with consideration of the role of the ontologist. In order to encourage appropriate usage of terminologies, guidelines are presented advocating the simultaneous publication of pragmatic vocabularies supported by terminological material based on adequate ontological analysis. Ontologies, terminologies and natural languages each have their own purpose. Ontologies support machine understanding, natural languages support human communication, and terminologies should form the bridge between them. Therefore, future terminology standards should be based on sound ontology and do justice to the diversities in natural languages. Moreover, they should support local vocabularies, in order to be easily adaptable to local needs and practices.

  4. Understanding sport continuation: an integration of the theories of planned behaviour and basic psychological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Fostering individuals' long-term participation in activities that promote positive development such as organised sport is an important agenda for research and practice. We integrated the theories of planned behaviour (TPB) and basic psychological needs (BPN) to identify factors associated with young adults' continuation in organised sport over a 12-month period. Prospective study, including an online psycho-social assessment at Time 1 and an assessment of continuation in sport approximately 12 months later. Participants (N=292) aged between 17 and 21 years (M=18.03; SD=1.29) completed an online survey assessing the theories of planned behaviour and basic psychological needs constructs. Bayesian structural equation modelling (BSEM) was employed to test the hypothesised theoretical sequence, using informative priors for structural relations based on empirical and theoretical expectations. The analyses revealed support for the robustness of the hypothesised theoretical model in terms of the pattern of relations as well as the direction and strength of associations among the constructs derived from quantitative summaries of existing research and theoretical expectations. The satisfaction of basic psychological needs was associated with more positive attitudes, higher levels of perceived behavioural control, and more favourable subjective norms; positive attitudes and perceived behavioural control were associated with higher behavioural intentions; and both intentions and perceived behavioural control predicted sport continuation. This study demonstrated the utility of Bayesian structural equation modelling for testing the robustness of an integrated theoretical model, which is informed by empirical evidence from meta-analyses and theoretical expectations, for understanding sport continuation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THE TERMINOLOGY OF LIBRARY SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Љиљана Матић

    2014-01-01

    The master’s thesis entitled The Terminology of Library Science presents the general state of the terminology of library science in the Serbian language and analyses the terminological system which was formed in the last couple of decades in relation to library and information science. The terminology of library science is seen as a characteristic of professional language. The research is conducted on a corpus which excludes sources relating extremely to either library science or information ...

  6. Training programming: revisiting terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário C. Marques

    2017-11-01

    widely defined or justified in literature. In fact, these terms have caused confusion in the day-to-day training and in the academic community, arising many different visions about the same term. By instance, we can assume that a macro cycle can have duration of 4, 6, 8, 12 weeks or even a year. Nevertheless, the problem of training programming lies not in the way how the training period is called, but in its real meaning, that is, the way of organizing and monitoring the training load in order to reach the best physical shape, and if that is possible, within the defined deadline. In connection with the above, it would be even more inappropriate to use the ATR terminology (accumulation, transformation and realization or the terms “integrated” or “concentrated” related to the training cycle because they lead many trainers to put these in practice, misleading them to think they are making a good planning. To the best of our knowledge, we do not know any study analyzing or providing scientific evidences that allow us to know with precision what, how and when the athletes concretely accumulate, transform and realize a set of physical and physiological strength or endurance variables, or any other motor skills, during training period. Thus, these terms never should be used because they are false, add nothing new to training process and are inappropriate to denominate biological processes, types of training or effects of such training programs. In fact, the aim of all training sessions is (or should be to accumulate, transform (or rather, transfer and realize continuously training stimuli that allows improve the physical performance of athletes. For these reasons, it is meaningless to say about a physical capacity that it is firstly accumulated, then it is transformed (or transferred and finally it is realized.  Only an atrocious ignorance of the basic physiological fundamentals of adaptation, and goals and principles of training, could originate such a misconception

  7. The Electron Runaround: Understanding Electric Circuit Basics Through a Classroom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-05-01

    Several misconceptions abound among college students taking their first general physics course, and to some extent pre-engineering physics students, regarding the physics and applications of electric circuits. Analogies used in textbooks, such as those that liken an electric circuit to a piped closed loop of water driven by a water pump, do not completely resolve these misconceptions. Mazur and Knight,2 in particular, separately note that such misconceptions include the notion that electric current on either side of a light bulb in a circuit can be different. Other difficulties and confusions involve understanding why the current in a parallel circuit exceeds the current in a series circuit with the same components, and include the role of the battery (where students may assume wrongly that a dry cell battery is a fixed-current rather than a fixed-voltage device). A simple classroom activity that students can play as a game can resolve these misconceptions, providing an intellectual as well as a hands-on understanding. This paper describes the "Electron Runaround," first developed by the author to teach extremely bright 8-year-old home-schooled children the basics of electric circuits and subsequently altered (according to the required level of instruction) and used for various college physics courses.

  8. Calibration of personal dosimeters: Quantities and terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleinikov, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    The numerical results obtained in the interpretation of individual monitoring of external radiation depend not only on the accurate calibration of the radiation measurement instruments involved, but also on the definition of the quantities in term of which these instruments are calibrated The absence of uniformity in terminology not only makes it difficult to understand properly the scientific and technical literature but can also lead to incorrect interpretation of particular concepts and recommendations. In this paper, brief consideration is given to definition of radiation quantities and terminology used in calibration procedures. (author)

  9. Fascia: an illustrative problem in international terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell-Smith, C P

    1997-01-01

    As a result of international nomenclatures being in Latin, with the terms usually being undefined and translated into national vernacular languages, the same terms have been used in different ways in different countries. Fascia is an example of this, the limits of the meaning of the word differing in English-, French- and German-speaking countries. These differences are itemized in a comparative table. In 1989 the General Assembly of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists [IFAA] created the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology [FCAT] with a remit to create a new terminology for the anatomical sciences with full democratic consultation with the member societies of IFAA. The draft recommendations of FCAT on fascia and the reasons for them are given. Problems associated with the use, or lack of use, of international terminologies are illustrated. For the advancement of medical knowledge and understanding, the cooperation of authors, editors and publishers in using the current terminology in the right way remains of critical importance. It is suggested that, after adopting a terminology, IFAA has a responsibility to arrange for technical back-up.

  10. Investigating AI with BASIC and Logo: Helping the Computer to Understand INPUTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Alan; Lucking, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Investigates using the microcomputer to develop a sentence parser to simulate intelligent conversation used in artificial intelligence applications. Compares the ability of LOGO and BASIC for this use. Lists and critiques several LOGO and BASIC parser programs. (MVL)

  11. Understanding the complexities of functional ability in Alzheimer's disease: more than just basic and instrumental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Coley, Nicola; Lepage, Benoit; Cantet, Christelle; Vellas, Bruno; Andrieu, Sandrine

    2014-05-01

    Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (AD) is defined by both cognitive and functional decline; new criteria allow for identification of milder, non-functionally impaired patients. Understanding loss of autonomy in AD is essential, as later stages represent a significant burden and cost to patients, their families, and society. The purpose of the present analyses was to determine the factor structure of the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS-ADL) in a cohort of AD patients. Baseline ADCS-ADL assessments of 734 AD patients from the PLASA study were included in an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Because the ADCS-ADL was designed to assess change over time, change from baseline scores over 2 years were also analyzed using an EFA. Factorial solutions were evaluated based on cross-loading, non-loadings, and number of items per factor. Mean age at baseline was 79.3, mean MMSE was 19.8 and 73.3% of participants were female. Baseline data suggested a 4-factor solution that included factors for basic ADLs (BADLs), domestic/household activities, communication/engagement with the environment, and outside activities. The change scores EFA suggested a 2-factor solution of BADLs and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). Distinct factors of IADLs should be considered for further validation as areas of attention to catch early functional decline.

  12. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  13. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  14. Mistakes in the usage of anatomical terminology in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2009-06-01

    Anatomical terminology serves as a basic communication tool in all the medical fields. Therefore Latin anatomical nomenclature has been repetitively issued and revised from 1895 (Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica) until 1998, when the last version was approved and published as the Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology) by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. A brief history of the terminology and nomenclature development is mentioned, along with the concept and contributions of the Terminologia Anatomica including the employed abbreviations. Examples of obsolete anatomical terms and their current synonyms are listed. Clinicians entered the process of the nomenclature revision and this aspect is demonstrated with several examples of terms used in clinical fields only, some already incorporated in the Terminologia Anatomica and a few obsolete terms still alive in non-theoretical communication. Frequent mistakes in grammar and orthography are stated as well. Authors of the article strongly recommend the use of the recent revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature both in theoretical and clinical medicine.

  15. Terminology for Achilles tendon related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. N.; van Sterkenburg, M. N.; Wiegerinck, J. I.; Karlsson, J.; Maffulli, N.

    2011-01-01

    The terminology of Achilles tendon pathology has become inconsistent and confusing throughout the years. For proper research, assessment and treatment, a uniform and clear terminology is necessary. A new terminology is proposed; the definitions hereof encompass the anatomic location, symptoms,

  16. Understanding the Magic of the Bicycle; Basic scientific explanations to the two-wheeler's mysterious and fascinating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph W.

    The bicycle is a common, yet unique mechanical contraption in our world. In spite of this, the bike's physical and mechanical principles are understood by a select few. You do not have to be a genius to join this small group of people who understand the physics of cycling. This is your guide to fundamental principles (such as Newton's laws) and the book provides intuitive, basic explanations for the bicycle's behaviour. Each concept is introduced and illustrated with simple, everyday examples. Although cycling is viewed by most as a fun activity, and almost everyone acquires the basic skills at a young age, few understand the laws of nature that give magic to the ride. This is a closer look at some of these fun, exhilarating, and magical aspects of cycling. In the reading, you will also understand other physical principles such as motion, force, energy, power, heat, and temperature.

  17. Developing Conceptual Understanding of Natural Selection: The Role of Interest, Efficacy, and Basic Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Pugh, Kevin J.; Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in high school students' (n = 94) conceptions of natural selection were examined as a function of motivational beliefs (individual interest, academic self-efficacy), basic prior knowledge, and gender across three assessments (pre, post, follow-up). Results from variable-centered analyses suggested that these variables had relatively little…

  18. INIS: Terminology charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-08-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the INIS Reference Series. It is to be used in conjunction with the INIS indexing manual and the INIS thesaurus for the preparation of input to the INIS database. The thesaurus and terminology charts in their first edition (Rev.0) were produced as the result of an agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Except for minor changes the terminology and the interrelationships between terms are those of the December 1969 edition of the Euratom Thesaurus. The purpose of the terminology harts is to display the descriptors of the thesaurus in the context of their hierarchical and other semantic relationships. Hierarchically related terms are grouped in clusters, each representing one of the principal concepts of a subject field. The descriptors are grouped around or under the broadest term of the clusters which is printed in upper case. The hierarchical relationships within the clusters are shown by the arrangement of the terms in smaller boxes within the larger boxes circumscribing the clusters. The clusters are connected by lines of various thickness, representing the other (mostly non-hierarchical) relationships. These connections are the equivalent to 'see also' and 'related term' cross-references. The thickness of the lines represents the strength of the semantic relations, or, in the practice of a retrieval system the probability that one term replacing a connected term in a query, will still yield pertinent references. The figures accompanying the descriptors represent their frequency of assignment to the first 987,000 documents stored in the Euratom system (May 1970). They are presented in order to show the relative importance of the descriptors within the subject field. The asterisks (*) accompanying descriptors in the charts refer to descriptors, for which a scope note can be found in the INIS: Thesaurus at the time the charts went

  19. Comments on the Terminology of "Convectively-Coupled Kelvin Waves"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Winston C.

    2006-01-01

    The terminology "convectively-coupled Kelvin waves" has been used frequently in the literature to refer to the 15 m/s eastward-moving planetary and large-scale waves in the tropics. This note points out that this terminology is not appropriate, since these waves contain Rossby waves and mixed Rossby-gravity waves also. The significance of pointing out this misnomer is that a better understanding of these waves may contribute to the search for their cause.

  20. Harmonizing intelligence terminologies in business: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivave Mashingaidze

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this article is to do a literature review of different intelligence terminology with the aim of establishing the common attributes and differences, and to propose a universal and comprehensive definition of intelligence for common understanding amongst users. The findings showed that Competitive Intelligence has the broadest scope of intelligence activities covering the whole external operating environment of the company and targeting all levels of decision-making for instance; strategic intelligence, tactical intelligence and operative intelligence. Another terminology was found called Cyber IntelligenceTM which encompasses competitor intelligence, strategic intelligence, market intelligence and counterintelligence. In conclusion although CI has the broadest scope of intelligence and umbrella to many intelligence concepts, still Business Intelligence, and Corporate Intelligence are often used interchangeably as CI

  1. SUDS, LID, BMPs, WSUD and more - The evolution and application of terminology surrounding urban drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Tim D.; Shuster, William; Hunt, William F.

    2015-01-01

    understandings of the principles that are applied locally to address specific problems. Despite the understandable desire to have a 'uniform set of terminology', such a concept is flawed, ignoring the fact that terms reflect locally shared understanding. The local development of terminology thus has an important...

  2. Technical Translation and Industrial Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longyka, Tomaz

    1973-01-01

    Paper presented at the symposium on The Importance and Problems of Translation in Sciences, Technology, and Economic Life.'' in Ohrid, Yugoslavia. Argues for the adoption of artificial languages as an international terminological means in science and technology. (RS)

  3. Nuclear terminology during forty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1994-04-01

    In Sweden terminology work in the field of nuclear technology started in the early 1950s. Three dictionaries were completed in 1962, 1975 and 1990, respectively, mainly through cooperation between Swedish Mechanical Standards Institution (SMS) and Swedish Centre for Technical Terminology (TNC). In parallel to this, international work has been performed through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). In conclusion, problems concerning some special terms are discussed. 17 refs

  4. Group word terms in the terminology of the theory of mechanics in Albanian and English

    OpenAIRE

    GANI PLLANA; SADETE PLLANA

    2013-01-01

    As it is known, the terminology of any knowledge field as an independent system, as well as the terminology of mechanics consisting of nominating one-word and group word units (among which, particularly the latter phrase terms) make up nearly 70-80% of the overall terminological vocabulary. Looking at it from this point of view, all monosyllabic (one word) terms (word terms) would also be accepted as a basic vocabulary in the terminology of mechanics. This can be justified more so by the fact...

  5. Terminology Management at the National Language Service

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through the use of correct, standard- ised terminology, effective scientific and technical communication skills are developed. A brief overview is given of terminology development in South Africa, with special emphasis on the work of the Terminology Division of the National Language Service. Aspects of present terminology.

  6. Terminology in South Africa | Alberts | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals with terminology and terminography in South Africa. It gives the different meanings attached to the term terminology and describes points of difference between terminology and terminography. It focuses on the dimensions of terminology, namely the cognitive, linguistic and communicative dimension.

  7. Palynology, nomenclature and terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, Frans A.

    Some of the basic concepts common to plant taxonomy, palaeobotany and palynology are discussed such as “taxon”, “taxonomic categories”, “genus and species concepts”, as well as “organ and form genera”. The development of the specifically palaeobotanical and palynological concepts of organ and form

  8. High School Students' Proficiency and Confidence Levels in Displaying Their Understanding of Basic Electrolysis Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Ding Teng; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with 330 Form 4 (grade 10) students (aged 15-16 years) who were involved in a course of instruction on electrolysis concepts. The main purposes of this study were (1) to assess high school chemistry students' understanding of 19 major principles of electrolysis using a recently developed 2-tier multiple-choice diagnostic…

  9. Reno-endocrinal disorders: A basic understanding of the molecular genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful management of endocrine diseases is greatly helped by the complete understanding of the underlying pathology. The knowledge about the molecular genetics contributes immensely in the appropriate identification of the causative factors of the diseases and their subsequent management. The fields of nephrology and endocrinology are also interrelated to a large extent. Besides performing the secretory functions, the renal tissue also acts as target organ for many hormones such as antidiuretic hormone (ADH, atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP, and aldosterone. Understanding the molecular genetics of these hormones is important because the therapeutic interventions in many of these conditions is related to shared renal and endocrine functions, including the anemia of renal disease, chronic kidney disease, mineral bone disorders, and hypertension related to chronic kidney disease. Their understanding and in-depth knowledge is very essential in designing and formulating the therapeutic plans and innovating new management strategies. However, we still have to go a long way in order to completely understand the various confounding causative relationships between the pathology and disease of these reno-endocrinal manifestations.

  10. Understanding the interactions of oleic acid with basic drugs in solid lipids on different biopharmaceutical levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Zdravka Misic; Dubravka Šišak Jung; Georg Sydow; Martin Kuentz

    2016-01-01

    There has recently been increasing interest in understanding the impact of intestinal supersaturation on the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. Focus has been mostly on the effect of excipients on maintaining drug supersaturation. The aim of the this study was to explore the effects of drug-excipient interactions of an anhydrous formulation, when dispersed in simple buffer media and, in particular, focusing on precipitation kinetics. A solid lipid-based formulation comprising of PEG-32...

  11. Unification of Sinonasal Anatomical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voegels, Richard Louis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of endoscopy and computed tomography at the beginning of the 1980s brought to rhinology a revival of anatomy and physiology study. In 1994, the International Conference of Sinus Disease was conceived because the official “Terminologia Anatomica”[1] had little information on the detailed sinonasal anatomy. In addition, there was a lack of uniformity of terminology and definitions. After 20 years, a new conference has been held. The need to use the same terminology led to the publication by the European Society of Rhinology of the “European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses,” that can be accessed freely at www.rhinologyjournal.com. Professor Valerie Lund et al[2] wrote this document reviewing the anatomical terms, comparing to the “Terminology Anatomica” official order to define the structures without eponyms, while respecting the embryological development and especially universalizing and simplifying the terms. A must-read! The text's purpose lies beyond the review of anatomical terminology to universalize the language used to refer to structures of the nasal and paranasal cavities. Information about the anatomy, based on extensive review of the current literature, is arranged in just over 50 pages, which are direct and to the point. The publication may be pleasant reading for learners and teachers of rhinology. This text can be a starting point and enables searching the universal terminology used in Brazil, seeking to converge with this new European proposal for a nomenclature to help us communicate with our peers in Brazil and the rest of the world. The original text of the European Society of Rhinology provides English terms that avoided the use of Latin, and thus fall beyond several national personal translations. It would be admirable if we created our own cross-cultural adaptation of this new suggested anatomical terminology.

  12. Terminology versus action (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I have heard it said, as many of us have, that evidence based library and information practice is an area dominated and led by librarians in the health sciences. It is a logical leap to say that medical librarians may be more familiar with the evidence based model of practice because of their need to be familiar, on some level, with evidence based medicine. The idea of making a decision based on the appropriate evidence is as familiar to a medical librarianas is how to effectively search PubMed. How pervasive is the influence of the medical profession on this area? Being a librarian looking for quick information, I turned to Google. The results on the first two pages from a Google search for evidence based practice are 100% health/medicine related. Being a good librarian, I refined my search to see how the results would differ, and I added the term library to the search. This time there were 75% health/medicine results and 5% representing evidence based library and information practice (eblip. Note that a high percentage of the health/medicine hits were library webpages on evidence based medicine. Being an obsessive‐compulsive librarian, I changed my search strategy again by replacing library with librarianship. This time there were 30% health/medicine results and 65% eblip. A final search for evidence based information had this journal as the top hit. Being a busy librarian with a lot of work to do, I stopped right there. OK, so the terminology appears to point strongly in one direction and weighs heavily on the health sciences penetration. Let’s leave terminology aside for a moment and look at action. Since Evidence Based Library and Information Practice is the first journal on this topic, the list of contributors and their backgrounds should give an indication on whether or not there is a concentration of medical librarians. Approximately two thirds of the articles that we have published are non‐health/medicine related. Only 29% of our

  13. Collections for terminology in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-08-01

    This book describes terminology in chemistry, which is divided into seven chapters. The contents of this book are element name, names of an inorganic compound such as ion and radical and polyacid, an organic compound on general principle and names, general terminology 1 and 2, unit and description method on summary, unit and the symbol for unit, number and pH, Korean mark for people's name in chemistry, names of JUPAC organic compound of summary, hydrocarbons, fused polycyclic hydrocarbons, bridged hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons with side chains, terpenes hydrocarbons, fundamental heterocyclic systems and heterocyclic spiro compounds.

  14. User Experimentation with Terminological Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pram Nielsen, Louise

    This paper outlines work-in-progress research suggesting that domain-specific knowledge in terminological resources can be transferred efficiently to end-users across different levels of expertise and by means of different information modes including articles (written mode) and concept diagrams...... (graph mode). An experimental approach is applied in an eye-tracking laboratory, where a natural user situation is replicated for Danish professional potential end-users of a ter-minology and knowledge bank in a chosen pilot domain (taxation)....

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ...

  16. Suggestions for a consistent terminology for seismic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crampin, S. (British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (UK))

    1989-10-01

    Seismic anisotropy is an unfamiliar concept to many geophysicists and the use of misleading and ambiguous terminology has made it more difficult to understand. The author suggests here a consistent terminology in which simple expressions have specific meanings similar to their colloquial meanings. It is hoped that the use of such language will help to make the increasing number of papers reporting seismic anisotropy more readily comprehensible to the non-specialist. This is a list of terms which may make anisotropy easier to understand for those familiar with wave propagation in isotropic solids.

  17. Eucharistic Hospitality : Reconsidering the Terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casadei, Giulia; Wouda, Fokke

    2016-01-01

    Giulia Casadei MA and Fokke Wouda MA work on PhD projects about Eucharistic sharing in ecumenical relations; a pressing, yet controversial topic in Roman Catholic ecumenical engagement. As they both encounter questions concerning the terminology of this field, they decided on writing an article

  18. Intellectualization through Terminology Development | Khumalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article will propose an improved model to cater for AnyTime Access, which is convenient for student needs between lec-tures, and improve the harvesting mechanism in the existing model. Keywords: Intellectualization, Terminology Development, Harvesting, Crowdsourcing, Consultation, Verification, Authentication, ...

  19. IBE Glossary of Curriculum Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNESCO International Bureau of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The International Bureau of Education (IBE) has compiled a "Glossary of Curriculum Terminology" offering definitions for over 180 terms related to the curriculum. It is also intended to be a working reference tool for specialists, educators and practitioners, and therefore feedback and suggestions are invited to help us to continue to…

  20. INTERVIEW: Knowledge and Terminology Management at Crisplant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe H.; Toft, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    for the past 20 years. Today, term bases are used not just for terminology-oriented term management. Recording other types of master data needed by all kinds of professionals in the enterprise is equally important. Within the past year, Crisplant has been acquired by the German BEUMER group, which means......Margrethe H. Møller interviews Lisbeth Kjeldgaard Almsten (translator/coauthor: Birthe Toft) “If you think that terminology work is simply a matter of buying terminology management software and getting started, you are in for trouble” At Crisplant, we have been doing terminology management...... that the terminological resources of the two enterprises are in the process of being integrated. The challenges presented by this process demonstrate the importance of adhering to terminological principles when recording terminology resources, while at the same time reminding us what an essential discipline terminology...

  1. Terminology access methods leveraging LDAP resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2004-01-01

    Health terminologies have become more complex, more massive, and more ubiquitous in the modern healthcare enterprise. Present technology makes the use of these terminologies by humans, unaided by machines, virtually impossible. However, system and message interoperability can be severely compromised if the software services deploying terminology content and interfaces are themselves non-standard. We review some characteristics for good terminology services and introduce an open-source, robust, widely deployed and widely available software resource to underpin terminology service implementations. The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, or LDAP, is compared with alternative technologies. We describe a reference implementation of terminology services built around the HL7 Common Terminology Services using LDAP methods. We propose that LDAP is well suited as a common platform for federated, synchronized, and algorithmically distributed terminology content from multiple sources.

  2. Anorectal nomenclature: fundamental terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell-Smith, C P

    2000-10-01

    There is lack of agreement on the definitions of the anal canal and its parts. To facilitate mutual understanding and communication between workers, it is highly desirable that a set of agreed-upon definitions be developed. The development of the different definitions and their purposes is followed and they are analyzed. As a basis for discussion, a possible revised entry for the next edition of Terminologia Anatomica is presented. Draft definitions of the terms in the entry are provided. Practitioners are invited to become involved in the process of developing agreement on definitions by providing comments and criticism.

  3. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recall dreams in black and white. top The Role of Genes and Neurotransmitters Chemical signals to sleep ... do something else, like reading or listening to music, until you feel tired. See a doctor if ...

  4. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient Fact Sheets and ... for Reproductive Medicine. All Rights Reserved. ASRM Non Discrimination Policy ASRM Web Site Terms & Conditions of Use

  5. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE ...

  6. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RESOURCES Overview Infographic Gallery Educational Videos State Infertility Insurance Laws Protect Your Fertility Campaign Choosing Wisely Find ... Endowment © 1996 - 2018 ASRM, American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All Rights Reserved. ASRM Non Discrimination Policy ASRM ...

  7. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  8. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  9. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  10. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications ... of the links in the navigation bar. FAQs Reproductive Health Topics News and Publications Resources About ASRM ...

  11. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ... Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient Fact Sheets ...

  12. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient ...

  13. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview ... Protect Your Fertility Campaign Choosing Wisely Find a Health Professional ABOUT ASRM Vision of ASRM ASRM's Mission ...

  14. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and ... Page not found! Please click on one of the links in the navigation bar. FAQs Reproductive Health ...

  15. Does your organization use gender inclusive forms? Nurses' confusion about trans* terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabez, Rebecca; Pellegrini, Marion; Mankovitz, Andrea; Eliason, Mickey; Scott, Megan

    2015-11-01

    To describe nurses confusion around trans* terminology and to provide a lesson in Trans* 101 for readers. Of the estimated 9 million persons in the United States of America who are identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender, about 950,000 (0.2-0.5% of adult population) are identified as trans* (a term that encompasses the spectrum, including transgender, transsexual, trans man, trans woman and other terms). The Institute of Medicine (2011, The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC) identified transgender persons as an understudied population with significant need for health research, yet the nursing literature contains little guidance for educating nurses on trans* issues. This is a mixed methods structured interview design with nurse key informants. The scripted interview was based on the Health Care Equality Index, which evaluates patient-centred care to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender patients and families. These data were part of a larger research study that explored the current state of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender-sensitive nursing practice. Undergraduate nursing students recruited and interviewed 268 nurse key informants about gender inclusive forms (capable of identifying trans* patients) at their agencies. Only 5% reported use of gender inclusive forms, 44% did not know about inclusive forms, 37% did not understand what a gender inclusive form was and 14% confused gender with sexual orientation. The study demonstrated a critical need for education in gender identity and sexual orientation terminology. The lack of understanding of concepts and terminology may affect basic care of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender patients especially those who identify as transgender. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal marrow: Basic understanding of the normal marrow pattern and its variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab; Eid, Ahmed Fathi

    2015-01-01

    For now, magnetic resonance (MR) is the best noninvasive imaging modality to evaluate vertebral bone marrow thanks to its inherent soft-tissue contrast and non-ionizing nature. A daily challenging scenario for every radiologist interpreting MR of the vertebral column is discerning the diseased from normal marrow. This requires the radiologist to be acquainted with the used MR techniques to judge the spinal marrow as well as its normal MR variants. Conventional sequences used basically to image marrow include T1W, fat-suppressed T2W and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging provides gross morphological data. Interestingly, using non-routine MR sequences; such as opposed phase, diffusion weighted, MR spectroscopy and contrasted-enhanced imaging; may elucidate the nature of bone marrow heterogeneities; by inferring cellular and chemical composition; and adding new functional prospects. Recalling the normal composition of bone marrow elements and the physiologic processes of spinal marrow conversion and reconversion eases basic understanding of spinal marrow imaging. Additionally, orientation with some common variants seen during spinal marrow MR imaging as hemangiomas and bone islands is a must. Moreover, awareness of the age-associated bone marrow changes as well as changes accompanying different variations of the subject’s health state is essential for radiologists to avoid overrating normal MR marrow patterns as pathologic states and metigate unnecessary further work-up. PMID:26753060

  17. Standard terminology relating to nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This terminology standard contains terms, definitions, descriptions of terms, nomenclature, and explanations of acronyms and symbols specifically associated with standards under the jurisdiction of Committee C26 on Nuclear Fuel Cycle. This terminology may also be applicable to documents not under the jurisdiction of Committee C26, in which case this terminology may be referenced in those documents.

  18. Legal terminology in African languages | Alberts | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals with the project on legal terminology in the African languages. It focuses on terminology aspects relating to the coining of terms for the legal profession. Terminology development in South Africa has been hampered by a number of sociolinguistic factors. During recent years South Africa has seen ...

  19. Terminology Management at the National Language Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Terminology is a strategic resource in a multilingual country. It is the medium through which knowledge and information is disseminated. lhrough the use of correct, standardised terminology, effective scientific and technical communication skills are developed. A brief overview is given of terminology development in South Africa, with special emphasis on the work of the Terminology Division of the National Language Service. Aspects of present terminology practice such as terminology management, the nature of terminology and terminography, and work-flow procedure in a multilingual terminology office receive attention. To present training activities, initiatives and needs attention is also given.

    Keywords: BILINGUAL, COMMUNICATION SKILLS, DISSEMINATION, DOCUMENTATION, DOMAIN, MULTILINGUAL, SOCIOLINGUISTICS, SOURCE LANGUAGE, STANDARDISATION, STANDARDISED TERMINOLOGY, SUBJECT FIELD, TARGET LANGUAGE, TECHNICAL DICTIONARIES, TECHNICAL LANGUAGE, TERMINOGRAPHER, TERMINOGRAPHY, TERMINOLOGIST, TERMINOLOGY, TERMINOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, TERMINOLOGY MANAGEMENT, TERMINOLOGY PRACTICE, TERMINOLOGY PRINCIPLES, TERMINOLOGY TRAINING

    Opsomming: Terminologiebestuur by die NasionaleTaaldiens. Tenninologieis'n strategiese bron in 'n meertalige land. Dit is die medium waardeur kennis en inligting veispreiword. Deur die gebruik van korrekte, gestandaardiseerde terrninologie kan eflektiewe wetenskaplikeen tegnologiese kommunikasievermoens ontwikkel word. 'n Kort oorsig word gegee van terminologieontwikkelingin Suid-Afrika, met spesiale klem op die werk van die Terminologieafdelingvan die Nasionale Taaldiens. Aspekte van die huidige terminologiepraktyk soas tenninologiebestuur,die aard van terminologie en terminografie en die werksvloeiprosedure in 'nmeertalige terminologiekantoor ontvang aandag. Aan huidige opleidingsaktiwiteite, -inisiatieween-behoeftes word ook aandag gegee.

    Sleutelwoorde: BRONTAAL, DISSEMINERING, DOELTAAL, DOKUMENTASIE

  20. PROTEGE as a vehicle for developing medical terminological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Hanna, A.; Cornet, R.; de Keizer, N.; Crubezy, M.; Tu, S.

    2005-01-01

    A medical terminological system (TS) is essentially an ontology consisting of concepts, attributes and relationships pertaining to medical terms. There are many TSs around today, most of which are essentially frame-based. Various efforts have been made to get a better understanding of the

  1. Managing terminology assets in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kelly; Schneider, Sue; Scichilone, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Electronic Health Record (EHR)systems rely on standard terminologies and classification systems that require both Information Technology (IT) and Information Management (IM) skills. Convergence of perspectives is necessary for effective terminology asset management including evaluation for use, maintenance and intersection with software applications. Multiple terminologies are necessary for patient care communication and data capture within EHRs and other information management tasks. Terminology asset management encompasses workflow and operational context as well as IT specifications and software application run time requirements. This paper identifies the tasks, skills and collaboration of IM and IT approaches for terminology asset management.

  2. The Open Terminology Services (OTS) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbrig, Harold R; Armbrust, Daniel C; Chute, Christopher G

    2003-01-01

    The Open Terminology Services (OTS) project provides a common, well-specified mechanism to access terminological content in a vendor and platform neutral fashion. The project includes a freely available API specification and an open source reference implementation. The API specification derives from the OMG Lexicon Query Services interface specification as a foundation and defines mechanisms for browsing, querying and import terminological content. The Java-based reference implementation uses the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for a back end, and provides a mechanism to query and distribute heterogeneous terminological content using a common format. The project includes the CTS (Central Terminology Services) subset under HL7.

  3. Radon: a problem of terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, D.; Demongeot, S.

    1995-01-01

    Here are detailed the difficulties to speak about the same thing if we don't use the same language. The example is the radon and what we want to tell about it; it is necessary to explain what words we are using and what mean we want to give them. Then, emanation and exhalation are given with their definitions. Also the terms as factor, flux and rate are redefined. It is a way to make scientific population sensitive to terminology

  4. On the new ISO guide on risk management terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje

    2011-01-01

    A new ISO guide on risk management terminology has recently been issued. The guide provides basic vocabulary for developing a common understanding of risk assessment and risk management concepts and terms among organisations and functions, and across different application areas. It provides the foundation of, for example, the ISO 31000 standard on risk management. The guide strongly influences the risk assessment and risk management field, and its quality is thus of utmost importance. In this paper a critical review of the guide is conducted. We argue that the guide fails in several ways in producing consistent and meaningful definitions of many of the key concepts covered. A main focus is placed on the risk concept, which is defined as the effect of uncertainty on objectives, but also many other definitions are looked into, including probability, vulnerability, hazard, risk identification and risk description. Examples are used to illustrate the problems and show how they can be rectified. Although the focus is on the ISO guide, the discussion is to a large extent general. The overall aim of the paper is to contribute to the further development of the area of risk assessment and risk management by strengthening its conceptual basis.

  5. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index

  6. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).

  7. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. INTERVIEW: Knowledge and Terminology Management at Crisplant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe H.; Toft, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    Margrethe H. Møller interviews Lisbeth Kjeldgaard Almsten (translator/coauthor: Birthe Toft) “If you think that terminology work is simply a matter of buying terminology management software and getting started, you are in for trouble” At Crisplant, we have been doing terminology management for th...... management really is, in enterprise practice as well as in education.......Margrethe H. Møller interviews Lisbeth Kjeldgaard Almsten (translator/coauthor: Birthe Toft) “If you think that terminology work is simply a matter of buying terminology management software and getting started, you are in for trouble” At Crisplant, we have been doing terminology management...... for the past 20 years. Today, term bases are used not just for terminology-oriented term management. Recording other types of master data needed by all kinds of professionals in the enterprise is equally important. Within the past year, Crisplant has been acquired by the German BEUMER group, which means...

  9. [Norwegian physicians' knowledge of Latin medical terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindekleiv, Haakon

    2005-12-15

    It is well established that medical terminology is firmly based in Latin and Greek. However, teaching in Latin and medical terminology is not adequate in the medical education in Norway. A questionnaire on medical practitioners' knowledge of medical Latin was handed out among doctors participating in further education at the University of Tromsø, spring 2005. The questionnaire was divided into three parts: knowledge of Latin medical words, Latin names on diseases, and grammar (Latin word endings). The response rate was 102/121 (84 %).; 102 doctors participated, including 51 general practitioners. The understanding of Latin medical words was generally good. 70 % (71/102) of the doctors had less than three errors. The knowledge of Latin names for diseases was also quite good, with 73 % (74/102) having less than three errors. However, there were many grave mistakes. The ability to give correct word endings in plural nominative and singular genitive was almost absent; 85 % (87/102) made four or more errors. Although Norwegian medical practitioners have a certain degree of skills in medical Latin, their knowledge is not sufficient. Marginal knowledge of important medical terms may complicate communication between doctors. A compulsory minimum of training in medical nomenclature should be a part of the curriculum in medical schools.

  10. Dictionary of Criminal Justice Data Terminology. Terms and Definitions Proposed for Interstate and National Data Collection and Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEARCH Group, Inc., Sacramento, CA.

    This first edition proposes standard names, phrases, and definitions in selected areas of terminology needed for the communication of basic criminal justice information and statistics between states and at the national level. Introductory pages explain the technical approach used in selecting terminology. Over 260 alphabetical entries contain…

  11. Understanding quantitative research: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Juanita; Hoare, Zoë

    This article, which is the first in a two-part series, provides an introduction to understanding quantitative research, basic statistics and terminology used in research articles. Critical appraisal of research articles is essential to ensure that nurses remain up to date with evidence-based practice to provide consistent and high-quality nursing care. This article focuses on developing critical appraisal skills and understanding the use and implications of different quantitative approaches to research. Part two of this article will focus on explaining common statistical terms and the presentation of statistical data in quantitative research.

  12. Electric power system basics for the nonelectrical professional

    CERN Document Server

    Blume, Steven W

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of Steven W. Blume’s bestseller provides a comprehensive treatment of power technology for the non-electrical engineer working in the electric power industry. This book aims to give non-electrical professionals a fundamental understanding of large interconnected electrical power systems, better known as the “Power Grid”, with regard to terminology, electrical concepts, design considerations, construction practices, industry standards, control room operations for both normal and emergency conditions, maintenance, consumption, telecommunications and safety. The text begins with an overview of the terminology and basic electrical concepts commonly used in the industry then it examines the generation, transmission and distribution of power. Other topics discussed include energy management, conservation of electrical energy, consumption characteristics and regulatory aspects to help readers understand modern electric power systems.

  13. Dictionary of television and audiovisual terminology

    CERN Document Server

    Moshkovitz, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    "Recommended"--Booklist; "unique"--Reference Reviews; "handy"--Multimedia Information & Technology; "clear...descriptive"--Classic Images; "clear, practical definitions"--Rettig on Reference; "recommended"--E-Streams; "extensive and comprehensive"--ARBA; "a handy guide"--Communication Booknotes Quarterly. With television programming being broadcast worldwide in real time, the industry needs a common professional language. Constantly changing technology, however, has resulted in continuously changing terminology, sometimes leaving even the most knowledgeable broadcasters with a lack of understanding. In this dictionary over 1,500 terms and acronyms, both modern and classical, are presented. The definitions are designed to be straightforward and jargon-free (except where defining jargon), permitting ease of use to readers from a variety of fields. Ample cross-references are provided.

  14. ON THE PECULIARITIES OF TERMINOLOGICAL WORD GROUP WITH MEANING VALUE BASED PRICING / ЦЕНА-СТОИМОСТЬ / CENA-WARTOŚĆ AND THE PROBLEM OF THEIR EQUIVALENCE IN TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rolak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a semantic analysis of a range of selected terms along with contrastive characteristics of their syntagmatic and paradigmatic peculiarities. “Price”, “cost” and “value” are the basic notions of market economy and, correspondingly, the lexemes denoting them. As a result, the paper focuses on the information these lexemes transmit along with their equivalents in the Polish and Russian languages. Probable variants of their translation are also shown. The problem of evaluation of their linguistic volume refers to the functioning of these words in economic discourse as general notions (hyperonyms that involve a range of particular ones. The author takes into consideration the factors, which have the impact on translation of the Polish and Russian terminological phrases (word groups that are often calques of English terms. An adequate translation is influenced by the following: understanding of terminological and non-terminological nature of a phrase being translated, acquaintance with idiomatic expressions used at translation of English terminological lexis, taking into account the regularities of syntagmatic collocation of a word. On the basis of use of phrases from the Russian and Polish economic discourses, the author shows the characteristics of use for selected terms and gives some adequate variants of their translation. The analysis of relations within the terminological group under study has shown that in the process of translation and choice for synonyms terminological and non-terminological meaning of a word, use of idiomatic expressions in both target languages that are calques from English, a tradition in realization of syntagmatic collocation of a word should be taken into consideration.

  15. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  16. Igor Burkhanov. Lexicography: A Dictionary of Basic Terminology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    146), see also lexicographic investigation (p. 132); lexicographic presentation (p. 134), or in ... location, collect, concordance, correction file, citation slip, back matter, frame, fre- quency label, front matter, etc. ... term in (a) its broad sense, (b) logic, (c) transformational generative grammar, and (d) linguistic semantics, as well ...

  17. Terminology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Ausserer, Harald; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Bongiovanni, Luigi Giuseppe; Tinazzi, Michele; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-03-01

    Several different terms have been used to describe "psychogenic nonepileptic seizures" (PNES) in the literature. In this study, we evaluated the most common English terms used to describe PNES on Google and in PubMed using multiple search terms (https://www.google.com and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). The information prevalence of the five terms most frequently used to refer to PNES in PubMed were: psychogenic non(-)epileptic seizure(s), followed by pseudo(-)seizure(s), non(-)epileptic seizure(s), psychogenic seizure(s), and non(-)epileptic event(s). The five most frequently adopted terms to describe PNES in Google were: psychogenic non(-)epileptic seizure(s), followed by non(-)epileptic event(s), psychogenic attack(s), non(-)epileptic attack(s), and psychogenic non(-)epileptic attack(s). The broad spectrum of synonyms used to refer to PNES in the medical literature reflects a lack of internationally accepted, uniform terminology for PNES. In addition to "seizure(s)," lay people use the word "attack(s)" to describe PNES. Although considered obsolete, some terms, e.g., pseudoseizure(s), are still used in the recent medical literature. Adopting a uniform terminology to describe PNES could facilitate communication between epileptologists, physicians without specific expertise in epilepsy, and patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. A Guide to Terminology for Rh Immunoprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S Gerald; Queenan, John T

    2017-09-01

    Rh immunoprophylaxis for Rh-negative women requires an understanding of terminology used for Rh blood typing laboratory reports. The pathophysiology of Rh hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn was elucidated by studies in rhesus monkeys. Subsequent studies revealed that the human blood group antigen responsible for Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn (D antigen) is related to, but different from, the rhesus monkey antigen. Weak expression of the D antigen on red cells, originally termed D, is currently reported by laboratories as a "serologic weak D phenotype," which can be further defined by RHD genotyping to be either a weak D type or a partial D phenotype. Weak D types 1, 2, or 3 are molecularly defined RHD weak D types, which have an adequate number of intact D antigens to be managed safely as Rh-positive. Partial D phenotypes result from mutations causing loss of one or more D epitopes. Most persons with a partial D phenotype have sufficient D antigen to type as Rh-positive. Some women with a partial D phenotype are detected as serologic weak D phenotypes by routine Rh typing. Whether they type as Rh-positive or serologic weak D phenotype, after being exposed to Rh-positive red cells by transfusion or pregnancy, women with partial D phenotype can form anti-D antibodies and, if they do, are at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. A pregnant woman with a laboratory report of a serologic weak D phenotype should be further tested for her RHD genotype to resolve whether her case should be managed as Rh-positive or Rh-negative. For more than five decades, the practice of Rh immunoprophylaxis has remained unchanged in terms of the dose of Rh immune globulin and timing of injections. In contrast, advances in the science of Rh blood typing have resulted in a continuously evolving terminology, obliging obstetricians to update their vocabulary to guide their practice. The following review and glossary provide guidance for current Rh terminology and

  19. Terminologi Rumah Adat Dalam Loka Sumbawa: Sebuah Tinjauan Antropolinguistik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Hermansyah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In Loka custom home that is still standing firm in the middle of the town of Sumbawa Besar is a historical witness that shows the glory of the Sultanate of Sumbawa in its time. Terminology richness that included in Dalam Loka custom home providing space for the language and culture reviewers to understand more deeply what happened in the past time based on the symbols of things and suggests how the ancient life with profound meaning. Thus, to express forms of terminology and understand the values held in Dalam Loka custom home, it is necessary to be traced through the linguistic approach or the study of culture called antropholinguistic. Therefore, the theory used in this research is antropolinguistic theory and social semiotic theory. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach. The types and sources of data used are classified into two types: primary data and secondary data. The methods used in the method of data collection were listening and conversation. The data were analyzed by using intralingual equivalence and ekstralingual equivalence method. The results and discussion of this research found that forms of terminology in the Dalam Loka custom home in Sumbawa derived from some languages, which is derived from the Javanese, Makassar and Malay languages. Moreover, as for other forms of terminology found in Dalam Loka custom home in Sumbawa derived from foreign languages, such as Arabic and Sanskrit language. The cultural context shapes the terminology in the Dalam Loka custom home in Sumbawa indicate the existence of a civilization with a system of government and the imperial system in the form of aristocracy. System of government rests on the king (sultan is a system that includes customs, governance and law.

  20. Remote sensing terminology: past experience and recent needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Rumiana

    2013-10-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Terminology accuracy is essential during all phases of international cooperation. It is crucial to keep up with the latest quantitative and qualitative developments and novelties of the terminology in advanced technology fields such as aerospace science and industry. This is especially true in remote sensing and geoinformatics which develop rapidly and have wide and ever extending applications in various domains of human activity. The importance of the correct use of remote sensing terms refers not only to people working in this field but also to experts in many disciplines who handle remote sensing data and information products. The paper is devoted to terminology issues that refer to all aspects of remote sensing research and application areas. The attention is drawn on the recent needs and peculiarities of compiling specialized dictionaries in the subject area of remote sensing. Details are presented about the work in progress on the preparation of an English-Bulgarian dictionary of remote sensing terms focusing on Earth observations and geoinformation science. Our belief is that the elaboration of bilingual and multilingual dictionaries and glossaries in this spreading, most technically advanced and promising field of human expertise is of great practical importance. Any interest in cooperation and initiating of suchlike collaborative multilingual projects is welcome and highly appreciated.

  1. INIS, CEA and nuclear terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surmont, J.; Brulet, C.; Constant, A.; Guille, N.; Le Blanc, A.; Mouffron, O.; Anguise, P.; Jouve, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    This poster, prepared for the fifth edition of the meetings of scientific and technical information professionals (RPIST, Nancy (France)), presents, first, the INIS information system, its content and coverage, the French participation to this system and the role of the CEA-Saclay as France's official representative for this system. Then it presents the INIS thesaurus with its different levels as a terminological tool for the indexing of documents and for searching documents inside the database. Finally, the very first electronic version of the multilingual thesaurus is introduced. Several national INIS centres, including the CEA-Saclay, have contributed to the translation of lists of new terms and of forbidden terms (synonyms). (J.S.)

  2. ON THE TERMINOLOGY OF SPONDYLOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. F. Erdes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, spondyloarthritis studies have accumulated a certain number of terms that are obsolete, but used by physicians in their everyday speech, on the one hand, and a great variety of different definitions, on the other hand. In January 2014, the first organizational meeting of the Expert Group on Spondyloarthritis, Association of Rheumatologists of Russia, decided that its primary task should be to order the terminology used in this area. The authors primarily collected the terms, which had been already used in medical vocabulary, and then divided them into two categories: obsolete definitions and terms to be finalized and unified. This publication gives guidelines for using the medical terms relevant to spondyloarthritis and separately discusses how to correctly write the term sacroiliitis.

  3. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Innes, N.P.; Frencken, J.E.; Bjorndal, L.; Maltz, M.; Manton, D.J.; Ricketts, D.; Van Landuyt, K.; Banerjee, A.; Campus, G.; Domejean, S.; Fontana, M.; Leal, S.; Lo, E.; Machiulskiene, V.; Schulte, A.; Splieth, C.; Zandona, A.; Schwendicke, F.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current

  4. Management and Internal Standardization of Chemistry Terminology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the terminological processing of a technical source text prior to translation, which formed part of the compilation of a Quadrilingual Explanatory Dictionary of Chemistry. It reports on the model of terminology management that was utilized and explores strategies for the internal standardization of terms in ...

  5. Terminological Definition in Vocabulary Building Process

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedeva Elena S

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the possibilities of using a terminological definition as a short text in the language for specific purposes teaching/learning. Representing an abundant supply of specialized vocabulary and general scientific speech patterns, a terminological definition should be taken into account as a full value language resource.

  6. The development of a dental diagnostic terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalenderian, E.; Ramoni, R.L.; Schoonheim-Klein, M.E.; Stark, P.C.; Kimmes, N.S.; Zeller, G.G.; Willis, G.P.; Walji, M.F.; White, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    There is no commonly accepted standardized terminology for oral diagnoses. The purpose of this article is to report the development of a standardized dental diagnostic terminology by a work group of dental faculty members. The work group developed guiding principles for decision making and adhered

  7. Overcoming barriers to evaluation of terminological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, Ronald; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; Arts, Daniëlle G. T.

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of terminological systems has been demonstrated to be a complicated task. This is due to the broad range of terminological systems, their application, and the clinical contexts in which they can be applied. We propose an evaluation framework that explicitly distinguishes an

  8. Group word terms in the terminology of the theory of mechanics in Albanian and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GANI PLLANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As it is known, the terminology of any knowledge field as an independent system, as well as the terminology of mechanics consisting of nominating one-word and group word units (among which, particularly the latter phrase terms make up nearly 70-80% of the overall terminological vocabulary. Looking at it from this point of view, all monosyllabic (one word terms (word terms would also be accepted as a basic vocabulary in the terminology of mechanics. This can be justified more so by the fact that almost every word term serves as the foundation for the construction of numerous group word terms that mark concepts which have spread out into numerous branches. These having been introduced through a variety of many different interrelations, like gender / type, whole / part etc.

  9. Decolorization of acid and basic dyes: understanding the metabolic degradation and cell-induced adsorption/precipitation by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerboneschi, Matteo; Corsi, Massimo; Bianchini, Roberto; Bonanni, Marco; Tegli, Stefania

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli strain DH5α was successfully employed in the decolorization of commercial anthraquinone and azo dyes, belonging to the general classes of acid or basic dyes. The bacteria showed an aptitude to survive at different pH values on any dye solution tested, and a rapid decolorization was obtained under aerobic conditions for the whole collection of dyes. A deep investigation about the mode of action of E. coli was carried out to demonstrate that dye decolorization mainly occurred via three different pathways, specifically bacterial induced precipitation, cell wall adsorption, and metabolism, whose weight was correlated with the chemical nature of the dye. In the case of basic azo dyes, an unexpected fast decolorization was observed after just 2-h postinoculation under aerobic conditions, suggesting that metabolism was the main mechanism involved in basic azo dye degradation, as unequivocally demonstrated by mass spectrometric analysis. The reductive cleavage of the azo group by E. coli on basic azo dyes was also further demonstrated by the inhibition of decolorization occurring when glucose was added to the dye solution. Moreover, no residual toxicity was found in the E. coli-treated basic azo dye solutions by performing Daphnia magna acute toxicity assays. The results of the present study demonstrated that E. coli can be simply exploited for its natural metabolic pathways, without applying any recombinant technology. The high versatility and adaptability of this bacterium could encourage its involvement in industrial bioremediation of textile and leather dyeing wastewaters.

  10. Classifying basic research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, G L

    1990-01-01

    Considerable confusion over terminology for classifying basic types of research design in family medicine stems from the rich variety of substantive topics studied by family medicine researchers, differences in research terminology among the disciplines that family medicine research draws from, and lack of uniform research design terminology within these disciplines themselves. Many research design textbooks themselves fail to specify the dimensions on which research designs are classified or the logic underlying the classification systems proposed. This paper describes a typology based on three dimensions that may be used to characterize the basic design qualities of any study. These dimensions are: 1) the nature of the research objective (exploratory, descriptive, or analytic); 2) the time frame under investigation (retrospective, cross-sectional, or prospective); and 3) whether the investigator intervenes in the events under study (observational or interventional). This three-dimensional typology may be helpful for teaching basic research design concepts, for contemplating research design decisions in planning a study, and as a basis for further consideration of a more detailed, uniform research design classification system.

  11. Equivalence of Lease and Tenancy Terminology in English and Lithuanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rackevičienė Sigita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prompted by globalization and the importance of international communication in the legal sphere, legal language acquires an increasing importance. Contract law draws special attention in the EU and worldwide, and raises a demand for harmonization of the legal terminology of different languages and legal systems. Contracts in Anglo- Saxon and Lithuanian law have similar basic elements; however, they also contain significant differences which are determined by the regulations of the legal systems in which contracts are formed. The terminology used in the contracts also presents important peculiarities. The article focuses on the terminology of lease and tenancy agreements and provides results of the contrastive semantic analysis, the aim of which is to establish the degree of equivalence of the collected English terms and their Lithuanian counterparts. All investigated English terms have synonyms, which makes the task even more complex, as most of such synonyms have certain semantic differences and may be used interchangeably only in certain contexts. The findings of the research are believed to be valuable to legal translators, as well as compilers of legal dictionaries and databases.

  12. A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations among Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in adult basic education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological…

  13. Geoscience terminology for data interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Workgroups formed by the Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) have been developing vocabulary resources to promote geoscience information exchange. The Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) was formed in 2003 to continue work of the Multhes working group of the 1990s. The Concept Definition Task Group was formed by the CGI Interoperability Working Group in 2007 to develop concept vocabularies for populating GeoSciML interchange documents. The CGI council has determined that it will be more efficient and effective to merge the efforts of these groups and has formed a new Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/geoscience_terminology_working_group.html). Each GTWG member will be expected to shepherd one or more vocabularies. There are currently 31 vocabularies in the CGI portfolio, developed for GeoSciML interchange documents (e.g. see http://resource.geosciml.org/ 201202/). Vocabulary development in both groups has been conducted first by gathering candidate terms in Excel spreadsheets because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Currently there are 30 vocabularies still required for GeoSciML v3, and 38 proposed vocabularies for use with EarthResourceML (https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML). In addition, a project to develop a lithogenetic map unit vocabulary to use for regional geologic map integration using OGC web map services is underway. Considerable work remains to be done to integrate multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, and to make the thesaurus compiled by the

  14. TERMINOLOGY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK DEVIATIONS IN PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Борисівна ДАНЧЕНКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews new approaches to managing projects deviations (risks, changes, problems. By offering integrated control these parameters of the project and by analogy with medical terminological systems building a new system for managing terminological variations in the projects. With an improved method of triads system definitions are analyzed medical terms that make up terminological basis. Using the method of analogy proposed new definitions for managing deviations in projects. By using triad integrity built a new system triad in project management, which will subsequently also analogous to develop a new methodology of deviations in projects.

  15. Current procedural terminology; a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Joshua A; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Nicola, Gregory N; Barr, Robert M; Bello, Jacqueline A; Donovan, William D; Tu, Raymond; Alson, Mark D; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2015-04-01

    In 1966, The American Medical Association (AMA) working with multiple major medical specialty societies developed an iterative coding system for describing medical procedures and services using uniform language, the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) system. The current code set, CPT IV, forms the basis of reporting most of the services performed by healthcare providers, physicians and non-physicians as well as facilities allowing effective, reliable communication among physician and other providers, third parties and patients. This coding system and its maintenance has evolved significantly since its inception, and now goes well beyond its readily perceived role in reimbursement. Additional roles include administrative management, tracking new and investigational procedures, and evolving aspects of 'pay for performance'. The system also allows for local, regional and national utilization comparisons for medical education and research. Neurointerventional specialists use CPT category I codes regularly--for example, 36,215 for first-order cerebrovascular angiography, 36,216 for second-order vessels, and 37,184 for acute stroke treatment by mechanical means. Additionally, physicians add relevant modifiers to the CPT codes, such as '-26' to indicate 'professional charge only,' or '-59' to indicate a distinct procedural service performed on the same day. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. National Drug File - Reference Terminology API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is produced by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration (VHA). NDF-RT is an...

  17. Common usage of cardiologic anatomical terminology: critical analysis and a trilingual discussion proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, Alexandre Lins; Batigália, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Terminology and Lexicography have been especially addressed to the Allied Health Sciences regarding discussion of case reports or concerning publication of scientific articles. The knowledge of Human Anatomy enables the understanding of medical terms and the refinement of Medical Terminology makes possible a better anatomicomedical communication in a highly technical level. Most of the scientific publications in both Anatomy and Medicine are found only in English and most of dictionaries or search resources available do not have specificity enough to explain anatomicomedical, terminological, or lexicographical occurrences. To design and produce a multilingual terminological dictionary (Latin-English-Portuguese-Spanish) containing a list of English anatomicomedical terms in common usage in cardiology subspecialties addressed to medical students and professionals, to other allied health sciences professionals, and to translators working in this specific field. Terms, semantical and grammatical components were selected to compose an anatomicocardiological corpus. The adequacy to the thematic terminological research requests and the translation reliability level will be settled from the terminology specificity in contrast to the semantics, as well as from a peer survey of the main terms used by national and international experts in specialized journals, Internet sites, and from text-books on Anatomy and Cardiology. The inclusion criteria will be the terms included in the English, Portuguese, and Spanish Terminologia Anatomica - the official terminology of the anatomical sciences; nonofficial technical commonly used terms which lead to terminology or translation misunderstanding often being a source of confusion. A table with a sample of the 508 most used anatomical cardiologic terms in English language peer-reviewed journals of cardiology and (pediatric and adult) thoracic surgery is shown. The working up of a multilingual terminological dictionary reduces the risk of

  18. Terminology management at the national language service | Alberts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through the use of correct, standardised terminology, effective scientific and technical communication skills are developed. A brief overview is given of terminology development in South Africa, with special emphasis on the work of the Terminology Division of the National Language Service. Aspects of present terminology ...

  19. Terminology supported archiving and publication of environmental science data in PANGAEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepenbroek, Michael; Schindler, Uwe; Huber, Robert; Pesant, Stéphane; Stocker, Markus; Felden, Janine; Buss, Melanie; Weinrebe, Matthias

    2017-11-10

    Exemplified on the information system PANGAEA, we describe the application of terminologies for archiving and publishing environmental science data. A terminology catalogue (TC) was embedded into the system, with interfaces allowing to replicate and to manually work on terminologies. For data ingest and archiving, we show how the TC can improve structuring and harmonizing lineage and content descriptions of data sets. Key is the conceptualization of measurement and observation types (parameters) and methods, for which we have implemented a basic syntax and rule set. For data access and dissemination, we have improved findability of data through enrichment of metadata with TC terms. Semantic annotations, e.g. adding term concepts (including synonyms and hierarchies) or mapped terms of different terminologies, facilitate comprehensive data retrievals. The PANGAEA thesaurus of classifying terms, which is part of the TC is used as an umbrella vocabulary that links the various domains and allows drill downs and side drills with various facets. Furthermore, we describe how TC terms can be linked to nominal data values. This improves data harmonization and facilitates structural transformation of heterogeneous data sets to a common schema. Technical developments are complemented by work on the metadata content. Over the last 20 years, more than 100 new parameters have been defined on average per week. Recently, PANGAEA has increasingly been submitting new terms to various terminology services. Matching terms from terminology services with our parameter or method strings is supported programmatically. However, the process ultimately needs manual input by domain experts. The quality of terminology services is an additional limiting factor, and varies with respect to content, editorial, interoperability, and sustainability. Good quality terminology services are the building blocks for the conceptualization of parameters and methods. In our view, they are essential for data

  20. Constructing a biodiversity terminological inventory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhung T H Nguyen

    Full Text Available The increasing growth of literature in biodiversity presents challenges to users who need to discover pertinent information in an efficient and timely manner. In response, text mining techniques offer solutions by facilitating the automated discovery of knowledge from large textual data. An important step in text mining is the recognition of concepts via their linguistic realisation, i.e., terms. However, a given concept may be referred to in text using various synonyms or term variants, making search systems likely to overlook documents mentioning less known variants, which are albeit relevant to a query term. Domain-specific terminological resources, which include term variants, synonyms and related terms, are thus important in supporting semantic search over large textual archives. This article describes the use of text mining methods for the automatic construction of a large-scale biodiversity term inventory. The inventory consists of names of species, amongst which naming variations are prevalent. We apply a number of distributional semantic techniques on all of the titles in the Biodiversity Heritage Library, to compute semantic similarity between species names and support the automated construction of the resource. With the construction of our biodiversity term inventory, we demonstrate that distributional semantic models are able to identify semantically similar names that are not yet recorded in existing taxonomies. Such methods can thus be used to update existing taxonomies semi-automatically by deriving semantically related taxonomic names from a text corpus and allowing expert curators to validate them. We also evaluate our inventory as a means to improve search by facilitating automatic query expansion. Specifically, we developed a visual search interface that suggests semantically related species names, which are available in our inventory but not always in other repositories, to incorporate into the search query. An assessment of

  1. Thesaurus of craft and professional terminology in Ukrainian bibliopegy: the issues of a special dictionary formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halchenko O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers terminological problems which arise when medieval manuscripts’ bindings are described for scientific catalogs and electronic databases. The author attempts to analyze the causes of these problems and ways to overcome them. Reviewed are handwritten and printed sources, which contain the terms dealing with manuscripts production, and substantiated is the relevance of formation of the national craft and professional terminology thesaurus in Ukrainian codicology and bibliopegy. We have also defined the basic steps of the dictionary creation, which are the following: collecting special terms and creating a glossary and card index; translation, editing and unification of borrowed terms; creation of a digital visual dictionary

  2. A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations Among Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in adult basic education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at multiple points (quantiles) along the continuous distribution of reading comprehension. To demonstrate the efficacy of our multiple quantile regression analysis, we compared and contrasted our results with a traditional multiple regression analytic approach. Our results indicated that morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge accounted for a large portion of the variance (82%-95%) in reading comprehension skills across all quantiles. Morphological awareness exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at lower levels of reading comprehension whereas vocabulary knowledge exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at higher levels of reading comprehension. These results indicate the utility of using multiple quantile regression to assess trajectories of component skills across multiple levels of reading comprehension. The implications of our findings for ABE programs are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  3. A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations Between Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in Adult Basic Education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at multiple points (quantiles) along the continuous distribution of reading comprehension. To demonstrate the efficacy of our multiple quantile regression analysis, we compared and contrasted our results with a traditional multiple regression analytic approach. Our results indicated that morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge accounted for a large portion of the variance (82-95%) in reading comprehension skills across all quantiles. Morphological awareness exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at lower levels of reading comprehension whereas vocabulary knowledge exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at higher levels of reading comprehension. These results indicate the utility of using multiple quantile regression to assess trajectories of component skills across multiple levels of reading comprehension. The implications of our findings for ABE programs are discussed. PMID:25351773

  4. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  5. Textile Students’ Basic Knowledge and Skills - Interpretation, Understanding and Assessment of a Practical-Aesthetic Discipline in Norwegian teacher education. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Gårdvik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a case study research of a textile module at the year-long module based course in arts and handicrafts at the Teacher Education at Nesna University College. The textile modules main focus is to give the students practical aesthetic experience as well as basic knowledge and skills of textiles and their qualities. The module has been regularly assessed by teachers and students, revised and developed, and offered for several years. Assessments show that students appreciate the module and its focus on basic knowledge and skills in textile. However, as an arts and handicrafts teacher at the college level, I’ve observed that students basic skills are underdeveloped, and some have unrealistic insight, demands and expectations about how much knowledge and experience a thirty five hour course in textiles will give. Some students with little or no textile experience have problems with interpreting and understanding the written task and also “getting started”. Detailed explanations concerning the content seem to confuse rather than enlighten, and students’ fear of failing gives me as a teacher several thoughts about cause and effect. In this case study a qualitative survey of a textile module’s schedule, student’s questions and desires for explanations, their written tasks, products and assessments are being used to enlighten and understand the problem. The results show that a detailed explanation of a practical aesthetic assignment does not contribute to increased understanding with some students, whereas a confrontation of the practical process will. Keywords: Textile, arts and handicrafts, the craft process, ordinary craft, holistic craft

  6. Information model for learning nursing terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nytun, Jan Pettersen; Fossum, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    Standardized terminologies are introduced in healthcare with the intention of improving information quality, which is important for enhancing the quality of healthcare itself. The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®) is a unified language system that presents an ontology for nursing terminology; it is meant for documentation of nursing diagnoses, nursing interventions and patient outcomes. This paper presents an information model and an application for teaching nursing students how to use ICNP to assist in the planning of nursing care. The model is an integration of ICNP and our catalog ontology, patient journal ontology, and ontology defining task sets. The application for learning nursing terminology offers descriptions of patient situations and then prompts the student to supply nursing statements for diagnoses, goals and interventions. The nursing statements may be selected from catalogues containing premade solutions based on ICNP, or they may be constructed directly by selecting terms from ICNP.

  7. Standard Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The terms and their definitions given herein represent terminology relating to wear and erosion of solid bodies due to mechanical interactions such as occur with cavitation, impingement by liquid jets or drops or by solid particles, or relative motion against contacting solid surfaces or fluids. This scope interfaces with but generally excludes those processes where material loss is wholly or principally due to chemical action and other related technical fields as, for instance, lubrication. 1.2 This terminology is not exhaustive; the absence of any particular term from this collection does not necessarily imply that its use within this scope is discouraged. However, the terms given herein are the recommended terms for the concepts they represent unless otherwise noted. 1.3 Certain general terms and definitions may be restricted and interpreted, if necessary, to make them particularly applicable to the scope as defined herein. 1.4 The purpose of this terminology is to encourage uniformity and accuracy ...

  8. Identifying and Further Understanding the Role of Bacteria and Archaea in a Basic Mine Drainage Remediation Site in Tanoma, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, G.; Mount, G.

    2017-12-01

    Acid mine drainage pollutes over 3000 miles of streams and ground water in Pennsylvania alone, and in response many solutions have been developed to counteract the effects of acidic mine drainage. It is estimated by USGS that restoring these watersheds would cost 5 billion-15 billion in total. As economic conditions place limits on expenditures, cost effective means of remediation will be of critical importance. One such method is passive bioremediation, and in the case of metal contamination, self-sustaining oxygenation. Our location of interest is the Tanoma Acid Mine Drainage engineered wetland near Tanoma, Pennsylvania. It is estimated that up to 5,000 gallons per minute is currently being discharged into the site. While most local remediation sites are acidic (pH <4), the Tanoma wetland allows for the study of bioremediation in more neutral pH setting (pH of 5.5-7.5). In this study, we look to further understand biologic, chemical, and hydrologic controls that contribute to the efficiency of the wetland. Our research will focus on the spatial and temporal distribution of biomass through the wetland system as well as changes in water and soil chemistry. Local biofilm (Leptothrix discophora ) are an important part of the remediation process, using iron from the water as an energy source. The bacteria reduce the iron content of the water, precipitating it onto the pond bed as Terraced Iron Formations (TIF). Terraces iron formations (TIF's) are correlated with localized biofilm-archaea densities where archaea thrive in iron rich sediments. By determining bacteria densities in the wetland through gram stain analysis, we can further understand their role in terraced iron formation creation, find localized TIF's that occur, and correlate methane production due to archaea in that location. Mapping TIF locations and identifying bacteria densities will help determine the bioremediation effects on the overall efficiency of iron reduction throughout the Tanoma AMD passive

  9. Evaluating standard terminologies for encoding allergy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Foster R; Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Broverman, Carol; Robinson, George; Middleton, Blackford; Rocha, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Allergy documentation and exchange are vital to ensuring patient safety. This study aims to analyze and compare various existing standard terminologies for representing allergy information. Five terminologies were identified, including the Systemized Nomenclature of Medical Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), National Drug File-Reference Terminology (NDF-RT), Medication Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII), and RxNorm. A qualitative analysis was conducted to compare desirable characteristics of each terminology, including content coverage, concept orientation, formal definitions, multiple granularities, vocabulary structure, subset capability, and maintainability. A quantitative analysis was also performed to compare the content coverage of each terminology for (1) common food, drug, and environmental allergens and (2) descriptive concepts for common drug allergies, adverse reactions (AR), and no known allergies. Our qualitative results show that SNOMED CT fulfilled the greatest number of desirable characteristics, followed by NDF-RT, RxNorm, UNII, and MedDRA. Our quantitative results demonstrate that RxNorm had the highest concept coverage for representing drug allergens, followed by UNII, SNOMED CT, NDF-RT, and MedDRA. For food and environmental allergens, UNII demonstrated the highest concept coverage, followed by SNOMED CT. For representing descriptive allergy concepts and adverse reactions, SNOMED CT and NDF-RT showed the highest coverage. Only SNOMED CT was capable of representing unique concepts for encoding no known allergies. The proper terminology for encoding a patient's allergy is complex, as multiple elements need to be captured to form a fully structured clinical finding. Our results suggest that while gaps still exist, a combination of SNOMED CT and RxNorm can satisfy most criteria for encoding common allergies and provide sufficient content coverage.

  10. The key to technical translation, v.2 terminology/lexicography

    CERN Document Server

    Hann, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This handbook for German/English/German technical translators at all levels from student to professional covers the root terminologies of the spectrum of scientific and engineering fields. The work is designed to give technical translators direct insight into the main error sources occurring in their profession, especially those resulting from a poor understanding of the subject matter and the usage of particular terms to designate different concepts in different branches of technology. The style is easy to read and suitable for nonnative English speakers and translators with no engineering ex

  11. Using description logics for managing medical terminologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, R.; Abu-Hanna, A.

    2003-01-01

    Medical terminological knowledge bases play an increasingly important role in medicine. As their size and complexity are growing, the need arises for a means to verify and maintain the consistency and correctness of their contents. This is important for their management as well as for providing

  12. 21 CFR 25.5 - Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terminology. 25.5 Section 25.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT...). (12) Legislation (40 CFR 1508.17). (13) Major Federal action (40 CFR 1508.18). (14) Mitigation (40 CFR...

  13. The National Terminology Services: A New Paradigm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of terminology in all the South African languages. It supports government in the formulation, development, implementation and maintenance of national policy and strategies concerning technical languages. In this way it helps to promote mutual scientific and technical communication in all South African communities.

  14. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from d...

  15. Magnetism in meteorites. [terminology, principles and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J. M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of this subject is presented. The paper includes a glossary of magnetism terminology and a discussion of magnetic techniques used in meteorite research. These techniques comprise thermomagnetic analysis, alternating field demagnetization, thermal demagnetization, magnetic anisotropy, low-temperature cycling, and coercive forces, with emphasis on the first method. Limitations on the validity of paleointensity determinations are also discussed.

  16. Jargon that Computes: Today's PC Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Walt

    1997-01-01

    Discusses PC (personal computer) and telecommunications terminology in context: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL); cable modems; satellite downloads; T1 and T3 lines; magnitudes ("giga-,""nano-"); Central Processing Unit (CPU); Random Access Memory (RAM); Universal Serial Bus…

  17. Thoughts on ISO and the Development of Terminologies in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language policy decisions on the development of technical languages, terminologies, generallexi- cography and the dissemination of information will also require special attention in a new South. Africa. Keywords: STANDARDISATION, TERMINOLOGY, TECHNICAL LANGUAGE, TERM-. BANK, LEXICAL DATA ...

  18. How to Manage and Plan Terminology: Creating Management TDBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Jakić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technical terminology represents a very topical issue in economically and technologically dependent countries with small languages such as Serbian. The current terminological problems in the Serbian language, especially in specialized areas that are experiencing dynamic development, are: Anglicization of the language for special purposes, underdeveloped and unstable terminology, and lack of adequate and modern terminological and lexical resources. On the one hand, the terminological problems listed above are of concern to subject-field specialists, since inadequate and non-existent terminology significantly affects the representation, transfer and management of specialized knowledge and information. On the other hand, terminology and language planners point to the growing need for immediate and systematic intervention aimed at terminology harmonization, consolidation and standardization. In spite of the awareness, there is no systematic approach to the solving of terminological problems in Serbian. In addition, practical activities regarding the collection and organization of terminology are few and reduced to individual initiatives. Under the paradigm of language planning (LP-oriented terminology management (2, this paper is going to address a practical activity of terminology management: the creation of a Serbian management terminology database (TDB with equivalent terms in English. The paper will discuss the methodology of terminology work, potential obstacles in termbase creation, as well as potential benefits that such a resource would have on all its potential users: management specialists and practitioners, professional translators, and language and terminology planners. A particular focus will be placed on the potential significance that this kind of a database would have for terminology policy and planning in the Serbian language, on the one hand, and knowledge transfer and management, on the other hand.

  19. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Asterism and constellation: Terminological dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Prnjat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary astronomical literature, there is no uniform definition of the term asterism. This inconsistency is the consequence of differences between the traditional understanding of the term constellation, from the standpoint of the naked eye astronomy, and its contemporary understanding from the standpoint of the International Astronomical Union. A traditional constellation is a recognizable star configuration with a well-established name, whereas the International Astronomical Union defines a constellation as an exactly defined sector of the cosmic space that belongs to a particular traditional constellation. Asterism is a lower rank term in comparison to constellation, and as such it may not denote a whole traditional constellation, as these terms would become synonymous and parts of constellations would become “asterisms of asterisms“. Similarly, asterism cannot define a macro configuration composed of the brightest stars in more constellations, thus, the Summer Triangle and other sky polygons are not asterisms. Therefore, asterisms are neither constellations nor sky polygons, but the third - easily recognizable parts of traditional constellations with historically well-established names, including separate groups of smaller stars that belong to star clusters (autonomous asterisms. Forms and names of asterisms may or may not be consistent with the parent constellation, and accordingly asterisms can be divided into compatible and incompatible. If asterisms have outlived the exact division of the celestial sphere and remained irreplaceable celestial landmarks in the naked eye astronomy, then it is high time for the International Astronomical Union to agree on the definition of asterism and to compile their official list.

  1. National Language and Terminology Policies — A South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National Language and Terminology Policies — A South African Perspective. M Alberts. Abstract. Terminology plays a pivotal role in language development and the promotion of multilingualism. This article discusses the issue of multilingualism regarding terminology policies as seen from an African perspective. Special ...

  2. Terminology development at tertiary institutions: A South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terminology development at tertiary institutions: A South African perspective. M Alberts. Abstract. There is a dire need in South Africa for multilingual polythematic terminology. Currently no tertiary institution presents terminology theory and practice as a fully-fledged subject and there is also no sufficient mechanism for the ...

  3. Historical perspective on developmental concepts and terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, John M; Neri, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    In their ontogeny and phylogeny all living beings are historical entities. The revolution in biology of the 18th and 19th centuries that did away with the scala naturae according to which we humans, the acme of creation, "made a little lower than the angels," also led to the gradual realization that a humble one-celled protist ("protoctist"), such as Entamoeba histolytica of ill repute [Margulis and Chapman, ] has the same 4-billion-year phylogeny as that of Homo sapiens, vivid testimony to common ancestry and the relatedness of all living beings on earth. The group of medical geneticists who assembled at the NIH, Bethesda, MD this January to address terms pertaining to human ontogeny, did so in the long tradition of Sydenham, Linnaeus, Meckel, Geoffroy St-Hilaire père et fils, Wilhelm His and so many others before who had over the previous two centuries wrestled as earnestly as they could with concepts of "classification" and nomenclature of developmental anomalies. The prior massive need for classification per se in medical morphology has diminished over the years in favor of ever more sophisticated understanding of pathogenesis and cause through experimental biology and genetics; however, in the winter of 2013 it was still found prudent to respect terminological precedent on general terms while recognizing recent advances in developmental pathology requiring clarification and definition of special terms. Efforts along similar lines instigated by the German Society of Anatomists at their first meeting in Leipzig in 1887 culminated, after intense years of work by hundreds of experts and consultants under the goad of Wilhelm His, in the Basel Nomina Anatomica [BNA, His (1895)]. His, himself, stated prefatorily that the BNA had no legislative weight, only an evanescent consensus of many to be amended in the future as needed and indicated. Without hubris, no one before or after will do the same. The more substantial the consensus the more permanent the structure

  4. European Law as a terminological issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Poremská

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Law is a multiple-value term which is used in several branches of law and other sciences and its understanding is not clear. There are four basic branches of law explaining the concept of the “European law.“ One of them is the European law as the law of the EU. Second meaning is the law of international organizations. Then the law of Europe as the continent and the last meaning is connected with functional concept of law. The function is the regulation of competition or public procurement etc. The aim of the article is to contribute to better understanding of different meanings of the European law. Not only for the purpose of legal science but for other sciences as well because the EU law is binding for all the Member states and their activities.

  5. Understanding water deficit stress-induced changes in the basic metabolism of higher plants - biotechnologically and sustainably improving agriculture and the ecoenvironment in arid regions of the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hong-Bo; Chu, Li-Ye; Jaleel, C Abdul; Manivannan, P; Panneerselvam, R; Shao, Ming-An

    2009-01-01

    Water is vital for plant growth, development and productivity. Permanent or temporary water deficit stress limits the growth and distribution of natural and artificial vegetation and the performance of cultivated plants (crops) more than any other environmental factor. Productive and sustainable agriculture necessitates growing plants (crops) in arid and semiarid regions with less input of precious resources such as fresh water. For a better understanding and rapid improvement of soil-water stress tolerance in these regions, especially in the water-wind eroded crossing region, it is very important to link physiological and biochemical studies to molecular work in genetically tractable model plants and important native plants, and further extending them to practical ecological restoration and efficient crop production. Although basic studies and practices aimed at improving soil water stress resistance and plant water use efficiency have been carried out for many years, the mechanisms involved at different scales are still not clear. Further understanding and manipulating soil-plant water relationships and soil-water stress tolerance at the scales of ecology, physiology and molecular biology can significantly improve plant productivity and environmental quality. Currently, post-genomics and metabolomics are very important in exploring anti-drought gene resources in various life forms, but modern agriculturally sustainable development must be combined with plant physiological measures in the field, on the basis of which post-genomics and metabolomics have further practical prospects. In this review, we discuss physiological and molecular insights and effects in basic plant metabolism, drought tolerance strategies under drought conditions in higher plants for sustainable agriculture and ecoenvironments in arid and semiarid areas of the world. We conclude that biological measures are the bases for the solutions to the issues relating to the different types of

  6. A Phylogenetic Comparative Study of Bantu Kinship Terminology Finds Limited Support for Its Co-Evolution with Social Organisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrtille Guillon

    Full Text Available The classification of kin into structured groups is a diverse phenomenon which is ubiquitous in human culture. For populations which are organized into large agropastoral groupings of sedentary residence but not governed within the context of a centralised state, such as our study sample of 83 historical Bantu-speaking groups of sub-Saharan Africa, cultural kinship norms guide all aspects of everyday life and social organization. Such rules operate in part through the use of differing terminological referential systems of familial organization. Although the cross-cultural study of kinship terminology was foundational in Anthropology, few modern studies have made use of statistical advances to further our sparse understanding of the structuring and diversification of terminological systems of kinship over time. In this study we use Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods of phylogenetic comparison to investigate the evolution of Bantu kinship terminology and reconstruct the ancestral state and diversification of cousin terminology in this family of sub-Saharan ethnolinguistic groups. Using a phylogenetic tree of Bantu languages, we then test the prominent hypothesis that structured variation in systems of cousin terminology has co-evolved alongside adaptive change in patterns of descent organization, as well as rules of residence. We find limited support for this hypothesis, and argue that the shaping of systems of kinship terminology is a multifactorial process, concluding with possible avenues of future research.

  7. Public health terminology: Hindrance to a Health in All Policies approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnevåg, Ellen S; Amdam, Roar; Fosse, Elisabeth

    2018-02-01

    National public health policies in Norway are based on a Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach. At the local level, this means that public health, as a cross-sectional responsibility, should be implemented in all municipal sectors by integrating public health policies in municipal planning and management systems. The paper investigates these local processes, focusing on the use of public health terminology and how this terminology is translated from national to local contexts. We ask whether the terms 'public health' and 'public health work' are suitable when implementing an HiAP approach. A qualitative case study based on analyses of interviews and planning documents was performed in three Norwegian municipalities. The results present dilemmas associated with using public health terminology when implementing an HiAP approach. On the one hand, the terms are experienced as wide, complex, advanced and unnecessary. On the other hand, the terms are experienced as important for a systematic approach towards understanding public health ideology and cross-sectional responsibility. One municipality used alternative terminology. This paper promotes debate about the appropriateness of using the terms 'public health' and 'public health work' at the local level. It suggests that adaptation is suitable and necessary, unless it compromises knowledge, responsibility and a systematic approach. This study concludes that the use of terminology is a central factor when implementing the Norwegian Public Health Act at the local level.

  8. Employment of the anatomical terminology of the Nomina Anatomica in the radiologic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon, B; Roland, J; Braun, M

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to assess the relationship of the anatomical terms employed in the radiologic literature to the International Nomenclature derived from the Nomina Anatomica. A critical analysis was made of the anatomical terminology employed in three French and two American journals of radiology. In about 40% of the French journals, the International Anatomical Nomenclature was not adhered to, whereas in 50%, there was no difference in the terms encountered between the French traditional terminology and the French adaptation of the Nomina Anatomica. In contrast, a close adherence to the Nomina Anatomica was observed in the two American journals. The exceptions most frequently encountered are detailed. The aim and principles of the Nomina Anatomica, based on the Latin terminology and aimed at clarification and systematisation, are stressed. The advantages of employing the International Anatomical Nomenclature in medical papers, allowing easy understanding by foreign readers in a world of rapid information exchange are highlighted.

  9. Preservation of information in terminology transcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffon, Nicolas; Merabti, Tayeb; Cormont, Sylvie; Tariel-Laurent, Sophie; Massari, Philippe; Lepage, Eric; Chniti, Amina; Daniel, Christel; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2014-01-01

    Linking interface terminologies (IT) to reference terminologies (RT) in flow of terminologies may allow health information system to be both usable and interoperable. Two French university hospitals worked independently on such a flow from the prescription of lab-test to the display of the corresponding results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transmission of information in these two hospitals communication. An expert, supported by natural language processing tool, created the gold standard link between the 2 prescription ITs i.e. the terms that share the same meaning. A semantic pathway was defined to allow the mapping of one prescription IT to the other, through LOINC® and SNOMED®, the RT chosen by each hospital, respectively. The capacity of the semantic pathway to identify the correct links was computed. The expert found 218 links between the 2 prescription ITs (containing 580 and 374 terms that are linked to RT). The semantic pathway correctly identifies 96 of these links (44.0% [37.4-50.6]). The recall was not as good as expected, even though the semantic pathway was created in order to maximize it. Using different RT in different hospitals is not an efficient solution. The use of LOINC® seems to be preferable as a RT for prescription.

  10. Terminology for interprofessional collaboration: definition and current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Cornelia; Gutmann, Thomas; Karstens, Sven; Joos, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Interprofessional collaboration leads to an improvement in health care. This call for increased interprofessional collaboration has led to national and international recommendations for interprofessional learning and education. The GMA has taken up this challenge and has implemented a working group on "interprofessional education in the health professions" to address this topic. The terminology used to describe collaboration among the health professions seems to vary and does not reflect any clear consensus. The aim of this paper is to identify the different terms used to describe collaboration between health professions and to analyse their use in German journals. The terms frequently used to describe collaboration between health professionals were identified and defined. German medical journals were then pragmatically analyzed regarding the use of the terms interprof* and interdiszip*. The German terms for interprofessional and interdisciplinary were not used consistently in the journals reviewed. There seems to be no agreement on the use of terms to describe the collaboration between health professions. Consistent terminology should be used as a basis for promoting collaboration and improving understanding among the parties involved.

  11. Musical Shaping Gestures: Considerations about Terminology and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine King

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fulford and Ginsborg's investigation into non-verbal communication during music rehearsal-talk between performers with and without hearing impairments extends existing research in the field of gesture studies by contributing significantly to our understanding of musicians' physical gestures as well as opening up discussion about the relationship between speech, sign and gesture in discourse about music. Importantly, the authors weigh up the possibility of an emerging sign language about music. This commentary focuses on three key considerations in response to their paper: first, use of terminology in the study of gesture, specifically about 'musical shaping gestures' (MSGs; second, methodological issues about capturing physical gestures; and third, evaluation of the application of gesture research beyond the rehearsal context. While the difficulties of categorizing gestures in observational research are acknowledged, I indicate that the consistent application of terminology from outside and within the study is paramount. I also suggest that the classification of MSGs might be based upon a set of observed physical characteristics within a single gesture, including size, duration, speed, plane and handedness, leading towards an alternative taxonomy for interpreting these data. Finally, evaluation of the application of gesture research in education and performance arenas is provided.

  12. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector.

  13. Evidence for the Existing American Nurses Association-Recognized Standardized Nursing Terminologies: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastan, Sevinc; Linch, Graciele C. F.; Keenan, Gail M.; Stifter, Janet; McKinney, Dawn; Fahey, Linda; Dunn Lopez, Karen; Yao, Yingwei; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2014-01-01

    records (n = 12), and secondary use of electronic health record data (n = 19). Conclusions Findings reveal that the number of standardized nursing terminology publications increased primarily since 2000 with most focusing on North American Nursing Diagnosis-International, Nursing Interventions Classification, and Nursing Outcome Classification. The majority of the studies were descriptive, qualitative, or correlational designs that provide a strong base for understanding the validity and reliability of the concepts underlying the standardized nursing terminologies. There is evidence supporting the successful integration and use in electronic health records for two standardized nursing terminology sets: (1) the North American Nursing Diagnosis-International, Nursing Interventions Classification, and Nursing Outcome Classification set; and (2) the Omaha System set. Researchers, however, should continue to strengthen standardized nursing terminology study designs to promote continuous improvement of the standardized nursing terminologies and use in clinical practice. PMID:24412062

  14. Neuroimaging Feature Terminology: A Controlled Terminology for the Annotation of Brain Imaging Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyappan, Anandhi; Younesi, Erfan; Redolfi, Alberto; Vrooman, Henri; Khanna, Shashank; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Ontologies and terminologies are used for interoperability of knowledge and data in a standard manner among interdisciplinary research groups. Existing imaging ontologies capture general aspects of the imaging domain as a whole such as methodological concepts or calibrations of imaging instruments. However, none of the existing ontologies covers the diagnostic features measured by imaging technologies in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the Neuro-Imaging Feature Terminology (NIFT) was developed to organize the knowledge domain of measured brain features in association with neurodegenerative diseases by imaging technologies. The purpose is to identify quantitative imaging biomarkers that can be extracted from multi-modal brain imaging data. This terminology attempts to cover measured features and parameters in brain scans relevant to disease progression. In this paper, we demonstrate the systematic retrieval of measured indices from literature and how the extracted knowledge can be further used for disease modeling that integrates neuroimaging features with molecular processes. PMID:28731430

  15. Programming Visual Basic 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    This information-packed guide helps you understand Visual Basic 2005, the next-generation release of the popular Visual Basic programming language. This book aims to make you immediately productive in creating Windows and web applications using Visual Basic 2005 and all of its tools. Perfect for experienced VB6 and novice programmers

  16. Transregionalism: Problems of Terminology and Conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kuznetsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world is witnessing the remarkable development of transregional ties between distinct regions and powers within the international system evolving towards multipolarity. However, the essence of transregionalism remains understudied to the extent that there is no clear consensus for which terminology should be used to define this phenomenon. The article compares existing approaches to transregionalism conceptualization, analyzes the differences in the use of terms, and discusses the global impact of transregional relations on world politics and economy. The author advocates a term transregionalism (instead of interregionalism, crossregionalism, macroregionalization etc. and suggests its definition.

  17. Terminological Ontologies for Risk and Vulnerability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Risk and vulnerability analyses are an important preliminary stage in civil contingency planning. The Danish Emergency Management Agency has developed a generic model and a set of tools that may be used in the preparedness planning, i.e. for identifying and describing society’s critical functions......, for formulating threat scenarios and for assessing consequences. Terminological ontologies, which are systems of domain specific concepts comprising concept relations and characteristics, are useful, both when describing the central concepts of risk and vulnerability analysis (meta concepts), and for further...

  18. Revisiting the Global Software Engineering Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Giuffrida, Rosalba; Shah, Hina

    2013-01-01

    Even though Global Software Engineering (GSE) has been a research topic of interest for many years, some of its ground terminology is still lacking a unified, coherent, and shared definition and/or classification. The purpose of this report is to collect, outline, and relate several fundamental......, communication, and awareness taken from the Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) tradition. This report represents on the one hand a starting point to help stimulate fruitful discussions in the relevant communities with regards to the more controversial and delicate topics, while on the other hand...

  19. Neuroimaging feature terminology: A controlled terminology for the annotation of brain imaging features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyappan, A. (Anandhi); Younesi, E. (Erfan); Redolfi, A. (Alberto); H.A. Vrooman (Henri); Khanna, S. (Shashank); G.B. Frisoni (Giovanni B.); M. Hofmann-Apitius (Martin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOntologies and terminologies are used for interoperability of knowledge and data in a standard manner among interdisciplinary research groups. Existing imaging ontologies capture general aspects of the imaging domain as a whole such as methodological concepts or calibrations of imaging

  20. Terminology Guidance to Make Your Work Easier. English, French, Spanish, German, Russian. Terminology Circular No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland). Editorial and Document Services Dept.

    This terminology circular is one of a series issued by the International Labour Office on an irregular basis, designed to facilitate the work of translators, editors, and other staff members. The circular contains official titles of personnel, offices, bureaus, branches, departments, and other organizational units of the ILO. Entries are listed…

  1. Harmonising Nursing Terminologies Using a Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Kay; Kim, Tae Youn; Coenen, Amy; Saba, Virginia; Hardiker, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®) and the Clinical Care Classification (CCC) System are standardised nursing terminologies that identify discrete elements of nursing practice, including nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. While CCC uses a conceptual framework or model with 21 Care Components to classify these elements, ICNP, built on a formal Web Ontology Language (OWL) description logic foundation, uses a logical hierarchical framework that is useful for computing and maintenance of ICNP. Since the logical framework of ICNP may not always align with the needs of nursing practice, an informal framework may be a more useful organisational tool to represent nursing content. The purpose of this study was to classify ICNP nursing diagnoses using the 21 Care Components of the CCC as a conceptual framework to facilitate usability and inter-operability of nursing diagnoses in electronic health records. Findings resulted in all 521 ICNP diagnoses being assigned to one of the 21 CCC Care Components. Further research is needed to validate the resulting product of this study with practitioners and develop recommendations for improvement of both terminologies.

  2. Analyzing rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pasceri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rare disease patients too often face common problems, including the lack of access to correct diagnosis, lack of quality information on the disease, lack of scientific knowledge of the disease, inequities and difficulties in access to treatment and care. These things could be changed by implementing a comprehensive approach to rare diseases, increasing international cooperation in scientific research, by gaining and sharing scientific knowledge about and by developing tools for extracting and sharing knowledge. A significant aspect to analyze is the organization of knowledge in the biomedical field for the proper management and recovery of health information. For these purposes, the sources needed have been acquired from the Office of Rare Diseases Research, the National Organization of Rare Disorders and Orphanet, organizations that provide information to patients and physicians and facilitate the exchange of information among different actors involved in this field. The present paper shows the representation of rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies such as MeSH, ICD-10, SNOMED CT and OMIM, leveraging the fact that these terminologies are integrated in the UMLS. At the first level, it was analyzed the overlap among sources and at a second level, the presence of rare diseases terms in target sources included in UMLS, working at the term and concept level. We found that MeSH has the best representation of rare diseases terms.

  3. The health terminology project glossaries` structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sátia Marini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Current paper was motivated by a Master´s degree in Translation Studies on one of the glossaries of the Health Terminology Project (PTS of the Ministry of Health (MS inBrazil, by which the products developed by the project were analyzed. The authors would like to forward their experience earned from the development of these instruments and from the evolution of the glossary´s layout and structure. Although within the same institution, each instrument is made suitable to the specific purpose of each area and the terminology project accumulates experience by the constant improvement of previously developed glossaries (adding new terms; providing the equivalent word in other languages for terms already defined and by the establishment of new ones. The evolution of the structure of the glossaries was qualitatively analyzed; remarks on the types of cross references were made; a quantitative survey of their main features was undertaken. Finally, the importance of this type of work should be underscored either within the government, or in the academy or in private companies, for the sharing of intellectual knowledge.

  4. Terminology and methodology in modelling for water quality management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Vanrolleghem, P.; Rauch, W.

    1997-01-01

    of the most widely used terms for characterising models and within the process of model building. It is essential to the ever growing society of researchers within water quality management, that communication is eased by establishing a common terminology. This should not be done by giving broader definitions......There is a widespread need for a common terminology in modelling for water quality management. This paper points out sources of confusion in the communication between researchers due to misuse of existing terminology or use of unclear terminology. The paper attempts to clarify the context...

  5. Interoperable Archetypes With a Three Folded Terminology Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Rune; Ellingsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The use of openEHR archetypes increases the interoperability of clinical terminology, and in doing so improves upon the availability of clinical terminology for both primary and secondary purposes. Where clinical terminology is employed in the EPR system, research reports conflicting a results for the use of structuring and standardization as measurements of success. In order to elucidate this concept, this paper focuses on the effort to establish a national repository for openEHR based archetypes in Norway where clinical terminology could be included with benefit for interoperability three folded.

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain ... called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life— ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses ...

  8. Readability of Healthcare Literature for Gastroparesis and Evaluation of Medical Terminology in Reading Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillier, Andrew; Patel, Shyam

    2017-02-01

    Gastroparesis is a chronic condition that can be further enhanced with patient understanding. Patients' education resources on the Internet have become increasingly important in improving healthcare literacy. We evaluated the readability of online resources for gastroparesis and the influence by medical terminology. Google searches were performed for "gastroparesis", "gastroparesis patient education material" and "gastroparesis patient information". Following, all medical terminology was determined if included on Taber's Medical Dictionary 22nd Edition. The medical terminology was replaced independently with "help" and "helping". Web resources were analyzed with the Readability Studio Professional Edition (Oleander Solutions, Vandalia, OH) using 10 different readability scales. The average of the 26 patient education resources was 12.7 ± 1.8 grade levels. The edited "help" group had 6.6 ± 1.0 and "helping" group had 10.4 ± 2.1 reading levels. In comparing the three groups, the "help" and "helping" groups had significantly lower readability levels (P reading level by the American Medical Association. Medical terminology was shown to be the cause for this elevated readability level with all, but four resources within the recommended grade levels following word replacement.

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... at NIMH News & Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ...

  10. Metaphor identification in a terminological dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity Siqueira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at demonstrating that metaphor is not simply a literary device, but an integral part of everyday language. The Theory of Conceptual Metaphor suggests that our conceptual system is fundamentally metaphorical. Concepts arise from our everyday interaction with the world and semantic structure reflects the conceptual structure. Metaphor, therefore, is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Based on these assumptions, we analyzed a terminological dictionary on environmental law in order to find metaphorically used lexical items. Then, for every such item we tried to determine its most literal meaning in another context. In order to do so, we applied the method for identifying metaphor developed by the Pragglejaz Group (2007. The results confirm the pervasiveness of metaphor and indicate how polysemy is motivated. Moreover, there seems to be no clear boundaries between literal and figurative language.

  11. Thoughts on ISO and the development of terminologies in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implications of language policy decisions on the development of technical languages, terminologies, general lexicography and the dissemination of information will also require special attention in a new South Africa. Keywords: standardisation, terminology, technical language, termbank, lexical data, networks, ...

  12. Using SNOMED CT to represent two interface terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Brown, Steven H; Froehling, David; Bauer, Brent A; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Gregg, William M; Elkin, Peter L

    2009-01-01

    Interface terminologies are designed to support interactions between humans and structured medical information. In particular, many interface terminologies have been developed for structured computer based documentation systems. Experts and policy-makers have recommended that interface terminologies be mapped to reference terminologies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate how well the reference terminology SNOMED CT could map to and represent two interface terminologies, MEDCIN and the Categorical Health Information Structured Lexicon (CHISL). Automated mappings between SNOMED CT and 500 terms from each of the two interface terminologies were evaluated by human reviewers, who also searched SNOMED CT to identify better mappings when this was judged to be necessary. Reviewers judged whether they believed the interface terms to be clinically appropriate, whether the terms were covered by SNOMED CT concepts and whether the terms' implied semantic structure could be represented by SNOMED CT. Outcomes included concept coverage by SNOMED CT for study terms and their implied semantics. Agreement statistics and compositionality measures were calculated. The SNOMED CT terminology contained concepts to represent 92.4% of MEDCIN and 95.9% of CHISL terms. Semantic structures implied by study terms were less well covered, with some complex compositional expressions requiring semantics not present in SNOMED CT. Among sampled terms, those from MEDCIN were more complex than those from CHISL, containing an average 3.8 versus 1.8 atomic concepts respectively, pterms.

  13. Using SNOMED CT to Represent Two Interface Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Brown, Steven H.; Froehling, David; Bauer, Brent A.; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Gregg, William M.; Elkin, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Interface terminologies are designed to support interactions between humans and structured medical information. In particular, many interface terminologies have been developed for structured computer based documentation systems. Experts and policy-makers have recommended that interface terminologies be mapped to reference terminologies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate how well the reference terminology SNOMED CT could map to and represent two interface terminologies, MEDCIN and the Categorical Health Information Structured Lexicon (CHISL). Design Automated mappings between SNOMED CT and 500 terms from each of the two interface terminologies were evaluated by human reviewers, who also searched SNOMED CT to identify better mappings when this was judged to be necessary. Reviewers judged whether they believed the interface terms to be clinically appropriate, whether the terms were covered by SNOMED CT concepts and whether the terms' implied semantic structure could be represented by SNOMED CT. Measurements Outcomes included concept coverage by SNOMED CT for study terms and their implied semantics. Agreement statistics and compositionality measures were calculated. Results The SNOMED CT terminology contained concepts to represent 92.4% of MEDCIN and 95.9% of CHISL terms. Semantic structures implied by study terms were less well covered, with some complex compositional expressions requiring semantics not present in SNOMED CT. Among sampled terms, those from MEDCIN were more complex than those from CHISL, containing an average 3.8 versus 1.8 atomic concepts respectively, pterms. PMID:18952944

  14. Chemical Nomenclature, Symbols and Terminology for Use in School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. G.; And Others

    This report contains recommendations on chemical nomenclature, guidance on symbols, and terminology and units for physiochemical quantities. This report, intended to provide guidance to science teachers, consists of eleven sections: (1) general introduction; (2) introduction to symbols, terminology, and units for physiochemical quantities; (3)…

  15. Furthering the aim of multi-lingualism through integrated terminology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims at giving a brief account of how the activities of the Unit for isiXho-sa, one of the five units of the Stellenbosch University Language Centre, contributes to the devel-opment of integrated technical terminology lists for all departments of the University. After the reason for this terminology development has been ...

  16. Teaching medicine with a terminology/ontology portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Julien; Merabti, Tayeb; Griffon, Nicolas; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2012-01-01

    The Health Terminology/Ontology Portal (HeTOP) was developed to provide easy access to health terminologies and ontologie. The repository is not only dedicated to professionals but is also a valuable teaching tool. Currently, it provides access to thirty two health terminologies and ontologies available mainly in French or in English, but also in German, Italian, Chinese, etc. HeTOP can be used by both humans and computers via Web services. To integrate new resources into HeTOP, three steps are necessary: (1) designing a meta-model into which each terminology (or ontology) can be integrated, (2) developing a process to include terminologies into HeTOP, (3) building and integrating existing and new inter & intra-terminology semantic harmonization into HeTOP. Currently, 600 unique machines use the MeSH version of HeTOP every day and restricted terminologies/ontologies are used for teaching purposes in several medical schools in France. The multilingual version of HeTOP is available (URL: http://hetop.eu/) and provides free access to ICD10 and FMA in ten languages. HeTOP is a rich tool, useful for a wide range of applications and users, especially in education and resource indexing but also in information retrieval or performing audits in terminology management.

  17. Terminologia anatomica: new terminology for the new anatomist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, I

    1999-04-15

    Over many years, anatomical terminology has been the subject of much controversy and disagreement. Previously, the International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee has been responsible for the production of six editions of Nomina Anatomica. In 1989 a new committee, the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT), was created by its parent body, the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA). FCAT has worked for 9 years and published Terminologia Anatomica (TA) in 1998. FCAT's aim has been to democratize the terminology and make it the internationally accepted, living language of anatomy. The worldwide adoption of the same terminology would eliminate national differences, which were causing extreme confusion in instances where the same structure was known by several names. The new terminology is thus the result of worldwide consultation and contains Latin and equivalent English terms. It is indexed in Latin and English and contains an index of eponyms in order to find the correct non-eponymous term. The future goal of FCAT is to continue to improve the terminology-new structures are described, different terms come into use, and the terminology needs to be expanded to include terms used by clinicians for structures that currently do not appear in the list. Future versions of the terminology must accommodate the needs of all who use it, both in the clinical and scientific worlds.

  18. EFL Majors' Knowledge of Metalinguistic Terminology: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and ninety-six English majors at universities in Poland, Austria and Hong Kong were given a 50-item questionnaire designed to evaluate their knowledge of grammatical terminology. The main aim was to identify whether the three populations were subject to differing "terminological cultures". This was found to be substantially…

  19. Alternative Concepts and Terminologies for Teaching African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Considers concepts and terminologies that focus on generalizations concerning traditional African art and cultures. Argues that alternative concepts and terminologies should be used in developing curriculum and in teaching non-Western art. Discusses traditional African religious beliefs, primitivism, and the function of African art objects. (KM)

  20. Multilingual Terminology Work in Theory – and in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Lassen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    In theory, multilingual terminology work is done by creating concept diagrams in each of the languages and comparing them to establish equivalences between concepts in the two languages. In practice, however, various terminology management systems (TMS) are used, end these systems hardly ever...

  1. Rita Temmerman. Towards New Ways of Terminology Description ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    (Louvain 1998) focused on Terminology Beyond Standardisation: Language and. Categorisation in the Life ... New Ways of Terminology Description: The Sociocognitive Approach, is to elaborate a new theory, method ... engineering, planning and standardisation, as a consequence of product standardisation, as the un-.

  2. Natural Science and Technology Terminology in the Sesotho sa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolingual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation definition' as is the case in the ...

  3. Terminology for Biorelated Polymers and Applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarm, V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Like most of the materials used by humans, polymeric materials are proposed in the literature and occasionally exploited clinically, as such, as devices or as part of devices, by surgeons, dentists, and pharmacists to treat traumata and diseases. Applications have in common the fact that polymers function in contact with animal and human cells, tissues, and/or organs. More recently, people have realized that polymers that are used as plastics in packaging, as colloidal suspension in paints, and under many other forms in the environment, are also in contact with living systems and raise problems related to sustainability, delivery of chemicals or pollutants, and elimination of wastes. These problems are basically comparable to those found in therapy. Last but not least, biotechnology and renewable resources are regarded as attractive sources of polymers. In all cases, water, ions, biopolymers, cells, and tissues are involved. Polymer scientists, therapists, biologists, and ecologists should thus use the same terminology to reflect similar properties, phenomena, and mechanisms. Of particular interest is the domain of the so-called „degradable or biodegradable polymers” that are aimed at providing materials with specific time-limited applications in medicine and in the environment where the respect of living systems, the elimination, and/or the bio-recycling are mandatory, at least ideally.

  4. Problems of Terminology in the Field of Measuring Instruments with Elements of Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roald TAYMANOV

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines some problems that concern terminology in the field of measuring instruments which include sensors and elements of artificial intelligence. At present, a "common language" in this area does not exist. It is shown that application of an evolutionary method helps to systematize the concepts and creates a basis facilitating understanding of the relations between terms. Proposals on terms and their definitions in the field considered are given.

  5. Basic Elements of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, knowledge sources (internal, external, and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social. Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization. At the end of the article there is mentioned the knowledge creating process (the concept of knowledge creation spiral and the role of Intelligence Technology (IT and organizational culture as main elements supporting knowledge management implementation in organizations.

  6. Proposed entry of organization in bilingual glossaries terminology - sign language and brazilian portuguese language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tuxi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work, which is inserted in the research line of Translation and Terminology, presented as an object of study the basic terms used in political and educational discourses that permeate national conference events. In respect to the Law 10436/2002 and Decree 5626/2005 is right for the Deaf have access to information in Brazilian Sign Language - Libras. One way to ensure this right is the presence of translator and interpreter to act in areas with specialized subjects should retain the knowledge of the specific terminology used in different contexts. The current study is based on the methodology for the preparation of dictionaries and glossaries Faulstich (1995. The research follows the approach of Socioterminology and as following: i recognition and identification of the target audience; ii delimitation of the surveyed area; iii collection and organization of data; iv organization glossary and validity test. The search result is the presentation of a proposal for entry of organizing a Terminology Glossary Bilingual facing the conference area that can serve as a reference source and training of translators and interpreters who work in the national conference events.

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  8. Beginning to Teach Chemistry: How Personal and Academic Characteristics of Pre-Service Science Teachers Compare with Their Understandings of Basic Chemical Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Vanessa; Kind, Per Morten

    2011-01-01

    Around 150 pre-service science teachers (PSTs) participated in a study comparing academic and personal characteristics with their misconceptions about basic chemical ideas taught to 11-16-year-olds, such as particle theory, change of state, conservation of mass, chemical bonding, mole calculations, and combustion reactions. Data, collected by…

  9. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  10. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  11. Legal terminology at arm's length - the multiple dimensions of legal terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at shedding new light on the multiple dimensions of legal terms which can be unearthed in the process of terminology mining as a crucial stage in translation. It proposes to view legal terminology from a sociocognitive perspective, according to which terms are perceived as expressing units of understanding based oncognitive frames rather than rendering concepts in their traditional definition. Upon closer scrutiny most of these units reveal significant information regarding their verbal and extra-verbal dimensions. We therefore suggest analysing units of understanding expressed by simple terms, multiple elements terms and phraseology as depositories of knowledge providing information on the text type in which they occur, as well as on there levant area of law, the legal system and the wider culture underlying the text. In this context, terminology mining is not intended merely as extraction of terms, but rather as their analysis, comparison and structuring which reveals aspects such as their multiple embeddedness, as well as their historical, ideological, metaphorical, status-conferringand common Latin dimension.

  12. Kyo Kageura. The Dynamics of Terminology: A Descriptive Theory of Term Formation and Terminological Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Gläser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This monograph was issued as Volume 5 in the series Terminology and Lexicography Research and Practice, edited by Marie-Claude L'Homme and Ulrich Heid and assisted by Juan C. Sager as Consulting Editor. The Japanese author, Kyo Kageura, does research work at the National Institute of Informatics in Tokyo. His theoretical background and methodological experience in term formation patterns and processes were influenced by intensive cooperation with European terminologists since the 1990s, notably the British linguists Juan C. Sager (Manchester, UMIST and Yorick Wilks (Sheffield, and R. Harald Baayan in the Netherlands.

  13. Terminology Modeling for an Enterprise Laboratory Orders Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Goldberg, Howard; Pabbathi, Deepika; Wright, Adam; Goldman, Debora S.; Van Putten, Cheryl; Barley, Amanda; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory test orders are used in a variety of clinical information systems at Partners HealthCare. At present, each site at Partners manages its own set of laboratory orders with locally defined codes. Our current plan is to implement an enterprise catalog, where laboratory test orders are mapped to reference terminologies and codes from different sites are mapped to each other. This paper describes the terminology modeling effort that preceded the implementation of the enterprise laboratory orders catalog. In particular, we present our experience in adapting HL7’s “Common Terminology Services 2 – Upper Level Class Model” as a terminology metamodel for guiding the development of fully specified laboratory orders and related services. PMID:20351950

  14. Terminology: A necessary tool for the Specialized Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura E. Navarro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Language disciplines, including Terminology and Specialized Translation, have made great strides after the second half of the twentieth century. This development, related to technological growth and international communication that occurred during this period, has resulted in a considerable increase of concepts. Thus, experts have become more and more aware of the importance of naming these new concepts. Specialized translators were among the first language professionals to recognize the need of mastering the terminology of specialized fields in order to perform their duties well (Antia et coll., 2005. In this work, we study the very close relationship between Terminology and Specialized Translation. We also study the theoretical and practical knowledge of Terminology that a specialized translator should have.

  15. A general method for sifting linguistic knowledge from structured terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabar, N; Zweigenbaum, P

    2000-01-01

    Morphological knowledge is useful for medical language processing, information retrieval and terminology or ontology development. We show how a large volume of morphological associations between words can be learnt from existing medical terminologies by taking advantage of the semantic relations already encoded between terms in these terminologies: synonymy, hierarchy and transversal relations. The method proposed relies on no a priori linguistic knowledge. Since it can work with different relations between terms, it can be applied to any structured terminology. Tested on SNOMED and ICD in French and English, it proves to identify fairly reliable morphological relations (precision > 90%) with a good coverage (over 88% compared to the UMLS lexical variant generation program). For English words with a stem longer than 3 characters, recall reaches 98.8% for inflection and 94.7% for derivation.

  16. EFSA Scientific Committee; Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    of risk assessment terminology and identified their relevance for EFSA to adopt more harmonised use. These included examining definitions of risk and uncertainty, expressing uncertainty and different levels of risk, the merits of using qualitative and quantitative expressions and the use of glossaries......The Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the use of risk assessment terminology within its Scientific Panels. An external report, commissioned by EFSA, analysed 219 opinions published by the Scientific Committee and Panels to recommend possible ways...... of improving the expression and communication of risk and/or uncertainties in the selected opinions. The Scientific Committee concluded that risk assessment terminology is not fully harmonised within EFSA. In part this is caused by sectoral legislation defining specific terminology and international standards...

  17. Anglicisme et emprunt terminologique (Anglicism and Terminological Borrowing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerat, Pierre

    1984-01-01

    Linguistic science offers some insights into the phenomenon of the borrowing of words, concepts, and connotations, particularly scientific terminology, from British and American English, showing the complexity of the problem and allowing measurement of the social and scientific implications. (MSE)

  18. Big Data in Public Health: Terminology, Machine Learning, and Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Stephen J; Pejaver, Vikas

    2018-04-01

    The digital world is generating data at a staggering and still increasing rate. While these "big data" have unlocked novel opportunities to understand public health, they hold still greater potential for research and practice. This review explores several key issues that have arisen around big data. First, we propose a taxonomy of sources of big data to clarify terminology and identify threads common across some subtypes of big data. Next, we consider common public health research and practice uses for big data, including surveillance, hypothesis-generating research, and causal inference, while exploring the role that machine learning may play in each use. We then consider the ethical implications of the big data revolution with particular emphasis on maintaining appropriate care for privacy in a world in which technology is rapidly changing social norms regarding the need for (and even the meaning of) privacy. Finally, we make suggestions regarding structuring teams and training to succeed in working with big data in research and practice.

  19. Fascial eponyms may help elucidate terminological and nomenclatural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adstrum, Sue

    2015-07-01

    It has been reported that at least 700 anatomical eponyms were in existence at the end of the 19th century, yet the number of eponyms expressly relating to fasciae is unknown, and these anatomical expressions have yet to be described as a group. This study accordingly aimed to assemble a comprehensive-as-possible list of these terms, to investigate their customary usage, and to consider whether their existence might usefully shed light on contemporary fascia-relating terminological development. A search for fascia-relating eponyms incorporated within a range of English language anatomical and medical publications during the past 400 years resulted in the discovery of 44 eponyms that explicitly refer to aspects of fascia. This article outlines and discusses the origin, meaning, and use of these terms, and concludes that an understanding of the history of fascial eponyms may be of value when addressing contemporary concerns with the language used to describe fascia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission Systems: Terminology and Present Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of continuously variable transmission systems in many different areas such as aerospace, robotics, machinery and automotive industries as an alternative to conventional speed changers with constant ratio becomes widely.Especially in the automotive industry, these systems have been used increasingly, since they enable that internal combustion engines in vehicles run at optimal speeds, and consequently provide considerable fuel savings and therefore lower emission values and also they provide powerful acceleration and quiet working. CVT systems have several constructive variants such as belted, chained, balled, toroidal etc. In this paper, toroidal CVT systems based on elastohydrodynamic principles are concerned with, and fundamental works of last two decades in this field are reviewed. However, the relevant terminology and dynamics along with the control of these systems are briefly treated for better understanding of the literature mentioned. Attention is drawn to the lack of some significant issues in present research works, and potential future works are pointed out. This paper, to the authors’ knowledge, will be the first review on toroidal CVT systems in Turkish literature

  1. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  2. Terminology of the prostate and related structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell-Smith, C

    2000-01-01

    The various studies of J.E. McNeal (1968ndash;1977) established with precision the different sites of predilection for prostatic carcinomas, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), and inflammation, making the division of the prostate into right, left, and middle lobes and isthmus inadequate for their description. Unfortunately, his positional terms for the sites (peripheral, central, transition, and preprostatic) are not based on the usual parameters and cannot be directly related to those of other workers. Nevertheless, the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists' Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology has made recommendations in Terminologia Anatomica, based on his findings but modified to take some account of those of Tisell and Salander (1975 Scand J Urol Nephrol 1975 9:185-191). The use of the term lobe is confined to the right and left lobes and the variable middle lobe. The term lobule is used for the subdivisions, which are named from the anatomical position. Thus each side has a superomedial, an anteromedial, an inferoposterior, and an inferolateral lobule. Also necessary to describe a site of predilection is a peri-urethral gland zone. In ultrasound diagnosis, the trapezoid area is important: its upper limit is the rectoperinealis, its anterior limit is the intermediate part of the urethra, its lower limit is the anoperinealis, and its posterior limit is the anorectal junction. Confusion at the bladder neck is resolved by recognizing that the position of the internal urethral orifice varies with functional state of the bladder: while it is filling the orifice lies above the base of the prostate; when voiding begins, the orifice descends to the base of the prostate; between the filling internal orifice and the emptying internal orifice is the bladder neck part of the urethra. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Language and Law seen through “Canon of Laberia” Greek - Albanian terminological words

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Kaishi

    2018-01-01

    Law and language are linked together. If we use a direct language to express law, it will be more understandable for the audience. If we interpret it in the right way, again the audience will better understand law. Moreover if we interpret it right, even the verdict will be disposed the right way. According to the legal terminology, we are interested to the words that Albanian language has taken from Greek language. I am not speaking about modern times, but if we see back in time there are a ...

  4. Anesthesia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia Basics What's in ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  6. Linked Heritage: a collaborative terminology management platform for a network of multilingual thesauri and controlled vocabularies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Veronique Leroi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminology and multilingualism have been one of the main focuses of the Athena Project. Linked Heritage as a legacy of this project also deals with terminology and bring theory to practice applying the recommendations given in the Athena Project. Linked Heritage as a direct follow-up of these recommendations on terminology and multilingualism is currently working on the development of a Terminology Management Platform (TMP. This platform will allow any cultural institution to register, SKOSify and manage its terminology in a collaborative way. This Terminology Management Platform will provide a network of multilingual and cross-domain terminologies.

  7. The Problems of Translating Aristotle: Some Typical Unresolved Questions of Terminology and Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle's scientific language of' philosophy includes "sublime words", (semna onomata such as Being, Cosmos, Harmony, God, infinity, and so remains halfway between poetry and science. In Vico's view Aristotle's prose represents a completed transition from poetry to ordinary language, whereas Heidegger's theory of translating considers the basic Greek philosophical terms, such as to on and logos to be as untranslatable as high poetry. Aristotle's language and terminology are a reflection of his philosophy. The foundation of his first philosophy is the experience that the term "being" (to on has several senses (pollahos legetai In order to engage in debate we must first be able to establish ill how many senses a given term can be used. Therefore some philosophical subjects are treated by Aristotle in the form of a philosophical dictionary, i.e. Book V of the Metaphysics. The rendering of many basic terms from Greek philosophy into modern languages entails a preliminary interpretation, as well as an inquiry into the terminological possibilities of the target language. In the case of Slovene some Greek terms lack translation equivalents while others have been translated with an overabundance of synonyms.

  8. Adoption of dental innovations: The case of a standardized dental diagnostic terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoni, Rachel B; Etolue, Jini; Tokede, Oluwabunmi; McClellan, Lyle; Simmons, Kristen; Yansane, Alfa; White, Joel M; Walji, Muhammad F; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2017-05-01

    Standardized dental diagnostic terminologies (SDDxTs) were introduced decades ago. Their use has been on the rise, accompanying the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs). One of the most broadly used terminologies is the Dental Diagnostic System (DDS). Our aim was to assess the adoption of SDDxTs by US dental schools by using the Rogers diffusion of innovations framework, focusing on the DDS. The authors electronically surveyed clinic deans in all US dental schools (n = 61) to determine use of an EHR and SDDxT, perceived barriers to adoption of an SDDxT, and the effect of implementing an SDDxT on clinical productivity. The response rate was 57%. Of the 35 responses, 91% reported using an EHR to document patient care, with 84% using axiUm; 41% used the DDS. Fifty-four percent of those who did not use an SDDxT had considered adopting the DDS, but 38% had not, citing barriers such as complexity and compatibility. Adoption of an SDDxT, particularly the DDS, is on the rise. Nevertheless, a large number of institutions are in the Rogers late majority and laggards categories with respect to adoption. Several factors may discourage adoption, including the inability to try out the terminology on a small scale, poor usability within the EHR, the fact that it would be a cultural shift in practice, and a perception of unclear benefits. However, the consolidation of the DDS and American Dental Association terminology efforts stands to encourage adoption. The successful adoption of dental innovation depends not only on the intrinsic merit of the innovation, as some useful innovations do not achieve widespread traction. As such, it is important for health care providers to understand how to disseminate their ideas in order to ensure traction and widespread adoption. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ... of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... in controlling movement, managing the release of various hormones, and aiding the flow of information to the ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  13. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. ... messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell organelles. ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  3. Terminology in South Africa Terminologie in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This article deals with terminology and terminography in South Africa. It gives the different meanings attached to the term terminology and describes points of difference between terminology and terminography. It focuses on the dimensions of terminology, namely the cognitive, linguistic and communicative dimension. Since terminologists need to consult with subject specialists, linguists, language users and mother-tongue speakers during different phases of the terminography process, the role of consultation in terminology work is stressed. Various aspects such as cultural differences that need to be taken care of, are discussed. The current South African terminology and terminography situation regarding terminology work undertaken by the National Language Service is examined. Emphasis is placed on the database system being used and the National Termbank. Terminology training also receives attention.

    Keywords: terminology, terminography, terminologist, terminographer, cognitive dimension, linguistic dimension, communicative dimension, technical dictionary, subject specialist, subject field, subject-oriented, concept-oriented, language-oriented, standardisation, primary term formation, secondary term formation, loan words, borrowing, transliteration, neologism, extension of meaning, total embedding, transference

     

    Hierdie artikel handel oor terminologie en terminografie in Suid-Afrika. Dit verskaf die verskillende betekenisse wat aan die term terminologie geheg word en beskryf punte van verskil tussen terminologie en terminografie. Daar word gefokus op die dimensies van terminologie, naamlik die kognitiewe dimensie, die taaldimensie en die kommunikatiewe dimensie. Aangesien terminoloë vakspesialiste, linguiste, taalgebruikers en moedertaalsprekers gedurende verskillende fases van terminologiewerk moet raadpleeg, word die rol van konsultasie in terminologiewerk beklemtoon. Verskeie aspekte waaraan aandag gegee

  4. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  5. [Terminological and classification aspects of laparoscopic hysterectomies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, S; Gorchev, G; Tzvetkov, Ch; Iliev, S; Gincheva, D

    2012-01-01

    There is a great variety of terms and concepts describing laparoscopic hysterectomy in scientific literature. The term "laparoscopic hysterectomy" includes different operations where the laparoscope is used as an aid for a hysterectomy. The first classifications related to hysterectomy laparoscopic procedures were suggested by Munro and Parker (1993) Johns and Diamonds (1994) and Garry et al. (1994). Based on them is the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists (AAGL) classification of 2000. Reich defined basic terms easy to use in clinical practice. The elaboration of a suitable classification system describing the size of laparoscopic intervention in hysterectomy is a prerequisite for an adequate comparison of the results of scientific researches.

  6. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

  7. [Presence and characteristics of nursing terminology in Wikipedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lorente, María; Guardiola-Wanden-Berghe, Rocío; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2013-10-01

    To determine the presence and consultations with nurse terminology in the Spanish edition of Wikipedia, and to analyze the differences with the English edition. We confirmed the existence of terminology via the Internet by the access to the Spanish and English editions of Wikipedia. We calculated the study sample (n = 386) from the 1840 nursery terms. 337 were found in the Spanish edition and 350 in the English. We found significant differences between the two editions (p < 0.001). Also differences were winched on to the number of references in terms (p < 0.001). However, there were not differences in the update/obsolescence of information, neither in the number of queries. The entries (articles) on nursing terminology in the Spanish edition of Wikipedia, has not yet reached an optimum level. Differences between Spanish and English editions of Wikipedia are more related to term existence than adequacy of information.

  8. Definition, categorization, and terminology of episodic breathlessness: consensus by an international Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steffen T; Weingärtner, Vera; Higginson, Irene J; Voltz, Raymond; Bausewein, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Episodic breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom in patients with advanced disease. Still, it is not yet clearly defined. The aim of this work was to develop an international definition, categorization, and terminology of episodic breathlessness. An online Delphi survey was conducted with international breathlessness experts. We used a structured questionnaire to identify specific aspects and reach agreement on a definition, categorization, and terminology (five-point Likert scale). Consensus was defined in advance as ≥70% agreement. Thirty-one of 68 (45.6%), 29 of 67 (43.3%), and 33 of 67 (49.3%) experts responded in the first, second, and third rounds, respectively. Participants were 20-79 years old, about 60% male, and more than 75% rated their own breathlessness expertise as moderate to high. After three rounds, consensus was reached on a definition, categorization, and terminology (84.4%, 96.3%, and 92.9% agreement). The final definition includes general and qualitative aspects of the symptom, for example, time-limited severe worsening of intensity or unpleasantness of breathlessness in the patient's perception. Categories are predictable or unpredictable, depending on whether any triggers can be identified. There is high agreement on clinical and operational aspects of episodic breathlessness in advanced disease among international experts. The consented definition and categorization may serve as a catalyst for clinical and basic research to improve symptom control and patients' quality of life. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Next generation terminology infrastructure to support interprofessional care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah; Klinkenberg-Ramirez, Stephanie; Tsivkin, Kira; Mar, Perry L; Iskhakova, Dina; Nandigam, Hari; Samal, Lipika; Rocha, Roberto A

    2017-11-01

    Develop a prototype of an interprofessional terminology and information model infrastructure that can enable care planning applications to facilitate patient-centered care, learn care plan linkages and associations, provide decision support, and enable automated, prospective analytics. The study steps included a 3 step approach: (1) Process model and clinical scenario development, and (2) Requirements analysis, and (3) Development and validation of information and terminology models. Components of the terminology model include: Health Concerns, Goals, Decisions, Interventions, Assessments, and Evaluations. A terminology infrastructure should: (A) Include discrete care plan concepts; (B) Include sets of profession-specific concerns, decisions, and interventions; (C) Communicate rationales, anticipatory guidance, and guidelines that inform decisions among the care team; (D) Define semantic linkages across clinical events and professions; (E) Define sets of shared patient goals and sub-goals, including patient stated goals; (F) Capture evaluation toward achievement of goals. These requirements were mapped to AHRQ Care Coordination Measures Framework. This study used a constrained set of clinician-validated clinical scenarios. Terminology models for goals and decisions are unavailable in SNOMED CT, limiting the ability to evaluate these aspects of the proposed infrastructure. Defining and linking subsets of care planning concepts appears to be feasible, but also essential to model interprofessional care planning for common co-occurring conditions and chronic diseases. We recommend the creation of goal dynamics and decision concepts in SNOMED CT to further enable the necessary models. Systems with flexible terminology management infrastructure may enable intelligent decision support to identify conflicting and aligned concerns, goals, decisions, and interventions in shared care plans, ultimately decreasing documentation effort and cognitive burden for clinicians and

  10. Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units, 1979 Edition contains physical quantity tabulations of products. The Commission on Symbols, Terminology, and Units is a part of the Division of Physical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Its general responsibilities are to secure clarity and precision, and wider agreement in the use of symbols, by chemists in different countries, among physicists, chemists, and engineers, and by editors of scientific journals. This book is composed of 13 chapters, and begins with the determination o

  11. Analysis Of The Notion Of Decent Work In Its Conceptual, Terminological And Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Vieira Pessanha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the notion of decent work, especially in the conceptual, terminological and legal perspectives, analyzing its scope, its relevance for the realization of the dignity of the human person and how the legal set contemplates and stimulates its practical verification. The objective is to develop a more detailed appreciation of the meaning created by the International Labor Organization, understanding peculiarities and delimiting the application in the legal world. The research is qualitative, with method of bibliographical revision, listing directly related documents (national and international norms and consulting other sources (official websites and dictionaries.

  12. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  13. Geoscience terminology for data interchange: the CGI Geoscience Terminology Work Group (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.; Gtwg, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) has formed the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/ geoscience_terminology_ working_group.html) to unify vocabulary development efforts of the Multhes working group of the 1990s, the Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) formed in 2003, and the Concept Definition Task Group formed in 2007. The workgroup charge is to develop, review, adopt, publish, and steward vocabularies and associated documentation for use in geoscience information systems. The group will develop liaisons with other semantic interoperability groups to ensure cross-domain interoperability. The objective is to create vocabularies that bind URIs to geoscience concepts, and allow linking between concepts in the CGI vocabularies and other vocabularies such as SWEET, GEMET, and the GCMD. Representations of the concepts use SKOS RDF/XML and a standardized vocabulary service that to enable navigating links to concepts, accessing definitions, and obtaining language-localized labels for concepts. The SISSvoc service developed by CSIRO Australia has been deployed for CGI vocabulary services. Vocabularies are currently constructed by gathering candidate terms in spreadsheet tables because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Each vocabulary is 'shepherded' by a GTWG member, who is responsible for organizing a team to compile a draft vocabulary, present it for review by appropriate authorities, respond to review comments, and determine when the vocabulary is ready for adoption by a vote of the workgroup. The first meeting of the work group took place, hosted by VSEGEI in St

  14. Basic Terminology and Concepts in International Peacekeeping Operations: An Analytical Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demurenko, Andrei; Nikitin, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    .... These terms and concepts describe the various types of peacekeeping operations and the directives which pertain to them, and they characterize the actions which are taken in the course of performing these operations...

  15. PyMedTermino: an open-source generic API for advanced terminology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Venot, Alain; Duclos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The integration of terminologies is still a challenging problem in medical informatics research and software applications, due to the high number of heterogeneous terminologies. In this paper, we present a generic API (Application Programming Interface) for a multi-terminology multilingual terminology service, and PyMedTermino, its open-source implementation in Python with 5 terminological resources (ICD10, SNOMED CT, MedDRA, CDF, VCM iconic language) and the UMLS compendium. This service has been designed for research and educational purpose. It offers various advanced functionalities rarely present in terminology services.

  16. Basic conceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of book author presents the basic conceptions of minerals studying. The course of minerals deposits is the most important branch of geology science and studying the geology, material constitution, formation conditions and regularity of distribution in earth crust different types of mineral raw materials

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mental illnesses. Search the NIMH Website: Home Health & Education Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at ... Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by which the cell sends information to receiving neurons. cell body —Contains the nucleus and cytoplasm of a ... circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us About Us Home About the Director Advisory Boards and ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes ...

  1. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  2. Influences from Latin on Chemical Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of Latin-derived words and terms used in chemistry, and explores the meaning of these words, so as to lead to a better understanding of these words, so commonly used in the teaching of chemistry. As the article shows, there are many such words, and with some elementary knowledge, a greater meaning is given to these…

  3. A cognitive analysis of metaphor in Shona terminological dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well-known among linguists and lexicographers that metaphor plays a pivotal role in the creation of new terminology and its importance in the expansion of the Shona lexicon in response to scientific, technical and educational demands cannot be overemphasised. Like most languages, Shona is growing through the use ...

  4. Power Transformers: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol.2, No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to power transformers. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  5. Natural science and technology terminology in the sesotho sa leboa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation definition' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries. Keywords: transliteration, coinage, coined lexical item, loan ...

  6. Latest German-English Terminology in CADCAM & Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    As a technical translator who speaks German fluently, the author would like to study and display the latest bilingual technical terminology in German being used in hardware, software and process technology involved in CADCAM & ROBOTICS. This will greatly help technical translators to correctly translate difficult texts from this area of technology.

  7. Teaching Strategies: Supporting EAL Students in Learning Biology Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Primani; Cooper, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to teaching strategies that can be used to support English as Additional Language (EAL) students in learning biology terminology. The paper begins with an overview of EAL students and considers the difficulties that they may face in the classroom along with the challenges that mainstream teachers may have…

  8. Conflicts of Principles and Ideologies in Musicological Terminology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It becomes incumbent upon the dominance of the Orient music to nullify as biased, the European and North American laid down determinant factors for the apt musical terminologies. This call needs urgent attention, especially in the face of the scramble for musico-cultural identity under globalization syndrome. With this ...

  9. Terminology and nomenclature in sport and exercise medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    well-defined terminology, the results of studies can be compared and the knowledge in that area develops at a more rapid rate. There are many examples in sport and exercise medicine research where this has happened. Consider cricket research, where the lack of consistent definitions for injury in the sport resulted in the ...

  10. 9 CFR 146.44 - Terminology and classification; States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.44 Terminology and classification; States... Avian Influenza Monitored State, Turkeys when it has been determined by the Service that: (i) All meat..., the source of all meat-type turkey specimens that were deemed positive on an official test for avian...

  11. Historical evolution of anatomical terminology from ancient to modern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2007-06-01

    The historical development of anatomical terminology from the ancient to the modern can be divided into five stages. The initial stage is represented by the oldest extant anatomical treatises by Galen of Pergamon in the Roman Empire. The anatomical descriptions by Galen utilized only a limited number of anatomical terms, which were essentially colloquial words in the Greek of this period. In the second stage, Vesalius in the early 16th century described the anatomical structures in his Fabrica with the help of detailed magnificent illustrations. He coined substantially no anatomical terms, but devised a system that distinguished anatomical structures with ordinal numbers. The third stage of development in the late 16th century was marked by innovation of a large number of specific anatomical terms especially for the muscles, vessels and nerves. The main figures at this stage were Sylvius in Paris and Bauhin in Basel. In the fourth stage between Bauhin and the international anatomical terminology, many anatomical textbooks were written mainly in Latin in the 17th century, and in modern languages in the 18th and 19th centuries. Anatomical terms for the same structure were differently expressed by different authors. The last stage began at the end of the 19th century, when the first international anatomical terminology in Latin was published as Nomina anatomica. The anatomical terminology was revised repeatedly until the current Terminologia anatomica both in Latin and English.

  12. Beyond Terminology: The Policy Impact of a Grassroots Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Marty; Acosta, Annie; Sutcliffe, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the history of the grassroots movement led by self-advocates and their families to replace the stigmatizing term "mental retardation" with "intellectual disability" in federal statute. It also describes recent and pending changes in federal regulations and policy to adopt the new terminology for Social Security and Medicaid.

  13. The National Terminology Services: a new paradigm | Jordaan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new dispensation in South Africa necessitated a paradigm shift at the National Terminology Services (NTS). Being part of the Central Government, the NTS has to implement policy as laid down by the government of the day. Former policy, processes and products are described as well as the vision and objectives for the ...

  14. Terminology of Sexuality Expressions that Exclude Penetration: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menn, Mindy; Goodson, Patricia; Pruitt, Buzz; Peck-Parrott, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    Precise terminology is paramount in sexuality education. Most sexuality research focuses on the dichotomous concepts of sexual intercourse and virginity, yet there are many expressions of sexuality classified as neither. The purpose of this literature review is to identify and examine the various terms and definitions describing sexuality…

  15. Latest German-English Terminology in CADCAM and Robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S M

    2014-01-01

    As a technical translator who speaks German fluently, the author would like to study and display the latest bilingual technical terminology in German being used in hardware, software and process technology involved in CADCAM and ROBOTICS. This will greatly help technical translators to correctly translate difficult texts from this area of technology

  16. Clinical Terminology: Anxiety and Confusion amongst Families Undergoing Genetic Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Alison; Campion, Peter; May, Carl

    1997-01-01

    An ethnographic study of families (N=30) receiving genetic counseling explored participants' perceptions of the process. Focuses on respondents' confusion about the meaning of medical terms. Although clients approved of the way information was presented, terminology was often confusing or frightening. Specific examples are presented and discussed.…

  17. Terminology and definitions on groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weir, Adam; Hölmich, Per; Schache, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    taxonomy reflects only a slight agreement between the various diagnostic terms provided by the selected experts. CONCLUSIONS: This short Delphi survey of two 'typical, straightforward' cases demonstrated major inconsistencies in the diagnostic terminology used by experts for groin pain in athletes...

  18. Problems of Kinship Terminology: A Case in Some English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Stone (2000: 5) sees kinship as relationships between persons based on descent or marriage. However, kinship terminology varies from one language to an- other. In some instances, providing the actual meaning and correct equivalents of kinship terms is difficult. Languages differ in the way they express certain meanings.

  19. 18 CFR 380.2 - Definitions and terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information concerning the environment, the applicant's analysis of the environmental impact of the action, or... POLICY ACT § 380.2 Definitions and terminology. For purposes of this part— (a) Categorical exclusion... significant effect on the human environment and which the Commission has found to have no such effect and for...

  20. Iron Metallurgy: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to iron metallurgy. Various aspects of iron production are described in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  1. Traduction automatique et terminologie automatique (Automatic Translation and Automatic Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Jules

    1978-01-01

    An exposition of reasons why a system of automatic translation could not use a terminology bank except as a source of information. The fundamental difference between the two tools is explained and examples of translation and mistranslation are given as evidence of the limits and possibilities of each process. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  2. Kyo Kageura. The Dynamics of Terminology: A Descriptive Theory of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    This monograph was issued as Volume 5 in the series Terminology and Lexi- cography Research and Practice, ... European terminologists since the 1990s, notably the British linguists Juan C. Sager (Manchester, UMIST) and ... For all types and models of intra-term conceptual relations the English translation is given.

  3. 9 CFR 145.34 - Terminology and classification; States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Special Provisions for Multiplier Meat-Type Chicken Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.34 Terminology and...). (ii) No pullorum disease or fowl typhoid is known to exist nor to have existed in hatchery supply... typhoid occur in hatchery supply flocks described in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, or if an...

  4. 9 CFR 145.24 - Terminology and classification; States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Special Provisions for Multiplier Egg-Type Chicken Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.24 Terminology and...). (ii) No pullorum disease or fowl typhoid is known to exist nor to have existed in hatchery supply... typhoid occur in hatchery supply flocks described in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, or if an...

  5. Centre for Political and Related Terminology in Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of CEPTSA is to promote the usage of political and related terminology in Southern Africa. Research is being done on these subject fields, and relevant concepts and terms are harvested, defined and translated. The source language is English and Afrikaans was initially the target language. The Centre, however ...

  6. Pemahaman Mahasiswa Terhadap Beberapa Terminologi Akuntansi

    OpenAIRE

    Anggon; Harahap, Sofyan S; Harahap, Ramlan

    2006-01-01

    The paper studies how far the understanding of students on ten accounting terrminologies e.i.: (1) cost, (2) expense, (3) revenue, (4) income (5) inventory, (6) gain, (7) loss, (8) depreciation, (9) retained earning, and 10) going concern. The study is conducted in a private university on each department: accounting, management and economics on the academic year 2003/2004. The respondents were in the sixth or seventh semester, intake, 2001, 2000, 1999 and before. Samples of 150 are selected b...

  7. SECT STUDIES IN USSR: TERMINOLOGY AND APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safronov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main theme of the article is sect studies in USSR. Soviet tradition in the fi eld did not appear from the thin air but was a «dialectic» — in the sense that simultaneously and legitimately can be estimated as continuation and rejection — sequel of pre-Soviet sect-study approach. Soviet tradition per se is based on ambiguous — according to Lenin’s position — understanding of sectarianism as an example of class combat (positive dimension but religiously specific (negative dimension. This negative attitude was expressed in specific ideological and political position towards sectarianism. Stating this position was a priority and that is why the establishing of proper Soviet scientifi c approach was problematic. It began to form only in the 1960-s. The term «sect» for both pre-Soviet and Soviet researches had negative connotation in dogmatic way for the former and in ideological way for the latter. Such a long history of negative understanding of the term makes it very hard to understand it as a neutral in contemporary Russia

  8. Platerm: la banque de terminologie du systeme Platon (PLATERM: The Terminology Bank of the PLATO System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace; St-Denis, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Describes the elements and functioning of the terminology bank of the PLATO (Programmed Loqic for Automated Teaching Operation) system. Discusses contemporary terminology and lexicography notions on which the bank is based and outlines the tasks performed through PLATERM. (MES)

  9. Comparison of Japanese notation and meanings among three terminologies in radiological technology domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagahara, Ayako; Tsuji, Shintaro; Fukuda, Akihisa; Nishimoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in the notation of technical terms and their meanings among three terminologies in Japanese radiology-related societies. The three terminologies compared in this study were 'radiological technology terminology' and its supplement published by the Japan Society of Radiological Technology, 'medical physics terminology' published by the Japan Society of Medical Physics, and 'electric radiation terminology' published by the Japan Radiological Society. Terms were entered into spreadsheets and classified into the following three categories: Japanese notation, English notation, and meanings. In the English notation, terms were matched to character strings in the three terminologies and were extracted and compared. The Japanese notations were compared among three terminologies, and the difference between the meanings of the two terminologies radiological technology terminology and electric radiation terminology were compared. There were a total of 14,982 terms in the three terminologies. In English character strings, 2,735 terms were matched to more than two terminologies, with 801 of these terms matched to all the three terminologies. Of those terms in English character strings matched to three terminologies, 752 matched to Japanese character strings. Of the terms in English character strings matched to two terminologies, 1,240 matched to Japanese character strings. With regard to the meanings category, eight terms had mismatched meanings between the two terminologies. For these terms, there were common concepts between two different meaning terms, and it was considered that the derived concepts were described based on domain. (author)

  10. Remote Sensing Terminology in a Global and Knowledge-Based World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Rumiana

    The paper is devoted to terminology issues related to all aspects of remote sensing research and applications. Terminology is the basis for a better understanding among people. It is crucial to keep up with the latest developments and novelties of the terminology in advanced technology fields such as aerospace science and industry. This is especially true in remote sensing and geoinformatics which develop rapidly and have ever extending applications in various domains of science and human activities. Remote sensing terminology issues are directly relevant to the contemporary worldwide policies on information accessibility, dissemination and utilization of research results in support of solutions to global environmental challenges and sustainable development goals. Remote sensing and spatial information technologies are an integral part of the international strategies for cooperation in scientific, research and application areas with a particular accent on environmental monitoring, ecological problems natural resources management, climate modeling, weather forecasts, disaster mitigation and many others to which remote sensing data can be put. Remote sensing researchers, professionals, students and decision makers of different counties and nationalities should fully understand, interpret and translate into their native language any term, definition or acronym found in papers, books, proceedings, specifications, documentation, and etc. The importance of the correct use, precise definition and unification of remote sensing terms refers not only to people working in this field but also to experts in a variety of disciplines who handle remote sensing data and information products. In this paper, we draw the attention on the specifics, peculiarities and recent needs of compiling specialized dictionaries in the area of remote sensing focusing on Earth observations and the integration of remote sensing with other geoinformation technologies such as photogrammetry, geodesy

  11. WE-F-BRB-01: The Power of Ontologies and Standardized Terminologies for Capturing Clinical Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, P.

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in informatics in radiotherapy are opening up opportunities to improve our ability to assess treatment plans. Models on individualizing patient dose constraints from prior patient data and shape relationships have been extensively researched and are now making their way into commercial products. New developments in knowledge based treatment planning involve understanding the impact of the radiation dosimetry on the patient. Akin to radiobiology models that have driven intensity modulated radiotherapy optimization, toxicity and outcome predictions based on treatment plans and prior patient experiences may be the next step in knowledge based planning. In order to realize these predictions, it is necessary to understand how the clinical information can be captured, structured and organized with ontologies and databases designed for recall. Large databases containing radiation dosimetry and outcomes present the opportunity to evaluate treatment plans against predictions of toxicity and disease response. Such evaluations can be based on dose volume histogram or even the full 3-dimensional dose distribution and its relation to the critical anatomy. This session will provide an understanding of ontologies and standard terminologies used to capture clinical knowledge into structured databases; How data can be organized and accessed to utilize the knowledge in planning; and examples of research and clinical efforts to incorporate that clinical knowledge into planning for improved care for our patients. Learning Objectives: Understand the role of standard terminologies, ontologies and data organization in oncology Understand methods to capture clinical toxicity and outcomes in a clinical setting Understand opportunities to learn from clinical data and its application to treatment planning Todd McNutt receives funding from Philips, Elekta and Toshiba for some of the work presented

  12. АSTERISM AND CONSTELLATION: TERMINOLOGICAL DILEMMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Prnjat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary astronomical literature, there is no uniform definition of the term asterism. This inconsistency is the consequence of differences between traditional understanding of the term constellation, from the standpoint of the naked eye astronomy, and its contemporary understanding from the standpoint of the International Astronomical Union. A traditional constellation is a recognizable star configuration with a well-established name, whereas the International Astronomical Union defines a constellation as an exactly defined sector of the cosmic space that belongs to a particular traditional constellation. Asterism is a lower rank term in comparison to constellation, and as such it may not denote a whole traditional constellation, as these terms would become synonymous and parts of constellations would become “asterisms of asterisms“. Similarly, asterism cannot define a macro configuration composed of the brightest stars in more constellations, thus, the Summer Triangle and other sky polygons are not asterisms. Therefore, asterisms are neither constellations nor sky polygons, but the third – easily recognizable parts of traditional constellations with historically well-established names, including separate groups of smaller stars that belong to star clusters (autonomous asterisms. Forms and names of asterisms may or may not be consistent with the parent constellation, and accordingly asterisms can be divided into compatible and incompatible. If asterisms have outlived the exact division of the celestial sphere and remained irreplaceable celestial landmarks in the naked eye astronomy, it is high time for the International Astronomical Union to agree on the definition of asterism and to compile their official list.

  13. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  14. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Directories Getting to NIMH Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses. Search the NIMH Website: Home ... could greatly help in early detection, more tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... her feelings. Brain Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of ... other. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mdash;An imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading ... how the brain is wired and how the normal brain's structure develops and matures helps scientists understand ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Getting to NIMH Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses. Search the NIMH Website: Home Health & Education Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that helps us better understand and treat disorders. Mental disorders are common. You may have a friend, colleague, or relative with a mental disorder, or perhaps you have experienced one yourself ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ... brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in the ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, and responds to ... brain's structure develops and matures helps scientists understand what goes wrong in mental illnesses. Scientists have already ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... each other How changes in the brain can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing ... understanding of genes and epigenetics may one day lead to genetic testing for people at risk for ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may help scientists to pinpoint when and where mental disorders begin and perhaps how to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... fear, such as overcoming a fear of spiders. Studying how the amygdala helps create memories of fear ... her feelings. Brain Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that helps us better understand and treat disorders. Mental disorders are common. You may have a friend, colleague, or relative with a mental disorder, or perhaps you have experienced one yourself at ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Plan Offices and Divisions Budget Careers at NIMH Staff Directories Getting to NIMH Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses. Search the NIMH Website: Home Health & Education Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doctor that she had experienced long periods of deep sadness throughout her teenage years, but had never ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may one ... cell that contains DNA and information the cell needs for growing, staying alive, and making new neurons. ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain ... the normal brain's structure develops and matures helps scientists understand what goes wrong in mental illnesses. Scientists ...

  10. ENLISH JURIDICAL TERMINOLOGY IN INDIAN DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bytko Nataliya Sergeevna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lexicography of India has a long and fruitful history with Sanskrit being the central object of lexicographic description. However, the development of linguistic and sociocultural situation in the region brought other languages, including English, to the attention of lexicographers. In this article, one of the first dictionaries representing the use of English in India A Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms and Useful Words is studied. The methodology consists in the complex lexicographic analysis of the dictionary in the context with the linguistic and sociocultural situation in India. The research revealed the correlation between macroand micro- parameters of the dictionary and linguistic and sociocultural situation of the time. At the macro-level the correlation manifests itself in the fact that the dictionary parameters and the content were determined by the board of directors of the East India Company; the boards recommendations were based on the necessities of the Companys employees around the Raj territory. The exigency of better understanding of the terms cultural components required the substantial use of encyclopedic information. As a result, the dictionary typological characteristics were changed. At the micro-level the correlation reveals itself in the unification of entries orthography, in the combination of alphabetical and net word ordering.

  11. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  12. New Challenges in the Translation of Terminology for Software Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Belda-Medina, Jose Ramon

    2015-01-01

    English has played a dominant role in the terminology of computers and the New Technologies in the last decades. The growing expansion worldwide of different electronic devices and multitasking smart phones has brought about an increasing number of software applications or apps in the market. Creating multilingual applications is a major challenge for developers and companies as sale revenues are on the rise in this sector. The translation and localisation into Spanish and other languages ent...

  13. Auditing as Part of the Terminology Design Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hua; Perl, Yehoshua; Chen, Yan; Halper, Michael; Geller, James; Wang, Yue

    2006-01-01

    Objective To develop and test an auditing methodology for detecting errors in medical terminologies satisfying systematic inheritance. This methodology is based on various abstraction taxonomies that provide high-level views of a terminology and highlight potentially erroneous concepts. Design Our auditing methodology is based on dividing concepts of a terminology into smaller, more manageable units. First, we divide the terminology’s concepts into areas according to their relationships/roles. Then each multi-rooted area is further divided into partial-areas (p-areas) that are singly-rooted. Each p-area contains a set of structurally and semantically uniform concepts. Two kinds of abstraction networks, called the area taxonomy and p-area taxonomy, are derived. These taxonomies form the basis for the auditing approach. Taxonomies tend to highlight potentially erroneous concepts in areas and p-areas. Human reviewers can focus their auditing efforts on the limited number of problematic concepts following two hypotheses on the probable concentration of errors. Results A sample of the area taxonomy and p-area taxonomy for the Biological Process (BP) hierarchy of the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus (NCIT) was derived from the application of our methodology to its concepts. These views led to the detection of a number of different kinds of errors that are reported, and to confirmation of the hypotheses on error concentration in this hierarchy. Conclusion Our auditing methodology based on area and p-area taxonomies is an efficient tool for detecting errors in terminologies satisfying systematic inheritance of roles, and thus facilitates their maintenance. This methodology concentrates a domain expert’s manual review on portions of the concepts with a high likelihood of errors. PMID:16929044

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... another important research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another type of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, or ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  17. [Big data, medical language and biomedical terminology systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; López-García, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    A variety of rich terminology systems, such as thesauri, classifications, nomenclatures and ontologies support information and knowledge processing in health care and biomedical research. Nevertheless, human language, manifested as individually written texts, persists as the primary carrier of information, in the description of disease courses or treatment episodes in electronic medical records, and in the description of biomedical research in scientific publications. In the context of the discussion about big data in biomedicine, we hypothesize that the abstraction of the individuality of natural language utterances into structured and semantically normalized information facilitates the use of statistical data analytics to distil new knowledge out of textual data from biomedical research and clinical routine. Computerized human language technologies are constantly evolving and are increasingly ready to annotate narratives with codes from biomedical terminology. However, this depends heavily on linguistic and terminological resources. The creation and maintenance of such resources is labor-intensive. Nevertheless, it is sensible to assume that big data methods can be used to support this process. Examples include the learning of hierarchical relationships, the grouping of synonymous terms into concepts and the disambiguation of homonyms. Although clear evidence is still lacking, the combination of natural language technologies, semantic resources, and big data analytics is promising.

  18. Toledo School of Translators and their influence on anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José-L; Raio, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Translation facilitates transmission of knowledge between cultures. The fundamental transfer of anatomic terminology from the Ancient Greek and Islamic Golden Age cultures, to medieval Latin Christendom took place in the so-called Toledo School of Translators in the 12th-13th centuries. Translations made in Toledo circulated widely across Europe. They were the foundation of scientific thinking that was born in the boards of first universities. In Toledo, Gerard of Cremona translated Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, the key work of Islamic Golden Age of medicine. Albertus Magnus, Mondino de Luzzi and Guy de Chauliac, the leading authors of anatomical Latin words in the Middle Ages, founded their books on Gerard's translations. The anatomical terms of the Canon retain auctoritas up to the Renaissance. Thus, terms coined by Gerard such as diaphragm, orbit, pupil or sagittal remain relevant in the current official anatomical terminology. The aim of the present paper is to bring new attention to the highly significant influence that the Toledo School of Translators had in anatomical terminology. For this, we shall review here the onomastic origins of a number of anatomical terms (additamentum; coracoid process; coxal; false ribs; femur; panniculus; spondylus; squamous sutures; thorax; xiphoid process, etc.) which are still used today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. [Ten years after the latest revision International Anatomical Terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlík, D; Bozdechová, I; Cech, P; Musil, V; Báca, V

    2008-01-01

    Ten years ago, the latest revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature was approved and published as Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology), and is acknowledged by the organization uniting national anatomical societies--International Federation of Associations of Anatomists. The authors concentrate on new terms included in the nomenclature and on the linguistic changes of terminology. The most frequent errors done by medical specialists in the usage of the Latin anatomical terminology are emphasized and the situation of eponyms in contemporary anatomy is discussed in detail as well. The last version of the nomenclature makes its way very slowly in the professional community and it is necessary to refer to positive changes and advantages it has brought. The usage of this Latin anatomical nomenclature version is suggested by the International Federation to follow in theoretical and clinical fields of medicine. The authors of the article strongly recommend using the recent revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature both in the oral and written forms, when educating and publishing.

  20. National Language and Terminology Policies — A South African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Terminology plays a pivotal role in language development and the promotion of multilingualism. This article discusses the issue of multilingualism regarding terminology policies as seen from an African perspective. Special emphasis is given to the South African situation regarding language policies and consequential terminology policies in terms of subject-oriented terminography, translation-oriented terminography and linguistic community-oriented terminography.

    OPSOMMING: Nasionale taal- en terminologiebeleid — 'n Suid-Afrikaanse perspektief. Terminologie speel 'n sleutelrol in taalontwikkeling en die bevordering van veeltaligheid. Hierdie artikel bespreek die kwessie van veeltaligheid ten opsigte van terminologiebeleid soos gesien vanuit 'n Afrikaperspektief. Spesiale klem word gelê op die Suid-Afrikaanse situasie rakende taalbeleid en die gevolglike terminologiebeleid in terme van vakgeörienteerde terminografie, vertaalgeörienteerde terminografie en taalgemeenskapgeörienteerde terminografie.

    Sleutelwoorde: MEERTALIGHEID, TAALBELEID, TAALDIVERSITEIT, TAALGEMEENSKAPGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE, TERMINOLOGIEBESTUUR, TERMINOLOGIEONTWIKKELING, VAKGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE, VERTAALGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE

  1. Gyration of the feline brain: localization, terminology and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakozdy, A; Angerer, C; Klang, A; König, E H; Probst, A

    2015-12-01

    The terminology of feline brain gyration is not consistent and individual variability has not been systematically examined. The aim of the study was to identify the gyri and sulci of cat brains and describe them using the current terminology. The brains of 15 cats including 10 European shorthairs, 2 Siamese, 2 Maine coons and one Norvegian forest cat without clinical evidence of brain disease were examined post-mortem and photographed for documentation. For description, the terms of the most recent Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV, 2012) were used, and comparisons with previous anatomical texts were also performed. In addition to the lack of comparative morphology in the NAV, veterinary and human nomenclature are used interchangeably and inconsistently in the literature. This presents a challenge for neurologists and anatomists in localizing gyri and sulci. A comparative analysis of brain gyration showed only minor individual variability among the cats. High-quality labelled figures are provided to facilitate the identification of cat brain gyration. Our work consolidates the current and more consistent gyration terminology for reporting the localization of a cortical lesion based on magnetic resonance imaging or histopathology. This will facilitate not only morphological but also functional research using accurate anatomical reporting. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Terminology Standardization in Education and the Construction of Resources: The Welsh Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegau Andrews

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes developments in Welsh-language terminology within the education system in Wales. Following an outline of historical terminology work, it concentrates on the consolidation of terminology standardization at the Language Technologies Unit, Bangor University, with particular reference to two projects, one concerned with terminology for school-age and further education, the second concerned with higher education. The developments described include the adoption of international standards in terminology standardization and their incorporation in an online terminology standardization environment and dissemination platform that enable access to the centralized terminological dictionaries via a number of sophisticated websites, portals and mobile apps featuring rich dictionary entries. Some of the issues in managing large term collections are explored, and usage statistics are presented for the resources described.

  3. Diversity of phage infection types and associated terminology: the problem with 'Lytic or lysogenic'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Zack; Abedon, Stephen T

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses of members of domain Bacteria. These viruses play numerous roles in shaping the diversity of microbial communities, with impact differing depending on what infection strategies specific phages employ. From an applied perspective, these especially are communities containing undesired or pathogenic bacteria that can be modified through phage-mediated bacterial biocontrol, that is, through phage therapy. Here we seek to categorize phages in terms of their infection strategies as well as review or suggest more descriptive, accurate or distinguishing terminology. Categories can be differentiated in terms of (1) whether or not virion release occurs (productive infections versus lysogeny, pseudolysogeny and/or the phage carrier state), (2) the means of virion release (lytic versus chronic release) and (3) the degree to which phages are genetically equipped to display lysogenic cycles (temperate versus non-temperate phages). We address in particular the use or overuse of what can be a somewhat equivocal phrase, 'Lytic or lysogenic', especially when employed as a means of distinguishing among phages types. We suggest that the implied dichotomy is inconsistent with both modern as well as historical understanding of phage biology. We consider, therefore, less ambiguous terminology for distinguishing between 'Lytic' versus 'Lysogenic' phage types. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. From basic needs to basic rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, A

    1995-06-01

    After arriving at an understanding that basic rights refer to all human needs, it is clear that a recognition of the basic needs of female humans must precede the realization of their rights. The old Women in Development (WID) framework only understood women's needs from an androcentric perspective which was limited to practical interests. Instead, women's primary need is to be free from their subordination to men. Such an understanding places all of women's immediate needs in a new light. A human rights approach to development would see women not as beneficiaries but as people entitled to enjoy the benefits of development. Discussion of what equality before the law should mean to women began at the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi where the issue of violence against women was first linked to development. While debate continues about the distinction between civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, the realities of women's lives do not permit such a distinction. The concept of the universality of human rights did not become codified until the UN proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. The declaration has been criticized by feminists because the view of human rights it embodies has been too strongly influenced by a liberal Western philosophy which stresses individual rights and because it is ambiguous on the distinction between human rights and the rights of a citizen. The protection of rights afforded by the Declaration, however, should not be viewed as a final achievement but as an ongoing struggle. International conferences have led to an analysis of the human-rights approach to sustainable development which concludes that women continue to face the routine denial of their rights. Each human right must be redefined from the perspective of women's needs, which must also be redefined. Women must forego challenging the concept of the universality of human rights in order to overcome the argument of cultural

  5. Basic Semiconductor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of the basic semiconductor physics. The reader is assumed to have a basic command of mathematics and some elementary knowledge of solid state physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. The reader can understand three different methods of energy band calculations, empirical pseudo-potential, k.p perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for full band Monte Carlo simulation are discussed. Experiments and theoretical analysis of cyclotron resonance are discussed in detail because the results are essential to the understanding of semiconductor physics. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET), and quantum transport are reviewed, explaining optical transition, electron phonon interactions, electron mob...

  6. Nursing Theory, Terminology, and Big Data: Data-Driven Discovery of Novel Patterns in Archival Randomized Clinical Trial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Karen A; Kelechi, Teresa J; McRae, Marion E; Mathiason, Michelle A; Martin, Karen S

    The growth and diversification of nursing theory, nursing terminology, and nursing data enable a convergence of theory- and data-driven discovery in the era of big data research. Existing datasets can be viewed through theoretical and terminology perspectives using visualization techniques in order to reveal new patterns and generate hypotheses. The Omaha System is a standardized terminology and metamodel that makes explicit the theoretical perspective of the nursing discipline and enables terminology-theory testing research. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the approach by exploring a large research dataset consisting of 95 variables (demographics, temperature measures, anthropometrics, and standardized instruments measuring quality of life and self-efficacy) from a theory-based perspective using the Omaha System. Aims were to (a) examine the Omaha System dataset to understand the sample at baseline relative to Omaha System problem terms and outcome measures, (b) examine relationships within the normalized Omaha System dataset at baseline in predicting adherence, and (c) examine relationships within the normalized Omaha System dataset at baseline in predicting incident venous ulcer. Variables from a randomized clinical trial of a cryotherapy intervention for the prevention of venous ulcers were mapped onto Omaha System terms and measures to derive a theoretical framework for the terminology-theory testing study. The original dataset was recoded using the mapping to create an Omaha System dataset, which was then examined using visualization to generate hypotheses. The hypotheses were tested using standard inferential statistics. Logistic regression was used to predict adherence and incident venous ulcer. Findings revealed novel patterns in the psychosocial characteristics of the sample that were discovered to be drivers of both adherence (Mental health Behavior: OR = 1.28, 95% CI [1.02, 1.60]; AUC = .56) and incident venous ulcer (Mental health Behavior

  7. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  8. Risk communication basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrado, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information

  9. Basic Microfluidics Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    ,000 m−1, which is a huge difference and has a large impact on flow behavior. In this chapter the basic microfluidic theory will be presented, enabling the reader to gain a comprehensive understanding of how liquids behave at the microscale, enough to be able to engage in design of micro systems...... and to support the theory used in other chapters in the book, but without going into the deep underlying theoretical approach....

  10. Basic genetics for dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, advances in the field of molecular genetics have enriched us in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases, their identification, and appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the last 20 years, genetic basis of more than 350 monogenic skin diseases have been elucidated and is counting. The widespread use of molecular genetics as a tool in diagnosis is not practiced routinely due to genetic heterogenicity, limited access and low sensitivity. In this review, we have presented the very basics of genetics so as to enable dermatologists to have working understanding of medical genetics.

  11. There Is No Knowledge Without Terminology. How Terminological Methods and Tools Can Help to Manage Monolingual and Multilingual Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Sauberer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents “10 good reasons for terminology” in any expert field and any language(s by discussing the areas of application in the public and the private sector as well as in science and education. After a short introduction on the history of terminology, the term “ontology” will be discussed, as one of the key terms in current knowledge engineering and terminology. The paper gives an overview on means and methods of assuring and improving the quality of knowledge generation, communication and management through terminology. Also, it introduces the main standards, players and experts in the terminology community, such as the International Network for Terminology (www.termnet.org.

  12. Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español The Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders KidsHealth / For Teens / The Basics ... such as treating health problems. What Is a Gene? To understand how genes work, let's review some ...

  13. Lean manufacturing and Toyota Production System terminology applied to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bucourt, Maximilian; Busse, Reinhard; Güttler, Felix; Wintzer, Christian; Collettini, Federico; Kloeters, Christian; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgräber, Ulf K

    2011-08-01

    OBJECTIVES: To apply the economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology. METHODS: The economic- and process-driven terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System is first presented, including information and product flow as well as value stream mapping (VSM), and then applied to an interdisciplinary setting of physicians, nurses and technicians from different medical departments to identify wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology. RESULTS: Using the so-called seven wastes approach of the Toyota Production System (waste of overproducing, waiting, transport, processing, inventory, motion and waste of defects and spoilage) as well as further waste characteristics (gross waste, process and method waste, and micro waste), wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology were identified and eliminated to create an overall smoother process from the procurement as well as from the medical perspective. CONCLUSION: Economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System, especially VSM, can be used to visualise and better understand processes in the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology from an economic point of view.

  14. Terminology Guideline for Classifying Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to establish a clear and consistent vocabulary for conveying offshore wind resource potential and to interpret this vocabulary in terms that are familiar to the oil and gas (O&G) industry. This involves clarifying and refining existing definitions of offshore wind energy resource classes. The terminology developed in this guideline represents one of several possible sets of vocabulary that may differ with respect to their purpose, data availability, and comprehensiveness. It was customized to correspond with established offshore wind practices and existing renewable energy industry terminology (e.g. DOE 2013, Brown et al. 2015) while conforming to established fossil resource classification as best as possible. The developers of the guideline recognize the fundamental differences that exist between fossil and renewable energy resources with respect to availability, accessibility, lifetime, and quality. Any quantitative comparison between fossil and renewable energy resources, including offshore wind, is therefore limited. For instance, O&G resources are finite and there may be significant uncertainty associated with the amount of the resource. In contrast, aboveground renewable resources, such as offshore wind, do not generally deplete over time but can vary significantly subhourly, daily, seasonally, and annually. The intent of this guideline is to make these differences transparent and develop an offshore wind resource classification that conforms to established fossil resource classifications where possible. This guideline also provides methods to quantitatively compare certain offshore wind energy resources to O&G resource classes for specific applications. Finally, this guideline identifies areas where analogies to established O&G terminology may be inappropriate or subject to misinterpretation.

  15. Even free radicals should follow some rules: a guide to free radical research terminology and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Henry Jay; Augusto, Ohara; Brigelius-Flohe, Regina; Dennery, Phyllis A; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Mann, Giovanni E; Radi, Rafael; Roberts, L Jackson; Vina, Jose; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals and oxidants are now implicated in physiological responses and in several diseases. Given the wide range of expertise of free radical researchers, application of the greater understanding of chemistry has not been uniformly applied to biological studies. We suggest that some widely used methodologies and terminologies hamper progress and need to be addressed. We make the case for abandonment and judicious use of several methods and terms and suggest practical and viable alternatives. These changes are suggested in four areas: use of fluorescent dyes to identify and quantify reactive species, methods for measurement of lipid peroxidation in complex biological systems, claims of antioxidants as radical scavengers, and use of the terms for reactive species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Product/Service-Systems: Proposal for models and terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; Tan, Adrian; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2005-01-01

    the environmental impacts of human consumption activity or optimise a company’s ability to cope with the influences arising from the emerging globalisation of economic and business activities. Since there has not been worked on a coherent terminology for the terms and concepts used in PSS research, the area remains...... very blurred and ill defined. This paper will try to identify the fundamental characteristics of PSS and propose a system of concepts that can be used to describe and discuss the phenomenon, for the purpose of developing new PSS solutions. Coming from a tradition of product development research...

  17. A qualitative exploration of trial-related terminology in a study involving Deaf British Sign Language users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alys; Oram, Rosemary; Dodds, Claire; Nassimi-Green, Catherine; Belk, Rachel; Rogers, Katherine; Davies, Linda; Lovell, Karina

    2016-04-27

    Internationally, few clinical trials have involved Deaf people who use a signed language and none have involved BSL (British Sign Language) users. Appropriate terminology in BSL for key concepts in clinical trials that are relevant to recruitment and participant information materials, to support informed consent, do not exist. Barriers to conceptual understanding of trial participation and sources of misunderstanding relevant to the Deaf community are undocumented. A qualitative, community participatory exploration of trial terminology including conceptual understanding of 'randomisation', 'trial', 'informed choice' and 'consent' was facilitated in BSL involving 19 participants in five focus groups. Data were video-recorded and analysed in source language (BSL) using a phenomenological approach. Six necessary conditions for developing trial information to support comprehension were identified. These included: developing appropriate expressions and terminology from a community basis, rather than testing out previously derived translations from a different language; paying attention to language-specific features which support best means of expression (in the case of BSL expectations of specificity, verb directionality, handshape); bilingual influences on comprehension; deliberate orientation of information to avoid misunderstanding not just to promote accessibility; sensitivity to barriers to discussion about intelligibility of information that are cultural and social in origin, rather than linguistic; the importance of using contemporary language-in-use, rather than jargon-free or plain language, to support meaningful understanding. The study reinforces the ethical imperative to ensure trial participants who are Deaf are provided with optimum resources to understand the implications of participation and to make an informed choice. Results are relevant to the development of trial information in other signed languages as well as in spoken/written languages when

  18. Rita Temmerman. Towards New Ways of Terminology Description: The Sociocognitive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Gläser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This book appeared as Volume 3 in the Series Terminology and Lexicography Research and Practice edited by Helmi Sonneveld and Sue-Ellen Wright. The author, Rita Temmerman, presently working at the Erasmus Hogeschool, Brussels and specialising in problems of terminology in various domains of the life sciences, presents a polemical, stimulating and innovative monograph which continues and deepens her previous research work. Her doctoral dissertation (Louvain 1998 focused on Terminology Beyond Standardisation: Language and Categorisation in the Life Sciences. The aim of the book under review, Towards New Ways of Terminology Description: The Sociocognitive Approach, is to elaborate a new theory, method and application of terminology research which seeks to overcome the obvious limitations of traditional terminology as chiefly represented by the Vienna School (Eugen W?ster, Helmut Felber, Infoterm and associated institutions.

  19. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  20. Modeling Integration and Reuse of Heterogeneous Terminologies in Faceted Browsing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    We integrate heterogeneous terminologies into our category-theoretic model of faceted browsing and show that existing terminologies and vocabularies can be reused as facets in a cohesive, interactive system. Commonly found in online search engines and digital libraries, faceted browsing systems depend upon one or more taxonomies which outline the structure and content of the facets available for user interaction. Controlled vocabularies or terminologies are often externally curated and are av...

  1. Improving information retrieval with multiple health terminologies in a quality-controlled gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soualmia, Lina F; Sakji, Saoussen; Letord, Catherine; Rollin, Laetitia; Massari, Philippe; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2013-01-01

    The Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet resources (CISMeF) is a quality-controlled health gateway, primarily for Web resources in French (n=89,751). Recently, we achieved a major improvement in the structure of the catalogue by setting-up multiple terminologies, based on twelve health terminologies available in French, to overcome the potential weakness of the MeSH thesaurus, which is the main and pivotal terminology we use for indexing and retrieval since 1995. The main aim of this study was to estimate the added-value of exploiting several terminologies and their semantic relationships to improve Web resource indexing and retrieval in CISMeF, in order to provide additional health resources which meet the users' expectations. Twelve terminologies were integrated into the CISMeF information system to set up multiple-terminologies indexing and retrieval. The same sets of thirty queries were run: (i) by exploiting the hierarchical structure of the MeSH, and (ii) by exploiting the additional twelve terminologies and their semantic links. The two search modes were evaluated and compared. The overall coverage of the multiple-terminologies search mode was improved by comparison to the coverage of using the MeSH (16,283 vs. 14,159) (+15%). These additional findings were estimated at 56.6% relevant results, 24.7% intermediate results and 18.7% irrelevant. The multiple-terminologies approach improved information retrieval. These results suggest that integrating additional health terminologies was able to improve recall. Since performing the study, 21 other terminologies have been added which should enable us to make broader studies in multiple-terminologies information retrieval.

  2. The GRAIL concept modelling language for medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, A L; Bechhofer, S; Goble, C A; Horrocks, I; Nowlan, W A; Solomon, W D

    1997-02-01

    The GALEN representation and integration language (GRAIL) has been developed to support effective clinical user interfaces and extensible re-usable models of medical terminology. It has been used successfully to develop the prototype GALEN common reference (CORE) model for medical terminology and for a series of projects in clinical user interfaces within the GALEN and PEN&PAD projects. GRAIL is a description logic or frame language with novel features to support part-whole and other transitive relations and to support the GALEN modelling style aimed at re-use and application independence. GRAIL began as an experimental language. However, it has clarified many requirements for an effective knowledge representation language for clinical concepts. It still has numerous limitations despite its practical successes. The GRAIL experience is expected to form the basis for future languages which meet the same requirements but have greater expressiveness and more soundly based semantics. This paper provides a description and motivation for the GRAIL language and gives examples of the modelling paradigm which it supports.

  3. STANDARDIZED TERMINOLOGY OF ADULT SPINE DEFORMITY FOR BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael de Rezende Pratali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To develop a consensus for translation of the most relevant terms used in the study of Adult Spinal Deformity, from their original languages into Brazilian Portuguese. Methods : A panel of 12 experts in spine surgery from the five Brazilian regions was constituted. To obtain the standardization of terminology, the Delphi method with an electronic questionnaire was administered to participants about their opinion on the translation of 13 relevant terms chosen by literature review. Each term was considered standard when there was consensus, that is, concordance higher than 80% among participants as to the suggestion to be adopted, and then on the acceptance of the term and its abbreviation in Portuguese. Results : Initially there was consensus (over 80% concordance on the translation of seven terms in the electronic questionnaire. The other six terms that have not reached consensus were discussed at a meeting among the participants, relying on the opinion of a specialized professional in simultaneous translation of orthopedic terms in Portuguese and other professional majored in Portuguese language. It was decided how these terms should be translated and there was a consensus among all participants regarding their acceptance. Finally, there was consensus among the participants, who agreed with the translation and abbreviation of the 13 propose terms, defining its standardization for Brazilian Portuguese. Conclusion : We present a standard terminology used in the study of Adult Spinal Deformity through consensus among experts, seeking uniformity in the use of these terms in Brazilian Portuguese.

  4. Conversion disorder: A systematic review of current terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Juen Mei; Kanaan, Richard Antony Alexander

    It has been argued that the label given to unexplained neurological symptoms is an important contributor to their often poor acceptance, and there has been recent debate on proposals to change the name from conversion disorder. There have been multiple studies of layperson and clinician preference and this article aimed to review these. Multiple databases were searched using terms including "conversion disorder" and "terminology", and relative preferences for the terms extracted. Seven articles were found which looked at clinician or layperson preferences for terminology for unexplained neurological symptoms. Most neurologists favoured terms such as "functional" and "psychogenic", while laypeople were comfortable with "functional" but viewed "psychogenic" as more offensive; "non-epileptic/organic" was relatively popular with both groups. "Functional" is a term that is relatively popular with both clinicians and the public. It also meets more of the other criteria proposed for an acceptable label than other popular terms - however the views of neither psychiatrists nor actual patients with the disorder were considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  6. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  7. Frequency control modelling - basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Zeni, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction on how the system balance in an island system can be maintained by controlling the frequency. The power balance differential equation, which is fundamental in understanding the effect on the system frequency of the unbalance between...... generation and consumption, is addressed. Basic topics on the main components of a generating unit, such generators, prime movers and governors are presented. A simple dynamic model for an island power system, containing realistic dynamic representations of generators, loads, prime movers, governors...

  8. Descriptive symptom terminology used by Parkinson’s patients and caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursaleen LR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leah R Mursaleen,1,2 Jon A Stamford,1,2 Tim Butterfield,2 Gaynor Edwards,2,3 Penny Kustow,2 Paul A Kustow,2 Simon Griffith,2 Gilly M K Dudgeon,2 Mike G Dudgeon2 1The Cure Parkinson’s Trust, London UK, 2Parkinson’s Movement, London, UK, 3Spotlight YOPD, Rye, UK Background: The ability to accurately describe symptoms is a critical facet of patient–physician interaction and represents both a conduit and a barrier to diagnosis and treatment.Objective: The objective of this study was to discuss the range and breadth of symptom description to provide insights into symptom complexity, patient interest and understanding, as well as possible communication barriers between the patient and the physician.Patients and methods: Using a synthesis of information from an online survey of 407 people with Parkinson’s and a focus group of 7 people with Parkinson’s and 3 care partners, we examined the descriptors used by patients and carers to describe a range of motor and nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease.Results: We found that patient descriptors were more extensive generally for nonmotor than motor symptoms, and that the terminology used to describe neuropsychiatric symptoms was particularly detailed and extensive.Conclusion: Since many nonmotor symptoms are not visible and require interrogation by physicians and articulation by patients, these are areas of particular vulnerability in the patient–physician communication loop. Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, symptoms, communication, cognition, symptom language, symptom terminology, symptom descriptors, neuropsychiatric terms

  9. Economics of extreme weather events: Terminology and regional impact models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Jahn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of extreme weather events are relevant for regional (in the sense of subnational economies and in particular cities in many aspects. Cities are the cores of economic activity and the amount of people and assets endangered by extreme weather events is large, even under the current climate. A changing climate with changing extreme weather patterns and the process of urbanization will make the whole issue even more relevant in the future. In this paper, definitions and terminology in the field of extreme weather events are discussed. Possible regional impacts of extreme weather events are collected, focusing on European cities. The human contributions to those impacts are emphasized. Furthermore, methodological aspects of economic impact assessment are discussed along a temporal and a sectoral dimension. Finally, common economic impact models are compared, analyzing their strengths and weaknesses.

  10. INIS, CEA and nuclear terminology; INIS, CEA et terminologie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surmont, J.; Brulet, C.; Constant, A.; Guille, N.; Le Blanc, A.; Mouffron, O.; Anguise, P.; Jouve, J.J

    2007-07-01

    This poster, prepared for the fifth edition of the meetings of scientific and technical information professionals (RPIST, Nancy (France)), presents, first, the INIS information system, its content and coverage, the French participation to this system and the role of the CEA-Saclay as France's official representative for this system. Then it presents the INIS thesaurus with its different levels as a terminological tool for the indexing of documents and for searching documents inside the database. Finally, the very first electronic version of the multilingual thesaurus is introduced. Several national INIS centres, including the CEA-Saclay, have contributed to the translation of lists of new terms and of forbidden terms (synonyms). (J.S.)

  11. Innovation and Public Procurement: Terminology, Concepts, and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obwegeser, Nikolaus; Müller, Sune Dueholm

    2018-01-01

    differentiates between literature streams on (1) innovations in the public procurement process, (2) innovation of public services by means of procurement, and (3) the use of public procurement as a tool for demand-side innovation policy-making. For each of these streams of literature, different focus areas...... are often using ambiguous wording and have not yet reached consensus on the terminology and concepts involved. This state of affairs leads to research fragmentation and lack of knowledge convergence. For the purpose of contributing to knowledge synthesis and consolidation, this article provides a structured...... review of the literature on innovation in public procurement. From categorizing publications based on innovation drivers, concepts, and research approaches, the emerging structure of the field is described and synthesized into a framework of innovation in public procurement. The proposed framework...

  12. Hip arthroplasty. Part 1: prosthesis terminology and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluot, E.; Davis, E.T.; Revell, M.; Davies, A.M.; James, S.L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hip arthroplasty is an extremely common orthopaedic procedure and there is a wide array of implants that are in current use in the UK. The follow-up of patients who have undergone insertion of a hip prosthesis is shifting from a consultant-lead hospital service towards primary care. As this change in patient care continues it becomes increasingly important that an accurate description of the radiographic features is communicated to the primary-care practitioner so appropriate specialist input can be triggered. This review focuses on the terminology and classification of hip prostheses. This acts as a precursor for Part 2 of this series, which describes the normal and abnormal radiographic findings following hip prosthesis insertion.

  13. Plaguicidas y Biodiversidad: Terminología, Causas e Impactos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Camapum de Souza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es, primero, definir el concepto de «plaguicidas» para identificar la terminología pertinente. Después, se establece una breve exposición histórica general de las causas que llevaron a la intensificación del uso de plaguicidas a partir de la segunda mitad del siglo XX, en el mundo y en Brasil. En este punto, el estudio es hecho con investigación de bibliografía, basado en clásicos sobre el tema como punto de partida para un análisis más contemporánea. Por fin, son alaizados los impactos de los plaguicidas en la biodiversidad, a través de una perspectiva más allá de la ambiental.

  14. The Hellenic and Hippocratic origins of the spinal terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panourias, Ioannis G; Stranjalis, George; Stavrinou, Lampis C; Sakas, Damianos E

    2011-07-01

    Numerous Hellenic terms have been gradually adopted during the development of modern medical science. Moreover, there are a significant number of words that derive directly from the Hippocratic texts. Hippocrates (ca. 460-ca. 377 BC), revered as the father of medicine, and his followers left behind a valuable heritage of medical knowledge that, practically, laid the foundations of Western medicine. Their theories, collected in Corpus Hippocraticum, transformed medicine by adding, mainly, clinical observation and inductive reasoning as significant parts of medical diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, Hippocratic writings have provided an invaluable heritage of medical terms for all medical fields. The present article examines the Hellenic and Hippocratic terminology referring to the spine and how this vocabulary has influenced and dominated upon modern spinal onomatology.

  15. A standard for terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doggweiler, Regula; Whitmore, Kristene E; Meijlink, Jane M

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Terms used in the field of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) are poorly defined and often confusing. An International Continence Society (ICS) Standard for Terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes (CPPS) has been developed with the aim of improving diagnosis and treatment of patients affected...... by chronic pelvic pain syndromes. The standard aims to facilitate research, enhance therapy development and support healthcare delivery, for healthcare providers, and patients. This document looks at the whole person and all the domains (organ systems) in a systematic way. METHODS: A dedicated working group...... (WG) was instituted by the ICS Standardisation Steering Committee according to published procedures. The WG extracted information from existing relevant guidelines, consensus documents, and scientific publications. Medline and other databases were searched in relation to each chronic pelvic pain...

  16. Advanced Encoding for Multilingual Access in a Terminological Data Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick; L'Homme, Marie-Claude; Robichaud, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new functionalities implemented in a terminological database (TDB) in order to allow efficient editing of and access to multilingual data. The functionalities are original in the sense that they allow users of the database to retrieve the equivalents not only of headwords......, but also of semantically related terms (especially collocations) that appear within the articles. The methods we developed are based on a formal encoding of lexical relationships, namely lexical functions (LFs). Since LFs are language-independent and are designed to capture semantic distinctions, links...... between equivalents can be established automatically. Examples are taken from the fields of computing and the Internet and focus on English and French. However, the model can easily be extended to other fields and languages provided that the data is available and encoded properly....

  17. Terminology development towards harmonizing multiple clinical neuroimaging research repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Pasquerello, Danielle; Turner, Matthew D; Keator, David B; Alpert, Kathryn; King, Margaret; Landis, Drew; Calhoun, Vince D; Potkin, Steven G; Tallis, Marcelo; Ambite, Jose Luis; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Data sharing and mediation across disparate neuroimaging repositories requires extensive effort to ensure that the different domains of data types are referred to by commonly agreed upon terms. Within the SchizConnect project, which enables querying across decentralized databases of neuroimaging, clinical, and cognitive data from various studies of schizophrenia, we developed a model for each data domain, identified common usable terms that could be agreed upon across the repositories, and linked them to standard ontological terms where possible. We had the goal of facilitating both the current user experience in querying and future automated computations and reasoning regarding the data. We found that existing terminologies are incomplete for these purposes, even with the history of neuroimaging data sharing in the field; and we provide a model for efforts focused on querying multiple clinical neuroimaging repositories.

  18. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and... program is intended to be the basis from which the meat-type turkey industry may conduct a program to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat...

  19. A usability evaluation of a SNOMED CT based compositional interface terminology for intensive care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshi-Raiez, F.; de Keizer, N. F.; Cornet, R.; Dorrepaal, M.; Dongelmans, D.; Jaspers, M. W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usability of a large compositional interface terminology based on SNOMED CT and the terminology application for registration of the reasons for intensive care admission in a Patient Data Management System. Design: Observational study with user-based usability evaluations

  20. Challenges in Archetypes Terminology Binding Using SNOMED-CT Compositional Grammar: The Norwegian Patient Summary Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Ruiz, Luis; Pedersen, Rune

    2017-01-01

    In order to cover the requirements for interoperability in the Norwegian context, we studied the terminology binding of archetypes to terminology expressions created with the SNOMED-CT compositional grammar. As a result we identified important challenges categorized as technical, expressivity, human, and models mismatch.

  1. Terminological Multifaceted Educational Dictionary of Active Type as a Possible Way of Special Discourse Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatkullina, Flyuza; Morozkina, Eugenia; Suleimanova, Almira; Khayrullina, Rayca

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to disclose the scientific basis of the author's academic terminological dictionary for future oil industry experts. Multifaceted terminological dictionary with several different entries is considered to be one of the possible ways to present a special discourse in the classroom. As a result of the study the authors…

  2. Perspectives on Terminology and Conceptual and Professional Issues in Health Education and Health Promotion Credentialing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Alyson; Allegrante, John P.; Barry, Margaret M.; Sakagami, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    This article was prepared to inform the deliberations of the Galway Consensus Conference by providing a common and global reference point for the discussion of terminology and key conceptual and professional issues in the credentialing of health education and health promotion specialists. The article provides a review of the terminology that is…

  3. Terminological Analysis of the Corpus of Ancient Greek Medical Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Čengić

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Selected writings of Corpus Hippocraticum, the oldest extant body of medical texts which were written in the period between the 5th and the 4th century BC, were subject of linguistic research based on discourse analysis. From this aspect, Hippocratic texts are treated as representatives of one of the first professional jargons of western civilization. The emphasis is placed on the formal levels of linguistic description in order to establish formal peculiarities of the Hippocratic discourse. Approach to formal characteristics of Hippocratic discourse stresses some wider contextual elements like interactions between philosophy and medicine, elements of orally established society, spread of literacy, creation of domain of public communication and influence of its rules to different aspects of communication in ancient Greece. The formal linguistic features of the   Hippocratic discourse are classified into groups of dialect features, terminological differentiation, rhetoric techniques and strategies, structural characteristics, presence of author and audience, syntactical peculiarities and elements of the context. Terminological differentiation in Hippocratic discourse is a very important level of formal description because it is considered to be one of the hallmarks of a professional discourse. It refers to the existence of a specific subset in the linguistic system which includes specially created technical terms. Hippocratic discourse shows different degrees of technical differentiation. The formalisation of the presence of author and audience is considered to be an essential element of a technical discourse as well. It is considered to be a later element which entered the technical discourse under the influence of sophistic rhetoric and rules of public communication (doctrine of persuasive communication. Approach to the  dimension of  context includes analysis of all the utterances which  relate to various aspects of wider social context

  4. EAU standardised medical terminology for urologic imaging: a taxonomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Tillmann; Carey, Brendan; Walz, Jochen; Fulgham, Pat Fox

    2015-05-01

    The terminology and abbreviations used in urologic imaging have generally been adopted on an ad hoc basis by different speciality groups; however, there is a need for shared nomenclature to facilitate clinical communication and collaborative research. This work reviews the current nomenclature for urologic imaging used in clinical practice and proposes a taxonomy and terminology for urologic imaging studies. A list of terms used in urologic imaging were compiled from guidelines published by the European Association of Urology and the American Urological Association and from the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria. Terms searched were grouped into broad categories based on technology, and imaging terms were further stratified based on the anatomic extent, contrast or phases, technique or modifiers, and combinations or fusions. Terms that had a high degree of utilisation were classified as accepted. We propose a new taxonomy to define a more useful and acceptable nomenclature model acceptable to all health professionals involved in urology. The major advantage of a taxonomic approach to the classification of urologic imaging studies is that it provides a flexible framework for classifying the modifications of current imaging modalities and allows the incorporation of new imaging modalities. The adoption of this hierarchical classification model ranging from the most general to the most detailed descriptions should facilitate hierarchical searches of the medical literature using both general and specific terms. This work is limited in its scope, as it is not currently all-inclusive. This will hopefully be addressed by future modification as others embrace the concept and work towards uniformity in nomenclature. This paper provides a noncomprehensive list of the most widely used terms across different specialties. This list can be used as the basis for further discussion, development, and enhancement. In this paper we describe a classification system

  5. The Relationship of Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Self-Efficacy with Medical English and Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Huei; Kao, Pan-Fu; Liao, Hung-Chang

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between the use of vocabulary learning strategies and self-efficacy in medical English learning, and whether after an initial six-week course to master the basics of medical terminology, those with higher use of vocabulary learning strategies and those with a higher degree of self-efficacy would have significant score improvements in the medical English proficiency. Second-year medical students (N = 115; M age = 19.6, SD = 0.5; 82 men, 33 women) participated in the study. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. Measures included medical English tests, the English Vocabulary Learning Strategies Survey (EVLSS), and the English Learning Self-Efficacy Scale (ELSES). Results showed that there was no significant correlation between vocabulary learning strategies and English learning self-efficacy. In addition, as a whole, vocabulary learning strategies and self-efficacy significantly predicted students' score improvements in medical English proficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. On the integration and standardization of medication error data: taxonomies, terminologies, causes and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taib, Ibrahim Adham; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart

    2010-12-01

    A reliable database on the causes and contributing factors of medication errors can inform strategies for their prevention. To form a single database from multiple databases requires a process of integration that both maximizes the utility of the new data and minimizes the loss of information. Unfortunately, the terminologies used by different studies and databases may limit integration; therefore, terminologies must be standardized prior to integration. The National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP) Taxonomy of Medication Errors was applied to standardize the different terminologies in 11 studies that reported the causes or contributing factors of medication errors. After standardization, 57% of the reported causes and contributing factors were integrated to form a database while 43% were not integrated because the terminologies could not be standardized or were not similar to the taxonomy. This study highlights the challenges to standardizing and integrating databases and the importance of adopting and applying a standardized terminology to record medical errors.

  7. Conceptual Terminological Structure of Pedagogy as the Subject of Historical Pedagogic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Koshkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the formation and development of pedagogic terminology. The author theoretically substantiates the potential of the historical pedagogic research concerning the conceptual and terminological structure of the Russian pedagogy. The research is based on the following ideas: correlation between the scientific terminology formation and scientific knowledge genesis; philosophic concept as a form and result of reality reflection; linguistic concept of the term as a functional unit of a scientific language; specifics of pedagogic knowledge reflection in conceptual form. The main research findings include identifying methodological requirements for analyzing the conceptual scientific formation in historical context; substantiating the resource basis; revealing the investigation principles; describing the tools and their implementation peculiarities with regard to the specifics of pedagogical concepts and terms. The acquired results can be used while exploring the pedagogic history problems, pedagogic methodology and terminology. In conclusion, the actual research trends of pedagogic terminology formation are reviewed from the historical pedagogic perspective. 

  8. Conceptual Terminological Structure of Pedagogy as the Subject of Historical Pedagogic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Koshkina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the formation and development of pedagogic terminology. The author theoretically substantiates the potential of the historical pedagogic research concerning the conceptual and terminological structure of the Russian pedagogy. The research is based on the following ideas: correlation between the scientific terminology formation and scientific knowledge genesis; philosophic concept as a form and result of reality reflection; linguistic concept of the term as a functional unit of a scientific language; specifics of pedagogic knowledge reflection in conceptual form. The main research findings include identifying methodological requirements for analyzing the conceptual scientific formation in historical context; substantiating the resource basis; revealing the investigation principles; describing the tools and their implementation peculiarities with regard to the specifics of pedagogical concepts and terms. The acquired results can be used while exploring the pedagogic history problems, pedagogic methodology and terminology. In conclusion, the actual research trends of pedagogic terminology formation are reviewed from the historical pedagogic perspective. 

  9. Lingua-Cultural Approach to Special Language Terminology Based on Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fecušová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces the results of the research which aimed to explore specialized taxation terminology in the English and Slovak languages. Since some Slovak taxation terminology has been translated or borrowed from English, the comparative and contrastive analysis is applied in order to assert the degree of equivalence between the Slovak taxation terminology and the British taxation terminology (as used by the HMRC. The Slovak translation equivalents are divided into absolute, relative and zero equivalents. The examples of zero equivalence are further subjected to qualitative analysis in search for pragmatic equivalence. The comparative analysis of English and Slovak taxation terminology has discovered that even though some Slovak terms from this field have been translated or borrowed from the English language, they have been adapted to Slovak culture and conventions regarding their conceptualization and with regard to their form, they follow the principles of the Slovak language system.

  10. Novel femoral artery terminology: integrating anatomy and clinical procedures leading to standardized intuitive nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the terminology of the femoral artery and recommended alternative terminology that satisfies both anatomy and clinical arenas.The femoral artery (FA) is often defined as the continuation of the external iliac artery. Specifically, when the external iliac artery reaches directly beneath the inguinal ligament, it becomes the FA. Currently, Terminologia Anatomica (TA) records the profunda femoris or deep femoral as a terminal branch. Clinicians often use superficial femoral artery (SFA) rather than FA and profunda or deep FA. SFA is actually very deep and well protected for most of its journey. On observation, the terminology in current use is not intuitive. The objective of this study was to investigate the terminology associated with the anatomical and clinical anatomical interpretations of the FA and its terminal branches and to suggest a more appropriate terminology that addresses the points of view of the macro anatomist, as well as that of the clinician. Literature search was conducted regarding the nomenclature of the FA and its terminal branches. Dissection of 89 embalmed cadavers (49F, 40M, ages 47-89) was conducted to analyze the morphology of the FA and its branches. Perusal of the literature revealed a difference in terminology between anatomical and clinical textbooks/atlases/journals regarding the FA and its terminal branch. Our dissections suggested that the FA may be better defined vis-à-vis its relationship to the anterior and posterior compartments of the thigh. A difference in terminology exists between the anatomical and clinical arenas. A need for a standardized terminology is necessary because clinicians and their publishers have not adopted TA. This study suggests that the current FA be considered the common FA and the continuation of the FA, the SFA be renamed the anterior FA and the current profunda (the deep FA) be renamed the posterior FA, respectively. The proposed terminology mirrors the lower

  11. Putting Order into Our Universe: The Concept of Blended Learning—A Methodology within the Concept-based Terminology Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Fernandes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the advantages of a methodology design grounded on a concept-based approach to Terminology applied to the most prominent scenario of current Higher Education: blended learning. Terminology is a discipline that aims at representing, describing and defining specialized knowledge through language, putting order into our universe (Nuopponen, 2011. Concepts, as elements of the structure of knowledge (Sager, 1990 emerge as a complex research object. Can they be found in language? A concept-based approach to Terminology implies a clear-cut view of the role of language in terminological work: though language is postulated as being a fundamental tool to grasp, describe and organize knowledge, an isomorphic relationship between language and knowledge cannot be taken for granted. In other words, the foundational premise of a concept-based approach is that there is no one-to-one correspondence between atomic elements of knowledge and atomic elements of linguistic expression. This is why a methodological approach to Terminology merely based upon specialized text research is regarded as biased (Costa, 2013. As a consequence, we argue that interactional strategies between terminologist and domain expert deserve particular research attention. To our mind, the key to concept-based terminological work is to carry out a concept analysis of data gathered from a specialised text corpora combined with an elicitation process of the tacit knowledge and concept-oriented discursive negotiation. Following such view, we put forward a methodology to answer the question: how is blended learning defined in the Post-Bologna scenario? Even though there are numerous high-quality models and practical descriptions for its implementation (similarly to other concepts related to distance learning, the need to understand, demarcate and harmonize the concept of blended learning against the current Higher Education background results from the premise that

  12. Understanding uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Lindley, Dennis V

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.

  13. Environmental Terms--The Basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    One of the problems of the English language is that individual words can often convey such a breadth of meaning that people often find themselves speaking past each other. The jargon of the environment is not immune. The words included in this publication are some of those more basic to the understanding of the environment. Definitions offered…

  14. Basic biology in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.

    1976-10-01

    This report describes the consequences of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living cells and tissues. The basic processes of living cells, which are relevant to an understanding of health physics problems, are outlined with particular reference to cell-death, cancer induction and genetic effects. (author)

  15. More terminological clarity in the interprofessional field – a call for reflection on the use of terminologies, in both practice and research, on a national and international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzkat, Anika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The terminology which has been used up until now within interprofessional healthcare has been characterised by a certain definitional weakness, which, among other factors, has been caused by an uncritical adoption of language conventions and a lack of theoretical reflection. However, as terminological clarity plays a significant role in the development and profiling of a discipline, the clarification and definition of commonly-used terminology has manifested itself as a considerable objective for the interprofessional research community. One of the most important journals for research in the area of interprofessional education and care, the Journal of Interprofessional Care, has expanded its author guidelines relating to terminology, modeled after the conceptual considerations of the research group around Barr et. al and Reeves et al. A German translation of the suggested terms therein has been presented in this contribution, and discussed in light of the challenges to a possible adaptation for the German-speaking world. The objective is to assist communication in practice and research in becoming clearer, while promoting an increasing awareness to and the transparency of determined definitions and terminologies.

  16. More terminological clarity in the interprofessional field - a call for reflection on the use of terminologies, in both practice and research, on a national and international level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzkat, Anika; Berger, Sarah; Reeves, Scott; Mahler, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The terminology which has been used up until now within interprofessional healthcare has been characterised by a certain definitional weakness, which, among other factors, has been caused by an uncritical adoption of language conventions and a lack of theoretical reflection. However, as terminological clarity plays a significant role in the development and profiling of a discipline, the clarification and definition of commonly-used terminology has manifested itself as a considerable objective for the interprofessional research community. One of the most important journals for research in the area of interprofessional education and care, the Journal of Interprofessional Care, has expanded its author guidelines relating to terminology, modeled after the conceptual considerations of the research group around Barr et. al and Reeves et al. A German translation of the suggested terms therein has been presented in this contribution, and discussed in light of the challenges to a possible adaptation for the German-speaking world. The objective is to assist communication in practice and research in becoming clearer, while promoting an increasing awareness to and the transparency of determined definitions and terminologies.

  17. Basic research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined

  18. Basic research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined. (RWR)

  19. 15. Basic economic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carless, J.; Dow, B.; Farivari, R.; O'Connor, J.; Fox, T.; Tunstall, D.; Mentzingen, M.

    1992-01-01

    The clear value of economic data and analysis to decisionmakers has motivated them to mandate the creation of extensive global economic data sets. This chapter contains a set of these basic economic data, which provides the context for understanding the causes and the consequences of many of the decisions that affect the world's resources. Many traditional economic indicators fail to account for the depletion or deterioration of natural resources, the long-term consequences of such depletion, the equitable distribution of income within a country, or the sustainability of current economic practices. The type of measurement shown here, however, is still useful in showing the great differences between the wealthiest and the poorest countries. Tables are given on the following: Gross national product and official development assistance 1969-89; External debt indicators 1979-89; Central government expenditures; and World commodity indexes and prices 1975-89

  20. Cloud computing basics

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing Basics covers the main aspects of this fast moving technology so that both practitioners and students will be able to understand cloud computing. The author highlights the key aspects of this technology that a potential user might want to investigate before deciding to adopt this service. This book explains how cloud services can be used to augment existing services such as storage, backup and recovery. Addressing the details on how cloud security works and what the users must be prepared for when they move their data to the cloud. Also this book discusses how businesses could prepare for compliance with the laws as well as industry standards such as the Payment Card Industry.

  1. The Use of Non-linguistic Data in a Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2016-01-01

    This paper will discuss definitions and give examples of linguistic and non -linguistic representation of concepts in a terminology and knowledge bank, and it will be argued that there is a need for a taxonomy of terminological data categories. As a background the DanTermBank project, which...... to the structure of ISOcat, the first printed standard comprising data categories for terminology management, ISO 12620:1999, and other standards from ISO TC 37. Finally some examples of linguistic and non-linguistic representations of concepts which we plan to introduce into the DanTermBank will be presented....

  2. Terminología en un centro de documentación especializado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gil Seoane

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se plantea los conceptos básicos del trabajo terminológico desde el punto de vista de la Teoría Comunicativa de la Terminología (TCT. La relación entre terminología y documentación, y terminología  y lingüística son los ejes de esta propuesta de análisis. También se presenta el trabajo terminológico que se realiza en un centro de documentación en el área jurídica.

  3. Collaboration of the CMEA countries concerning the treatment of radiation protection terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangel'skaya, G.V.; Rodnyanskaya, L.I.

    1986-01-01

    At present particular attention is directed to the terminology of radiation hygiene because of its intensive development and of the multitude of English terms integrated into it. The Leningrad Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene has elaborated a terminology list and characterized the terms of health physics. As to the cooperation in terminology by CMEA specialists it is proposed to elaborate a multilingual dictionary with previous drawing up of equivalent terms and coordination in defining them. Another proposal concerning cooperative publishing of compilations with terms to be recommended is made

  4. How groups co-ordinate their concepts and terminology: implications for medical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, S

    1998-11-01

    Conceptual and terminological systems are established and maintained by the communities who use them. This paper reports experiments which investigate the role of communication and interaction in the process. The experiments show that isolated pairs of communicators and virtual communities of interacting pairs naturally converge on their own conceptual and terminological systems when confronted with a common task. The results also indicate that the system converged on is optimal for that particular group engaged in that particular task. These findings are discussed in relation to the increasing use of tightly coordinated medical teams and its implications for getting them to adopt standardized medical terminologies.

  5. NONCE WORDS AS FORSIGHTS AND DRIVERS OF THE TERMINOLOGY FOR NEW SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiuru, K.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses some dynamic processes in the terminology of such knowledge as PR-studies, or the science of public relations. The terminology of public relations is an open system. The formation of the public relations terminology system has been focused by various social and humanistic sciences: philology, sociology, philosophy, advertising studies, the theory of mass communications and journalism. New terms "communication product" and "media product" are introduced into the scientific framework. It is noted that the emergence of new media leads to the formation of new terms that denote the actors of modern public online communications, carriers and textual results of their activities.

  6. Applied Problems and Use of Technology in an Aligned Way in Basic Courses in Probability and Statistics for Engineering Students--A Way to Enhance Understanding and Increase Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterqvist, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Researchers and teachers often recommend motivating exercises and use of mathematics or statistics software for the teaching of basic courses in probability and statistics. Our courses are given to large groups of engineering students at Lund Institute of Technology. We found that the mere existence of real-life data and technology in a course…

  7. Giant cell arteritis. Part I. Terminology, classification, clinical manifestations, diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azamat Makhmudovich Satybaldyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell arteritis (GCA is a vasculitis affecting mainly large and medium-sized arteries, which the classification of systemic vasculitides refers to as those mainly involving the large vessels. GCA is typified by the involvement of extracranial aortic branches and intracranial vessels, the aorta and its large vessels are being affected most frequently. The paper considers the terminology, classification, prevalence, major pathogenic mechanisms, and morphology of GCA. A broad spectrum of its clinical subtypes is due to target vessel stenosis caused by intimal hyperplasia. In 40% of cases, GCA is shown to be accompanied by polymyalgia rheumatica that may either precede or manifest simultaneously with GCA, or follow this disease. The menacing complications of GCA may be visual loss or ischemic strokes at various sites depending on the location of the occluded vessel. Along with the gold standard verification of the diagnosis of GCA, namely temporal artery biopsy, the author indicates other (noninvasive methods for detection of vascular lesions: color Doppler ultrasonography of the temporal arteries, fluorescein angiography of the retina, mag-netic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography to rule out aortic aneurysm. Dynamic 18F positron emission tomography is demonstrated to play a role in the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness.

  8. Critical analysis and systematization of rat pancreatectomy terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulálio, José Marcus Raso; Bon-Habib, Assad Charbel Chequer; Soares, Daiane de Oliveira; Corrêa, Paulo Guilherme Antunes; Pineschi, Giovana Penna Firme; Diniz, Victor Senna; Manso, José Eduardo Ferreira; Schanaider, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    To critically analyze and standardize the rat pancreatectomy nomenclature variants. It was performed a review of indexed manuscripts in PUBMED from 01/01/1945 to 31/12/2015 with the combined keywords "rat pancreatectomy" and "rat pancreas resection". The following parameters was considered: A. Frequency of publications; B. Purpose of the pancreatectomy in each article; C. Bibliographic references; D. Nomenclature of techniques according to the pancreatic parenchyma resection percentage. Among the 468, the main objectives were to surgically induce diabetes and to study the genes regulations and expressions. Five rat pancreatectomy technique references received 15 or more citations. Twenty different terminologies were identified for the pancreas resection: according to the resected parenchyma percentage (30 to 95%); to the procedure type (total, subtotal and partial); or based on the selected anatomical region (distal, longitudinal and segmental). A nomenclature systematization was gathered by cross-checking information between the main surgical techniques, the anatomic parameters descriptions and the resected parenchyma percentages. The subtotal pancreatectomy nomenclature for parenchymal resection between 80 and 95% establishes a surgical parameter that also defines the total and partial pancreatectomy limits and standardizes these surgical procedures in rats.

  9. [ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND WORK ENGAGEMENT - THEORETICAL CONCEPTIONS AND TERMINOLOGICAL PROBLEMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaguna, Mariola; Mielniczuk, Emilia; Żaliński, Adam; Wałachowska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Engagement in professional activities and positive attitudes towards an organization are of significant importance to functioning and health of employees. Studies analysing the phenomena of employees' engagement and their relations with an organization undergo a dynamic development in both international and Polish research. Two theoretical conceptions: organizational commitment (by Meyer and Allen) and work engagement (by Schaufeli and Bakker) have become prominent in the field. They capture 2 similar, albeit distinct constructs. In English-language journals academics concentrate on theoretical and empirical analyses of similarities and differences between the 2 concepts, while in Polish publications scholars also have to deal with the issue of the original term translation. The problem lies mostly in Polish nomenclature of the dimensions proposed in both of these conceptions. Lack of common translations for different studies may cause confusion in this area of research. In the paper authors present a review of Polish translations of terms used in the discussed conceptions and a linguistic analysis of terms, both in English and in Polish. Authors provide solutions which could help to clarify terminology in Polish-language publications concerning organizational commitment and work engagement. This allows for further development of research in this field.

  10. The cracked tooth conundrum: terminology, classification, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, William

    2008-10-01

    To provide an overview of the clinical features, diagnosis, classification and management of cracked teeth which may be a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. Cracks may initiate from coronal tooth structure or from within the root and affect healthy or root treated teeth. There are many terminologies and classifications in the literature for cracked teeth that can be as confusing as the array of clinical symptoms which are associated with this condition. The term "cracked tooth syndrome" is misleading as there are a range of symptoms that do not form a distinct and reliable pattern. Symptoms will vary with teeth that have healthy pulps, for teeth with inflamed or necrotic pulps, and for teeth that have been root treated. The American Association of Endodontists have classified five specific variations of cracked teeth; craze line, fractured cusp, cracked tooth, split tooth, and vertical root fracture. The importance of differentiating dentin, pulpal and periodontal pain for diagnosis and treatment for these specific entities will be elaborated. A decision flow chart indicating the treatment options available is presented.

  11. Continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies in developmental toxicology: Report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity, 14-16 May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Roland; Rauch, Martina; Gall, Andrea; Buschmann, Jochen; Clark, Ruth; Fuchs, Antje; Kan, Haidong; Heinrich, Verena; Kellner, Rupert; Knudsen, Thomas B; Li, Weihua; Makris, Susan L; Ooshima, Yojiro; Paumgartten, Francisco; Piersma, Aldert H; Schönfelder, Gilbert; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Schaefer, Christof; Shiota, Kohei; Ulbrich, Beate; Ding, Xuncheng; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article is a report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity held in May 2014. The main aim of the workshop was the continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies used in the assessment of embryo- and fetotoxic findings. The following main topics were discussed: harmonized categorization of external, skeletal, visceral and materno-fetal findings into malformations, variations and grey zone anomalies, aspects of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals, and innovations for new methodologies in developmental toxicology. The application of Version 2 terminology in the DevTox database was considered as a useful improvement in the categorization of developmental anomalies. Participants concluded that initiation of a project for comparative assessments of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals could support regulatory risk assessment and university-based training. Improvement of new methodological approaches for alternatives to animal testing should be triggered for a better understanding of developmental outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Material for the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Croatian Analytical Terminology. Part I. Principles and Starting Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdinić, V

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper are the principles and the starting point for construction of an encyclopaedic dictionary of Croatian terminology in analytical chemistry, as well as in analytics, a recent scientific field. Consequently, the choice, construction and extent of lexical units for the encyclopaedic dictionary will be determined by adequate scientific and professional criteria. Principles and methods determined and presented in this paper can aid in writing Croatian analytical dictionary and support the efforts in systemizing and encyclopaedic presentation of terms that are of particular significance for analytics. The described principles take into account terminological and linguistic demands. The paper stresses the need for revision of current and non-systemized terminology, adjustment of unavoidable internationalisms to Croatian linguistic standards, and, as analytical chemistry is a science of chemical measurements, adjustment of terminology to existing Croatian standards in metrology and other related areas.

  13. Notes on Agricultural Terminology in Aristotle (Sens. 441a10-17)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This article examines Aristotle's terminology in a much debated passage of the De Sensu et Sensibilibus. Based on this examination, the text itself and the conjectures that have so far been proposed are discussed....

  14. 78 FR 46499 - Change in Terminology: “Mental Retardation” to “Intellectual Disability”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Change in Terminology: ``Mental Retardation'' to ``Intellectual Disability'' AGENCY: Social Security... ``mental retardation'' with ``intellectual disability'' in our Listing of Impairments (listings) that we... widespread adoption of the term ``intellectual disability'' by Congress, government agencies, and various...

  15. 78 FR 5755 - Change in Terminology: “Mental Retardation” to “Intellectual Disability”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Change in Terminology: ``Mental Retardation'' to ``Intellectual Disability'' AGENCY: Social Security... retardation'' with ``intellectual disability'' in our Listing of Impairments (listings) that we use to... adoption of the term ``intellectual disability'' by Congress, government agencies, and various public and...

  16. Terminology and classification of muscle injuries in sport: the Munich consensus statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller-Wohlfahrt, Hans-Wilhelm; Haensel, Lutz; Mithoefer, Kai; Ekstrand, Jan; English, Bryan; McNally, Steven; Orchard, John; van Dijk, C. Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.; Schamasch, Patrick; Blottner, Dieter; Swaerd, Leif; Goedhart, Edwin; Ueblacker, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To provide a clear terminology and classification of muscle injuries in order to facilitate effective communication among medical practitioners and development of systematic treatment strategies. Thirty native English-speaking scientists and team doctors of national and first division professional

  17. A review on the risk management terminology for the use in standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon

    2001-03-01

    This technical report describes a result of reviews on the risk management terminology for the use in standards. Experiences in related technical fields and their definitions are reviewed according to the concepts and operational definitions of risk terminologies. It results into a draft standard for KS in the fields of product safety. Quality Assurance, Industrial and Occupational Safety, Financial Management and Risk Management, and others may show many different definitions for their own technical purpose. A draft KS standard for risk terminology must be revised and enhanced to be adopted to the product safety. However, this review does not provide a strict guide for use in the operational definitions of risk terms, but does provide a common base among application areas. The result of this review is submitted to Korea Standard Association in form of a draft KS standards, KS X 0000 : 2001 (ISO TBD : 1999), titled as ' Risk management terminology - Guidelines for use in standards '

  18. Naming the Soft Tissue Layers of the Temporoparietal Region: Unifying Anatomic Terminology Across Surgical Disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidge, Kristen M.; van Furth, Wouter R.; Agur, Anne; Cusimano, Michael

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The complexity of temporoparietal anatomy is compounded by inconsistent nomenclature. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review of the variations in terminology and anatomic descriptions of the temporoparietal soft tissue layers, with the aim of improving learning and communication

  19. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    1975-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  20. Understanding the Opioid Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Opioid Overdose Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Opioid Overdose Opioid Basics Understanding the Epidemic Commonly Used ...

  1. Notes on Agricultural Terminology in Aristotle (Sens. 441a10-17)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This article examines Aristotle's terminology in a much debated passage of the De Sensu et Sensibilibus. Based on this examination, the text itself and the conjectures that have so far been proposed are discussed.......This article examines Aristotle's terminology in a much debated passage of the De Sensu et Sensibilibus. Based on this examination, the text itself and the conjectures that have so far been proposed are discussed....

  2. A quest for the right word enhancing reflexivity and technology in terminology training

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Alexandra; Silva, Manuel Moreira da

    2010-01-01

    INTED2010, the 4th International Technology, Education and Development Conference was held in Valencia (Spain), on March 8, 9 and 10, 2010. When it comes to translators training, the acquisition of indexing and terminological competences (both at retrieval and management stage) has a major role in the performance of future translators. A good terminological database, as a result of an accurate research, along with computer assisted translation tools (CAT tools) can improve transla...

  3. World-Building Models of English and Spanish Business Terminology as Reflection of National Morphosyntactic Mentality

    OpenAIRE

    Елена Андреевна Литягина

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the word-building models of the English and Spanish business terminology. The aim of this article is to hold a contrastive analysis of such word-building models of the English and Spanish business terminology as abbreviation, composition, conversion, contamination, apocope, stress changing, sound alteration, to find out existing differences an similarities in the world-building process in both languages and to investigate the concept “glob...

  4. Cognitive approach to the construction of three-language terminological thesaurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorij Chetverikov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive approach to the construction of three-language terminological thesaurus The paper is devoted to developing a lexicographic database of a three-language terminological dictionary. The detailed analysis of a relations scheme between tables and structures of tables with the help of three-layer decomposition predicate method is carried out, which has allowed to define ways of solving direct and reversible three-language electronic dictionaries creation problem.

  5. Development of a Model for the Representation of Nanotechnology-Specific Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, LeeAnn O.; Kennedy, Christopher H.; Fritts, Martin J.; Hartel, Francis W.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an important, rapidly-evolving, multidisciplinary field [1]. The tremendous growth in this area necessitates the establishment of a common, open-source terminology to support the diverse biomedical applications of nanotechnology. Currently, the consensus process to define and categorize conceptual entities pertaining to nanotechnology is in a rudimentary stage. We have constructed a nanotechnology-specific conceptual hierarchy that can be utilized by end users to retrieve accurate, controlled terminology regarding emerging nanotechnology and corresponding clinical applications. PMID:17238469

  6. Metaphors in terminological collocations in English language and their equivalents in Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orčić Lidija S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The framework of this paper is the theory of conceptual metaphor where metaphor is the transfer of a more concrete source domain into a more abstract target domain. Metaphor is a fundamental human ability to speak about abstract concepts using specific terms where the meaning of a term is transferred to another, thus achieving semantic extensions. Although it was thought that in terminology polysemantic expressions are not desirable, in recent decades this traditional view has been abandoned. Metaphor is used not only as a linguistic decoration in language, but as a means of argumentation. It may be noted that the metaphor, as a universal phenomenon, is also common in business English discourse. The subject of our interest is to investigate collocations made up of those nouns and adjectives, which, according to the Oxford Business English Dictionary for Learners of English, are most frequently used in this field. The main objective of this work is to identify and analyze the source and target domains in metaphors in English collocations that contain these nouns and adjectives, and detect mechanisms applied in translating into Serbian. We categorised metaphors in collocations into four groups. The first group consists of metaphors in which the source domain is expressed with the living beings: inanimate entities are described as if they were alive. In these examples, the personification is used to explain abstract concepts, forces and processes in order to present them in a more understandable way. The second group consists of metaphors in which animals are the source domain and their behavior and characteristics serve as a starting point. In business discourse people and institutions are described with such metaphors. In the third group we included the metaphors based on objects that users are familiar with in everyday life. The fourth group consists of metaphors in which the source domain are natural phenomena. When translating a metaphor we

  7. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  8. Dental Providers’ Perspectives on Diagnosis-Driven Dentistry: Strategies to Enhance Adoption of Dental Diagnostic Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadan-Udoh, Enihomo; Etolue, Jini; Tokede, Oluwabunmi; White, Joel; Spallek, Heiko; Walji, Muhammad; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2017-01-01

    The routine use of standardized diagnostic terminologies (DxTMs) in dentistry has long been the subject of academic debate. This paper discusses the strategies suggested by a group of dental stakeholders to enhance the uptake of DxTMs. Through unstructured interviewing at the ‘Toward a Diagnosis-Driven Profession’ National Conference held on 19 March 2016 in Los Angeles, CA, USA participants were asked how enthusiastic they were about implementing and consistently using DxTMs at their work. They also brainstormed on strategies to improve the widespread use of DxTMs. Their responses are summarized by recursive abstraction and presented in themes. Conference participants were very enthusiastic about using a DxTM in their place of work. Participants enumerated several strategies to make DxTMs more appealing including: the use of mandates, a value proposition for providers, communication and education, and integration with EHRs and existing systems. All groups across the dental healthcare delivery spectrum will need to work together for the success of the widespread and consistent use of DxTMs. Understanding the provider perspective is however the most critical step in achieving this goal, as they are the group who will ultimately be saddled with the critical task of ensuring DxTM use at the point of care. PMID:28703751

  9. A decade of imaging surgeons' brain function (part I): Terminology, techniques, and clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Hemel Narendra; Singh, Harsimrat; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Leff, Daniel Richard

    2017-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging has the potential to deepen our understanding of technical and nontechnical skill acquisition in surgeons, particularly as established assessment tools leave unanswered questions about inter-operator differences in ability that seem independent of experience. In this first of a 2-part article, we aim to utilize our experience in neuroimaging surgeons to orientate the nonspecialist reader to the principles of brain imaging. Terminology commonly used in brain imaging research is explained, placing emphasis on the "activation response" to an surgical task and its effect on local cortical hemodynamic parameters (neurovascular coupling). Skills learning and subsequent consolidation and refinement through practice lead to reorganization of the functional architecture of the brain (known as "neuroplasticity"), evidenced by changes in the strength of regional activation as well as alterations in connectivity between brain regions, culminating in more efficient use of neural resources during task performance. Currently available neuroimaging techniques that either directly (ie, measure electrical activity) or indirectly (ie, measure tissue hemodynamics) assess brain function are discussed. Finally, we highlight the important practical considerations when conducting brain imaging research in surgeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dental Providers' Perspectives on Diagnosis-Driven Dentistry: Strategies to Enhance Adoption of Dental Diagnostic Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadan-Udoh, Enihomo; Simon, Lisa; Etolue, Jini; Tokede, Oluwabunmi; White, Joel; Spallek, Heiko; Walji, Muhammad; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2017-07-13

    The routine use of standardized diagnostic terminologies (DxTMs) in dentistry has long been the subject of academic debate. This paper discusses the strategies suggested by a group of dental stakeholders to enhance the uptake of DxTMs. Through unstructured interviewing at the 'Toward a Diagnosis-Driven Profession' National Conference held on 19 March 2016 in Los Angeles, CA, USA participants were asked how enthusiastic they were about implementing and consistently using DxTMs at their work. They also brainstormed on strategies to improve the widespread use of DxTMs. Their responses are summarized by recursive abstraction and presented in themes. Conference participants were very enthusiastic about using a DxTM in their place of work. Participants enumerated several strategies to make DxTMs more appealing including: the use of mandates, a value proposition for providers, communication and education, and integration with EHRs and existing systems. All groups across the dental healthcare delivery spectrum will need to work together for the success of the widespread and consistent use of DxTMs. Understanding the provider perspective is however the most critical step in achieving this goal, as they are the group who will ultimately be saddled with the critical task of ensuring DxTM use at the point of care.

  11. The smallest divisions of time: terminological and lexicographical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Sánchez Martín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study of the ancient divisible units of the hours of day (the terms borrowed from latin: átomo, cuadrante, momento, punto and uncia use the principal sources of the medieval and Renaissance works. With regard to the former, an example of the cultural transmission of this specialized lexicon can be seen in its reception in The Etymologies of Saint Isidore (c. 560-636 and in the Libro de las propiedades de las cosas of Bartolomé Ánglico (1240, an encyclopaedia that had an extraordinary reception in Western Europe until the sixteenth century. Amongst the Renaissance sources several studies stand out: Chronographía or Reportorio de los tiempos (1545 by Jerónimo de Chaves, the anonymous book Repertorio de los tiempos (1554 and Chronographía y Repertorio de los tiempos (1585 by Francisco Vicente de Tornamira, a set of treatises which includes the knowledge compiled in the medieval encyclopaedias mentioned above. These works allow us to verify the transmission of this lexicon, in a stage marked by the growing interest in metrological issues. The analysis of this terminology reflects the semantic connections established between the various dimensions (weight, space and time as its semantic reference moves from the spatial domain to the that of time and relationships are attested in the earliest dictionaries of the Spanish language.

  12. Parental perceptions of weight terminology that providers use with youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Luedicke, Joerg

    2011-10-01

    Little research has been performed to examine patient perceptions of weight-related language, especially related to childhood obesity. In this study we assessed parental perceptions of weight-based terminology used by health care providers to describe a child's excess weight and assessed perceived connotations associated with these terms including stigma, blame, and motivation to reduce weight. A national sample of American parents with children aged 2 to 18 years (N = 445) completed an online survey to assess their perceptions of 10 common terms to describe excess body weight in youth (including "extremely obese," "high BMI," "weight problem," "unhealthy weight," "weight," "heavy," "obese," "overweight," "chubby," and "fat"). Parents were asked to use a 5-point rating scale to indicate how much they perceived each term to be desirable, stigmatizing, blaming, or motivating to lose weight. Regression models revealed that the terms "weight" and "unhealthy weight" were rated as most desirable, and "unhealthy weight" and "weight problem" were rated as the most motivating to lose weight. The terms "fat," "obese," and "extremely obese" were rated as the most undesirable, stigmatizing, blaming, and least motivating. Parents' ratings were consistent across sociodemographic variables, body weight, and child's body weight. The results of this study have important implications for the improvement of health care for youth with obesity; it may be advantageous for health care providers to use or avoid using specific weight-based language during discussions about body weight with families. Pediatricians play a key role in obesity prevention and treatment, but their efforts may be undermined by stigmatizing or offensive language that can hinder important discussions about children's health.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging basics for the prostate brachytherapist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jihong; Tanderup, Kari; Cunha, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used in radiation therapy, and integration of MRI into brachytherapy in particular is becoming more common. We present here a systematic review of the basic physics and technical aspects of incorporating MRI into prostate brachytherapy....... Terminology and MRI system components are reviewed along with typical work flows in prostate high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapy. In general, the brachytherapy workflow consists of five key components: diagnosis, implantation, treatment planning (scan + plan), implant verification, and delivery...

  14. A Review of Auditing Methods Applied to the Content of Controlled Biomedical Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinxin; Fan, Jung-Wei; Baorto, David M.; Weng, Chunhua; Cimino, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Although controlled biomedical terminologies have been with us for centuries, it is only in the last couple of decades that close attention has been paid to the quality of these terminologies. The result of this attention has been the development of auditing methods that apply formal methods to assessing whether terminologies are complete and accurate. We have performed an extensive literature review to identify published descriptions of these methods and have created a framework for characterizing them. The framework considers manual, systematic and heuristic methods that use knowledge (within or external to the terminology) to measure quality factors of different aspects of the terminology content (terms, semantic classification, and semantic relationships). The quality factors examined included concept orientation, consistency, non-redundancy, soundness and comprehensive coverage. We reviewed 130 studies that were retrieved based on keyword search on publications in PubMed, and present our assessment of how they fit into our framework. We also identify which terminologies have been audited with the methods and provide examples to illustrate each part of the framework. PMID:19285571

  15. Nurse's use of power to standardise nursing terminology in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Samira; Sieloff, Christina L

    2017-07-01

    To describe nurses' use of power to influence the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. Little is known about nurses' potential use of power to influence the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. The theory of group power within organisations informed the design of the descriptive, cross-sectional study used a survey method to assess nurses' use of power to influence the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. The Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Power within Organizations © and Nursing Power Scale was used. A total of 232 nurses responded to the survey. The mean power capability score was moderately high at 134.22 (SD 18.49), suggesting that nurses could use power to achieve the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. The nurses' power capacity was significantly correlated with their power capability (r = 0.96, P power to achieve their goals, such as the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. Nurse administrators may use their power to influence the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. If nurses lack power, this could decrease nurses' ability to achieve their goals and contribute to the achievement of effective patient outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  17. PASCAL vs BASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundie, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison between PASCAL and BASIC as general purpose microprocessor languages rates PASCAL above BASIC in such points as program structure, data types, structuring methods, control structures, procedures and functions, and ease in learning. (CMV)

  18. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  19. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions ...

  20. Business plan basics for the nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Pam

    2013-01-01

    In conclusion, no nurse should shy away from understanding the finances of the health care world. We must all embrace the need to understand the costs of care. As we gain this basic understanding, we can excel in demonstrating ideas to improve health care in the most efficient manner, a winning combination in today's financially focused world!

  1. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  2. 32 CFR 272.3 - Definition of basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE § 272.3 Definition of basic research. Basic research is systematic study directed toward greater knowledge or understanding of... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of basic research. 272.3 Section 272...

  3. Componential analysis of kinship terminology a computational perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pericliev, V

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the first computer program automating the task of componential analysis of kinship vocabularies. The book examines the program in relation to two basic problems: the commonly occurring inconsistency of componential models; and the huge number of alternative componential models.

  4. FEATURES TERMINOLOGY IN MODERN MEDICAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlepko S.M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of compliance with terms and definitions in medical science and engineering to the actual essence. One of the components of successful development of these trends is adequate linguistic support of the process of development and operation, basic level of determination and terms which indicated certain principles, approaches, processes and so on.

  5. 32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37.1240 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts... practical application of that knowledge and understanding. It typically is funded within Research...

  6. Unsustaineble pseudo-urban consequences of legal and urban terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćerimović Velimir Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City planning is a complex task and through this work we face the space and natural resources that expose the exploitation (that are to be exploited and prone to unsustainable change. Often without environmental responsibility and the imperative of creating certain measures we make superstructure no matter how much the environment may be disrupted, and whether such relationships create a better society, better network of urban settlements and a better man. At that may also affect our knowledge which is often due to a variety of doctrines and legislative regulations that are applied in the planning and management space. From this it can be seen that modern architecture did not contribute to the creation of better cities. Also, urban planning is mainly restricted to the regulation and it neglected the creative action, regional-planning is lost in theoretical research, while the consideration of the whole problem is abandoned. In addition to this, in today’s transitional terms and the domineering (dominant urban crisis unsustainable combination and identification of the “2D” and the “3D” terminology is recognizable, which is only indicators that in the field of urban planning some transitional trends are prevailing. This unsustainable state of affairs in the transitional planning of urban areas can be applied in the most suitable way to pseudo-urbanization, sub-urbanization, unbalanced eco-reciprocity, non-standard construction of the urban tissue, discontinuity inherited and newly constructed urban substance. In this regard, consequently expressed negative environmental legacy of reproduction and the increased effect of the negative consequences of greenhouse gases from the threatening climate change, only shows that urban planners are not sinless and, they more or less (unconsciously complicit and participate in the contamination of urban and environment. In the end, it definitely guides us to the need to leave or transformation of the

  7. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  8. Basic statistics for social research

    CERN Document Server

    Hanneman, Robert A; Riddle, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    A core statistics text that emphasizes logical inquiry, notmath Basic Statistics for Social Research teaches core generalstatistical concepts and methods that all social science majorsmust master to understand (and do) social research. Its use ofmathematics and theory are deliberately limited, as the authorsfocus on the use of concepts and tools of statistics in theanalysis of social science data, rather than on the mathematicaland computational aspects. Research questions and applications aretaken from a wide variety of subfields in sociology, and eachchapter is organized arou

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Discovery Stories of Discovery Research Tools, Specimens, and Data Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's ...

  10. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Bailer, A. John; Bolger, P. Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M. George; Chiueh, Chuang C.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Cook, Ralph R.; Diamond, David M.; Doolittle, David J.; Dorato, Michael A.; Duke, Stephen O.; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E.; Hart, Ronald W.; Hastings, Kenneth L.; Hayes, A. Wallace; Hoffmann, George R.; Ives, John A.; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Kaminski, Norbert E.; Keller, John G.; Klaunig, James E.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Kozumbo, Walter J.; Lettieri, Teresa; Liu, Shu-Zheng; Maisseu, Andre; Maynard, Kenneth I.; Masoro, Edward J.; McClellan, Roger O.; Mehendale, Harihara M.; Mothersill, Carmel; Newlin, David B.; Nigg, Herbert N.; Oehme, Frederick W.; Phalen, Robert F.; Philbert, Martin A.; Rattan, Suresh I.S.; Riviere, Jim E.; Rodricks, Joseph; Sapolsky, Robert M.; Scott, Bobby R.; Seymour, Colin; Sinclair, David A.; Smith-Sonneborn, Joan; Snow, Elizabeth T.; Spear, Linda; Stevenson, Donald E.; Thomas, Yolene; Tubiana, Maurice; Williams, Gary M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines

  11. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Ylioja, Thomas; Lackey, Mellanye

    2016-01-01

    Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.

  12. [In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy in dermatology: a proposal concerning French terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitakis, J; Bahadoran, P; Braun, R; Debarbieux, S; Labeille, B; Perrot, J-L; Vabres, P

    2013-11-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a recently introduced non-invasive imaging technique allowing real-time examination of the skin in vivo. Whereas a substantial literature concerning RCM exists in English, so far there is no official terminology in French, despite the fact that an ever-growing number of French-speaking dermatologists now use this new imaging technique. The aim of the present study is to propose a French terminology for RCM in order to allow French-speaking dermatologists to communicate in a precise and homogeneous language on this topic. A group of French-speaking dermatologists with solid experience of RCM, members of the Non-invasive Cutaneous Imaging group of the French Society of Dermatology, endeavored to suggest terms in French concerning RCM. Each group member dealt with a specific paragraph. The members exchanged comments via email and the terminology was finalized during a meeting of the group members in Paris in June 2012. Descriptive terms referring to the RCM aspects of normal and diseased skin were proposed. Some of these already existed, being used in routine dermatopathology, while other specific terms were created or adapted from the English terminology. This terminology will allow French-speaking dermatologists using RCM to communicate their findings in a homogeneous language. It may be enriched in the future by the introduction of additional terms describing new aspects of both normal and, especially, diseased skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  14. Basic algebraic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Shastri, Anant R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Basic Problem Fundamental Group Function Spaces and Quotient Spaces Relative Homotopy Some Typical Constructions Cofibrations Fibrations Categories and Functors Cell Complexes and Simplicial Complexes Basics of Convex Polytopes Cell Complexes Product of Cell Complexes Homotopical Aspects Cellular Maps Abstract Simplicial Complexes Geometric Realization of Simplicial Complexes Barycentric Subdivision Simplicial Approximation Links and Stars Covering Spaces and Fundamental Group Basic Definitions Lifting Properties Relation with the Fundamental Group Classification of Covering P

  15. Hydromechanics - basic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Tak; Lee, Je Geun

    1987-03-01

    This book tells of hydromechanics, which is about basic properties of hydromechanics such as conception, definition, mass, power and weight, and perfect fluid and perfect gas, hydrostatics with summary, basic equation of hydrostatics, relative balance of hydrostatics, and kinematics of hydromechanics, description method of floating, hydromechanics about basic knowledge, equation of moment, energy equation and application of Bernoulli equation, application of momentum theory, inviscid flow and fluid measuring.

  16. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  17. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps ...

  18. Bioinstrumentation: Tools for Understanding Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandersee, James H., Ed.; And Others

    This book was written to help introductory biology teachers gain a basic understanding of contemporary bioinstrumentation and the uses to which it is put in the laboratory. It includes topics that are most basic to understanding the nature of biology. The book is divided into five sections: (1) "Separation and Identification" that includes…

  19. Mediation in Different Areas of Chinese Legal Reality – Parametrisation of Selected Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzybek Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with terminological issues in legal translation. The author has researched the process of establishing equivalents for partially equivalent terminology, using the parametrical approach to legal translation. The research consists of the terminological analysis of the texts of mediation regulations formulated in Chinese and Polish. The objective was to establish translational equivalents in the case of significant differences between the legal systems of the above mentioned linguistic area. The research was financed from the research grant no. 2012/07/E/HS2/00678, titled: Parameterisation of legilinguistic translatology in the scope of civil law and civil procedure awarded by the National Science Centre of the Republic of Poland (Sonata Bis program.

  20. Terminology-based documentation systems: a systemantic comparison of four different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouongo, Sylvie M N; Stausberg, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The supplementation of documentation systems with controlled vocabularies is a prerequisite for improved and consistent communication, high data quality and efficient data exchange. To outline the requirements of an application system which supports the terminology-based development of documentation systems, existing documentation systems offering a terminological support in the definition of item collections were retrieved in the literature and analyzed. The analysis of four selected documentation systems caused us to define four main criteria for a terminology-based documentation system, which are: use of a controlled vocabulary, definition of a characteristic level, the definition of a value domain level and definition of roles and entities to combine vocabulary, characteristic and value domain levels together.

  1. The Naueti relationship terminology: A new instance of asymmetric prescription from East Timor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hicks

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationship terminologies of an asymmetric prescriptive character are widespread throughout mainland and insular Southeast Asia. Their western limit is marked by the Kachin of northern Burma (Leach 1961:28-53 while their eastern limit is marked by the Mambai people of central East Timor (Figures 1 and 2. Between these limits are such other instances as occur, for example, among the Lamet of Cambodia (Needham 1960, the various Batak groups of Sumatra (Rodgers 1984, and the Rindi of eastern Sumba (Forth 1981. The principal intention of the present paper is to establish the existence of a new asymmetric prescriptive terminology in East Timor, and by doing so provide empirical justification for adjusting the easternmost limits of nomenclatures of this kind. A subsidiary intent is to offer a contribution to current speculations regarding the transformation of relationship terminologies in eastern Indonesia (Guermonprez 1998; Smedal 2002.

  2. Doha agreement meeting on terminology and definitions in groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weir, Adam; Brukner, Peter; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous taxonomy of groin injuries in athletes adds confusion to this complicated area. AIM: The 'Doha agreement meeting on terminology and definitions in groin pain in athletes' was convened to attempt to resolve this problem. Our aim was to agree on a standard terminology, along...... with accompanying definitions. METHODS: A one-day agreement meeting was held on 4 November 2014. Twenty-four international experts from 14 different countries participated. Systematic reviews were performed to give an up-to-date synthesis of the current evidence on major topics concerning groin pain in athletes......-related, inguinal-related and pubic-related groin pain. 2. Hip-related groin pain. 3. Other causes of groin pain in athletes. The definitions are included in this paper. CONCLUSIONS: The Doha agreement meeting on terminology and definitions in groin pain in athletes reached a consensus on a clinically based...

  3. Apples and oranges in disguised advertising: differentiation and terminological determination of brand usage in program content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Muškinja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Disguised advertising is a modern marketing instrument that is seeing an increase in Croatian business practice but whose application is prohibited by Croatian law. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to understand whether Croatian businesses really do use disguised advertising, how they do it either in accordance or in contradiction with Croatian law, and whether there is a need to distinguish among several similar but different manifestations and to terminologically determine each one of these. For the purpose of this study, we explored the theoretical, legal and ethnographic conceptualizations of the term disguised advertising in the scientific literature, Croatian legislation and applied communication in business practice. The results of our research show that: a marketing literature uses various terms for describing brand usage in program content, among which disguised advertising (prikriveno oglašavanje dominates, whereas product placement (plasman proizvoda is not mentioned once; b the law distinguishes between disguised advertising that is prohibited and product placement, as a practise allowed under certain conditions and the one that is by definition identical with disguised advertising in the manner defined by marketing literature; c business entities in their communication make a distinction between disguised advertising and product placement, and they are trying to move product placement away from disguised advertising by being mentioned as sponsors/partners of the program. The analysis also indicates three different situations in which brands are used in the program content: contracted and correctly indicated brand usage; contracted but not indicated; and not-contracted brand usage. Only the first situation is considered to be a recommended marketing tool; therefore, it is necessary to differentiate it from the other two by its definition and name. It is suggested that this marketing tool be named: brand placement in both

  4. Review of the Nomenclature of the Retaining Ligaments of the Cheek: Frequently Confused Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeui Seok Seo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the time of its inception within facial anatomy, wide variability in the terminology as well as the location and extent of retaining ligaments has resulted in confusion over nomenclature. Confusion over nomenclature also arises with regard to the subcutaneous ligamentous attachments, and in the anatomic location and extent described, particularly for zygomatic and masseteric ligaments. Certain historical terms—McGregor’s patch, the platysma auricular ligament, parotid cutaneous ligament, platysma auricular fascia, temporoparotid fasica (Lore’s fascia, anterior platysma-cutaneous ligament, and platysma cutaneous ligament—delineate retaining ligaments of related anatomic structures that have been conceptualized in various ways. Confusion around the masseteric cutaneous ligaments arises from inconsistencies in their reported locations in the literature because the size and location of the parotid gland varies so much, and this affects the relationship between the parotid gland and the fascia of the masseter muscle. For the zygomatic ligaments, there is disagreement over how far they extend, with descriptions varying over whether they extend medially beyond the zygomaticus minor muscle. Even the ‘main’ zygomatic ligament’s denotation may vary depending on which subcutaneous plane is used as a reference for naming it. Recent popularity in procedures using threads or injectables has required not only an accurate understanding of the nomenclature of retaining ligaments, but also of their location and extent. The authors have here summarized each retaining ligament with a survey of the different nomenclature that has been introduced by different authors within the most commonly cited published papers.

  5. ILAE Classification of the Epilepsies Position Paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Ingrid E; Berkovic, Samuel; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Connolly, Mary B; French, Jacqueline; Guilhoto, Laura; Hirsch, Edouard; Jain, Satish; Mathern, Gary W.; Moshé, Solomon L; Nordli, Douglas R; Perucca, Emilio; Tomson, Torbjörn; Wiebe, Samuel; Zhang, Yue-Hua; Zuberi, Sameer M

    2017-01-01

    Summary The ILAE Classification of the Epilepsies has been updated to reflect our gain in understanding of the epilepsies and their underlying mechanisms following the major scientific advances which have taken place since the last ratified classification in 1989. As a critical tool for the practising clinician, epilepsy classification must be relevant and dynamic to changes in thinking, yet robust and translatable to all areas of the globe. Its primary purpose is for diagnosis of patients, but it is also critical for epilepsy research, development of antiepileptic therapies and communication around the world. The new classification originates from a draft document submitted for public comments in 2013 which was revised to incorporate extensive feedback from the international epilepsy community over several rounds of consultation. It presents three levels, starting with seizure type where it assumes that the patient is having epileptic seizures as defined by the new 2017 ILAE Seizure Classification. After diagnosis of the seizure type, the next step is diagnosis of epilepsy type, including focal epilepsy, generalized epilepsy, combined generalized and focal epilepsy, and also an unknown epilepsy group. The third level is that of epilepsy syndrome where a specific syndromic diagnosis can be made. The new classification incorporates etiology along each stage, emphasizing the need to consider etiology at each step of diagnosis as it often carries significant treatment implications. Etiology is broken into six subgroups, selected because of their potential therapeutic consequences. New terminology is introduced such as developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. The term benign is replaced by the terms self-limited and pharmacoresponsive, to be used where appropriate. It is hoped that this new framework will assist in improving epilepsy care and research in the 21st century. PMID:28276062

  6. Mapping clinical phenotype data elements to standardized metadata repositories and controlled terminologies: the eMERGE Network experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Wang, Janey; Kashyap, Sudha; Basford, Melissa; Li, Rongling; Masys, Daniel R; Chute, Christopher G

    2011-01-01

    Systematic study of clinical phenotypes is important for a better understanding of the genetic basis of human diseases and more effective gene-based disease management. A key aspect in facilitating such studies requires standardized representation of the phenotype data using common data elements (CDEs) and controlled biomedical vocabularies. In this study, the authors analyzed how a limited subset of phenotypic data is amenable to common definition and standardized collection, as well as how their adoption in large-scale epidemiological and genome-wide studies can significantly facilitate cross-study analysis. The authors mapped phenotype data dictionaries from five different eMERGE (Electronic Medical Records and Genomics) Network sites studying multiple diseases such as peripheral arterial disease and type 2 diabetes. For mapping, standardized terminological and metadata repository resources, such as the caDSR (Cancer Data Standards Registry and Repository) and SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine), were used. The mapping process comprised both lexical (via searching for relevant pre-coordinated concepts and data elements) and semantic (via post-coordination) techniques. Where feasible, new data elements were curated to enhance the coverage during mapping. A web-based application was also developed to uniformly represent and query the mapped data elements from different eMERGE studies. Approximately 60% of the target data elements (95 out of 157) could be mapped using simple lexical analysis techniques on pre-coordinated terms and concepts before any additional curation of terminology and metadata resources was initiated by eMERGE investigators. After curation of 54 new caDSR CDEs and nine new NCI thesaurus concepts and using post-coordination, the authors were able to map the remaining 40% of data elements to caDSR and SNOMED CT. A web-based tool was also implemented to assist in semi-automatic mapping of data elements. This study emphasizes the

  7. BASIC Beats PASCAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ever, Jacob

    1981-01-01

    Features of two versions of the BASIC programing language are compared with the features of the PASCAL programing language. The application chosen for comparison was a word processor. The conclusion was that PASCAL had the best language features, but BASIC had better systems capabilities. (MP)

  8. Basic Electronics I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L. Paul

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

  9. Finding Basic Writing's Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan-Rabideau, Mary P.; Brossell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Posits that basic writing serves a vital function by providing writing support for at-risk students and serves the needs of a growing student population that universities accept yet feel needs additional writing instruction. Concludes that the basic writing classroom is the most effective educational support for at-risk students and their writing.…

  10. Basic Cancer Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basics of cancer . Carcinoma Cancer that starts in skin or tissues that line the inside or cover the outside of internal organs. Cells The basic units that make up the human body. Chemoprevention The use of natural, synthetic (made in a laboratory), or biologic (from a ...

  11. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... Abstract. We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment ...

  12. A Formal Semantics for Concept Understanding relying on Description Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    In this research, Description Logics (DLs) will be employed for logical description, logical characterisation, logical modelling and ontological description of concept understanding in terminological systems. It’s strongly believed that using a formal descriptive logic could support us in reveali...

  13. Understanding Computation of Impulse Response in Microwave Software Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrebic, Milka M.; Tosic, Dejan V.; Pejovic, Predrag V.

    2010-01-01

    In modern microwave engineering curricula, the introduction of the many new topics in microwave industrial development, or of software tools for design and simulation, sometimes results in students having an inadequate understanding of the fundamental theory. The terminology for and the explanation of algorithms for calculating impulse response in…

  14. Terminology used to describe health care teams: an integrative review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamberlain-Salaun J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun, Jane Mills, Kim Usher School of Nursing, Midwifery and Nutrition, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland, Australia Purpose: Health systems around the world are struggling to meet the needs of aging populations and increasing numbers of clients with complex health conditions. Faced with multiple health system challenges, governments are advocating for team-based approaches to health care. Key descriptors used to describe health care teams include “interprofessional,” “multiprofessional,” “interdisciplinary,” and “multidisciplinary.” Until now there has been no review of the use of terminology relating to health care teams. The purpose of this integrative review is to provide a descriptive analysis of terminology used to describe health care teams. Methods: An integrative review of the literature was conducted because it allows for the inclusion of literature related to studies using diverse methodologies. The authors searched the literature using the terms interprofessional, multiprofessional, interdisciplinary, and multidisciplinary combined with “health teams” and “health care teams.” Refining strategies included a requirement that journal articles define the term used to describe health care teams and include a list of health care team members. The literature selection process resulted in the inclusion of 17 journal articles in this review. Results: Multidisciplinary is more frequently used than other terminology to describe health care teams. The findings in this review relate to frequency of terminology usage, justifications for use of specific terminology, commonalities and patterns related to country of origin of research studies and health care areas, ways in which terminology is used, structure of team membership, and perspectives of definitions used. Conclusion: Stakeholders across the health care continuum share responsibility for developing and consistently using terminology

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of the introduction and implementation of a Terminology Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Annelise; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    be reused from one project to another, consistency in the terminology is secured in different texts knowledge is maintained in the organization when there are personnel changes  (Grinsted (1991:38-39)). Serious terminology work requires resources, but it is not always easy to have the resources allocated...... distinctive competences. However, management in private and public organizations (most often) requires concrete figures and numbers to document the arguments before allocating resources. Cost/benefit-analysis supports the arguments through a comparison between benefits and costs of a given new initiative...

  16. Terminología de los ejercicios de fuerza con sobrecargas (y IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Cos Morera, Francesc; Carreras Villanova, David; Cos i Morera, Miquel Àngel; Medina Leal, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Las ciencias aplicadas a la actividad física y el deporte son relativamente recientes y deben estandarizar todavía su vocabulario en algunas áreas de conocimiento. Establecer una terminología de consenso y unívoca en relación con los ejercicios de fuerza con sobrecargas es fundamental para los profesionales que trabajan en las ciencias del ejercicio físico y el cuerpo humano. Es imprescindible articular una terminología vehicular en este sector de intervención social de gran repercusión. El d...

  17. FUNCTIONING OF THE TERMINOLOGICAL FIELD “TOURISM” IN THE ENGLISH GUIDEBOOKS

    OpenAIRE

    Прима, В. В.

    2016-01-01

    The article outlines main aspects of study of the English tourism terminology, in particular, functional. General specific features of the English guides and peculiarities of tourism terms functioning in them have been viewed in the article. The aim of our work is to consider the functioning of the English tourism terminology in guidebooks to Ukraine. The research is based on the materials of these English-speaking guides online: World Travel Guide and Travel to Ukraine (the Official Travel W...

  18. Stereochemical vocabulary for structures that are chiral but not asymmetric: History, analysis, and proposal for a rational terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Joseph

    2011-09-01

    Asymmetric objects are necessarily chiral, but a structure may be chiral and not asymmetric if it possesses one or more proper rotation axes. Chiral but not asymmetric molecules are important in chemistry and its applications, but no suitable term exists for the designation of such structures, and their terminology in the literature is confused and chaotic. Dissymmetric has been redefined by some authors as "chiral but not asymmetric," in conflict both with Pasteur's definition of the term as "not superposable on its mirror image" (without other restrictions, i.e., chiral) and the understanding of the term in stereochemistry. Moreover, dissymmetric and asymmetric are frequently confused because of their similar forms. Furthermore, dissymmetric is widely used in many other definitions in chemistry, physics, and other disciplines. Thus, dissymmetric is unsuitable in the new definition of "chiral but not asymmetric," and a new term is needed. The adjective "symmanumorphous" is therefore proposed for "chiral but not asymmetric". "Sym" (from symmetry) indicates the presence of some symmetry in the structure, and "manu" (from "manus," Latin for hand, e.g., manual, manuscript) refers to its handedness. "Morphous," from the Greek "morphē," that is, form, is widely used, for example, anthropomorphous, enantiomorphous, etc. Symmanumorphous is convenient and euphonious and at 15 characters (same as enantiomorphous) is not unduly long. The nouns "a symmanumorph" (a structure that is chiral but not asymmetric) and "symmanumorphism" (the phenomenon of chirality without asymmetry) are also proposed. The new terminology is adaptable in other languages and would contribute to creating order out of linguistic chaos. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Positron emission tomography basic sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, D W; Valk, P E; Maisey, M N

    2003-01-01

    Essential for students, science and medical graduates who want to understand the basic science of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this book describes the physics, chemistry, technology and overview of the clinical uses behind the science of PET and the imaging techniques it uses. In recent years, PET has moved from high-end research imaging tool used by the highly specialized to an essential component of clinical evaluation in the clinic, especially in cancer management. Previously being the realm of scientists, this book explains PET instrumentation, radiochemistry, PET data acquisition and image formation, integration of structural and functional images, radiation dosimetry and protection, and applications in dedicated areas such as drug development, oncology, and gene expression imaging. The technologist, the science, engineering or chemistry graduate seeking further detailed information about PET, or the medical advanced trainee wishing to gain insight into the basic science of PET will find this book...

  20. Health insurance basic actuarial models

    CERN Document Server

    Pitacco, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...

  1. Basic statistics in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaux, David L

    2014-01-01

    The physicist Ernest Rutherford said, "If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment." Although this aphorism remains true for much of today's research in cell biology, a basic understanding of statistics can be useful to cell biologists to help in monitoring the conduct of their experiments, in interpreting the results, in presenting them in publications, and when critically evaluating research by others. However, training in statistics is often focused on the sophisticated needs of clinical researchers, psychologists, and epidemiologists, whose conclusions depend wholly on statistics, rather than the practical needs of cell biologists, whose experiments often provide evidence that is not statistical in nature. This review describes some of the basic statistical principles that may be of use to experimental biologists, but it does not cover the sophisticated statistics needed for papers that contain evidence of no other kind.

  2. Ewe Basic Course. Revised Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Irene; And Others

    The purpose of this beginning text in Ewe is to provide the student with an introduction to the structure of the Ewe language and "reasonable practice" in speaking. It is intended to be taught with the assistance of a native speaker of Ewe. Linguistic terminology is minimal. Suggested teaching time ranges from two semesters of class meetings of…

  3. A Conceptual-Pictorial Approach to the Understanding of Piaget's Theory of Mental Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattimore-Knudson, Russell S.

    Utilizing a minimum of technical terminology, this eight-chapter monograph introduces beginning psychology students to the basic concepts of Piaget's theory of mental development and to its application by parents and teachers. As an aid to learning, each of the concepts discussed is illustrated by black-and-white drawings which can be reproduced…

  4. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  5. Hypothesis, Prediction, and Conclusion: Using Nature of Science Terminology Correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines the terms "hypothesis," "prediction," and "conclusion" and shows how to use the terms correctly in scientific investigations in both the school and science education research contexts. The scientific method, or hypothetico-deductive (HD) approach, is described and it is argued that an understanding of the scientific method,…

  6. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  7. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  8. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  9. Noise Radar Technology Basics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thayaparan, T; Wernik, C

    2006-01-01

    .... In this report, the basic theory of noise radar design is treated. The theory supports the use of noise waveforms for radar detection and imaging in such applications as covert military surveillance and reconnaissance...

  10. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  11. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  12. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  13. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD Kristine Cichowski, MS Read Bio Founding ...

  14. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Environment Contact Us Share Basic Information about Mercury On this page: What is mercury? Emissions of ... Consumer products that traditionally contain mercury What is Mercury? Mercury is a naturally-occurring chemical element found ...

  15. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  16. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  17. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries ... Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering the Patient After Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, ...

  18. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  19. Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Background and Current Status of the E/BD Terminology and Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the development and current status of alternatives to the federal definition of emotional disturbance or behavior disorders. It notes that several states are now revising their own terminologies or definitions in response to the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that dropped the term…

  20. Quality assurance of chemical ingredient classification for the National Drug File - Reference Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling; Yumak, Hasan; Chen, Ling; Ochs, Christopher; Geller, James; Kapusnik-Uner, Joan; Perl, Yehoshua

    2017-09-01

    The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is a large and complex drug terminology consisting of several classification hierarchies on top of an extensive collection of drug concepts. These hierarchies provide important information about clinical drugs, e.g., their chemical ingredients, mechanisms of action, dosage form and physiological effects. Within NDF-RT such information is represented using tens of thousands of roles connecting drugs to classifications. In previous studies, we have introduced various kinds of Abstraction Networks to summarize the content and structure of terminologies in order to facilitate their visual comprehension, and support quality assurance of terminologies. However, these previous kinds of Abstraction Networks are not appropriate for summarizing the NDF-RT classification hierarchies, due to its unique structure. In this paper, we present the novel Ingredient Abstraction Network (IAbN) to summarize, visualize and support the audit of NDF-RT's Chemical Ingredients hierarchy and its associated drugs. A common theme in our quality assurance framework is to use characterizations of sets of concepts, revealed by the Abstraction Network structure, to capture concepts, the modeling of which is more complex than for other concepts. For the IAbN, we characterize drug ingredient concepts as more complex if they belong to IAbN groups with multiple parent groups. We show that such concepts have a statistically significantly higher rate of errors than a control sample and identify two especially common patterns of errors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the Enviroment: Terminology, Classification, and Origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, R.C.; Franklin, J.F.; Berger, U.; Conder, J.M.; Cousins, I.T.; Voogt, de P.; Jensen, A.A.; Kannan, K.; Mabury, S.A.; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to provide an overview of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) detected in the environment, wildlife, and humans, and recommend clear, specific, and descriptive terminology, names, and acronyms for PFASs. The overarching objective is to unify and

  2. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken slaughter...

  3. Description logic-based methods for auditing frame-based medical terminological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, Ronald; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Medical terminological systems (TSs) play an increasingly important role in health care by supporting recording, retrieval and analysis of patient information. As the size and complexity of TSs are growing, the need arises for means to audit them, i.e. verify and maintain (logical)

  4. Laryngeal High-Speed Videoendoscopy: Rationale and Recommendation for Accurate and Consistent Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Hillman, Robert E.; Mehta, Daryush D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors discuss the rationale behind the term "laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy" to describe the application of high-speed endoscopic imaging techniques to the visualization of vocal fold vibration. Method: Commentary on the advantages of using accurate and consistent terminology in the field of voice research is…

  5. LexGrid: a framework for representing, storing, and querying biomedical terminologies from simple to sublime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Solbrig, Harold R; Buntrock, James D; Johnson, Thomas M; Chute, Christopher G

    2009-01-01

    Many biomedical terminologies, classifications, and ontological resources such as the NCI Thesaurus (NCIT), International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), and Gene Ontology (GO) have been developed and used to build a variety of IT applications in biology, biomedicine, and health care settings. However, virtually all these resources involve incompatible formats, are based on different modeling languages, and lack appropriate tooling and programming interfaces (APIs) that hinder their wide-scale adoption and usage in a variety of application contexts. The Lexical Grid (LexGrid) project introduced in this paper is an ongoing community-driven initiative, coordinated by the Mayo Clinic Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, designed to bridge this gap using a common terminology model called the LexGrid model. The key aspect of the model is to accommodate multiple vocabulary and ontology distribution formats and support of multiple data stores for federated vocabulary distribution. The model provides a foundation for building consistent and standardized APIs to access multiple vocabularies that support lexical search queries, hierarchy navigation, and a rich set of features such as recursive subsumption (e.g., get all the children of the concept penicillin). Existing LexGrid implementations include the LexBIG API as well as a reference implementation of the HL7 Common Terminology Services (CTS) specification providing programmatic access via Java, Web, and Grid services.

  6. Machine-Aided Translation: From Terminology Banks to Interactive Translation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Concetta C.; Serain, Daniel

    The rapid growth of the need for technical translations in recent years has led specialists to utilize computer technology to improve the efficiency and quality of translation. The two approaches considered were automatic translation and terminology banks. Since the results of fully automatic translation were considered unsatisfactory by various…

  7. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 520 - Standard Terminology and Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTOMATED TARIFFS Pt. 520, App. A Appendix A to Part 520—Standard Terminology and Codes I—Publishing... BSK Bushel BUS Box, with Inner Cntn BXI Bucket BXT Cabinet CAB Cage CAG Can CAN Carrier CAR Case CAS... HED Hogshead HGH Hopper Car HPC Hopper Truck HPT On Hanger/Rack in bx HRB Half-Standard Rack HRK Half...

  8. On Logical Characterisation of Human Concept Learning based on Terminological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2018-01-01

    and providing a logical background for theorising over the Human Concept Learning Problem (HCLP) in terminological systems are the main contributions of this research. In order to make a linkage between 'Logic' and 'Cognition', Description Logics (DLs) will be employed to provide a logical description...

  9. Medical Informatics Specialty in the Developed English-Speaking Countries: The Terminology Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobryn, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The article studies the development process of medical informatics specialty terminology as the ground for further research into foreign countries' experience, including the Canadian one, of specialists' professional training in the field of MI. The study determines the origin and chief stages of the formation and development of the medical…

  10. TG13 current terminology, etiology, and epidemiology of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimura, Yasutoshi; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Pitt, Henry A.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Garden, O. James; Büchler, Markus W.; Windsor, John A.; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Miura, Fumihiko; Higuchi, Ryota; Gabata, Toshifumi; Hata, Jiro; Gomi, Harumi; Dervenis, Christos; Lau, Wan-Yee; Belli, Giulio; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Hilvano, Serafin C.; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    While referring to the evidence adopted in the Tokyo Guidelines 2007 (TG07) as well as subsequently obtained evidence, further discussion took place on terminology, etiology, and epidemiological data. In particular, new findings have accumulated on the occurrence of symptoms in patients with

  11. Transnational health care: from a global terminology towards transnational health region development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainil, Tomas; Van Loon, Francis; Dinnie, Keith; Botterill, David; Platenkamp, Vincent; Meulemans, Herman

    2012-11-01

    Within European cross-border health care, recent studies have identified several types of international patients. Within the Anglo-Saxon setting, the specific terminology of medical tourism is used. The analytical purpose of the paper is to resolve this semantic difference by suggesting an alternative terminology, 'transnational health care' that is understood as a 'context-controlled and coordinated network of health services'. For demand-driven trans-border access seekers and cross-border access searchers, there is a need to opt for regional health-policy strategies. For supply-driven sending context actors and receiving context actors, there would be organizational benefits to these strategies. Applying the terminology of trans-border access seekers, cross-border access searchers, sending context and receiving context actors results in a transnational patient mobility typology of twelve types of international patients, based on the criteria of geographical distance, cultural distance and searching efforts, public/private/no cover and private/public provision of health services. Finally, the normative purpose of the paper is to encourage the use of this terminology to promote a policy route for transnational health regions. It is suggested that the development of transnational health regions, each with their own medical and supportive service characteristics, could enhance governmental context-controlled decision power in applying sustainable health destination management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Terminologia Anatômica em Ortopedia Anatomic Terminology in Orthopedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Murilo Novak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Há grande variação com relação à ortografia de termos científicos em artigos e textos médicos. Visando padronizar esses termos, vigora atualmente a Terminologia Anatômica, publicada pelo Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology e traduzida pela Comissão de Terminologia Anatômica da Sociedade Brasileira de Anatomia. Este trabalho correlaciona alguns termos usados na linguagem cotidiana com aqueles preconizados pela Nomina Anatomica. Também, discute a necessidade e a possibilidade de essa lista vir a tornar-se referência para escrita de assuntos ortopédicos.The spelling of scientific words in medical papers and textbooks varies a lot. In order to standardize such spelling, we now have the Anatomical Terminology, published by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, which has been translated into Portuguese by the Terminology Committee of the Brazilian Anatomy Society. This paper correlates some of the words used in daily language to some of the words suggested by the Nomina Anatomica. The paper also discusses the need and the prospects of having such list become the reference of the spelling in orthopedic matters.

  13. Semi-Automated Annotation of Biobank Data Using Standard Medical Terminologies in a Graph Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Philipp; Neururer, Sabrina; Goebel, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Data describing biobank resources frequently contains unstructured free-text information or insufficient coding standards. (Bio-) medical ontologies like Orphanet Rare Diseases Ontology (ORDO) or the Human Disease Ontology (DOID) provide a high number of concepts, synonyms and entity relationship properties. Such standard terminologies increase quality and granularity of input data by adding comprehensive semantic background knowledge from validated entity relationships. Moreover, cross-references between terminology concepts facilitate data integration across databases using different coding standards. In order to encourage the use of standard terminologies, our aim is to identify and link relevant concepts with free-text diagnosis inputs within a biobank registry. Relevant concepts are selected automatically by lexical matching and SPARQL queries against a RDF triplestore. To ensure correctness of annotations, proposed concepts have to be confirmed by medical data administration experts before they are entered into the registry database. Relevant (bio-) medical terminologies describing diseases and phenotypes were identified and stored in a graph database which was tied to a local biobank registry. Concept recommendations during data input trigger a structured description of medical data and facilitate data linkage between heterogeneous systems.

  14. Auditing description-logic-based medical terminological systems by detecting equivalent concept definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, Ronald; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To specify and evaluate a method for auditing medical terminological systems (TSs) based on detecting concepts with equivalent definitions. This method addresses two important problems: redundancy, where the same concept is represented more than once (described by different terms), and

  15. Usefulness of Crossword Puzzles in Helping First-Year BVSc Students Learn Veterinary Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina; May, Stephen A

    Appropriate terminology is essential for successful communication among health professionals. However, students have traditionally been encouraged to learn terminology by rote memorization and recall, strategies that students try to avoid. The use of crossword puzzles as a learning tool has been evaluated in other education disciplines, but not for terminology related to veterinary science. Hence, the objective of this study was to test whether crossword puzzles might be an effective aid to learning veterinary terminology. Forty-two first-year students enrolled in a Bachelor of Veterinary Science program were randomly divided into two groups and their previous knowledge of veterinary terms tested. One group received a list of 30 terms with their definitions. The other group received the same list plus six specially designed puzzles incorporating these 30 terms. After 50 minutes, both groups completed a post-intervention test and the results were compared statistically. The results showed that the students using the crossword puzzles performed better in the post-intervention test, correctly retaining more terms than the students using only rote learning. In addition, qualitative data, gathered through an electronic survey and focus group discussions, revealed a positive attitude among students toward the use of crossword puzzles.

  16. Applying terminological methods and description logic for creating and implementing and ontology on inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2009-01-01

    By applying formal terminological methods to model an ontology within the domain of enzyme inhibition, we aim to clarify concepts and to obtain consistency. Additionally, we propose a procedure for implementing this ontology in OWL with the aim of obtaining a strict structure which can form...

  17. 9 CFR 145.63 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Terminology and classification; flocks and products. Participating flocks, and the eggs and baby poultry... examination monitoring program of hatcher debris or eggs for ostriches, emus, rheas, or cassowaries acceptable... made that can be traced to a source in that State, that uses a bacteriological examination monitoring...

  18. [Analysis of health terminologies for use as ontologies in healthcare information systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romá-Ferri, Maria Teresa; Palomar, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Ontologies are a resource that allow the concept of meaning to be represented informatically, thus avoiding the limitations imposed by standardized terms. The objective of this study was to establish the extent to which terminologies could be used for the design of ontologies, which could be serve as an aid to resolve problems such as semantic interoperability and knowledge reusability in healthcare information systems. To determine the extent to which terminologies could be used as ontologies, six of the most important terminologies in clinical, epidemiologic, documentation and administrative-economic contexts were analyzed. The following characteristics were verified: conceptual coverage, hierarchical structure, conceptual granularity of the categories, conceptual relations, and the language used for conceptual representation. MeSH, DeCS and UMLS ontologies were considered lightweight. The main differences among these ontologies concern conceptual specification, the types of relation and the restrictions among the associated concepts. SNOMED and GALEN ontologies have declaratory formalism, based on logical descriptions. These ontologies include explicit qualities and show greater restrictions among associated concepts and rule combinations and were consequently considered as heavyweight. Analysis of the declared representation of the terminologies shows the extent to which they could be reused as ontologies. Their degree of usability depends on whether the aim is for healthcare information systems to solve problems of semantic interoperability (lightweight ontologies) or to reuse the systems' knowledge as an aid to decision making (heavyweight ontologies) and for non-structured information retrieval, extraction, and classification.

  19. 9 CFR 145.43 - Terminology and classification; flocks and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POULTRY Special Provisions for Turkey Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.43 Terminology and classification... of progeny of a primary breeding flock which is intended solely for the production of multiplier... flock composed of progeny of a primary breeding flock which is intended solely for the production of...

  20. The Steam Turbine: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the steam turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)